WorldWideScience

Sample records for european social survey

  1. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms o...

  2. The Cases of the European Values Study and the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article is a comparative analysis of the European Values Study (EVS) and the European Social Survey (ESS) using five analytical dimensions: agents, ideas, methods, institutions and context. From the outset, both surveys were closely connected to national and European social science...... institutions, had ties to the EU, and used survey techniques to address urgent contemporary political and social problems. Despite their similarities, the surveys represent two rather different constellations of social science knowledge production. The EVS emerged from a coalition of Catholic-oriented agents...... from a diverse set of social institutions driven by political and ethical concerns about social change in the 1960s and 1970s. The EVS used its links to various social institutions to set up and run the survey, and its ethical and political concerns and connections to Catholic Church organisations...

  3. Reflections on the quality of cross-national surveys: lessons of the European Social Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Billiet, Jaak

    2007-01-01

    Jaak Billiet, one of the core members of the European Social Survey (ESS) team, discusses his practical experiences with the ambition of ESS to maximize cross-country comparability of individual-level measures. The ESS has set pathbreaking standards of survey quality and Billiet takes stock of the achievements and remaining desiderata.

  4. Social Inequalities in Self-Reported Health in Eastern European Countries: Findings from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    rounds (from 2002 to 2012) were included in the research. The study is limited to the population from 18 to 65 years old. The multilevel binomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate socio-economic differences in health. The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS 22. The results...... European countries (Bulgaria, Czech republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Russian Federation) by exploring the associations of the socio-economic determinants of health with poor self-reported health. Data for this study is derived from the European Social Survey. Respondents from six collected...... of this research show the existence of some socio-demographic and socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern European countries...

  5. Multifamily Housing and Resident Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Nessa

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature on sustainable communities and compact cities calls for higher density housing including multifamily dwellings. Some case studies suggest problems with such dwellings. However, rigorous comparative research on this topic has not been conducted to date. This paper draws on a high quality, comparative dataset, the European Social Survey, to analyse a) the quality of multifamily dwellings in European urban areas, b) the characteristics of residents of these dwellings, c) t...

  6. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  7. Smoking in school-aged adolescents: design of a social network survey in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorant, Vincent; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Alves, Joana; Federico, Bruno; Kinnunen, Jaana; Kuipers, Mirte; Moor, Irene; Perelman, Julian; Richter, Matthias; Rimpelä, Arja; Robert, Pierre-Olivier; Roscillo, Gaetano; Kunst, Anton

    2015-03-21

    In Western countries, smoking accounts for a large share of socio-economic inequalities in health. As smoking initiation occurs around the age of 13, it is likely that school context and social networks at school play a role in the origin of such inequalities. So far, there has been little generic explanation of how social ties at school contribute to socio-economic inequalities in smoking. The SILNE (Smoking Inequalities - Learning from Natural Experiments) survey was designed to test the hypothesis that a combination of peer effect, homophilous social ties, and school context may explain how smoking inequalities are magnified at school - a theory known as network-induced inequality. In this paper, the survey theory and design are presented. The social network survey was carried out in 2013 in six medium-sized European cities with average incomes similar to the national average: Namur (Belgium), Tampere (Finland), Hannover (Germany), Latina (Italy), Amersfoort (The Netherlands), and Coimbra (Portugal). In each city, 6 to 8 schools were selected in a stratified sampling procedure. In each school, two grades in secondary education, corresponding to 14-16-year-olds, were selected. All adolescents in these two grades were invited to participate in the survey. Social ties were reported using the roster approach, in which each adolescent had to nominate up to 5 friends from a directory. The survey collected information from 11,015 adolescents in 50 schools, out of a total of 13,870 registered adolescents, yielding a participation rate of 79%. The SILNE survey yielded 57,094 social ties, 86.7% of which referred to friends who also participated in the survey. The SILNE survey was designed to measure the association between adolescents' social ties at school, their socio-economic background, and their smoking behaviour. Two difficulties were encountered, however: legal privacy constraints made it impossible to apply the same parental consent procedure in all countries

  8. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alvarez-Galvez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. METHODS: We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010. This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. RESULTS: The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1 age discrimination; (2 disability discrimination; and (3 sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim

  9. Educational health inequalities in former Yugoslavia: evidence from the South-East European Social Survey Project.

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    Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Huisman, Martijn; Perlman, Francesca; Ringdal, Kristen

    2010-12-01

    An important gap in our knowledge of social inequalities in health is the former Yugoslavia, a region of culturally and historically diverse countries, with recent conflict. The aim of the present paper is to investigate relative and absolute inequalities in self-assessed health in former Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia and Serbia) by sex and education. The data source is the South-East European Social Survey Project fielded in December 2003 to Winter 2004, covering the former Yugoslavia with a total sample of 18 481 respondents. Data from Slovenia were obtained from the 2004-wave of the European Social Survey. The health outcome variables were self-reported general health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI). Both absolute and relative educational health inequalities were present throughout the former Yugoslavia to a larger or lesser extent, although odds ratios (ORs) for LLI and SRH were not significant for Montenegrin women [LLI OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.37; SRH OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.96-1.40] and with respect to the reporting of LLI among Slovenian men (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.96-1.44). Overall, Montenegro held the best position. The prevalence of poor health and the degree of relative inequality in self-assessed health in the former Yugoslavian countries were similar in order to one another, and to other East European countries during the same period. Influences on subjective health require further elucidation. Further research should study a wider range of health outcomes using larger survey samples and a wider range of cultural and other predictor variables.

  10. Perceived Role of Social Media in Urologic Knowledge Acquisition Among Young Urologists: A European Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Juan Gomez; Socarras, Moises Rodriguez; Patruno, Giulio; Uvin, Pieter; Esperto, Francesco; Dinis, Paulo Jorge; Roupret, Morgan; Borgmann, Hendrik

    2017-07-27

    Social media (SoMe) are increasingly being integrated into personal and professional life, with urology being a leading medical specialty in SoMe adoption. We aimed to assess the perceived role of SoMe in urologic knowledge acquisition among young urologists across Europe. Members of the European Society of Residents in Urology designed a 20-item online survey via surveymonkey.com. The survey was designed in accordance with Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES) guidelines and was distributed via e-mail and social media in 23 European countries to urology residents and young urologists. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. For comparative analysis the Mann-Whitney U test was used. A total of 316 young urologists with a mean age of 31.2±3.9 yr responded to the survey. Of the respondents, 99% use SoMe in a personal and/or professional way. YouTube and LinkedIn are the most frequently used platforms for professional use. SoMe were ranked in third place as an information source for urologic news/updates, lying behind journals and websites but ahead of congresses and books. Video content from YouTube or other sources was ranked as a preferred tool to see/understand surgical techniques ahead of websites and reference books. 61% follow urologic associations, 47% follow urologic events, 44% follow urologic journals, and 39% follow urologic experts on SoMe. The perceived influence of SoMe on urology knowledge was rated as moderate to high by 63% and as low to none by 37% of young urologists. Of the respondents, 44% apply guidelines on the appropriate use of SoMe in urology. SoMe play a significant role in knowledge acquisition by young urologists in Europe. Physicians, organizations, and institutions should strive to spread and provide valuable educational content through SoMe. Social media can be valuable for education in urology because it is useful to keep

  11. Changes and Differences in Poles’ Hierarchy of Values – on Basis of the European Social Survey

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    Błoński Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the changes that have place with regard to Poles’ value system over the last 12 years, as well as to demonstrate differences based on sex, level of education and household income level. The analysis was based on the results of the European Social Survey (ESS. The research results indicate that the hierarchy of values cherished by Poles does not undergo significant changes. The most important values are security, universalism and benevolence. The least significant values include hedonism, stimulation and power. There are no identifiable differences in the hierarchies of values of women and men. However, there are noticeable differences depending on the level of education, household income level and age of surveyed respondents.

  12. Macro- and micro-level predictors of age categorization: results from the European Social Survey.

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    Ayalon, Liat; Doron, Israel; Bodner, Ehud; Inbar, Noit

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated macro- and micro-level variables associated with individuals' perception of the ending of youth, the beginning of old age, and the length of the middle age period. The European Social Survey is a biennial multi-country, cross-sectional survey. Our analysis is based on the fourth wave, which included a rotating module on ageism. The source sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988 respondents. Whereas macro-level variability accounted for 14 % of the variance associated with the perception of the ending of youth, only 5.7 % of the variance associated with the perception of the beginning of old age was accounted for by macro-level variability. Almost 10 % of the variance associated with the perception of the middle age period was associated with macro-level variability. Different patterns of macro- and micro-level correlates emerged for the ending of youth, beginning of old age, and the period of middle age. Overall, results demonstrate that individual differences in the perception of the ending of youth, the beginning of old age, and the length of the middle age period are more pronounced than contextual differences. Results also suggest that individuals' mental maps regarding the timing of these events are not necessarily concordant.

  13. Social-ethical issues concerning the control strategy of animal diseases in the European Union: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, N.E.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Stassen, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 a survey was conducted in the member states of the European Union designed to gain greater insight into the views on control strategies for foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever, and avian influenza with respect to the epidemiological, economic and social-ethical consequences of each

  14. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Health in the Ukrainian Working-age Population: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    Gender is a one of the most important social determinants of health inequality. Ukrainian life expectancy gender gap is almost ten years in favor of women. Data from the 2 - 6 rounds (N=5158) of a European Social Survey are used to show gender differences in self-reported health (IBM SPSS 22......). It was assumed that women reported poorer health status compared with men despite of longevity. Women estimate their health significantly lower than men do (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.65, 2.04). For both genders, age and feeling about household’s income nowadays were associated with increased odds for poor self...

  15. The health of European populations: introduction to the special supplement on the 2014 European Social Survey (ESS) rotating module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckfield, Jason; Balaj, Mirza; McNamara, Courtney L; Huijts, Tim; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-02-01

    This introduction summarizes the main findings of the Supplement 'Social inequalities in health and their determinants' to the European Journal of Public Health. The 16 articles that constitute this supplement use the new ESS (2014) health module data to analyze the distribution of health across European populations. Three main themes run across these articles: documentation of cross-national variation in the magnitude and patterning of health inequalities; assessment of health determinants variation across populations and in their contribution to health inequalities; and the examination of the effects of health outcomes across social groups. Social inequalities in health are investigated from an intersectional stance providing ample evidence of inequalities based on socioeconomic status (occupation, education, income), gender, age, geographical location, migrant status and their interactions. Comparison of results across these articles, which employ a wide range of health outcomes, social determinants and social stratification measures, is facilitated by a shared theoretical and analytical approach developed by the authors in this supplement. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Educational inequalities in risky health behaviours in 21 European countries: findings from the European social survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijts, Tim; Gkiouleka, Anna; Reibling, Nadine; Thomson, Katie H; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2017-02-01

    It has been suggested that cross-national variation in educational inequalities in health outcomes (e.g. NCDs) is due to cross-national variation in risky health behaviour. In this paper we aim to use highly recent data (2014) to examine educational inequalities in risky health behaviour in 21 European countries from all regions of the continent to map cross-national variation in the extent to which educational level is associated with risky health behaviour. We focus on four dimensions of risky health behaviour: smoking, alcohol use, lack of physical activity and lack of fruit and vegetable consumption. We make use of recent data from the 7th wave of the European Social Survey (2014), which contains a special rotating module on the social determinants of health. We performed logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between educational level and the risky health behaviour indicators. Educational level was measured through a three-category version of the harmonized International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Our findings show substantial and mostly significant inequalities in risky health behaviour between educational groups in most of the 21 European countries examined in this paper. The risk of being a daily smoker is higher as respondents’ level of education is lower (Low education (L): OR = 4.24 (95% CI: 3.83–4.68); Middle education (M): OR = 2.91 (95% CI: 2.65–3.19)). Respondents have a lower risk of consuming alcohol frequently if they have a low level of education (L: OR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.54–0.64); M: OR = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.65–0.76)), but a higher risk of binge drinking frequently (L: OR = 1.29 (95% CI: 1.16–1.44); M: OR = 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04–1.27)). People are more likely to be physically active at least 3 days in the past week when they have a higher level of education (M: OR = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.34–1.50); H: OR = 1.67 (95% CI: 1.55–1.80)). Finally, people are more likely to consume fruit and vegetables at least

  17. The Social and Economic Effects of Deterioration in Health: ‘Naked-eye’ Evidence from a European Panel Survey

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    Antigone Lyberaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the mobilization of social reserves in action in a large European sample survey. The longitudinal dataset of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE is used to identify individuals whose health underwent a major deterioration. The objective is to give a characterization of the problems faced by individuals in different parts of Europe when confronted by similar problems. Though the prevalence of health deterioration was roughly uniform across countries, men’s health impact rises sharply with age, while women appear to accept deterioration as a natural part of ageing. Health deterioration is instrumental in driving individuals out of employment, especially in the South. Treatment styles are very different, with emphasis on hospitals in central Europe, and Doctor visits more common in the South.

  18. Educational health inequalities in former Yugoslavia : evidence from the South-East European Social Survey Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Huisman, Martijn; Perlman, Francesca; Ringdal, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Background: An important gap in our knowledge of social inequalities in health is the former Yugoslavia, a region of culturally and historically diverse countries, with recent conflict. The aim of the present paper is to investigate relative and absolute inequalities in self-assessed health in

  19. A European Social Simulation Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, S

    This is a proposal to form a European Social Simulation Association (ESSA). ESSA is intended to coordinate with similar organisations in North America, Latin America and Australasia and other regions to organise an international federation to support the development of social simulation research,

  20. Exploring the differences in general practitioner and health care specialist utilization according to education, occupation, income and social networks across Europe: findings from the European social survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjær, Erlend L; Balaj, Mirza; Stornes, Per; Todd, Adam; McNamara, Courtney L; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-02-01

    Low socioeconomic position (SEP) tends to be linked to higher use of general practitioners (GPs), while the use of health care specialists is more common in higher SEPs. Despite extensive literature in this area, previous studies have, however, only studied health care use by income or education. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine inequalities in GP and health care specialist use by four social markers that may be linked to health care utilization (educational level, occupational status, level of financial strain and size and frequency of social networks) across 20 European countries and Israel. Logistic regression models were employed using data from the seventh round of the European Social Survey; this study focused upon people aged 25–75 years, across 21 countries. Health care utilization was measured according to self-reported use of GP or specialist care within 12 months. Analyses tested four social markers: income (financial strain), occupational status, education and social networks. We observed a cross-national tendency that countries with higher or equal probability of GP utilization by lower SEP groups had a more consistent probability of specialist use among high SEP groups. Moreover, countries with inequalities in GP use in favour of high SEP groups had comparable levels of inequalities in specialist care utilization. This was the case for three social markers (education, occupational class and social networks), while the pattern was less pronounced for income (financial strain). There are significant inequalities associated with GP and specialist health care use across Europe—with higher SEP groups more likely to use health care specialists, compared with lower SEP groups. In the context of health care specialist use, education and occupation appear to be particularly important factors.

  1. Analyzing and forecasting the European social climate

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    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses the results of the sample survey Eurobarometer, which has been requested by the European Commission. The social climate index is used to measure the level of perceptions of population by taking into account their personal situation and their perspective at national level. The paper makes an analysis of the evolution of social climate indices for the countries of European Union and offers information about the expectations of population of analyzed countries. The obtained results can be compared with the forecasting of Eurobarometer, on short term of one year and medium term of five years. Modelling the social climate index and its influence factors offers useful information about the efficiency of social protection and inclusion policies.

  2. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Self-Rated Health: Study of 29 Countries Using European Social Surveys (2002–2008

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    Carlos Garcia-Alonso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES and self-rated health (SRH varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008, in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.

  3. A Call for New Communication Channels for Gynecological Oncology Trainees: A Survey on Social Media Use and Educational Needs by the European Network of Young Gynecological Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Kamil; Lindemann, Kristina; Halaska, Michael J; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Laky, Rene; Chereau, Elisabeth; Lindquist, David; Polterauer, Stephan; Sukhin, Vladislav; Dursun, Polat

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patterns in the use of social media (SM) platforms and to identify the training needs among European gynecologic oncology trainees. In 2014, a web-based survey was sent to 633 trainees from the European Network of Young Gynaecological Oncologists (ENYGO) database. The 14-item questionnaire (partially using a 1- to 5-point Likert scale) assessed respondents' use of SM and preference for workshop content and organization. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the mean scores reported for different items, and the internal reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach α. In total, 170 ENYGO members (27%) responded to the survey. Of those, 91% said that they use SM platforms, mostly for private purposes. Twenty-three percent used SM professionally and 43% indicated that they would consider SM to be a clinical discussion forum. The respondents said that they would like updates on conferences and professional activities to be shared on SM platforms. Complication management, surgical anatomy, and state of the art in gynecologic oncology were identified as preferred workshops topics. The most frequently indicated hands-on workshops were laparoscopic techniques and surgical anatomy. Consultants attached a higher level of importance to palliative care education and communication training than trainees. The mean duration of the workshop preferred was 2 days. This report highlights the significance of ENYGO trainees' attachment to SM platforms. Most respondents expect ENYGO to use these online channels for promoting educational activities and other updates. Using SM for clinical discussion will require specific guidelines to secure professional and also consumer integrity. This survey confirms surgical management and the state of the art as important knowledge gaps, and ENYGO has tailored its activities according to these results. Future activities will further direct attention and resources to education in palliative care and

  4. The role of parental smoking on adolescent smoking and its social patterning: a cross-sectional survey in six European cities.

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    Alves, Joana; Perelman, Julian; Soto-Rojas, Victoria; Richter, Matthias; Rimpelä, Arja; Loureiro, Isabel; Federico, Bruno; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Kunst, Anton E; Lorant, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have observed socio-economic (SE) inequalities in smoking among adolescents, but its causes are not fully understood. This study investigates the association between parental and adolescent smoking, and whether this association is socially patterned. We used data from a survey administered in 2013 to students aged 14-17 years old of six European cities (n = 10 526). Using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression, we modelled the probability of being a daily smoker as a function of parental smoking and SE status. We tested whether the smoking association differed across social strata. The prevalence of parental smoking was higher in low SE status adolescents. Boys and girls were more likely to smoke if they have a father [boys: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.47-2.46; girls: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.09-1.86] and mother (boys: AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.35-2.31; girls: AOR = 3.36, 95% CI = 2.56-4.40) who smoked. Among boys, the odds of smoking when having a smoking parent were higher in lower SE classes. However, this was not statistically significant, nor was it observed among girls. Adolescents are more likely to smoke when their father and mother smoke. Although the susceptibility to parental smoking was similar across social classes, SE differences in parental smoking contribute to the transmission of SE inequalities in smoking.

  5. Depressed during the depression: has the economic crisis affected mental health inequalities in Europe? Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the determinants of health.

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    Reibling, Nadine; Beckfield, Jason; Huijts, Tim; Schmidt-Catran, Alexander; Thomson, Katie H; Wendt, Claus

    2017-02-01

    Economic crises constitute a shock to societies with potentially harmful effects to the mental health status of the population, including depressive symptoms, and existing health inequalities. With recent data from the European Social Survey (2006–14), this study investigates how the economic recession in Europe starting in 2007 has affected health inequalities in 21 European nations. Depressive feelings were measured with the CES-D eight-item depression scale. We tested for measurement invariance across different socio-economic groups. Overall, depressive feelings have decreased between 2006 and 2014 except for Cyprus and Spain. Inequalities between persons whose household income depends mainly on public benefits and those who do not have decreased, while the development of depressive feelings was less favorable among the precariously employed and the inactive than among the persons employed with an unlimited work contract. There are no robust effects of the crisis measure on health inequalities. Negative implications for mental health (in terms of depressive feelings) have been limited to some of the most strongly affected countries, while in the majority of Europe persons have felt less depressed over the course of the recession. Health inequalities have persisted in most countries during this time with little influence of the recession. Particular attention should be paid to the mental health of the inactive and the precariously employed.

  6. Exposure to self-reported occupational noise and diabetes - A cross-sectional relationship in 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014).

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    Dzhambov, Angel Mario

    2017-06-19

    Almost nothing is known about the effect of occupational noise on diabetes, and this is particularly relevant given the wide spread of both noise exposure and diabetes. This study has aimed to determine whether occupational noise exposure is associated with higher risk of diabetes in Europe. This study is based on 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014) - a multi-country population-based questionnaire survey, which covered 28 221 Europeans aged ≥ 15 years old. Data on self-reported noise exposure, diabetes and other sociodemographic and work-related factors was available. The odds of prevalent diabetes were explored using unconditional logistic regression. In the total sample (N = 23 486), participants ever exposed to very loud noise had no substantive increase in the odds of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-1.32). There were subgroups with non-significantly increased odds: men (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.87-1.45), the elderly (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.91-1.31), ethnic minority members (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.62), those with secondary education (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.78-1.41) and those living in small cities/towns (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.89-1.29). Low-skilled white-collar workers had OR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.09-1.64). Among participants employed during the preceding 5 years the odds were OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 0.95-1.61). Self-reported occupational noise was not associated with increased odds of prevalent diabetes in the total sample. Sensitivity analyses revealed some subgroups with non-significantly higher odds. Our results suggest that further delve into the relationship between occupational noise and diabetes is feasible and warranted. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):537-551.

  7. Non-communicable diseases and the social determinants of health in the Nordic countries: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

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    Balaj, Mirza; Huijts, Tim; McNamara, Courtney L; Stornes, Per; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies examining non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and determinants of health in the Nordic countries are scarce, outdated and focus only on a limited range of NCDs and health determinants. This study is the first to present a comprehensive overview of the distribution of social and behavioural determinants of health and of physical and mental NCDs in the Nordic population. We examined regional, country and gender differences for 17 health outcomes and 20 determinants of health. We use data from the 7th wave of the European Social Survey. All results were age-standardised by weighting up or down the unstandardized (crude) prevalence rates for five year age groups in each country to a common standard. We present pooled estimates for the combined regional samples as well as country-specific results for the Nordic region. Overall, the population of the Nordic region reported among the highest prevalence for one or both genders in 10 out of 17 health outcomes. Despite being the region with the highest prevalence for most health outcomes, overall self-rated health levels tend to be better in the Nordic region. Similarly, we found that the Nordic countries adhere to a healthier lifestyle and have better access to health care. Future studies should consider investigating further the association between health outcomes and determinants of health and how they are distributed in the Nordic societies.

  8. Regular physical activity eliminates the harmful association of television watching with multimorbidity. A cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

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    Marques, Adilson; Santos, Diana A; Peralta, Miguel; Sardinha, Luís B; González Valeiro, Miguel

    2018-02-02

    The aims of the study were to analyse the association of television viewing, physical activity (PA), and multimorbidity; and to understand if PA attenuates or eliminates the detrimental associations between television viewing and multimorbidity. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the European Social Survey round 7, 2014. Participants were 32,931 adults (15,784 men), aged 18-114 years old, from 18 European countries. Self-reported information regarding chronic diseases (CD), PA and time watching television were collected through interview. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyse the association between watching television and PA with the presence of multimorbidity (≥1 CD). Men and women who watched television had increased odds of having multimorbidity. When considering PA it was observed that, independently of television viewing, compared to engaging in PA for ≤1 day/week, engaging in 2-4 days/week and in ≥5 days/week was inversely associated with multimorbidity. Increased odds of multimorbidity were observed for men spending >3 h/day watching television in the 2-3 days/week and ≤1 day/week categories of PA. For women engaged in 30 min of physical activity 2-3 days/week, spending >3 h/day watching television was associated with higher odds for multimorbidity. For adults who practiced physical activity on ≥ 5 days/week watching television was not associated with multimorbidity. Time spent watching television is associated with multimorbidity. However, physical activity participation can attenuate or even eliminate this association. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Can European socio-economic governance be social investment proof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Chapter on the European Semester in the a book "The Uses of Social Investment", which provides the first study of the welfare state, under the new post-crisis austerity context and associated crisis management politics, to take stock of the limits and potential of social investment. It surveys the

  10. The European Large Area ISO Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Alexander, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12 deg(2) at 15 mu m with ISOCAM and at 90 mu m with ISOPHOT. Secondary surveys in other ISO bands were undertaken by the ELAIS team within the fields...

  11. The European Public on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarta, Ancuta-Gabriela

    This study explorers the European public on social media by discussing the case of communicative interactions taking place on the official Facebook page of the European Parliament. Based on the theoretical framework conceptualizing the public and the public sphere on social network sites, the study...... examines the European social media public from two perspectives. The first is a top-down, institutional perspective of European Parliament, based on a case-study approach to the way this European institution constructs and addresses the public through its social media communication. The second is a bottom......-up perspective of the public of social media users, informed by a content analysis of Facebook comments and a discourse analysis of live chat interactions with Members of the European Parliament. Results confirm a discursive potential of the Facebook public of users. In the case of the Facebook comment threads...

  12. The contribution of housing and neighbourhood conditions to educational inequalities in non-communicable diseases in Europe: findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Courtney L; Balaj, Mirza; Thomson, Katie H; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2017-02-01

    Social gradients have been found across European populations, where less affluent groups are more often affected by poor housing and neighbourhood conditions. While poor housing and neighbourhood quality have been associated with a range of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), these conditions have rarely been applied to the examination of socioeconomic differences in NCDs. This study therefore asks ‘to what extent does adjusting for poor housing and neighbourhood conditions reduce inequalities in NCDs among men and women in Europe’? Our analysis used pooled-data from 20 European countries for women (n= 12 794) and men (n= 11 974), aged 25–75, from round 7 of the European Social Survey. Fourteen NCDs were investigated: heart/circulatory problems, high blood pressure, back pain, arm/hand pain, foot/leg pain, allergies, breathing problems, stomach/digestion problems, skin conditions, diabetes, severe headaches, cancer, obesity and depression. We used binary logistic regression models, stratified by gender, and adjusted rate ratios to examine whether educational inequalities in NCDs were reduced after controlling for poor housing and neighbourhood quality. Overall, we find that adjusting for poor housing and neighbourhood quality reduces inequalities in NCDs. While reductions were relatively small for some NCDs–for high blood pressure, reductions were found in the range of 0–4.27% among women—for other conditions reductions were more considerable. Controlling for both housing and neighbourhood conditions for example, reduced inequalities by 16–24% for severe headaches and 14–30% for breathing problems. Social gradients in poor housing and neighbourhood quality could be an important contributor to educational inequalities in some NCDs.

  13. SURVEY ON SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H Thomas R; Rakar, Fredrik

    This report is based on a survey sent to 150 representatives of social enterprises in Sweden, out of which 47 responded. Despite not being statistically representative due to the low response rate and the fact that Sweden lacks reliable data on the number of Swedish enterprises, according to the ...

  14. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PRIORITY - THE SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ignat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At the level of European Union, starting from the necessity of insurance economic growth, social community law gradually developed, benefitting by sinuous construction, extremely complex, beingcontinuously transformed. Familiarization with the model of social community law prescribed by European Union represents not only a forward step in the process of harmonization with community law, but also an alignment in settlement of European Union, which finally establishes the modernization of the whole domestic law system.

  15. Why we need a European Social Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Arguments on "social Europe" need to give an unequivocal answer to questions of why, what, and how. With regard to the question of why, I argue that, whereas ten years ago the quest for an operational description of the European social model might have been dismissed as interesting but not strictly

  16. European social model vs directive Bolkestein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is elaborated the actually question which is developed and discussed it the European Union is the European Social Model (ESM. It is a vision of society that combines sustainable economic growth with ever-improving living and working conditions. This implies full employment good quality jobs, equal opportunities, social protection for all, social inclusion, and involving citizens in the decisions that affect them. As the Euro-zone is struggling to move away from a dramatic slump in its economy and while the Lisbon Strategy and its potential for economic growth, strongly needs reactivation, the debates over the Europe have raised again the issue of a sustainable social agenda for the European Union. Recently, Europe's political leaders defined the ESM, specifying that it "is based on good economic performance, a high level of social protection and education and social dialogue". An important topic of the discussion nowadays is the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on services in the internal market so called "Bolkestein directive". The importance of this article is to give us the answer to the following question: would we have French goods available in French supermarkets all over Poland and no Polish services allowed in France? The EU would be unthinkable without the full implementation of the four freedoms. This is a good directive, going in the good direction.

  17. CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Iovitu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: “we are not bringing together states, we are uniting people”. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.

  18. Dual sensory loss and social participation in older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljanen, Anna; Törmäkangas, Timo; Vestergaard, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    on the 2004 data collection of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe comprising 27,536 men and women aged 50 years and older. Hearing and vision difficulties, as well as participation in seven different social activities were assessed using a structured computerassisted personal interview...... socially inactive compared to half of those who reported no sensory difficulties. The participants who reported dual sensory loss had 2.18 (95 % CI 1.83–2.59) times higher odds for social inactivity compared to persons without hearing or vision difficulties. In a model adjusted for age, gender, mobility......The purpose of the study was to describe the prevalence of hearing difficulties, vision difficulties and dual sensory difficulties in 11 European countries, and to study whether sensory difficulties are associated with social inactivity in older Europeans. This cross-sectional study is based...

  19. Post-harmonised European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Sobrino Vázquez, Natalia

    Look-up tables are collected and analysed for 12 European National Travel Surveys (NTS) in a harmonized way covering the age group 13-84 year. Travel behaviour measured as kilometres, time use and trips per traveller is compared. Trips per traveller are very similar over the countries whereas...... of walking trips rather similar with a higher level of cycling in the Netherlands, more public transport in Switzerland, and more air traffic in Sweden. Normally kilometres per respondent / inhabitant is used for national planning purpose and this is very affected by the share of mobile travellers...

  20. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S CIVIL SOCIETY DISCOURSE AND SOCIAL PLATFORM OF EUROPEAN NGOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUTAY, RIZA ACAR

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation engages in a critical analysis of the involvement of the Brussels- based European NGOs in European governance. It conducts a survey on the European Commission’s relevant initiatives after the 1990s and interrogates the implications of these initiatives on one of the prominent...... European NGO network, the Social Platform of European NGOs. The common understanding conceives of these organizations as conducive to democratization of EU governance within the scope of participatory democracy. However, I endeavour to argue that the Commission has had an aim to make use of the civil...... in Europe. With respect to this goal, it has encouraged the Social Platform to act like its interlocutor vis-à-vis the NGO community organised both at national and European level. Deriving from the Foucaultian concept of governmentality, I inquiry into the effects of this discourse on the Social Platform...

  1. Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise - (Korean translation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge.......Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge....

  2. The cultural and social integration in intra-european migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos Chica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When a migrant arrives to a different country, hemust choose how to behave in this new society. His background his present competences and his expectations about future affect this election. To understand how a migrant lives in his country of residence key concepts such as socialization processes, culture shock, intercultural competence or acculturation processes areneeded. Using data from the European Internal Movers’ SocialSurvey (EIMSS, this work focuses on the analysis of two dimensions, cultural integration and social integration, which will characterize the way that European migrants live in a new socialsetting, and their relation with the migrants’ perception of discrimination or their psychological adaptation, in terms of homesicknessand satisfaction with life.

  3. Education, Equality and the European Social Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Lynch, Kathleen; Brine, Jacky

    2009-01-01

    and employment. The importance of education is often mentioned in EU documents on social welfare. However, European policies in the areas of welfare and education are marked by a fundamental tension between the pursuit of capitalist growth on one hand, the pursuit of social justice and equality on the other....... This often leads to an impoverished conceptualisation of education as just another service to be delivered on the market. A more holistic approach to education policy is necessary, an approach which takes account of the broader conditions of equality and includes not only the economic, but also the political......Social welfare and education have been themes in European collaboration since the early days of the Treaty of Rome. Especially after the establishment in 2000 of the Lisbon agenda the EU has stepped up its efforts in these two areas and has integrated both of them in a strategy for growth...

  4. Importance of security and socialization in europeans life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Şerb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the importance of safety and socialization in the lives of individuals. The influence of agents of socialization (school, family, friends are manifested as differences in preferences, feelings and thoughts of people. The article is structured in two parts. The first part presents the knowledge in the field, but in the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In the second part is carried out an research among Europeans about some aspect of their lives: how they spend their free time, the feeling of attachment to the community, a sense of security and availability to communicate personal matters to their group of friends. The research method was investigating the secondary sources (database obtained from the survey from a site specializing in the analysis of living conditions of Europeans - European Social Survey. After the reception and processing of results in Excel and SPSS we obtained a general conclusion that people need to socialize, to be part of a group and feel safe.

  5. Training of European urology residents in laparoscopy: results of a pan-European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furriel, Frederico T. G.; Laguna, Maria P.; Figueiredo, Arnaldo J. C.; Nunes, Pedro T. C.; Rassweiler, Jens J.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the participation of European urology residents in urological laparoscopy, their training patterns and facilities available in European Urology Departments. A survey, consisting of 23 questions concerning laparoscopic training, was published online as well as distributed on paper, during

  6. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  7. Assessing competence: The European survey on aging protocol (ESAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ballesteros, R.; Zamarron, M.D.; Rudinger, G.; Schroots, J.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The main goal of this research project was to translate and adapt the European Survey on Ageing Protocol (ESAP) to 7 European countries/cultures. This article presents preliminary results from the ESAP, the basic assessment instrument of EXCELSA (European Longitudinal Study of Aging).

  8. Building Social Dialogue over Training and Learning: European and National Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Winterton, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract ? This article examines recent developments in social dialogue over vocational training and lifelong learning. The central concern is how to develop coherent European polices for increasing social partner influence in this domain, given the diversity of national systems of VET and structures of social dialogue across Europe. The study draws on a survey of 13 countries and ...

  9. Social education from an european perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Gillet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Travelling in the history of education through the 19th and 20th centuries, this article explores how the european education system was builded in connection to -and in coherence with- the industrial society. Concerning social education, the society-focus on the global production system was a reality that empeched during a long time the proposition of socio-educative care with a human dimension. Later and very  progressively appeared a model  of « education for inadapted persons  » that was in the begin still « industrial » and  succeeded later to become more connected to the specific needs of  children, adults and eldery people concerned.  This evolution will be general all over Europe. Just the tempo will be different in each country, in relation with the evolution of specific political awareness on those questions on the national level.  Social educator european identity  -actor and artist of encouter- is today in the heart of this evolution, as a result of this history and still today in the living history. Key wordsEurope – Social education – Industrial society - Humanisation 

  10. Social entrepreneurship and the mobilization of social capital in European social enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer på baggrund af en stor komparativ europæisk undersøgelse anvendelsen og produktionen af social kapital i europæiske eksempler på socialt entreprenørskab (European social enterprises)......Artiklen diskuterer på baggrund af en stor komparativ europæisk undersøgelse anvendelsen og produktionen af social kapital i europæiske eksempler på socialt entreprenørskab (European social enterprises)...

  11. Europeanization and social movement mobilization during the European sovereign debt crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses Europeanization of social movements in the context of the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Europeanization occurs when movements collaborate, or make horizontal communicative linkages with movements in other countries, contest authorities beyond the state, frame issues...... as European and claim a European identity. The article presents a theoretical framework and research design for measuring the degree of social movement Europeanization followed by results of a pilot study on mobilization in Spain and Greece during 2011. While many contentious action events studied only...

  12. Education in surveying branch under new conditions of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Sedlák

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The state, development and especially the labour market data of surveying branch profession in a continue moving conditions of the European Union (EU and all the world are presented in the paper. According to the rule of CLGE (Comité de Liaison des Géomètres Européens – The Council of European Geodetic Surveyors and FIG (Fédération Internationale des Géomètres – International Federation of Surveyors, which present the highest European and world-surveying forum, the professions mainly in a field of surveying (land surveying, mine surveying, cartography, geographical information systems and real estate register are included into the surveying (geodetic branch. The labour market statistical data of the surveying branch profession and the education and other economic activities of the surveying sector in the particular membership countries of EU and the countries connected to EU since 1972 until 2000 are listed in the paper. Almost 25 million Euros were invested into the project of EU under the name: Gross National (European Product (GNP for a purpose to support and to make effective of the surveying sector in EU. This surveying sector has a downward trend in some economically most powerful countries of EU in last years.

  13. Social Dialogue and Vocational Training in Europe: Are We Witnessing the Emergence of a European Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore social dialogue over vocational education and training in Europe, comparing the role of the social partners in different national training systems and different industrial relations contexts. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of European member states (EU15 before enlargement) and two EFTA countries addressed to the…

  14. European road users’ risk perception and mobility : the SARTRE 4 survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antov, D. Banet, A. Barbier, C. Bellet, T. Bimpeh, Y. Boulanger, A. Brandstätter, C. Britschgi, V. Brosnan, M. Buttler, I. Cestac, J. , De Craen, S. de Delhomme, P. Dogan, E. Drápela, E. Forward, S. Freeman, R. Furian, G. Gábor, M. Goldenbeld, C. Henriksson, P. Holte, H. Kraïem, S. Papadimitriou, E. Podlesek, A. Polic, M. Sánchez-Martín, F. Sardi, G.-M. Schmidt, E.-A. Silverans, P. Siska, T. Skládaná, P. Theofilatos, A. Below, A. von Yannis, G. Zaidel, D. & Zavrides, N.

    2012-01-01

    The SARTRE (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) project started in 1991. It consists of a European wide survey about knowledge of road traffic laws and road traffic risks, attitudes regarding road safety issues, reported road traffic behaviours, transport habits and needs in several

  15. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  16. A Survey of the European Security Market

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Martí Sempere

    2011-01-01

    This document synthesizes the results of the research made on the European security market. It deals with questions of interest regarding the provision of security goods and services for protecting society from terrorism and organised crime. It explores issues such as market revenues, demand and supply, industrial capabilities, technology, research and development, innovation, business strategies, competition as well as market structure, agents' conduct and economic performance. The research ...

  17. A European Social Union: unduly idealistic or inevitable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article summarises a lecture delivered at the EIB on 5 March 2015, on the idea of a European Social Union. The main argument is that a basic consensus on the European social model has become an existential necessity for the EU. A consensus must be reached on the respective roles of EU

  18. A survey of local anaesthesia education in European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Kuin, D.; Baart, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A survey of European dental schools was conducted in 2006 to determine the curricular structure, techniques and materials used in local anaesthesia teaching to dental students. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect information about local anaesthesia education.

  19. Oregon's mobility needs : social service provider survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    In 1998, the Oregon Department of Transportation undertook the Social Services Provider Survey as part of an investigation of the transportation needs of mobility impaired individuals in Oregon. This survey was designed to gain information about the ...

  20. The Europeanization of Welfare - The Domestic Impact of Intra-European Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2005-01-01

    processes of change that thus condition impact. This article examines the impact of European social security integration on national welfare institutions in Denmark and Germany, and it traces the Europeanization process, which may explain the diverging impact of a common input in these two Member States...

  1. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  2. How European PR practitioners handle digital and social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.; Tench, R.; Zerfass, A.; Moreno, A.; Verčič, D.

    2012-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) 2010 showed that digital communication and social media have grown in importance in the media mix of European organizations. Both new media types are positively correlated to the perceived impact of public relations (PR) in the organization. Specifically

  3. European Health Examination Survey--towards a sustainable monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Mindell, Jennifer; Männistö, Satu; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2014-04-01

     Health examination surveys (HESs), including both questionnaire and physical measurements, and in most cases also collection of biological samples, can provide objective health indicators. This information complements data from health interview surveys and administrative registers, and is important for evidence-based planning of health policies and prevention activities. HESs are valuable data sources for research. The first national HESs in Europe were conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. They have recently been carried out in an increasing number of countries, but there has been no joint standardization between the countries. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project was conducted in 2009-2012. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Reference Centre was established and pilot surveys were conducted in 12 countries.  European standardized protocols for key measurements on main chronic disease risk factors (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids and fasting glucose or HbA1c) were prepared. European-level training and external quality assessment were organized. Although the level of earlier experience, infrastructures, economic status and cultural settings varied between the pilot countries, it was possible to standardize measurements of HESs across the populations. Obtaining high participation rates was challenging.  HESs provide high-quality and representative population data to support policy decisions and research. For future national HESs, centralized coordination, training and external quality assessment are needed to ensure comparability of the results. Further studies on effects of different survey methods on comparability of the results and on recruitment and motivation of survey participants are needed.

  4. Individual Social Capital and Its Measurement in Social Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With its popularity has come an unresolved issue about social capital: is it an individual or a collective property, or both? Many researchers take it for granted that social capital is collective, but most social surveys implicitly measure social capital at the individual level. After reviewing the definitions by Bourdieu, Coleman, and Putnam, I become to agree with Portes that social capital can be an individual asset and should be firstly analyzed as such; if social capital is to be analyzed as a collective property, then the analysis should explicitly draw on a clear definition of individual social capital. I thus define individual social capital as the features of social groups or networks that each individual member can access and use for obtaining further benefits. Four types of features are identified (basic, specific, generalized, and structural, and example formulations of survey questions are proposed. Following this approach, I then assess some survey questions organized under five themes commonly found in social surveys for measuring social capital: participation in organizations, social networks, trust, civic participation, and perceptions of local area. I conclude that most of these themes and questions only weakly or indirectly measure individual social capital; therefore, they should be strengthened with the conceptual framework proposed in this paper and complemented with the items used in independent surveys on social networks.

  5. Social Security income measurement in two surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M; Purcell, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    As a major source of income for retired persons in the United States, Social Security benefits directly influence economic well-being. That fact underscores the importance of measuring Social Security income accurately in household surveys. Using Social Security Administration (SSA) records, we examine Social Security income as reported in two Census Bureau surveys, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). Although SSA usually deducts Medicare premiums from benefit payments, both the CPS and the SIPP aim to collect and record gross Social Security benefit amounts (before Medicare premium deductions). We find that the Social Security benefit recorded in the CPS closely approximates the gross benefit recorded for CPS respondents in SSA's records, but the Social Security benefit recorded in the SIPP more closely approximates SSA's record of net benefit payments (after deducting Medicare premiums).

  6. Radiologists' Usage of Social Media: Results of the RANSOM Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranschaert, Erik R; Van Ooijen, Peter M A; McGinty, Geraldine B; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    The growing use of social media is transforming the way health care professionals (HCPs) are communicating. In this changing environment, it could be useful to outline the usage of social media by radiologists in all its facets and on an international level. The main objective of the RANSOM survey was to investigate how radiologists are using social media and what is their attitude towards them. The second goal was to discern differences in tendencies among American and European radiologists. An international survey was launched on SurveyMonkey ( https://www.surveymonkey.com ) asking questions about the platforms they prefer, about the advantages, disadvantages, and risks, and about the main incentives and barriers to use social media. A total of 477 radiologists participated in the survey, of which 277 from Europe and 127 from North America. The results show that 85 % of all survey participants are using social media, mostly for a mixture of private and professional reasons. Facebook is the most popular platform for general purposes, whereas LinkedIn and Twitter are more popular for professional usage. The most important reason for not using social media is an unwillingness to mix private and professional matters. Eighty-two percent of all participants are aware of the educational opportunities offered by social media. The survey results underline the need to increase radiologists' skills in using social media efficiently and safely. There is also a need to create clear guidelines regarding the online and social media presence of radiologists to maximize the potential benefits of engaging with social media.

