WorldWideScience

Sample records for european social survey

  1. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms...... of the establishment of homological structures and the formation of conjunctural alliances between the field of European social-scientific research and the field of European policy. The three interwoven processes that I depict are: first, the production of a European field of social research, connected to both...... European and national scientific institutions; second, the establishment of European Union (EU) institutions and organisations that were able to identify and link up with social researchers; and third, the formation of conjunctural alliances between the two fields (social science and EU research policy...

  2. The Cases of the European Values Study and the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    institutions, had ties to the EU, and used survey techniques to address urgent contemporary political and social problems. Despite their similarities, the surveys represent two rather different constellations of social science knowledge production. The EVS emerged from a coalition of Catholic-oriented agents...... continued to play a significant role in its constellation. The ESS grew out of a scientific and technical aspiration among wellconnected and recognised Western European social scientists. It emphasised rigourous methods and drew on its founding agents’ close relations with European institutions...

  3. PERCEPTION OF SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION IN RESULTS OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária HOMIŠINOVÁ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical indices concerning social discrimination were applied repeatedly in the extensive sociological research (within The European Social Survey. They were applied in individual six rounds (in two-year cycles. The aim was to determinate the rate of generally perceived discrimination and to find particular reasons (forms of discrimination (race, nationality, religion, language, ethnicity, age, gender, sexuality. The aim of the study is to inform technical community on the knowledge in the socioscientific field (perception of social discrimination in Slovakia and in other European countries and to contribute to the enrichment of information base in the research sphere as well as to bring near sciences of different orientation.

  4. The social and behavioural determinants of health in Europe: findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijts, Tim; Stornes, Per; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies comparing the social and behavioural determinants of health in Europe have largely focused on individual countries or combined data from various national surveys. In this article, we present the findings from the new rotating module on social determinants of health in the European Social Survey (ESS) (2014) to obtain the first comprehensive comparison of estimates on the prevalence of the following social and behavioural determinants of health: working conditions, access to healthcare, housing quality, unpaid care, childhood conditions and health behaviours. We used the 7th round of the ESS. We present separate results for men and women. All estimates were age-standardized in each separate country using a consistent metric. We show country-specific results as well as pooled estimates for the combined cross-national sample. We found that social and behavioural factors that have a clear impact on physical and mental health, such as lack of healthcare access, risk behaviour and poor working conditions, are reported by substantial numbers of people in most European countries. Furthermore, our results highlight considerable cross-national variation in social and behavioural determinants of health across European countries. Substantial numbers of Europeans are exposed to social and behavioural determinants of health problems. Moreover, the extent to which people experience these social and behavioural factors varies cross-nationally. Future research should examine in more detail how these factors are associated with physical and mental health outcomes, and how these associations vary across countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  6. Measuring employment precariousness in the European Working Conditions Survey: the social distribution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Vanroelen, Christophe; Vives, Alejandra; Martínez, José Miguel; Muntaner, Carles; Levecque, Katia; Benach, Joan; Louckx, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Precarious employment is becoming an increasingly important social determinant of health inequalities among workers. The way in which contemporary employment arrangements and their health consequences are addressed in empirical research is mostly based on the contract-related or employment instability dimension. A broader conceptual approach including various important characteristics of the degrading of employment conditions and relations is needed. The general objective of this paper is to empirically test a new multidimensional construct for measuring precarious employment in an existing database. Special focus is on the social distribution of precarious employment. A subsample of 21,415 participants in the EU-27 from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey-2005 was analysed. A cross-sectional study of the social distribution of precarious employment was conducted through the analysis of proportional differences according to gender, social class and credentials for the European Union as a whole and within each country. The 8 dimensions of the employment precariousness construct were represented by 11 indicators. In general, women, workers without supervisory authority, those with fewer credentials, and those living in Eastern and Southern European countries suffer the highest levels of precarious employment. Exceptionally, men, workers with supervisory authority and those with the highest credentials suffer the highest levels of long working hours, schedule unpredictability and uncompensated flexible working times. This article offers the first validation for an innovative multidimensional conceptualisation of employment precariousness applied to the analysis of existing survey data, showing the unequal distribution of precarious employment across the European labour force. This set of indicators can be useful for monitoring precarious employment.

  7. Perceived Role of Social Media in Urologic Knowledge Acquisition Among Young Urologists: A European Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Juan Gomez; Socarras, Moises Rodriguez; Patruno, Giulio; Uvin, Pieter; Esperto, Francesco; Dinis, Paulo Jorge; Roupret, Morgan; Borgmann, Hendrik

    2017-07-27

    Social media (SoMe) are increasingly being integrated into personal and professional life, with urology being a leading medical specialty in SoMe adoption. We aimed to assess the perceived role of SoMe in urologic knowledge acquisition among young urologists across Europe. Members of the European Society of Residents in Urology designed a 20-item online survey via surveymonkey.com. The survey was designed in accordance with Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES) guidelines and was distributed via e-mail and social media in 23 European countries to urology residents and young urologists. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. For comparative analysis the Mann-Whitney U test was used. A total of 316 young urologists with a mean age of 31.2±3.9 yr responded to the survey. Of the respondents, 99% use SoMe in a personal and/or professional way. YouTube and LinkedIn are the most frequently used platforms for professional use. SoMe were ranked in third place as an information source for urologic news/updates, lying behind journals and websites but ahead of congresses and books. Video content from YouTube or other sources was ranked as a preferred tool to see/understand surgical techniques ahead of websites and reference books. 61% follow urologic associations, 47% follow urologic events, 44% follow urologic journals, and 39% follow urologic experts on SoMe. The perceived influence of SoMe on urology knowledge was rated as moderate to high by 63% and as low to none by 37% of young urologists. Of the respondents, 44% apply guidelines on the appropriate use of SoMe in urology. SoMe play a significant role in knowledge acquisition by young urologists in Europe. Physicians, organizations, and institutions should strive to spread and provide valuable educational content through SoMe. Social media can be valuable for education in urology because it is useful to keep

  8. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Health in the Ukrainian Working-age Population: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    Gender is a one of the most important social determinants of health inequality. Ukrainian life expectancy gender gap is almost ten years in favor of women. Data from the 2 - 6 rounds (N=5158) of a European Social Survey are used to show gender differences in self-reported health (IBM SPSS 22...

  9. Social-ethical issues concerning the control strategy of animal diseases in the European Union: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, N.E.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Stassen, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 a survey was conducted in the member states of the European Union designed to gain greater insight into the views on control strategies for foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever, and avian influenza with respect to the epidemiological, economic and social-ethical consequences of each

  10. Evaluating the quality of sampling frames used in European cross-national surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maineri, A.M.; Scherpenzeel, A.; Bristle, Johanna; Pflüger, Senta-Melissa; Butt, Sarah; Zins, Stefan; Emery, Tom; Luijkx, R.

    This report addresses the quality of the population registers which are currently being used as sampling frames in countries participating in the four cross-European surveys cooperating in SERISS: the European Social Survey (ESS), the European Values Study (EVS), the Gender and Generations Program

  11. Importance of security and socialization in europeans life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Şerb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the importance of safety and socialization in the lives of individuals. The influence of agents of socialization (school, family, friends are manifested as differences in preferences, feelings and thoughts of people. The article is structured in two parts. The first part presents the knowledge in the field, but in the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In the second part is carried out an research among Europeans about some aspect of their lives: how they spend their free time, the feeling of attachment to the community, a sense of security and availability to communicate personal matters to their group of friends. The research method was investigating the secondary sources (database obtained from the survey from a site specializing in the analysis of living conditions of Europeans - European Social Survey. After the reception and processing of results in Excel and SPSS we obtained a general conclusion that people need to socialize, to be part of a group and feel safe.

  12. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alvarez-Galvez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. METHODS: We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010. This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. RESULTS: The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1 age discrimination; (2 disability discrimination; and (3 sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim

  13. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the impact of these social determinants on health

  14. Analyzing and forecasting the European social climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses the results of the sample survey Eurobarometer, which has been requested by the European Commission. The social climate index is used to measure the level of perceptions of population by taking into account their personal situation and their perspective at national level. The paper makes an analysis of the evolution of social climate indices for the countries of European Union and offers information about the expectations of population of analyzed countries. The obtained results can be compared with the forecasting of Eurobarometer, on short term of one year and medium term of five years. Modelling the social climate index and its influence factors offers useful information about the efficiency of social protection and inclusion policies.

  15. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  16. Can European socio-economic governance be social investment proof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Chapter on the European Semester in the a book "The Uses of Social Investment", which provides the first study of the welfare state, under the new post-crisis austerity context and associated crisis management politics, to take stock of the limits and potential of social investment. It surveys the

  17. The socioeconomic distribution of non-communicable diseases in Europe: findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Courtney L; Balaj, Mirza; Thomson, Katie H; Eikemo, Terje A; Solheim, Erling F; Bambra, Clare

    2017-02-01

    A range of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been found to follow a social pattern whereby socioeconomic status predicts either a higher or lower risk of disease. Comprehensive evidence on the socioeconomic distribution of NCDs across Europe, however, has been limited. Using cross-sectional 2014 European Social Survey data from 20 countries, this paper examines socioeconomic inequalities in 14 self-reported NCDs separately for women and men: heart/circulatory problems, high blood pressure, back pain, arm/hand pain, foot/leg pain, allergies, breathing problems, stomach/digestion problems, skin conditions, diabetes, severe headaches, cancer, obesity and depression. Using education to measure socioeconomic status, age-controlled adjusted risk ratios were calculated and separately compared a lower and medium education group with a high education group. At the pooled European level, a social gradient in health was observed for 10 NCDs: depression, diabetes, obesity, heart/circulation problems, hand/arm pain, high blood pressure, breathing problems, severe headaches, foot/leg pain and cancer. An inverse social gradient was observed for allergies. Social gradients were observed among both genders, but a greater number of inequalities were observed among women. Country-specific analyses show that inequalities in NCDs are present everywhere across Europe and that inequalities exist to different extents for each of the conditions. This study provides the most up-to-date overview of socioeconomic inequalities for a large number of NCDs across 20 European countries for both women and men. Future investigations should further consider the diseases, and their associated determinants, for which socioeconomic differences are the greatest. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes and Differences in Poles’ Hierarchy of Values – on Basis of the European Social Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błoński Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the changes that have place with regard to Poles’ value system over the last 12 years, as well as to demonstrate differences based on sex, level of education and household income level. The analysis was based on the results of the European Social Survey (ESS. The research results indicate that the hierarchy of values cherished by Poles does not undergo significant changes. The most important values are security, universalism and benevolence. The least significant values include hedonism, stimulation and power. There are no identifiable differences in the hierarchies of values of women and men. However, there are noticeable differences depending on the level of education, household income level and age of surveyed respondents.

  19. The cultural and social integration in intra-european migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos Chica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When a migrant arrives to a different country, hemust choose how to behave in this new society. His background his present competences and his expectations about future affect this election. To understand how a migrant lives in his country of residence key concepts such as socialization processes, culture shock, intercultural competence or acculturation processes areneeded. Using data from the European Internal Movers’ SocialSurvey (EIMSS, this work focuses on the analysis of two dimensions, cultural integration and social integration, which will characterize the way that European migrants live in a new socialsetting, and their relation with the migrants’ perception of discrimination or their psychological adaptation, in terms of homesicknessand satisfaction with life.

  20. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS), round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines ...

  1. The European Public on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarta, Ancuta-Gabriela

    This study explorers the European public on social media by discussing the case of communicative interactions taking place on the official Facebook page of the European Parliament. Based on the theoretical framework conceptualizing the public and the public sphere on social network sites, the study...... examines the European social media public from two perspectives. The first is a top-down, institutional perspective of European Parliament, based on a case-study approach to the way this European institution constructs and addresses the public through its social media communication. The second is a bottom......-up perspective of the public of social media users, informed by a content analysis of Facebook comments and a discourse analysis of live chat interactions with Members of the European Parliament. Results confirm a discursive potential of the Facebook public of users. In the case of the Facebook comment threads...

  2. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  3. European road users’ risk perception and mobility : the SARTRE 4 survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Antov, D. Banet, A. Barbier, C. Bellet, T. Bimpeh, Y. Boulanger, A. Brandstätter, C. Britschgi, V. Brosnan, M. Buttler, I. Cestac, J. , De Craen, S. de Delhomme, P. Dogan, E. Drápela, E. Forward, S. Freeman, R. Furian, G. Gábor, M. Goldenbeld, C. Henriksson, P. Holte, H. Kraïem, S. Papadimitriou, E. Podlesek, A. Polic, M. Sánchez-Martín, F. Sardi, G.-M. Schmidt, E.-A. Silverans, P. Siska, T. Skládaná, P. Theofilatos, A. Below, A. von Yannis, G. Zaidel, D. & Zavrides, N.

    2012-01-01

    The SARTRE (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) project started in 1991. It consists of a European wide survey about knowledge of road traffic laws and road traffic risks, attitudes regarding road safety issues, reported road traffic behaviours, transport habits and needs in several European countries. Various topics related to road safety are in the focus of the project such as alcohol, drugs, or phone use while driving, speeding, use of advanced driver assistance systems and th...

  4. European road users’ risk perception and mobility : the SARTRE 4 survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antov, D. Banet, A. Barbier, C. Bellet, T. Bimpeh, Y. Boulanger, A. Brandstätter, C. Britschgi, V. Brosnan, M. Buttler, I. Cestac, J. , De Craen, S. de Delhomme, P. Dogan, E. Drápela, E. Forward, S. Freeman, R. Furian, G. Gábor, M. Goldenbeld, C. Henriksson, P. Holte, H. Kraïem, S. Papadimitriou, E. Podlesek, A. Polic, M. Sánchez-Martín, F. Sardi, G.-M. Schmidt, E.-A. Silverans, P. Siska, T. Skládaná, P. Theofilatos, A. Below, A. von Yannis, G. Zaidel, D. & Zavrides, N.

    2012-01-01

    The SARTRE (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) project started in 1991. It consists of a European wide survey about knowledge of road traffic laws and road traffic risks, attitudes regarding road safety issues, reported road traffic behaviours, transport habits and needs in several

  5. SOCIAL TRUST – DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricea Elena BERTEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Social trust or the belief that others will not harm us or will look after us, if possible, is a concept of interest for many scientists coming from different areas. It can be important for economists, for sociologists, for psychologists or health researchers. Differences in social trust can predict differences in economic development as well. The present study aims to compare the levels of social trust from Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Poland. To do that, we will use data from the European Social Survey, the 2008 round.