  7. Changing principles in European social security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Clasen, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The provision of social security benefits rests on normative principles of social justice. Most strongly manifest in earnings-related social insurance, the principle of reciprocity has been increasingly questioned on grounds of equity, adequacy and fiscal viability, in the wake of socio-economic

  8. Social mobility and health in European countries: Does welfare regime type matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Matos, Inês; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Health inequalities pose an important public health challenge in European countries, for which increased social mobility has been suggested as a cause. We sought to describe how the relationship between health inequalities and social mobility varies among welfare regime types in the European region. Data from six rounds of the European Social Survey was analyzed using multilevel statistical techniques, stratified by welfare regime type, including 237,535 individuals from 136 countries. Social mobility among individuals was defined according to the discrepancy between parental and offspring educational attainment. For each welfare regime type, the association between social mobility and self-rated health was examined using odds ratios and risk differences, controlling for parental education. Upwardly mobile individuals had between 23 and 44% lower odds of reporting bad or very bad self-rated health when compared to those who remained stable. On an absolute scale, former USSR countries showed the biggest and only significant differences for upward movement, while Scandinavian countries showed the smallest. Downward social mobility tended to be associated with worse health, but the results were less consistent. Upward social mobility is associated with worse health in all European welfare regime types. However, in Scandinavian countries the association of upward mobility was smaller, suggesting that the Nordic model is more effective in mitigating the impact of social mobility on health and/or of health on mobility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A European survey on biobanks: trends and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika, E; Paci, D; Braun, A; Rijkers-Defrasne, S; Deschênes, M; Fortier, I; Laage-Hellman, J; Scerri, C A; Ibarreta, D

    2011-01-01

    Biobanks have recently gained great significance for research and personalised medicine, being recognised as a crucial infrastructure. At the same time, the widely varied practices in biobanking may also pose a barrier to cross-border research and collaboration by limiting access to samples and data. Nevertheless, the extent of the actual activities and the impact of the level of networking and harmonisation have not been fully assessed. To address these issues and to obtain missing knowledge on the extent of biobanking in Europe, the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, in collaboration with the European Science and Technology Observatory (ESTO), conducted a survey among European biobanks. In total, 126 biobanks from 23 countries responded to the survey. Most of them are small or medium-sized public collections set up either for population-based or disease-specific research purposes. The survey indicated a limited networking among the infrastructures. The large majority of them are stand-alone collections and only about half indicated to have a policy for cross-border sharing of samples. Yet, scientific collaborations based on the use of each biobank appear to be prominent. Significant variability was found in terms of consent requirements and related procedures as well as for privacy and data protection issues among the biobanks surveyed. To help promote networking of biobanks and thus maximise public health benefits, at least some degree of harmonisation should be achieved. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Panel Conditioning in the General Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew; Warren, John Robert; Torche, Florencia

    2017-01-01

    Does participation in one wave of a survey have an effect on respondents' answers to questions in subsequent waves? In this article, we investigate the presence and magnitude of "panel conditioning" effects in one of the most frequently used data sets in the social sciences: the General Social Survey (GSS). Using longitudinal records…

  11. Training of European urology residents in laparoscopy: results of a pan-European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furriel, Frederico T G; Laguna, Maria P; Figueiredo, Arnaldo J C; Nunes, Pedro T C; Rassweiler, Jens J

    2013-12-01

    To assess the participation of European urology residents in urological laparoscopy, their training patterns and facilities available in European Urology Departments. A survey, consisting of 23 questions concerning laparoscopic training, was published online as well as distributed on paper, during the Annual European Association of Urology Congress in 2012. Exposure to laparoscopic procedures, acquired laparoscopic experience, training patterns, training facilities and motivation were evaluated. Data was analysed with descriptive statistics. In all, 219 European urology residents answered the survey. Conventional laparoscopy was available in 74% of the respondents' departments, while robotic surgery was available in 17% of the departments. Of the respondents, 27% were first surgeons and 43% were assistants in conventional laparoscopic procedures. Only 23% of the residents rated their laparoscopic experience as at least 'satisfactory'; 32% of the residents did not attend any course or fellowship on laparoscopy. Dry laboratory was the most frequent setting for training (33%), although 42% of the respondents did not have access to any type of laparoscopic laboratory. The motivation to perform laparoscopy was rated as 'high' or 'very high' by 77% of the respondents, and 81% considered a post-residency fellowship in laparoscopy. Urological laparoscopy is available in most European training institutions, with residents playing an active role in the procedure. However, most of them consider their laparoscopic experience to be poor. Moreover, the availability of training facilities and participation in laparoscopy courses and fellowships are low and should be encouraged. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  12. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  13. The Creation of the European Social Work Research Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian J.; Sharland, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    As the social work profession matures, the need for robust knowledge becomes more pressing. Greater coordination is required to develop the research community and an infrastructure to support this nationally and internationally. This article discusses the foundation, in 2014, of the European Social Work Research Association and its roots in the…

  14. EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OR ECONOMIC HANDICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovitu Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Corporative social responsibility” (CSR represents equally a very actual debate, but also an appraisal criteria of the dynamic of eco-social integration quality process at European level. Especially that the protection need is demanded by the current economic crisis. This concept is meant to combine the position, attitude and behaviour of the trade-unions with the interests of employer’s organisations in search of possible influential mechanisms of the competitive advantage at European level. Due to the current economic crisis, the implications on the labour force market are causing an explainable anxiety. The attention of the decision takers is oriented towards joining the objectives “social well being with economic well being” in view of an expected economic come back. This approach proves a significant change at the level of economic and social policies within the European Union.

  15. European survey on principles of prudent antibiotic prescribing teaching in undergraduate students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulcini, C; Wencker, F; Frimodt-Møller, N

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed European medical schools regarding teaching of prudent antibiotic prescribing in the undergraduate curriculum. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 13 European countries (Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland...

  16. Central and Eastern European Social Policy and European Union Accession: Time for Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Lendvai

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union enlargement and accession are reflexive of both EU and post-communist social policies. There is a unique “dialogue“ going on, indicative of fundamental aspects of post-communist, post-transitional social policy. It is also a 'mirror' that reflects shortcomings of governance, and often presents a neglected institutional landscape. Therefore, the Europeanisation of social policy is an essential transformation process for post-communist countries whereby a new language and new concepts are introduced, the outlines of new social-policy governance emerge and enter the space in which social policy is formulated and considered.

  17. The Social Nature of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrig, Angelika N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing concerns regarding the wellbeing of laboratory animals have caused biomedical research stakeholders to reconsider traditional housing of laboratory species and to provide social companionship for social species. European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are commonly individually housed in research facilities despite the occurrence of social groups in the wild. Here we review the current literature to provide a comprehensive description of the social behaviors and preferences of rabbits in the wild and in captivity. The implications of these studies regarding social housing of laboratory rabbits are discussed. PMID:27931309

  18. Social education from an european perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    François Gillet

    2017-01-01

    .... Concerning social education, the society-focus on the global production system was a reality that empeched during a long time the proposition of socio-educative care with a human dimension. Later and very...

  19. PESSIS 2: Promoting employers' social services in social dialogue (Final European report 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research project ‘Project PESSIS: Promoting employers’ social services in social dialogue’ was to provide a detailed understanding of how social dialogue is organised and structured (or not) in the social services sector in Europe. It aimed to identify barriers to increased cooperation among employers in the sector as well as highlighting examples of good practice. Eleven national studies contributed to an overall European perspective of social dialogue in the social services s...

  20. Accreditation process in European countries - an EFLM survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Guilaine; Vukasovic, Ines; Brguljan, Pika Mesko; Lohmander, Maria; Ghita, Irina; Bernabeu Andreu, Francisco A; Barrett, Edward; Brugnoni, Duilio; Kroupis, Christos; Sprongl, Ludek; Thelen, Marc H M; Vanstapel, Florent; Vodnik, Tatjana; Huisman, Willem; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Accreditation is a valuable resource for medical laboratories. The development of quality systems based on ISO 15189 has taken place in many laboratories in the European countries but data about accreditation remain scarce. The EFLM Working Group "Accreditation and ISO/CEN standards" conducted a survey that reviews the current state of the accreditation process in European countries. An on-line questionnaire was addressed to delegates of 39 EFLM scientific societies in March 2014. One answer by country was taken into account. The survey was dealing with mandatory status, number of accredited medical laboratories in each country, possibility of flexible scope and concerned medical fields. The status of point-of-care testing (POCT) in each country was also studied. Twenty-nine responses (74%) were registered. All the assessed countries (100%) have begun an accreditation process in various ways. All the national accreditation bodies (NAB) offer or are working to offer an ISO 15189 accreditation. The accreditation process most often concerns all phases of the examination and various medical fields. Medical laboratories are responsible for POCT in 20 (69%) countries. The accreditation process for POCT, according to ISO 15189 and ISO 22870, is also developing. While there are several variations in the approaches to accreditation of medical laboratories in the European countries, the ISO 15189 accreditation project has been widely accepted. The use of a unique standard and the cooperation among countries due to scientific societies, EFLM, accreditation bodies and EA enable laboratory professionals to move toward uniform implementation of the accreditation concept.

  1. Understanding Social TV: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); D. Geerts (David)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractIn recent years social networking and social interactions have challenged old conceptions in the television landscape. Web applications that offer video content, networked television sets and set-top boxes, and online TV widgets are – or, will be – radically transforming how people watch

  2. The European Construction Social Partners: Gender Equality in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the social partners' role in a gender quality agenda in construction at skilled operative level. It draws on a survey of the European construction social partners that investigated the presence of women in skilled trades and the policies, collective agreements and practices...... that play a role in women's integration. The responses indicate that the construction industry still displays inertia and conservatism, and that the social partners coroborate rather than counter this. They express a "discourse" of gender equality, but this does not automatically lead to equal opportunity...

  3. Curriculum survey on tobacco education in European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, C A; Aurich, P; Bottini, C; Warnakulasuriya, S; Davis, J M

    2012-10-01

    Dental professionals need adequate education in tobacco use prevention and cessation skills. The aim of this study was to identify the level of integration of tobacco education in undergraduate curricula of European dental schools. In 2009, a total of 197 European dental schools were identified through web-based searches. An e-mail survey, containing 20 questions, was sent to each head of school/director of education with up to five follow-up e-mails to non-responders. Dental schools from 21 European countries responded to the survey. The overall return rate was 68 out of 197 schools (35%). In 14 (21%) dental schools, the students were requested to be tobacco free, 14 (21%) asked their students to quit tobacco use and 21 (31%) offered students cessation assistance. All responding schools reported that patients were asked about their tobacco use; 59% by taking an oral history, 75% using a general medical history form and 10% using a specific tobacco use history form. A total of 34% of the schools referred smokers to an external counselling clinic, 13% referred to a telephone counselling, and dental students provided brief counselling in 11 schools (16%). Forty-five (67%) dental schools reported to have tobacco education implemented in their curriculum, of these 30 (67%) stated their tobacco curriculum was mandatory. Theoretical education on tobacco culture and its impact on oral health were implemented in 45 (66%) dental schools. However, only 18 (40%) schools have introduced practical skills training to their students. Dental schools assessed their students' theoretical knowledge (27%) and practical training (4%), respectively. Even though theoretical tobacco education appears to be acknowledged by many European dental schools, further practical training of undergraduate dental students in tobacco prevention and cessation skills should be encouraged.

  4. Social organization in European small mustelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Erlinge

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A review of the social organization in the weasel (Mustela nivalis and stoat (M. erminea is made, based mainly on my earlier mark-recapture studies on weasels and stoats and radio-tracking studies on stoats. During the non-breeding season, from September to April, the small mustelids are organized in a territorial pattern; individuals of the same sex exploit exclusive areas. The extensive male territories often include one or several female ranges. The territories are probably delineated mainly by scent marking. During the breeding season the males increase their movement activity and extend their ranges. The territorial systems brake down and male ranges generally overlap considerably. Depending on their social status, males adopt different strategies, i.c. roaming or staying, in their attempts to obtain as many matings as possible. Prey abundance and distribution are considered to be the decisive factors determining female spacing behaviour throughout the year. The great amount of food required by females when rearing young makes it rewarding to defend and use restricted areas exclusively. In males there is a seasonal change in social organization resulting from a shift in decisive resources; i.e. priority is placed on procuring receptive females during the breeding and food during the non-breeding season. Riassunto Organizzazione sociale nei piccoli mustelidi europei - L'autore presenta un'analisi dell'organizzazione sociale della donnola (Mustela nivalis e dell'ermellino (M. erminea, basata soprattutto sui suoi studi effettuati mediante i metodi di marcamento-ricattura per entrambe le specie e di radio-telemetria per l'ermellino. Durante la stagione non riproduttiva, da settembre ad aprile, i piccoli mustelidi sono organizzati secondo un modello territoriale: individui dello stesso sesso utilizzano aree esclusive. Gli ampi territori dei maschi

  5. Social and Cultural Effects of Romanian Migration in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Raluca CRISTIAN; PÃDURE³U Elena; SORLESCU Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Migration is a complex process and phenomenon with a multi-dimensional and multi-motivational feature, which generated and continues to generate a series of challenges, costs and social benefits that need to be managed by each country facing this issue, according to the national and local social scale in the current context of globalization. European Union had been focusing mainly on a philosophy of no visas for work and travel for citizens thus dealing with different specific situations abou...

  6. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  7. Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain and the Nether-lands. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact...

  8. Differences and similarities between European drivers in opinions about traffic measures : a cross-national study of the results of the SARTRE-survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a cross-national study into the results of the Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe (SARTRE) survey. In 1991-1992, this survey was conducted among more than 17,000 drivers in 15 European countries. The survey was carried out as the result of a joint effort of 15

  9. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-12-01

    Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29-62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  10. Dietary practices in propionic acidemia: A European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A; Pinto, A; Evans, S; Almeida, M F; Assoun, M; Belanger-Quintana, A; Bernabei, S M; Bollhalder, S; Cassiman, D; Champion, H; Chan, H; Dalmau, J; de Boer, F; de Laet, C; de Meyer, A; Desloovere, A; Dianin, A; Dixon, M; Dokoupil, K; Dubois, S; Eyskens, F; Faria, A; Fasan, I; Favre, E; Feillet, F; Fekete, A; Gallo, G; Gingell, C; Gribben, J; Kaalund Hansen, K; Ter Horst, N M; Jankowski, C; Janssen-Regelink, R; Jones, I; Jouault, C; Kahrs, G E; Kok, I L; Kowalik, A; Laguerre, C; Le Verge, S; Lilje, R; Maddalon, C; Mayr, D; Meyer, U; Micciche, A; Och, U; Robert, M; Rocha, J C; Rogozinski, H; Rohde, C; Ross, K; Saruggia, I; Schlune, A; Singleton, K; Sjoqvist, E; Skeath, R; Stolen, L H; Terry, A; Timmer, C; Tomlinson, L; Tooke, A; Vande Kerckhove, K; van Dam, E; van den Hurk, T; van der Ploeg, L; van Driessche, M; van Rijn, M; van Wegberg, A; Vasconcelos, C; Vestergaard, H; Vitoria, I; Webster, D; White, F J; White, L; Zweers, H; MacDonald, A

    2017-12-01

    The definitive dietary management of propionic acidaemia (PA) is unknown although natural protein restriction with adequate energy provision is of key importance. To describe European dietary practices in the management of patients with PA prior to the publication of the European PA guidelines. This was a cross-sectional survey consisting of 27 questions about the dietary practices in PA patients circulated to European IMD dietitians and health professionals in 2014. Information on protein restricted diets of 186 PA patients from 47 centres, representing 14 European countries was collected. Total protein intake [PA precursor-free L-amino acid supplements (PFAA) and natural protein] met WHO/FAO/UNU (2007) safe protein requirements for age in 36 centres (77%). PFAA were used to supplement natural protein intake in 81% (n = 38) of centres, providing a median of 44% (14-83%) of total protein requirement. Seventy-four per cent of patients were prescribed natural protein intakes below WHO/FAO/UNU (2007) safe levels in one or more of the following age groups: 0-6 m, 7-12 m, 1-10 y, 11-16 y and > 16 y. Sixty-three per cent (n = 117) of patients were tube fed (74% gastrostomy), but only 22% received nocturnal feeds. There was high use of PFAA with intakes of natural protein commonly below WHO/FAO/UNU (2007) safe levels. Optimal dietary management can only be determined by longitudinal, multi-centre, prospective case controlled studies. The metabolic instability of PA and small patient cohorts in each centre ensure that this is a challenging undertaking.

  11. International Political Sociology Beyond European and North American Traditions of Social and Political Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huysmans, Jef; Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Introduction to 'Forum' on 'International Political Sociology Beyond European and North American Traditions of Social and Political Thought'......Introduction to 'Forum' on 'International Political Sociology Beyond European and North American Traditions of Social and Political Thought'...

  12. [Bioethics from a social perspective: European Biopolitics Conference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Canela López, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    The European Congress on biopolitics entitled "Connecting civil society implementing basic values" was held in March 2006 in Berlin. It was organised by the Heinrich Böll foundation and the Institut Mensch, Ethik und Wissenschaft. The aim of the Congress was to provide a forum for discussion on the ethical and social aspects derived from biotechnology and genetics on human beings. This work summarises some of the aspects that reveal the international interest and relevance of this meeting.

  13. European perspective on less invasive surfactant administration-a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Porcaro, Ugo; Fleck, Thilo; Fuchs, Hans

    2017-02-01

    Less invasive surfactant administration or minimally invasive surfactant therapy (LISA/MIST) has been proposed for the administration of surfactant in preterm infants without intubation. The aim of our survey was to assess the rate of utilization, premedication as well as technique and equipment used for LISA/MIST. Furthermore, attitudes and experiences in regard to indications, side effects, and efficacy should be assessed. An online-based survey was sent to 324 neonatologists from different centers within 37 European countries between December 2015 and March 2016. Of those 165 who responded (response rate 51%), 86 (52%) were using LISA/MIST. It is regarded the standard procedure for surfactant administration by 41%, with a wide variation in personal views on patient selection in terms of indication, appropriate gestational and postnatal age. Policies concerning premedication, devices, and technique of LISA/MIST differed widely. Side effects like surfactant reflux, bradycardia, and hypoxia were observed by 77% of neonatologists. Of neonatologists inexperienced in LISA/MIST, 89% would consider utilizing it in the future. Perceived efficacy of LISA/MIST was high (52%) to medium (33%). The use of LISA/MIST within Europe is widespread. There is a wide variation concerning all aspects of LISA in daily clinical routine and different views on when and how LISA should be performed. What is Known: • Noninvasive surfactant administration has been the subject of randomized controlled trials and has found its way into clinical routine. What is New: • Noninvasive surfactant administration techniques are widely applied in European neonatal units. • There is a wide variety of equipment used and techniques applied for less invasive surfactant delivery as well as different views on the indications and perceived efficacy of this intervention.

  14. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Psychosocial Problems in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Michels, Nathalie; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    problems. 5987 children aged 2–9 years from eight European countries were assessed at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Two different instruments were employed to assess children’s psychosocial problems: the KINDL (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents...... of migrant origin or children with unemployed parents. Logistic mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between social vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems. After adjusting for classical socioeconomic and lifestyle indicators, children whose parents had minimal social networks were...

  15. 9th Conference of the European Social Simulation Association

    CERN Document Server

    Koloch, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    This book is the conference proceedings of ESSA 2013, the 9th Conference of the European Social Simulation Association. ESSA conferences constitute annual events which serve as an international platform for the exchange of ideas and discussion of cutting-edge research in the field of social simulations, both from the theoretical as well as applied perspective. This book consists of 33 articles, which are divided into four themes: Methods for the development of simulation models, Applications of agent-based modeling, Adaptive behavior, social interactions and global environmental change and Using qualitative data to inform behavioral rules. We are convinced that this book will serve interested readers as a useful compendium which presents in a nutshell the most recent advances at the frontiers of social simulation research.

  16. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Jürgen M.; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. Methods: The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. Results: The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29–62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Discussion: Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. PMID:25843827

  17. A social network analysis of substance use among immigrant adolescents in six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorant, Vincent; Soto Rojas, Victoria; Bécares, Laia; Kinnunen, Jaana M; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Moor, Irene; Roscillo, Gaetano; Alves, Joana; Grard, Adeline; Rimpelä, Arja; Federico, Bruno; Richter, Matthias; Perelman, Julian; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-11-01

    Social integration and the health of adolescents with a migration background is a major concern in multicultural societies. The literature, however, has paid little attention to the wider determinants of their health behaviours, including the composition of their social networks. The aim of this study was to describe the composition of adolescents' social networks according to migration background, and to examine how social networks are associated with substance use. In 2013, the SILNE study surveyed 11,015 secondary-school adolescents in 50 schools in six European cities in Belgium, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Portugal, using a social network design. Each adolescent nominated up to five of their best and closest friends. Migration status was defined as first-generation migrants, second-generation migrants, and speaking another language at home. We computed two groups of network structural positions, the centrality of individual adolescents in networks, and the homophily of their social ties regarding migration (same-migration). Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the association between network structural position and smoking, alcohol use, and cannabis use. Compared with non-migrant adolescents, adolescents with migration backgrounds had similar relationship patterns. But almost half their social ties were with same-migration-background adolescents; non-migrants had few social ties to migrants. For adolescents with a migration background, a higher proportion of social ties with non-migrants was associated with increased use of cannabis (OR = 1.07, p = 0.03) and alcohol (OR = 1.08, p social ties by migration background is noticeable in European schools. The tendency of migrant adolescents to have same-migration social ties may isolate them from non-migrant adolescents, but also reduces their risky health behaviours, in particular cannabis and alcohol use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Branch Profiles and Working Conditions: Secondary Analyses on the Third European Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to perform a secondary analysis on the surveys produced by the European Foundation in representative samples of workers in the member states of the European Union in order to: 1. identify branch (industry sector) profiles in working conditions. The most recent ‘Third European Survey’

  19. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  20. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitfield, Kate

    2010-11-12

    Abstract Background \\'Compassionate use\\' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726\\/2004\\/EC is clear on the intentions of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that \\'compassionate use\\' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions \\'Compassionate use\\' is a misleading term and should be replaced with \\'expanded access\\'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes.

  1. CSR and Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano AMELIO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the status of non-financial information disclosure in the European Union in order to evaluate the level of acceptance of social responsibility practices. The research is divided into two sections and the approach used is mainly theoretical and qualitative. In the first part the UE financial and non-financial information regulations are analyzed; the European Union launched a process of harmonization then subsequently it moved to the standardization process: the Regulation (EC No. 1606/2002 is part of the standardization process (It must be applied in its entirety across the EU while the Directive 2014/95/EU is part of the harmonization process (it sets out a goal that all EU countries must achieve. The Directive 2014/95/EU states that “large undertakings […] shall include in the management report a non-financial statement […]” thus making mandatory the preparation of non-financial statements. In the second part of the research, not considering the firm only as a system for the production of financial/economic value but also as an economic social actor which operates in a social environment to which it belongs and with which it interacts, the concept of social entrepreneurship is explained. Social entrepreneurship belongs to the entrepreneurs who draw up the social balance, required or permitted by the UE legislation. For this reason, the introduction of obligations in disclosing non-financial information could lead to the increase of entrepreneurship, with positive consequences in the creation of tangible benefits to both the business community and the global community.

  2. Social suffering and marginalisation among Eastern European students in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Dahlberg, Mette Ginnerskov

    2016-01-01

    European students in Denmark In recent years Denmark has become a favoured destination for international students from the (South) Eastern Member States of the European Union. In 2013 Denmark was the 2nd most favoured destination for students from Latvia and Lithuania, the 6th most favoured destination...... for students from Romania and the 7th most favoured destination for students from Poland. Students from EU's Eastern member states are often attracted by the fee free access to highly ranked universities, and the possibilities for receiving economic student support, but also by the welfare society...... students. In this paper, we discuss how students from (South) Eastern EU reflect on their own positions in relation to the "EU", the "West" and "Europe” when they talk about their lives as students in Denmark. We are interested in the ways they draw on perceived social, symbolic and moral hierarchies...

  3. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU)

    OpenAIRE

    S?rensen, Kristine; Pelikan, J?rgen M.; R?thlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. Methods: The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted i...

  4. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  5. Annoyance survey by means of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruno; Santos, Gustavo; Eller, Rogeria; Gjestland, Truls

    2017-02-01

    Social surveys have been the conventional means of evaluating the annoyance caused by transportation noise. Sampling and interviewing by telephone, mail, or in person are often costly and time consuming, however. Data collection by web-based survey methods are less costly and may be completed more quickly, and hence, could be conducted in countries with fewer resources. Such methods, however, raise issues about the generalizability and comparability of findings. These issues were investigated in a study of the annoyance of aircraft noise exposure around Brazil's Guarulhos Airport. The findings of 547 interviews obtained with the aid of Facebook advertisements and web-based forms were analysed with respect to estimated aircraft noise exposure levels at respondents' residences. The results were analysed to assess whether and how web-based surveys might yield generalizable noise dose-response relationships.

  6. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included.

  7. EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE OF SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN THE LABOUR FIELD: PERSPECTIVES FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nicolaescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European integration is not a slogan, a political discourse or a foundation for the political platform of political parties. European integration includes concrete directives of action to be taken into account by all states. One of the most important of them might be considered the social partnership in the labour field. Under current circumstances, the need to study relations established within social partnership, factors contributing to social dialogue development and fulfillment of social partnership potential within existing political and socio-economic reforms increased. Analysis of European dimension of Moldovan social partnership evolution is essential for further democratization of labour field and European perspectives of the country.

  8. ANALYZING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of national and international developments, Corporate Social Responsibility is becoming an increasingly important element on national and transnational policy agendas. An ever more diverse range of businesses are adopting CSR strategies as a core part of their business model. Socially responsible business can contribute to restoring trust in the market in the post-crisis context. In last years European Commission encouraging international business development and in same time, CSR instruments development in all types of organizations for encourage responsible business conduct. In this paper our purpose was to analyse the current stage of CSR in the EU. For this, we divided our research in two parts: in first part we analyze the current stage of CSR reporting of the EU members and in the second part, we study the organizational sectors of company which fulfill their report of sustainability. Our results prove us that are a few factors that influence the current stage of reporting and in last years number of company that report their CSR activity is increasing in all sectors and in all countries. Given the fact that CSR activities are becoming more and more important in any successful business, and taking into account the legislative changes that took place in European Laws, we consider CSR reporting to be even more intense in the years to follow, in EU member states.

  9. CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING AND THE ORIGINS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Brailean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many papal encyclicals were not directly concerned about the appearance of European Union due to many historical, political and social contexts. The fundamental principles developed through several encyclicals from early 19th century to the present day reaffirmed the neutrality of the Church regarding to many forms of government. But the most important idea has its root in the restoration of the Christian principles in society. In a time of de-Christianization and secularism, the role of Church as the foundation of peace is also important to notice. It was considered that every modern democracy is the image of the revealed heart of the universal law of charity (Jacques Maritain. That is why between a supranational entity like the European Union and the Catholic Church should be a friendly and close relationship. A unite Europe has its roots in Christianity, especially in Catholicism. The soul of Europe is animated by religious principles. Whether we talk about Schuman or Adenauer, their Christian faith is the engine for their political success. After the Second World War, in Western Europe, the Christian democratic parties had a huge impact for the democratic governance. The socio-economic policies of these parties were anchored in Catholic social teaching.

  10. Insights into European Drug Shortages: A Survey of Hospital Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Kim; Simoens, Steven; Casteels, Minne; Huys, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Drug shortages are a complex and global phenomenon. When a drug cannot be delivered at the moment of patient demand, every stakeholder in the health care system is affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, clinical impact, financial impact and management of drug shortages in European hospital pharmacies and identify opportunities for prevention and mitigation of drug shortages in Europe. An online survey was designed based on a review of the literature and interviews and was sent to subscribers of Hospital Pharmacy Europe between June and September 2013. Forty-five percent of respondents (n = 161) indicated that life sustaining or life preserving drugs such as oncology drugs were affected by drug shortages. More than 30% of respondents indicated that drug shortages in Europe were always or often associated with increased costs for hospitals, increased personnel costs and more expensive alternative drugs (n = 161). On the question when information about a drug shortage was obtained, 42% of respondents answered that information from the pharmaceutical company was obtained at the time of no delivery, 50% indicated that information from the wholesaler was obtained at the time of no delivery, while 40% of respondents indicated that information was never or rarely received from the government (n = 161). Fifty seven percent of respondents strongly agreed that an obligation to the producer to notify further shortages could help to solve the problem (n = 161). These results showed that pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers are already involved in the management of drug shortages, while a role is still reserved for the government. Mandatory notification in advance and centralized information can help to reduce workload for hospital pharmacists, will allow early anticipation of drug shortages and will facilitate mitigation of the clinical impact on patients. PMID:25775406

  11. European survey of chronic pain patients: results for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schwefe, G H H

    2011-11-01

    This ongoing pan-European patient survey is being conducted to explore how chronic pain patients perceive their condition and the coping strategies they use to help deal with the pain. Participating doctors - general practitioners (GPs), pain specialists and orthopaedists - selected patients suffering from chronic pain who routinely visited their practices. Doctors provided details of individual pain diagnoses and treatment which were entered into a questionnaire. Each patient then answered additional questions about pain experience, pain therapy, possible areas for improvement and any coping strategies used. Completed questionnaires were sent to a healthcare-focused global consultancy for analysis and evaluation. The most common diagnosis was chronic back pain, in 61% of the 6435 patients. Using a five-point verbal rating scale (VRS), 70% of participants rated the intensity of their pain as moderate or severe. Approximately half were receiving monotherapy. The more intense the pain was, the higher the percentage of patients receiving combination therapy. The most frequently used combinations were NSAIDs/non-opioids with weak or strong opioids. Approximately two out of three patients received non-pharmacological treatment in addition to their pain medication. Almost all the patients (90%) perceived their pain intensity to be higher than it should be under successful pain management, and 30% were dissatisfied with their current treatment. Insufficient pain relief was the reason in most cases, but 29% of dissatisfied responders cited the side effects of medication. About half the patients identified a medium to high need for improvement in their ability to work, sleep and carry out general activities. For each specialisation, the more severe the pain, the fewer patients who were satisfied with their current pain treatment. More patients with severe and extreme pain were satisfied with treatment by a pain specialist than with a GP or orthopaedist. For all three

  12. Did public health travel advice reach EURO 2012 football fans? A social network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiec, J; Zielicka-Hardy, A; Polkowska, A; Rogalska, J; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-08-02

    We posted a survey on the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)’s EURO 2012 Facebook profile to evaluate whether public health travel advice, specifically on the importance of measles vaccination,reached fans attending EURO 2012. Responses suggested that these messages were missed by 77% of fans. Social networks could serve as innovative platforms to conduct surveys, enabling rapid access to target populations at low cost and could be of use during upcoming mass gatherings such as the Olympics.

  13. Structural and intermediary determinants of social inequalities in the mental well-being of European workers: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Muntaner, Carles; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2014-09-09

    The objective of this study is to examine social inequalities in employee mental well-being, using relational social class indicators. Relational social class indicators are based on theoretical insights about the mechanisms generating social (health) inequalities. Additionally, it is examined whether the psychosocial work environment and employment quality act as intermediary determinants of social class inequalities in mental well-being, simultaneously testing the mediation (differential exposure) and moderation (differential vulnerability) hypotheses. Data from the European Social Survey Round 2 (2004/5) and Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. The measure for social class was inspired by E.O. Wright's class scheme. Three-level linear multilevel modelling was used to account for clustering of employees within research years and countries. We found social class inequalities in mental well-being in the European working population for both men and women. Compared to unskilled workers, managers reported the best mental well-being, while supervisors held an intermediary position. As regards the mediation hypothesis, an unfavourable psychosocial work environment and low-quality employment conditions mediated the relation between social class and poor mental well-being in both men and women. However, low quality of employment relations only mediated the "social class-mental well-being" association in the male sample. As regards the moderation hypothesis, modification effects were seen for the psychosocial work environment and employment conditions in both men and women. Relational indicators of social class are related to mental well-being in European employees. Relational accounts of social class are complementary to stratification indicators in social epidemiology. From a policy perspective, better employee mental well-being and less social class inequality could be achieved through initiatives addressing the

  14. Peer Effects and Youth Smoking in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaj Silda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.

  15. The impact of macro-economic circumstances and social protection expenditure on economic deprivation in 25 European countries, 2007-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Mark; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate to what extent macro-economic circumstances and social protection expenditure affect economic deprivation. We use three items from round five of the European Social Survey (2010-2011) to construct our latent outcome variable, which we label economic deprivation in the 3

  16. Social inequalities, health and nutrition situation among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    Need for a more coordinated nutrition approach to maternal & young child services within EU: decrease risk of childhood obesity; improve maternal and child health; & reduce social gradient and disparities in disadvantaged groups. Obesity before pregnancy (monitor pre-pregnancy obesity); excessive...... Gestational Weight Gain – (monitor rates of GWG - new European recommendations needed? ) Increased risk of Small- or Large-for-Gestational Age and birth weights (monitor low and high birth-weight by SES) Ability to breastfeed (monitor breastfeeding by SES) complementary feeding – taste development & increased...... risk of obesity, micronutrient deficiency & NCDs (monitor complementary feeding practices). Obese mothers, with low SES, likely to transfer intergenerational risks of obstetric complications and poor generational health & socio-economic development...

  17. Inequalities in health by social class dimensions in European countries of different political traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelt, Albert; Borrell, Carme; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Muntaner, Carles; Pasarín, M Isabel; Benach, Joan; Schaap, Maartje; Kunst, Anton E; Navarro, Vicente

    2008-10-01

    To compare inequalities in self-perceived health in the population older than 50 years, in 2004, using Wright's social class dimensions, in nine European countries grouped in three political traditions (Social democracy, Christian democracy and Late democracies). Cross-sectional design, including data of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (Sweden, Denmark, Austria, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Greece). The population aged from 50 to 74 years was included. Absolute and relative social class dimension inequalities in poor self-reported health and long-term illness were determined for each sex and political tradition. Relative inequalities were assessed by fitting Poisson regression models with robust variance estimators. Absolute and relative health inequalities by social class dimensions are found in the three political traditions, but these differences are more marked in Late democracies and mainly among women. For example the prevalence ratio of poor self-perceived health comparing poorly educated women with highly educated women, was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.39-2.21) in Late democracies and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.21-1.52) in Social democracies. The prevalence differences were 24.2 and 13.7%, respectively. This study is one of the first to show the impact of different political traditions on social class inequalities in health. These results emphasize the need to evaluate the impact of the implementation of public policies.

  18. Social isolation as a risk factor for inadequate diet of older Eastern Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousova, Lucie

    2014-10-01

    Social isolation has been shown to be a risk factor for inadequate diet among older adults living in Western Europe and North America. This article investigates whether socially isolated older adults (65+) living in Eastern Europe also experience an increased risk of dietary inadequacy. The study used SHARE IV survey data collected in the Czech Republic (n = 2,867), Poland (n = 772), and Hungary (n = 1,353). Logistic regression models were estimated for each country separately to predict the likelihood of two proxies for dietary adequacy, having three meals a day and/or a serving of fruits or vegetables, by social isolation. Social isolation was associated with lower likelihood of having three meals a day among Czech older adults (OR 0.39) and with lower likelihood of having a daily serving of fruits or vegetables among Czech (OR 0.62) and Polish older adults (OR 0.35). No association between social isolation and either one of the outcomes was found in Hungary. Socially isolated Eastern European older adults may be at a higher risk of dietary inadequacy, particularly in the Czech Republic and Poland.

  19. Professional burnout in European young oncologists: results of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Young Oncologists Committee Burnout Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Califano, R; Corral, J; de Azambuja, E; De Mattos-Arruda, L; Guarneri, V; Hutka, M; Jordan, K; Martinelli, E; Mountzios, G; Ozturk, M A; Petrova, M; Postel-Vinay, S; Preusser, M; Qvortrup, C; Volkov, M N M; Tabernero, J; Olmos, D; Strijbos, M H

    2017-07-01

    Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologists ≤40 (YOs). A survey was conducted using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and additional questions exploring work/lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with burnout. Total of 737 surveys (all ages) were collected from 41 European countries. Countries were divided into six regions. Results from 595 (81%) YOs were included (81% medical oncologists; 52% trainees, 62% women). Seventy-one percent of YOs showed evidence of burnout (burnout subdomains: depersonalization 50%; emotional exhaustion 45; low accomplishment 35%). Twenty-two percent requested support for burnout during training and 74% reported no hospital access to support services. Burnout rates were significantly different across Europe (P Burnout was highest in central European (84%) and lowest in Northern Europe (52%). Depersonalization scores were higher in men compared with women (60% versus 45% P = 0.0001) and low accomplishment was highest in the 26-30 age group (P burnout factors (P burnout survey in European Young Oncologists. Burnout is common amongst YOs and rates vary across Europe. Achieving a good work/life balance, access to support services and adequate vacation time may reduce burnout levels. Raising awareness, support and interventional research are needed.

  20. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  1. European social dialogue as multi-level governance: Towards more autonomy and new dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Keune

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost twenty years ago the Maastricht Treaty introduced procedures for European Social Dialogue, as part of a larger package of measures to strengthen the social dimension of European integration. Through the Treaty provisions (articles 154-155 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the European social partners received the competence to become, in principle, co-regulators of the European labour market. The conventional reading of the evolution of European social dialogue since its inception is that it has evolved from a relationship of dependency of the European social partners on the European institutions for the implementation of their framework agreements, towards a more autonomous position in which the social partners themselves take charge of implementation. Since the early 2000s, the argument continues, the social partners have taken a more proactive and independent stance and opted to focus on autonomous framework agreements, and other ‘new generation texts’, including joint reports, recommendations, compendia of good practices, etc., which are not directed at the European institutions in order to secure implementation. In this paper we want to challenge and move beyond this rather linear and one-dimensional conceptualisation of the evolution of European social dialogue. Empirically, we will show that there has not been a straightforward move away from the ‘implementation through Directive’ mode in favour of autonomous agreements. Whereas this may seem the case if we take a view of the cross-sector dialogue only, the picture changes when we have a closer look and include developments in the European sector social dialogue in the analysis. Analytically, we will argue that framing the issue in terms of dependency or autonomy does not do justice to the complexity of relationships that are involved in the European social dialogue and the European sector social dialogue, and in the implementation of

  2. Social Exclusion and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation in European Economies

    OpenAIRE

    AMENDOLA, Adalgiso; DELL'ANNO, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this article are to propose an overall index of social exclusion and to analyze its relationship with economic growth in European countries. We approach social exclusion as a multidimensional phenomenon by a three-mode principal components analysis (Tucker3 model). This method is applied to estimate an indicator of social exclusion for 28 European countries between 1995 and 2010. The empirical evidence shows that in short run (a) Granger causality runs one way from social exclusio...

  3. The use of driving impairing medicines : a European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravera, Silvia; Hummel, Sylvia A.; Stolk, Pieter; Heerdink, Rob E.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; de Gier, Johan J.

    2009-01-01

    To analyse the consumption of a number of medicines with a known potential for increasing the risk of road traffic accidents in the general population of Europe. Questionnaires were distributed through the European Drug Utilization Research Group (EuroDURG) and Post-Innovation Learning through

  4. The European Union, Education Governance and International Education Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Ritzen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The European Union--comprising 28 member states with individual sovereignty in the formation and implementation of education policy--has developed research and communication strategies to facilitate the exchange of best practices, gathering and dissemination of education statistics and, perhaps most importantly, advice and support for national…

  5. Dietary practices in isovaleric acidemia: A European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, A.; Daly, A.; Evans, S.; Almeida, M.F.; Assoun, M.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; Bernabei, S.; Bollhalder, S.; Cassiman, D.; Champion, H.; Chan, H.; Dalmau, J.; Boer, F. de; Laet, C. de; Meyer, A; Desloovere, A.; Dianin, A.; Dixon, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Dubois, S.; Eyskens, F.; Faria, A.; Fasan, I.; Favre, E.; Feillet, F.; Fekete, A.; Gallo, G.; Gingell, C.; Gribben, J.; Kaalund-Hansen, K.; Horst, N.; Jankowski, C.; Janssen-Regelink, R.G.; Jones, I.; Jouault, C.; Kahrs, G.E.; Kok, I.L.; Kowalik, A.; Laguerre, C.; Verge, S. Le; Lilje, R.; Maddalon, C.; Mayr, D.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Robert, M.; Rocha, J.C.; Rogozinski, H.; Rohde, C.; Ross, K.; Saruggia, I.; Schlune, A.; Singleton, K.; Sjoqvist, E.; Stolen, L.H.; Terry, A.; Timmer, C.; Tomlinson, L.; Tooke, A.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Dam, E. van; Hurk, T. van den; Ploeg, L. van der; Driessche, M. Van; Rijn, M. van de; Teeffelen-Heithoff, A. van; Wegberg, A.M. van; Vasconcelos, C.; Vestergaard, H.; Vitoria, I.; Webster, D.; White, F.J.; White, L.; Zweers, H.E.; Macdonald, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Europe, dietary management of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) may vary widely. There is limited collective information about dietetic management. AIM: To describe European practice regarding the dietary management of IVA, prior to the availability of the E-IMD IVA guidelines (E-IMD 2014).

  6. Consensus and variations in opinions on delirium care: a survey of European delirium specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morandi, A.; Davis, D.; Taylor, J. K.; Bellelli, G.; Olofsson, B.; Kreisel, S.; Teodorczuk, A.; Kamholz, B.; Hasemann, W.; Young, J.; Agar, M.; de Rooij, S. E.; Meagher, D.; Trabucchi, M.; Maclullich, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    There are still substantial uncertainties over best practice in delirium care. The European Delirium Association (EDA) conducted a survey of its members and other interested parties on various aspects of delirium care. The invitation to participate in the online survey was distributed among the EDA

  7. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO...

  8. Survey on the Use of LCA in European Chemical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    1999-01-01

    During 1997 a questionnaire was sent to 40 European chemical manufacturers representing different positions in the supply chain. 25 companies (62.5%) responded, of which 23 had been involved in LCA to some degree. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions divided into four parts dealing...... with · the company's general attitude to environmental matters, · to which degree they had been involved in LCA and their opinions on LCA as a tool · Which methodological choices they had taken when using LCA, and · how LCA results were presented e.g. to ensure confidentiality In general, the European chemical...... industry has taken up the LCA methodology and is testing its applicability for their purposes, although they still feel the methodology is a bit immature. The resources devoted to LCA depends to a great extent on the company's position in the supply chain and on the size of the company. Many of the LCA...

  9. SYNTAXOMOMICAL SURVEY O F EUROPEAN BEECH FORESTS: SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. DIERSCHKE

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A short overwiev is given about the historical development of syntaxonomy of European beech forests. Different solutions of classification have been proposed, following more or less two main approaches: Division of alliances and suballiances by ecologically or geographically orientated species groups. A new classification of European beech forests is proposed with 8 (or more geographically orientated alliances, which can be further divided into suballiances by ecological species groups. For each alliance character and differential species, nomenclatural type and the area is mentioned, based on a (non puplished synthetic table, including 10.006 relevés from all parts of Europe. From this table also some overlapping species groups (a-n are given.

  10. Social network and inequalities in smoking amongst school-aged adolescents in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorant, Vincent; Rojas, Victoria Soto; Robert, Pierre-Olivier; Kinnunen, Jaana M; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Moor, Irene; Roscillo, Gaetano; Alves, Joana; Rimpelä, Arja; Federico, Bruno; Richter, Matthias; Perelman, Julian; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-01-01

    Smoking contributes to socio-economic health inequalities; but it is unclear how smoking inequalities emerge at a young age. So far, little attention has been paid to the role of friendship ties. We hypothesised that the combination of peer exposure and friendship social homophily may contribute to socio-economic inequalities in smoking at school. In 2013, a social network survey was carried out in 50 schools in six medium-size European cities (Namur, Tampere, Hanover, Latina, Amersfoort, and Coimbra). Adolescents in grades corresponding to the 14-to-16 age group were recruited (n = 11.015, participation rate = 79.4 %). We modelled adolescents' smoking behaviour as a function of socio-economic background, and analysed the mediating role of social homophily and peer exposure. Lower socio-economic groups were more likely to smoke and were more frequently exposed to smoking by their close and distant friends, compared with adolescents of higher SES. The smoking risk of the lowest socio-economic group decreased after controlling for friends smoking and social homophily. Smoking socio-economic inequalities amongst adolescents are driven by friendship networks.

  11. European survey on decontamination in mass casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domres, Bernd D; Rashid, AlBadi; Grundgeiger, Jan; Gromer, Stefan; Kees, Tobias; Hecker, Norman; Peter, Hanno

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the European status in the case of mass casualties regarding legislation, responsibilities of ministries and organizations, education and training, material and equipment, and bottlenecks. A questionnaire answered by 22 of 27 European Union member states and Croatia, Norway, and Switzerland. Results and recommendations of a European expert's workshop on decontamination of victims of mass casualties. Ministries and responsible organizations of 22 European Union member states Croatia, Norway, and Switzerland. Hazardous chemical agents are a global realistic risk. Therefore it is an important obligation to direct education, service activities and research towards priority concerns of prevention and response in case of an accidental or criminal liberation of toxic chemicals. The most effective procedures to save the life and health of contaminated persons are: (1) The decontamination of chemically contaminated casualties as soon as possible reduces both morbidity and mortality. (2) The removal of clothing as the first stage of the decontamination process reduces the amount of contamination by 75-85 percent. The decontamination in case of a mass casualty incident needs a high number of personnel, personal protection equipment (PPE), a decontamination unit, education and permanent training, and a management of command, communication, and coordination; all these in the shortest time of preparedness, reaction, and cross border nationally and internationally. During the German EU Council Presidency in the first 6 months of 2007 the Federal Ministry of the Interior held a 3 days seminar (Ahrweiler, February 22-24, 2007) on the "Decontamination of Casualties Involved in Incidents with Hazardous Chemical Materials--European Inventory and Perspectives." The aim was to arrange an exchange of information and experience on the various systems in place in Europe which would be beneficial to all parties concerned. The seminar was organized by the

  12. Reasons for attending support groups and organizational preferences: the European scleroderma support group members survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T; Delisle, Vanessa C; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Pépin, Mia; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Peláez, Sandra; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Thombs, Brett D

    2017-12-19

    The objectives were to identify reasons why patients attend scleroderma support groups and to ascertain preferences for how meetings are best organized. The survey included 30-items on reasons for attending and nine items on organizational preferences. Patients were recruited through European patient organizations. Exploratory factor analysis was used to group reasons for attendance thematically. About 213 scleroderma patients (192 women) completed the survey. A three-factor model best described reasons for attending [χ2(348) = 586.1, p support, (2) learning about treatment and symptom management strategies, and (3) discussing other aspects of scleroderma. Among organizational preferences, respondents emphasized that meetings should include educational aspects and the opportunity to share information and support. People with scleroderma attend support groups to give and obtain social support and for education about managing their disease and other aspects of living with scleroderma. Support groups should be structured to facilitate both educational and informational aspects and to provide opportunities for sharing and support between members. Implications for rehabilitation Local peer-led support groups are an important support and informational resource for patients living with scleroderma. People with scleroderma attend support groups in order to: (1) obtain interpersonal and social support, (2) learn about disease treatment and symptom management strategies, and (3) discuss other aspects of living with scleroderma outside of symptom management. Most support group members prefer groups with a trained facilitator, that include family members or loved ones in the groups, that include between 11and 20 members, that last between 1 and 2 h, and that meet once every 1-3 months. Rehabilitation professionals can support the formation and management of local support groups or can refer patients to national scleroderma patient organizations for information on

  13. Medical survey of European astronauts during Mir missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, G.; Hamilton, D.; Davenport, L.; Comet, B.

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the medical operations performed on six European astronauts during seven space missions on board the space station Mir. These missions took place between November 1988 and August 1999, and their duration ranged from 14 days to 189 days. Steps of pre-flight medical selection and flight certification are presented. Countermeasures program used during the flight, as well as rehabilitation program following short and long-duration missions are described. Also reviewed are medical problems encountered during the flight, post-flight physiological changes such as orthostatic intolerance, exercise capacity, blood composition, muscle atrophy, bone density, and radiation exposure.

  14. Social normative perceptions of alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among Central and Eastern European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Ihasz, Ferenc; Hantiu, Iacob; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata

    2008-01-01

    This study examined alcohol use and related social normative perceptions among a sample of 1,886 Central-Eastern European high school students. The youth represented in the study averaged 16.5 years of age and were from several localities in the countries of Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Romania. Data for the study were collected through a school-based alcohol use survey that was completed in June 2005. Our results support the hypothesis that drinking was related to perception of the prevalence of alcohol use by schoolmates and by the number of friends who drink and/or engage in episodic heavy drinking. Specific implications of findings in terms of substance use prevention are discussed. In addition, the need for future research and the limitations of the current research are discussed. This study was largely financially supported through an international grant from the College of Health and Human Performance, Brigham Young University.

  15. Lessons learnt on recruitment and fieldwork from a pilot European human biomonitoring survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiddicke, Ulrike; Becker, Kerstin; Schwedler, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    biomonitoring (HBM) survey which came into action as the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). Seventeen European countries conducted a survey with harmonized instruments for, inter alia, recruitment, fieldwork and sampling......, in autumn/winter 2011/2012. Based on the countries' experiences of conducting the pilot study, following lessons learnt were compiled: the harmonized fieldwork instruments (basic questionnaire, urine and hair sampling) turned out to be very valuable for future HBM surveys on the European scale. A school...... approach was favoured by most of the countries to recruit school-aged children according to the established guidelines and country specific experiences. To avoid a low participation rate, intensive communication with the involved institutions and possible participants proved to be necessary...

  16. Radiotherapy equipment and departments in the European countries: Final results from the ESTRO-HERO survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian

    2014-01-01

    of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The aim of the current report is to describe the distribution of radiotherapy equipment in European countries. METHODS: An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European...... from 2005, but the survey also showed a significant heterogeneity in the access to modern radiotherapy equipment in Europe. High income countries especially in Northern-Western Europe are well-served with radiotherapy resources, other countries are facing important shortages of both equipment...

  17. Equity and the social determinants of health in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsatakis, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Equity in health has been the underlying value of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health for All policy for 30 years. This article examines how cities have translated this principle into action. Using information designed to help evaluate phase IV (2003-2008) of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) plus documentation from city programs and websites, an attempt is made to assess how far the concept of equity in health is understood, the political will to tackle the issue, and types of action taken. Results show that although cities continue to focus considerable support on vulnerable groups, rather than the full social gradient, most are now making the necessary shift towards more upstream policies to tackle determinants of health such as poverty, unemployment, education, housing, and the environment, without neglecting access to care. Although local level data reflecting inequalities in health is improving, there is still a long way to go in some cities. The Healthy Cities Project is becoming an integral part of structures for long-term planning and intersectoral action for health in cities, and Health Impact Assessment is gradually being developed. Participation in the WHO-EHCN appears to allow new members to leap-frog ahead established cities. However, this evaluation also exposes barriers to effective local policies and processes to reduce health inequalities. Armed with locally generated evidence of critical success factors, the WHO-EHCN has embarked on a more rigorous and determined effort to achieve the prerequisites for equity in health. More attention will be given to evaluating the effectiveness of action taken and to dealing not only with the most vulnerable but a greater part of the gradient in socioeconomic health inequalities.

  18. European survey on the content of lead in lip products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Paola; Piecha, Małgorzata; Torrent, Salvador Fortaner

    2013-03-25

    223 lip articles (representing 55 brands) were purchased in 15 European Union Member States and analysed for lead content. Various lip products (lipsticks and lip glosses), shades (red, brown, purple and pink) and price ranges (3 categories) were investigated. The analytical method employed a microwave-assisted acid digestion followed by ICP-MS determination. The results revealed that 49 samples (22%) contained lead at a level higher than 1mg/kg, representing 31% of the tested lipsticks and 4% of the lip glosses. On average, the lead content found in lipsticks (0.75mg/kg) was nearly double that found in lip glosses (0.38mg/kg) and this difference was judged statistically significant at 95% probability. Apart from brown, statistically significant higher levels of lead were also found when comparing the average lead contents in lipsticks and lip glosses of the same shade: pink (0.81 and 0.38mg/kg), purple (0.88 and 0.37mg/kg) and red (0.58 and 0.25mg/kg). The influence of price on lead content was studied on the two lip product types separately. In the case of lip glosses no differences were found. In the case of lipsticks, the more expensive items (price category III) contained a significantly lower quantity of lead in comparison to the cheapest articles (price category I). The lipsticks containing the highest levels of lead belonged to the price category II. In all cases, however, the actual lead concentration measured in the finished products is far below the recommended limits for Germany (20mg/kg) or Canada (10mg/kg). The outcome of this work delivers information about the current situation on the European market and provides information to policy-makers about the quantities of lead in lip articles and technically achievable levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent

  20. The United States Strategic Bombing Surveys, (European War) (Pacific War)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    stage of full adolescence , a stage marked by rapid development in planes, armament, equipment, tactics and concepts of strategic employment, and by an...military cliques of Japan exerted a progressively tighter control over the foreign and domestic affairs of the nation . These cliques included groups...the disruption of the more basic elements of Japan’s social , economic, and political fabric . Certain of the United States commanders and the

  1. Social Entrepreneurship and the Mobilization of Social Capital in European Social Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The article is originally published in Social Enterprise: At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society (Marthe Nyssens, ed.)......The article is originally published in Social Enterprise: At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society (Marthe Nyssens, ed.)...

  2. Teaching the Dragon? The Diffusion of European Union’s Social and Employment Policies to China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven-Haanpää, Minna Marja-Leena; Weiguo, Yang; Mok, Ka Ho

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the extent to which we can trace the ideational spread of the European Union’s employment and social policies outside European borders, more specifically in China. Based on the analysis of labour market reforms in China between 2000 and 2012 and interview data obtained from

  3. European Social Citizenship and Gender: The Part-time Work Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Bruijn, J.G.M. de; Bussemaker, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers whether the development of European rights for workers implies a European social citizenship. It analyses the debate during the preparation and adoption of the EU Directive on part-time work in 1997, which guarantees part-time workers (who are primarily women) the same pay and

  4. European social citizenship and gender: the part-time work directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.; Bussemaker, M.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers whether the development of European rights for workers implies a European social citizenship. It analyses the debate during the preparation and adoption of the EU Directive on part-time work in 1997, which guarantees part-time workers (who are primarily women) the same pay and

  5. Housing context and social transformation strategies in neighbourhood regeneration in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Western European city thesis, European cities have a unique institutional mix which helps to explain how social patterns come about. The most important elements of this mix are the interventionist state and the housing system legacy of non-private housing. While these two are vital,

  6. The European Social Fund: A Very Specific Case Instrument of HRD Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to review the intervention of the European Social Fund (ESF) as an instrument of human resource development (HRD) policies in the European labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses an economic background, and reviews the official documents produced by the ESF during its history to try to define its economic…

  7. Satisfaction of Social and Legal Sciences teachers with the introduction of the European Higher Education Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ariza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available University teachers are one of the main figures in the European convergence process, but their attitude towards the reform of Spanish university studies is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the satisfaction of Social and Legal Sciences teachers towards the introduction of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA. The sample was made up of 3,068 teachers from Spanish public universities, who teach in the said field. An online questionnaire was created for this purpose, with questions relating to the EHEA, teacher tasks and training, as well as aspects related to methodology and the teaching and learning process, amongst others. Cronbach´s alpha coefficient was .81. It is a population-based, descriptive study using a cross-sectional survey with a probability sample. In the results it can be observed that only 9.3% of teachers are satisfied with the adaptation of higher education to the EHEA. Finally, the limitations faced by teaching staff in consolidating this process will be discussed.

  8. Challenges of the European Union Social Market Economy in the Human Resource Management Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Liudmila Lobanova

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of European human resource management models are determined by the specifics of EU integration, development and enlargement processes that are centred on implementation of the social model in the development of the social market economy in the European continent under conditions of intensified cohesion processes. The article reveals the impact of the changing environmen and factors determining the transformation of human resource management models on historic evolution of approc...

  9. Evaluation of the two non-consecutive 24-h recall instrument for pan-European food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The comparability of food consumption data originating from national nutritional surveys in Europe is currently hampered because of different methodologies used. Therefore, experts in the European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) consortium proposed to use two non-consecutive

  10. Pan-European survey on the implementation of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery with emphasis on cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Thijs; Besselink, Marc G.; Shamali, Awad; Butturini, Giovanni; Busch, Olivier R.; Edwin, Bjørn; Troisi, Roberto; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano; Dagher, Ibrahim; Bassi, Claudio; Abu Hilal, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive (MI) pancreatic surgery appears to be gaining popularity, but its implementation throughout Europe and the opinions regarding its use in pancreatic cancer patients are unknown. A 30-question survey was sent between June and December 2014 to pancreatic surgeons of the European

  11. The relevance of comorbidities for heart failure treatment in primary care : A European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, HB; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Veeger, NJ; Balje-Volkers, CP; Swedberg, K; van Gilst, WH

    Aim: To assess the impact of comorbidities on chronic heart failure (CHF) therapy. Methods: The IMPROVEMENT-HF survey included 11,062 patients from 100 primary care practices in 14 European countries. The influence of patient characteristics on drug regimes was assessed with multinomial logistical

  12. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in

  13. EQUIP: A European Survey of Quality Criteria for the Evaluation of Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. D.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on two stages of an investigation into the perceived quality of online databases. Presents data from 989 questionnaires from 600 database users in 12 European and Scandinavian countries and results of a test of the SERVQUAL methodology for identifying user expectations about database services. Lists statements used in the SERVQUAL survey.…

  14. The beetles of the county of Salzburg - a contribution to the survey of European Invertebrates (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiser, E.

    2003-01-01

    The beetles of the county of Salzburg - a contribution to the survey of European Invertebrates (Coleoptera) Recently the author has published the book ‘Die Käfer des Landes Salzburg – Faunistische Bestandserfassung und tiergeographische Interpretation’ (‘The beetles of the county of Salzburg –

  15. Inadequate control of heart rate in patients with stable angina: results from the European heart survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daly, C.A.; Clemens, F.; Sendon, J.L.; Tavazzi, L.; Boersma, E.; Danchin, N.; Delahaye, F.; Gitt, A.; Julian, D.; Mulcahy, D.; Ruzyllo, W.; Thygesen, K.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Fox, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To examine resting heart rate (HR) in a population presenting with stable angina in relation to prior and subsequent pharmacological treatment, comorbid conditions and clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The European Heart Survey was a prospective, observational, cohort study of 3779

  16. Science without meritocracy. Discrimination among European specialists in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: a questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Poljak, Mario; Cacace, Marina; Caiati, Giovanni; Benzonana, Nur; Nagy, Elisabeth; Kortbeek, Titia

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 2009, in a European survey, around a quarter of Europeans reported witnessing discrimination or harassment at their workplace. The parity committee from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) designed a questionnaire survey to investigate forms of discrimination with respect to country, gender and ethnicity among medical professionals in hospitals and universities carrying out activities in the clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious diseases (ID) fields. Design The survey consisted of 61 questions divided into five areas (sociodemographic, professional census and environment, leadership and generic) and ran anonymously for nearly 3 months on the ESCMID website. Subjects European specialists in CM/ID. Results Overall, we included 1274 professionals. The majority of respondents (68%) stated that discrimination is present in medical science. A quarter of them reported personal experience with discrimination, mainly associated with gender and geographic region. Specialists from South-Western Europe experienced events at a much higher rate (37%) than other European regions. The proportion of women among full professor was on average 46% in CM and 26% in ID. Participation in high-level decision-making committees was significantly (>10 percentage points) different by gender and geographic origin. Yearly gross salary among CM/ID professionals was significantly different among European countries and by gender, within the same country. More than one-third of respondents (38%) stated that international societies in CM/ID have an imbalance as for committee member distribution and speakers at international conferences. Conclusions A quarter of CM/ID specialists experienced career and research discrimination in European hospitals and universities, mainly related to gender and geographic origin. Implementing proactive policies to tackle discrimination and improve representativeness and balance in career among CM

  17. Science without meritocracy. Discrimination among European specialists in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Poljak, Mario; Cacace, Marina; Caiati, Giovanni; Benzonana, Nur; Nagy, Elisabeth; Kortbeek, Titia

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, in a European survey, around a quarter of Europeans reported witnessing discrimination or harassment at their workplace. The parity committee from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) designed a questionnaire survey to investigate forms of discrimination with respect to country, gender and ethnicity among medical professionals in hospitals and universities carrying out activities in the clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious diseases (ID) fields. The survey consisted of 61 questions divided into five areas (sociodemographic, professional census and environment, leadership and generic) and ran anonymously for nearly 3 months on the ESCMID website. European specialists in CM/ID. Overall, we included 1274 professionals. The majority of respondents (68%) stated that discrimination is present in medical science. A quarter of them reported personal experience with discrimination, mainly associated with gender and geographic region. Specialists from South-Western Europe experienced events at a much higher rate (37%) than other European regions. The proportion of women among full professor was on average 46% in CM and 26% in ID. Participation in high-level decision-making committees was significantly (>10 percentage points) different by gender and geographic origin. Yearly gross salary among CM/ID professionals was significantly different among European countries and by gender, within the same country. More than one-third of respondents (38%) stated that international societies in CM/ID have an imbalance as for committee member distribution and speakers at international conferences. A quarter of CM/ID specialists experienced career and research discrimination in European hospitals and universities, mainly related to gender and geographic origin. Implementing proactive policies to tackle discrimination and improve representativeness and balance in career among CM/ID professionals in Europe is urgently needed.

  18. A Survey of Models and Algorithms for Social Influence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimeng; Tang, Jie

    Social influence is the behavioral change of a person because of the perceived relationship with other people, organizations and society in general. Social influence has been a widely accepted phenomenon in social networks for decades. Many applications have been built based around the implicit notation of social influence between people, such as marketing, advertisement and recommendations. With the exponential growth of online social network services such as Facebook and Twitter, social influence can for the first time be measured over a large population. In this chapter, we survey the research on social influence analysis with a focus on the computational aspects. First, we present statistical measurements related to social influence. Second, we describe the literature on social similarity and influences. Third, we present the research on social influence maximization which has many practical applications including marketing and advertisement.

  19. Social Identity and Redistributive Preferences: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Costa-i-Font; Frank Cowell

    2013-01-01

    Social identity is increasingly accepted as a key concept underpin- ning the endogeneity of economic behaviour and preferences. This feature is especially important in explaining redistribution preferences as well as attitudes towards redistribution and pro-social behaviour. This paper carries out a review of the literature on the question and ex- amines how economic theory conceptualises and empirically measures social identity and its effects on preferences towards redistribution, so- cial ...

  20. Art of disaster preparedness in European union: a survey on the health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-17

    Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness

  1. Social Touch Technology: A Survey of Haptic Technology for Social Touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This survey provides an overview of work on haptic technology for social touch. Social touch has been studied extensively in psychology and neuroscience. With the development of new technologies, it is now possible to engage in social touch at a distance or engage in social touch with artificial

  2. Social embeddedness in a harmonized Europe: the social networks of European migrants with a native partner in Belgium and the Netherland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelet, S.; Van Mol, C.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Although intra-European migration is often considered relatively easy to realize given European citizens' right to freedom of movement, settlement in another European country can still be experienced as socially disruptive. Insights in the insertion processes of European migrants, nevertheless,

  3. The Country Profiles of the PHARMINE Survey of European Higher Educational Institutions Delivering Pharmacy Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy, and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy, this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used.

  4. The Country Profiles of the PHARMINE Survey of European Higher Educational Institutions Delivering Pharmacy Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2017-06-22

    The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe) consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy), and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy, this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used.

  5. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogar Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Associating spent amounts in European Social Fund (ESF financed interventions to eligible activities could be important premises for safeguarding the sound financial management principle. Incorporating management accounting in the beneficiaries accounting systems may provide primary warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002 This study aims to explore some facts in actual accounting management implementation, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiary’s accounting systems ESF financed interventions covers a large range of labor market related services, delivered to the people to increase adaptability and occupational mobility with the aim of allowing or improving labor market access. Even if these services are diverse and delivered by various entities such as government agencies, enterprises or NGO’s, they do have something in common; they cannot generate incomes, but costs for implementing entities. But costs according to the sound financial management principle calls for tracing money with eligible activities using at least some if not all of management accounting concepts. Without some specifics from the donor or a mutual accepted best practice model, most of the ESF beneficiaries are reporting their efforts to actual researches and specialized literature regarding management accounting implementation in services delivering activities. This study was realized in March 2012 by applying an investigation instrument, an on-line questionnaire collecting both opinions and factual data as well to a number of 962 members of a practice community for ESF interventions implementation. This technique was used to test hypotheses regarding the premises for a future improvement of the existing accounting system model by incorporating management accounting. 130 members of this community answered anonymously, revealing an important concern for management accounting

  6. THE MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL SUPPORT IN THE EUROPEAN RESEARCH ON INCAPACITATING DISEASES AND SOCIAL SUPPORT - THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL SUPPORT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TRANSACTIONS (SSQT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUURMEIJER, TPBM; DOEGLAS, DM; BRIANCON, S; KRIJNEN, WP; KROL, B; SANDERMAN, R; MOUM, T; BJELLE, A; VANDENHEUVEL, WJA

    Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the 'EUropean Research on Incapacitating DIseaes and Social Support' (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing

  7. The measurement of social support in the European Research on incapaciting diseases and social support : the development of the social support questionnaire for transactions (SSQT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, T P B M; Doeglas, D M; Briançon, S; Krijnen, W; Krol, B.; Sanderman, R.; Moum, T; Bjelle, A; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the "European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support" (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing

  8. Social description or social-scientific interpretation? A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 47, No 1 (1991) > ... Recent interest in the social aspects of the first-century Mediterranean world reflected in the texts of ... exponents of this type of study in terms of the extent to which they make use of the social sciences.

  9. Inequalities in health by social class dimensions in European countries of different political traditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Espelt (Albert); C. Borrell (Carme); M. Rodriguez-Sanz (Maica); C. Muntaner (Carles); M.I. Pasarin (María Isabel); J. Benach (Joan); M.M. Schaap (Maartje); A.E. Kunst (Anton); V. Navarro (Vicente)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare inequalities in self-perceived health in the population older than 50 years, in 2004, using Wright's social class dimensions, in nine European countries grouped in three political traditions (Social democracy, Christian democracy and Late democracies). Methods:

  10. Construct Validation and Application of a Common Measure of Social Cohesion in 33 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickes, Paul; Valentova, Marie; Borsenberger, Monique

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the construct validation of a multidimensional measure of social cohesion which is well theoretically grounded and has an equivalent/comparable interpretation across all European countries. Up-to-now published research on social cohesion is deficient in either one or both of these important aspects. This paper…

  11. Asian Americans and European Americans' stigma levels in response to biological and social explanations of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2015-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.

  12. Investigating Prospective Social Studies Teachers? Perceptions of European Union through Metaphor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate metaphors developed by social studies teacher candidates about the European Union. 185 second, third and fourth year social studies teacher candidates participated in the study. This study was designed as a phenomenological study and mataphor analysis was conducted. At the end of the study, the students…

  13. Social Functioning and Adjustment in Canadian-Born Children with Chinese and European Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine social functioning and adjustment in peer context in Chinese Canadian and European Canadian children. A sample of elementary school children participated in the study. Data on social functioning, peer acceptance and rejection, and victimization were collected from peer assessments and sociometric…

  14. A European Computer Driving Licence: Integrating Computer Literacy in the New Social Work Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Claire

    2008-01-01

    "Informacy", the learning of information technology skills, is now a key element of all Social Work curricula in the U.K. following the General Social Care Council's accreditation requirements. These stipulate that all undergraduates acquire computer literacy skills to the level of the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) or its…

  15. Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU) [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, F.; Heath, A.F.; Hewstone, M.; Jonsson, J.; Kalmijn, M.; Kogan, I.; Van Tubergen, F.; Kroneberg, C.; Andersson Rydell, L.; Brolin Låftman, S.

    2013-01-01

    The study currently consists of two waves of a panel survey of adolescents designed to study the complex causal mechanism of structural, social, and cultural integration of populations with experience. The data include surveys of students, parents, and teachers. It enables studying processes of

  16. European postgraduate training in geriatric medicine: data of a systematic international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, Katrin; Holm, Ellen Astrid; Jackson, Thomas; Robertson, Gillian; Müller-Eggenberger, Eva; Roller, Regina Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    High-quality education and training standards in geriatric medicine are important to develop the profession of geriatric medicine. The objective of the study was to give a structured update on postgraduate specialty training in geriatric medicine throughout Europe to assess the need for further developments in postgraduate education. The study was performed as a cross-sectional structured quantitative online survey with qualitative comments. The survey content covered organization, content and educational aspects of specialty training in geriatric medicine in European countries. After piloting, the questionnaire was sent to experts in geriatric medicine with a special interest in postgraduate training who are members of one of the following organizations; European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), European Academy for the Medicine of Aging (EAMA), and European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS). Respondents to the survey represented 31 European countries. Geriatric medicine is recognized as an independent postgraduate specialty in 61.3 % (19/31) and as a subspecialty in 29.0 % (9/31) of the countries. In 5 of the 31 countries geriatric medicine is not recognized at all. Nearly all countries offering postgraduate training in geriatric medicine have written, competence-based curricula covering different learning domains. 20/31 countries (64.5 %) have some kind of specialist assessment. The survey tries to give an actual condensed picture of postgraduate specialty training in geriatric medicine across Europe. Results show a consistent improvement in the recognition of geriatric medicine as independent specialty over the last decade. Continuous development of specialty training in geriatric medicine is required to medical address the public health needs of an aging population. Competence-based educational models including adequate forms of assessment should be targeted throughout Europe. To emphasize the importance of postgraduate geriatric training, it

  17. Cryoablation for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lenarczyk, Radoslaw; Boveda, Serge; Richard Tilz, Roland; Hernandez-Madrid, Antonio; Ptaszynski, Pawel; Pudulis, Janis; Dagres, Nikolaos

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the current practice in Europe regarding cryoablation for treatment of different cardiac arrhythmias. The data are based on an electronic questionnaire sent to members of the European Heart Rhythm Association Research Network. Responses were received from 49 centres in 18 countries. The results show that cryoablation for supraventricular tachycardia in European centres is an alternative to radiofrequency ablation, which is in accordance with guidelines. There is reasonable consensus regarding clinical results and complications of cryoablation procedure. Some inter-centre variability with respect to patient selection and ablation strategy in cryoablation of atrial fibrillation was demonstrated, underscoring the need for further research.

  18. Social Touch Technology: A Survey of Haptic Technology for Social Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This survey provides an overview of work on haptic technology for social touch. Social touch has been studied extensively in psychology and neuroscience. With the development of new technologies, it is now possible to engage in social touch at a distance or engage in social touch with artificial social agents. Social touch research has inspired research into technology mediated social touch, and this line of research has found effects similar to actual social touch. The importance of haptic stimulus qualities, multimodal cues, and contextual factors in technology mediated social touch is discussed. This survey is concluded by reflecting on the current state of research into social touch technology, and providing suggestions for future research and applications.

  19. #SocialMedia, Advancement, and Fundraising in Education. [Fourth Annual Survey of Social Media in Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This white paper reports on findings from the fourth survey of social media in advancement, conducted in January and February, 2013 by the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE), Huron Education, and mStoner. The survey was taken by more than 1,000 CASE members. Featured are six case studies on the effective use of social media in…

  20. A window on emergent European social network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the collection of papers in this issue, providing context in the recent development of social network analysis in Europe and the catalytic contributions of the Essex University Summer School and latterly the UK Social Networks Association. While these organisations have provided important focuses for social network analysis in the UK their reach has been much broader, principally among graduate students across Europe and the emergent research agenda they are forging. Fiv...

  1. Challenges of the European Union Social Market Economy in the Human Resource Management Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Lobanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of European human resource management models are determined by the specifics of EU integration, development and enlargement processes that are centred on implementation of the social model in the development of the social market economy in the European continent under conditions of intensified cohesion processes. The article reveals the impact of the changing environmen and factors determining the transformation of human resource management models on historic evolution of approches to management of people. In addition, it determines links between transformation of human resource management models and the EU development stages as well as proposes guidelines for the development of promising socially centred human resource management models in response to challenges faced by the European social model under the conditions of cohesion processes. The conceptual study is performed using literature analysis and synthesis, theoretical modelling, metaanalysis and interpretation techniques. Insights were drafted using the systemic holistic approach and graphic modelling.

  2. Radiologists' Usage of Social Media : Results of the RANSOM Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranschaert, Erik R.; Van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; McGinty, Geraldine B.; Parizel, Paul M.

    The growing use of social media is transforming the way health care professionals (HCPs) are communicating. In this changing environment, it could be useful to outline the usage of social media by radiologists in all its facets and on an international level. The main objective of the RANSOM survey

  3. An overview of the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Joint Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuulasmaa, Kari; Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Kilpeläinen, Katri; Avdicová, Mária; Broda, Grazyna; Calleja, Neville; Dias, Carlos; Gösswald, Antje; Kubinova, Ruzena; Mindell, Jennifer; Männistö, Satu; Palmieri, Luigi; Tell, Grethe S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Verschuren, Wm Monique

    2012-08-28

    Health Examination Surveys (HESs) can provide essential information on the health and health determinants of a population, which is not available from other data sources. Nevertheless, only some European countries have systems of national HESs. A study conducted in 2006-2008 concluded that it is feasible to organize national HESs using standardized measurement procedures in nearly all EU countries. The feasibility study also outlined a structure for a European Health Examination Survey (EHES), which is a collaboration to organize standardized HESs in countries across Europe.To facilitate setting up national surveys and to gain experience in applying the EHES methods in different cultures, EHES Joint Action (2010-2011) planned and piloted standardized HESs in the working age population in 12 countries. This included countries with earlier national HESs and countries which were planning their first national HES. The core measurements included in all surveys were weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure, and blood samples were taken to measure lipid profiles and glucose or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). These are modifiable determinants of major chronic diseases not identified in health interview surveys. There was a questionnaire to complement the data on the examination measurements. Evaluation of the pilot surveys was based on review of national manuals and evaluation reports of survey organizers; observations and discussions of survey procedures during site visits and training seminars; and other communication with the survey organizers. Despite unavoidable differences in the ways HESs are organized in the various countries, high quality and comparability of the data seems achievable. The biggest challenge in each country was obtaining high participation rate. Most of the pilot countries are now ready to start their full-size national HES, and six of them have already started. The EHES Pilot Project has set up the structure for obtaining comparable

  4. Social Learning, Reinforcement and Crime: Evidence from Three European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittle, Charles R.; Antonaccio, Olena; Botchkovar, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural test of Social Learning Theory using direct measures of social learning constructs and focusing on the causal structure implied by the theory. Overall, the results strongly confirm the main thrust of the theory. Prior criminal reinforcement and current crime-favorable definitions are highly related in all three…

  5. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, T.H. van de; Berben, S.A.A.; Samsom, M.; Engelen, L.J.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision

  6. THE SOCIAL ENTERPRISE IN ROMANIA. AN EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE ON THEIR CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinke Joop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is aimed at identifying the social enterprises according to EMES criteria by investigating the social economy actors in Romania. As an emerging field of study, social entrepreneurship and social enterprise have captured the attention of both practitioners from Europe and North America, and in recent years on other continents. In Romania, very little research has been conducted into the field, mostly as part of academic research papers from doctoral study students or masters, both from Romania and abroad. In Europe, several studies have been conducted among member state of the European Union, to bring to light this new emerging field.. Investigations in regard to social entrepreneurship in Europe have revealed the existence of this field among social economy actors, in the form of social enterprise, namely work integration social enterprises and social cooperatives. So far, Romania has not been included in them This papers tries to fill the gap of knowledge on this phenomena, by exploring, from a European perspective, the actors of social entrepreneurship in Romania. The methodology used was an analysis of secondary data in the form of legal documents (laws, reports of the social economy sector and scholarly articles related to social entrepreneurship in Romania. The assessment instrument is the EMES set of economic and social criteria that the social enterprises need to meet. Also, parallels have been made with the entities of the same nature in the European Union. The paper concludes on the state of social enterprise in Romania, with an underline on what its and implications for their further study. As main finding, two types of organizations fit best with the EMES criteria, authorized protected units and companies set up by associations and foundations. Also, further developments are expected as Romania is preparing for a law defining the social enterprise and social economy. The main implications of this research is drawing

  7. Potential and requirements for a standardized pan-European food consumption survey using the EPIC-Soft software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Slimani, N; Brants, H; Buurma-Rethans, E; Casagrande, C; Nicolas, G; Dofkova, M; le Donne, C; Freisling, H; Geelen, A; Huybrechts, I; De Keyzer, W; van der Laan, J D; Lafay, L; Lillegaard, I T; Niekerk, E M; de Vries, J H; Wilson-van den Hooven, E C; de Boer, E J

    2011-07-01

    To describe the strengths, limitations and requirements of using EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) in pan-European food consumption surveys, and to discuss potentials and barriers for a harmonized pan-European food consumption survey. The paper is based on the experiences in the 'European Food Consumption and Validation' Project, which included updating six existing and preparing one new country-specific EPIC-Soft version, applying EPIC-Soft in validation and feasibility studies, and estimating the intake of nutrients and flavoring substances. The experiences were discussed in the September 2009 workshop 'Pan-European Food Consumption Surveys--for Standardized and Comparable Transnational Data Collection'. EPIC-Soft is suitable for detailed and standardized food consumption data collection in pan-European food consumption surveys. A thorough preparation of all aspects of the food consumption survey is important for the quality and efficiency during data collection and processing. The preparation and data-handling phase of working with EPIC-Soft is labor intensive and requires trained, motivated and qualified personnel. Given the suitability of EPIC-Soft as standardized dietary assessment tool in European dietary monitoring, the proposed strategy toward a pan-European food consumption survey is to prepare well, to allow flexibility in national extensions and to start with a limited number of countries that are interested.

  8. The Financing Mechanism of the Social Health Insurance System in Romania and in other European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin AFANASE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The social insurance system is part of the social security system and it works based on the payment of a contribution through which risks and services defined by the law are insured. The social security system, independent of the structure or political and economical order of a state, has the attribution of giving help to those in conditions of social helplessness, as well as preventing such circumstances. In this paper we made a comparative analysis of the financing mechanism of the social health insurance system in Romania with other European countries.

  9. AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH OF SOCIAL IMPACT OF DEBT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH. EVIDENCE FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMĂRĂNDOIU (SANDA LUANA ALEXANDRA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s economic reality contains a certain degree of uncertainty that often prevail economic rationality, affecting economic growth. Recent European and political agendas put a robust emphasis on the importance of social dimension of growth and try to shift the focus from economic evidence to social outcomes. The debt is currently a sensitive issue for most European countries and ordinary individuals, thus creating significant imbalances regarding perceived economic wealth and wellbeing at national and individual level. But debt is also associated with fast money and short term prosperity that can engine business and support living, thus economic growth. The paper makes a repositioning evaluation of the social domain into European political agendas, towards a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth for the Europeans. It encompasses an evaluation of the relevance of European growth on its economic development and sustainability. Rebalancing finance and economic priorities with a strong commitment to social priorities is the main reorientation target of the political agenda. There’s a growing need for shifting the focus to qualitative facets of growth and European testimonials, for an ascending journey to smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, representing a continuing approach of EU’s root ideals. Thus, the paper proposes an analysis of GDP evolution in relation to debt to GDP ratio indicator and social factors, as an alternative impact evaluation played by the social system and debt for a country’s performance, representing an alternative way for assessing economic growth in relation to wellbeing. The results show a significant dependence of growth to debt to GDP ratio and social indicators such as population at risk to poverty rate, unemployment rate, life expectancy and expected years of schooling

  10. Bridging the Gap between Social Animal and Unsocial Machine: A Survey of Social Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Pantic, Maja; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Pelachaud, Catherine; Poggi, Isabella; D’Ericco, Francesca; Schröder, Marc

    Social Signal Processing is the research domain aimed at bridging the social intelligence gap between humans and machines. This paper is the first survey of the domain that jointly considers its three major aspects, namely, modeling, analysis, and synthesis of social behavior. Modeling investigates

  11. Elections to the European Parliament Through the Prism of Social Media as an Electoral Resource in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katkina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines social media as a relatively new tool of electoral and political activity aimed at creating a positive image of political parties and candidates to the European Parliament. In the modern world of politics it is becoming increasingly important due to such factors as the growing number of World Wide Web users, the decline in the traditional media popularity and the rapid spread of new media, as well as the transformation of the Internet space into the platform for active political interactions. The key role in realizing the task of forming political image belongs to political institutions (parties, state bodies, politicians and social activists, as well as population representatives. The analysis of the efforts of various political subjects in the social media roughly demonstrates three functions of this new phenomenon: social media as a turnout increase tool, as a tool of increasing the recognition of candidates and parties by population; as a tool of informing the population about political and electoral processes in society. Currently, the main obstacle for the strategic research in this area is the fact that social networking technologies are rapidly developing, that embarrasses in making long-term prediction on its use. In spite of the absence of recognized criteria giving the opportunity to evaluate political activity in social media, the key efficiency criteria and success factor is so called “permanent presence” of electoral activity subjects in the Internet.

  12. Dialysis and Renal Transplantation in HIV-Infected Patients: a European Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients. METHODS:: Cross-sectional multicenter survey of EuroSIDA clinics during 2008. RESULTS:: Prevalence of ESRD was 0.5%. Of 122...... was the reason for exclusion from RT waiting list in 22.4% of cases. All the RT recipients were all alive at the time of the survey. Acute rejection was reported in 8 patients (30%). Functioning graft was present in 21 (80%). CONCLUSIONS:: This is the first multinational cross-sectional study of ESRD among...... European HIV population. Low prevalence of ESRD was found. Two-thirds of patients were excluded from RT for non-HIV/AIDS-related pathologies. Most patients had a functioning graft despite a high acute rejection rate....

  13. A feasibility trial to examine the social norms approach for the prevention and reduction of licit and illicit drug use in European University and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pischke Claudia R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorrect perceptions of high rates of peer alcohol and tobacco use are predictive of increased personal use in student populations. Correcting misperceptions by providing feedback has been shown to be an effective intervention for reducing licit drug use. It is currently unknown if social norms interventions are effective in preventing and reducing illicit drug use in European students. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-site cluster controlled trial of a web-based social norms intervention aimed at reducing licit and preventing illicit drug use in European university students. Methods/Design An online questionnaire to assess rates of drug use will be developed and translated based on existing social norms surveys. Students from sixteen universities in seven participating European countries will be invited to complete the questionnaire. Both intervention and control sites will be chosen by convenience. In each country, the intervention site will be the university that the local principal investigator is affiliated with. We aim to recruit 1000 students per site (baseline assessment. All participants will complete the online questionnaire at baseline. Baseline data will be used to develop social norms messages that will be included in a web-based intervention. The intervention group will receive individualized social norms feedback. The website will remain online during the following 5 months. After five months, a second survey will be conducted and effects of the intervention on social norms and drug use will be measured in comparison to the control site. Discussion This project is the first cross-national European collaboration to investigate the feasibility of a social norms intervention to reduce licit and prevent illicit drug use among European university students. Final trial registration number DRKS00004375 on the ‘German Clinical Trials Register’.

  14. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-mu m luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of 90-mum-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z = 0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10(9)

  15. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aquaculture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main...... reared fish species were targeted. A total of 31 respondents contributed to the survey, representing 75 % of European breeding organizations. Family-based breeding schemes were predominant, but individual selection was more frequently applied in marine species. Artificial fertilization is the preferred...

  16. Training and general and financial conditions of European residents in urology: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballario, Riccardo; Rubilotta, Emanuele

    2004-10-01

    To assess the training and the general and financial conditions of European residents in urology. Between February and April 2004 a questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 351 residents in urology in 30 different European countries. The questionnaire was divided into four different sections concerning general and financial conditions, clinical and surgical practice, research activities and participation in scientific meetings. One hundred and one trainees from 30 European countries completed the questionnaire and returned it, a response rate of 28.8%. The results of greatest interest were that 30% of the trainees feel there are too many residents in their departments, 34% have a compulsory annual assessment and 83.2% have a final qualifying examination. The majority of trainees say their experience in minor surgery is at least fair, while 33% and 36% have poor or non-existent experience in major surgery and endourology respectively. Furthermore, half of the respondents do not have the support of a tutor in their clinical practice. The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines are frequently used and their implementation in clinical practice is advocated by 96% of the respondents. The vast majority of the respondents are planning to become Fellows of the European Board of Urology (FEBU) and members of the EAU. This survey shows that, even if the general characteristics of different training programmes seem to be similar, the products of these systems present various discrepancies in terms of surgical and clinical practice.

  17. The right to access health care: health care according to European social security law instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoukens, Paul

    2008-09-01

    In this contribution we will look at how the traditional European social security conventions shape the fundamental right to health care. As to the instruments under investigation we focus upon the regional agreements that have been enacted within the framework of the Council of Europe. More specifically we will discuss how the (Revised) Social Charter and the minimum standard setting instrument (Code) give expression to the right to access to health care. This overview is then complemented by an analysis of recent case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The latter Court is indeed increasingly screening the national social security rules on their compatibility with the fundamental rights, as they are enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights. Hence we will dwell upon the potential impact of this case law on the right to access health care. In the conclusions we will compare the three instruments regarding their legal interpretation of the right to health care.

  18. Emotion Socialization Practices in Latina and European American Mothers of Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined mothers’ emotion socialization of 3-year-old children with behavior problems, to determine whether emotion socialization practices, as well as the relation between these practices and child functioning, varied across ethnicities. Participants were 134 preschoolers with behavior problems. Mothers were European American (n = 96) and Latina American (n = 38; predominately Puerto Rican). Audiotaped mother-child interactions were coded for emotion socialization behaviors. Latina and European American mothers used similar emotion socialization practices on most dimensions. Latina mothers were more likely to minimize or not respond to their children’s negative affect. However, this difference did not appear to have ramifications for children. This study provided evidence for both differences and similarities across ethnicities on emotion socialization practices. PMID:27042157

  19. European American and African American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Perry, Nicole B; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-08-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European American and African American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European American, 63 African American) reported on their responses to their 5-year-old children's negative emotions and 150 kindergarten teachers reported on these children's current academic standing and skillfulness with peers. Problem-focused responses to children's negative emotions, which have traditionally been considered a supportive response, were positively associated with children's school competence for European American children, but expressive encouragement, another response considered supportive, was negatively associated with children's competence for African American children. The findings highlight the need to examine parental socialization practices from a culturally-specific lens.

  20. Social Reintegration of Prisoners in Selected European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Maria Nowak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the issn of social readaptation of prisoners sentenced to many years of imprisonment, a comparative analysis of penitentiary systems and reintegration solutions in Denmark, France, Great Britain and Poland has been conducted and presented in the article. In the summary, different directions of systemic changes have been shown, which may increase the effectiveness of actions and may be useful in the effective preparation of prisoners for work in freedom. For it is crucial to significantly decreasing social and financial costs incurred by society for prisoners, ex-prisoners and their dysfunctional families

  1. Identifying social innovations in European local rural development initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosworth, Gary; Rizzo, Fulvio; Marquardt, Doris; Strijker, Derk; Haartsen, Tialda; Aagaard Thuesen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Social innovation is attracting increasing attention in research and policy, heightened by continuing austerity across Europe. Therefore, this paper examines earlier research into community-led local development (CLLD) initiatives in rural areas of Europe to develop our understanding of the meaning

  2. Insights into rare diseases from social media surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William

    2016-11-09

    The internet, and social media platforms, are increasingly being used by substantial sectors of the worldwide population. By engaging effectively with online and social media, scientists and clinicians can obtain unprecedented access to relatively large cohorts of individuals with rare diseases, as well as their relatives, carers and professionals involved in their healthcare. Online surveys of these stakeholder groups may provide important new insights into rare conditions and their management relatively quickly and easily, with the possibility of rapid translation into healthcare interventions and policy. Here, I describe our recent positive experience with the online survey approach to a rare disease (X-linked ichthyosis), and review its advantages and limitations.

  3. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    -up by applying the K-means clustering algorithm based on a higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food (processed), sweet foods and drinks (sweet), and fruits and vegetables (healthy). Vulnerable groups were defined at baseline as follows: children whose parents lacked a social network, children from......Socio-economic inequalities in childhood can determine dietary patterns, and therefore future health. This study aimed to explore associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns assessed at two time points, and to investigate the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities...... and dietary patterns. A total of 9301 children aged 2–9 years participated at baseline and 2-year follow-up examinations of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS study. In all, three dietary patterns were identified at baseline and follow...

  4. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen

    2015-02-25

    Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community's overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one's feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be developed and implemented.

  5. Cultural stereotypes and social representations of elders from Chinese and European perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James H; Ng, Sik Hung; Loong, Cynthia; Gee, Susan; Weatherall, Ann

    2003-06-01

    Hierarchical cluster analyses of a trait sorting task were used to investigate social representations (and cultural stereotypes) of elderly New Zealanders (NZers) of Chinese and European origin, held by young (mean age = 17) and middle-aged (mean age = 46) NZers from both ethnic groups. Consistent with cultural theories of aging in Chinese societies, organizational features for NZ Chinese were: evaluative simplicity, role-governed representations (e.g., division between socio-emotional and task-oriented elders), little differentiation as a consequence of the ethnicity of elders or age group of subject, and an overall structure dominated by good/bad. NZ Europeans' social representations were more evaluatively complex, had fewer subtypes and more differences as a consequence of target person ethnicity. The Curmudgeon and the Nurturant were the most consensual stereotypes across the 8 cluster analyses (2 subject ethnicity x 2 target ethnicity x 2 subject age group), with the most power to organize stereotypical perceptions of elders across cultural groups. Only the majority group, NZ Europeans, displayed out-group homogeneity effects by creating more categories of elderly Europeans than Chinese. Both ethnic groups held representations of elderly Europeans as higher status in society, and both had more contact with European than Chinese elders outside the family.

  6. Constituting the Social Basis of the EU: Reflections from the European Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Sekulic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses significant aspects of the constitution of the European Union’s social basis from the broader perspective of a European space under construction. The specific point of view regards the process of Europeanization through enlargement to the post-socialist Eastern and South European countries, and conditionality as its main instrument. In the light of the five-year moratorium proposed by the Juncker Commission in 2015, the process is examined particularly from its margins by considering the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH, i.e. the last country in the ‘Western Balkans’, together with Kosovo, that is not yet a candidate for EU membership. The analysis aims to shed light on two different and conflictual forms of agency: first, the institution building process through accession procedures; second, social dissent patterns and citizens’ mobilization in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose is to analyze if and how these diverse agencies cross borders and soften boundaries to constitute an emerging European society. A constant methodological concern of this study is if and how an ethnography of the process may contribute to the analysis of European integration in its complex, non-linear and often contradictory nature (Kauppi 2013

  7. Fixed Base Modal Survey of the MPCV Orion European Service Module Structural Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, James P.; Akers, J. C.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Staab, Lucas D.; Napolitano, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the MPCV Orion European Service Module Structural Test Article (E-STA) underwent sine vibration testing using the multi-axis shaker system at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Mechanical Vibration Facility (MVF). An innovative approach using measured constraint shapes at the interface of E-STA to the MVF allowed high-quality fixed base modal parameters of the E-STA to be extracted, which have been used to update the E-STA finite element model (FEM), without the need for a traditional fixed base modal survey. This innovative approach provided considerable program cost and test schedule savings. This paper documents this modal survey, which includes the modal pretest analysis sensor selection, the fixed base methodology using measured constraint shapes as virtual references and measured frequency response functions, and post-survey comparison between measured and analysis fixed base modal parameters.