  6. Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise - (Korean translation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge.......Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge....

  7. The Social and Economic Effects of Deterioration in Health: ‘Naked-eye’ Evidence from a European Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigone Lyberaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the mobilization of social reserves in action in a large European sample survey. The longitudinal dataset of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE is used to identify individuals whose health underwent a major deterioration. The objective is to give a characterization of the problems faced by individuals in different parts of Europe when confronted by similar problems. Though the prevalence of health deterioration was roughly uniform across countries, men’s health impact rises sharply with age, while women appear to accept deterioration as a natural part of ageing. Health deterioration is instrumental in driving individuals out of employment, especially in the South. Treatment styles are very different, with emphasis on hospitals in central Europe, and Doctor visits more common in the South.

  8. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL DIALOGUE

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    Mihai, OPRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the moment, worldwide, social dialogue is considered to be a very useful tool in solving serious social problems caused by globalization or as a consequence of the way the costs and benefits of the economic changes are distributed. Promoting social dialogue at European level remains a strategic objective of the European Union, which must be sustained by all appropriate means, and in the same time it should be used as an instrument for Stability and Development. Improving the convergence of the social partners' actions from the Member States with the social partners' actions from the Community level is required for the effectiveness of European social dialogue. Social dialogue will be applied, in the next period, into the trans-national system, at regional and inter-regional levels, given the trends of decentralization, integration and globalization that affect all communities.

  9. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.

  10. Political participation in European welfare states: Does social investment matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, Paul; Nguyen, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The role of the welfare state has expanded beyond passive assistance and decommodificaton. In many countries, social investment policies now actively encourage (re)integration into the labour market. While the effectiveness of these policies is debated, we know even less about their broader social...... and political effects. In this contribution, we explore the impact of social investment policies on one key aspect of social life: political participation. Combining insights from social psychology with institutional analysis, we investigate the impact of three social investment policies (early childhood...... education, secondary education, active labour market policies) on two disadvantaged groups: young individuals from low-skill backgrounds; and single parents. Combining the European Social Survey with data on social investment, we find that these risk groups have reduced political efficacy and political...

  11. European health inequality through the 'Great Recession': social policy matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Saltkjel, Therese; Chen, Wen-Hao; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the association between the Great Recession and educational inequalities in self-rated general health in 25 European countries. We investigate four different indicators related to economic recession: GDP; unemployment; austerity and a 'crisis' indicator signifying severe simultaneous drops in GDP and welfare generosity. We also assess the extent to which health inequality changes can be attributed to changes in the economic conditions and social capital in the European populations. The paper uses data from the European Social Survey (2002-2014). The analyses include both cross-sectional and lagged associations using multilevel linear regression models with country fixed effects. This approach allows us to identify health inequality changes net of all time-invariant differences between countries. GDP drops and increasing unemployment were associated with decreasing health inequalities. Austerity, however, was related to increasing health inequalities, an association that grew stronger with time. The strongest increase in health inequality was found for the more robust 'crisis' indicator. Changes in trust, social relationships and in the experience of economic hardship of the populations accounted for much of the increase in health inequality. The paper concludes that social policy has an important role in the development of health inequalities, particularly during times of economic crisis. © 2018 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  12. Europeanization and social movement mobilization during the European sovereign debt crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses Europeanization of social movements in the context of the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Europeanization occurs when movements collaborate, or make horizontal communicative linkages with movements in other countries, contest authorities beyond the state, frame issues...

  13. CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Iovitu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: “we are not bringing together states, we are uniting people”. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.

  14. Radiologists' Usage of Social Media: Results of the RANSOM Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranschaert, Erik R; Van Ooijen, Peter M A; McGinty, Geraldine B; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    The growing use of social media is transforming the way health care professionals (HCPs) are communicating. In this changing environment, it could be useful to outline the usage of social media by radiologists in all its facets and on an international level. The main objective of the RANSOM survey was to investigate how radiologists are using social media and what is their attitude towards them. The second goal was to discern differences in tendencies among American and European radiologists. An international survey was launched on SurveyMonkey ( https://www.surveymonkey.com ) asking questions about the platforms they prefer, about the advantages, disadvantages, and risks, and about the main incentives and barriers to use social media. A total of 477 radiologists participated in the survey, of which 277 from Europe and 127 from North America. The results show that 85 % of all survey participants are using social media, mostly for a mixture of private and professional reasons. Facebook is the most popular platform for general purposes, whereas LinkedIn and Twitter are more popular for professional usage. The most important reason for not using social media is an unwillingness to mix private and professional matters. Eighty-two percent of all participants are aware of the educational opportunities offered by social media. The survey results underline the need to increase radiologists' skills in using social media efficiently and safely. There is also a need to create clear guidelines regarding the online and social media presence of radiologists to maximize the potential benefits of engaging with social media.

  15. Exploring the differences in general practitioner and health care specialist utilization according to education, occupation, income and social networks across Europe: findings from the European social survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjær, Erlend L; Balaj, Mirza; Stornes, Per; Todd, Adam; McNamara, Courtney L; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-02-01

    Low socioeconomic position (SEP) tends to be linked to higher use of general practitioners (GPs), while the use of health care specialists is more common in higher SEPs. Despite extensive literature in this area, previous studies have, however, only studied health care use by income or education. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine inequalities in GP and health care specialist use by four social markers that may be linked to health care utilization (educational level, occupational status, level of financial strain and size and frequency of social networks) across 20 European countries and Israel. Logistic regression models were employed using data from the seventh round of the European Social Survey; this study focused upon people aged 25–75 years, across 21 countries. Health care utilization was measured according to self-reported use of GP or specialist care within 12 months. Analyses tested four social markers: income (financial strain), occupational status, education and social networks. We observed a cross-national tendency that countries with higher or equal probability of GP utilization by lower SEP groups had a more consistent probability of specialist use among high SEP groups. Moreover, countries with inequalities in GP use in favour of high SEP groups had comparable levels of inequalities in specialist care utilization. This was the case for three social markers (education, occupational class and social networks), while the pattern was less pronounced for income (financial strain). There are significant inequalities associated with GP and specialist health care use across Europe—with higher SEP groups more likely to use health care specialists, compared with lower SEP groups. In the context of health care specialist use, education and occupation appear to be particularly important factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Self-Rated Health: Study of 29 Countries Using European Social Surveys (2002–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Alonso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES and self-rated health (SRH varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008, in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.

  17. The European Construction Social Partners: Gender Equality in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    2005-01-01

    that play a role in women's integration. The responses indicate that the construction industry still displays inertia and conservatism, and that the social partners coroborate rather than counter this. They express a "discourse" of gender equality, but this does not automatically lead to equal opportunity......This article explores the social partners' role in a gender quality agenda in construction at skilled operative level. It draws on a survey of the European construction social partners that investigated the presence of women in skilled trades and the policies, collective agreements and practices...... policies or programmes. The social partners have a platform to make inroads and to change the industry from within, but need further encouragement to put this on their agenda....

  18. Religiosity and basic values of Russians (based on the European Social Survey and Orthodox Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Prutskova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the relationship between religiosity and basic values in Russia. Basic values are measured by the Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire. The analysis is based on the data of the European Social Survey conducted in 2012 and the Orthodox Monitor survey conducted in 2012 as well, which is a representative survey of churched Russian Orthodox Christians. Usually based on the results of mass surveys, the connection of basic values with religiosity in Russia is very weak. One possible reason is the use of inappopriate indicators to measure the degree of religiosity. One of the most important characteristics that distinguish churched Orthodox Christians is regular Communion, which presupposes quite serious preparation, fasting and Confession. People make an attempt to rethink their views, values, and change their behavior. If this happens with a certain regularity, then it can lead to a gradual change in basic values, conditioned by religiosity. Such working out the best of oneself may not occur if a person just attends religious services, but does not receive Communion. Churched Orthodox are much more committed to the values of Conservation and Self-Transcendence, and less to the values of Openness to change and Self-Enhancement. One of the unexpected results was the discovery of significant differences in the values of Universalism, in which the churched Orthodox Christians are noticeably ahead of the average Russians, while in most previous studies the relationship of religiosity to the values of Universalism was either negative or absent, and only rarely was weak positive. Also, despite the general low commitment to the values of Openness to change, the differences are due to the great rejection of the values of Hedonism and Stimulation, while the values of Self Direction differ from the average Russians only slightly.

  19. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-12-01

    Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29-62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  20. European Private Law - Survey 1998-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    From its conception, the European Review of Private Law has tried, sometimes in vain, to publish Chronicles (‘Chroniques’) or Surveys of the main areas of private law: Contract, Inheritance, Property, Tort, etc. The idea of these Chronicles or Surveys is that, within a specific area of private

  1. Social entrepreneurship and the mobilization of social capital in European social enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer på baggrund af en stor komparativ europæisk undersøgelse anvendelsen og produktionen af social kapital i europæiske eksempler på socialt entreprenørskab (European social enterprises)...

  2. The contribution of housing and neighbourhood conditions to educational inequalities in non-communicable diseases in Europe: findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Courtney L; Balaj, Mirza; Thomson, Katie H; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2017-02-01

    Social gradients have been found across European populations, where less affluent groups are more often affected by poor housing and neighbourhood conditions. While poor housing and neighbourhood quality have been associated with a range of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), these conditions have rarely been applied to the examination of socioeconomic differences in NCDs. This study therefore asks ‘to what extent does adjusting for poor housing and neighbourhood conditions reduce inequalities in NCDs among men and women in Europe’? Our analysis used pooled-data from 20 European countries for women (n= 12 794) and men (n= 11 974), aged 25–75, from round 7 of the European Social Survey. Fourteen NCDs were investigated: heart/circulatory problems, high blood pressure, back pain, arm/hand pain, foot/leg pain, allergies, breathing problems, stomach/digestion problems, skin conditions, diabetes, severe headaches, cancer, obesity and depression. We used binary logistic regression models, stratified by gender, and adjusted rate ratios to examine whether educational inequalities in NCDs were reduced after controlling for poor housing and neighbourhood quality. Overall, we find that adjusting for poor housing and neighbourhood quality reduces inequalities in NCDs. While reductions were relatively small for some NCDs–for high blood pressure, reductions were found in the range of 0–4.27% among women—for other conditions reductions were more considerable. Controlling for both housing and neighbourhood conditions for example, reduced inequalities by 16–24% for severe headaches and 14–30% for breathing problems. Social gradients in poor housing and neighbourhood quality could be an important contributor to educational inequalities in some NCDs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. The European Large Area ISO Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Alexander, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12 deg(2) at 15 mu m with ISOCAM and at 90 mu m with ISOPHOT. Secondary surveys in other ISO bands were undertaken by the ELAIS team within the fields of the...

  4. Quality Procedures in the European Higher Education Area and Beyond--Visions for the Future: Third ENQA Survey. ENQA Occasional Papers 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Josep; Hopbach, Achim; Kekalainen, Helka; Lugano, Nathalie; Rozsnyai, Christina; Shopov, Todor

    2012-01-01

    Higher education reforms over the last decade, resulting in the establishment of the European Higher Education Area, with new social demands and expectations, have greatly impacted quality assurance in higher education. As a follow-up activity to two previous surveys on external quality procedures, the European Association for Quality Assurance in…

  5. The impact of macro-economic circumstances and social protection expenditure on economic deprivation in 25 European countries, 2007-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Mark; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate to what extent macro-economic circumstances and social protection expenditure affect economic deprivation. We use three items from round five of the European Social Survey (2010-2011) to construct our latent outcome variable, which we label economic deprivation in the 3

  6. To What Extent Do Financial Strain and Labour Force Status Explain Social Class Inequalities in Self-Rated Health? Analysis of 20 Countries in the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Richard J.; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nordic countries do not have the smallest health inequalities despite egalitarian social policies. A possible explanation for this is that drivers of class differences in health such as financial strain and labour force status remain socially patterned in Nordic countries. Methods Our analyses used data for working age (25–59) men (n = 48,249) and women (n = 52,654) for 20 countries from five rounds (2002–2010) of the European Social Survey. The outcome was self-rated health in 5 categories. Stratified by gender we used fixed effects linear regression models and marginal standardisation to instigate how countries varied in the degree to which class inequalities were attenuated by financial strain and labour force status. Results and Discussion Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42), while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22). Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI −0.05 to 0.10), health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25). Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment. Conclusions Adjusting for financial security and labour force status attenuates a high proportion of health inequalities in some counties, particularly Southern European countries, but attenuation in Nordic countries was modest and did not improve their relative position. PMID:25313462

  7. Social European Model between Descriptive and Contrafactual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Catalin Moraru

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania is about to become a member of EU and to participate, in an active way, to the european dream. After a short presentation of the origins of social market economy, authors analyze european social model, emphasizing the main dificulties of the present european construction. The paper ends with a comparative analisys of two different economic policies, being offered strong arguments in favor of pro-market policies. On long term, the only way to increase the economic prosperity (in the EU is by stimulating institutional competition, protecting property rights and liberty in order to increase welfare, and not by redistribution and uniformization.

  8. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  9. EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OR ECONOMIC HANDICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovitu Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Corporative social responsibility” (CSR represents equally a very actual debate, but also an appraisal criteria of the dynamic of eco-social integration quality process at European level. Especially that the protection need is demanded by the current economic crisis. This concept is meant to combine the position, attitude and behaviour of the trade-unions with the interests of employer’s organisations in search of possible influential mechanisms of the competitive advantage at European level. Due to the current economic crisis, the implications on the labour force market are causing an explainable anxiety. The attention of the decision takers is oriented towards joining the objectives “social well being with economic well being” in view of an expected economic come back. This approach proves a significant change at the level of economic and social policies within the European Union.

  10. Urban regeneration in European social housing areas, Chapter 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, C.; Lelevrier, C.; Wassenberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Many European countries have policies to renew cities and neighbourhoods. This paper examines the policies of France, the Netherlands and Germany. In these, as in most Western European countries, the social housing sector forms an important part of regeneration schemes. Social housing is both actor

  11. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  12. Social network indices in the Generations and Gender Survey: An appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl A. Dykstra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this contribution we critically appraise the social network indices in the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS. Objective: After discussing the rationale for including social network indices in the GGS, we provide descriptive information on social network characteristics and an overview of substantive questions that have been addressed using GGS social network data: antecedents and consequences of demographic behaviour, care, and differences in well-being. We identify topics that have received relatively little attention in GGS research so far, despite the availability of novel and appropriate social network data. We end with a discussion of what is unique about the social network indices in the GGS. Methods: The descriptive information on social network characteristics is based on empirical analyses of GGS data, and an experimental pilot study. The overview of GGS research using social network indices is based on a library search. The identification of what is unique about the social network indices in the GGS is based on a comparison with the European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS, the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE, and the International Social Survey Program (ISSP. Results: Results show a high representation of family members in the social networks, and confirm the adequacy of using a cap of five names for network-generating questions. GGS research using the social network indices has largely focused on determinants of fertility behaviour, intergenerational linkages in families, and downward care transfers. Conclusions: Topics that have received relatively little attention are demographic behaviours other than those related to parenthood, upward transfers of practical support, ties with siblings, and stepfamily ties. Social network indices in the GGS show a high degree of overlap with those in other international surveys. The unique features are the inventory of family ties ever born and still living, and the

  13. Dietary practices in isovaleric acidemia: A European survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: This survey demonstrates wide differences in dietary practice in the management of IVA across European centres. It provides unique dietary data collectively representing European practices in IVA which can be used as a foundation to compare dietary management changes as a consequence of the first E-IMD IVA guidelines availability.

  14. SUPPORTING TOOLS FOR SOCIAL ENTERPRISES EXISTENT AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIRVU DANIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the elements of novelty in the documents and acts issued by the representative institutions of the European Union in order to support social enterprises. The paper also analyzed the actions taken to date to implement the plan of measures proposed by the European Commission to stimulate the development of social enterprises.

  15. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  16. The new regulatory state: the social powers of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    1999-03-01

    The understanding of the European Union poses a challenge for Sociology and its traditional conceptions of the state. In particular, the impact of the social dimension has been underestimated and undervalued. This paper explores the implications of the developing social dimension of the European Union for European social relations in the context of globalization which allegedly reduces the power of states to act effectively in the social realm. It argues for a broader conceptualization of the social dimension and for a new conception of the regulatory state. It argues that the significance of a politico-legal project social justice. It concludes with a re-consideration of the powers of the state in an era of globalization

  17. The Eurosceptic Europeanization of Public Spheres: Print and Social Media Reactions to the 2014 European Parliament Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The present study tests the theoretical claim that Eurosceptics contribute to the Europeanization of national public spheres. Although advocating a renationalization of European politics, Eurosceptic parties can engender public media debates of transnational or European relevance. Through...... of social media vis-à-vis traditional media structures: print media was more Europeanized in scope, whereas social media publics were more aligned in their sentiment towards Euroscepticism....... a comparative research design of two national cases (Sweden and Denmark), we examine the public discourse on the day following the 2014 European Parliament elections across three media: print, Twitter, and Facebook. Separating the discussions of Eurosceptic issues and actors from other topics of the election...

  18. European Consulting Survey 2012 : The Future of European Management Consulting Firms' Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, Markus; Menz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This study report provides European management consulting firms' assessment of trends and currently prevailing business models in the industry. It depicts the different threats and opportunities that consulting firms with different business models, consulting foci, sizes, leverage ratios, international orientations, and geographical footprints face; it also reveals these firms' adaptation strategies. Based on an analysis of a survey of 311 consulting firms from 26 European countries, the repo...

  19. EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONS ON SOCIAL MEDIA ‒ SHAPING THE NOTION OF EUROPEAN CITIZENSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Gaušis, E

    2017-01-01

    This study supports topical discussion about the possibilities to use social media as a tool for citizen involvement in democratic processes. Contemporary academic views and statistics on the use of social media for communication between institutions and citizens are gathered in the study. The research focus is on social media publications, analysing the content of four European Parliament`s social media accounts in Latvian during the period from 1 July 2015 to 31 December 2015. The aim of th...

  20. Individual Social Capital and Its Measurement in Social Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With its popularity has come an unresolved issue about social capital: is it an individual or a collective property, or both? Many researchers take it for granted that social capital is collective, but most social surveys implicitly measure social capital at the individual level. After reviewing the definitions by Bourdieu, Coleman, and Putnam, I become to agree with Portes that social capital can be an individual asset and should be firstly analyzed as such; if social capital is to be analyzed as a collective property, then the analysis should explicitly draw on a clear definition of individual social capital. I thus define individual social capital as the features of social groups or networks that each individual member can access and use for obtaining further benefits. Four types of features are identified (basic, specific, generalized, and structural, and example formulations of survey questions are proposed. Following this approach, I then assess some survey questions organized under five themes commonly found in social surveys for measuring social capital: participation in organizations, social networks, trust, civic participation, and perceptions of local area. I conclude that most of these themes and questions only weakly or indirectly measure individual social capital; therefore, they should be strengthened with the conceptual framework proposed in this paper and complemented with the items used in independent surveys on social networks.

  1. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitfield, Kate

    2010-11-12

    Abstract Background \\'Compassionate use\\' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726\\/2004\\/EC is clear on the intentions of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that \\'compassionate use\\' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions \\'Compassionate use\\' is a misleading term and should be replaced with \\'expanded access\\'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes.

  2. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Compassionate use' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of 'compassionate use' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726/2004/EC is clear on the intentions of 'compassionate use' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that 'compassionate use' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for 'compassionate use' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions 'Compassionate use' is a misleading term and should be replaced with 'expanded access'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes. PMID:21073691

  3. European Social Union: a political necessity and an urgent research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive economic analysis should contribute to a coherent conception of the reasons behind, the agenda for, and the governance of a European Social Union. I use the words ‘European Social Union’ deliberately, for the following reasons. First, it would be wrong to assert that the EU has no social

  4. Non-communicable diseases and the social determinants of health in the Nordic countries: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaj, Mirza; Huijts, Tim; McNamara, Courtney L; Stornes, Per; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies examining non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and determinants of health in the Nordic countries are scarce, outdated and focus only on a limited range of NCDs and health determinants. This study is the first to present a comprehensive overview of the distribution of social and behavioural determinants of health and of physical and mental NCDs in the Nordic population. We examined regional, country and gender differences for 17 health outcomes and 20 determinants of health. We use data from the 7th wave of the European Social Survey. All results were age-standardised by weighting up or down the unstandardized (crude) prevalence rates for five year age groups in each country to a common standard. We present pooled estimates for the combined regional samples as well as country-specific results for the Nordic region. Overall, the population of the Nordic region reported among the highest prevalence for one or both genders in 10 out of 17 health outcomes. Despite being the region with the highest prevalence for most health outcomes, overall self-rated health levels tend to be better in the Nordic region. Similarly, we found that the Nordic countries adhere to a healthier lifestyle and have better access to health care. Future studies should consider investigating further the association between health outcomes and determinants of health and how they are distributed in the Nordic societies.

  5. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy in four European countries: evidence from the European REVIVE Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, R E; Palacios, S; Panay, N; Particco, M; Krychman, M L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the European REVIVE survey was to achieve a better understanding of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), a chronic and progressive condition after menopause. We investigated perceptions, experiences and needs in terms of sexual and vaginal health in a sample of European postmenopausal women. An online internet based survey was conducted in Italy, Germany, Spain and the UK with a total surveyed sample of 3768 postmenopausal women (age: 45-75 years). The most common VVA symptom was vaginal dryness (70%). VVA has a significant impact on the ability to be intimate (62%), to enjoy sexual intercourse (72%) and to feel sexual spontaneity (66%). Postmenopausal women with VVA are sexually active (51%), but their sexual drive is reduced. Health-care professionals (HCPs) have discussed VVA with postmenopausal women (62%), but they initiated the conversation only in 10% of the cases. The most common treatments for VVA are over-the-counter, non-hormonal, local vaginal products. Thirty-two per cent of postmenopausal women were naïve to any kind of treatment, whereas discussion with the HCP was relevant to be on current treatment (60% of postmenopausal women that discussed VVA with a HCP vs. 23% who did not). The top reasons for poor compliance with vaginal treatments were: not bothersome enough symptoms (18%); vaginal changes not therapeutically reversed (18%); relief from VVA symptoms (17%). Approximately 45% were satisfied with treatment. The most frequent disliked aspects of treatment were the route of administration or the messiness. The fear of hormones was common in postmenopausal women using vaginal prescription products. The European REVIVE survey confirmed that VVA symptoms are frequent in postmenopausal women and demonstrates a significant impact on quality of life and sexual life. However, the condition is still under-diagnosed and under-treated, with a high rate of dissatisfaction for actual available treatments in the four European countries surveyed. The

  6. Lessons learnt on recruitment and fieldwork from a pilot European human biomonitoring survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiddicke, Ulrike; Becker, Kerstin; Schwedler, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    , training of interviewers in all issues of recruitment, fieldwork and sampling through information material and training sessions is crucial. A survey involving many European countries needs time for preparation and conduct. Materials for quality control prepared for all steps of recruitment, fieldwork...... biomonitoring (HBM) survey which came into action as the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). Seventeen European countries conducted a survey with harmonized instruments for, inter alia, recruitment, fieldwork and sampling......, in autumn/winter 2011/2012. Based on the countries' experiences of conducting the pilot study, following lessons learnt were compiled: the harmonized fieldwork instruments (basic questionnaire, urine and hair sampling) turned out to be very valuable for future HBM surveys on the European scale. A school...

  7. Education, Equality and the European Social Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Lynch, Kathleen; Brine, Jacky

    2009-01-01

    and employment. The importance of education is often mentioned in EU documents on social welfare. However, European policies in the areas of welfare and education are marked by a fundamental tension between the pursuit of capitalist growth on one hand, the pursuit of social justice and equality on the other......Social welfare and education have been themes in European collaboration since the early days of the Treaty of Rome. Especially after the establishment in 2000 of the Lisbon agenda the EU has stepped up its efforts in these two areas and has integrated both of them in a strategy for growth....... This often leads to an impoverished conceptualisation of education as just another service to be delivered on the market. A more holistic approach to education policy is necessary, an approach which takes account of the broader conditions of equality and includes not only the economic, but also the political...

  8. African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of African American and European American 3rd and 4th grade children (N = 486, ages 8–11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group, and cross-ethnicity dislike). African American—but not European American—children had more segregated relationships and were more disliked by cross-eth...

  9. Did public health travel advice reach EURO 2012 football fans? A social network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiec, J; Zielicka-Hardy, A; Polkowska, A; Rogalska, J; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-08-02

    We posted a survey on the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)’s EURO 2012 Facebook profile to evaluate whether public health travel advice, specifically on the importance of measles vaccination,reached fans attending EURO 2012. Responses suggested that these messages were missed by 77% of fans. Social networks could serve as innovative platforms to conduct surveys, enabling rapid access to target populations at low cost and could be of use during upcoming mass gatherings such as the Olympics.

  10. SOCIAL ECONOMY AS THE MAINSTREAM OF THE EUROPEAN UNION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GAFAROVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global community is striving nowadays to find ways to stabilize social processes, as well as to solve the problem of involving socially vulnerable groups in the social and economic life and work out a strategy for reducing long-term unemployment. The development of the social economy has been chosen as the mainstream of the European Union development. A great deal of attention of European Commission is paid to studying and development of recommendations on the introduction of principles of social economy, both in the basic EU countries and in the countries that are becoming the new members of the EU. However the national approach to the legalization and support of social companies is used in each country. So, for example, in Slovakia it is supposed to create social enterprises for inclusion of disadvantaged people to the labour market first of all. Along with support of the traditional actors of the social economy, the EU is also actively developing new forms of social economy actors, social enterprises are primarily among which. The development of the principles of social economy and the activation of social enterprises is relevant for many post-Soviet countries, including Russia. However, so far in Eastern European scientific practice, many researchers do not see the difference between the concepts of social economy, social market economy, solidarity economy. The key characteristics of the social economy are considered in the article, the interrelation of social, social market and solidarity economies is observed, modern trends in the construction of the social economy of the EU are highlighted.

  11. The problem of social exclusion diminishing in the context of European parliament recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available European Parliament is one of the most significant EU institutions which are responsible for the tasks of social dimension‘s aims declaration and implementation. One of the most actual tasks, solved by European Parliament, is social security measures fitness to real minimal subsistence level and social inequality and exclusion diminishing in the member states. Strengthening of social dimension and lessening of social exclusion can also suffer from economic difficulties, which appeared in the member states after 2008–2009 economic crisis – when there is still no breaking with the crisis past and the new downfall is still possible. In the article the impact of crisis for social exclusion diminishing is analyzed in the context of European Parliament recommendations. Social security measures had only limited impact for stabilization in the member states, however, the author argues and the European Parliament documents prove, that social security measures are not the burden, but the reserve for development in the member states. In this case, European Parliament together with International Labour Organization, according the author, are the most socially exposed organizations in the world. In the end of the article there is suggested the significant social reintegration indicator for the measurement of social security‘s efficiency and effectiveness.

  12. Sustainability assessment of energy technologies via social indicators: Results of a survey among European energy experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego Carrera, Diana; Mack, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of energy technologies oftentimes fails to account for social repercussions and long-term negative effects and benefits of energy systems. As part of the NEEDS project, an expert-based set of social indicators was developed and verified by the European stakeholders with the objective of contributing in the development of social indicators for the assessment of societal effects of energy systems. For this purpose, scientific experts from four sample countries France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland were interviewed to assess 16 different energy systems on a specific stakeholder reviewed indicator set. The indicator set covers the four main criteria: 'security and reliability of energy provision; 'political stability and legitimacy'; 'social and individual risks' and 'quality of life'. This article will review the process of indicator development and assessment and highlight results for today's most prominent and future energy technologies and some likely to make an impact in the future. Expert judgments varied considerably between countries and energy systems, with the exception of renewable technologies, which were overall positively assessed on almost all evaluation criteria.