  8. Nephrologists' perceptions regarding dialysis withdrawal and palliative care in Europe: lessons from a European Renal Best Practice survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Biesen, Wim; van de Luijtgaarden, Moniek W. M.; Brown, Edwina A.; Michel, Jean-Pierre; van Munster, Barbara C.; Jager, Kitty J.; van der Veer, Sabine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. There is a variation in dialysis withdrawal rates, but reasons for this variation across European countries are largely unknown. We therefore surveyed nephrologists' perceptions of factors concerning dialysis withdrawal and palliative care and explored relationships between these

  9. Potential and requirements for a standarized pan-European food consumption survey using the EPIC-Soft software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Brants, H.A.M.; Buurma-Rethans, E.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Dofkova, M.; Donne, le C.; Freisling, H.; Geelen, A.; Huybrechts, I.; Keyzer, de W.; Laan, van der J.D.; Lafay, L.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Niekerk, E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C.; Boer, de E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To describe the strengths, limitations and requirements of using EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) in pan-European food consumption surveys, and to

  10. The water framework directive: A new directive for a changing social, political and economic European Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kaika, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the intricate process of developing the European Union's Water Framework Directive. It sees the Directive as a response to recent economic, political and social changes related to water management, including the shift from government to governance, the liberalization of water markets and the emergence of a new set of institutions, actors, etc. and their respective relations (i.e. social capital). The article focuses on the key points of disagreement between the Council o...

  11. Nutrition education in European medical schools: results of an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M; van Buul, V J; Wilms, E; Nellessen, N; Brouns, F J P H

    2014-07-01

    Consumers and patients are unsure of whom to trust for nutritional advice. Although medical doctors are seen as experts in nutrition and their advice is regularly followed, data are lacking on the amount of nutrition education in European medical school curricula. In line with US research, we distributed a survey on required and/or optional nutrition contact hours to medical education directors of all accredited medical schools (N=217) in Western European Union countries (N=14). In total, respondents from 32 medical schools (14.7%) from 10 countries indicated that nutrition education, in some form, was required in 68.8% of schools where, on average, 23.68 h of required nutrition education was provided. The results from this small-scale survey are comparable to a 2010 US study; conversely, European educators were satisfied with the amount of nutrition education. We substantiate the increasing concern over the inadequate amounts of nutrition education provided to medical students in Europe.

  12. Social values and preschool behavioral adjustment: A comparative investigation of Latino and European American preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S; Pula, Kacy; Downs, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    The present article explored relationships between social values (cooperative, individualistic, and competitive) and the behavioral adjustment of Latino and European American preschoolers within the preschool setting. Of interest was whether relationships between social values and behavioral adjustment differed as a function of cultural background. Assessments of social values and teacher reports of child behavioral adjustment were obtained for 254 preschoolers from collectivist (Spanish-speaking Latino Americans), individualist (English-speaking European Americans), and mixed cultural backgrounds (English-Speaking Latino Americans). Cooperative values were more prevalent among collectivist background children, but did not predict behavioral adjustment. Individualistic values did not differ across groups, but predicted better behavioral adjustment for individualist children. Competitive values did not differ across groups, but predicted positive behavioral adjustment for collectivist children and negative behavioral adjustment for individualist children. These findings suggest that a competitive social orientation constitutes a resilience factor for children from collectivist cultural backgrounds and a risk factor for children from individualist cultural backgrounds, and that a cooperative social orientation is undervalued within school settings. Discussion focuses on facilitating the behavioral adjustment of children by raising teacher awareness of collectivist social values and, selectively, fostering or encouraging competitive social values. In sum, the results support the notion that the functionality and meaning of social values differ across social and cultural contexts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Pan-European survey on the implementation of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery with emphasis on cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Thijs; Besselink, Marc G.; Shamali, Awad; Butturini, Giovanni; Busch, Olivier R.; Edwin, Bjørn; Troisi, Roberto; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano; Dagher, Ibrahim; Bassi, Claudio; Abu Hilal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive (MI) pancreatic surgery appears to be gaining popularity, but its implementation throughout Europe and the opinions regarding its use in pancreatic cancer patients are unknown. Methods A 30-question survey was sent between June and December 2014 to pancreatic surgeons of the European Pancreatic Club, European-African Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association and 5 European national pancreatic societies. Incomplete responses were excluded. Results In total, 237 pancreatic surgeons responded. After excluding 34 incomplete responses, 203 responses from 27 European countries were included. 164 (81%) surgeons were employed at a university hospital, 184 (91%) performed advanced MI surgery and 148 (73%) performed MI distal pancreatectomy. MI pancreatoduodenectomy was performed by 42 (21%) surgeons, whereas 9 (4.4%) surgeons had performed more than 10 procedures. Robot-assisted MI pancreatic surgery was performed by 28 (14%) surgeons. 63 (31%) surgeons expected MI distal pancreatectomy for cancer to be inferior to open distal pancreatectomy concerning oncological outcomes. 151 (74%) surgeons expected to benefit from training in MI distal pancreatectomy and 149 (73%) were willing to participate in a randomized trial on this topic. Conclusions MI distal pancreatectomy is a common procedure, although its use for cancer is still disputed. MI pancreatoduodenectomy is still an uncommon procedure. Specific training and a randomized trial regarding MI pancreatic cancer surgery are welcomed. PMID:26902136

  14. Social welfare support and homicide: longitudinal analyses of European countries from 1994 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Patricia L; Brauer, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the extent to which retrenchment in welfare support is related to homicide trends across European countries between 1994 and 2010. Using a longitudinal decomposition design that allows for stronger causal inferences compared to typical cross-sectional designs, we examine these potential linkages between social support spending and homicide with data collected from a heterogeneous sample of European nations, including twenty Western nations and nine less frequently analyzed East-Central nations, during recent years in which European nations generally witnessed substantial changes in homicide rates as well as both economic prosperity and fiscal crisis. Results suggest that even incremental, short-term changes in welfare support spending are associated with short-term reductions in homicide-specifically, impacting homicide rates within two to three years for this sample of European nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social inequalities in 'sickness': European welfare states and non-employment among the chronically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked 'sickness'-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more favourable general rates of non-employment. Hence, regarding sickness, welfare resources appear to trump welfare disincentives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wiki surveys: Open and quantifiable social data collection

    CERN Document Server

    Salganik, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Research about attitudes and opinions is central to social science and relies on two common methodological approaches: surveys and interviews. While surveys enable the quantification of large amounts of information quickly and at a reasonable cost, they are routinely criticized for being "top-down" and rigid. In contrast, interviews allow unanticipated information to "bubble up" directly from respondents, but are slow, expensive, and difficult to quantify. Advances in computing technology now enable a hybrid approach that combines the quantifiability of a survey and the openness of an interview; we call this new class of data collection tools wiki surveys. Drawing on principles underlying successful information aggregation projects, such as Wikipedia, we propose three general criteria that wiki surveys should satisfy: they should be greedy, collaborative, and adaptive. We then present results from www.allourideas.org, a free and open-source website we created that enables groups all over the world to deploy w...

  17. The concept of economic and social cohesion in the treaty establishing the European Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, E.J.Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This article is a diplomatic history of the development of the concept of Economic and Social Cohesion in the EC Treaty. The article was written in order to check on the span of commitment which the Member States undertook when inserting this concept in the EC Treaty by way of the Single European

  18. Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior : Social network analyses in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; de Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    The co-evolution of adolescents' friendship networks and their smoking behavior is examined in a large sample across six European countries. Selection and influence processes are disentangled using new methods of social network analysis that enable alternative selection mechanisms to be controlled

  19. GOOD PRACTICE IN CROATIAN SOCIAL POLICY – RECCOMENDATIONS FOR THE COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mahmutefendić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social policy has the ideal of cohesion and inclusiveness of all citizens, but it has to “play” an active role in creating opportunities for them. It encopmasses in itself primarily a balance between economic efficiency and social solidarity distribution, and strives towards a consensual social model in which the government and the opposition generally agree on the fundamental priorities of society. Starting from July 1st, 2013, Croatia has been a member of the European Union. What experiences can that country bring to European Union? In spite of the differences between the European countries becoming more and more expressed and bigger, there is a common element: a conscience that social justice and social reconciliation could contribute to an economical development and that are not just an expense; but the opposite: an economical development that must contribute to social reconciliation. In the process of the preparation for this work and during the process of its realization, I used the methods of reading a lot of literature, including professional books, professional journals and legislation literature. Social policy has been for years one of my major fields of interest, so some facts I knew already. My research goal is to examine the development so far of the social policy in Croatia, to detect the most important conditions which are necessary to develop high-quality social policies, to discover which are strong sides, and which are weak sides of the Croatian social policy, and therefore what is important to strongly develop, and what is redundant and/or old-fashioned, to throw away or neglect.

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility in Engineering Education. A French Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, C.; Huet, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a survey of how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is being discussed and taught in engineering education in France. We shall first describe how those questions have been recently tackled in various programmes of higher education in France. We shall also analyse what faculty members have to…

  1. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  2. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippin, Holly L; Hutchinson, Jayne; Jewell, Jo; Breda, Joao J; Cade, Janet E

    2017-11-27

    The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS) but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third ( n = 19), mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC), had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40%) countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  3. Strategies and governance to reduce health inequalities: evidences from a cross-European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, Sara; Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Bourgueil, Yann; Daponte, Antonio; Pinzal, Ewelina; Ménival, Solange

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to identify the governance system related to policies to reduce health inequalities in the European regions. Considering the Action Spectrum of inequalities and the check list of health equity governance, we developed a survey in the framework of the AIR Project - Addressing Inequalities Intervention in Regions - was an European project funded by the Executive Agency of Health and Consumers. A web-based qualitative questionnaire was developed that collected information about practiced strategies to reduce health inequalities. In total 28 questionnaires from 28 different regions, related to 13countries, were suitable for the analysis. Progress in health equity strategies at the national and regional levels has been made by countries such as France, Portugal, Poland, and Germany. On the other hand, Spain, Italy, and Belgium have a variable situation depending on the region. However, the results of the survey indicate that the governance system for health equity different in terms of commitment, resources and tools. The survey highlights a weakness of governance system for the majority of countries in terms of evaluation actions and of impact of interventions in reducing inequalities, and the difficulties in having a clear and integrated vision between the national and regional levels.

  4. Social Learning in European River-Basin Management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Mostert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present and analyze 10 case studies of participatory river-basin management that were conducted as part of the European HarmoniCOP project. The main theme was social learning, which emphasizes the importance of collaboration, organization, and learning. The case studies show that social learning in river-basin management is not an unrealistic ideal. Resistance to social learning was encountered, but many instances of social learning were found, and several positive results were identified. Moreover, 71 factors fostering or hindering social learning were identified; these could be grouped into eight themes: the role of stakeholder involvement, politics and institutions, opportunities for interaction, motivation and skills of leaders and facilitators, openness and transparency, representativeness, framing and reframing, and adequate resources. Promising topics for further research include the facilitation of the social learning processes, the role of power, and interactions in political and institutional contexts.

  5. European Association of Urology (@Uroweb) recommendations on the appropriate use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouprêt, Morgan; Morgan, Todd M; Bostrom, Peter J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kutikov, Alexander; Linton, Kate D; Palou, Joan; Martínez-Piñeiro, Luis; van der Poel, Henk; Wijburg, Carl; Winterbottom, Andrew; Woo, Henry H; Wirth, Manfred P; Catto, James W F

    2014-10-01

    Social media use is becoming common in medical practice. Although primarily used in this context to connect physicians, social media allows users share information, to create an online profile, to learn and keep knowledge up to date, to facilitate virtual attendance at medical conferences, and to measure impact within a field. However, shared content should be considered permanent and beyond the control of its author, and typical boundaries, such as the patient-physician interaction, become blurred, putting both parties at risk. The European Association of Urology brought together a committee of stakeholders to create guidance on the good practice and standards of use of social media. These encompass guidance about defining an online profile; managing accounts; protecting the reputations of yourself and your organization; protecting patient confidentiality; and creating honest, responsible content that reflects your standing as a physician and your membership within this profession. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The German Social Market Economy – (Still a Model for the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Dieter John

    2007-03-01

    economic order which is based on free markets but, at the same time, includes elements of social balancing. The term “Social Market Economy” can neither be found in the Treaty on European Union nor in the Treaty establishing the European Community. The documents only use the terms “open market economy” and “free competition”. The Commission has never made a clear statement whether its economic policy is guided by the principles of a SME. Because the SME-concept is not new and its value is not undisputed it is worth to reflect on it and to find out what it has to offer for the economic and social policy of the EU.

  7. Negative life events, social support and gender difference in depression: a multinational community survey with data from the ODIN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dowrick, Christopher; Lehtinen, Ville; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose Luis; Casey, Patricia; Wilkinson, Greg; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Page, Helen; Dunn, Graham

    2006-06-01

    To explore if differences in negative life events, vulnerability and social support may explain the gender difference in depression. Cross-sectional, multinational, community survey from five European countries (n = 8,787). Depression is measured by Beck Depression Inventory, whereas negative life events and social support are measured by various questionnaires. Women report slightly more negative life events than men do, mainly related to the social network, but more social support in general and in connection with reported life events. This trend is the same in all participating countries except Spain, where there is no gender difference in the reported support. In general, women are not more vulnerable to negative life events than men are. However, women with no social support, who are exposed to life events, are more vulnerable than men without support. The higher rate of depression in women is not explained by gender differences in negative life events, social support or vulnerability.

  8. The European Social Fund within the Context of the Economic Crisis from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina CACE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the positive traits of the European Social Fund proved by the history of this mechanism which has been applied in the European Community for almost half a century, as well as the measures adopted in order to improve the measures in the field of employment during the period of the economic crisis. The European Social Fund (ESF helps increasing the adaptability of the workforce and of the enterprises; it helps increasing the access to the labour market; it prevents unemployment and prolongs the active life; it increases the participation of women and of the immigrants to the labour market; it increases the social inclusion of the disadvantaged people and fights discrimination. In Romania, workforce employment is a priority goal, and POSDRU1 contributes to the implementation of the measures set by the European Strategy for Employment. The paper shows the need to identify solutions to the crisis of employment in Romania using the funds allocated to the Operational Program, Human Resources Development, which  produce measurable effects with regard to the unemployment rate in Romania.

  9. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-04

    Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students' opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Data were collected from the Universitas 21 "Use of social media in health education" survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media "almost always" reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education.

  10. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotseva, Kornelia

    2009-03-14

    The first and second EUROASPIRE surveys showed high rates of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. The third EUROASPIRE survey was done in 2006-07 in 22 countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved and if the Joint European Societies\\' recommendations on cardiovascular disease prevention are being followed in clinical practice.

  11. Public Administration as an academic disicpline: Trends and changes in the COCOPS academic survey of European Public Administration scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); D.S.D. Curry; S. Gadellaa (Stefanie)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report summarises the finding from the COCOPS academic survey, a survey of public administration academics in European countries fielded in 2013. Respondents were asked to reflect on the state of the discipline and general trends within the discipline and in

  12. Customer satisfaction survey to improve the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwouts, Sarah; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis European Network, coordinated from within the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, is the provider of the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment (EQA) scheme. The network aimed to seek feedback from laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis scheme in order to improve services offered. In this study we analysed responses to an on-line customer satisfaction survey conducted between September and November 2009. The survey was sent to 213 laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme of 2008; 69 laboratories (32%) responded. Scores for importance and satisfaction were obtained from a five-point Likert scale for 24 attributes. A score of one corresponded to very dissatisfied/very unimportant and five corresponded to very satisfied/very important. Means were calculated and placed in a two-dimensional grid (importance-satisfaction analysis). Means were subtracted from each other to obtain gap values (gap-analysis). No attribute had a mean score below 3.63. The overall mean of satisfaction was 4.35. Opportunities for improvement enclosed clarity, usefulness and completeness of the general report and individual comments, and user-friendliness of the electronic datasheet. This type of customer satisfaction survey was a valuable instrument to identify opportunities to improve the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme. It should be conducted on a regular basis to reveal new opportunities in the future and to assess effectiveness of actions taken. Moreover, it could be a model for other EQA providers seeking feedback from participants. Overall, the customer satisfaction survey provided a powerful quality of care improvement tool.

  13. A European survey relating to cancer therapy and neutropenic infections: Nurse and patient viewpoints.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Kay

    2011-09-25

    PURPOSE: Severe neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN) are the major causes of morbidity, treatment interruptions and dose reductions in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) conducted an European survey to evaluate nurse perspectives on prevention of infection and FN in this setting, and how much they educate their patients about this. A separate survey explored these issues in patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: 217 nurse participants were identified by EONS from the membership database and 473 cancer patients who were receiving\\/had received chemotherapy were identified through patient advocacy groups. Questionnaires were completed anonymously online for both surveys. RESULTS: More than 90% of the nurses agreed that preventing infections including FN is extremely\\/very important for a successful chemotherapy outcome and said that they, or other health professionals in their practice, advised patients about these issues. Most (90%) indicated that they favoured giving treatment to protect against FN and infections in chemotherapy patients at risk, rather than treating infection after it develops, but 82% expressed concern over patient concordance with measures employed. A substantial proportion of patients reported emergency room visits, hospitalization and\\/or chemotherapy delays or changes as a result of neutropenia, infection or FN. However, only 44% said that their infection risk was discussed with them before starting chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that nurses recognise the importance of reducing the risk of infection and FN in patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as the need to educate patients. However, results of the patient survey suggest a need for better patient education.

  14. Wiki surveys: open and quantifiable social data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Matthew J; Levy, Karen E C

    2015-01-01

    In the social sciences, there is a longstanding tension between data collection methods that facilitate quantification and those that are open to unanticipated information. Advances in technology now enable new, hybrid methods that combine some of the benefits of both approaches. Drawing inspiration from online information aggregation systems like Wikipedia and from traditional survey research, we propose a new class of research instruments called wiki surveys. Just as Wikipedia evolves over time based on contributions from participants, we envision an evolving survey driven by contributions from respondents. We develop three general principles that underlie wiki surveys: they should be greedy, collaborative, and adaptive. Building on these principles, we develop methods for data collection and data analysis for one type of wiki survey, a pairwise wiki survey. Using two proof-of-concept case studies involving our free and open-source website www.allourideas.org, we show that pairwise wiki surveys can yield insights that would be difficult to obtain with other methods.

  15. Citizenship, immigration, and the European social project: rights and obligations of individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoğlu

    2012-03-01

    As envisioned by T.H. Marshall, social citizenship was a corrective to the injustices caused by the capitalist market. Entitlements and protections guaranteed by the welfare state would prevent social and economic exclusions that civil and political rights, on their own, simply could not. Such protections consequently would ensure social cohesion and solidarity, as well as a productive economy and market. European welfare states successfully followed this formula for the most part of the post-World War II period, however the last couple of decades witnessed significant changes. For one, the very meaning of 'work' and 'worker' on which the welfare state is based has changed - flexibility, risk, and precariousness have become defining elements of working life. The welfare state itself has gone through a transformation as well, increasingly moving away from a system of 'passive benefits' to 'social investment' in human capital. These developments are coupled with an emphasis on education in 'active citizenship', which envisions participatory individuals who are adaptable in an increasingly globalized society, and ready to contribute at local, national and transnational levels. The emergent European social project draws on a re-alignment between these strands: work, social investment, and active participation. In this article, I consider the implications of this project for immigrant populations in Europe in particular and for the conceptions of citizenship and human rights in general. In contrast to the recent commentary on the neoliberal turn and the return of nation-state centered citizenship projects in Europe, I emphasize the broader trends in the post-World War II period that indicate a significant shift in the very foundations of good citizenship and social justice. The new social project transpires a citizenship model that privileges individuality and its transformative capacity as a collective good. Thus, while expanding the boundaries and forms of

  16. Social protection of migrant workers in Ukraine: striving towards European standards under crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia FEDIRKO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyse the state of social protection for migrant workers in Ukraine. We investigated the legal status of migrant workers in Ukraine and carried out a comparative analysis of national and European experience in the area of protection of migrant workers’ rights. The author provides grounded support for a set of administrative measures aimed to implement the rights of migrant workers as a part of Ukraine’s international and European commitments. The practical significance of the article lies in the evaluation of Ukraine’s readiness to ratify Article 19 of the European Social Charter (revised “The right of migrant workers and their families to protection and assistance”. The author analyses the influence of the socio-political and economic crisis in Ukraine on the processes of external and internal migration, and on the social protection policies in the area of forced migrants. Also, the study assesses the social assistance provided to internally displaced persons. Finally, it suggests complex measures designed to counteract the negative migration trend.

  17. Management of Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy: Results of a Survey among Members of the European Thyroid Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Kris; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Laurberg, Peter; Negro, Roberto; Vermiglio, Francesco; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-01-01

    Background An optimal management of maternal hyperthyroidism is important for positive pregnancy outcome, and to this end, the Endocrine Society published their guidelines in 2007. This survey aimed to investigate to what extent the clinical practice relating to the management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy in Europe is uniform and consistent with the guidelines. Materials and Methods: We e-mailed an online questionnaire survey based on clinical case scenarios to 605 members of the European Thyroid Association. We analysed 190 responses from 28 European countries. Results For a woman with newly diagnosed Graves' disease (GD) and wishing pregnancy, 78% of the responders would initiate antithyroid drugs (ATDs), while 22% would recommend definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery. In case of a relapsed GD before pregnancy, 80% preferred definitive treatment. For a woman with newly diagnosed GD during pregnancy, 53% would treat with propylthiouracil, 12% with methimazole, and 34% with propylthiouracil initially and switch to methimazole after the first trimester. Responders used several combinations of tests to monitor the dose of ATDs, and the thyroid test results they targeted were inconsistent. For a lactating woman with GD, 68% would give ATDs without stopping lactation. Conclusions Variation in the clinical practices surrounding the management of hyperthyroid pregnant women in Europe still exists. PMID:25422798

  18. Management of acute haemarthrosis in haemophilia A without inhibitors: literature review, European survey and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, C; De Moerloose, P; Fischer, K; Holstein, K; Klamroth, R; Lambert, T; Lavigne-Lissalde, G; Perez, R; Richards, M; Dolan, G

    2011-05-01

    Acute haemarthrosis is a frequent type of bleeding in individuals with haemophilia. Delayed and/or inadequate treatment can trigger a series of pathological changes within the joint, leading to a painful and disabling arthropathy. The early management of intra-articular bleeding has the potential to prevent chronic joint disease and may include a combination of factor replacement, rest, ice, rehabilitation and, in certain cases, joint aspiration. Little data are, however, available regarding the optimal management of acute haemarthrosis, especially with respect to replacement therapy and the use of adjunctive therapies (aspiration, avoidance of weight bearing and immobilization, as well as the use of anti-inflammatory medication and embolization). To provide more insight into the management of acute haemarthrosis in patients with haemophilia, a literature review was conducted. Concomitantly, current management was surveyed in 26 European haemophilia comprehensive care centres representing 15 different countries. The review highlights the need for future robust studies to better define the appropriate replacement therapy and the role of adjunctive therapies such as aspiration. The survey reveals much heterogeneity in the management of acute haemarthrosis across the EU. Within the constraints discussed, treatment recommendations are presented that reflect the literature, current practice and the clinical experience of the European Haemophilia Therapy Standardisation Board (EHTSB). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Treatment and screening of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: results of a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Bijay; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Laurberg, Peter; Negro, Roberto; Vermiglio, Francesco; Poppe, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism in pregnancy is associated with several adverse outcomes. The Endocrine Society Guidelines for the management of thyroid diseases in pregnancy were published in 2007; however, impact of the guidelines in routine clinical practice is unknown. Therefore, we have carried out a survey of members of the European Thyroid Association (ETA) to study current practices relating to the management of hypothyroidism in pregnancy. In December 2010, we emailed an electronic questionnaire survey based on clinical case scenarios to 605 members of the ETA. Responses from 190 clinician members (from 28 European countries) were analyzed. For a pregnant woman with newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism, most responders initiated a full dose of l-thyroxine (l-T(4)). For a woman with hypothyroidism planning pregnancy, 50% recommended increasing the dose of l-T(4) as soon as pregnancy is confirmed, whilst 43% favored testing thyroid function before adjusting the dose. Responders used diverse combinations of tests to monitor the dose of l-T(4). The target of thyroid function tests that responders aimed to achieve with l-T(4) was also inconsistent. Forty-two percent responders or their institutions screened all pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction, 43% performed targeted screening of only the high-risk group, whilst 17% did not carry out systemic screening. Timing of the screening, tests used, and criteria for starting treatment and monitoring were variable. There is wide variation in the clinical practice relating to the treatment and screening of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in Europe.

  20. Management of Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy: Results of a Survey among Members of the European Thyroid Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Kris; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Laurberg, Peter; Negro, Roberto; Vermiglio, Francesco; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-04-01

    An optimal management of maternal hyperthyroidism is important for positive pregnancy outcome, and to this end, the Endocrine Society published their guidelines in 2007. This survey aimed to investigate to what extent the clinical practice relating to the management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy in Europe is uniform and consistent with the guidelines. We e-mailed an online questionnaire survey based on clinical case scenarios to 605 members of the European Thyroid Association. We analysed 190 responses from 28 European countries. For a woman with newly diagnosed Graves' disease (GD) and wishing pregnancy, 78% of the responders would initiate antithyroid drugs (ATDs), while 22% would recommend definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery. In case of a relapsed GD before pregnancy, 80% preferred definitive treatment. For a woman with newly diagnosed GD during pregnancy, 53% would treat with propylthiouracil, 12% with methimazole, and 34% with propylthiouracil initially and switch to methimazole after the first trimester. Responders used several combinations of tests to monitor the dose of ATDs, and the thyroid test results they targeted were inconsistent. For a lactating woman with GD, 68% would give ATDs without stopping lactation. Variation in the clinical practices surrounding the management of hyperthyroid pregnant women in Europe still exists.

  1. Hard times and European youth. The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-02-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Enteral Feeding Practices in Infants With Congenital Heart Disease Across European PICUs: A European Society of Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tume, Lyvonne N; Balmaks, Reinis; da Cruz, Eduardo; Latten, Lynne; Verbruggen, Sascha; Valla, Frédéric V

    2018-02-01

    To describe enteral feeding practices in pre and postoperative infants with congenital heart disease in European PICUs. Cross-sectional electronic survey. European PICUs that admit infants with congenital heart disease pre- and postoperatively. One senior PICU physician or designated person per unit. None. Fifty-nine PICUs from 18 European countries responded to the survey. PICU physicians were involved in the nutritional care of children with congenital heart disease in most (76%) PICUs, but less than 60% of units had a dedicated dietician. Infants with congenital heart disease were routinely fed preoperatively in only 63% of the PICUs, due to ongoing concerns around prostaglandin E1 infusion, the presence of umbilical venous and/or arterial catheters, and the use of vasoactive drugs. In three quarters of the PICUs (76%), infants were routinely fed during the first 24 hours postoperatively. Units cited, the most common feeding method, both pre and postoperatively, was intermittent bolus feeds via the gastric route. Importantly, 69% of European PICUs still did not have written guidelines for feeding, but this varied for pre and postoperative patients. Wide variations in practices exist in the nutritional care between European PICUs, which reflects the absence of local protocols and scientific society-endorsed guidelines. This is likely to contribute to suboptimal energy delivery in this particularly vulnerable group.

  3. Inhalation Incidents and Respiratory Health: Results From the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Olivieri, Mario; Kromhout, Hans; Norbäck, Dan; Radon, Katja; Torén, Kjell; van Sprundel, Marc; Villani, Simona; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhalation incidents are an important cause of acute respiratory symptoms, but little is known about how these incidents affect chronic respiratory health. Methods We assessed reported inhalation incidents among 3,763 European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) participants with and without cough, phlegm, asthma, wheezing or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We then examined whether inhalation incidents during the 9-year ECRHS follow-up period were associated with a new onset of any of these respiratory outcomes among 2,809 participants who were free of all five outcomes at the time of the baseline ECRHS survey. Results Inhalation incidents were reported by 5% of participants, with higher percentages reported among individuals with asthma-related outcomes at the time of the baseline survey. Among participants without symptoms at baseline, our analyses generated non-statistically significant elevated estimates of the risk of cough, phlegm, asthma and wheezing and a non-statistically significant inverse estimate of the risk of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among participants who reported an inhalation incident compared to those without such an event reported. Discussion Our findings provide limited evidence of an association between inhalation incidents and asthma-related symptoms. These data could be affected by differences in the reporting of inhalation incidents according to symptom status at the time of the baseline survey; they should thus be interpreted with caution. PMID:18942122

  4. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  5. Gender and Cultural Differences in the Association Between Family Roles, Social Stratification and Alcohol Use: A European Cross-cultural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    with alcohol consumption by societal level variables. Methods: Survey data of 25 to 49-years-old from eight European countries were used. Logistic regressions were used to analyse gender differences in the association between family roles (marriage, having children), social stratification (education...... countries, tended to drink more heavily if employed, having lower formal education, and a non-traditional family role. In countries with weak social welfare systems or work desirability, heavy drinking was associated with high education, while effects of family roles and employment were small. Conclusions...

  6. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  7. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards the possibility that legal instruments should influence a socially responsible behavior for public or private business operators. The aspects analysed for business operators in Romania can represent a model for other European Union states as well.

  9. The Impact of Social Factors on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for Romania and European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the social factors and the economic growth. A summary of social and economic environment is presented for Romania. As such, the paper analyzes the global evolution of social and economic environment over time and establishes a direct correlation between human development and economic welfare. An econometric model and a clustering model are tested for European Union countries. The results of the paper reveal the social factors that are positively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the expected years of schooling and the life expectancy and, respectively, the factors that are negatively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the population at risk of poverty and the unemployment rate.

  10. Standardization of physical measurements in European health examination surveys-experiences from the site visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Mäki-Opas, Johanna; Mindell, Jennifer S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Giampaoli, Simona; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-10-01

    Health examination surveys (HESs) provide valuable data on health and its determinants at the population level. Comparison of HES results within and between countries and over time requires measurements which are free of bias due to differences in or adherence to measurement procedures and/or measurement devices. In the European HES (EHES) Pilot Project, 12 countries conducted a pilot HES in 2010-11 using standardized measurement protocols and centralized training. External evaluation visits (site visits) were performed by the EHES Reference Centre staff to evaluate the success of standardization and quality of data collection. In general, standardized EHES protocols were followed adequately in all the pilot surveys. Small deviations were observed in the posture of participants during the blood pressure and height measurement; in the use of a tourniquet when drawing blood samples; and in the calibration of measurement devices. Occasionally, problems with disturbing noise from outside or people coming into the room during the measurements were observed. In countries with an ongoing national HES or a long tradition of conducting national HESs at regular intervals, it was more difficult to modify national protocols to fulfil EHES requirements. The EHES protocols to standardize HES measurements and procedures for collection of blood samples are feasible in cross-country settings. The prerequisite for successful standardization is adequate training. External and internal evaluation activities during the survey fieldwork are also needed to monitor compliance to standards.

  11. Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989

  12. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F J

    2013-01-01

    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  13. Smoking prevalence in the European Union: a comparison of national and transnational prevalence survey methods and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Fiona; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the European Commission Eurobarometer survey of 27 European Union (EU) member states produces reliable smoking prevalence estimates when compared to national prevalence survey data, and to identify approaches to standardising the measurement of smoking prevalence in the EU. Methods This was a direct comparison of questions, sampling methods and smoking prevalence estimates, between the 2006 Eurobarometer study and contemporaneous national surveys. All 27 EU member states were included. Participants were people surveyed in the 2006 Eurobarometer study and in various national surveys in the closest year to 2006 for which data were available. The main outcome measures were the mean and range of differences in prevalence estimates between the Eurobarometer and national surveys. Results Most national surveys used similar multistage sampling methods and involved sample sizes of 3000 or more, but the phrasing of the questions used to define smoking, the inclusion or exclusion of occasional smokers, the age ranges of participants and the frequency of national surveys varied substantially between countries. The Eurobarometer study used the same questions in all countries but in sample sizes of 1000, or in 3 countries, 500. Eurobarometer 2006 smoking prevalence estimates were on average 0.37 percentage points higher than those in national surveys, but with a 95% range from −10.49 to +11.23 percentage points. At the extremes, the equivalent national prevalence estimate for Slovakia was 13.0% higher and for the UK 10.0% lower than the Eurobarometer figure. Conclusions Measurements of the prevalence of smoking, the biggest avoidable public health threat in the European Union, are highly discrepant within countries between national and European Commission survey estimates. Monitoring national smoking prevalence on a regular basis, using standardised methods in representative population samples, is an urgent priority for the EU. PMID:20966129

  14. Policy benchmarking report on neonatal health and social policies in 13 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthias; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Dammann, Olaf; Marlow, Neil; Hüppi, Petra; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Poets, Christian; Simbruner, Georg; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Mader, Silke; Merialdi, Mario; Saugstad, Ola D

    2010-11-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of infant mortality and morbidity in both developed and developing countries. In Europe, the prevalence rate of premature birth ranges from 5.5 to 11.4% - an average of 7.1% of all live births. In this report, we aim to compare the current health and social policies, as well as practices in 13 EU member states. Using desk research, relevant information was gathered from each of the 13 European countries with regard to the prevalence of preterm birth, the cost of preterm birth to healthcare budgets, and the relevant policies, guidelines and practices in place at the national and, in some cases, regional level. The information comes from a range of sources, including government and parent association websites, published scientific literature and media reports. Despite the growing prevalence and increasing costs, neonatal and preterm infant health rank low on the policy agendas of EU member states. Based on the findings, there are a number of recommendations that should be considered. The European Union should (i) recognize the growing challenge of prematurity in Europe and its significant impact on infant morbidity and mortality, (ii) improve neonatal health through the development and implementation of coordinated EU health and social policies, (iii) address the lack of comparable European data on prematurity, including prevalence, mortality, acute morbidity and long-term impairment, (iv) also increase the standard of neonatal care across Europe by supporting the development and implementation of European medical guidelines and quality standards, (v) support the development of European postgraduate training programmes in Peri- and Neonatology in order to increase the quality and availability of trained healthcare professionals. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Barriers in the implementation of the Resuscitation Guidelines: European survey of defibrillation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Paweł; Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Andres, Janusz

    2016-03-11

    The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines recommend providing chest compressions during defibrillator charging and using adhesive pads for defibrillation to increase the effectiveness of resuscitation. However, the most common defibrillation technique in each European country is unknown, as are the potential barriers in implementation of the guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the techniques of defibrillation procedures performed by professional European healthcare providers and to estimate how frequently adhesive pads are used. We sent an online questionnaire to the ERC National Representatives that contained 12 questions regarding the techniques of defibrillation and monitoring heart rhythm during cardiac arrest. We also evaluated the frequency and indications of manual paddles use. We collected questionnaires from 27 out of 33 invited ERC member countries. The response rate was 82%. Seventeen (17/27; 63%) declared the use of adhesive pads. The leading cause for not using adhesive pads was economic reason (9/17; 53%). Some respondents declared resistance to using adhesive pads by healthcare providers or tradition connected with manual paddles use. We found three leading techniques of defibrillation with manual paddles: Charging paddles keeping them on the defibrillator during chest compressions being delivered (9/21; 43%), Charging paddles keeping them on the patient chest during chest compressions being delivered (6/21; 29 %), Charging paddles on the patient chest without chest compressions (5/21; 24%). Respondents from 11 countries declared the use of gel or electrode pastes during defibrillation with manual paddles. This study collected preliminary data showing how defibrillation is performed in Europe. It revealed the recommeded techniques underuse and identyfied barriers in the Resuscitation Guidelines implementation. The survey should be open to a wider group of respondents. in each country in future. There are limitations and barriers

  16. Development of the European Health Interview Survey - Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ) to monitor physical activity in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Tafforeau, Jean; Gisle, Lydia; Oja, Leila; Ziese, Thomas; Thelen, Juergen; Mensink, Gert B M; Lange, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    A domain-specific physical activity questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ) was developed in the framework of the second wave of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS). This article presents the EHIS-PAQ and describes its development and evaluation processes. Research institutes from Belgium, Estonia and Germany participated in the Improvement of the EHIS (ImpEHIS) Grant project issued by Eurostat. The instrument development process comprised a non-systematic literature review and a systematic HIS/HES database search for physical activity survey questions. The developed EHIS-PAQ proposal was reviewed by survey experts. Cognitive testing of the EHIS-PAQ was conducted in Estonia and Germany. The EHIS-PAQ was further tested in a pilot survey in Belgium, Estonia and Germany in different modes of data collection, face-to-face paper and pencil interview (PAPI) and computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). The EHIS-PAQ is a rather pragmatic tool aiming to evaluate how far the population is physically active in specific public health relevant settings. It assesses work-related, transport-related and leisure-time physical activity in a typical week. Cognitive testing revealed that the EHIS-PAQ worked as intended. The pilot testing showed the feasibility of using the EHIS-PAQ in an international health interview survey setting in Europe. It will be implemented in all 28 European Union Member States via European Union implementing regulation in the period between 2013 and 2015. This will be a first opportunity to get comparable data on domain-specific physical activity in all 28 EU MS and to publish indicators at the EU level. The EHIS-PAQ is a short, domain-specific PA questionnaire based on PA questions which have been used in large-scale health interview surveys before. It was designed by considering the respondents' perspective in answering PA questions.

  17. Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J; Romo, Lucia; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Graziani, Pierluigi; Rousseau, Amélie; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bischof, Anja; Gässler, Ann-Kathrin; Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriänen, Maria; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Chóliz, Mariano; Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Griffiths, Mark D; Pontes, Halley M; Lelonek-Kuleta, Bernadeta; Chwaszcz, Joanna; Zullino, Daniele; Rochat, Lucien; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18-29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage.

  18. Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J.; Romo, Lucia; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Graziani, Pierluigi; Rousseau, Amélie; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bischof, Anja; Gässler, Ann-Kathrin; Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriänen, Maria; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Chóliz, Mariano; Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pontes, Halley M.; Lelonek-Kuleta, Bernadeta; Chwaszcz, Joanna; Zullino, Daniele; Rochat, Lucien; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18–29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage. PMID:28425777

  19. U.S. Geological Survey distribution of European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieschke, Renee L.

    2017-03-31

    A partnership established between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) allows for USGS storage and redistribution of images acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on the European Union's Sentinel-2 satellite mission. The MSI data are acquired from a pair of satellites, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are part of a larger set of ESA missions focusing on different aspects of Earth observation. The primary purpose of the Sentinel-2 series is to collect multispectral imagery over the Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, and inland and coastal waters. Sentinel-2A was launched in 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in 2017.The collaborative effort between ESA and USGS provides for public access and redistribution of global acquisitions of Sentinel-2 data at no cost, which allows users to download the MSI imagery from USGS access systems such as Earth- Explorer, in addition to the ESA Sentinels Scientific Data Hub. The MSI sensor acquires 13 spectral bands that are highly complementary to data acquired by the USGS Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The product options from USGS include a Full-Resolution Browse (FRB) image product generated by USGS, along with a 100-kilometer (km) by 100-km tile-based Level-1C top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product that is very similar (but not identical) to the currently (2017) distributed ESA Level 1C product.

  20. European Christians are at the forefront in accepting evolution: results from an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David P

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs regarding the origins of the universe and life differ substantially between groups of people and are often particularly associated with religious worldviews. It is important to understand factors associated with evolution and creationism beliefs and unacceptance of scientific evidence for evolution. An internet-based survey was conducted to elicit information from people who self-identify as Christians, atheists, agnostics and other belief systems, as well as by geographical location and other demographic variables, on acceptance of evolution or creationism, certainty with which each position is believed, and reasons for rejecting the alternative. It was found that almost 60% of Christians believe in creationism and less than 10% believe in natural evolution. Worldwide, these proportions were relatively consistent across all locations except for in Europe. Among European Christians the majority of Christians believe in a form of evolution. It was found that the vast majority (87%) of Christians are 'absolutely certain' about their beliefs, compared with the minority of atheists and agnostics claiming 'absolute certainty'. Generally, reasons Christians did not accept evolution were based not on evidence but on religious doctrine. In contrast, the most common reason for not accepting the existence of a god by atheists who supported evolution was the lack of evidence. Innovative strategies may be required to communicate evolutionary science effectively to non-European Christians. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Social Informatics: Beyond Technology, A Project in Schools of Social Work in the European Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Jan Steyaert; Harmen Grebel

    1995-01-01

    The authors review the findings of a research project conducted throughout schools of social work in Europe on the level of attention paid to the vocational use of information technology in social work education. Provided is an outline of the research design and an overview of how information

  2. Radiotherapy equipment and departments in the European countries: final results from the ESTRO-HERO survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian; Dunscombe, Peter; Borras, Josep M; Coffey, Mary; Slotman, Ben; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Lievens, Yolande; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Feyen, Karen; Hadjieva, Tatiana; Odrazka, Karel; Grau Eriksen, Jesper; Jaal, Jana; Bly, Ritva; Chauvet, Bruno; Willich, Normann; Polgar, Csaba; Johannsson, Jakob; Cunningham, Moya; Magrini, Stefano; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Untereiner, Michel; Pirotta, Martin; Karadjinovic, Vanja; Levernes, Sverre; Sladowski, Krystol; Lurdes Trigo, Maria; Šegedin, Barbara; Rodriguez, Aurora; Lagerlund, Magnus; Pastoors, Bert; Hoskin, Peter; Vaarkamp, Jaap; Cleries Soler, Ramon

    2014-08-01

    measured by GNI per capita, and availability of radiotherapy equipment in the countries. In many low income countries in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe there was very limited access to radiotherapy and especially to equipment for IMRT or IGRT. The European average number of MV machines per million inhabitants and per department is now better in line with QUARTS recommendations from 2005, but the survey also showed a significant heterogeneity in the access to modern radiotherapy equipment in Europe. High income countries especially in Northern-Western Europe are well-served with radiotherapy resources, other countries are facing important shortages of both equipment in general and especially machines capable of delivering high precision conformal treatments (IMRT, IGRT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between social capital and quality management systems in European hospitals: a quantitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Hammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. OBJECTIVES: We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. METHODS: We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. RESULTS: The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4 and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27. Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of

  4. The Relationship between Social Capital and Quality Management Systems in European Hospitals: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Antje; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; DerSarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A.; Mannion, Russell; Wagner, Cordula; Ommen, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. Objectives We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. Methods We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. Results The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4) and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27). Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029). Conclusion The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of previous research, could

  5. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender and cultural differences in the association between family roles, social stratification, and alcohol use: a European cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard; Knibbe, Ronald A; Kuendig, Hervé; Bloomfield, Kim; Kramer, Stephanie; Grittner, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    First, this paper investigates (i) gender differences in associations of social stratification, family roles, and heavy drinking, and (ii) country differences in these associations. Second, it seeks to explain country differences in the associations of social stratification and family roles with alcohol consumption by societal level variables. Survey data of 25 to 49-years-old from eight European countries were used. Logistic regressions were used to analyse gender differences in the association between family roles (marriage, having children), social stratification (education, employment), and heavy drinking (>20 g/day for women; 30 g/day for men). Gender differences were tested by means of interactions between gender and social stratification/family roles. Structural measures of work desirability, social welfare, and gender equity were used to explain differences in associations across countries. The associations between social stratification, family roles, and heavy drinking varied across gender and countries. A country's social welfare system was associated with heavy drinking only among women. Women in countries with a strong social welfare system, such as Nordic countries, tended to drink more heavily if employed, having lower formal education, and a non-traditional family role. In countries with weak social welfare systems or work desirability, heavy drinking was associated with high education, while effects of family roles and employment were small. It appeared that the social welfare system and gender equity of a country determines to a large extent how education, employment, and family roles are associated with heavy drinking.

  7. Methods and representativeness of a European survey in children and adolescents: the KIDSCREEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Rueden Ursula

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to compare three different sampling and questionnaire administration methods used in the international KIDSCREEN study in terms of participation, response rates, and external validity. Methods Children and adolescents aged 8–18 years were surveyed in 13 European countries using either telephone sampling and mail administration, random sampling of school listings followed by classroom or mail administration, or multistage random sampling of communities and households with self-administration of the survey materials at home. Cooperation, completion, and response rates were compared across countries and survey methods. Data on non-respondents was collected in 8 countries. The population fraction (PF, respondents in each sex-age, or educational level category, divided by the population in the same category from Eurostat census data and population fraction ratio (PFR, ratio of PF and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze differences by country between the KIDSCREEN samples and a reference Eurostat population. Results Response rates by country ranged from 18.9% to 91.2%. Response rates were highest in the school-based surveys (69.0%–91.2%. Sample proportions by age and gender were similar to the reference Eurostat population in most countries, although boys and adolescents were slightly underrepresented (PFR Conclusion School-based sampling achieved the highest overall response rates but also produced slightly more biased samples than the other methods. The results suggest that the samples were sufficiently representative to provide reference population values for the KIDSCREEN instrument.