  13. Nonprofit Organizations Use of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerstrøm, Asle; Sørum, Hanne; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    media survey1 within European Foundation of Drug Helplines members resulted in 16 responses (approximately 38 percentage response rate), representing 10 different European countries. Findings indicated that most drug helplines in the survey have some experience with social media. However, few...... of the drug helpline use social media based on purposeful planning and clear distribution of responsibility. Social media can be used for promoting an event or a sensitizing campaign to create positive value. Facebook is the social media that in general are most frequently used for purposes such as reaching...... a specific audience and promotion. Additionally, findings of the survey show that few drug helplines in the survey monitor social media frequently....

  14. How European PR practitioners handle digital and social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.; Tench, R.; Zerfass, A.; Moreno, A.; Verčič, D.

    2012-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) 2010 showed that digital communication and social media have grown in importance in the media mix of European organizations. Both new media types are positively correlated to the perceived impact of public relations (PR) in the organization. Specifically

  15. European social dialogue as multi-level governance: towards more autonomy and new dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, P.; Keune, M.

    2012-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago the Maastricht Treaty introduced procedures for European Social Dialogue, as part of a larger package of measures to strengthen the social dimension of European integration. Through the Treaty provisions (articles 154-155 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union), the

  16. Social trust in education in European countries, 2002–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Sawiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social trust in education is at least partly rooted in the legitimacy of the principal institutions which organise the social order, such as the political system, democracy and economy. Easton formulated the theoretical justification for this hypothesis in the 1960s, while empirical confirmation was delayed until the first decade of this century, when the data was collected in the European Social Survey. The results of ESS confirmed the hypothesis that trust in education is influenced by the legitimacy of the more fundamental state institutions but the mechanisms of this effect vary across Europe. In countries where schools are autonomous and control over them is located at community level, trust in education becomes independent from social support for the state. However, in countries where education is considered to be a government agency, strongly shaped by political goals, people tend to evaluate education together with other state institutions. The ESS data also provide insight into factors determining trust in education at the level of the individual. Surprisingly, the lowest degree of trust was shown by the upper classes, including the educated, whom the education system had benefited most. This is not conducive to the involvement of such people in countries that are building their educational resources.

  17. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  18. Structural and intermediary determinants of social inequalities in the mental well-being of European workers: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Muntaner, Carles; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2014-09-09

    The objective of this study is to examine social inequalities in employee mental well-being, using relational social class indicators. Relational social class indicators are based on theoretical insights about the mechanisms generating social (health) inequalities. Additionally, it is examined whether the psychosocial work environment and employment quality act as intermediary determinants of social class inequalities in mental well-being, simultaneously testing the mediation (differential exposure) and moderation (differential vulnerability) hypotheses. Data from the European Social Survey Round 2 (2004/5) and Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. The measure for social class was inspired by E.O. Wright's class scheme. Three-level linear multilevel modelling was used to account for clustering of employees within research years and countries. We found social class inequalities in mental well-being in the European working population for both men and women. Compared to unskilled workers, managers reported the best mental well-being, while supervisors held an intermediary position. As regards the mediation hypothesis, an unfavourable psychosocial work environment and low-quality employment conditions mediated the relation between social class and poor mental well-being in both men and women. However, low quality of employment relations only mediated the "social class-mental well-being" association in the male sample. As regards the moderation hypothesis, modification effects were seen for the psychosocial work environment and employment conditions in both men and women. Relational indicators of social class are related to mental well-being in European employees. Relational accounts of social class are complementary to stratification indicators in social epidemiology. From a policy perspective, better employee mental well-being and less social class inequality could be achieved through initiatives addressing the

  19. An experts survey on sustainability across twenty-seven extensive European systems of grassland management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Rafael; Gil, Angel; Fernández-Santos, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    European Large Scale Grazing Systems (LSGS) are at a crossroad with environmental, agronomic, and social factors interacting on their future viability. This research assesses the current environmental and socio-economic status of a wide range of European LSGS according to an agreed subset of sustainability criteria and indicators, which have been recognized by corresponding experts and privileged observers on their respective case-study system. A survey questionnaire was drafted containing five main criteria (pastoral use, environmental, economic, social, and market and development), with four conceptual-scored variables (indicators) within each criterion. Descriptive, analytical and clustering statistical techniques helped to draw a synthesis of the main result and to standardize sustainability variables across different biogeographical regions and management situations. The results show large multicollinearity among the 20 variables proposed. This dependence was revealed by the reduction to six main factor-components, which accounted for about 73% of the total variance in responses. Aggregation of point-score indicators across criteria to obtain a sustainability index can be of less policy relevance than responses to specific criteria or indicators. Affinity between case-study systems, as judged by collaborative-expert responses, was not related to biogeographical location, operating livestock sector, or population density in their areas. The results show larger weaknesses and constraints in the economic and social criteria than in the pastoral and environmental criteria, and the large heterogeneity of responses appears in the social criterion.

  20. A feasibility trial to examine the social norms approach for the prevention and reduction of licit and illicit drug use in European University and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pischke Claudia R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorrect perceptions of high rates of peer alcohol and tobacco use are predictive of increased personal use in student populations. Correcting misperceptions by providing feedback has been shown to be an effective intervention for reducing licit drug use. It is currently unknown if social norms interventions are effective in preventing and reducing illicit drug use in European students. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-site cluster controlled trial of a web-based social norms intervention aimed at reducing licit and preventing illicit drug use in European university students. Methods/Design An online questionnaire to assess rates of drug use will be developed and translated based on existing social norms surveys. Students from sixteen universities in seven participating European countries will be invited to complete the questionnaire. Both intervention and control sites will be chosen by convenience. In each country, the intervention site will be the university that the local principal investigator is affiliated with. We aim to recruit 1000 students per site (baseline assessment. All participants will complete the online questionnaire at baseline. Baseline data will be used to develop social norms messages that will be included in a web-based intervention. The intervention group will receive individualized social norms feedback. The website will remain online during the following 5 months. After five months, a second survey will be conducted and effects of the intervention on social norms and drug use will be measured in comparison to the control site. Discussion This project is the first cross-national European collaboration to investigate the feasibility of a social norms intervention to reduce licit and prevent illicit drug use among European university students. Final trial registration number DRKS00004375 on the ‘German Clinical Trials Register’.

  1. Psychological problems in children with hemiplegia: a European multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, J; White-Koning, M; McCullough, N; Colver, A

    2009-06-01

    To describe the prevalence and determinants of psychological problems in European children with hemiplegia. Cross-sectional survey. Home visits in nine European regions by research associates who administered standard questionnaires to parents. 279 children with hemiplegia aged 8-12 years were recruited from population-based case registers. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire comprising emotion, conduct, hyperactivity, peer problems and prosocial domains. An "impact score" (IS) measures the social and psychological impact of the child's difficulties. Children with hemiplegia had higher mean scores on the total difficulties score (TDS) compared with a normative sample (p70. Boys had an increased risk for conduct (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7) and hyperactivity disorders (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.6). Poor self-esteem was associated with an increased risk for peer problems (OR 5.8, 95% CI 2.5 to 13.4) and poor prosocial skills (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.4 to 23.2) compared with those with high self-esteem. Other determinants of psychological adjustment were impaired communication, severe pain and living with a single parent. Many of the psychological problems identified are amenable to treatment. Special attention should be given to those at highest risk of developing psychological difficulties.

  2. Europeans' attitudes towards climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the results of a survey on Europeans' attitudes towards climate change which was carried out in January and February 2009. The survey focuses on: Citizens' perceptions of climate change in relation to other world problems; Citizens' perceptions of the seriousness of climate change; The extent to which citizens feel informed about climate change - its causes, consequences and ways of fighting it; Citizens' attitudes towards alternative fuels and CO2 emissions; Whether citizens feel that climate change is stoppable or has been exaggerated, and what impact it has on the European economy; Whether citizens have taken personal action to fight climate change. This Eurobarometer survey was carried out by TNS Opinion and Social network between 16 January and 22 February 2009. The interviews were conducted among 26,718 citizens in the 27 Member States of the European Union, the three candidate countries for accession to the European Union (Croatia, Turkey and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and in the Turkish Cypriot Community.

  3. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included.

  4. EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE OF SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN THE LABOUR FIELD: PERSPECTIVES FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nicolaescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European integration is not a slogan, a political discourse or a foundation for the political platform of political parties. European integration includes concrete directives of action to be taken into account by all states. One of the most important of them might be considered the social partnership in the labour field. Under current circumstances, the need to study relations established within social partnership, factors contributing to social dialogue development and fulfillment of social partnership potential within existing political and socio-economic reforms increased. Analysis of European dimension of Moldovan social partnership evolution is essential for further democratization of labour field and European perspectives of the country.

  5. Exposure to self-reported occupational noise and diabetes - A cross-sectional relationship in 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario

    2017-06-19

    Almost nothing is known about the effect of occupational noise on diabetes, and this is particularly relevant given the wide spread of both noise exposure and diabetes. This study has aimed to determine whether occupational noise exposure is associated with higher risk of diabetes in Europe. This study is based on 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014) - a multi-country population-based questionnaire survey, which covered 28 221 Europeans aged ≥ 15 years old. Data on self-reported noise exposure, diabetes and other sociodemographic and work-related factors was available. The odds of prevalent diabetes were explored using unconditional logistic regression. In the total sample (N = 23 486), participants ever exposed to very loud noise had no substantive increase in the odds of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-1.32). There were subgroups with non-significantly increased odds: men (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.87-1.45), the elderly (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.91-1.31), ethnic minority members (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.62), those with secondary education (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.78-1.41) and those living in small cities/towns (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.89-1.29). Low-skilled white-collar workers had OR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.09-1.64). Among participants employed during the preceding 5 years the odds were OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 0.95-1.61). Self-reported occupational noise was not associated with increased odds of prevalent diabetes in the total sample. Sensitivity analyses revealed some subgroups with non-significantly higher odds. Our results suggest that further delve into the relationship between occupational noise and diabetes is feasible and warranted. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):537-551. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. European survey on principles of prudent antibiotic prescribing teaching in undergraduate students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulcini, C; Wencker, F; Frimodt-Møller, N

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed European medical schools regarding teaching of prudent antibiotic prescribing in the undergraduate curriculum. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 13 European countries (Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland...... the study design, these are probably optimistic results. Teaching of prudent antibiotic prescribing principles should be improved. National and European programmes for development of specific learning outcomes or competencies are urgently needed....... pharmacology. In-depth interviews were conducted with four lecturers. Thirty-five of 37 medical schools were included in the study. Prudent antibiotic use principles were taught in all but one medical school, but only four of 13 countries had a national programme. Interactive teaching formats were used less...

  7. A European survey on donor deferral for allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garraud, O; Martin, C; Haddad, A

    2017-01-01

    Allergy accounts to near 0.5% of all reported transfusion adverse events. The responsibility of blood components themselves and - therefore - of blood donors is still questioned. The European Community undertook a large international survey to address the consistency and homogeneity of medical...... selection of blood donors with regard to the risk of allergy, and especially of transferring allergy to recipients. This short report presents the salient points of the survey, stressing that there is inconsistency in addressing the allergy question within countries or systems, with paths of improvement....

  8. European social citizenship and gender: the part-time work directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.; Bussemaker, M.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers whether the development of European rights for workers implies a European social citizenship. It analyses the debate during the preparation and adoption of the EU Directive on part-time work in 1997, which guarantees part-time workers (who are primarily women) the same pay and

  9. Correlation between asthma and climate in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Rolando; De Marco, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey, performed during 1991-1993, found a remarkable geographical variability in the prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms in individuals aged 20-44 yr. The highest values occurred in the English-speaking centers. In the present investigation, the ecological relationship between climate and symptom prevalence was evaluated in the 48 centers of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Meteorological variables were derived from the Global Historical Climatology Network and were averaged over an 11-yr period (i.e., 1980-1990). Respiratory symptom prevalence was directly related to temperature in the coldest month and was related inversely to the temperature in the hottest month. Warm winters and cool summers are features of oceanic climate found in most English-speaking centers of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (i.e., England, New Zealand, and Oregon). In conclusion, climate can account for significant geographic variability in respiratory symptom prevalence.

  10. The Country Profiles of the PHARMINE Survey of European Higher Educational Institutions Delivering Pharmacy Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy, and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy, this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used.

  11. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  12. Gender and Cultural Differences in the Association Between Family Roles, Social Stratification and Alcohol Use: A European Cross-cultural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    with alcohol consumption by societal level variables. Methods: Survey data of 25 to 49-years-old from eight European countries were used. Logistic regressions were used to analyse gender differences in the association between family roles (marriage, having children), social stratification (education...... countries, tended to drink more heavily if employed, having lower formal education, and a non-traditional family role. In countries with weak social welfare systems or work desirability, heavy drinking was associated with high education, while effects of family roles and employment were small. Conclusions...

  13. Post-harmonised European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Sobrino Vázquez, Natalia

    Look-up tables are collected and analysed for 12 European National Travel Surveys (NTS) in a harmonized way covering the age group 13-84 year. Travel behaviour measured as kilometres, time use and trips per traveller is compared. Trips per traveller are very similar over the countries whereas...... of walking trips rather similar with a higher level of cycling in the Netherlands, more public transport in Switzerland, and more air traffic in Sweden. Normally kilometres per respondent / inhabitant is used for national planning purpose and this is very affected by the share of mobile travellers...

  14. African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…

  15. Art of disaster preparedness in European union: a survey on the health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-17

    Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness

  16. Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain and the Nether-lands. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact...

  17. THE SOCIAL ENTERPRISE IN ROMANIA. AN EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE ON THEIR CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinke Joop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is aimed at identifying the social enterprises according to EMES criteria by investigating the social economy actors in Romania. As an emerging field of study, social entrepreneurship and social enterprise have captured the attention of both practitioners from Europe and North America, and in recent years on other continents. In Romania, very little research has been conducted into the field, mostly as part of academic research papers from doctoral study students or masters, both from Romania and abroad. In Europe, several studies have been conducted among member state of the European Union, to bring to light this new emerging field.. Investigations in regard to social entrepreneurship in Europe have revealed the existence of this field among social economy actors, in the form of social enterprise, namely work integration social enterprises and social cooperatives. So far, Romania has not been included in them This papers tries to fill the gap of knowledge on this phenomena, by exploring, from a European perspective, the actors of social entrepreneurship in Romania. The methodology used was an analysis of secondary data in the form of legal documents (laws, reports of the social economy sector and scholarly articles related to social entrepreneurship in Romania. The assessment instrument is the EMES set of economic and social criteria that the social enterprises need to meet. Also, parallels have been made with the entities of the same nature in the European Union. The paper concludes on the state of social enterprise in Romania, with an underline on what its and implications for their further study. As main finding, two types of organizations fit best with the EMES criteria, authorized protected units and companies set up by associations and foundations. Also, further developments are expected as Romania is preparing for a law defining the social enterprise and social economy. The main implications of this research is drawing

  18. Construction of an adaptable European transnational ecological deprivation index: the French version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, Carole; Delpierre, Cyrille; Dejardin, Olivier; Grosclaude, Pascale; Launay, Ludivine; Guittet, Lydia; Lang, Thierry; Launoy, Guy

    2012-11-01

    Studying social disparities in health implies the ability to measure them accurately, to compare them between different areas or countries and to follow trends over time. This study proposes a method for constructing a French European deprivation index, which will be replicable in several European countries and is related to an individual deprivation indicator constructed from a European survey specifically designed to study deprivation. Using individual data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey, goods/services indicated by individuals as being fundamental needs, the lack of which reflect deprivation, were selected. From this definition, which is specific to a cultural context, an individual deprivation indicator was constructed by selecting fundamental needs associated both with objective and subjective poverty. Next, the authors selected among variables available both in the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey and French national census those best reflecting individual experience of deprivation using multivariate logistic regression. An ecological measure of deprivation was provided for all the smallest French geographical units. Preliminary validation showed a higher association between the French European Deprivation Index (EDI) score and both income and education than the Townsend index, partly ensuring its ability to measure individual socioeconomic status. This index, which is specific to a particular cultural and social policy context, could be replicated in 25 other European countries, thereby allowing European comparisons. EDI could also be reproducible over time. EDI could prove to be a relevant tool in evidence-based policy-making for measuring and reducing social disparities in health issues and even outside the medical domain.

  19. A Call for New Communication Channels for Gynecological Oncology Trainees: A Survey on Social Media Use and Educational Needs by the European Network of Young Gynecological Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Kamil; Lindemann, Kristina; Halaska, Michael J; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Laky, Rene; Chereau, Elisabeth; Lindquist, David; Polterauer, Stephan; Sukhin, Vladislav; Dursun, Polat

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patterns in the use of social media (SM) platforms and to identify the training needs among European gynecologic oncology trainees. In 2014, a web-based survey was sent to 633 trainees from the European Network of Young Gynaecological Oncologists (ENYGO) database. The 14-item questionnaire (partially using a 1- to 5-point Likert scale) assessed respondents' use of SM and preference for workshop content and organization. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the mean scores reported for different items, and the internal reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach α. In total, 170 ENYGO members (27%) responded to the survey. Of those, 91% said that they use SM platforms, mostly for private purposes. Twenty-three percent used SM professionally and 43% indicated that they would consider SM to be a clinical discussion forum. The respondents said that they would like updates on conferences and professional activities to be shared on SM platforms. Complication management, surgical anatomy, and state of the art in gynecologic oncology were identified as preferred workshops topics. The most frequently indicated hands-on workshops were laparoscopic techniques and surgical anatomy. Consultants attached a higher level of importance to palliative care education and communication training than trainees. The mean duration of the workshop preferred was 2 days. This report highlights the significance of ENYGO trainees' attachment to SM platforms. Most respondents expect ENYGO to use these online channels for promoting educational activities and other updates. Using SM for clinical discussion will require specific guidelines to secure professional and also consumer integrity. This survey confirms surgical management and the state of the art as important knowledge gaps, and ENYGO has tailored its activities according to these results. Future activities will further direct attention and resources to education in palliative care and

  20. Gender and the Intensification of Work: Evidence from the European Working Conditions Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan Burchell; Colette Fagan

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the European Working Conditions Surveys to examine the intensity of work for male and female employees. The first section gives an overview of the usefulness of the survey for examining European Union (EU) working conditions and shows how women's intensity of work has been increasing faster than that of men, so that by the year 2000 there was little gender difference in the speed of work. Section two demonstrates that the intensity of work has a negative effect on health and w...

  1. A survey of local anaesthesia education in European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Kuin, D.; Baart, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A survey of European dental schools was conducted in 2006 to determine the curricular structure, techniques and materials used in local anaesthesia teaching to dental students. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect information about local anaesthesia education.

  2. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  3. Attitudes towards digital treatment for depression : A European stakeholder survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topooco, Naira; Riper, Heleen; Araya, Ricardo; Berking, Matthias; Brunn, Matthias; Chevreul, Karine; Cieslak, Roman; Ebert, David Daniel; Etchmendy, Ernestina; Herrero, Rocío; Kleiboer, Annet; Krieger, Tobias; García-Palacios, Azucena; Cerga-Pashoja, Arlinda; Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Urech, Antoine; Vis, Christiaan; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Background The integration of digital treatments into national mental health services is on the agenda in the European Union. The E-COMPARED consortium conducted a survey aimed at exploring stakeholders’ knowledge, acceptance and expectations of digital treatments for depression, and at identifying

  4. Socializing the European Semester? Economic governance and social policy coordination in Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Vanhercke, B.

    2014-01-01

    The European Semester of policy coordination, which is the core of EU’s new institutional architecture for economic and social governance, introduced since the beginning of the Euro crisis, has prompted questions about the nature and dynamics of the EU’s emerging socio-economic governance

  5. The 'dark side' of social capital: trust and self-rated health in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Matos, Inês; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Generalized interpersonal trust (as an indicator of social capital) has been linked to health status at both the individual and ecological level. We sought to examine how changes in contextual and individual trust are associated with changes in self-rated health in the European Social Surveys 2002-12. A multilevel analysis using a variance components model was performed on 203 452 individuals nested within 145 country cohorts covering 35 countries. Conditional on sociodemographic covariates, we sought to examine the association between self-rated health and individual trust, country average trust and a cross-level interaction between the two. Although individual trust perceptions were significantly correlated with self-rated health [OR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (0.94-0.96)], country-level trust was not associated [OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (0.95-1.32)]. There was, however, a strong crosslevel interaction between contextual and individual trust (P < 0.001), such that individuals with high interpersonal trust reported better health in contexts in which other individuals expressed high average interpersonal trust. Conversely, low trust individuals reported worse health in high trust contexts. Our findings suggest that contexts with increasing average trust can be harmful for low trust individuals, which might reflect the negative impact that social capital can have in certain groups. These findings suggest that contextual trust has a complex role in explaining health inequalities and individual self-rated health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. STRATEGIES OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Iamandi Irina Eugenia; Joldes Cosmin

    2009-01-01

    The present paper emphasizes the corporate social responsibility (CSR) state and development strategies in the European Union and at the level of the Romanian business environment. The aim of the paper is to present the similarities and differences in the

  7. The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS): the final band-merged catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Lari, C.; Perez-Fournon, I.

    2004-01-01

    We present the final band-merged European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) Catalogue at 6.7, 15, 90 and 175 mum, and the associated data at U, g', r', i', Z, J, H, K and 20 cm. The origin of the survey, infrared and radio observations, data-reduction and optical identifications are briefly reviewed...

  8. STRATEGIES OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamandi Irina Eugenia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the corporate social responsibility (CSR state and development strategies in the European Union and at the level of the Romanian business environment. The aim of the paper is to present the similarities and differences in the

  9. Cross-age friendship in 25 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); M. Fleischmann (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on individual and country-level circumstances shaping friendships between young and old to gain insight into conditions for intergenerational solidarity. Using European Social Survey data, findings show that relatively few people have cross-age friendships (18%

  10. Development of the European Health Interview Survey - Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ) to monitor physical activity in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Tafforeau, Jean; Gisle, Lydia; Oja, Leila; Ziese, Thomas; Thelen, Juergen; Mensink, Gert B M; Lange, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    A domain-specific physical activity questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ) was developed in the framework of the second wave of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS). This article presents the EHIS-PAQ and describes its development and evaluation processes. Research institutes from Belgium, Estonia and Germany participated in the Improvement of the EHIS (ImpEHIS) Grant project issued by Eurostat. The instrument development process comprised a non-systematic literature review and a systematic HIS/HES database search for physical activity survey questions. The developed EHIS-PAQ proposal was reviewed by survey experts. Cognitive testing of the EHIS-PAQ was conducted in Estonia and Germany. The EHIS-PAQ was further tested in a pilot survey in Belgium, Estonia and Germany in different modes of data collection, face-to-face paper and pencil interview (PAPI) and computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). The EHIS-PAQ is a rather pragmatic tool aiming to evaluate how far the population is physically active in specific public health relevant settings. It assesses work-related, transport-related and leisure-time physical activity in a typical week. Cognitive testing revealed that the EHIS-PAQ worked as intended. The pilot testing showed the feasibility of using the EHIS-PAQ in an international health interview survey setting in Europe. It will be implemented in all 28 European Union Member States via European Union implementing regulation in the period between 2013 and 2015. This will be a first opportunity to get comparable data on domain-specific physical activity in all 28 EU MS and to publish indicators at the EU level. The EHIS-PAQ is a short, domain-specific PA questionnaire based on PA questions which have been used in large-scale health interview surveys before. It was designed by considering the respondents' perspective in answering PA questions.

  11. Social Touch Technology: A Survey of Haptic Technology for Social Touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This survey provides an overview of work on haptic technology for social touch. Social touch has been studied extensively in psychology and neuroscience. With the development of new technologies, it is now possible to engage in social touch at a distance or engage in social touch with artificial

  12. A Hidden History: A Survey of the Teaching of Eugenics in Health, Social Care and Pedagogical Education and Training Courses in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, H. L.; Steels, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge and understanding of how eugenics has historically affected the lives of people with intellectual disabilities is vital if professionals are to mount an effective defence against its contemporary influences. An online survey of European providers of health, social care and pedagogical education and training courses was undertaken to find…

  13. Peer Effects and Youth Smoking in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaj Silda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.

  14. Citizenship, immigration, and the European social project: rights and obligations of individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoğlu

    2012-03-01

    As envisioned by T.H. Marshall, social citizenship was a corrective to the injustices caused by the capitalist market. Entitlements and protections guaranteed by the welfare state would prevent social and economic exclusions that civil and political rights, on their own, simply could not. Such protections consequently would ensure social cohesion and solidarity, as well as a productive economy and market. European welfare states successfully followed this formula for the most part of the post-World War II period, however the last couple of decades witnessed significant changes. For one, the very meaning of 'work' and 'worker' on which the welfare state is based has changed - flexibility, risk, and precariousness have become defining elements of working life. The welfare state itself has gone through a transformation as well, increasingly moving away from a system of 'passive benefits' to 'social investment' in human capital. These developments are coupled with an emphasis on education in 'active citizenship', which envisions participatory individuals who are adaptable in an increasingly globalized society, and ready to contribute at local, national and transnational levels. The emergent European social project draws on a re-alignment between these strands: work, social investment, and active participation. In this article, I consider the implications of this project for immigrant populations in Europe in particular and for the conceptions of citizenship and human rights in general. In contrast to the recent commentary on the neoliberal turn and the return of nation-state centered citizenship projects in Europe, I emphasize the broader trends in the post-World War II period that indicate a significant shift in the very foundations of good citizenship and social justice. The new social project transpires a citizenship model that privileges individuality and its transformative capacity as a collective good. Thus, while expanding the boundaries and forms of

  15. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  16. 9th Conference of the European Social Simulation Association

    CERN Document Server

    Koloch, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    This book is the conference proceedings of ESSA 2013, the 9th Conference of the European Social Simulation Association. ESSA conferences constitute annual events which serve as an international platform for the exchange of ideas and discussion of cutting-edge research in the field of social simulations, both from the theoretical as well as applied perspective. This book consists of 33 articles, which are divided into four themes: Methods for the development of simulation models, Applications of agent-based modeling, Adaptive behavior, social interactions and global environmental change and Using qualitative data to inform behavioral rules. We are convinced that this book will serve interested readers as a useful compendium which presents in a nutshell the most recent advances at the frontiers of social simulation research.

  17. Comparison of the Selected Indicators of Work Life Balance in European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Živčicová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates on the characteristics and indicators of work life balance (WLB. The focus is on the selected criteria of WLB as well as social life and time spent off work. The WLB factors chosen and discussed are: the amount of stress, exhaustion and lack of time for family activities and responsibilities in the context of WLB. The results of the European survey conducted by the Eurofond are compared with the authors’ questionnaire survey conducted in Slovakia in 2015. The survey results revealed stress and working hours to be statistically significant factors that can be seen as obstacles in the WLB and fulfilling family duties for many Slovaks. The survey also shows that the given sample of Slovak respondents performed much worse in the criteria of stress and lack of time results than the European average according to the Eurofond survey. The results could be partly influenced by the fact that the survey participants were mostly employed in the social sector.