  8. Differences in participation rates and lessons learned about recruitment of participants--the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Ahonen, Sanna; Jentoft, Susie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Heldal, Johan

    2015-03-01

    In the 1980s, participation rates in health interview and health examination surveys were around 80% while now they are around 50-60%. There is also evidence that non-participation is selective. Low participation rates and selective non-participation may cause bias to our survey results based on participants alone. We aim to increase knowledge on cultural differences in acceptance and feasibility of different recruitment methods. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project, conducted in 2009-2012, included pilot surveys in 12 countries among people aged 25-64 years. Information about recruitment methods and participation rates in these surveys was collected. Participation rates ranged from 16% to 57% for men and from 31% to 74% for women, where in most surveys women had higher participation rates than men. A variety of recruitment and promotion methods were used to obtain as high participation rates as possible. Combinations of phone calls, invitation letter and home visits were used to recruit invitees. Obtaining valid phone numbers for survey invitees was difficult in several countries. Incentives, websites and promotion in local media were used to promote the surveys. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot surveys showed that obtaining a participation rate above 50% for a representative population sample is possible but it requires hard work and a well-planned recruitment strategy. Recruitment methods used in one country may not be possible to use in another country due to cultural norms and national regulations. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. European-American and African-American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to Their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European-American and African-American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European-American, 63 African-American)…

  10. Social network indices in the Generations and Gender Survey: An appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); C. Bühler (Christopher); T. Fokkema (Tineke); G. Petrič (Gregor); R. Platinovšek (Rok); T. Kogovšek (Tina); V. Hlebec (Valentina)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractBACKGROUND In this contribution we critically appraise the social network indices in the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS). OBJECTIVE After discussing the rationale for including social network indices in the GGS, we provide descriptive information on social network

  11. Measuring Professionalism in Medicine and Nursing: Results of a European Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Plochg, Thomas; Thompson, Caroline A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leveraging professionalism has been put forward as a strategy to drive improvement of patient care. We investigate professionalism as a factor influencing the uptake of quality improvement activities by physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. Objective To (i) investigate the reliability and validity of data yielded by using the self-developed professionalism measurement tool for physicians and nurses, (ii) describe their levels of professionalism displayed, and (iii) quantify the extent to which professional attitudes would predict professional behaviors. Methods and Materials We designed and deployed survey instruments amongst 5920 physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. This was conducted under the cross-sectional multilevel study “Deepening Our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe” (DUQuE). We used psychometric and generalized linear mixed modelling techniques to address the aforementioned objectives. Results In all, 2067 (response rate 69.8%) physicians and 2805 nurses (94.8%) representing 74 hospitals in 7 European countries participated. The professionalism instrument revealed five subscales of professional attitude and one scale for professional behaviour with moderate to high internal consistency and reliability. Physicians and nurses display equally high professional attitude sum scores (11.8 and 11.9 respectively out of 16) but seem to have different perceptions towards separate professionalism aspects. Lastly, professionals displaying higher levels of professional attitudes were more involved in quality improvement actions (physicians: b = 0.019, Pnurses: b = 0.016, Pnurses – OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01–1.23) or medical errors (physicians – OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.23; nurses – OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22–1.67). Involvement in QI actions was found to increase the odds of reporting incompetence or medical errors. Conclusion A tool that reliably and validly measures European physicians’ and nurses

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is confronting with problems such as global warming, pollution, contamination of the soil. As a response to these problems, organizations are implementing corporate social responsibility programs, as a way of dealing with these new challenges. CSR reporting began in the 90’s in the USA, but in the last twenty years, EU companies have shown an increasing involvement to a point in which today European CSR reports ammount to 38% of the total reports worldwide. The Global Reporting Initiative is a nongovernmental organism that provides companies which wish to create CSR reports, a set of guidelines and databases what contain CSR reports from 1999 to the present day. As an answer to the need of companies to report their CSR activities, in November 2014, the European Union published Directive 2014/95/EU regarding the obligation of large companies to anually report a series of nonfinancial aspects and information. A priority of the European Comission is to align the CSR reporting method of the member states to the global methods. The comission has evaluated in 2013 the progress of member states and reached the conclusion that member states have chosen different pahts: some have taken only small impact decisions – such as informative and promotional actions for CSR – while other states have taken legislative measures to support corporate social responsibility.

  13. African American and European American Mothers’ Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination. PMID:22639552

  14. Socioeconomic inequality in clusters of health-related behaviours in Europe: latent class analysis of a cross-sectional European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Shiho; Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael

    2017-05-23

    Modifiable health-related behaviours tend to cluster among most vulnerable sectors of the population, particularly those at the bottom of the social hierarchy. This study aimed to identify the clusters of health-related behaviours in 27 European countries and to examine the socioeconomic inequalities in these clusters. Data were from Eurobarometer 72.3-2009, a cross-sectional survey of 27 European countries. The analyses were conducted in 2016. The main sections of the survey included questions pertaining to sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours, and use of services. In this study, those aged 18 years and older were included. We selected five health-related behaviours, namely smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, frequent fresh fruit consumption, physical activity and dental check-ups. Socioeconomic position was indicated by education, subjective social status and difficulty in paying bills. Latent class analysis was conducted to explore the clusters of these five behaviours. Multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine the relationships between the clusters and socioeconomic positions adjusting for age, gender, marital status and urbanisation. The eligible total population was 23,842. Latent class analysis identified three clusters; healthy, moderate and risky clusters in this European population. Individuals with the lowest socioeconomic position were more likely to have risky and moderate clusters than healthy cluster compared to those with the highest socioeconomic position. There were clear socioeconomic gradients in clusters of health-related behaviours. The findings highlight the importance of adopting interventions that address multiple health risk behaviours and policies that tackle the social determinants of health-related behaviours.

  15. Risk and resilience: health inequalities, working conditions and sickness benefit arrangements: an analysis of the 2010 European Working Conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Bambra, Clare; Dragano, Nico; Eikemo, Terje A; Lunau, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    In this article we ask whether the level of sickness benefit provision protects the health of employees, particularly those who are most exposed to hazardous working conditions or who have a little education. The study uses the European Working Condition Survey that includes information on 20,626 individuals from 28 countries. Health was measured by self-reported mental wellbeing and self-rated general health. Country-level sickness benefit provision was constructed using spending data from Eurostat. Group-specific associations were fitted using cross-level interaction terms between sickness benefit provision and physical and psychosocial working conditions respectively, as well as those with little education. The mental wellbeing of employees exposed to psychosocial job strain and physical hazards, or who had little education, was better in countries that offer more generous sickness benefit. These results were found in both men and women and were robust to the inclusion of GDP and country fixed effects. In the analyses of self-reported general health, few group-specific associations were found. This article concludes that generous sickness benefit provision may strengthen employee's resilience against mental health risks at work and risks associated with little education. Consequently, in countries with a generous provision of sickness benefit, social inequalities in mental health are smaller. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  16. [Management of the opioid withdrawal in the neonates: French and European survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micard, S; Brion, F

    2003-03-01

    Maternal opioid abuse during pregnancy results in 60 to 95% of neonatal withdrawal. The literature review on the evaluation of the severity of the related symptoms and treatments used shows an absence of consensus. To survey the management of the neonatal withdrawal a questionnaire was sent to French and other European pharmacists. Fifty-eight questionnaires were returned, 37 from France. In 74%, a written protocol about the management of the neonatal withdrawal was available. The severity of the symptoms was assessed using the Finnegan's scale in 55% of the cases and the treatment was a substitute opiate in 72.5%. In 64% of the cases, this drug was an oral morphine solution: a hydrochloride solution in France and a sulfate solution in other E.U countries at the most common dose of 0.5 to 1mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 0.24 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) respectively. The solution used in France is contra-indicated in infants less than six months and the presentation is not adapted to this use. This morphine survey points out that a preparation intended for infants should be developed and licensed in this indication to improve the use of treatment.

  17. Towards rigour in qualitative health and social research across European partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Jenny

    2004-12-01

    Undertaking projects with European partners is an enterprising and rewarding activity, where societies can start to learn how to transfer knowledge and take advantage of best practices to further the benefits to health and social care service users. However, this can also be a challenging experience, more so when there is scanty guidance about the best way to conduct European partnership research. Using an on-going study of integrated care for older persons as an example (the PROCARE project), this paper provides an account of the methodological strengths and challenges of the qualitative approach used. It suggests that factors assisting a rigorous approach include sound and inclusive coordination, a strong research design, the construction of universally acceptable selection criteria, detailed interview schedules, and a transversal approach to data analysis.

  18. Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior: social network analyses in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A B; Steglich, Christian; de Vries, Hein

    2009-11-01

    The co-evolution of adolescents' friendship networks and their smoking behavior is examined in a large sample across six European countries. Selection and influence processes are disentangled using new methods of social network analysis that enable alternative selection mechanisms to be controlled for. The sample consisted of 7704 adolescents participating in the control group of the ESFA (European Smoking prevention Framework Approach) study. The design was longitudinal with four observations. The main measurements were friendship ties, adolescents smoking behavior, parental smoking behavior, and sibling smoking behavior. Results indicated that in each country adolescents preferred selecting friends based on similar smoking behavior. Support for the influence of friends was found in only two countries. A similarity in smoking behavior between friends was explained more strongly by smoking-based selection processes than by the influence of friends in each of the six countries. Prevention programs need to address aspects that drive peer selection, and reinforce non-smoking attitudes in adolescents.

  19. New production concepts in the clothing industry : new ways of work for unpredictable markets : results from a European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Peeters, M.H.H.

    1994-01-01

    This brochure summarises the results of a survey carried out among 86 clothing companies representing eight different West European countries. The research examined the effect of new ways of work in clothing companies on personnel policy, on the organisation of work and on the effectiveness of the

  20. Parents, siblings and grandparents in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. A survey of policies in eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Mirante, Nadia; Haumont, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe policies towards family visiting in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) and compare findings with those of a survey carried out 10 years earlier. METHODS: A questionnaire on early developmental care practices was mailed to 362 units in eight European countries (Sweden...

  1. Managing alcohol problems in general practice in Europe: results from the European ODHIN survey of general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, P.; Wojnar, M.; Jakubczyk, A.; Gual, A.; Segura, L.; Sovinova, H.; Csemy, L.; Kaner, E.; Newbury-Birch, D.; Fornasin, A.; Struzzo, P.; Ronda, G.; Steenkiste, B. van; Keurhorst, M.; Laurant, M.G.; Ribeiro, C.; Rosario, F. do; Alves, I.; Scafato, E.; Gandin, C.; Kolsek, M.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To document the attitudes of general practitioners (GPs) from eight European countries to alcohol and alcohol problems and how these attitudes are associated with self-reported activity in managing patients with alcohol and alcohol problems. METHODS: A total of 2345 GPs were surveyed. The

  2. A European community pharmacy-based survey to investigate patterns of prescription fraud through identification of falsified prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gony, Mireille; Carvajal, Alfonso; Macias, Diego; Conforti, Anita; D'incau, Paola; Heerdink, Rob; Van Der Stichele, Robert; Bergman, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify prescription drugs involved in falsified prescriptions in community pharmacies in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 2,105 community pharmacies in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden was carried out to collect all suspect prescription

  3. Report on a Survey of Sign Language Interpreter Training and Provision within the Member Nations of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, Bencie

    1988-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of sign language interpreter training and provision in European Community countries. The questionnaire addressed such areas as: language forms used by deaf people and interpreters; training funding and priorities; interpreter evaluation, registration, availability, and salaries; and societal acceptance of sign language…

  4. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  5. Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano

    2014-05-01

    Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. 18 European countries. For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Raamsdonk LWD.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual status of enforcement and of the present occurrence of these botanical substances, a survey was carried out. A questionnaire was sent to 103 laboratories, including official control labs from all member states of the European Union. The results, indicating the frequency of occurrence as far as reported, are compared to the publications of the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF. A total of 44 questionnaires was returned (42.7% from 22 member states. Ten member states predominantly from north-western Europe appeared to have an active monitoring of botanical undesirable substances. The questionnaire results did not indicate that the other member states enforce this part of Directive 2002/32/EC. Reports on the frequency of occurrence include: a few to 25-50% of the samples contain traces of ergot (8 member states, a few to 24% contain at least some traces of thorn apple (6 member states, zero to 17% contain some castor oil plant seeds (3 member states, zero to a few samples contain Crotalaria seeds (3 member states, and zero to 6% contain traces of Sareptian mustard (4 member states. One member state conducted extra surveillance since several cases of animal intoxications have been reported. In some cases a coincidence with undesirable botanical substances was found.

  7. How doctors view and use social media: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Ryan, Christopher; Harris, Anthony

    2014-12-02

    Doctors are uncertain of their ethical and legal obligations when communicating with patients online. Professional guidelines for patient-doctor interaction online have been written with limited quantitative data about doctors' current usage and attitudes toward the medium. Further research into these trends will help to inform more focused policy and guidelines for doctors communicating with patients online. The intent of the study was to provide the first national profile of Australian doctors' attitudes toward and use of online social media. The study involved a quantitative, cross-sectional online survey of Australian doctors using a random sample from a large representative database. Of the 1500 doctors approached, 187 participated (12.47%). Most participants used social media privately, with only one-quarter not using any social media websites at all (48/187, 25.7%). One in five participants (30/155, 19.4%) had received a "friend request" from a patient. There was limited use of online communication in clinical practice: only 30.5% (57/187) had communicated with a patient through email and fewer than half (89/185, 48.1%) could offer their patients electronic forms of information if that were the patients' preference. Three in five participants (110/181, 60.8%) reported not being uncomfortable about interacting with patients who had accessed personal information about them online, prior to the consultation. Most of the participants (119/181, 65.8%) were hesitant to immerse themselves more fully in social media and online communication due to worries about public access and legal concerns. Doctors have different practices and views regarding whether or how to communicate appropriately with patients on the Internet, despite online and social media becoming an increasingly common feature of clinical practice. Additional training would assist doctors in protecting their personal information online, integrating online communication in patient care, and guidance on

  8. Estimation of Social Exclusion Indicators from Complex Surveys: The R Package laeken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Alfons

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Units sampled from finite populations typically come with different inclusion proba- bilities. Together with additional preprocessing steps of the raw data, this yields unequal sampling weights of the observations. Whenever indicators are estimated from such com- plex samples, the corresponding sampling weights have to be taken into account. In addition, many indicators suffer from a strong influence of outliers, which are a common problem in real-world data. The R package laeken is an object-oriented toolkit for the estimation of indicators from complex survey samples via standard or robust methods. In particular the most widely used social exclusion and poverty indicators are imple- mented in the package. A general calibrated bootstrap method to estimate the variance of indicators for common survey designs is included as well. Furthermore, the package contains synthetically generated close-to-reality data for the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and the Structure of Earnings Survey, which are used in the code examples throughout the paper. Even though the paper is focused on showing the functionality of package laeken, it also provides a brief mathematical description of the implemented indicator methodology.

  9. Social Policies and Families in Stress: Gender and Educational Differences in Work-Family Conflict from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Natascha; Grunow, Daniela; Verbakel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family conflict and used a comparative approach to test whether family policies, in particular support for child care and leave from paid work, are capable of reducing work-family conflict as well as the gender and educational gaps in work-family conflict. We use data from the European Social Survey 2010 for 20 countries and 5296 respondents (parents), extended with information on national policies for maternity and parental leave and child care support from the OECD Family Database. Employing multilevel analysis, we find that mothers and the higher educated report most work-family conflict. Policies supporting child care reduce the level of experienced work-family conflict; family leave policy appears to have no alleviating impact on working parents' work-family conflict. Our findings indicate that family policies appear to be unable to reduce the gender gap in conflict perception and even widen the educational gap in work-family conflict.

  10. Usage of plant food supplements across six European countries: findings from the PlantLIBRA consumer survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS. However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level.To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries.Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire.A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom.Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported.Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as "good or very good". Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo, Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries.The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European level.

  11. Usage of Plant Food Supplements across Six European Countries: Findings from the PlantLIBRA Consumer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Egan, Bernadette; de Klein, Simone; Dima, Lorena; Maggi, Franco M.; Isoniemi, Merja; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Raats, Monique M.; Meissner, Eva Melanie; Badea, Mihaela; Bruno, Flavia; Salmenhaara, Maija; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Knaze, Viktoria; Hodgkins, Charo; Marculescu, Angela; Uusitalo, Liisa; Restani, Patrizia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS)). However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level. Objective To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. Design Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire. Subjects/setting A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. Data analyses Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as “good or very good”. Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries. Conclusions The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European

  12. Educational inequalities in health in European welfare states: a social expenditure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Espen; van der Wel, Kjetil A

    2013-03-01

    A puzzle in comparative health inequality research is the finding that egalitarian welfare states do not necessarily demonstrate narrow health inequalities. This paper interrogates into this puzzle by moving beyond welfare regimes to examine how welfare spending affect inequalities in self-rated across Europe. We operationalise welfare spending in four different ways and compare both absolute and relative health inequalities, as well as the level of poor self-rated health in the low education group across varying levels of social spending. The paper employs data from the EU Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and includes a sample of approximately 245,000 individuals aged 25-80+ years from 18 European countries. The data were examined by means of gender stratified multilevel logistic regression analyses. The results show that social expenditures are associated with lower health inequalities among women and, to a lesser degree, among men. Especially those with primary education benefit from high social transfers as compared with those who have tertiary education. This means that lower educational inequalities in health - in absolute and relative terms- are linked to higher social spending. The four different operationalisations of social spending produce similar patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elections to the European Parliament through the prism of social media as an electoral resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the social media as a relatively new tool for electoral and political activities for creating a positive image of political parties and candidates (on the example of the European Parliament. The social media are becoming increasingly important in the nowadays world politics due to the growing number of the Internet users, the fall in the popularity of traditional media, and the fast spread of new media as well as the transformation of the Internet into the area for active political actions. The key role in the formation of the political image belongs to political institutions (parties, government agencies, certain politicians and public figures, as well as to representatives of the electorate, i.e. population. The analysis of the efforts of various political actors in the social media allows to identify their three basic functions: a tool to increase voter turnout; a tool to increase the popularity of candidates and parties; a tool to increase public awareness of the political and electoral processes in general. Currently the most serious obstacle for strategic studies of social networks is the tremendous pace of their technological development that complicates long-term predictions in the field. However, despite the lack of universally accepted criteria for assessing the efficiency of political activities in the social media, the author believes that the key success factor is the so-called “permanent presence” of electoral subjects in the Internet.

  14. The Influence of Recognition and Social Support on European Health Professionals' Occupational Stress: A Demands-Control-Social Support-Recognition Bayesian Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Susana; Lopez-Garcia, Jose R; Herrera, Sixto; Fontaneda, Ignacio; Báscones, Sonia Muñoz; Mariscal, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.

  15. European feelings of deprivation amidst the financial crisis : Effects of welfare state effort and informal social relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    As European governments have embraced the credo of austerity, the perennial discussion whether welfare states erode the quality of social networks has taken on a more prominent position on political and social science research agendas. While non-believers of this so-called ‘crowding out’ thesis

  16. An Assessment of the Quality of Life in the European Union Based on the Social Indicators Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Marco; Canova, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    This article carries out a multidimensional analysis of welfare based on the social indicators approach aimed at assessing the quality of life in the 25 member countries of the European Union. It begins with description of the social indicators approach and provides some specifications on its most controversial points. It then specifies the…

  17. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Stickel, Anna; Schneider, Michael; Müller, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Internet addiction (IA) reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS) and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterize adult users of an Internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants were listed gamers of "Combat Zone" in the SNS "Facebook." In this sample, 16.2% of the participants were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5% fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of Internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies.

  18. The phenomenon of social exclusion in European Union Countries in relation to Europe 2020 Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Warzecha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available „Europe 2020- A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth” is a long term programme of socio- economic development of European Union for 2010 – 2020. The present study is to examine the process of implementation of Europe 2020 Strategy indicators as regards social exclusion and poverty combating in Poland and other EU countries, as well as setting trends in this area and forecasting the objectives implementation period for the EU as a whole and for Poland individually. Another objective of the research is categorizing the EU countries as regards the similar level of measures describing the social exclusion phenomenon by means of TOPSIS and Ward’s methods. The research period is 2005-2015.

  19. Changing social organizations of care: a comparison of European policy reforms encouraging paid domestic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Elin

    2012-06-01

    In many European countries different types of policy reforms intending to encourage growth in the domestic service sector have been introduced. The methods and reforms differ but mainly the reforms intend to stimulate growth of a 'new' legal labour market sector within private households. This potential growth sector in combination with insufficient or declining welfare states, inclining female labour market participation and ageing populations could be viewed as explanatory factors to the increased demand for domestic services. A growing amount of those performing paid domestic work in European homes are migrant women with or without papers. The aim of this article is to create a model that enables comparisons of these reforms, with a special focus on changing social organizations of care for elders, children and other dependent persons. Included in the analysis are European countries that have introduced wide domestic service policy reforms as measurement to encourage growth in the domestic service sector, i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany and Sweden.

  20. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  1. Predictors of social leisure activities in older Europeans with and without multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenkamp, Henrike; Gagliardi, Cristina; Principi, Andrea; Golinowska, Stanislawa; Moreira, Amilcar; Schmidt, Andrea E; Winkelmann, Juliane; Sowa, Agnieszka; van der Pas, Suzan; Deeg, Dorly J H

    Older people spend much time participating in leisure activities, such as taking part in organized activities and going out, but the extent of participation may differ according to both individual and environmental resources available. Chronic health problems become more prevalent at higher ages and likely necessitate tapping different resources to maintain social participation. This paper compares predictors of participation in social leisure activities between older people with and those without multimorbidity. The European Project on Osteoarthritis (EPOSA) was conducted in Germany, UK, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden (N = 2942, mean age 74.2 (5.2)). Multivariate regression was used to predict social leisure participation and degree of participation in people with and without multimorbidity. Fewer older people with multimorbidity participated in social leisure activities (90.6 %), compared to those without multimorbidity (93.9 %). The frequency of participation was also lower compared to people without multimorbidity. Higher socioeconomic status, widowhood, a larger network of friends, volunteering, transportation possibilities and having fewer depressive symptoms were important for (the degree of) social leisure participation. Statistically significant differences between the multimorbidity groups were observed for volunteering and driving a car, which were more important predictors of participation in those with multimorbidity. In contrast, self-reported income appeared more important for those without multimorbidity, compared to those who had multimorbidity. Policies focusing on social (network of friends), physical (physical performance) and psychological factors (depressive symptoms) and on transportation possibilities are recommended to enable all older people to participate in social leisure activities.

  2. Associations between social vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems in European children. Results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Michels, Nathalie; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Bammann, Karin; De Henauw, Stefaan; Felső, Regina; Gwozdz, Wencke; Hunsberger, Monica; Reisch, Lucia; Russo, Paola; Tornaritis, Michael; Thumann, Barbara Franziska; Veidebaum, Toomas; Börnhorst, Claudia; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-09-01

    The effect of socioeconomic inequalities on children's mental health remains unclear. This study aims to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems, and the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems. 5987 children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were assessed at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Two different instruments were employed to assess children's psychosocial problems: the KINDL (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents) was used to evaluate children's well-being and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to evaluate children's internalising problems. Vulnerable groups were defined as follows: children whose parents had minimal social networks, children from non-traditional families, children of migrant origin or children with unemployed parents. Logistic mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between social vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems. After adjusting for classical socioeconomic and lifestyle indicators, children whose parents had minimal social networks were at greater risk of presenting internalising problems at baseline and follow-up (OR 1.53, 99% CI 1.11-2.11). The highest risk for psychosocial problems was found in children whose status changed from traditional families at T0 to non-traditional families at T1 (OR 1.60, 99% CI 1.07-2.39) and whose parents had minimal social networks at both time points (OR 1.97, 99% CI 1.26-3.08). Children with one or more vulnerabilities accumulated were at a higher risk of developing psychosocial problems at baseline and follow-up. Therefore, policy makers should implement measures to strengthen the social support for parents with a minimal social network.

  3. [Physical activity in adult working population: results from the European National Health Survey for Spain (2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pérez, Carmen; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2015-11-01

    1) To describe physical activity in the Spanish adult working population aged 16-70 years in 2009, and 2) to describe the prevalence of physical activity according to socio-demographic features, self-perceived health status, co-morbidity, and lifestyle habits. An epidemiological population based descriptive study was conducted using individual data taken from the European Health Survey for Spain. Community. The number of subjects aged 16-70 years included in the study was 10,928 (5,628 women and 5,300 men). None. Physical activity and intensity were assessed from questions included in the interview-survey. An analysis was performed on the socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated physical and mental health, using multivariate logistic regression models. Not having a partner (OR 1.44; P<.001), have university studies (OR 1.62; P<.001), non-smoker (OR 1.50; P<.001), and taking medications (OR 1.22; P<.5) were a predictor of intense physical activity in men. The first 3 factors are equal for intense activity in women. In contrast, obesity (OR 0.58; P<.001), and 36-50 years (OR 0.68; P<.001) were factors related to low activity in men. Aged between 36-50 years (OR 1.26; P<.01), suffering≥2 co-morbid conditions (OR 1.30; P<.001), and non-smoker (OR 1.17; P<.5) were also associated with higher probability of reporting moderate physical activity in women. The positive mental health was significant for physical activity in both sexes (OR 1.01; P<.5). This study identified several factors that appear to influence physical activity in the Spanish adult working population, with potential implications for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of a picture book to be used in a pan-European dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Sofia; Lopes, Carla; Guiomar, Sofia; Severo, Milton; Rangelova, Lalka; Petrova, Stefka; Horváth, Zuszsanna; Cseh, Júlia; Schweter, Antje; Lindtner, Oliver; Ambrus, Árpád; Torres, Duarte

    2018-02-01

    To validate a picture book for estimation of food portion sizes using two approaches: (i) 'perception' of food portions by comparison with a series of food photos; and (ii) 'conceptualization and memory', using the same photos to estimate the amount of served food one hour after self-served food portions. Each partner developed a country-specific picture book based on the so-called EPIC-Soft picture book. Representative and common photo series were chosen achieving approximately 25 % of the original picture book (n 23). Three portions from each photo series were randomly selected. The study was performed within the Pilot study in the view of a Pan-European dietary survey - Adolescents, adults and elderly (PILOT-PANEU) project. A sample of adolescents and adults was recruited in five countries: Bulgaria (n 103), Finland (n 34), Germany (n 69), Hungary (n 62) and Portugal (n 77). Among the portions of the corresponding photo series and depending on the type of food, from 18 % (cheese) to 96 % (ratatouille) of participants chose the correct portions. In the perception study, agreement between the portions shown and reported was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0·805) and the mean difference was very low. In the memory study, agreement between the served and reported portions was lower than in the perception study (ICC=0·536). Agreement also seemed to decrease as the appearance of food on the plate differed from food in the picture. Overall, the picture series selected can be applied in future intake surveys to quantify foods similar to those depicted in the pictures.

  5. A survey of interventional radiology awareness among final-year medical students in a European country.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2009-07-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) is a rapidly expanding specialty that is facing the challenges of turf wars and personnel shortages. Appropriate exposure of medical students to this field can be vital to recruitment of potential future trainees or referring physicians. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and views of final-year medical students in a single EU country regarding various aspects of IR. An electronic survey was sent via e-mail to all final-year medical students in a European country. The students were given a month to respond to the questionnaire. A total of 234 students of 675 (34.5%) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 35% had previously completed an attachment to the radiology department. The majority of students (63%) thought their knowledge in radiology in general was poor. The percentage of students who correctly identified procedures performed by interventional radiologists was 69% for Hickman line insertion, 79% for fibroid embolization, and 67.5% for lower limb angioplasty. Sixty percent, 30%, and 47% thought that interventional radiologists perform cardiac angioplasties, perform arterial bypasses, and create AV fistulas, respectively. Forty-nine percent felt that interventional radiologists are surgically trained. Eighty-three percent of students were first made aware of angioplasty by a cardiologist. Thirty-one percent thought that interventional radiologists do ward rounds, 24% thought that interventional radiologists have admitting rights, and 26% felt that interventional radiologists run an outpatient practice. A significant number of students (76%) thought that the job prospects in IR are good or excellent but only 40.5% were willing to consider a career in IR. In conclusion, this study indicates that IR remains a nascent but attractive specialty to the majority of medical students. Further development of the existing informal undergraduate curriculum to address shortcomings will ensure that IR continues to attract

  6. Social Exclusion and Its Causes in East Asian Societies: Evidences from SQSQ Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ka; Xu, Yun; Huang, Tianhai; Zhang, Jiahua

    2013-01-01

    Using data from surveys on "social quality survey questionnaires", carried out by the Asian Consortium for Social Quality between 2009 and 2011, this study investigates the causes of social exclusion in six Asian societies. About 6,460 questionnaires were completed and the analysis of the data reveals the features and the causes of…

  7. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  8. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven

  9. Periodic fever syndromes in Eastern and Central European countries: results of a pediatric multinational survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mariana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze the prevalence of diagnosed and suspected autoinflammatory diseases in Eastern and Central European (ECE countries, with a particular interest on the diagnostic facilities in these countries. Methods Two different strategies were used to collect data on patients with periodic fever syndromes from ECE countries- the Eurofever survey and collection of data with the structured questionnaire. Results Data from 35 centers in 14 ECE countries were collected. All together there were 11 patients reported with genetically confirmed familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, 14 with mevalonate-kinase deficiency (MKD, 11 with tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS and 4 with chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA. Significantly higher numbers were reported for suspected cases which were not genetically tested. All together there were 49 suspected FMF patients reported, 24 MKD, 16 TRAPS, 7 CINCA and 2 suspected Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS patients. Conclusions The number of genetically confirmed patients with periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries is very low. In order to identify more patients in the future, it is important to organize educational programs for increasing the knowledge on these diseases and to establish a network for genetic testing of periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries.

  10. National Food Safety Systems in the European Union: A Comparative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hadjigeorgiou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative survey of the National Food Safety Systems (NFSS of the European Union (EU Member-States (MS and the Central EU level. The main organizational structures of the NFSS, their legal frameworks, their responsibilities, their experiences, and challenges relating to food safety are discussed. Growing concerns about food safety have led the EU itself, its MS and non-EU countries, which are EU trade-partners, to review and modify their food safety systems. Our study suggests that the EU and 22 out of 27 Member States (MS have reorganized their NFSS by establishing a single food safety authority or a similar organization on the national or central level. In addition, the study analyzes different approaches towards the establishment of such agencies. Areas where marked differences in approaches were seen included the division of responsibilities for risk assessment (RA, risk management (RM, and risk communication (RC. We found that in 12 Member States, all three areas of activity (RA, RM, and RC are kept together, whereas in 10 Member States, risk management is functionally or institutionally separate from risk assessment and risk communication. No single ideal model for others to follow for the organization of a food safety authority was observed; however, revised NFSS, either in EU member states or at the EU central level, may be more effective from the previous arrangements, because they provide central supervision, give priority to food control programs, and maintain comprehensive risk analysis as part of their activities.

  11. Vocabulary Development in European Portuguese: A Replication Study Using the Language Development Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Nyame, Josephine; Dias, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    Our objective was to replicate previous cross-linguistic findings by comparing Portuguese and U.S. children with respect to (a) effects of language, gender, and age on vocabulary size; (b) lexical composition; and (c) late talking. We used the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) with children (18-35 months) learning European Portuguese (n = 181) and English (n = 206). In both languages, girls had higher vocabulary scores than boys and vocabulary scores increased with age. Portuguese LDS scores were significantly lower than English scores, but the effect size was small. Cross-linguistic concordance of percentage use scores yielded a Q correlation of .50, with 64 of the "top 100" words being exact matches. Cross-linguistic concordance was highest for the youngest age group. In both languages, vocabulary composition in late talkers (children ≥ 24 months with < 50 words) was highly correlated with composition in vocabulary size-matched younger children. Results replicated previous Greek, Korean, and Italian LDS studies. The early lexicons of typical talkers and late talkers contained many of the same words, indicating considerable universality and suggesting good targets for clinical intervention.

  12. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An assessment of the quality of life in the European Union based on the social indicators approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Marco; Canova, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    This article carries out a multidimensional analysis of welfare based on the social indicators approach aimed at assessing the quality of life in the 25 member countries of the European Union. It begins with description of the social indicators approach and provides some specifications on its most controversial points. It then specifies the principles on which the social indicators were selected, describes the indicators chosen, and details the methodology employed in the empirical analysis. ...

  14. Towards a Western EuropeanSocial Movement Society”? An Assessment: 1981–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Quaranta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some social movements scholars argue that contemporary democracies are becoming “social movements societies”: citizens are often mobilized to make claims; protest actions are progressively becoming part of institutional politics; and protest has diffused to new constituents. In other words, participants in protest activities are more difficult to be identified. This article aims to provide an updated assessment of the “social movement society” thesis in Western Europe, with a focus on the expansion, institutionalization, and, in particular, to the diffusion of political protest to new groups. Using the European Values Study, which spans from 1981 to 2009, it is found that in Western Europe forms of protest are more popular than in the past, that a partial institutionalization has occurred, and that traditionally disengaged individuals protest more compared to the past. However, the process of “normalization” of the political protester has yet to be completed, given that differences in the levels of engagement still exist among social groups.

  15. School Absenteeism: An Online Survey via Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Verena; Schneider, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    School absenteeism is a significant social and public health problem. However, existing prevalence rates are often not representative due to biased assessment processes at schools. The present study assessed school absenteeism in Germany using a nationwide online self-report survey. Although our definition of school absenteeism was more conservative than in previous studies, nearly 9 % of the 1359 high school students reported school absenteeism within the past 7 days. Absent students lived less often with both parents, were on average of lower socioeconomic status, and reported more emotional problems, behavioral problems and less prosocial behavior than attending students. Being an indicator of a wide variety of problems in children and adolescents, school absenteeism deserves much more attention. Future directions for research and implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed.

  16. A Survey of Link Prediction in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Al; Zaki, Mohammed J.

    Link prediction is an important task for analying social networks which also has applications in other domains like, information retrieval, bioinformatics and e-commerce. There exist a variety of techniques for link prediction, ranging from feature-based classification and kernel-based method to matrix factorization and probabilistic graphical models. These methods differ from each other with respect to model complexity, prediction performance, scalability, and generalization ability. In this article, we survey some representative link prediction methods by categorizing them by the type of the models. We largely consider three types of models: first, the traditional (non-Bayesian) models which extract a set of features to train a binary classification model. Second, the probabilistic approaches which model the joint-probability among the entities in a network by Bayesian graphical models. And, finally the linear algebraic approach which computes the similarity between the nodes in a network by rank-reduced similarity matrices. We discuss various existing link prediction models that fall in these broad categories and analyze their strength and weakness. We conclude the survey with a discussion on recent developments and future research direction.

  17. A pan-European survey of research in end-of-life cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Katrin Ruth; Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg; Bausewein, Claudia; Higginson, Irene J; Harding, Richard; Rosland, Jan Henrik; Kaasa, Stein

    2012-01-01

    To date, there is no coordinated strategy for end-of-life (EOL) cancer care research in Europe. The PRISMA (Reflecting the Positive Diversities of European Priorities for Research and Measurement in End-of-life Care) project is aiming to develop a programme integrating research and measurement in EOL care. This survey aimed to map and describe present EOL cancer care research in Europe and to identify priorities and barriers. A questionnaire of 62 questions was developed and 201 researchers in 41 European countries were invited to complete it online in May 2009. An open invitation to participate was posted on the internet. Invited contacts in 36 countries sent 127 replies; eight additional responses came through websites. A total of 127 responses were eligible for analysis. Respondents were 69 male and 58 female, mean age 49 (28-74) years; 85% of the scientific team leaders were physicians. Seventy-one of 127 research groups were located in a teaching hospital or cancer centre. Forty-five percent of the groups had only one to five members and 28% six to ten members. Sixty-three of 92 groups reported specific funding for EOL care research. Seventy-five percent of the groups had published papers in journals with impact factor ≤ 5 in the last 3 years; 8% had published in journals with impact factor >10. Forty-four out of 90 groups reported at least one completed Ph.D. in the last 3 years. The most frequently reported active research areas were pain, assessment and measurement tools, and last days of life and quality of death. Very similar areas--last days of life and quality of death, pain, fatigue and cachexia, and assessment and measurement tools--were ranked as the most important research priorities. The most important research barriers were lack of funding, lack of time, and insufficient knowledge/expertise. Most research groups in EOL care are small. The few large groups (14%) had almost half of the reported publications, and more than half of the current Ph

  18. A European survey on current practices in epilepsy monitoring units and implications for patients' safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubboli, Guido; Beniczky, Sandor; Claus, Steven; Canevini, Maria Paola; Kahane, Philippe; Stefan, Hermann; van Emde Boas, Walter; Velis, Demetrios; Reus, Elise; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Trinka, Eugen; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to survey current practices in European epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) with emphasis on safety issues. A 37-item questionnaire investigating characteristics and organization of EMUs, including measures for prevention and management of seizure-related serious adverse events (SAEs), was distributed to all identified European EMUs plus one located in Israel (N=150). Forty-eight (32%) EMUs, located in 18 countries, completed the questionnaire. Epilepsy monitoring unit beds are 1-2 in 43%, 3-4 in 34%, and 5-6 in 19% of EMUs; staff physicians are 1-2 in 32%, 3-4 in 34%, and 5-6 in 19% of EMUs. Personnel operating in EMUs include epileptologists (in 69% of EMUs), clinical neurophysiologists trained in epilepsy (in 46% of EMUs), child neurologists (in 35% of EMUs), neurology and clinical neurophysiology residents (in 46% and in 8% of EMUs, respectively), and neurologists not trained in epilepsy (in 27% of EMUs). In 20% of EMUs, patients' observation is only intermittent or during the daytime and primarily carried out by neurophysiology technicians and/or nurses (in 71% of EMUs) or by patients' relatives (in 40% of EMUs). Automatic detection systems for seizures are used in 15%, for body movements in 8%, for oxygen desaturation in 33%, and for ECG abnormalities in 17% of EMUs. Protocols for management of acute seizures are lacking in 27%, of status epilepticus in 21%, and of postictal psychoses in 87% of EMUs. Injury prevention consists of bed protections in 96% of EMUs, whereas antisuffocation pillows are employed in 21%, and environmental protections in monitoring rooms and in bathrooms are implemented in 38% and in 25% of EMUs, respectively. The most common SAEs were status epilepticus reported by 79%, injuries by 73%, and postictal psychoses by 67% of EMUs. All EMUs have faced different types of SAEs. Wide variation in practice patterns and lack of protocols and of precautions to ensure patients' safety might promote the occurrence and severity of

  19. Young People's and Children's Social Associations as Agents of Secondary Socialization: The Experience of a Regional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliaikhin, V. N.; Galkin, A. P.; Vasil'eva, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    A survey of opinions on the activity of young people's and children's social associations as agents of secondary socialization in Russia shows that socialization processes need to be more oriented toward coordinating personal and societal goals and interests. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. Assessment of social network change in a national longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Benjamin; Schumm, L Philip; Laumann, Edward O; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-11-01

    This article describes new longitudinal data on older adults' egocentric social networks collected by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). We describe a novel survey technique that was used to record specific personnel changes that occurred within respondents' networks during the 5-year study period, and we make recommendations regarding usage of the resulting data. Descriptive statistics are presented for measures of network size, composition, and structure at both waves, respondent-level summary measures of change in these characteristics between waves, as well as measures that distinguish between changes associated with losses of Wave 1 network members, additions of new ones, and changes in relationships with network members who were present at both waves. The NSHAP network change module was successful in providing reliable information about specific changes that occurred within respondents' confidant networks. Most respondents lost at least one confidant from W1 and added at least one new confidant between waves as well. Network growth was more common than network shrinkage. Both lost and new ties were weaker than ties that persisted throughout the study period. These data provide new insight into the dynamic nature of networks in later life, revealing norms of network turnover, expansion, and weakening. Data limitations are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Janikian, M; Dreier, M; Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Tzavara, C; Richardson, C; Tsitsika, A

    2015-05-01

    Excessive use of online computer games which leads to functional impairment and distress has recently been included as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the DSM-5. Although nosological classification of this phenomenon is still a matter of debate, it is argued that IGD might be described best as a non-substance-related addiction. Epidemiological surveys reveal that it affects up to 3% of adolescents and seems to be related to heightened psychosocial symptoms. However, there has been no study of prevalence of IGD on a multi-national level relying on a representative sample including standardized psychometric measures. The research project EU NET ADB was conducted to assess prevalence and psychopathological correlates of IGD in seven European countries based on a representative sample of 12,938 adolescents between 14 and 17 years. 1.6% of the adolescents meet full criteria for IGD, with further 5.1% being at risk for IGD by fulfilling up to four criteria. The prevalence rates are slightly varying across the participating countries. IGD is closely associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially concerning aggressive and rule-breaking behavior and social problems. This survey demonstrated that IGD is a frequently occurring phenomenon among European adolescents and is related to psychosocial problems. The need for youth-specific prevention and treatment programs becomes evident.

  2. Same-Sex Friendship, School Gender Composition, and Substance Use: A Social Network Study of 50 European Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grard, Adeline; Kunst, Anton; Kuipers, Mirte; Richter, Matthias; Rimpela, Arja; Federico, Bruno; Lorant, Vincent

    2017-11-30

    Other-sex friendship (girls with boy friends, boys with girl friends) has been associated with substance use, but how the gender composition of schools influences substance use has not been known. We analyzed the influence of other-sex friendship on substance use and took into account the proportion of each gender group at the schools, and hypothesized that other-sex friendship is associated with higher levels of substance use and that schools with a majority of males have higher levels of use than female-majority schools. In 2013, a social network survey was carried out in six European cities. In each city, schools were selected and 11,015 adolescents (aged 14-16) were recruited (participation rate = 79.4%). We collected data on smoking, binge drinking, cannabis use, and peer group composition. Other-sex friendship was associated with smoking, binge drinking, and cannabis use for girls and with smoking for boys. Substance use was more frequent in schools with a majority of males. Conclusions/Importance: Adolescent girls are best protected from substance use if they are in gender-balanced schools, but in same-sex friendship. This offers new perspectives on gender mixing at school. In schools with a majority of boys, more attention should be paid to girls, and gender-specific health promotion programs should be implemented. This European study is the first to take into account both individual (other-sex friendship) and contextual (gender composition of schools) gender interactions. It confirms previous studies on other-sex friendship, while shedding light on the influence of gender-normative contexts on substance use.

  3. European American and African American Mothers’ Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to their Children’s Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers’ responses to their children’s negative emotions and teachers’ reports of children’s academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European American and African American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European American, 63 African American) reported on their responses to their 5-year-old children’s negative emotions and 150 kindergarten teachers reported on these children’s current academic...

  4. Trends and correlates of the public’s perception of healthcare systems in the European Union: a multilevel analysis of Eurobarometer survey data from 2009 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaud, AlJohara M; Taddese, Henock B; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to assess trends in public perceptions of health systems in 27 European Union (EU) member states following the financial crisis (2009–2013), in order to discuss observed changes in the context of the financial crisis. Design Repeated cross-sectional studies. Setting 27 EU countries. Participants EU citizens aged 15 years and older. Methods The study mainly uses the Eurobarometer Social Climate Survey, conducted annually between 2009 and 2013, thereby analysing 116 706 observations. A multilevel logistic regression was carried out to analyse trends over time and the factors associated with citizens’ perceptions of their healthcare systems. Results Europeans generally exhibit positive perceptions of their national healthcare systems, 64.0% (95% CI 63.6% to 64.4%). However, we observed a significant drop in positive perceptions in the years following the crisis, especially within countries most affected by the crisis. Concerning fiscal characteristics, wealthier countries and those dedicating higher proportion of their national income to health were more likely to maintain positive perceptions. At the individual level, perceptions of healthcare systems were significantly associated with respondents’ self-perceptions of their social status, financial capacity and overall satisfaction in life. Conclusions Our finding confirms previous observations that citizens’ perceptions of their healthcare systems may reflect their overall prospects within the broader socioeconomic systems they live in; which have in turn been affected by the financial crisis and the policy measures instituted in response. PMID:29317413

  5. Comparison Of Travel Behaviour In 11 European Countries By Use Of Post- Harmonized European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    2014-01-01

    Travel behaviour comparison among countries has become interesting to understand structural differences in travel behaviour between countries which are important to help developing more sustainable transport policies. To that end, National Travel Surveys (NTS’s) are the most suitable tool. The aim......, of weekend leisure for Finland, and of weekend shopping for Great Britain. The modal share is especially differing from the rest for the Netherlands with a high share of bike trips, and for Switzerland with a high share of public transport. Further research is recommended to uncover influence of structural...

  6. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  7. The European Water Framework Directive: How Ecological Assumptions Frame Technical and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Steyaert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Water Framework Directive (WFD is built upon significant cognitive developments in the field of ecological science but also encourages active involvement of all interested parties in its implementation. The coexistence in the same policy text of both substantive and procedural approaches to policy development stimulated this research as did our concerns about the implications of substantive ecological visions within the WFD policy for promoting, or not, social learning processes through participatory designs. We have used a qualitative analysis of the WFD text which shows the ecological dimension of the WFD dedicates its quasi-exclusive attention to a particular current of thought in ecosystems science focusing on ecosystems status and stability and considering human activities as disturbance factors. This particular worldview is juxtaposed within the WFD with a more utilitarian one that gives rise to many policy exemptions without changing the general underlying ecological model. We discuss these policy statements in the light of the tension between substantive and procedural policy developments. We argue that the dominant substantive approach of the WFD, comprising particular ecological assumptions built upon "compositionalism," seems to be contradictory with its espoused intention of involving the public. We discuss that current of thought in regard to more functionalist thinking and adaptive management, which offers greater opportunities for social learning, i.e., place a set of interdependent stakeholders in an intersubjective position in which they operate a "social construction" of water problems through the co-production of knowledge.