  18. Eating for Two? Protocol of an Exploratory Survey and Experimental Study on Social Norms and Norm-Based Messages Influencing European Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women's Eating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Herte, Katharina; Kakoulakis, Catherine; Sanguino, Inés; Tebbe, Anna-Lena; Tünte, Markus R

    2018-01-01

    The social context is an important factor underlying unhealthy eating behavior and the development of inappropriate weight gain. Evidence is accumulating that powerful social influences can also be used as a tool to impact people's eating behavior in a positive manner. Social norm-based messages have potential to steer people in making healthier food choices. The research field on nutritional social norms is still emerging and more research is needed to gain insights into why some people adhere to social norms whereas others do not. There are indications stemming from empirical studies on social eating behavior that this may be due to ingratiation purposes and uncertainty reduction. That is, people match their eating behavior to that of the norm set by their eating companion(s) in order to blend in and be part of the group. In this project, we explore nutritional social norms among pregnant women. This population is particularly interesting because they are often subject to unsolicited advice and experience social pressure from their environment. In addition, their pregnancy affects their body composition, eating pattern, and psychosocial status. Pregnancy provides an important window of opportunity to impact health of pregnant women and their child. Nevertheless, the field of nutritional social norms among pregnant women is understudied and more knowledge is needed on whether pregnant women use guidelines from their social environment for their own eating behavior. In this project we aim to fill this research gap by means of an exploratory survey (Study 1) assessing information about social expectations, (mis)perceived social norms and the role of different reference groups such as other pregnant women, family, and friends. In addition, we conduct an online experiment (Study 2) testing to what extent pregnant women are susceptible to social norm-based messages compared to non-pregnant women. Moreover, possible moderators are explored which might impact women

  19. Social isolation, survey nonresponse, and nonresponse bias: An empirical evaluation using social network data within an organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Megumi; Olson, Kristen; Falci, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Survey researchers have long hypothesized that social isolation negatively affects the probability of survey participation and biases survey estimates. Previous research, however, has relied on proxy measures of isolation, such as being a marginalized group member within a population. We re-examine the relationship between social isolation and survey participation using direct measures of social isolation derived from social network data; specifically, instrumental research and expressive friendship connections among faculty within academic departments. Using a reconceptualization of social isolation, we find that social network isolation is negatively associated with unit response. Among women (a numerical minority group within the organization), we further find that social group isolation (i.e., lacking instrumental network connections to men, the majority group in the organization) is negatively associated with survey participation. Finally, we show that some survey estimates are systematically biased due to nonparticipation from socially isolated people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of social networks on innovation: The case of European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Badiola-Sánchez; Pedro Casares-Hontañón; Pablo De Castro; Pablo Coto-Millán; Miguel Ángel Pesquera

    2014-01-01

    This research analyses the relationship between the use of social networks and the generation of innovations in European regions through a production function of innovations using human capital, technological capital and virtual relational capital with the new theoretical approach. For this, it is estimated an econometric model of panel data for the period 2007-2011 and 190 European regions.

  1. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, A.; Mohnen, S.M.; Droomers, M.; Kruize, H.; Gidlow, C.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Andrusaityte, S.; Helbich, M.; Maas, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Triguero-Mas, M.; Masterson, D.; Ellis, N.; Kempen, E. van; Hardyns, W.; Stronks, K.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona

  2. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health : an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain),

  3. Consensus and variations in opinions on delirium care: a survey of European delirium specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morandi, A.; Davis, D.; Taylor, J. K.; Bellelli, G.; Olofsson, B.; Kreisel, S.; Teodorczuk, A.; Kamholz, B.; Hasemann, W.; Young, J.; Agar, M.; de Rooij, S. E.; Meagher, D.; Trabucchi, M.; Maclullich, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    There are still substantial uncertainties over best practice in delirium care. The European Delirium Association (EDA) conducted a survey of its members and other interested parties on various aspects of delirium care. The invitation to participate in the online survey was distributed among the EDA

  4. European car drivers' opinions about road safety measures and in-car devices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    1999-01-01

    In 1991, a representative survey of drivers was conducted in 15 European countries. This project was named `SARTRE' which stands for 'Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe'. The survey focused on drivers' road behaviour, attitudes and opinions concerning drinking and driving, speeding and

  5. The European Social Fund within the Context of the Economic Crisis from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina CACE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the positive traits of the European Social Fund proved by the history of this mechanism which has been applied in the European Community for almost half a century, as well as the measures adopted in order to improve the measures in the field of employment during the period of the economic crisis. The European Social Fund (ESF helps increasing the adaptability of the workforce and of the enterprises; it helps increasing the access to the labour market; it prevents unemployment and prolongs the active life; it increases the participation of women and of the immigrants to the labour market; it increases the social inclusion of the disadvantaged people and fights discrimination. In Romania, workforce employment is a priority goal, and POSDRU1 contributes to the implementation of the measures set by the European Strategy for Employment. The paper shows the need to identify solutions to the crisis of employment in Romania using the funds allocated to the Operational Program, Human Resources Development, which  produce measurable effects with regard to the unemployment rate in Romania.

  6. Blood phenylalanine control in phenylketonuria : a survey of 10 European centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahring, K.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; Dokoupil, K.; Gokmen-Ozel, H.; Lammardo, A. M.; MacDonald, A.; Motzfeldt, K.; Nowacka, M.; van Rijn, M.; Robert, M.

    Background: Only limited data are available on the blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations achieved in European patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) on a low-Phe diet. Objective: A survey was conducted to compare blood Phe control achieved in diet-treated patients with PKU of different age groups in

  7. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent

  8. Housing context and social transformation strategies in neighbourhood regeneration in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Western European city thesis, European cities have a unique institutional mix which helps to explain how social patterns come about. The most important elements of this mix are the interventionist state and the housing system legacy of non-private housing. While these two are vital,

  9. THE MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL SUPPORT IN THE EUROPEAN RESEARCH ON INCAPACITATING DISEASES AND SOCIAL SUPPORT - THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL SUPPORT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TRANSACTIONS (SSQT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUURMEIJER, TPBM; DOEGLAS, DM; BRIANCON, S; KRIJNEN, WP; KROL, B; SANDERMAN, R; MOUM, T; BJELLE, A; VANDENHEUVEL, WJA

    Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the 'EUropean Research on Incapacitating DIseaes and Social Support' (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing

  10. The measurement of social support in the European Research on incapaciting diseases and social support : the development of the social support questionnaire for transactions (SSQT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, T P B M; Doeglas, D M; Briançon, S; Krijnen, W; Krol, B.; Sanderman, R.; Moum, T; Bjelle, A; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the "European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support" (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing

  11. Patterns of Social Expectations among Maori and European Children in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Petrie, Keith J.

    1996-01-01

    Assessed social expectations of 163 Maori and European New Zealanders aged 9 and 12 in response to videotaped social encounters. Ethnic differences were greater among younger children. Among Maori children, an enculturated pattern was associated with less assertiveness and lower self-concept, but was not with cross-ethnic acceptance. (SLD)

  12. Eating for Two? Protocol of an Exploratory Survey and Experimental Study on Social Norms and Norm-Based Messages Influencing European Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women’s Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E.; Herte, Katharina; Kakoulakis, Catherine; Sanguino, Inés; Tebbe, Anna-Lena; Tünte, Markus R.

    2018-01-01

    The social context is an important factor underlying unhealthy eating behavior and the development of inappropriate weight gain. Evidence is accumulating that powerful social influences can also be used as a tool to impact people’s eating behavior in a positive manner. Social norm-based messages have potential to steer people in making healthier food choices. The research field on nutritional social norms is still emerging and more research is needed to gain insights into why some people adhere to social norms whereas others do not. There are indications stemming from empirical studies on social eating behavior that this may be due to ingratiation purposes and uncertainty reduction. That is, people match their eating behavior to that of the norm set by their eating companion(s) in order to blend in and be part of the group. In this project, we explore nutritional social norms among pregnant women. This population is particularly interesting because they are often subject to unsolicited advice and experience social pressure from their environment. In addition, their pregnancy affects their body composition, eating pattern, and psychosocial status. Pregnancy provides an important window of opportunity to impact health of pregnant women and their child. Nevertheless, the field of nutritional social norms among pregnant women is understudied and more knowledge is needed on whether pregnant women use guidelines from their social environment for their own eating behavior. In this project we aim to fill this research gap by means of an exploratory survey (Study 1) assessing information about social expectations, (mis)perceived social norms and the role of different reference groups such as other pregnant women, family, and friends. In addition, we conduct an online experiment (Study 2) testing to what extent pregnant women are susceptible to social norm-based messages compared to non-pregnant women. Moreover, possible moderators are explored which might impact women

  13. Eating for Two? Protocol of an Exploratory Survey and Experimental Study on Social Norms and Norm-Based Messages Influencing European Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women’s Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E. Bevelander

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The social context is an important factor underlying unhealthy eating behavior and the development of inappropriate weight gain. Evidence is accumulating that powerful social influences can also be used as a tool to impact people’s eating behavior in a positive manner. Social norm-based messages have potential to steer people in making healthier food choices. The research field on nutritional social norms is still emerging and more research is needed to gain insights into why some people adhere to social norms whereas others do not. There are indications stemming from empirical studies on social eating behavior that this may be due to ingratiation purposes and uncertainty reduction. That is, people match their eating behavior to that of the norm set by their eating companion(s in order to blend in and be part of the group. In this project, we explore nutritional social norms among pregnant women. This population is particularly interesting because they are often subject to unsolicited advice and experience social pressure from their environment. In addition, their pregnancy affects their body composition, eating pattern, and psychosocial status. Pregnancy provides an important window of opportunity to impact health of pregnant women and their child. Nevertheless, the field of nutritional social norms among pregnant women is understudied and more knowledge is needed on whether pregnant women use guidelines from their social environment for their own eating behavior. In this project we aim to fill this research gap by means of an exploratory survey (Study 1 assessing information about social expectations, (misperceived social norms and the role of different reference groups such as other pregnant women, family, and friends. In addition, we conduct an online experiment (Study 2 testing to what extent pregnant women are susceptible to social norm-based messages compared to non-pregnant women. Moreover, possible moderators are explored which might

  14. Usage of Plant Food Supplements across Six European Countries: Findings from the PlantLIBRA Consumer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Egan, Bernadette; de Klein, Simone; Dima, Lorena; Maggi, Franco M.; Isoniemi, Merja; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Raats, Monique M.; Meissner, Eva Melanie; Badea, Mihaela; Bruno, Flavia; Salmenhaara, Maija; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Knaze, Viktoria; Hodgkins, Charo; Marculescu, Angela; Uusitalo, Liisa; Restani, Patrizia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS)). However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level. Objective To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. Design Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire. Subjects/setting A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. Data analyses Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as “good or very good”. Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries. Conclusions The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European

  15. Usage of plant food supplements across six European countries: findings from the PlantLIBRA consumer survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS. However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level.To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries.Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire.A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom.Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported.Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as "good or very good". Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo, Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries.The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European level.

  16. Estimation of Social Exclusion Indicators from Complex Surveys: The R Package laeken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Alfons

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Units sampled from finite populations typically come with different inclusion proba- bilities. Together with additional preprocessing steps of the raw data, this yields unequal sampling weights of the observations. Whenever indicators are estimated from such com- plex samples, the corresponding sampling weights have to be taken into account. In addition, many indicators suffer from a strong influence of outliers, which are a common problem in real-world data. The R package laeken is an object-oriented toolkit for the estimation of indicators from complex survey samples via standard or robust methods. In particular the most widely used social exclusion and poverty indicators are imple- mented in the package. A general calibrated bootstrap method to estimate the variance of indicators for common survey designs is included as well. Furthermore, the package contains synthetically generated close-to-reality data for the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and the Structure of Earnings Survey, which are used in the code examples throughout the paper. Even though the paper is focused on showing the functionality of package laeken, it also provides a brief mathematical description of the implemented indicator methodology.

  17. The crisis of the economic model, overview of the social state: cooperative societies as the key solution “Socially Intellegent Restructuring” in the European Union, towards a new vision of the economic and social order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pastor Sempere

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Economic and Social Committee: “We are witnessing a large-scale restructuring as a consequence of the crisis in the European economy. Socially responsible restructuring strategies are essential in order to avoid additional enterprise closures and failures, to preserve and create employment and organize social welfare by boosting competitiveness and local development.” (Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on “Cooperatives and restructuring”, (2012/C 91/05:eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2012:191:0024:0029:ES:PDF In view of an endless economic recession, co-operative societies can play a key role in the entrepreneurial and social recovery and restructuring. This paper shows that this is likely to happen if we create a cooperative model in accordance with the principles of the socially intelligent restructuring processes proposed by the European Economic and Social Committee on «Cooperatives and Restructuring.

  18. The European Network of Coloproctology: a strategy towards the European research and healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbini, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Many documents from the International Institutions point out that Health represents an engine of economic and social development. Based on these documents and concepts, the European Parliament decided to create a system of European Reference Networks as a synthesis of clinical and research activities, particularly in the field of rare diseases. This initiative, properly implemented, could be first step towards a new European health system. This article instead, wanting to deepen this perspective, postulates that the ERNs may also be related to widespread diseases, such as those of coloproctological interest, with the aim of setting up a European Network of Coloproctology (ENCP). Here are analyzed: (a) the documents related to ERNs and others related to research and training, the characteristics of the coloproctological diseases, and proposal of the ENCP; (b) a survey that involves 14 out of 25 of the National and Regional Representative of the European Society of Coloproctology. Hundred percent of the people interviewed agree to the ENCP project. The percentage of the approved proposed fields of activity of the ENCP are: Healthcare 71%, Research 100%, Training 86%, Support to legislation 78%, Professional Mobility 64%, Patient Database 71%, and Expenditure control 64%. From the analysis of the documents and the result of the survey, ERNs are appropriate not only in relation to rare diseases but also in those fields with higher diffusion and the creation of a European Network of Coloproctology is then postulated.

  19. Understanding the value of social networks in life satisfaction of elderly people: a comparative study of 16 European countries using SHARE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomini, Florian; Tomini, Sonila M; Groot, Wim

    2016-12-01

    Networks of family and friends are a source of support and are generally associated with higher life satisfaction values among older adults. On the other hand, older adults who are satisfied with their life may be more able to develop and maintain a wider social network. For this reason, the causal link between size and composition of the social networks and satisfaction with life is yet to be explored. This paper investigates the effect of the 'size', (number of family and friends, and network) and the 'composition' (the proportion of friends over total number of persons) of the social network on life satisfaction among older adults (50+). Moreover, we also investigate the patterns of this relation between different European countries. Data from the 4 th wave of Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and an instrumental variable approach are used to estimate the extent of the relation between life satisfaction and size and composition of social networks. Respondents in Western and Northern European (WNE) countries report larger networks than respondents in Eastern and Southern European (ESE) countries. However, the positive relationship between network size and life satisfaction is consistent across countries. On the other hand, the share of friends in the network appears to be generally negatively related to satisfaction with life, though results are not statistically significant for all countries. Apparently, a larger personal network is important for older adults (50+) to be more satisfied with life. Our results suggest that this relation is particularly positive if the network is comprised of family members.

  20. Investigating Prospective Social Studies Teachers? Perceptions of European Union through Metaphor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate metaphors developed by social studies teacher candidates about the European Union. 185 second, third and fourth year social studies teacher candidates participated in the study. This study was designed as a phenomenological study and mataphor analysis was conducted. At the end of the study, the students…

  1. Asian Americans and European Americans' stigma levels in response to biological and social explanations of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2015-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.

  2. CSR and Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano AMELIO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the status of non-financial information disclosure in the European Union in order to evaluate the level of acceptance of social responsibility practices. The research is divided into two sections and the approach used is mainly theoretical and qualitative. In the first part the UE financial and non-financial information regulations are analyzed; the European Union launched a process of harmonization then subsequently it moved to the standardization process: the Regulation (EC No. 1606/2002 is part of the standardization process (It must be applied in its entirety across the EU while the Directive 2014/95/EU is part of the harmonization process (it sets out a goal that all EU countries must achieve. The Directive 2014/95/EU states that “large undertakings […] shall include in the management report a non-financial statement […]” thus making mandatory the preparation of non-financial statements. In the second part of the research, not considering the firm only as a system for the production of financial/economic value but also as an economic social actor which operates in a social environment to which it belongs and with which it interacts, the concept of social entrepreneurship is explained. Social entrepreneurship belongs to the entrepreneurs who draw up the social balance, required or permitted by the UE legislation. For this reason, the introduction of obligations in disclosing non-financial information could lead to the increase of entrepreneurship, with positive consequences in the creation of tangible benefits to both the business community and the global community.

  3. SOCIAL COSTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Gradinaru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The start of the financial crisis in mid-2007 at a global scale had a major impact on the European Union’s economy. All member states have been economically affected, but the social effects were mainly of large amplitude. This paper focuses precisely on analysing the social costs which the economic-financial crisis has generated in the European Union. After finishing the study we have noticed that numerous social consequences of the recession have manifested intensely since the beginning of the crisis and continue to do so even today. These consist in the increase of poverty and social exclusion, rise in unemployment, decrease in birth rate, changes regarding the migration process, reduction in income, excessive indebtedness, the disparities between countries contributing to the augmentation of all these.

  4. Satisfaction of Social and Legal Sciences teachers with the introduction of the European Higher Education Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ariza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available University teachers are one of the main figures in the European convergence process, but their attitude towards the reform of Spanish university studies is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the satisfaction of Social and Legal Sciences teachers towards the introduction of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA. The sample was made up of 3,068 teachers from Spanish public universities, who teach in the said field. An online questionnaire was created for this purpose, with questions relating to the EHEA, teacher tasks and training, as well as aspects related to methodology and the teaching and learning process, amongst others. Cronbach´s alpha coefficient was .81. It is a population-based, descriptive study using a cross-sectional survey with a probability sample. In the results it can be observed that only 9.3% of teachers are satisfied with the adaptation of higher education to the EHEA. Finally, the limitations faced by teaching staff in consolidating this process will be discussed.

  5. Survey of European LWR fuel irradiation test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardt, P von der [Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Petten Establishment, Petten (Netherlands)

    1983-06-01

    The first European commercial nuclear power plants (1956) featured gas-cooled thermal reactors. Although there is now a general orientation towards light water cooled plants (with a slight preference for the PWR) a large fraction of the 1982 nuclear generating capacity is still invested in gas-cooled reactors. R and D also continues for the HTGR with its long-term development potential. This paper, however, is limited to a general survey of experimental programmes and facilities for light water reactor fuel testing in Western Europe, particularly inside the European Communities. As it turns out, over a dozen major installations are available, all connected to research reactors in government-funded R and D centres. Their equipment is briefly reviewed. Some 50% of the experimental programmes are carried out in large international collaboration, involving up to 20 organizations per project. Techniques and results are rapidly communicated through frequent meetings and conferences. It is anticipated that a part of the present research reactor-based work will gradually shift to power reactor pool side inspection facilities. (author)

  6. Survey of European LWR fuel irradiation test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der

    1983-01-01

    The first European commercial nuclear power plants (1956) featured gas-cooled thermal reactors. Although there is now a general orientation towards light water cooled plants (with a slight preference for the PWR) a large fraction of the 1982 nuclear generating capacity is still invested in gas-cooled reactors. R and D also continues for the HTGR with its long-term development potential. This paper, however, is limited to a general survey of experimental programmes and facilities for light water reactor fuel testing in Western Europe, particularly inside the European Communities. As it turns out, over a dozen major installations are available, all connected to research reactors in government-funded R and D centres. Their equipment is briefly reviewed. Some 50% of the experimental programmes are carried out in large international collaboration, involving up to 20 organizations per project. Techniques and results are rapidly communicated through frequent meetings and conferences. It is anticipated that a part of the present research reactor-based work will gradually shift to power reactor pool side inspection facilities. (author)

  7. [Bioethics from a social perspective: European Biopolitics Conference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Canela López, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    The European Congress on biopolitics entitled "Connecting civil society implementing basic values" was held in March 2006 in Berlin. It was organised by the Heinrich Böll foundation and the Institut Mensch, Ethik und Wissenschaft. The aim of the Congress was to provide a forum for discussion on the ethical and social aspects derived from biotechnology and genetics on human beings. This work summarises some of the aspects that reveal the international interest and relevance of this meeting.

  8. Science without meritocracy. Discrimination among European specialists in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Poljak, Mario; Cacace, Marina; Caiati, Giovanni; Benzonana, Nur; Nagy, Elisabeth; Kortbeek, Titia

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, in a European survey, around a quarter of Europeans reported witnessing discrimination or harassment at their workplace. The parity committee from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) designed a questionnaire survey to investigate forms of discrimination with respect to country, gender and ethnicity among medical professionals in hospitals and universities carrying out activities in the clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious diseases (ID) fields. The survey consisted of 61 questions divided into five areas (sociodemographic, professional census and environment, leadership and generic) and ran anonymously for nearly 3 months on the ESCMID website. European specialists in CM/ID. Overall, we included 1274 professionals. The majority of respondents (68%) stated that discrimination is present in medical science. A quarter of them reported personal experience with discrimination, mainly associated with gender and geographic region. Specialists from South-Western Europe experienced events at a much higher rate (37%) than other European regions. The proportion of women among full professor was on average 46% in CM and 26% in ID. Participation in high-level decision-making committees was significantly (>10 percentage points) different by gender and geographic origin. Yearly gross salary among CM/ID professionals was significantly different among European countries and by gender, within the same country. More than one-third of respondents (38%) stated that international societies in CM/ID have an imbalance as for committee member distribution and speakers at international conferences. A quarter of CM/ID specialists experienced career and research discrimination in European hospitals and universities, mainly related to gender and geographic origin. Implementing proactive policies to tackle discrimination and improve representativeness and balance in career among CM/ID professionals in Europe is urgently needed.

  9. Several roads lead to international norms, but few via international socialization. A case study of the European Commission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, E.A.E.B.

    2005-01-01

    Can an international organization socialize those who work within it? The European Commission of the European Union is a crucial case because it is an autonomous international organization with a vocation to defend supranational norms. If this body cannot socialize its members, which international

  10. Health-related quality of life in European women following myocardial infarction: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Evy; Höfer, Stefan; Saner, Hugo; Perk, Joep; Hildingh, Cathrine; Oldridge, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Coronary heart disease is a major contributor to women's health problems. Self-perceived social support, well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were documented in the cross-sectional HeartQoL survey of European women one and six months after a myocardial infarction. European women were recruited in 18 European countries and grouped into four geographical regions (Southern Europe, Northern Europe, Western Europe and Eastern Europe). Continuous socio-demographic variables and categorical variables were compared by age and region with ANOVA and χ(2), respectively; multiple regression models were used to identify predictors of social support, well-being and HRQL. Women living in the Eastern European region rated social support, well-being and HRQL significantly lower than women in the other regions. Older women had lower physical HRQL scores than younger women. Eastern European women rated social support, well-being and HRQL significantly lower than women in the other regions. Prediction of the dependent variables (social support, well-being and HRQL) by socio-demographic factors varied by total group, in the older age group, and by region; body mass index and managerial responsibility were the most consistent significant predictors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  11. Contribution of the EU Budget to the Implementation of the Social Cohesion Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stabryła-Chudzio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study is to examine whether the European Union budget comprises significant resources for financing measures relating to social cohesion. The analysis is based on the contents of the Europe 2020 Strategy. Given the constraints of space and for the sake of clarity of the argument, the author focuses on the role of the EU budget rather than all measures aimed at social cohesion undertaken by EU institutions or targeted by policies of individual Member States.Methodology: Documents, studies and reports published by the European Commission constitute the main source of information. In addition, the author has taken into account macroeconomic data demonstrating the deterioration of the social situation since 2009, as well as the instruments that the European Commission has deployed since 2013 in order to respond to post-crisis challenges.Conclusions: It can be roughly estimated that more than 40 percent of total resources within the Multiannual Financial Framework 2014–2020 shall be allocated to the social cohesion policy. Opportunities afforded by the implementation of the Europe 2020 Strategy include primarily the definition of objectives whose priority is indisputable and the introduction of the hitherto neglected analysis of certain socio-economic indicators, classified by country or region and, in certain cases, examined in more detail than required by the European Commission. The monitoring of objectives is conducive to the introduction of new solutions and implementation tools, as exemplified by the new instruments within the Multiannual Financial Framework 2014–2020, as well as the adjustment of available funds in light of the most pressing challenges. The European Semester has facilitated the task of comparing progress in strategy implementation by individual Member States, as well as the provision of recommendations for each of them and an individualized approach.Research implications: This article

  12. European Social Fund for the 2014 – 2020 programming period - prerequisite for smart sustainable development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Claudiu Cocoșatu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Article approaches the problem of European Social Fund in the programming period 2014-2020 with directly applicability to its implementation in Romania. In the first part of the paper it is analyzed the legal frame papers of the Structural Funds through the influence that they have in shaping a coherent policy for solving problems in the programming period 2007-2013. In the second part of the paper are pointed out the most important elements and moments of the European Social Fund. This particularization was conducted both at European and national level. Finally, the paper has detailed the importance of proper implementation of the program for the European Social Fund 2014-2020, with general applicability to system level and particular to applicant institutions. All these efforts have been made ​​to propose the current government, especially the Ministry of European Funds, rational and efficient ways to increase the funds absorption in Romania for the new programming period so that national interest will be better promoted through the use of EU funds.

  13. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S CIVIL SOCIETY DISCOURSE AND SOCIAL PLATFORM OF EUROPEAN NGOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUTAY, RIZA ACAR

    2011-01-01

    European NGO network, the Social Platform of European NGOs. The common understanding conceives of these organizations as conducive to democratization of EU governance within the scope of participatory democracy. However, I endeavour to argue that the Commission has had an aim to make use of the civil...... society discourse for its institutional interests, while intentionally and unintentionally shaping (and reshaping) civic action in Europe. Participatory democracy project, which is promoted by the Commission, can be seen as a deliberate venture of shaping civic action and state-society relationships......, which has been particularly created by the Commission to disperse the participatory democracy and good governance discourse in Europe....

  14. National critical incident reporting systems relevant to anaesthesia: a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S; Arnal, D; Frank, O; Gomez-Arnau, J I; Hansen, J; Lester, O; Mikkelsen, K L; Rhaiem, T; Rosenberg, P H; St Pierre, M; Schleppers, A; Staender, S; Smith, A F

    2014-03-01

    Critical incident reporting is a key tool in the promotion of patient safety in anaesthesia. We surveyed representatives of national incident reporting systems in six European countries, inviting information on scope and organization, and intelligence on factors determining success and failure. Some systems are government-run and nationally conceived; others started out as small, specialty-focused initiatives, which have since acquired a national reach. However, both national co-ordination and specialty enthusiasts seem to be necessary for an optimally functioning system. The role of reporting culture, definitional issues, and dissemination is discussed. We make recommendations for others intending to start new systems and speculate on the prospects for sharing patient safety lessons relevant to anaesthesia at European level.

  15. Social Progress in Romania and other Central and Eastern European Non- Eurozone States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGINIA CÂMPEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our research paper refers to the social progress achieved in the last 10 years by Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Poland and Hungary as non- Eurozone members (CEE-6, compared to the minimum and maximum levels in the EU-28, depending on their economic development levels. This analysis isa part of the larger-scale study regarding the readinessassessment of Romania and other five Central and Eastern European countries (CEE-6 for accession to the Eurozone in terms of the real convergence. We extended the analysis of the real economic convergence to the sphere of social convergence. The purpose of the extended analysis is to compare the living standards in Romania, CEE-6 and other European Union member states (EU-28 and to draw conclusions on the social convergence as a complement to real economic convergence. Using a new analytical tool, the global composite index “Social Progress Index” at different levels of disaggregation, this article reveals the social gaps between CEE-6 and the EU and identifies strengths, and weaknesses for these countries to achieve social progress on the road to real economic and social convergence with the EU.The aim is to provide to the national decision-makers some milestones to remove weaknesses and to turn threats into opportunities in the future social and economic policies.

  16. Evaluation of the two non-consecutive 24-h recall instrument for pan-European food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The comparability of food consumption data originating from national nutritional surveys in Europe is currently hampered because of different methodologies used. Therefore, experts in the European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) consortium proposed to use two non-consecutive

  17. GOOD PRACTICE IN CROATIAN SOCIAL POLICY – RECCOMENDATIONS FOR THE COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mahmutefendić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social policy has the ideal of cohesion and inclusiveness of all citizens, but it has to “play” an active role in creating opportunities for them. It encopmasses in itself primarily a balance between economic efficiency and social solidarity distribution, and strives towards a consensual social model in which the government and the opposition generally agree on the fundamental priorities of society. Starting from July 1st, 2013, Croatia has been a member of the European Union. What experiences can that country bring to European Union? In spite of the differences between the European countries becoming more and more expressed and bigger, there is a common element: a conscience that social justice and social reconciliation could contribute to an economical development and that are not just an expense; but the opposite: an economical development that must contribute to social reconciliation. In the process of the preparation for this work and during the process of its realization, I used the methods of reading a lot of literature, including professional books, professional journals and legislation literature. Social policy has been for years one of my major fields of interest, so some facts I knew already. My research goal is to examine the development so far of the social policy in Croatia, to detect the most important conditions which are necessary to develop high-quality social policies, to discover which are strong sides, and which are weak sides of the Croatian social policy, and therefore what is important to strongly develop, and what is redundant and/or old-fashioned, to throw away or neglect.