  8. Housing characteristics, reported mold exposure, and asthma in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Jarvis, Deborah; Luczynska, Christina; Sunyer, Jordi; Burney, Peter

    2002-08-01

    The effects of home dampness and mold exposure on adult asthma are not clear. We aimed to investigate the associations between housing characteristics related to dampness, mold exposure, and house dust mite levels and adult asthma in 38 study centers from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Data about the present home, heating and ventilation systems, double glazing, floor covers, recent water damage, and mold exposure were obtained by means of an interviewer-led questionnaire. The associations between these factors and asthma, as defined on the basis of symptoms in the last year, and of bronchial responsiveness, as determined with methacholine challenge, were evaluated. Odds ratios (ORs) were obtained by using random-effects meta-analyses adjusted within study centers for sex, age group, and smoking status. Fitted carpets and rugs in the bedroom were related to fewer asthma symptoms and bronchial responsiveness (OR range, 0.69-0.91). This effect was consistent across centers and more pronounced among house dust mite-sensitized individuals. Reported mold exposure in the last year was associated with asthma symptoms and bronchial responsiveness (OR range, 1.14-1.44). This effect was homogeneous among centers and stronger in subjects sensitized to Cladosporium species. In centers with a higher prevalence of asthma, the prevalence of reported indoor mold exposure was also high. This association was observed for reported mold exposure by asthmatic subjects (Spearman r (s) = 0.46), as well as reported mold exposure by nonasthmatic subjects (r (s) = 0.54). Reported mold exposure was highest in older houses with recent water damage. We conclude that indoor mold growth has an adverse effect on adult asthma.

  9. Maternal smoking and offspring inattention and hyperactivity: results from a cross-national European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess, Viviane; Keyes, Katherine M; Hamilton, Ava; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, C; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Susser, Ezra

    2015-08-01

    In utero exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes; the association with later childhood mental health outcomes remains controversial. We used a strategy involving comparison of maternal and paternal smoking reports in a sample pooling data from six diverse European countries. Data were drawn from mother (N = 4,517) and teacher (N = 4,611) reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school children aged 6-11 in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Germany, and the Netherlands, surveyed in 2010. Mothers report on self and husband's smoking patterns during the pregnancy period. Logistic regression used with control covariates including demographics, maternal distress, live births, region, and post-pregnancy smoking. In unadjusted models, maternal prenatal smoking was associated with probable ADHD based on mother [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.45-2.29], teacher (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI 1.33-2.14) and mother plus teacher (OR = 1.49, 95 % CI 1.03-2.17) report. Paternal prenatal smoking was similarly associated with probable ADHD in unadjusted models. When controlled for relevant confounders, maternal prenatal smoking remained a risk factor for offspring probable ADHD based on mother report (OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.06-1.96), whereas the effect of paternal prenatal smoking diminished (e.g., mother report: OR = 1.17, 95 % CI 0.92-1.49). Drawing on data from a diverse set of countries across Europe, we document that the association between maternal smoking and offspring ADHD is stronger than that of paternal smoking during the pregnancy period and offspring ADHD. To the extent that confounding is shared between parents, these results reflect a potential intrauterine influence of smoking on ADHD in children.

  10. The Impact of Chronic Urticaria from the Patient's Perspective: A Survey in Five European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balp, Maria-Magdalena; Vietri, Jeffrey; Tian, Haijun; Isherwood, Gina

    2015-12-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is associated with considerable burden, but data from European patients are limited. This study is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Wellness Survey data from the five largest EU countries (5EU: France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) collected between 2010 and 2013. Burden of disease for patients with CSU was estimated by comparing individuals currently treated for chronic urticaria (proxy CSU cases) with controls selected from respondents without chronic urticaria. Matching and regression models were used to quantify the impact of chronic urticaria on health-related quality of life, self-reported psychological complaints, work and activity impairment, and healthcare use. The sample included 175,923 respondents. Prevalence of diagnosed chronic urticaria was 0.5 and 0.2% were treating the condition with a prescription. Cases (N = 369) had substantially lower (worse) regression-adjusted mean Mental Component Summary (40.2 vs. 45.4), Physical Component Summary (44.6 vs. 49.9), and SF-6D health utility scores (0.63 vs. 0.71; all p sleep difficulties were approximately twice as prevalent among those currently receiving treatment for chronic urticaria (all p activities (42 vs. 26%; all p < 0.01) relative to controls. Physician visits (9.1 vs. 4.9), emergency room visits (0.8 vs. 0.3), and hospitalizations (0.3 vs. 0.2) were more frequent than in controls (all p < 0.01). This research adds to the existing evidence showing significant burden of CSU.

  11. Assessing the National School Social Work Practice Model: Findings from the Second National School Social Work Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael S; Frey, Andy; Thompson, Aaron; Klemp, Heather; Alvarez, Michelle; Berzin, Stephanie Cosner

    2016-01-01

    The Second National School Social Work Survey in 2014 aimed to update knowledge of school social work practice by examining how practitioner characteristics, practice context, and practice choices have evolved since the last national survey in 2008. This second survey was also developed to assess how the new national school social work practice model created by the School Social Work Association of America aligns with early 21st century school social work practice realities. The second survey was conducted from February through April 2014 (3,769 total responses were collected) and represents the largest sample of American school social workers surveyed in two decades. Data from the Second National School Social Work Survey showed a field that still has not fully responded to calls to implement evidence-informed and data-driven practices. This article notes the need to better integrate pre- and postservice training in data-driven practices and provides recommendations for ways to overcome barriers that school social workers report facing.

  12. How do types of employment relate to health indicators? Findings from the Second European Survey on Working Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, F; Benach, J; Diez-Roux, A; Roman, C

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To investigate the associations of various types of employment with six self reported health indicators, taking into account the part played by demographic variables, individual working conditions and four ecological indicators at the country level.
DESIGN—Cross sectional survey (structured interview) of a sample of the active population of 15 European countries aged 15 years or over. Main independent variables were nine types of employment categorised as follows: small employ...

  13. Social network and mobility improvement among older Europeans: the ambiguous role of family ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard; Stoeckel, Kimberly J

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the social network correlates of improvement in lower extremity mobility among respondents aged 65 and older from the longitudinal sample of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The study focused on those who self-reported having difficulties with four lower extremity functions: (1) walking 100 m; (2) rising from a seated position; (3) climbing flights of steps; and (4) stooping, kneeling, or crouching. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that social networks were variously associated with improvement in lower extremity function at the two-year follow-up. The findings suggest that under certain circumstances, a lack of social support in late life may actually promote mobility improvement. The research also shows that family networks are not always facilitative of mobility improvement. This is in contrast to previously published social network research positing that supportive relationships help foster health and buffer stressors in late life. Family caregivers and social services should keep this in mind when devising treatment plans upon discharge from the hospital and implementing care management plans for frail older persons in the community.

  14. The Eurosceptic Europeanization of Public Spheres: Print and Social Media Reactions to the 2014 European Parliament Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta, Michael

    2017-01-01

    coverage, we find that the discourses about Euroscepticism exhibit a higher degree of Europeanization in four of the six media analyzed. Moreover, while we detect significant differences in valence between the Swedish and Danish press when reporting about the Eurosceptics, such national variation is much...

  15. Assessment of dementia in ethnic minority patients in Europe: a European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Riepe, Matthias W

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries the ethnic minority migrant populations are currently reaching an age where dementia becomes an increasingly important issue. There is no European consensus on good clinical practice with these patient groups, who often have special needs and expectations with regard to...

  16. European Social Work Research Association SIG to Study Decisions, Assessment, and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Killick, Campbell; Bertotti, Teresa; Enosh, Guy; Gautschi, Joel; Hietamäki, Johanna; Sicora, Alessandro; Whittaker, Andrew

    2017-12-13

    The increasing interest in professional judgement and decision making is often separate from the discourse about "risk," and the time-honored focus on assessment. The need to develop research in and across these topics was recognized in the founding of a Decisions, Assessment, and Risk Special Interest Group (DARSIG) by the European Social Work Research Association in 2014. The Group's interests include cognitive judgements; decision processes with clients, families, other professionals and courts; assessment tools and processes; the assessment, communication, and management of risk; and legal, ethical, and emotional aspects of these. This article outlines the founding and scope of DARSIG; gives an overview of decision making, assessment, and risk for practice; illustrates connections between these; and highlights future research directions. Professional knowledge about decision making, assessment, and risk complements knowledge about effectiveness of interventions. DARSIG promises to be a useful mechanism for the purpose.

  17. Understanding the value of social networks in life satisfaction of elderly people: a comparative study of 16 European countries using SHARE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomini, Florian; Tomini, Sonila M; Groot, Wim

    2016-12-01

    Networks of family and friends are a source of support and are generally associated with higher life satisfaction values among older adults. On the other hand, older adults who are satisfied with their life may be more able to develop and maintain a wider social network. For this reason, the causal link between size and composition of the social networks and satisfaction with life is yet to be explored. This paper investigates the effect of the 'size', (number of family and friends, and network) and the 'composition' (the proportion of friends over total number of persons) of the social network on life satisfaction among older adults (50+). Moreover, we also investigate the patterns of this relation between different European countries. Data from the 4th wave of Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and an instrumental variable approach are used to estimate the extent of the relation between life satisfaction and size and composition of social networks. Respondents in Western and Northern European (WNE) countries report larger networks than respondents in Eastern and Southern European (ESE) countries. However, the positive relationship between network size and life satisfaction is consistent across countries. On the other hand, the share of friends in the network appears to be generally negatively related to satisfaction with life, though results are not statistically significant for all countries. Apparently, a larger personal network is important for older adults (50+) to be more satisfied with life. Our results suggest that this relation is particularly positive if the network is comprised of family members.

  18. Social movements, public spheres and the European politics of the environment: green power Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This book examines how the European environmental movement, as part of an emerging European civil society, has impinged on the problem definitions and solution strategies in the European politics of the environment. Examining core case studies in European environmental policy - biodiversity politics

  19. European Adult and Lifelong Education in Times of Crisis: Where is Social Justice when the Social Dimension turns into Social Cohesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    of society; for example, in terms of access to, benefit from and success in education and employment. In this contribution, I adopt a social justice perspective to examine the redistributive function of the European Union and the role it attributes to adult and lifelong education in alleviating social...... training. I will then investigate the role of joint Europe-wide strategies, such as the Lisbon Agenda or Europe 2020, which also frame regional priorities on how to best invest these funds. By examining adult and lifelong education policies created both before and after these strategies, I question...... inequality. In doing so, I highlight not only how member states represent the primary source of revenue for the Union but also how they benefit in return from the redistribution of economic means through several financial tools and programmes. This also applies to areas such as education and vocational...

  20. Discrepancy Between European Association of Urology Guidelines and Daily Practice in the Management of Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of a European Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricksen, Kees; Aziz, Atiqullah; Bes, Perrine; Chun, Felix K-H; Dobruch, Jakub; Kluth, Luis A; Gontero, Paolo; Necchi, Andrea; Noon, Aidan P; van Rhijn, Bas W G; Rink, Michael; Roghmann, Florian; Rouprêt, Morgan; Seiler, Roland; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Qvick, Brian; Babjuk, Marek; Xylinas, Evanguelos

    2017-10-23

    The European Association of Urology (EAU) non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) guidelines are meant to help minimise morbidity and improve the care of patients with NMIBC. However, there may be underuse of guideline-recommended care in this potentially curable cohort. To assess European physicians' current practice in the management of NMIBC and evaluate its concordance with the EAU 2013 guidelines. Initial 45-min telephone interviews were conducted with 20 urologists to develop a 26-item questionnaire for a 30-min online quantitative interview. A total of 498 physicians with predefined experience in treatment of NMIBC patients, from nine European countries, completed the online interviews. Descriptive statistics of absolute numbers and percentages of the use of diagnostic tools, risk group stratification, treatment options chosen, and follow-up regimens were used. Guidelines are used by ≥87% of physicians, with the EAU guidelines being the most used ones (71-100%). Cystoscopy (60-97%) and ultrasonography (42-95%) are the most used diagnostic techniques. Using EAU risk classification, 40-69% and 88-100% of physicians correctly identify all the prognostic factors for low- and high-risk tumours, respectively. Re-transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (re-TURB) is performed in 25-75% of low-risk and 55-98% of high-risk patients. Between 21% and 88% of patients received a single instillation of chemotherapy within 24h after TURB. Adjuvant intravesical treatment is not given to 6-62%, 2-33%, and 1-20% of the patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk NMIBC, respectively. Patients with low-risk NMIBC are likely to be overmonitored and those with high-risk NMIBC undermonitored. Our study is limited by the possible recall bias of the selected physicians. Although most European physicians claim to apply the EAU guidelines, adherence to them is low in daily practice. Our survey among European physicians investigated discrepancies between guidelines and

  1. Social Network Type and Long-Term Condition Management Support: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Koetsenruijter, Jan; Orlando, Rosanna; Portillo, Maria Carmen; Culliford, David

    2016-01-01

    Network types and characteristics have been linked to the capacity of inter-personal environments to mobilise and share resources. The aim of this paper is to examine personal network types in relation to long-term condition management in order to identify the properties of network types most likely to provide support for those with a long-term condition. A cross-sectional observational survey of people with type 2 diabetes using interviews and questionnaires was conducted between April and October 2013 in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands. 1862 people with predominantly lower socio-economic status were recruited from each country. We used k-means clustering analysis to derive the network types, and one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between network type socio-economic characteristics, self-management monitoring and skills, well-being, and network member work. Five network types of people with long-term conditions were identified: restricted, minimal family, family, weak ties, and diverse. Restricted network types represented those with the poorest self-management skills and were associated with limited support from social network members. Restricted networks were associated with poor indicators across self-management capacity, network support, and well-being. Diverse networks were associated with more enhanced self-management skills amongst those with a long-term condition and high level of emotional support. It was the three network types which had a large number of network members (diverse, weak ties, and family) where healthcare utilisation was most likely to correspond to existing health needs. Our findings suggest that type of increased social involvement is linked to greater self-management capacity and potentially lower formal health care costs indicating that diverse networks constitute the optimal network type as a policy in terms of

  2. Cultural influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in Chinese- and European-heritage students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lorena; Alden, Lynn E

    2008-07-01

    We examined culture-related influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in first- and second-generation students of Chinese heritage (Ns=65, 47, respectively), and their European-heritage counterparts (N=60). Participants completed measures that assessed their willingness to seek treatment for various levels of social anxiety. Results showed that participants were similar on willingness to seek treatment at low- and high-severity levels of social anxiety; however, at moderate levels, first-generation Chinese participants were significantly less willing to seek treatment compared to their European-heritage counterparts. The reluctance of first-generation Chinese participants to seek treatment was associated with greater Chinese-heritage acculturation, and was not related to perceiving symptoms of social anxiety as less impairing. The findings support the general contention that Asians in North America tend to delay treatment for mental health problems. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The social dimension of the Russian students’ life in the context of the European integration of the educational space: Methodological aspects of the research (on the example of PFUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The set of mechanisms for the implementation of the idea of the single European space of higher education including the access to higher education, advice and guidance for the students, their material support, providing equal opportunities and social equality allows the majority of young people to achieve a high level of education and facilitates their personal self-realization. The social dimension as one of the areas of the Bologna process implementations was first announced in the context of mobility support and the strategy of lifelong learning, in the present time it is a complex system of social support for students including accommodation, medical care, nutrition and other social services. All these aspects of the social dimension of the students’ life have become the subject of the European research project Eurostudent taking place in 25 European countries. Russia for the first time took part in this project as an associate member: in the spring of 2014, we conducted a survey with the methodology of the international research project. The methodological issues of the project techniques are considered in the article as well as some conclusions based on the results of the survey conducted at the People’s Friendship University of Russia.

  4. Social Media Use of Cooperative Extension Family Economics Educators: Online Survey Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Zumwalt, Andrew; Bechman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of an online survey conducted by the eXtension Financial Security for All (FSA) Community of Practice (CoP) to determine the social media capacity and activity of its members. The survey was conducted to inform two subsequent FSA CoP programs: an archived webinar on social media programs and impact evaluation methods…

  5. Annoyance from High Speed Train Noise: a Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J.; Champelovier, P.; Vernet, I.

    1996-05-01

    A social survey was carried out in 1993 to assess the impact of noise experienced by residents living in the vicinity of the new TGV Atlantique line, along which noise protection (e.g., barriers, earth berms,..) was provided to comply with the noise guideline (daytime (8 a.m.-8 p.m.) Leq< 65 dB(A)). Two hundred and sixty residents were interviewed by a questionnaire; full 24 hour noise measurements were taken at each site in addition to 1 hour measurements. Analysis of noise annoyance levels and noise exposure levels suggests that the noise guideline should also cover evening and morning periods. Whilst LAeqseems to be a relevant noise annoyance descriptor for the daytime period, the number of noise events or the length of time over 70 dB(A) seems to be more appropriate for the evening. In any case, these findings will have to be considered in the context of practical requirements (indices have to be easy to predict, acceptable to the public, etc.).

  6. Management of malfunctioning and recalled pacemaker and defibrillator leads: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazia Bongiorni, Maria; Dagres, Nikolaos; Estner, Heidi; Pison, Laurent; Todd, Derick; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this survey was to describe the different strategies regarding the management of malfunctioning and recalled pacemaker and defibrillator leads across Europe. A questionnaire has been designed to assess the current practice and physician's approach to the management of leads which are faulty, unnecessary, and/or recalled. Responses to the questionnaire were received from 34 hospitals-members of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) electrophysiology (EP) research network. The survey involved both very high and low volume implanting centres, with 85% of the responding centres performing lead extraction. The survey provides a panoramic view of operator's decision making in the field of malfunctioning, recalled, and redundant leads and outlines a common point of view on lead abandonment and factors influencing the decision about lead extraction. The main factors strongly influencing the decision making were patient's age (59%), the presence of the damaged leads (44%), and the lead dwelling time (44%). Regarding the lead abandonment, the main concern (61%) was the potential greater difficulty associated with lead extraction in the future. High volume extracting centres showed a greater propensity to removing the malfunctioning or recalled leads compared with low volume or non-extracting centres. This EP Wire survey gives a snapshot of the operators' approaches and options regarding redundant, malfunctioning, and recalled lead management and may form the basis for future prospective research on this topic. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Nestmate recognition in social wasps: manipulation of hydrocarbon profiles induces aggression in the European hornet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Sieben, Stefan; Schricker, Burkhard

    2002-03-01

    The influence of individual cuticular hydrocarbons on nestmate recognition in the European hornet, Vespa crabro L., was investigated. We observed the behavioural response of workers towards differently treated dead conspecifics in a bioassay. Dummies were extracted with dichloromethane and extracts were spiked with microgram amounts of synthetic hydrocarbons naturally occurring on the cuticle of V. crabro. These modified extracts were reapplied to extracted workers that were subsequently tested in the bioassay. Non-spiked nestmate dummies (negative control) and untreated non-nestmate dummies (positive control) were tested in control experiments. The addition of only heneicosane or a mixture of heneicosane, tricosane, and ( Z)-9-tricosene to the extracts led to a significant increase of agonistic behaviour in workers leaving the nest for foraging flights. Returning workers reacted much less aggressively than those leaving. This is one of the first behavioural proofs that manipulation of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles can be perceived by a social insect species. The results support the hypothesis that colony-specific cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are involved in the phenomenon of nestmate recognition among social insects.

  8. Postponing a General Practitioner Visit: Describing Social Differences in Thirty-One European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detollenaere, Jens; Van Pottelberge, Amelie; Hanssens, Lise; Pauwels, Lieven; van Loenen, Tessa; Willems, Sara

    2017-12-01

    To describe social differences in postponing a general practitioner visit in 31 European countries and to explore whether primary care strength is associated with postponement rates. Between October 2011 and December 2013, the multicountry QUALICOPC study collected data on 61,931 patients and 7,183 general practitioners throughout Europe. Access to primary care was measured by asking the patients whether they postponed a general practitioner visit in the past year. Social differences were described according to patients' self-rated household income, education, ethnicity, and gender. Data were analyzed using multivariable and multilevel binomial logistic regression analyses. According to the variance-decomposition in the multilevel analysis, most of the variance can be explained by patient characteristics. Postponement of general practitioner care is higher for patients with a low self-rated household income, a low education level, and a migration background. In addition, although the point estimates are consistent with a substantial effect, no statistically significant association between primary care strength and postponement in the 31 countries is determined. Despite the universal and egalitarian goals of health care systems, access to general practitioner care in Europe is still determined by patients' socioeconomic status (self-rated household income and education) and migration background. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy: a European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKeag, David; Lane, Carol; Lazarus, John H.; Baldeschi, Lelio; Boboridis, Kostas; Dickinson, A. Jane; Hullo, A. Iain; Kahaly, George; Krassas, Gerry; Marcocci, Claudio; Marinò, Michele; Mourits, Maarten P.; Nardi, Marco; Neoh, Christopher; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Perros, Petros; Pinchera, Aldo; Pitz, Susanne; Prummel, Mark F.; Sartini, Maria S.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) across Europe. METHODS: Forty seven patients with DON presented to seven European centres during one year. Local protocols for thyroid status, ophthalmic examination and further investigation

  10. Projecting social contact matrices in 152 countries using contact surveys and demographic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiesha Prem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneities in contact networks have a major effect in determining whether a pathogen can become epidemic or persist at endemic levels. Epidemic models that determine which interventions can successfully prevent an outbreak need to account for social structure and mixing patterns. Contact patterns vary across age and locations (e.g. home, work, and school, and including them as predictors in transmission dynamic models of pathogens that spread socially will improve the models' realism. Data from population-based contact diaries in eight European countries from the POLYMOD study were projected to 144 other countries using a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimated the proclivity of age-and-location-specific contact patterns for the countries, using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Household level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for nine lower-income countries and socio-demographic factors from several on-line databases for 152 countries were used to quantify similarity of countries to estimate contact patterns in the home, work, school and other locations for countries for which no contact data are available, accounting for demographic structure, household structure where known, and a variety of metrics including workforce participation and school enrolment. Contacts are highly assortative with age across all countries considered, but pronounced regional differences in the age-specific contacts at home were noticeable, with more inter-generational contacts in Asian countries than in other settings. Moreover, there were variations in contact patterns by location, with work-place contacts being least assortative. These variations led to differences in the effect of social distancing measures in an age structured epidemic model. Contacts have an important role in transmission dynamic models that use contact rates to characterize the spread of contact-transmissible diseases. This study provides estimates of mixing patterns for

  11. Contribution of the EU Budget to the Implementation of the Social Cohesion Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stabryła-Chudzio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study is to examine whether the European Union budget comprises significant resources for financing measures relating to social cohesion. The analysis is based on the contents of the Europe 2020 Strategy. Given the constraints of space and for the sake of clarity of the argument, the author focuses on the role of the EU budget rather than all measures aimed at social cohesion undertaken by EU institutions or targeted by policies of individual Member States.Methodology: Documents, studies and reports published by the European Commission constitute the main source of information. In addition, the author has taken into account macroeconomic data demonstrating the deterioration of the social situation since 2009, as well as the instruments that the European Commission has deployed since 2013 in order to respond to post-crisis challenges.Conclusions: It can be roughly estimated that more than 40 percent of total resources within the Multiannual Financial Framework 2014–2020 shall be allocated to the social cohesion policy. Opportunities afforded by the implementation of the Europe 2020 Strategy include primarily the definition of objectives whose priority is indisputable and the introduction of the hitherto neglected analysis of certain socio-economic indicators, classified by country or region and, in certain cases, examined in more detail than required by the European Commission. The monitoring of objectives is conducive to the introduction of new solutions and implementation tools, as exemplified by the new instruments within the Multiannual Financial Framework 2014–2020, as well as the adjustment of available funds in light of the most pressing challenges. The European Semester has facilitated the task of comparing progress in strategy implementation by individual Member States, as well as the provision of recommendations for each of them and an individualized approach.Research implications: This article

  12. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look

  13. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to

  14. Informed citizen and empowered citizen in health: results from an European survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokosch Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge about the relationship between health-related activities on the Internet (i.e. informed citizens and individuals' control over their own experiences of health or illness (i.e. empowered citizens is valuable but scarce. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between four ways of using the Internet for information on health or illness and citizens attitudes and behaviours toward health professionals and health systems and establish the profile of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe. Methods Data was collected during April and May 2007 (N = 7022, through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI. Respondents from Denmark, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Norway, Poland and Portugal participated in the survey. The profiles were generated using logistic regressions and are based on: a socio-demographic and health information, b the level of use of health-related online services, c the level of use of the Internet to get health information to decide whether to consult a health professional, prepare for a medical appointment and assess its outcome, and d the impact of online health information on citizens' attitudes and behavior towards health professionals and health systems. Results Citizens using the Internet to decide whether to consult a health professional or to get a second opinion are likely to be frequent visitors of health sites, active participants of online health forums and recurrent buyers of medicines and other health related products online, while only infrequent epatients, visiting doctors they have never met face-to-face. Participation in online health communities seems to be related with more inquisitive and autonomous patients. Conclusions The profiles of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe are situational and country dependent. The number of Europeans using the Internet to get health information to help them deal with a consultation is raising and having access to online health information

  15. The use of empirical research in bioethics: a survey of researchers in twelve European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangmo, Tenzin; Provoost, Veerle

    2017-12-22

    The use of empirical research methods in bioethics has been increasing in the last decades. It has resulted in discussions about the 'empirical turn of bioethics' and raised questions related to the value of empirical work for this field, methodological questions about its quality and rigor, and how this integration of the normative and the empirical can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to describe the attitudes of bioethics researchers in this field towards the use of empirical research, and examine their actual conduct: whether they use empirical research methods (and if so, what methods), and whether (and how) they have made attempts at integrating the empirical and the normative. An anonymous online survey was conducted to reach scholars working in bioethics/biomedical ethics/ethics institutes or centers in 12 European countries. A total of 225 bioethics researchers participated in the study. Of those, 200 questionnaires were fully completed, representing a response rate of 42.6%. The results were analysed using descriptive statistics. Most respondents (n = 175; 87.5%) indicated that they use or have used empirical methods in their work. A similar proportion of respondents (61.0% and 59.0%) reported having had at least some training in qualitative or quantitative methods, respectively. Among the 'empirical researchers', more than a fifth (22.9%) had not received any methodological training. It appears that only 6% or less of the 'empirical researchers' considered themselves experts in the methods (qualitative or quantitative) that they have used. Only 35% of the scholars who have used empirical methods reported having integrated empirical data with normative analysis, whereas for their current projects, 59.8% plan to do so. There is a need to evaluate the current educational programs in bioethics and to implement rigorous training in empirical research methods to ensure that 'empirical researchers' have the necessary skills to conduct their empirical

  16. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  17. Anti-social behaviour and European protection against eviction : An analysis of Dutch case law based on statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vols, Michel; Tassenaar, Petrus; Jacobs, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the implementation of the minimum level of protection against the loss of the home that arises from Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights in the Netherlands. The paper focuses on anti-social behaviour related cases in which the landlord

  18. Development of social responsibility In moldovan enterprises as a strategic objective of integration in the european community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendrea Mariana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN MOLDOVAN ENTERPRISES AS A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE OF INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia BUCIUSCAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  20. Does corporate social responsibility put reputation at risk by inviting activist targeting? An empirical test among European SMEs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is believed to improve a company’s reputation. However,CSR may also put reputation at risk by making the company a more attractive target for activists’campaigns. We test this effect on a sample of 1355 European small and medium-sized enterprises(SMEs). We find

  1. Experience of Forming Professional and Communicative Competency of Future Social Workers in Education Systems of Western European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyuk, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the experience of forming professional and communicative competency of future social workers in the education systems of Western European countries, in particular, France, Germany and Switzerland. On the basis of generalization of the studied data it has been found out that each country has its own techniques of forming…

  2. Structural Validation and Multiple Group Assessment of the Short Internalized Homonegativity Scale in Homosexual and Bisexual Men in 38 European Countries: Results From the European MSM Internet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ha; Ross, Michael W; Diamond, Pamela M; Berg, Rigmor C; Weatherburn, Peter; Schmidt, Axel J

    2017-10-23

    Internalized homonegativity (IH) is the internalization of negative attitudes and assumptions about homosexual people by homosexual people themselves. To measure IH, Smolenski, Diamond, Ross, and Rosser (2010) and Ross, Rosser, and Smolenski (2010) revised the Reactions to Homosexuality Scale (RHS) to develop the Short Internalized Homonegativity Scale (SIHS) with eight items. Using the European Men Who Have Sex With Men Internet Survey (EMIS) data, with an analytic sample of 130,718 gay and bisexual men in 38 European countries, we confirmed the validity of the SIHS scale in both training and validation data, in strata of Ross, Berg, et al.'s (2013) three "homosexual discrimination" country clusters, of age, and of education level. However, the performance was less adequate in comparison of gay versus bisexually identified individuals. The latent SIHS structure contains only minor variations across these three strata. The seven-item scale performed as well as the eight-item scale. The SIHS is a promising candidate for standard IH measures, which is invariant across cultural, age, and educational strata.

  3. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  4. What comprises a good outcome in spinal surgery? A preliminary survey among spine surgeons of the SSE and European spine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, M; Elfering, A; Aebi, M; Freeman, B J C; Fritzell, P; Guimaraes Consciencia, J; Lamartina, C; Mayer, M; Lund, T; Boos, N

    2008-01-01

    Standardized and validated self-administered outcome-instruments are broadly used in spinal surgery. Despite a plethora of articles on outcome research, no systematic evaluation is available on what actually comprises a good outcome in spinal surgery from the patients' and surgeons' perspective, respectively. However, this is a prerequisite for improving outcome instruments. In performing a cross-sectional survey among spine patients from different European regions and spine surgeons of the SSE, the study attempted (1) to identify the most important domains determining a good outcome from a patients' as well as a surgeon's perspective, and (2) to explore regional differences in the identified domains. For this purpose, a structured interview was performed among 30 spine surgeons of the SSE and 353 spine surgery patients (representing Northern, Central and Southern Europe) to investigate their criteria for a good outcome. A qualitative and descriptive approach was used to evaluate the data. Results revealed a high agreement on what comprises a good outcome among surgeons and patients, respectively. The main parameters determining good outcome were achieving the patients' expectations/satisfaction, pain relief, improvement of disability and social reintegration. Younger patients more often expected a complete pain relief, an improved work capacity, and better social life participation. Patients in southern Europe more often wanted to improve work capacity compared to those from central and northern European countries. No substantial differences were found when patients' and surgeons' perspective were compared. However, age and differences in national social security and health care system ("black flags") have an impact on what is considered a good outcome in spinal surgery.

  5. The Potential of Transnational Language Policy to Promote Social Inclusion of Immigrants: An Analysis and Evaluation of the European Union's INCLUDE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Cui

    2017-01-01

    Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the…

  6. Trends and Correlates of Consenting to Provide Social Security Numbers: Longitudinal Findings from the General Social Survey (1993-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…

  7. Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in the mental well-being of employed men and women: the role of European welfare regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Palència, Laia; Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    The relation between "neo-Marxian" social class (NMSC) and health in the working population has received considerable attention in public health research. However, less is known about the distribution of mental well-being according to NMSC in a European context. The objectives of this study are (i) to analyse the association of mental well-being and NMSC among employees in Europe (using a welfare regime typology), (ii) to investigate whether the relation between NMSC and mental well-being is the same in women compared to men within each welfare regime, and (iii) to examine within each welfare regime the role of the gender division of labour and job quality as potential mediating factors in explaining this association. Data from the European Social Survey Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. Social class was measured through E.O. Wright's social class scheme. Models separated by sex were generated using Poisson regression with a robust error variance. The associations were presented as prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Women reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in State corporatist/family support and Southern welfare regimes. Men reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in all but the Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. Gender inequalities were more marked and widespread in Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. In all welfare regimes job quality (partly) explained NMSC inequalities in mental well-being for men, the role of the gender division of labour was unclear. This study showed that the relationship between NMSC and mental well-being among employees differs by gender and welfare regimes. It confirms the importance of NMSC and welfare regimes to explain gender and social class inequalities in mental well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social network indices in the Generations and Gender Survey: An appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); Bühler, C. (Christoph); T. Fokkema (Tineke); Petric, G. (Gregor); Platinovšek, R. (Rok); Kogovšek, T. (Tina); Hlebec, V. (Valentina)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND In this contribution we critically appraise the social network indices in the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS). OBJECTIVE After discussing the rationale for including social network indices in the GGS, we provide descriptive information on social network characteristics and

  9. Social network indices in the Generations and Gender Survey: An appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, P.A.; Bühler, C.; Fokkema, T.; Petric, G.; Platinovsek, R.; Kogovsek, T.; Hlebec, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this contribution we critically appraise the social network indices in the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS). Objective: After discussing the rationale for including social network indices in the GGS, we provide descriptive information on social network characteristics and an

  10. Evaluating food front-of-pack labelling: a pan-European survey on consumers' attitudes toward food labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vögele, Claus; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Stefanini, Giulia; Widhalm, Kurt

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods have been widely used as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population, to contribute to a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of diet-related conditions. Yet, there is no convincing evidence that food labels are an effective means to achieve the desired effect at population level. Several factors have been suggested to account for this decoupling of efficacy, e.g. difficulties in understanding the information on food-labels. The present article presents the results of a survey on Europeans' understanding of nutritional labels and evaluation on the communication tools for their diffusion. A total of 7550 phone interviews were conducted in 16 European Countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and Hungary. Consumers were asked about their opinion on nutritional information provided at different levels and their commitment to healthy behaviour.

  11. EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, Robert [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: robert.loos@jrc.it; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Locoro, Giovanni; Rimaviciute, Erika; Contini, Serafino; Bidoglio, Giovanni [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This study provides the first EU-wide reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. More than 100 individual water samples from over 100 European rivers from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PFOS, PFOA, benzotriazoles, hormones, and endocrine disrupters. Around 40 laboratories participated in this sampling exercise. The most frequently and at the highest concentration levels detected compounds were benzotriazole, caffeine, carbamazepine, tolyltriazole, and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE{sub 1}C). Only about 10% of the river water samples analysed could be classified as 'very clean' in terms of chemical pollution. The rivers responsible for the major aqueous emissions of PFOS and PFOA from the European Continent could be identified. For the target compounds chosen, we are proposing 'indicative warning levels' in surface waters, which are (for most compounds) close to the 90th percentile of all water samples analysed. - More than 100 river water samples from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected polar organic contaminants.

  12. References of the Fiscal System’s Adaptation in the Context of Reforming the European Social Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Frunza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of this approach circumscribe to the highlighting and thedelineation of the representative markers as milestones in the uneven dynamics, both in time and space, of thecomplex process of adaptation of the fiscal systems in the context of reforming the European Social Models.In this respect, the statistical analysis made on a sample grouping countries with different types of capitalistsocial economic systems, forefront and retrospectively outlines, a series of steps in the reforming of theEuropean Social Models, and it is to be noticed the fact that the adaptation of the national fiscal subsystems,related to the requirements of the social and economic development on each step, was to be distinctivelyconceived and differentiated applied, through their main components. The neglect of the interdependencesbetween the components of each fiscal system can lead to making unrealistic assessments and proposalsregarding their adaptation process to the requirements of European Social Models reform. Even more, in thecontext of producing destabilizing phenomena (recession, crisis, unemployment which disrupt social andeconomic processes, the issue of fiscal sustainability may have most unwanted consequences.

  13. Sybil Defense Techniques in Online Social Networks: A Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Qurishi, Muhammad; Al-Rakhami, Mabrook; Alamri, Atif; Alrubaian, Majed; Rahman, Sk Md Mizanur; Hossain, M. Shamim

    2017-01-01

    The problem of malicious activities in online social networks, such as Sybil attacks and malevolent use of fake identities, can severely affect the social activities in which users engage while online...

  14. The economic makeup of the European Union and the difficult balance between economic freedoms and social rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Larrazabal Basañez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines some basic contents of what has come to be known as the European Economic Constitution and the conflict raised between economic freedoms and social rights within the European Union. He also warns that in the latest trends in EU legislation and jurisprudence, the former seem to take excessive priority over the latter. This may jeopardise the consolidation of a genuine social Europe and the increasing indifference of citizens, who see how firm steps are being taken within the Economic and Monetary Union while social Europe is slowly moving forward, and often shows worrying signs of paralysis, or even some backward movement.Received: 16.06.10Accepted: 29.06.10

  15. Covert Action? Education, Social Policy, and Law in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Explores the legitimacy of the partial control over education matters gained by the European Union since the 1970s, examining in particular the role of the European Court of Justice and the European Commission, in reshaping and altering definitions of legal compensation in the fields of education and training. Discusses implications for democratic…

  16. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jo; RODRIGUES, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this...

  17. Physicians prefer greater detail in the biosimilar label (SmPC) - Results of a survey across seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallersten, Anna; Fürst, Walter; Mezzasalma, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    In the European Union, labels (Summaries of Product Characteristics, SmPCs) of biosimilars and their reference products are in many instances almost identical (following a generic approach) despite different data requirements for the authorization of biosimilars and generics. To understand physicians' preferences on type and detail of information in the biosimilar label and their use of information sources when prescribing biologics including biosimilars, EuropaBio surveyed 210 physicians across seven European countries. Among surveyed physicians, 90.5% use the label frequently or occasionally as an information source and 87.2% deemed a clear statement on the origin of data helpful or very helpful. When comparing excerpts from the label of an authorized biosimilar and modified texts with additional information, 78.1-82.9% preferred the samples with additional information. This survey shows that the label is an appropriate vehicle for providing physicians with information about biologics and that physicians prefer more product-specific information in the biosimilar label. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Signal Processing: Survey of an Emerging Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Pantic, Maja; Bourlard, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    The ability to understand and manage social signals of a person we are communicating with is the core of social intelligence. Social intelligence is a facet of human intelligence that has been argued to be indispensable and perhaps the most important for success in life. This paper argues that

  19. Social Signals, their function, and automatic analysis: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Pantic, Maja; Bourlard, Hervé; Pentland, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Social Signal Processing (SSP) aims at the analysis of social behaviour in both Human-Human and Human-Computer interactions. SSP revolves around automatic sensing and interpretation of social signals, complex aggregates of nonverbal behaviours through which individuals express their attitudes

  20. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-01-01

    the LIFE+ programme of the European Commission. The potential of HBM in supporting and evaluating policy making (including e.g. REACH) and in awareness raising on environmental health, should significantly advance the process towards a fully operational, continuous, sustainable and scientifically based EU...... HBM programme. From a number of stakeholder activities during the past 10 years and the national engagement, a framework for sustainable HBM structure in Europe is recommended involving national institutions within environment, health and food as well as European institutions such as ECHA, EEA...

  1. Molecular survey of genetic diversity in the endangered European mink Mustela lutreola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Didier; Lodé, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    The European mink Mustela lutreola is regarded as one of the most endangered mammals in the world. We chose to characterize microsatellite loci in order to investigate the pattern of decline of this species. We used primer pairs developed for a related species Mustela vison to genotype individual of Mustela lutreola. Out of 19 primer pairs used 8 were useful for our purpose. The conservation of primer sequence point out the problem of neutrality of some microsatellite loci as this conservation could be related to strong selection pressure on those loci. Finally we present the first data allowing an estimation of heterozygosity of French population of European mink.

  2. Social Science Studies on European and African Agriculture Compared: Bringing Together Different Strands of Academic Debate on GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Fischer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the social science-orientated literature on genetically modified (GM crops in Europe and compared it with the corresponding literature on GM crops in African contexts, in order to determine the nature and extent of north-south cross-fertilisation in the literature. A total of 1625 papers on GM crops and agriculture falling within the ‘social science and humanities’ subject area in the Scopus abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature were analysed for major trends relating to geographical areas. More detailed analysis was performed on papers discussing African (56 papers and European (127 papers contexts. The analysis revealed that studies on policy and politics were common in both strands of the literature, frequently focusing on effects of the relatively restrictive European Union regulations on GM crops. There were also clear differences, however. For example, papers focusing on Africa frequently examined farm-level impacts and production, while this theme was almost non-existent in the Europe literature. It focused instead on policy impacts on trade and consumer attitudes to GM products. The lack of farm-level studies and of empirical studies in general in the European literature indicates a need for empirical research on GM crops in European farming. Social science research on GM crop production in Europe could draw lessons from the African literature.

  3. HIV pre-test practices: an online survey examining perceptions of informed consent and pre-test information delivery in health care settings across the WHO European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen; Casabona, Jordi; Tsereteli, Nino; Raben, Dorthe; de Wit, John

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to gather health professionals' perceptions about gaining informed consent and delivering HIV pre-test information. An online self-report survey was completed by 338 respondents involved in HIV testing in 55 countries in the WHO European Region. Nearly two thirds (61.5%) of respondents thought that HIV testing guidelines used in their country of work included recommendations about pre-test information; 83% thought they included recommendations regarding obtaining informed consent. One third (34%) of respondents thought that written informed consent was required; respondents from Eastern Europe and Central Asia were more likely to perceive this as required. Respondents from Western Europe thought pre-test information about the following aspects was significantly less likely to be addressed than respondents in other regions: the right to decline a test; services available after a positive test; laws/regulations impacting someone being tested and receiving a positive test result; potential risks for a client taking an HIV test; the possible need for partner notification after a positive test result. Results offer insight into perceived HIV pre-test practices in all but two national settings across the WHO European Region, and can be used in the development and evaluation of future HIV testing guidelines in the WHO European Region. Findings highlight that practices of obtaining written informed consent depart from current guidelines in some HIV testing settings. Furthermore, findings underscore that it is uncommon for pre-test information to address legal and social risks and harms that people testing HIV-positive may incur. This differs from the most recent global WHO guidelines emphasising the importance of such information, and raises important questions regarding the implications and appropriateness of the currently dominant focus of recommendations on streamlining the HIV testing process.

  4. Radiotherapy staffing in the European countries: Final results from the ESTRO-HERO survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, Yolande; Defourny, Noémie; Coffey, Mary

    2014-01-01

    the availability of radiotherapy resources within Europe. This paper presents the personnel data collected in the ESTRO HERO database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European countries, through their national scientific and professional radiotherapy societies. The current report...

  5. European Paediatric Surgeons' Association Survey on the Management of Hirschsprung Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zani, Augusto; Eaton, Simon; Morini, Francesco; Puri, Prem; Rintala, Risto; van Heurn, Ernest; Lukac, Marija; Bagolan, Pietro; Kuebler, Joachim F.; Friedmacher, Florian; Wijnen, Rene; Tovar, Juan A.; Hoellwarth, Michael E.; Pierro, Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Aim This study aims to define patterns of Hirschsprung disease (HD) management. Methods An online questionnaire was sent to all European Paediatric Surgeons' Association (EUPSA) members. Results A total of 294 members (61 countries) answered (response rate: 61%). Diagnosis: All respondents perform

  6. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Vancutsem, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds) and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual

  7. Maternal smoking and offspring inattention and hyperactivity: Results from a cross-national European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess, V.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Koc, C.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Fermanian, C.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Susser, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes; the association with later childhood mental health outcomes remains controversial. We used a strategy involving comparison of maternal and paternal smoking reports in a sample pooling data from six diverse European

  8. Privacy-preserving schemes for Ad Hoc Social Networks: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrag, Mohamed Amine; Maglaras, Leandros; Ahmim, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the state of the art of privacy-preserving schemes for ad hoc social networks, including, mobile social networks (MSNs) and vehicular social networks (VSNs). Specifically, we select and in-detail examine thirty-three privacy preserving schemes developed for or applied in the context of ad hoc social networks. These schemes are published between 2008 and 2016. Based on this existing privacy preservation schemes, we survey privacy preservation models, including location...

  9. Lifetime comorbidities between social phobia and mood disorders in the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Stang, Paul; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Stein, Murray B.; Walters, Ellen E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. General population data were used to study co-morbidities between lifetime social phobia and mood disorders. Methods. Data come from the US National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). Results. Strong associations exist between lifetime social phobia and major depressive disorder (odds ratio 2·9), dysthymia (2·7) and bipolar disorder (5·9). Odds ratios increase in magnitude with number of social fears. Reported age of onset is earlier for social phobia than mood disorders in the vast ...

  10. Social relationships and HRQL: A cross-sectional survey among older Italian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Gianfranco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the association between social relationships and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL among the elderly in Italy. Methods A sample of 33,744 Italian residents, representing the non-institutionalised population aged 60 years and over was extracted from the national ISTAT cross-sectional survey during 1999–2000. HRQL was measured with the SF-12, from which the Physical Component Score (PCS and Mental Component Score (MCS were obtained. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for the main confounders. Results Our analysis shows a gradient in PCS and MCS among the terziles in seeing/meeting "friends" and "family" and, for PCS, a North-South gradient among the Italian regions. Females, the elderly who reported a lower household income, those who spent less time in recreational and religious activities, who lived too far from their relatives and had few relationships with friends and relatives, were significantly less likely to have an MCS above the median value. For PCS, an increase in HRQL was likely to be associated with a higher educational level, while lower PCS scores were associated with: age 75+, inadequate household income, unmarried status, infrequency of seeing/meeting friends, too high a mean distance from own home to relatives' homes, lack of leisure time spent in recreational activities, living in the Centre-South of Italy, chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and use of drugs during the previous two days. Significant interactions between suffering from one chronic disease and the use of drugs were also found for both MCS and PCS. Conclusion Some dimensions of social relationships were significantly associated with HRQL. These findings are crucial for devising welfare strategies at both the regional and the European level, i.e. in countries such as Italy where the primacy of family support of the elderly has declined

  11. Social relationships and HRQL: a cross-sectional survey among older Italian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Avolio, Maria; Sicuro, Lorella; Rosano, Aldo; Latini, Elide; Damiani, Gianfranco; Ricciardi, Walter

    2008-10-03

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between social relationships and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) among the elderly in Italy. A sample of 33,744 Italian residents, representing the non-institutionalised population aged 60 years and over was extracted from the national ISTAT cross-sectional survey during 1999-2000. HRQL was measured with the SF-12, from which the Physical Component Score (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS) were obtained. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for the main confounders. Our analysis shows a gradient in PCS and MCS among the terziles in seeing/meeting "friends" and "family" and, for PCS, a North-South gradient among the Italian regions. Females, the elderly who reported a lower household income, those who spent less time in recreational and religious activities, who lived too far from their relatives and had few relationships with friends and relatives, were significantly less likely to have an MCS above the median value. For PCS, an increase in HRQL was likely to be associated with a higher educational level, while lower PCS scores were associated with: age 75+, inadequate household income, unmarried status, infrequency of seeing/meeting friends, too high a mean distance from own home to relatives' homes, lack of leisure time spent in recreational activities, living in the Centre-South of Italy, chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and use of drugs during the previous two days. Significant interactions between suffering from one chronic disease and the use of drugs were also found for both MCS and PCS. Some dimensions of social relationships were significantly associated with HRQL. These findings are crucial for devising welfare strategies at both the regional and the European level, i.e. in countries such as Italy where the primacy of family support of the elderly has declined in recent years.

  12. Structural and environmental factors are associated with internalised homonegativity in men who have sex with men: findings from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) in 38 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rigmor C; Ross, Michael W; Weatherburn, Peter; Schmidt, Axel J

    2013-02-01

    Internalised homonegativity refers to a gay person's negative feelings about homosexuality and is believed to stem from negative societal stereotypes and attitudes towards homosexuality. Surprisingly, little research has centred on this link. In this research, we aimed to examine the associations between internalised homonegativity and structural forces, cultural influence, and access to sexual health promotion measures among a sample of 144,177 men who have sex with men (MSM) in 38 European countries. Participants were recruited as part of the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) during 2010. It was a self-completion, multilingual Internet-based survey for men living in Europe who have sex with men and/or feel attracted to men. Assumed causal relations were tested through multiple regression models. Variables at the structure of rule-systems (macro-level) that were significantly and negatively associated with internalised homonegativity were the presence of laws recognising same-sex relationships and same-sex adoption. In the meso-level model, greater proportions of the population expressing that they would not like to have homosexuals as neighbours predicted higher internalised homonegativity. In the last model, five variables were significantly and negatively associated with internalised homonegativity: being exposed to HIV/STI information for MSM, access to HIV testing, access to STI testing, access to condoms, and experience of gay-related hostility. In turn, men who had tested for HIV in the past year evidenced lower internalised homonegativity. This is the largest and certainly most geographically diverse study to date to examine structural and environmental predictors of internalised homonegativity among MSM. Our results show that one insidious consequence of society's stigma towards homosexuals is the internalisation of that stigma by gay and bisexual men themselves, thus, drawing attention to the importance of promoting social equity for self

  13. Perspectives on the Mission of the Social Work Profession: A Random Survey of NASW Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine N. Dulmus

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with MSW degrees and who were members of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW in the United States (N=862 were surveyed and asked what best represents the social work profession mission for them. They were provided with 7 pre-selected choices (i.e advocacy; lobbying; social justice; community organization; clinical work with individuals, families, and groups; advancement of the social work profession; or other from which to choose one response. Over 66% of those responding chose clinical work with individuals, families, and groups as the mission of the social work profession. With the complex problems facing societies today will social work be at the forefront of the challenge of have we turned away from our historical mission of promoting social justice? This paper focuses on the finding from this research study and discusses its implications for social work education and the social work profession, as well as those individuals whom social workers serve.

  14. Trends and correlates of the public's perception of healthcare systems in the European Union: a multilevel analysis of Eurobarometer survey data from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaud, AlJohara M; Taddese, Henock B; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2018-01-08

    The aim of the study is to assess trends in public perceptions of health systems in 27 European Union (EU) member states following the financial crisis (2009-2013), in order to discuss observed changes in the context of the financial crisis. Repeated cross-sectional studies. 27 EU countries. EU citizens aged 15 years and older. The study mainly uses the Eurobarometer Social Climate Survey, conducted annually between 2009 and 2013, thereby analysing 116 706 observations. A multilevel logistic regression was carried out to analyse trends over time and the factors associated with citizens' perceptions of their healthcare systems. Europeans generally exhibit positive perceptions of their national healthcare systems, 64.0% (95% CI 63.6% to 64.4%). However, we observed a significant drop in positive perceptions in the years following the crisis, especially within countries most affected by the crisis. Concerning fiscal characteristics, wealthier countries and those dedicating higher proportion of their national income to health were more likely to maintain positive perceptions. At the individual level, perceptions of healthcare systems were significantly associated with respondents' self-perceptions of their social status, financial capacity and overall satisfaction in life. Our finding confirms previous observations that citizens' perceptions of their healthcare systems may reflect their overall prospects within the broader socioeconomic systems they live in; which have in turn been affected by the financial crisis and the policy measures instituted in response. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. European survey on sterigmatocystin in cereals, cereals-based products, beer and nuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; MacDonald, S.J.; Anagnostopoulos, C.; Spanjer, M.; Bertuzzi, T.; Pietri, A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the EFSA proposal 'Survey on sterigmatocystin in food' (GP/EFSA/CONTAM/2013/02), this study provides a survey on the occurrence of this mycotoxin. A total of 1,259 samples of cereal grains (429), cereal products (713), beer (53) and nuts (64) were analysed for the presence of

  16. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; Wolf, Alexandra; Poortvliet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    -aged children applicable in different European countries. Within the Pro Children Project, such an instrument has been developed. This paper describes the cross-sectional survey in 11-year-olds in 9 countries. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey used nationally, and in 2 countries regionally, representative...

  18. Drivers and barriers for psychosocial risk management: an analysis of the findings of the European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milczarek, M.; Irastorza, X.; Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Iavicoli, S.; Mirabile, M.; Buresti, G.; Gagliardi, D.; Houtman, I.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Vartia, M.; Pahkin, K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, EU-OSHA carried out the first Europe-wide establishment survey on health and safety at the workplace, the European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER). Following on from the initial analysis presented in the descriptive overview report in 2010, four secondary analysis

  19. Diagnostic issues and capabilities in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries: data from EuroNHID surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiberville Simon-Djamel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly infectious diseases (HIDs are defined as being transmissible from person to person, causing life-threatening illnesses and presenting a serious public health hazard. The sampling, handling and transport of specimens from patients with HIDs present specific bio-safety concerns. Findings The European Network for HID project aimed to record, in a cross-sectional study, the infection control capabilities of referral centers for HIDs across Europe and assesses the level of achievement to previously published guidelines. In this paper, we report the current diagnostic capabilities and bio-safety measures applied to diagnostic procedures in these referral centers. Overall, 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries were evaluated. Although 81% of these referral centers are located near a biosafety level 3 laboratory, 11% and 31% of them still performed their microbiological and routine diagnostic analyses, respectively, without bio-safety measures. Conclusions The discrepancies among the referral centers surveyed between the level of practices and the European Network of Infectious Diseases (EUNID recommendations have multiple reasons of which the interest of the individuals in charge and the investment they put in preparedness to emerging outbreaks. Despite the fact that the less prepared centers can improve by just updating their practice and policies any support to help them to achieve an acceptable level of biosecurity is welcome.

  20. Nephrologists' perceptions regarding dialysis withdrawal and palliative care in Europe: lessons from a European Renal Best Practice survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Biesen, Wim; van de Luijtgaarden, Moniek W M; Brown, Edwina A; Michel, Jean-Pierre; van Munster, Barbara C; Jager, Kitty J; van der Veer, Sabine N

    2015-12-01

    There is a variation in dialysis withdrawal rates, but reasons for this variation across European countries are largely unknown. We therefore surveyed nephrologists' perceptions of factors concerning dialysis withdrawal and palliative care and explored relationships between these perceptions and reports of whether withdrawal actually occurred in practice. We developed a 33-item electronic survey, disseminated via an email blast to all European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) members. In our data analyses, we distinguished those respondents who reported occurrence from those reporting no dialysis withdrawal in their unit. With multilevel logistic regression, we investigated the association between respondents' characteristics and perceptions and whether they reported occurrence of dialysis withdrawal or not. Five hundred and twenty-eight nephrologists from 45 countries completed the questionnaire; 42% reported occurrence of withdrawal in their unit in the past year, and 56% perceived that stopping life-prolonging treatment in terminally ill patients was allowed. Few respondents reported presence in their unit of protocols on withdrawal decision making (7%) or palliative care (10%) or the common involvement of a geriatrician in withdrawal decisions (10%). The majority stated that palliative care had not been part of their core curriculum (74%) and that they had not recently attended continuous medical education sessions on this topic (73%). Respondents from Eastern and Southern Europe had a 42 and 40% lower probability, respectively, of reporting withdrawal compared with those from North European countries. Working in a public centre [odds ratio (OR), 2.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-4.25] and respondents' perception that stopping life-prolonging treatment in terminally ill patients was allowed (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.23-3.12), that withdrawal decisions were commonly shared between doctor and patient (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1

  1. The European Water Framework Directive: Challenges For A New Type of Social and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl-Wostl, C.

    Water resources managment is facing increasing uncertainties in all areas. Socio- economic boundary conditions change quickly and require more flexible management strategies. Climate change, for example results in an increase in uncertainties, in par- ticular extreme events. Given the fact that current management practices deal with extreme events by designing the technical systems to manage the most extreme of all cases (e.g. higher dams for the protection against extreme floods, larger water reser- voirs for droughts and to meet daily peak demand) a serious problem is posed for long-term planning and risk management. Engineering planning has perceived the hu- man dimension as exogenous boundary conditions. Legislation focused largely on the environmental and technological dimensions that set limits and prescribe new tech- nologies without taking the importance of institutional change into account. However, technology is only the "hardware" and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the "software", the social dimension, has to become part of planning and management processes. Hence, the inclusion of the human dimension into integrated models and processes will be valuable in supporting the introduction of new elements into plan- ning processes in water resources management. With the European Water Framework Directive environmental policy enters a new era. The traditional approach to solving isolated environmental problems with technological fixes and end-of-pipe solutions has started to shift towards a more thoughtful attitude which involves the development of integrated approaches to problem solving. The WFD introduces the river basin as the management unit, thus following the experience of some European countries (e.g. France) and the example of the management of some international rivers (e.g. the Rhine). Overall the WFD represents a general shift towards a polycentric understand- ing of policy making that requires the involvement of stakeholders as active

  2. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  3. A social justice approach to survey design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2017-01-01

    Denne guide til forskningsmetoder i social arbejde/socialpædagogik er målrettet det sociale retfærdighedsperspektiv, som bogens første del gennemgår. I anden del fokuseres på datahåndtering og analoyse. Der er tale om en grundigt gennemarbejdet guide til brug i socialpædagogisk forskning....

  4. Differences in adults' health and health behaviour between 16 European urban areas and the associations with socio-economic status and physical and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Rianne; Koster, Emmy M; van Buren, Laurens P; van Ameijden, Erik J C; Harrison, Annie; Birt, Christopher A; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    With a growing proportion of the European population living in urban areas (UAs), exploring health in urban areas becomes increasingly important. The objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of differences in health and health behaviour between adults living in urban areas (UAs) across Europe. We also explored whether and to what extent such differences can be explained by socio-economic status (SES) and physical or social environment. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, performed between as part of the European Urban Health Indicator System Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) project. Using multi-level logistic regression analysis, UA differences in psychological distress, self-assessed health, overweight and obesity, daily smoking, binge drinking and physical exercise were assessed. Median Odds Ratios (MORs) were calculated to estimate the extent to which the observed variance is attributable to UA, individual-level SES (measured by perceived financial strains, education level and employment status) and/or characteristics of physical and social environment. The dataset included 14 022 respondents in 16 UAs within 9 countries. After correction for age and gender, all MORs, except that for daily smoking, indicated statistically significant UA health differences. SES indicators (partly) explained UA differences in psychological distress, decreasing the MOR from 1.43 [95% credible interval (Cr.I.) 1.27-1.67, baseline model], to 1.25 (95% Cr.I. 1.14-1.40, SES model): a reduction of 42%. Accounting for the quality of green areas reduced the MOR for psychological distress by an additional 40%, to 1.15 (95% Cr.I. 1.05-1.28). Our study showed large differences in health and health behaviour between European UAs. Reducing socio-economic disadvantage and improving the quality of the neighbourhood's green spaces may reduce UA differences in psychological distress.

  5. Hybridization levels in European Sus scrofa, comparison between genetic and survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor farming has been traditionally implemented in some European rural areas, but was mostly limited to backyard or small farming systems, however we are now observing an increment in this practice, as a result of both increased attention to animal welfare and consumers interest in organic food....... At the same time, Europe is showing interest in rewilding projects. This combination might expand the wildlife-livestock interface, with enhanced sanitary risk and hybridization. Hybridization events between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica; hereafter DP) and the wild boar (Sus scrofa; hereafter WB......) for the study of genomic ancestry and hybridization. SNP markers are easily comparable between laboratories, biparentally inherited and allow the simultaneous study of loci neutral and under selection. Here we present a comparison based on data from several European countries of genetic hybridization levels...

  6. A survey of patients' views from eight European countries of interpretive support from Specialists in Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian D; Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Jorgensen, Per E; Dikmen, Z Gunnur; Siodmiak, Joanna; Jovicic, Snezana; Aakre, Kristin M; Palicka, Vladimir; Kutt, Marge

    2017-08-28

    There is increasing interest in direct patient engagement including receiving their laboratory medicine results. We previously established an appetite for Specialists in Laboratory Medicine to support patients in understanding results. The aim of this study was to establish whether patients agreed with such an approach, determined through surveying views in eight European countries. A standardized five-question survey was administered across eight European countries to a total of 1084 individuals attending medical outpatient clinics, with 100 patients each in Poland, Serbia, Netherlands, Turkey and Czech Republic, 101 in Estonia, 116 in Denmark and 367 in Norway. The responses across countries were compared using the chi-square test (pLaboratory Medicine providing such information were acceptable to a mean of 62% of those respondents wishing their results; in countries where payment was possible, there was little interest in making additional payment for such a service. A clear proportion of patients are interested in receiving their laboratory medicine results, the majority with explanatory notes; a role for Specialists in Laboratory Medicine is acceptable and raises the potential for direct engagement by such specialists with patients offering a new paradigm for the provision of laboratory medicine activities.

  7. Participation in training of adult workers in European countries. Evidences from recent surveys

    OpenAIRE

    BADESCU Mircea; Loi, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The importance of a highly skilled workforce has become increasingly relevant in the context of the European Union new strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth - ‘Europe 2020’. At the individual level, a good education is increasingly decisive for employment prospects and earnings levels. Hence, education and training systems must generate new skills, to respond to the nature of the new jobs which are expected to be created, as well as to improve the adaptability and employability...

  8. Polish credit institutions within the European Union: a cross-country survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dybał

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the Polish financial system, with regard to both the number of financial institutions and their assets over the last two decades. Data on the structure of household assets are also presented. According to the study, banks are the most important institutions in the Polish financial system. Analyzed in order to compare Polish credit institutions with all other members of the European Union were total assets of credit institutions, assets of the 25 largest banks in the European Union, as well as in Central and East Europe, share of the five largest credit institutions in total assets (CR5, asset share of credit institutions with majority foreign equity ownership, number of credit institutions, number of local units (branches, number of residents per credit institution local unit, number of employees of credit institutions, assets of credit institutions per employee and GDP per capita in PPS. The data demonstrate that over the past decade Polish credit institutions have largely strengthened their position within the European Union.

  9. Exploring opportunities to support mental health care using social media: A survey of social media users with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McHugo, Gregory J; Unützer, Jürgen; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-10-20

    Social media holds promise for expanding the reach of mental health services, especially for young people who frequently use these popular platforms. We surveyed social media users who self-identified as having a mental illness to learn about their use of social media for mental health and to identify opportunities to augment existing mental health services. We asked 240 Twitter users who self-identified in their profile as having a mental illness to participate in an online survey. The survey was in English and inquired about participants' mental health condition, use of social media for mental health and interest in accessing mental health programs delivered through social media. Respondents from 10 countries completed 135 surveys. Most respondents were from the United States (54%), Canada (22%) and the United Kingdom (17%) and reported a psychiatric diagnosis of either schizophrenia spectrum disorder (27%), bipolar disorder (25%), major depressive disorder (16%) or depression (20%). Young adults age ≤35 (46%) were more likely to use Instagram (P = .002), Snapchat (P < .001) and their mobile phone for accessing social media (P < .001) compared to adults age 36 and older (53%). Most participants (85%) expressed interest in mental health programs delivered through social media, especially to promote overall health and wellbeing (72%) and for coping with mental health symptoms (90%). This exploratory study demonstrates the feasibility of reaching social media users with mental illness and can inform efforts to leverage social media to make evidence-based mental health services more widely available to those in need. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Lower limb pain among workers: a cross-sectional analysis of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria-Gabriela; Graf, Margaret; Läubli, Thomas

    2017-04-17

    Develop a model to predict the prevalence of lower limb pain using indicators of high workplace exposures based on the fifth European Working Conditions Survey, evaluate its impact and explore its significance for work-related health problems. Cross-sectional interview data of 35,372 workers from 27 countries of the European Union in 2010 (EU27) were used to develop (20% sample) and validate (80% sample) a logistic regression model for lower limb pain. Independent variables included descriptions of working conditions, assessments of physical and psychosocial exposures at work, and demographic factors. The impact of the model was explored through the amount of lower limb pain cases attributable to work and estimating work absences correlated with lower limb pain. The resulting logistic model included ten risks indicators and one preventive factor. The highest odds ratios (OR) corresponded to "tiring or painful positions" OR 2.0, 99% confidence interval (99% CI) 1.9-2.2, and "not satisfied with level of working conditions in the job" (OR 1.6, 99% CI 1.5-1.7). The prevalence of work-related lower limb pain was 16.5% for men and 15.8% for women for the 27 countries of the European Union. Estimates based on the developed model revealed more than 34 million cases of work-related lower limb pain, where four physical risks explained about 22 million cases. In addition, more than 3 million days of absence from work in 2010 could be attributed to lower limb pain. Lower limb pain is highly prevalent among the European workforce and work exposures are a major contributing factor. Effective workplace interventions should aim at improving working conditions at workplaces with multiple risks.

  11. Improving Comparability Of Survey Results Through Ex-Post Harmonisation A Case Study With Twelve European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    An essential prerequisite for research, decision making and effective policies in the field of sustainable transport are reliable data on travel behaviour. In particular comparative analyses over space or time allow for a better understanding of transport systems and their impact on travel...... behaviour. Further, there is an increasing need for comparable transport indicators at the international level. All along, National Travel Surveys (NTS) have been used to perform such analyses and to generate respective indicators. Despite their similar intention to elicit basic information on travel...

  12. A survey of European astronomical tables in the late middle ages

    CERN Document Server

    Chabás, José

    2012-01-01

    This is a survey of the numerous astronomical tables compiled in the late Middle Ages, which represent a major intellectual enterprise. Such tables were often the best way available at the time for transmitting precise information to the reader.

  13. Judicial review of the management of assistance provided by the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios V. Skiadas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the matters arising during the judicial review of the management of the assistance provided through the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment. Issues such as the direct actions for annulment, the actions for failure to act, the enforcement actions, the preliminary rulings and the actions for damages are examined in detail. The analysis focuses on topics like the identity of the reviewable acts, the standing of the applicants, the grounds of review, etc.

  14. Judicial review of the management of assistance provided by the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios V. Skiadas

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the matters arising during the judicial review of the management of the assistance provided through the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment. Issues such as the direct actions for annulment, the actions for failure to act, the enforcement actions, the preliminary rulings and the actions for damages are examined in detail. The analysis focuses on topics like the identity of the reviewable acts, the standing of the applicants, the grounds of review, etc.

  15. Sex ratio and time to pregnancy: analysis of four large European population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Mike; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky

    2007-01-01

    To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies.......To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies....

  16. Disabled older people's use of health and social care services and their unmet care needs in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Barbara; McKee, Kevin J; Döhner, Hanneli; Triantafillou, Judith; Lamura, Giovanni; Doroszkiewicz, Halina; Krevers, Barbro; Kofahl, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    The national health and social care systems in Europe remain poorly integrated with regard to the care needs of older persons. The present study examined the range of health and social care services used by older people and their unmet care needs, across six European countries. Family carers of older people were recruited in six countries via a standard protocol. Those providing care for disabled older people (n = 2629) provided data on the older person's service use over a 6-month period, and their current unmet care needs. An inventory of 21 services common to all six countries was developed. Analyses considered the relationship between older people's service use and unmet care needs across countries. Older people in Greece, Italy and Poland used mostly health-oriented services, used fewer services overall and also demonstrated a higher level of unmet care needs when compared with the other countries. Older people in the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden used a more balanced profile of socio-medical services. A negative relationship was found between the number of different services used and the number of different areas of unmet care needs across countries. Unmet care needs in older people are particularly high in European countries where social service use is low, and where there is a lack of balance in the use of health and social care services. An expansion of social care services in these countries might be the most effective strategy for reducing unmet needs in disabled older people.

  17. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Jo; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention...

  18. A Survey on Privacy and Security in Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kayes, Imrul; Iamnitchi, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSN) are a permanent presence in today's personal and professional lives of a huge segment of the population, with direct consequences to offline activities. Built on a foundation of trust-users connect to other users with common interests or overlapping personal trajectories-online social networks and the associated applications extract an unprecedented volume of personal information. Unsurprisingly, serious privacy and security risks emerged, positioning themselves a...

  19. A Survey of Signed Network Mining in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jiliang; Chang, Yi; Aggarwal, Charu; Liu, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world relations can be represented by signed networks with positive and negative links, as a result of which signed network analysis has attracted increasing attention from multiple disciplines. With the increasing prevalence of social media networks, signed network analysis has evolved from developing and measuring theories to mining tasks. In this article, we present a review of mining signed networks in the context of social media and discuss some promising research directions an...

  20. Survey of robust and resilient social media tools on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Brussee, P. W. G.; Pouwelse, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of robust and resilient social media tools to overcome natural disasters, censorship and Internet kill switches. These social media tools use Android devices to communicate during disasters and aim to overcome attacks on freedom of expression. There is an abundance of projects that aim to provide resilient communication, enhance privacy, and provide anonymity. We focus specifically on the limited set of mature tools with a healthy development community and Internet-depl...

  1. Radiotherapy staffing in the European countries: final results from the ESTRO-HERO survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Yolande; Defourny, Noémie; Coffey, Mary; Borras, Josep M; Dunscombe, Peter; Slotman, Ben; Malicki, Julian; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Grau, Cai; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Coucke, Philippe; Gabrovski, Roumen; Vosmik, Milan; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Jaal, Jana; Dejean, Catherine; Polgar, Csaba; Johannsson, Jakob; Cunningham, Moya; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Back, Carlo; Pirotta, Martin; Karadjinovic, Vanja; Levernes, Sverre; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Trigo, Maria Lurdes; Šegedin, Barbara; Palacios, Amalia; Pastoors, Bert; Beardmore, Charlotte; Erridge, Sara; Smyth, Gaile; Cleries Soler, Ramon

    2014-08-01

    The ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology (HERO) project has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The first milestone was to assess the availability of radiotherapy resources within Europe. This paper presents the personnel data collected in the ESTRO HERO database. An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European countries, through their national scientific and professional radiotherapy societies. The current report includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy staffing (questionnaire items 47-60), analysed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis was conducted between February and July 2014, and is based on validated responses from 24 of the 40 European countries defined by the European Cancer Observatory (ECO). A large variation between countries was found for most parameters studied. Averages and ranges for personnel numbers per million inhabitants are 12.8 (2.5-30.9) for radiation oncologists, 7.6 (0-19.7) for medical physicists, 3.5 (0-12.6) for dosimetrists, 26.6 (1.9-78) for RTTs and 14.8 (0.4-61.0) for radiotherapy nurses. The combined average for physicists and dosimetrists is 9.8 per million inhabitants and 36.9 for RTT and nurses. Radiation oncologists on average treat 208.9 courses per year (range: 99.9-348.8), physicists and dosimetrists conjointly treat 303.3 courses (range: 85-757.7) and RTT and nurses 76.8 (range: 25.7-156.8). In countries with higher GNI per capita, all personnel categories treat fewer courses per annum than in less affluent countries. This relationship is most evident for RTTs and nurses. Different clusters of countries can be distinguished on the basis of available personnel resources and socio-economic status. The average personnel figures in Europe are now consistent with, or even more favourable than

  2. Risks, regulation responsibilities and costs in nuclear waste management: A preliminary survey in the European Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, S.

    The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e., the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management.

  3. HIV-related restrictions on entry, residence and stay in the WHO European Region: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Curth, Nadja; Weait, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Back in 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) concluded that the screening of international travellers was an ineffective way to prevent the spread of HIV. However, some countries still restrict the entrance and/or residency of foreigners with an HIV infection. HIV-related travel restrictions...... have serious implications for individual and public health, and violate internationally recognized human rights. In this study, we reviewed the current situation regarding HIV-related travel restrictions in the 53 countries of the WHO European Region....

  4. European social model and challenges of globalization: searching the ways of balancing of the needs of the economy and societ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Topishko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of the fundamental models of social policy in the EU and social procection system as one of its mechanisms has been characterized. The changes in the division of responsibility between the subjects of social partnership in providing social protection is analyzed. Special attention paid to the increasing socio-economic contradictions in terms of global transformations and social orientation of stabilization measures by governments. The principles on which reform is carried taxation and social welfare systems is observed. It is also described the change in the tax system in terms of finding ways to fiscal consolidation, including the measures of increasing rate of progressivity of the tax system and fiscal role of indirect taxes, broadening the tax base, increase the tax burden on passive income. Approaches to adopt the European model of social protection to globalization and the rise of the economic crisis has been investigated. The ways to achieve a balance between the social functions of the state and the level of financial supportis outlined.

  5. A Survey of the Social Context of Drinking among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, George T.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed 110 female college students to study social context in which drinking occurs. Analyzed descriptions of respondents' experiences in their most recent social situation where alcohol was used by others. Findings showed experiences occurred within last 5 days and were primarily related to relaxing, eating, or celebrating events or holidays.…

  6. A Survey of Graduates of the University of Tennessee School of Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Creasie Finney, Ed.

    Findings are reported of a survey of the University of Tennessee School of Social Work (UTSSW) alumni conducted during 1978, which sought to identify ways to improve the school's graduate program, to strengthen its ability to serve its graduates, and to develop further knowledge in the area of social work manpower. The first paper, "A…

  7. A National Survey of Graduate Education in Psychopharmacology: Advancing the Social Work Perspective on Psychiatric Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Shannon; Narendorf, Sarah; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Social workers' unique skills and professional perspective can contribute to improved practices in psychopharmacology, yet it is unclear how social work programs prepare students for this area of practice. This study examined instruction of psychopharmacology through a national Web-based survey of MSW program directors and instructors of…

  8. Social Networking in School Psychology Training Programs: A Survey of Faculty and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Segool, Natasha; Burt, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites has become an emerging focus in school psychology training, policy, and research. The purpose of the current study is to present data from a survey on social networking among faculty and graduate students in school psychology training programs. A total of 110 faculty and 112 graduate students in school…

  9. Factors Influencing Service-Learning Utilization in Social Work: Results from an Online Survey of Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronley, Courtney; Madden, Elissa; Davis, Jaya; Preble, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The current study (N = 209) explored service-learning utilization in social work education by examining the influence of personal and institutional characteristics, perceived barriers, and beliefs about service-learning outcomes. Results of an online survey of social work educators showed that neither personal nor institutional characteristics…

  10. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus): a survey of 300 animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Adeyeye, Nina; Visser, Erni

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp biomicroscopy in animals where lesions were detected. Tonometry using the Tonovet rebound tonometer was undertaken in selected animals as was assessment of tear production using the Schirmer I tear test. Four animals were affected by orbital infection, 3 were anophthalmic, 2 unilaterally and one bilaterally, 3 by conjunctivitis, 3 by non-ulcerative keratitis and 4 by uveitis with corneal oedema. Fifty seven animals were affected by cataract, 54 with bilateral nuclear lens opacities. Twenty six of these animals were young animals considered too small to hibernate. This report documents the first prospective study of ocular disease in the European hedgehog. The predominant finding was bilateral nuclear cataract seen particularly in young poorly growing animals. Investigation into the potential causation of cataracts by poor nutrition or poor feeding ability by lens opacification requires further study.

  11. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus: a survey of 300 animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp biomicroscopy in animals where lesions were detected. Tonometry using the Tonovet rebound tonometer was undertaken in selected animals as was assessment of tear production using the Schirmer I tear test. Four animals were affected by orbital infection, 3 were anophthalmic, 2 unilaterally and one bilaterally, 3 by conjunctivitis, 3 by non-ulcerative keratitis and 4 by uveitis with corneal oedema. Fifty seven animals were affected by cataract, 54 with bilateral nuclear lens opacities. Twenty six of these animals were young animals considered too small to hibernate. This report documents the first prospective study of ocular disease in the European hedgehog. The predominant finding was bilateral nuclear cataract seen particularly in young poorly growing animals. Investigation into the potential causation of cataracts by poor nutrition or poor feeding ability by lens opacification requires further study.

  12. Salmonellosis associated with mass catering: a survey of European Union cases over a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, A; Aquilanti, L; Clementi, F

    2016-10-01

    Salmonella spp. is the causative agent of a foodborne disease called salmonellosis, which is the second most commonly reported gastrointestinal infection in the European Union (EU). Although over the years the annual number of cases of foodborne salmonellosis within the EU has decreased markedly, in 2014, a total of 88 715 confirmed cases were still reported by 28 EU Member States. The European Food Safety Authority reported that, after the household environment, the most frequent settings for the transmission of infection were catering services. As evidenced by the reviewed literature, which was published over the last 15 years (2000-2014), the most frequently reported causative agents were Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium serovars. These studies on outbreaks indicated the involvement of various facilities, including hospital restaurants, takeaways, ethnic restaurants, hotels, in-flight catering, one fast-food outlet and the restaurant of an amusement park. The most commonly reported sources of infection were eggs and/or egg-containing foods, followed by meat- and vegetable-based preparations. Epidemiological and microbiological studies allowed common risk factors to be identified, including the occurrence of cross-contamination between heat-treated foods and raw materials or improperly cleaned food-contact surfaces.

  13. European Hospital Survey: Benchmarking deployment of eHealth services (2012-2013) Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    PWC Eu Services

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this survey, conducted by PwC Luxembourg in cooperation with GDCC, was to benchmark the level of eHealth use in acute hospitals in all 27 EU Member States and Croatia, Iceland and Norway. The total geographical scope is hereafter referred to as EU27+3. This study builds upon previous studies in the area, most recently the eHealth Benchmarking III study of 20111, hereafter referred to as “the previous study”. The survey targeted the Chief Information Officers (CIOs) of the...

  14. Social media use among young rheumatologists and basic scientists: results of an international survey by the Emerging EULAR Network (EMEUNET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Studenic, Paul; Ammitzbøll, Christian Gytz; Canavan, Mary; Jani, Meghna; Ospelt, Caroline; Berenbaum, Francis

    2017-04-01

    To explore perceptions, barriers and patterns of social media (SM) use among rheumatology fellows and basic scientists. An online survey was disseminated via Twitter, Facebook and by email to members of the Emerging European League Against Rheumatism Network. Questions focused on general demographics, frequency and types of SM use, reasons and barriers to SM use. Of 233 respondents (47 countries), 72% were aged 30-39 years, 66% female. 83% were active users of at least one SM platform and 71% were using SM professionally. The majority used SM for communicating with friends/colleagues (79%), news updates (76%), entertainment (69%), clinical (50%) and research (48%) updates. Facebook was the dominant platform used (91%). SM was reported to be used for information (81%); for expanding professional networks (76%); new resources (59%); learning new skills (47%) and establishing a professional online presence (46%). 30% of non-SM users justified not using SM due to lack of knowledge. There was a substantial use of SM by rheumatologists and basic scientists for social and professional reasons. The survey highlights a need for providing learning resources and increasing awareness of the use of SM. This could enhance communication, participation and collaborative work, enabling its more widespread use in a professional manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Vocabulary Development in European Portuguese: A Replication Study Using the Language Development Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Nyame, Josephine; Dias, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to replicate previous cross­linguistic findings by comparing Portuguese and U.S. children with respect to (a) effects of language, gender, and age on vocabulary size; (b) lexical composition; and (c) late talking. Method: We used the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) with children (18-35 months) learning…

  16. Patterns in current perioperative practice: survey of colorectal surgeons in five northern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, K; Hannemann, P; Ljungqvist, O

    2005-01-01

    no bowel preparation, epidural anaesthesia/analgesia continued for one to two days postoperatively, no nasogastric decompression tube postoperatively, intravenous fluid/saline restriction, and free oral intake from postoperative day one. 1 - 5 This survey aimed to characterise perioperative practice...

  17. A survey of social media policies in U.S. dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rachel K; Webb, Chadleo

    2014-06-01

    Since social media sites began to appear in the 1990s, their popularity has increased dramatically, especially among younger individuals. With this widespread use of social media, institutions of higher education are finding the need to implement social media policies. The purpose of this study was to gather information from accredited U.S. dental schools on their social media policies. A survey sent to academic deans asked questions related to social media policies and violations of policies. The survey yielded a 35.9 percent (n=23) response rate. Social media policies at the university level were reported by 47.8 percent (n=11) of respondents, and 34.8 percent (n=8) had social media policies specifically in the dental school. Schools that had an institutional social media policy were more likely to have a social media policy in the dental school (p=0.01), and dental schools were more likely to have a policy if the academic dean had been in the position less than five years (p=0.01). All twenty-three responding dental schools have official social media pages. Dental educators and administrators may want to look for opportunities to raise awareness of social media professionalism in their dental schools.

  18. Applications of Calendar Instruments in Social Surveys: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, T.J.; Vaart, van der W.

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective reports in survey interviews and questionnaires are subject to many types of recall error, which affect completeness, consistency, and dating accuracy. Concerns about this problem have led to the development of so-called calendar instruments, or timeline techniques. These aided recall

  19. Communicating risk in dementia care: Survey of health and social care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian J; Stevenson, Mabel; McDowell, Michelle

    2017-12-11

    Supporting people to live at home in line with community care policies requires increasing attention to assessing, communicating and managing risks. There is a challenge in supporting client choices that include risk-taking while demonstrating professional accountability. Risk communication becomes increasingly important with the need to engage clients and families in meaningful shared decision-making. This presents particular challenges in dementia services. This survey of risk communication in dementia care was administered to all health and social care professionals in community dementia services in Northern Ireland: June-September 2016. Of 270 professionals, 70 questionnaires were fully completed, with 55 partial completions. Scores on the Berlin Numeracy Test plus Schwartz items was low-moderate (mean 2.79 out of 7). This study did not find a significant association between numeracy and accurate perceptions of risk likelihoods in practice-based scenarios. Although 86% reported using numeric information in practice (mostly from assessment tools), respondents rarely communicated themselves using numbers. As in other domains, participants' responses were widely variable on numeric estimates of verbal terms for likelihood. In relation to medication side effects, few participants provided responses that were concordant with those in the guidance of the European Union. The risks most commonly encountered in practice were (in rank order): falls, depression, poor personal hygiene, medicines mismanagement, leaving home unsupervised, financial mismanagement, malnutrition, swallowing difficulties, abuse from others, risks to others, home appliance accidents and refusing equipment. Respondents generally overestimated the likelihood of serious harmful events by approximately 10-fold (having a missing person's report filed with the police; having a fall resulting in hospitalisation) and by approximately double (being involved in a car accident; causing a home fire), and

  20. A Survey of Weight Perception and Social Desirability of Obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and its complications are emergent health challenges in developing countries including Nigeria. We determined the concordance of perceived with measured weight and assessed the social desirability of obesity among adults in Kano metropolis in northern Nigeria. METHODS: A cross sectional ...

  1. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G H; Ditiu, L; Migliori, G B

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...... and in-patient contacts. Screening of immigrants is related to their contribution to national rates of tuberculosis. Only 25 (50%) out of 50 advise a request for symptoms in their guidelines. A total of 36 (72%) out of 50 countries recommend sputum examination for those with a persistent cough; 13...

  2. Pediatric biobanking: a pilot qualitative survey of practices, rules and researcher opinions in ten European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvaterra, Elena; Giorda, Roberto; Bassi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    and data handling, and return of results as faced in 10 European countries. Because of the lack of comparative analyses of these topics, a pilot study was designed. Following a qualitative methodology, a questionnaire draft mostly including open-ended queries was developed, tested, and sent by e...... such as decision making, privacy protection, minor recontact, and research withdrawal by focusing on theoretical or empirical perspectives. Our research attempted to analyze such issues in a comprehensive manner by exploring practices, rules, and researcher opinions regarding proxy consent, minor assent, specimens......-mail to a selected group of researchers dealing with pediatric biobanking (n=57). Returned questionnaires (n=31) highlighted that the collection, storage, distribution, and use of biospecimens and data from children were widely practiced in the contacted laboratories. In most cases, pediatric biobanking...

  3. Social Networking Versus Facebook Advertising to Recruit Survey Respondents: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people’s attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Results Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region’s schools using standard mail and email. Conclusions Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods. PMID:25230740

  4. Social networking versus facebook advertising to recruit survey respondents: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Conor; Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-09-17

    Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people's attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region's schools using standard mail and email. Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods.

  5. Hidden from health: structural stigma, sexual orientation concealment, and HIV across 38 countries in the European MSM Internet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hickson, Ford; Weatherburn, Peter; Berg, Rigmor C; Marcus, Ulrich; Schmidt, Axel J

    2015-06-19

    Substantial country-level variation exists in prejudiced attitudes towards male homosexuality and in the extent to which countries promote the unequal treatment of MSM through discriminatory laws. The impact and underlying mechanisms of country-level stigma on odds of diagnosed HIV, sexual opportunities, and experience of HIV-prevention services, needs and behaviours have rarely been examined, however. Data come from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS), which was administered between June and August 2010 across 38 European countries (N = 174 209). Country-level stigma was assessed using a combination of national laws and policies affecting sexual minorities and a measure of attitudes held by the citizens of each country. We also assessed concealment, HIV status, number of past 12-month male sex partners, and eight HIV-preventive services, knowledge, and behavioural outcomes. MSM living in countries with higher levels of stigma had reduced odds of diagnosed HIV and fewer partners but higher odds of sexual risk behaviour, unmet prevention needs, not using testing services, and not discussing their sexuality in testing services. Sexual orientation concealment mediated associations between country-level stigma and these outcomes. Country-level stigma may have historically limited HIV transmission opportunities among MSM, but by restricting MSM's public visibility, it also reduces MSM's ability to access HIV-preventive services, knowledge and precautionary behaviours. These findings suggest that MSM in European countries with high levels of stigma are vulnerable to HIV infection. Although they have less opportunity to identify and contact other MSM, this might change with emerging technologies.

  6. The Social Enterprise In Romania : An European Perspective on Their Current Situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joop Vinke; Nicolae Bibu; Loredana Orhei

    2012-01-01

    The current paper is aimed at identifying the social enterprises according to EMES criteria by investigating the social economy actors in Romania. As an emerging field of study, social entrepreneurship and social enterprise have captured the attention of both practitioners from Europe and North

  7. Symptom recognition of heart attack and stroke in nine European countries: a representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Frank, Ronald; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death and a source of chronic disability. To assess recognition of and reaction to symptoms of heart attack and stroke, and how recognition is related to the frequency of consulting physicians and other information sources. Face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Representative sample of 10,228 persons in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Spain and UK, aged 14-98. Recognition of heart attack and stroke symptoms and proper reaction to symptoms. Chest pain was the only heart attack symptom recognized by more than 50% of participants. Eight percent knew no symptoms. Of 14 stroke symptoms, none was recognized by more than 50% of participants; 19% could not identify any symptom. For both heart attack and stroke, Germans and Austrians recognized the largest number of symptoms. Persons in Italy, Poland, Russia and Spain knew only about half as many symptoms as in Germany or Austria. Only 51% of Europeans would call an ambulance when someone suffers a stroke, the fewest (33 and 34%) in Germany and Austria. In most countries, people who consulted their physician more frequently had no better recognition of heart attack or stroke symptoms. The majority of persons in nine European countries recognize few heart attack and stroke symptoms; many do not know how to react. This low level of knowledge constitutes a major health risk and likely leads to delay in treatment, contributing to the high mortality and morbidity from these diseases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Reciprocal Relationship Between Social Connectedness and Mental Health Among Older European Adults: A SHARE-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ella; Litwin, Howard

    2017-11-04

    The current study aimed to understand the reciprocal relationship between social networks and mental health in old age. It explored the dynamic aspects of that relationship and assessed the influence of social networks on mental health, as well as a concurrent influence of mental health on change in social connectedness. The data came from two measurement points in the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The analytic sample was composed of adults aged 65 years and above (N = 14,706). Analyses were conducted via latent change score models. Analyses showed a reciprocal association between social networks and mental health; baseline social connectedness led to mental health improvements and a better initial mental state led to richer social networks. The results further indicated that the relative effect of mental health on change in social network connectedness was greater than the corresponding effect of social network connectedness on change in mental health. No gender differences were found regarding the reciprocal associations. The results of this study demonstrate the dynamic inter-relationship of social networks and mental health. It highlights the need to take into account both directions of influence when studying the impact of social relationships on mental health.

  9. A European survey of patient satisfaction with spectacles after cataract surgery and the associated costs in four European countries (france, Germany, Spain, and Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuq, Christophe; Lafuma, Antoine; Jeanbat, Viviane; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    With multifocal intraocular lenses, the majority of the patients do not wear glasses after cataract surgery which is a potential source of savings. To collect data in four European countries on the associated costs for society of wearing spectacles after cataract surgery and the patient willingness to pay to be free of spectacles. Cross-sectional survey of centers that recruited patients who wore refractive spectacles after cataract surgery. Costs were expressed in 2006 Euros Results: 408 patients were recruited by 22 centers. Patients with a mean age of 68.5 years underwent cataract surgery about 3 years prior to recruitment. In all countries, prescribed lenses were mainly mono-focal and the mean cost of spectacles was EUR366.3. Half the patient population with private health insurance was reimbursed for spectacles at a level of 50%, except Spanish patients who were reimbursed at only 5.3%. However, a large part of the cost was directly paid by the patients. Out of a total mean cost of EUR354.9, patients paid EUR285.2 and health insurances only EUR69.7. More than half the patients were willing to pay at least 0.5EUR/day to be free of spectacles. Large differences were found among the 4 countries. Almost half of all subjects had private health insurance. The total cost of refraction includes a variety of resources not limited to spectacles. A large part of the cost was borne by patients and there is a high patient willingness to pay to be free of spectacles in this population.

  10. Main traumatic events in Europe: PTSD in the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darves-Bornoz, Jean-Michel; Alonso, Jordi; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep-Maria; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Nachbaur, Gaëlle; Negre-Pages, Laurence; Vilagut, Gemma; Gasquet, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    A potentially traumatic event (PTE) contributes to trauma through its frequency, conditional probability of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and experience of other PTEs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, enrolling 21,425 adults nationally representative of six European countries. Using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 8,797 were interviewed on 28 PTEs and PTSD. Prevalence of 12-month PTSD was 1.1%. When PTSD was present, the mean number of PTEs experienced was 3.2. In a multivariate analysis on PTEs and gender, six PTEs were found to be more traumatic, and to explain a large percentage of PTSD, as estimated by their attributable risk of PTSD: rape, undisclosed private event, having a child with serious illness, beaten by partner, stalked, beaten by caregiver.

  11. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis......'. The reliability analysis shows that in eight of the nine countries frequency of drinking lowers the alpha. Injury and concern of others lead to a lower internal consistency in three countries. Conclusions: There was sufficient variation between countries in the pattern of responses and variation in gender...

  12. Land Cover and Land Use in Slovakia within the LUCAS 201 5 Pan-European Harmonized Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hutár

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The LUCAS project was launched following a decision by the European Parliament and Council of the European Union in May 2000. Eurostat started the LUCAS pilot project in close cooperation with the technical support of the Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development’s Joint Research Centre in 2001 . The main aim of the project is to provide a common, aligned, in situ overview of agricultural and environmental data, using GNSS and photo documentation for specific, georeferenced points. Research was carried out in Slovakia over a three-year period, starting in 2006. In 2009, an evaluation of land cover/use was carried out. This article presents the process of preparing, securing, conducting and researching the management of land cover and land use in Slovakia. The survey was launched in 201 2. The classification base consists of eight categories of land cover and land use, which are broken down into more detail. The result is a structured database of images and digital records for 2,455 selected points. The largest class mapped is forestland. The stabilization of the sampling scheme allowed the construction of a time series for monitoring land cover changes for selected types.

  13. ROMANIA’S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

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    Dogar Cristian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiary’s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiary’s internal control systems ESF financed interventions covers a large range of costs for implementing labor market related services. But supporting costs according to the sound financial management principle calls for best value for money in real and legal operations. Without some specifics from the donor or a mutual accepted best practice model, most of the ESF beneficiaries are reporting their efforts to actual researches and specialized literature regarding internal control system implementation in services. This study was realized in April 2012 by applying an investigation instrument, an on-line questionnaire collecting both opinions and factual data as well to a number of 962 members of a practice community for ESF interventions implementation. This technique was used to test hypotheses regarding the premises existence for a future improvement of the existing internal control system model. 100 members of this community: managers, accountants, auditors financial responsible and other team members answered anonymously, revealing a real concern for internal control, providing as well a different side image for this. Analyzing all stakeholder answers, we may consider that our hypothesis is correct and there is a real need for internal control environment improvements. This study is a part of a larger research “New models of the accounting and internal control systems of ESF financed interventions in Romania”, addressing a qualitative

  14. Definition of healthy eating in the Spanish adult population: a national sample in a pan-European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, M A; Lopez-Azpiazu, I; Kearney, J; Kearney, M; Gibney, M; Martinez, J A

    1998-03-01

    A national survey was carried out to find out how the Spanish adult population defined 'healthy eating'. Consumers were asked to describe in their own words what 'healthy eating' means to them. The sample included 1009 Spanish subjects over 15 y of age selected by a multietapic procedure. This study belongs to the Spanish partnership in a pan-European survey about attitudes to food, nutrition and health coordinated by the Institute of European Food Studies of Dublin. The results were shown as the percentages of the sample who gave one of the five most frequently mentioned descriptions ('more vegetables', 'balanced diet', 'more fruit', 'less fat' and 'more fish') and the distribution of responses by age, sex, region, socio-economic level and education level. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to assess the characteristics independently related to the use of the definition 'balance and variety' for healthy eating. The majority of the Spanish people defined 'healthy eating' as a diet with 'more vegetables' as the main description. Other descriptions commonly mentioned were 'less fat', 'more fruit', 'more fish', and 'more lean meat'. A higher age was associated with a lower likelihood of mentioning the concept of balanced diet. A higher educational level was also independently and strongly related to a higher prevalence of this definition. Differences between men and women showed only borderline significance. Our results suggest the need to improve nutritional education about fiber, low fat and cholesterol. It would be interesting to develop strategies in Spain to educate people on a definition of 'healthy eating' based upon 'balance and variety'.

  15. European survey of diagnosis and management of the polycystic ovary syndrome: results of the ESE PCOS Special Interest Group's Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Gerard; Dewailly, Didier; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Escobar-Morreale, Hector F; Franks, Steven; Gambineri, Alessandra; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Macut, Djuro; Micic, Dragan; Pasquali, Renato; Pfeifer, Marija; Pignatelli, Duarte; Pugeat, Michel; Yildiz, Bulent

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence for differences between endocrinologists and other specialists in their approach to diagnosis and management of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A mailed survey consisting of a simple questionnaire aiming to understand current practice for diagnosis and management of the PCOS by specialists across Europe. The questionnaire consisted of 23 questions grouped to achieve information on i) the general characteristics of the respondents, ii) patients with PCOS seen by endocrinologists, iii) the main diagnostic criteria, iv) biochemical parameters used in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism, v) long-term concerns, and, finally vi) treatment choices. A total of 357 questionnaires representing 13.3% of the members of European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) were available for final analysis; 93% of the respondents were endocrinologists In relation to the diagnostic criteria, respondents were most likely to select menstrual irregularity as the most frequent criteria used for the diagnosis of PCOS although very high rates were achieved for the use of hirsutism and biochemical hyperandrogenism. It therefore appears that the NIH criteria were followed by the majority of respondents. The most frequent biochemical parameters in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism were total testosterone or free androgen index. Obesity and type 2 diabetes were regarded as the principal long-term concerns for PCOS. The most common treatments for patients with PCOS were metformin (33%), lifestyle modification (25%), and oral contraceptives (22%). More direct treatments of infertility include clomiphene citrate alone or in combination with metformin, prescribed by 9 and 23%, respectively, whereas only 6% used other methods for induction of ovulation. The survey produced by ESE is a good start for evaluating the perspective in the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS by endocrinologists in Europe. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Pregnancy and melanoma: a European-wide survey to assess current management and a critical literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, S; Longo, C; Dika, E; Fortes, C; Pasquali, S; Nagore, E; Glass, D; Robert, C; Eggermont, A M; Testori, A; Quaglino, P; Nathan, P; Argenziano, G; Puig, S; Bataille, V

    2017-01-01

    Management of melanoma during pregnancy can be extremely challenging. The reported incidence of melanoma in pregnancy ranges from 2.8 to 5.0 per 100 000 pregnancies. There are no guidelines for the management of melanoma during pregnancy. The survey was designed to investigate the opinions of melanoma physicians on decision making in relation to pregnancy and melanoma. A clinical scenario-based survey on management of pregnancy in melanoma was distributed all over Europe via the membership of the EORTC and other European melanoma societies. A total of 290 questionnaires were returned with a larger participation from southern Europe. A large heterogeneity was found for the answers given in the different clinical scenarios with 50% of the answers showing discordance, especially regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy during pregnancy. Discordant answers were also found for the counselling of women about a potential delay in getting pregnant after a high-risk melanoma (35% for a 2 year wait minimum vs. 57% no waiting needed), while for thin melanomas, as expected, there was more concordance with 70% of the physicians recommending no delay. Fifteen per cent of physicians recommended an abortion in stage II melanoma during the third month of pregnancy. Twenty per cent of the responders advised against hormonal replacement therapy in melanoma patients. The management of melanoma during pregnancy varies widely in Europe. At present, there is a lack of consensus in Europe, which may lead to very important decisions in women with melanoma, and guidelines are needed. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. The Effects of Environmental and Social Dimensions of Sustainability in Response to the Economic Crisis of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Nevado-Peña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development, which has emerged over the last few decades, has moved away from the global to the local level. The sustainability measurements at the global level use the triple bottom line, considering environmental, economic and social dimensions; however, the limited data available at the local level has driven what little research there is to use these optics when considering cities sustainability. In this paper, we use a sustainability city index based on the intellectual capital approach, which considers the three dimensions for European cities. Concretely, we use the environmental and social dimensions of this city index to analyze the effect of different levels of development in terms of sustainability over the main economic variables with available information. The results highlight the importance of the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability in cities economic recovery and show that cities with best positions in sustainability have better performance in economic terms.

  18. Social survey findings on en route noise annoyance issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Most surveys of residents' reactions to aircraft noise were conducted in the vicinity of airports. The findings in those surveys have supported planning and regulatory actions for the airport noise environment. Now, however, aircraft noise planning and regulations are being considered for a new environment, the en route environment. As policy makers search for bases for public policy in these new noise environments, it is appropriate to ask whether the same scientific evidence which supports airport noise policy can also support en route noise policy. Several aspects of that question are considered. An introduction establishes the scope of the present study and examines alternative study methodologies. Next, the selected study methodology is described and important assumptions are listed. The body of the paper then consists of the findings on en route issues. The final section presents findings on relevant research methods and considers priorities for further research.

  19. European farmers' intentions to invest in 2014-2020: survey results

    OpenAIRE

    LEFEBVRE MARIANNE; DE CUYPER Kim; LOIX Ellen; VIAGGI Davide; GOMEZ Y PALOMA Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to analyse farmers’ intentions to invest in the period 2014-2020, focussing on investments in land, buildings, machinery and equipment, training, and quotas and production rights. It provides up-to-date information on EU farm investment patterns that is not otherwise available in traditional agricultural statistics (such as Farm Accountancy Data Network or the Eurostat Farm Structure Survey). Use of the data in this study contributes to the general understandin...

  20. Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

  1. Current practices in the management of malignant pleural effusions: a survey among members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarci, Marco; Caruana, Edward; Bertolaccini, Luca; Bedetti, Benedetta; Brunelli, Alessandro; Varela, Gonzalo; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Kuzdzal, Jaroslaw; Massard, Gilbert; Ruffini, Enrico; Falcoz, Pierre Emmanuel; Opitz, Isabelle; Batirel, Hasan; Toker, Alper; Rocco, Gaetano

    2017-03-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) commonly complicates advanced malignancy and their exact management is still undefined. We undertook a survey to determine the current practice among members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS). A cross-sectional survey focused on the current practice of management of MPE was developed by the authors. The questions were outlined after a review of the literature and circulated in an Internet-based survey format. Computed tomography (125, 92%) and chest X-ray (106, 78%) are the most common imaging modalities performed in the initial evaluation. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for washout and pleurodesis (93, 68%) was reported as the preferred approach to patients with uncomplicated MPE. Sixty-one (45%) of the responding colleagues routinely use large bore chest tubes for draining malignant effusions. Forty-nine (35%) surgeons would not apply suction to the drainage system, whilst 50 (37%) would use -2 kPa or less. Talc (124, 91%) is the most commonly used sclerosing agent for pleurodesis in the context of malignant pleural effusion. The practice of 76 (56%) of the respondents is not informed by any clinical guidelines, whilst 60 (44%) reported adhering to the 2010 British Thoracic Society Pleural Disease Guideline. Seventy-one (52%) declared that the guidance was in need of updating or revision. This survey demonstrates the lacking adoption of the existing clinical guidance in this field, as well as the need for more contemporary guidelines for a better-informed practice. The ESTS Working Group on the management of MPE has been established for this purpose.

  2. Results of a Quality of Work Life Index in Spain. A Comparison of Survey Results and Aggregate Social Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royuela, Vicente; Lopez-Tamayo, Jordi; Surinach, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    The European Union launched the Lisbon Strategy in 2000 with the aim of establishing itself as the world's most powerful economy. The importance of job quality has returned to the top of the European employment and social policy agenda. As targets are set, significant progress has been made in the creation of indicators. In this study, we compute…

  3. A descriptive survey study of violence management and priorities among psychiatric staff in mental health services, across seventeen european countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, Seamus; Björkdahl, Anna; Clarke, Eric; Gethin, Georgina; Maguire, Jim

    2017-01-19

    In mental health services what is commonplace across international frontiers is that to prevent aggressive patients from harming themselves, other patients or staff, coercive measures and foremost, violence management strategies are required. There is no agreement, recommendations or direction from the EU on which measures of coercion should be practiced across EU countries, and there is no overall one best practice approach. The project was conceived through an expert group, the European Violence in Psychiatry Research Group (EViPRG). The study aimed to incorporate an EU and multidisciplinary response in the determination of violence management practices and related research and education priorities across 17 European countries. From the EVIPRG members, one member from each country agreed to act as the national project coordinator for their country. Given the international spread of respondents, an eDelphi survey approach was selected for the study design and data collection. A survey instrument was developed, agreed and validated through members of EVIPRG. The results included a total of 2809 respondents from 17 countries with 999 respondents who self-selected for round 2 eDelphi. The majority of respondents worked in acute psychiatry, 54% (n = 1511); outpatient departments, 10.5% (n = 295); and Forensic, 9.3% (n = 262). Other work areas of respondents include Rehabilitation, Primary Care and Emergency. It is of concern that 19.5% of respondents had not received training on violence management. The most commonly used interventions in the management of violent patients were physical restraint, seclusion and medications. The top priorities for education and research included: preventing violence; the influence of environment and staff on levels of violence; best practice in managing violence; risk assessment and the aetiology and triggers for violence and aggression. In many European countries there is an alarming lack of clarity on matters of procedure

  4. The European social Fund in Romania – Qualitative research on the Project Management of the EU-funded Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu FORIS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the implementation of the programmes within the European Social Fund in Romania and on the particularities of managing projects financed with the Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development (SOPHRD, as well. In this regard, we undertook a piece of qualitative research with the project managers of some of the most important projects run in Romania so as to emphasize the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats encountered in developing them. The main results highlight the importance of being offered proper support by the SOPHRD programmes management authorities, the financial difficulties encountered in developing projects and last, but not least, the motifs of the low absorption rate of European funds in our country.

  5. Cinema in social Education studies as driving force for the construction of the keywords European higher Education area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen PEREIRA DOMÍNGUEZ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces us to an inner and outer journey toward that old world, europe. It regards to the importance of discovering this world through its landscape, its culture, its people and its values. In this sense, the film can be a vehicle to that encounter. Therefore, we use a repertory of cinema, performed in Europe and about Europe, which will help analyze, understand, think, discuss and assess on the construction and integrity of this context. besides, we embrace the film Ça commence aujourd’hui, a clear example that enriches the human being’s inner and promotes the European integration. we think that educational theories as these mentioned above are needed in the areas of Social education, are now essential for the European Higher education Area and for helping this society needed of communication and intercultural coexistence.

  6. Social Media Use Among Physicians and Trainees: Results of a National Medical Oncology Physician Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilman, Rachel; Rajmohan, Yanchini; Brooks, Edward; Urgoiti, Gloria Roldan; Chung, Caroline; Hammad, Nazik; Trinkaus, Martina; Naseem, Madiha; Simmons, Christine; Adilman, Rachel; Rajmohan, Yanchini; Brooks, Edward; Roldan Urgoiti, Gloria; Chung, Caroline; Hammad, Nazik; Trinkaus, Martina; Naseem, Madiha; Simmons, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Cancer management requires coordinated care from many health care providers, and its complexity requires physicians be up to date on current research. Web-based social media support physician collaboration and information sharing, but the extent to which physicians use social media for these purposes remains unknown. The complex field of oncology will benefit from increased use of online social media to enhance physician communication, education, and mentorship. To facilitate this, patterns of social media use among oncologists must be better understood. A nine-item survey investigating physician social media use, designed using online survey software, was distributed via e-mail to 680 oncology physicians and physicians in training in Canada. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 207 responses (30%) were received; 72% of respondents reported using social media. Social media use was highest, at 93%, in respondents age 25 to 34 years and lowest, at 39%, in those age 45 to 54 years. This demonstrates a significant gap in social media use between younger users and mid- to late-career users. The main barrier to use was lack of free time. The identified gap in social media use between age cohorts may have negative implications for communication in oncology. Despite advancements in social media and efforts to integrate social media into medical education, most oncologists and trainees use social media rarely, which, along with the age-related gap in use, may have consequences for collaboration and education in oncology. Investigations to further understand barriers to social media use should be undertaken to enhance physician collaboration and knowledge sharing through social media.

  7. Social Media Use Among Living Kidney Donors and Recipients: Survey on Current Practice and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazley, Abby Swanson; Hamidi, Bashir; Balliet, Wendy; Baliga, Prabhakar

    2016-12-20

    In the United States, there is a national shortage of organs donated for transplant. Among the solid organs, most often kidneys are donated by living donors, but the lack of information and complicated processes limit the number of individuals who serve as living kidney donors. Social media can be a tool for advocacy, educating the public about the need, process, and outcomes of live kidney donors, yet little is known about social media use by kidney transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the social media use of potential kidney transplant patients and their willingness to use social media and their networks to advocate and educate about living kidney donation. Using a validated survey, we modified the instrument to apply to the patient population of interest attending the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. The questions on the survey inquired about current social media use, sites visited, frequency and duration of social media use, and willingness to use social media to share the need for living kidney donors. We asked patients who had received a transplant and those awaiting a transplant to complete the survey during an office visit. Participation was voluntary. A total of 199 patients completed the survey. Approximately half of all kidney transplant patients surveyed used social media (104/199, 52.3%), and approximately one-third (66/199, 33.2%) had more than 100 friends in their social media network. Facebook was the most popular site, and 51% (102/199) reported that they would be willing to post information about living kidney donation on their social networks. More than a quarter of the sample (75/199, 37.7%) had posted about their health status in the past. Social media holds great promise for health-related education and awareness. Our study shows the current social media use of kidney transplant patients. In turn, such information can be used to design interventions to ensure appropriate decision making about

  8. Developing a culturally competent and socially relevant sexual health survey with an urban Arctic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesink, Dionne; Rink, Elizabeth; Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth; Mulvad, Gert; Koch, Anders

    2010-02-01

    To develop a culturally competent and socially relevant sexual health survey for people living in Nuuk, Greenland, aged 15 years and older. Qualitative study with interviews. Community and research informants (n=10) were interviewed informally to identify survey topics. A sexual health survey was constructed combining local knowledge from informants with a review of sexual health literature for the Arctic and other Indigenous locations. The draft survey was distributed to community partners for commentary and revision. After translation into Danish and Greenlandic, cognitive interviews were conducted with 11 Nuuk residents, identified through snowball sampling, to both pilot test the survey and exchange social and cultural knowledge relevant to sexual health in Nuuk. The utility of this process was evaluated against implementation of the final survey to Nuuk residents enrolled in Inuulluataarneq (n=149). Theme saturation was reached by the ninth interview. STI risk and self-efficacy, co-occurrence of alcohol use and sex and STI knowledge were identified as most relevant. Questions about community efficacy, culture/community involvement and identity were most sensitive. Upon implementation of the final survey, 146 of 149 participants answered all survey questions. Two Elder participants refused to answer questions about sex. Some questions had low response variability but still added to our contextual understanding and helped to build rapport with participants. Combining an iterative process with community-based participatory research principles and cognitive interview techniques was an effective method for developing a sexual health survey with Nuuk residents.

  9. Does organ donation legislation affect individuals' willingness to donate their own or their relative's organs? Evidence from European Union survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Font Joan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining adequately high organ donation rates proves essential to offering patients all appropriate and available treatment options. However, the act of donation is in itself an individual decision that requires a depth of understanding that interacts with the social setting and the institutional framework into which an individual is embedded. This study contributes to understanding factors driving organ donation rates by examining how country regulation, individuals' awareness of regulatory setting, social interactions and socio-demographic determinants influence individuals' willingness to donate their own organs or those of a relative. Methods We draw representative data from the Eurobarometer survey 58.2 undertaken in 2002 with respondents throughout the European Union to capture heterogeneity in institutional setting. We use logistic regression techniques to estimate the determinants of willingness to donate one's own organs and those of a deceased relative. We employ interaction terms to examine the relationship between institutional setting and respondent's awareness of organ donation legislation in their country. Results Our findings indicate that individuals are more likely to donate their organs than to consent to the donation of a relative's organs. Both decisions are affected by regulation (presumed consent, awareness of regulation and social interactions such as the ability to count on others in case of a serious problem (reciprocity. Furthermore, education (more educated, age (younger, expressing some sort of political affiliation determine willingness to donate one's own organs and consent to the donation of those of a relative. Conclusion This study confirms and develops further previous research findings that presumed consent organ donation policy positively affects the willingness of individuals to donate their own organs and those of relative by highlighting the importance of awareness of this regulation

  10. Clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy: a European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeag, David; Lane, Carol; Lazarus, John H; Baldeschi, Lelio; Boboridis, Kostas; Dickinson, A Jane; Hullo, A Iain; Kahaly, George; Krassas, Gerry; Marcocci, Claudio; Marinò, Michele; Mourits, Maarten P; Nardi, Marco; Neoh, Christopher; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Perros, Petros; Pinchera, Aldo; Pitz, Susanne; Prummel, Mark F; Sartini, Maria S; Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2007-01-01

    Background This study was performed to determine clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) across Europe. Methods Forty seven patients with DON presented to seven European centres during one year. Local protocols for thyroid status, ophthalmic examination and further investigation were used. Each eye was classified as having definite, equivocal, or no DON. Results Graves' hyperthyroidism occurred in the majority; 20% had received radioiodine. Of 94 eyes, 55 had definite and 17 equivocal DON. Median Clinical Activity Score was 4/7 but 25% scored 3 or less, indicating severe inflammation was not essential. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/9 (Snellen) or worse in 75% of DON eyes. Colour vision was reduced in 33 eyes, of which all but one had DON. Half of the DON eyes had normal optic disc appearance. In DON eyes proptosis was > 21 mm (significant) in 66% and visual fields abnormal in 71%. Orbital imaging showed apical muscle crowding in 88% of DON patients. Optic nerve stretch and fat prolapse were infrequently reported. Conclusion Patients with DON may not have severe proptosis and orbital inflammation. Optic disc swelling, impaired colour vision and radiological evidence of apical optic nerve compression are the most useful clinical features in this series. PMID:17035276

  11. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero Angel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40% reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7. Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges.

  12. Drivers of innovation in the European Food Industry: Evidences from the Community Innovation Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ciliberti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation is particularly important for innovation in the food industry. as it has traditionally been considered as a “low tech” sector. This paper analyses how different forms of cooperation affect innovation activities in the EU’s food industry. To this purpose, we analysed data at the country level drawn from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS. A random effect linear model is formulated and estimated to analyse the panel data obtained from five CIS waves. The model indicates that cooperation with universities positively affects innovative activity whereas, surprisingly, government financial support has not been an effective instrument to foster innovation.

  13. The potential of transnational language policy to promote social inclusion of immigrants: An analysis and evaluation of the European Union's INCLUDE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Cui

    2017-08-01

    Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the European level. Challenged by questions as to whether language learning should be prioritised as a human right or as human capital building, how host/mainstream language learning can be reinforced while respecting language diversity, and other problems, member countries still need to find solutions. Confronting these dilemmas, this study analyses the relationship and interactions between language learning and immigrants' social inclusion in different contexts. It explores the potential of enhancing the effectiveness of language policies via a dialogue between policies and practices in different national contexts and research studies in the field of language and social inclusion. The research data are derived from two databases created by a European policy for active social inclusion project called INCLUDE. This project ran from 2013 to 2016 under the EU's lifelong learning programme, with funding support from the European Commission. Through an analysis of these two project databases, the paper reviews recent national language policies and their effect on the social inclusion of migrants. In the second part of her article, the author interprets the process of language learning and social inclusion using poststructuralist theories of language and identity.

  14. Understanding the perceptions of and emotional barriers to infertility treatment: a survey in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domar, Alice; Gordon, Keith; Garcia-Velasco, Juan; La Marca, Antonio; Barriere, Paul; Beligotti, Fabiola

    2012-04-01

    Infertility can significantly impact women's lives and personal relationships. Despite the negative impact of infertility, a significant number of women who are struggling to conceive do not consult a physician. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the emotional impact of infertility on women to identify which aspects of fertility treatment contribute to the psychological stress experienced by so many patients and to identify barriers to seeking treatment. Women (n = 445; 18-44 years) who had received fertility treatment within the past 2 years or were having trouble conceiving but had not received treatment, completed a 15-min survey online. Participants were from France (n = 108), Germany (n = 111), Italy (n = 112) and Spain (n = 114). Responses indicated that infertility causes a range of emotions and can strain relationships. Women who had received treatment were more likely to feel hopeful (26 versus 21%) and closer to their partner than women not in treatment (33 versus 19%, P psychological challenges of infertility treatments and permitted a better understanding of the factors that impact patient lives. A treatment protocol with minimal injections and provision of additional information may lessen the emotional impact and challenges of infertility and contribute to patient satisfaction with fertility treatment protocols.

  15. Survey of otolaryngology services in Ukraine and neighbouring Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, M M; Wagner, R; Fishchuk, R; Fagan, J J

    2017-11-01

    The present humanitarian crisis in Ukraine is putting strains on its healthcare system. This study aimed to assess services and training in otolaryngology, audiology and speech therapy in Ukraine and its geographical neighbours. Survey study of 327 otolaryngologists from 19 countries. Fifty-six otolaryngologists (17 per cent) from 15 countries responded. Numbers of otolaryngologists varied from 3.6 to 12.3 per 100 000 population (Ukraine = 7.8). Numbers of audiologists varied from 0, in Ukraine, to 2.8 per 100 000, in Slovakia, and numbers of speech therapists varied from 0, in Bulgaria, to 4.0 per 100 000, in Slovenia (Ukraine = 0.1). Ukraine lacks newborn and school hearing screening, good availability of otological drills and microscopes, and a cochlear implant programme. There is wide variation in otolaryngology services in Central and Eastern Europe. All countries surveyed had more otolaryngologists per capita than the UK, but availability of audiology and speech and language therapy is poor. Further research on otolaryngology health outcomes in the region will guide service improvement.

  16. Population prevalence of asthma and its determinants based on European Community Respiratory Health Survey in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboub Bassam H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No population study has explored the population distribution of adult asthma in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The objective is to estimate asthma prevalence in general population in UAE. Methods Using standard European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaires and tools, this is a cross-sectional assessment of a random sample of the population in established quotas of the seven Emirates in the UAE. We surveyed 1,220 participants, of which 63.2% were male, and 20.1% were UAE Nationals, with a mean (SD age of 32.9 (14.1 years. Results Prevalence of individual respiratory symptoms from the ECRHS screening questionnaire in all participants were generally ranging 8 - 10%, while participants 20-44 years presented lower prevalence in all symptoms (p Conclusion We conclude that asthma is common in the UAE, and gender differences are not observed in reported asthma symptoms in young adults. This being the first population based study exploring the prevalence of asthma and its determinants in the United Arab Emirates based on the ECRHS.

  17. Maternal yolk androgens in European starlings : affected by social environment or individual traits of the mother?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Corine M.; Pavlova, Denitza; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne

    Social competition among female birds has been shown to positively affect yolk androgen levels, perhaps providing a mechanism to communicate environmental conditions to offspring. Whether this relationship is due to social density or to differences among mothers that breed in different social

  18. Situation of European SMEs in the olive oil and table olive area. Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador, Javier

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the situation of European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the olive oil and table olive sector is carried out in order to find their main needs in the following aspects: information, participation in Research, Development and Innovation (R+D+I programmes, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs implementation, quality control, environmental impacts, etc. The data used in this study were obtained through questionnaires sent to SMEs in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey. The results obtained show: a reasonable acceptance of ICTs, a high interest in training courses on the most recent and pertinent legislation, and in product quality improvement and marketing.En este trabajo, se realiza un estudio de la PYME europea en el sector olivarero para detectar las principales necesidades que tienen las empresas en información técnica, participación en proyectos de investigación, formación, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC, calidad, impacto ambiental, etc. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de encuestas enviadas a empresas de Alemania, Francia, España, Grecia, Italia, Portugal y Turquía. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las TIC tienen un nivel razonable de implantación en este sector industrial. Así mismo, las empresas encuestadas manifiestan tener gran interés en actividades de formación e información en la legislación relacionada con el sector, el control de calidad y el marketing.

  19. European Veterinary Renal Pathology Service: A Survey Over a 7-Year Period (2008-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresu, L; Martini, V; Benali, S L; Brovida, C; Cianciolo, R E; Dalla Riva, R; Trez, D; Van Der Lugt, J J; Van Dongen, A; Zini, E

    2017-09-01

    The European Veterinary Renal Pathology Service (EVRPS) is the first Web-based registry for canine renal biopsy specimens in Europe. The aim was to verify whether differences exist between the clinical and laboratory presentation of dogs with nephropathy according to renal pathological findings, as defined by light and electron microscopy of renal biopsy specimens submitted to EVRPS. Renal biopsy specimens of dogs were collected from the archive of the service (n = 254). Cases were included if both light and electron microscopy were available (n = 162). Renal biopsy specimens were classified based on the morphological diagnoses. Thereafter, they were grouped into 3 disease categories, including immune-complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN), non-immune-complex-mediated GN (non-ICGN), and renal lesions not otherwise specified (RL-NOS). Differences among morphological diagnoses and among disease categories were investigated for clinical and laboratory variables. Serum albumin concentration was lower in dogs with ICGN than in those with non-ICGN (P = 0.006) or RL-NOS (P = 0.000), and the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) was significantly higher in ICGN than in the other 2 disease categories. Regarding morphological diagnoses, albumin was significantly lower in amyloidosis (AMY) and membranous (MGN), membranoproliferative (MPGN) or mixed glomerulonephritis (MixGN) than in minimal change disease, primary (FSGS I) or secondary (FSGS II) focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and juvenile nephropathies (JN). The UPC was higher in MPGN than in FSGS I and FSGS II. Dogs with ICGN, in particular MPGN, had higher protein loss than those with non-ICGN or RL-NOS, leading to more severe hypoalbuminemia. Clinical and laboratory differentiation among dogs with the different morphological diagnoses and among dogs with different disease categories was difficult due to overlapping results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

  20. The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS): the final band-merged catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Lari, C.; Perez-Fournon, I.

    2004-01-01

    per cent of 15-mum galaxies with known z), many with Arp220-like SEDs. 10 per cent of the 15-mum sources are genuine optically blank fields to r' = 24: these must have very high infrared-to-optical ratios and probably have z > 0.6, so are high-luminosity dusty starbursts or Type 2 AGN. Nine...... between z = 0 and 1. There is also a surprisingly large population of luminous (L-ir > 11.5), cool (cirrus-type SEDs) galaxies, with L-ir L-opt > 0, implying A(V) > 1....... (AGN) dust torus models. Spectroscopic redshifts are tabulated, where available. For the N1 and N2 areas, the Isaac Newton Telescope ugriz Wide Field Survey permits photometric redshifts to be estimated for galaxies and quasars. These agree well with the spectroscopic redshifts, within the uncertainty...

  1. Doctor contraceptive-prescribing behaviour and women's attitudes towards contraception: two European surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Dominic; Hooper, David J

    2011-06-01

    Many women are prescribed oestrogen-containing contraceptives for whom oestrogen-containing methods may be less suitable. Two surveys examining contraceptive prescription practices among doctors (n = 419) and attitudes towards contraception among women (n = 1623) in France, Germany, Spain, Italy and Russia were evaluated. Progestin-only pills and hormone-free intrauterine devices were the most commonly prescribed contraceptives for women with medical conditions for which oestrogen-containing methods are not preferred (40% and 20%, respectively), those suffering from oestrogen-related side effects (32% and 21%) and those with concerns about the safety of oestrogen-containing methods (28% and 24%). Combined oral contraceptives (COC) were prescribed to ≥ 10% in these two groups. One-quarter of contraceptive users had asked to be switched from one COC to another because of oestrogen-related side effects; a similar proportion had been switched by their doctor for this reason. Half of the women surveyed did not want or had concerns about foreign/additional oestrogen, and about 80% said that they would consider switching to a different hormonal contraceptive to minimize oestrogen exposure. Although most doctors were aware of the World Health Organization medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, they still prescribed COCs or other oestrogen-containing contraceptives to women with medical conditions for which oestrogen-containing options are not favoured, suggesting a need for additional education. By complying with guidelines and heeding women's concerns, doctors can individualize their contraceptive recommendation to improve safety, acceptance and compliance and, ultimately, reduce the risk of an unintended pregnancy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [Intergenerational social mobility and health in Brazil: analyzing the "Social Dimensions of Inequalilies Survey (PDSD)," 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Luisa Sorio; Laguardia, Josué; Campos, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Although most studies consider health to be the result of social and economic insertion of the individuals, health may be considered a determining factor of the social opportunities achieved, especially with respect to chances of social mobility. The scope of this article is to understand the magnitude of the concurrent associations that sociodemographic, health and quality of life conditions (SF-36) exercise on chances of intergenerational social mobility on a probability sample of Brazilian homes in 2008. Social mobility was determined by the transition between occupational groups, which were defined using the Ganzeboom scale. Sociodemographic, health and quality of life features were associated with upward social mobility through logistic regression. A high level of schooling was the main determinant of chances of intergenerational social mobility. Women and youngsters ascended more intergenerationally. A positive association was observed between self assessment of health, physical health scores and upward mobility. Social mobility has become established as a multideterminate event. Physical health and perceived health were capable of influencing social transitions.

  3. Depression burden in luxembourg: Individual risk factors, geographic variations and the role of migration, 2013-2015 European Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castell, Maria; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Perquin, Magali; Bocquet, Valéry; Kuemmerle, Andrea; Vögele, Claus; Stranges, Saverio

    2017-11-01

    Depression is a complex mental disorder that affects an increasing proportion of the worldwide population. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Luxembourg, associated risk factors and geographic variations. Additionally, it aims to assess whether first and second generation immigrants are at higher risk for depressive symptoms compared to non-immigrants. Representative cross-sectional data from 1499 residents of Luxembourg, aged 25-64 years, were collected from the Luxembourg European Health Survey (EHES-LUX). Depressive symptoms were defined as a score of ≥5 on the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9) (i.e. mild, moderate or severe). Standard and Bayesian regression models were used to examine associations between depressive symptoms, immigration status and geographic distribution across Luxembourg. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 21.55% (15.54% mild, 3.54% moderate, and 2.49% moderately severe to severe). The odds of having depressive symptoms was higher among second generation immigrants compared to non-immigrants (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.41), independent of socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Healthier diet, higher social support and good health perception were protective towards experiencing depressive symptoms. One of the highest likelihoods of reporting depressive symptoms was observed in the South-West of the country with a positive effect at 80% credible region [CR] (1.42 [0.92, 2.73]). The participation rate was low (26.7%). The cross-sectional nature of the study does not allow us to establish causality. Depression constitutes an important public health challenge in Luxembourg due to the impact on the overall health of the population. Social programs of health promotion should be developed to improve mental wellbeing in immigrants, especially those of second generation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Serendipitous Survey: A Look at Primary and Specialist Palliative Social Work Practice, Preparation, and Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumser, Bridget; Remke, Stacy; Leimena, Meagan; Altilio, Terry; Otis-Green, Shirley

    2015-10-01

    Health professionals have begun to identify competencies needed for primary and specialist levels of palliative care practice, but little attention has been given to how these skills are acquired. The authors electronically surveyed a wide range of health social workers and educators to investigate their reported levels of preparation, training, and self-assessed competence to provide palliative and end-of-life care. Two health social work surveys were developed: one for educators and one for practitioners and students. The study used an electronic snowball sampling method with eight national social work listservs to capture a wide range of settings where health social workers may teach or practice. The survey was completed by 1149 self-identified health care social workers, 35% of whom identified as a specialist in palliative care. Health social work clinicians report competence in many skills related to palliative care and the psychosocial determinants of health, having developed these skills primarily through interprofessional and peer collaboration. A representative sample of social workers practicing in health care identify high competence in essential aspects of palliative care. This speaks to an existing pool of clinicians who, if practicing to the top of their licenses, have the potential to provide primary palliative care and contribute to the person-family centered care called for in the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report. Few programs exist to prepare social workers to work as specialists in palliative or end-of-life settings, and respondents identified key areas of practice that need to be integrated into graduate education to ensure that students, practitioners, and educators are better prepared to maximize the impact of health social work. Further research is needed to better understand how to prepare and train specialist-level palliative care social workers.

  5. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  6. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  7. Fruit and vegetable intake of mothers of 11-year-old children in nine European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Alexandra; Yngve, Agneta; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare fruit and vegetable intakes of mothers of 11-year-old children across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 9 European countries in October/November 2003. Self-administered questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable consumption were used...

  8. Use of sedation for routine diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Survey of National Endoscopy Society Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladas, S. D.; Aabakken, L.; Rey, J.-F.; Nowak, A.; Zakaria, S.; Adamonis, K.; Amrani, N.; Bergman, J. J. G. H. M.; Boix Valverde, J.; Boyacioglu, S.; Cremers, I.; Crowe, J.; Deprez, P.; Díte, P.; Eisen, M.; Eliakim, R.; Fedorov, E. D.; Galkova, Z.; Gyokeres, T.; Heuss, L. T.; Husic-Selimovic, A.; Khediri, F.; Kuznetsov, K.; Marek, T.; Munoz-Navas, M.; Napoleon, B.; Niemela, S.; Pascu, O.; Perisic, N.; Pulanic, R.; Ricci, E.; Schreiber, F.; Svendsen, L. B.; Sweidan, W.; Sylvan, A.; Teague, R.; Tryfonos, M.; Urbain, D.; Weber, J.; Zavoral, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sedation rates may vary among countries, depending on patients' and endoscopists' preferences. The aim of this survey was to investigate the rate of using premedication for routine diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy in endoscopy societies, members of the European

  9. European communication monitor 2015: excellence in strategic communication: creating communication value through listening, messaging and measurement: results of a survey in 41 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfass, A.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Moreno, A.; Tench, R.

    2015-01-01

    The ECM 2015 survey is based on responses from 2,253 communication professionals in 41 countries. Detailed analyses are available for 20 countries and different types of organisations (companies, non-profits, governmental, agencies). The study was organised by the European Public Relations Education

  10. A survey of urban and suburban methane hotspots across five European capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Robert; Jacobson, Gloria; Xuref-Remy, Irène; Crosson, Eric

    2013-04-01

    A growing awareness that urban and suburban areas are greenhouse gas emissions hotspots has resulted in calls to quantify and study the primary sources from cities. Of especial focus is methane, which is 25 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO2. Early studies have hinted at obvious sources of methane, such as industrial sites, landfills and waste water treatment plants. However, the size, density and diversity of urban and suburban areas suggest that these cannot be the only significant sources of methane emissions. Recent work has revealed that leaks from natural gas distribution networks are a major source of methane emissions in Boston, the totality of which has the potential to swamp all other sources of urban methane in accounting schemes. Such a result also indicates that not all methane sources are obvious, and that in-depth on-site investigation across large swaths of urban areas will be needed to properly appreciate the full magnitude of methane emissions from urban and suburban areas across the globe. The challenge of measuring methane emissions from large urban areas is greatly reduced by employing the Investigator, which combines the high precision of cavity ring-down spectroscopy with geospatial and metorological data. In this presentation, we will show results of such Investigator runs conducted between November 2011 to December 2012 in and around Amsterdam, Geneva, Istanbul, London, and Paris. A number of significant sources were common to all locations including the obvious (landfills, industrial sites and waste water treatment plants), the disconcerting (natural gas leaks at street level) and unexpected (recreational marinas, "green" public transport). The overall view from the Investigator runs show that even though emissions sources in and around major European cities are highly diverse, they share much commonality, suggesting harmonized emissions reductions schemes across borders are possible. The results also clearly indicate that the

  11. European Paediatric Surgeons' Association Survey on the Management of Hirschsprung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Augusto; Eaton, Simon; Morini, Francesco; Puri, Prem; Rintala, Risto; Heurn, Ernest van; Lukac, Marija; Bagolan, Pietro; Kuebler, Joachim F; Friedmacher, Florian; Wijnen, Rene; Tovar, Juan A; Hoellwarth, Michael E; Pierro, Agostino

    2017-02-01

    Aim This study aims to define patterns of Hirschsprung disease (HD) management. Methods An online questionnaire was sent to all European Paediatric Surgeons' Association (EUPSA) members. Results A total of 294 members (61 countries) answered (response rate: 61%). All respondents perform rectal biopsies (61% rectal suction [RSBs], 39% open full-thickness), 96% contrast enema, and 31% anorectal manometry. At RSB, 17% take the most distal biopsy 1 cm above the dentate line, 34% take 2 cm, 30% take 3 cm, and 19% take > 3 cm. Rectal biopsy staining's are hematoxylin/eosin (77%), acetylcholinesterase (74%), calretinin (31%), S100 (2%), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-tetrazolium reductase (2%), succinate dehydrogenase (1%), and neuron-specific enolase (1%). A total of 85% respondents recognize entities including hypoganglionosis (69%), intestinal neuronal dysplasia (55%), and ultrashort segment HD (50%). Pull-through (PT) is performed at diagnosis by 33% or delayed by 67% (4 months or > 5 kg). Awaiting definitive surgery, 77% perform rectal irrigations, 22% rectal dilatation/stimulations, and 33% perform a stoma. The preferred type of PT is the Soave approach (65%), performed with transanal technique by 70% respondents. If symptoms persist after PT, most opt for conservative approach (enemas/laxatives = 76%; botulinum toxin = 27%), 30% would redo the PT. Total colonic aganglionosis: PT is performed in neonates (4%), at 1 to 6 months (29%), 6 to 12 months (37%) or older (30%). If required, a stoma is sited in the ileum (31%), according to intraoperative biopsies (54%), macroscopic impression (13%), and radiology (2%). Duhamel PT is performed by 52%, Soave by 31%, and Swenson by 17%. Overall, 31% would perform a J-pouch. Conclusions Most aspects of HD management lack consensus with wide variations in obtaining a diagnosis. Transanal Soave PT is the most common technique in standard segment HD. Guidelines should be developed to avoid such

  12. Social science teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of high school teachers’ views on citizenship education in three European countries – the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia. In all these countries, citizenship is an important part of school curriculum. The teachers need to find ways to deal with the everyday

  13. Equality machineries matter: The impact of women's political pressure on European social care policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Roggeband, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of feminist pressure and European Union (EU) policies on national policy changes, such as the introduction or extension of public childcare provision, parental leave, and part-time work legislation. We compared six countries on the basis of Qualitative Comparative

  14. Social capital, leadership and policy arrangements in generating sustainable European rural regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Marsden, T.

    2010-01-01

    In European regions, an increasingly complex arena of actors is involved in today’s development agendas. They range from private firms and labour organisations to government and non-government institutions. The complexity of issues and actors is difficult to manage for current policy institutions.

  15. Guest editorial: Heteropolitanization: social and spatial change in Central and East European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentile, M.; Tammaru, T.; Kempen, R. van

    2012-01-01

    With more than 20 years of European post-socialist transition behind us, research on the cities of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has yet to be situated in contemporary urban theory. Placed within a context of growing research interest on CEE cities, this theme issue on Heteropolitanization:

  16. Age-Related Patterns in Social Networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for Socioemotional Selectivity across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…

  17. Evolutions of the Social Sphere and of the Labour Market in Process of European Integration – is the Nordic Model Worth Following?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ailinca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration in Europe knows different stages and degrees of integration, Economic and Monetary Union (EMU being the penultimate stage which involves harmonizing fiscal and monetary policies. In this respect, in the desire to show the contribution to the increasing of economic integration in the European Union (EU, the article sets as the objectives, in tandem national-European, the identification of discrepancies of social indicators of EU countries in report to the targets of the Europe 2020 strategy. Thus, we used an approach based on a case study of EU countries, comparing the performance of social indicators in EU countries against European targets. The results showed that the Nordic countries are the closest to the social objectives of the Union, offering a good performance of these indicators. The prior work in the literature identifies many types of social models, from which the Nordic model is described as the one that provides the highest level of social welfare. Thus, the value of the study consists in clearly pointing out the qualities of the Nordic social model, arguing with figures and information why it may be more appropriate to its expanded implementation at the level of the European Union. As far as social policies of EU member states may be at least partially adapted to meet the performance of Nordic social model, the research can have several benefic implications, especially for policy makers.

  18. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units: a policy survey in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice; Greisen, Gorm; Pierrat, Veronique; Warren, Inga; Haumont, Dominique; Westrup, Björn; Smit, Bert J; Sizun, Jacques; Cuttini, Marina

    2012-09-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out. Prospective multicenter survey. Neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Patients were not involved in this study. None. A structured questionnaire was mailed to 362 units (response rate 78%); only units with ≥50 very-low-birth-weight annual admissions were considered for this study. Facilities for parents such as reclining chairs near the babies' cots, beds, and a dedicated room were common, but less so in Italy and Spain. All units in Sweden, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Belgium reported encouraging parental participation in the care of the babies, whereas policies were more restrictive in Italy (80% of units), France (73%), and Spain (41%). Holding babies in the kangaroo care position was widespread. However, in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, many units applied restrictions regarding its frequency (sometimes or on parents request only, rather than routinely), method (conventional rather than skin-to-skin), and clinical conditions (especially mechanical ventilation and presence of umbilical lines) that would prevent its practice. In these countries, fathers were routinely offered kangaroo care less frequently than mothers (p parents to take part in the care of their babies, the intensity and ways of involvement as well as the role played by mothers and fathers varied within and between countries.

  19. Breaking bad news in a Southeast European population: a survey among cancer patients in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqiri, Arben; Toci, Ervin; Sallaku, Agim; Qirjako, Gentiana; Burazeri, Genc

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes of cancer patients, their family, and community members in Albania, a post-communist country in Southeast Europe, regarding breaking bad news. One hundred and fifty consecutive cancer patients, 150 respective relatives, and an age-sex-residence matched sample of 150 individuals in Tirana district were interviewed from September 2009-January 2010 about attitudes related to diagnosis disclosure. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of diagnosis disclosure with demographic characteristics. Community members were the most in favor, whereas the patients' relatives were the least in favor of diagnosis disclosure. Most of the patients, who were aware of their diagnosis, were not satisfied with the disclosure approach employed by the medical staff. The odds of favoring diagnosis disclosure were significantly higher among younger, male, urban, and more educated patients. This survey identified important characteristics of cancer patients, their relatives, and a community-based sample in Albania that could predict the willingness to disclose a fatal diagnosis. Establishment of a formal training of health professionals regarding breaking bad news should be considered in order to ensure a proper approach of communicating diagnosis to cancer patients in transitional Albania.

  20. THE IMPACT OF THE SOCIAL RISKS ON THE YOUNG EUROPEAN PEOPLE DURING THE LAST TEN YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    DANU Marcela-Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    The social risks, components of the system of risks affecting the individual, organizations, society as a whole, given determination and effects in the economic, social, political, cultural, etc. have become, an important issue for the health and viability of the nations, mainly through the young population that provides transmission medium and long term, of the system of values, ideas, behaviors. In the present study highlighted, in dynamic, compared and correlated, major social risks - unem...