  18. Social Trust and Value Similarity: the Relationship between Social Trust and Human Values in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Beilmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current paper is to test whether value similarity may foster social trust in society and whether people have higher levels of social trust when they emphasise the same values that prevail in their country. The relationship between social trust and human values was examined in a sample of 51,308 people across 29 European countries using data from the European Social Survey round 6. Results suggest that value similarity is more important in generating individual level social trust in countries where the overall levels of social trust are higher. There is a stronger positive relationship between value similarity and social trust in Scandinavian countries, which have high social trust levels, while in countries with a low level of social trust, congruity of the personal value structure with the country level value structure tends to decrease the individuals trustfulness

  19. Development of laparoscopic surgery and training facilities in Europe: Results of a survey of the European Society of Uro-Technology (ESUT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, M. P.; Schreuders, L. C.; Rassweiler, J. J.; Abbou, C. C.; van Velthoven, R.; Janetschek, G.; Breda, G.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The European Society of Uro-Technology (ESUT) conducted a survey in order to assess the application of laparoscopy and the facilitation of training programs within Europe. Methods: A total of 430 urologists and residents from European countries answered the ESUT survey during the XVIIIth

  20. Sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic ICUs: a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Albarran, John W; Ring, Mette; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2013-07-01

    A trend towards lighter sedation has been evident in many intensive care units (ICUs). The aims of the survey were to describe sedation practice in European ICUs and to compare sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic countries. A cross-sectional survey of ICU nurses attending the fourth European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations (EfCCNa) in Denmark, 2011. Data included use of protocols; sedation, pain and delirium assessment tools; collaborative decision-making; sedation and analgesic medications; and educational preparation related to sedation. Response rate was 42% (n = 291) from 22 countries where 53% (n = 148) used sedation protocols. Nordic nurses reported greater use of sedation (91% versus 67%, p Nordic nurses. Decision-making on sedation was more inter-professionally collaborative in Nordic ICUs (83% versus 61%, p Nordic nurses reported greater consistency in maintaining circadian rhythm (66% versus 49%, p Nordic context might be more germane to the goal of lighter sedation and better pain management. Our study raises awareness of current sedation practice, paving the way towards optimized ICU sedation management. © 2013 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  1. A more ‘autonomous’ European social dialogue: the implementation of the Framework Agreement On Telework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Ramos Martín, N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of the first ‘autonomous’ agreement signed by the European social partners. The European Framework Agreement on Telework of July 2002 was to be implemented ‘in accordance with the procedures and practices specific to management and labour and the Member

  2. European survey on principles of prudent antibiotic prescribing teaching in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, C; Wencker, F; Frimodt-Møller, N; Kern, W V; Nathwani, D; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Simonsen, G S; Vlahović-Palčevski, V; Gyssens, I C

    2015-04-01

    We surveyed European medical schools regarding teaching of prudent antibiotic prescribing in the undergraduate curriculum. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 13 European countries (Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom) in 2013. Proportional sampling was used, resulting in the selection of two to four medical schools per country. A standardized questionnaire based on literature review and validated by a panel of experts was sent to lecturers in infectious diseases, medical microbiology and clinical pharmacology. In-depth interviews were conducted with four lecturers. Thirty-five of 37 medical schools were included in the study. Prudent antibiotic use principles were taught in all but one medical school, but only four of 13 countries had a national programme. Interactive teaching formats were used less frequently than passive formats. The teaching was mandatory for 53% of the courses and started before clinical training in 71%. We observed wide variations in exposure of students to important principles of prudent antibiotic use among countries and within the same country. Some major principles were poorly covered (e.g. reassessment and duration of antibiotic therapy, communication skills). Whereas 77% of the respondents fully agreed that the teaching of these principles should be prioritized, lack of time, mainly due to rigid curriculum policies, was the main reported barrier to implementation. Given the study design, these are probably optimistic results. Teaching of prudent antibiotic prescribing principles should be improved. National and European programmes for development of specific learning outcomes or competencies are urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotional support, education and self-rated health in 22 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Geyer, Siegfried

    2007-10-01

    The analyses focus on three aims: (1) to explore the associations between education and emotional support in 22 European countries, (2) to explore the associations between emotional support and self-rated health in the European countries, and (3) to analyse whether the association between education and self-rated health can be partly explained by emotional support. The study uses data from the European Social Survey 2003. Probability sampling from all private residents aged 15 years and older was applied in all countries. The European Social Survey includes 42,359 cases. Persons under age 25 were excluded to minimise the number of respondents whose education was not complete. Education was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education. Perceived emotional support was assessed by the availability of a confidant with whom one can discuss intimate and personal matters with. Self-rated health was used as health indicator. Results of multiple logistic regression analyses show that emotional support is positively associated with education among women and men in most European countries. However, the magnitude of the association varies according to country and gender. Emotional support is positively associated with self-rated health. Again, gender and country differences in the association were observed. Emotional support explains little of the educational differences in self-rated health among women and men in most European countries. Results indicate that it is important to consider socio-economic factors like education and country-specific contexts in studies on health effects of emotional support.

  4. Average level of satisfaction in 10 European countries: explanation of differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT Surveys in 10 European nations assessed satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with three life-domains (finances, housing, social contacts). Average satisfaction differs markedly across countries. Both satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with

  5. CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING AND THE ORIGINS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Brailean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many papal encyclicals were not directly concerned about the appearance of European Union due to many historical, political and social contexts. The fundamental principles developed through several encyclicals from early 19th century to the present day reaffirmed the neutrality of the Church regarding to many forms of government. But the most important idea has its root in the restoration of the Christian principles in society. In a time of de-Christianization and secularism, the role of Church as the foundation of peace is also important to notice. It was considered that every modern democracy is the image of the revealed heart of the universal law of charity (Jacques Maritain. That is why between a supranational entity like the European Union and the Catholic Church should be a friendly and close relationship. A unite Europe has its roots in Christianity, especially in Catholicism. The soul of Europe is animated by religious principles. Whether we talk about Schuman or Adenauer, their Christian faith is the engine for their political success. After the Second World War, in Western Europe, the Christian democratic parties had a huge impact for the democratic governance. The socio-economic policies of these parties were anchored in Catholic social teaching.

  6. EQUIP: A European Survey of Quality Criteria for the Evaluation of Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. D.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on two stages of an investigation into the perceived quality of online databases. Presents data from 989 questionnaires from 600 database users in 12 European and Scandinavian countries and results of a test of the SERVQUAL methodology for identifying user expectations about database services. Lists statements used in the SERVQUAL survey.…

  7. European Adult and Lifelong Education in Times of Crisis: Where is Social Justice when the Social Dimension turns into Social Cohesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    of society; for example, in terms of access to, benefit from and success in education and employment. In this contribution, I adopt a social justice perspective to examine the redistributive function of the European Union and the role it attributes to adult and lifelong education in alleviating social......Four years on from the 2010 debt crisis, economists claim that Europe has still not recovered from the recession that worsened social inequality. This raises the important question of whether social inequality can be tackled by social justice. The concept of social justice emphasises the idea...... inequality. In doing so, I highlight not only how member states represent the primary source of revenue for the Union but also how they benefit in return from the redistribution of economic means through several financial tools and programmes. This also applies to areas such as education and vocational...

  8. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  9. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the…

  11. Multimodality imaging in Europe: a survey by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuocolo, Alberto; Breatnach, Eamann

    2010-01-01

    Multimodality imaging represents an area of rapid growth with important professional implication for both nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists throughout Europe. As a preliminary step for future action aimed at improving the quality and accessibility of PET/SPECT/CT multimodality imaging practice in Europe, the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) performed a survey among the individual membership of both societies to obtain information on the status of multimodality imaging in their facilities and their future visions on training for combined modalities. A questionnaire was forwarded to all individual members of the EANM and ESR. The main subject matter of the questionnaire related to: (1) study performance, current procedures, current equipment including its supervisory personnel at respondents' individual facilities and (2) vision of future practice, performance and the potential for combined interdisciplinary viewing and training for future professionals. The reporting and the billing procedures of multimodality imaging studies are very heterogeneous in European countries. The majority of the members of both societies believe that the proportion of PET/CT conducted as a full diagnostic CT with contrast enhancement will increase over time. As expected, 18 F-FDG is the most commonly used PET tracer for clinical applications. The large majority of respondents were in favour of an interdisciplinary training programme being developed on a European level together by the EANM and the ESR and the respective sections of the European Union of Medical Specialists. The results of this survey show that there is wide heterogeneity in the current practice of multimodality imaging in Europe. This situation may limit the full potential and integration of multimodality imaging within the clinical arena. There is a strong desire within both specialties for the development of interdisciplinary training to address some

  12. European Association of Urology (@Uroweb) recommendations on the appropriate use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouprêt, Morgan; Morgan, Todd M; Bostrom, Peter J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kutikov, Alexander; Linton, Kate D; Palou, Joan; Martínez-Piñeiro, Luis; van der Poel, Henk; Wijburg, Carl; Winterbottom, Andrew; Woo, Henry H; Wirth, Manfred P; Catto, James W F

    2014-10-01

    Social media use is becoming common in medical practice. Although primarily used in this context to connect physicians, social media allows users share information, to create an online profile, to learn and keep knowledge up to date, to facilitate virtual attendance at medical conferences, and to measure impact within a field. However, shared content should be considered permanent and beyond the control of its author, and typical boundaries, such as the patient-physician interaction, become blurred, putting both parties at risk. The European Association of Urology brought together a committee of stakeholders to create guidance on the good practice and standards of use of social media. These encompass guidance about defining an online profile; managing accounts; protecting the reputations of yourself and your organization; protecting patient confidentiality; and creating honest, responsible content that reflects your standing as a physician and your membership within this profession. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  14. United States and European students’ social-networking site activities and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.; Shreffler, Anthony; Albert, Patricia; Tomko, Carrie

    2018-01-01

    Different cultures communicate differently. Research is beginning to examine the differences in culture related to social-networking site (SNS) use. Differences in specific SNS activities related to academic performance among United States (US; n = 446) and European (n = 394) university students

  15. Average level of satisfaction in 10 European countries: explanation of differences

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    1996-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT Surveys in 10 European nations assessed satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with three life-domains (finances, housing, social contacts). Average satisfaction differs markedly across countries. Both satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and satisfaction with life-domains are highest in North-Western Europe, medium in Southern Europe and lowest in the East-European nations. Cultural measurement bias is unlikely to be involved. The country differences in average ...

  16. Sample Loss and Survey Bias in Estimates of Social Security Beneficiaries: A Tale of Two Surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Czajka; James Mabli; Scott Cody

    2008-01-01

    Data from the Census Bureau’s Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) provide information on current and potential beneficiaries served by Social Security Administration (SSA) programs. SSA also links administrative records to the records of survey respondents who provide Social Security numbers. These matched data expand the content of the SIPP and CPS files to fields available only through SSA and Internal Revenue Service records—such as l...

  17. THE EVOLUTION OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is confronting with problems such as global warming, pollution, contamination of the soil. As a response to these problems, organizations are implementing corporate social responsibility programs, as a way of dealing with these new challenges. CSR reporting began in the 90’s in the USA, but in the last twenty years, EU companies have shown an increasing involvement to a point in which today European CSR reports ammount to 38% of the total reports worldwide. The Global Reporting Initiative is a nongovernmental organism that provides companies which wish to create CSR reports, a set of guidelines and databases what contain CSR reports from 1999 to the present day. As an answer to the need of companies to report their CSR activities, in November 2014, the European Union published Directive 2014/95/EU regarding the obligation of large companies to anually report a series of nonfinancial aspects and information. A priority of the European Comission is to align the CSR reporting method of the member states to the global methods. The comission has evaluated in 2013 the progress of member states and reached the conclusion that member states have chosen different pahts: some have taken only small impact decisions – such as informative and promotional actions for CSR – while other states have taken legislative measures to support corporate social responsibility.

  18. The Influence of Recognition and Social Support on European Health Professionals' Occupational Stress: A Demands-Control-Social Support-Recognition Bayesian Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Susana; Lopez-Garcia, Jose R; Herrera, Sixto; Fontaneda, Ignacio; Báscones, Sonia Muñoz; Mariscal, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.

  19. #SocialMedia, Advancement, and Fundraising in Education. [Fourth Annual Survey of Social Media in Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This white paper reports on findings from the fourth survey of social media in advancement, conducted in January and February, 2013 by the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE), Huron Education, and mStoner. The survey was taken by more than 1,000 CASE members. Featured are six case studies on the effective use of social media in…

  20. Disapproval of Homosexuality : Comparative Research on Individual and National Determinants of Disapproval of Homosexuality in 20 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Hanneke; van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Scheepers, Peer

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel

  1. Disapproval of Homosexuality: Comparative Research on Individual and National Determinants of Disapproval of Homosexuality in 20 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, H.M. van den; Ploeg, R. van der; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel

  2. Acces to Czech Social Survey Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Jindřich

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 6 (2002), s. 809-826 ISSN 0038-0288 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : social science data archives * research infrastructures * comparative surveys Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.113, year: 2002

  3. Developing Cognitive Models for Social Simulation from Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jonathan K.; Lieberman, Stephen

    The representation of human behavior and cognition continues to challenge the modeling and simulation community. The use of survey and polling instruments to inform belief states, issue stances and action choice models provides a compelling means of developing models and simulations with empirical data. Using these types of data to population social simulations can greatly enhance the feasibility of validation efforts, the reusability of social and behavioral modeling frameworks, and the testable reliability of simulations. We provide a case study demonstrating these effects, document the use of survey data to develop cognitive models, and suggest future paths forward for social and behavioral modeling.

  4. The case of a European Social Union. From muddling through to a sense of common purpose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.

    2014-01-01

    We need a coherent conception of a European Social Union. A Social Union would support national welfare states on a systemic level in some of their key functions and guide the substantive development of national welfare states - via general social standards and objectives, leaving ways and means of

  5. ANALYZING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of national and international developments, Corporate Social Responsibility is becoming an increasingly important element on national and transnational policy agendas. An ever more diverse range of businesses are adopting CSR strategies as a core part of their business model. Socially responsible business can contribute to restoring trust in the market in the post-crisis context. In last years European Commission encouraging international business development and in same time, CSR instruments development in all types of organizations for encourage responsible business conduct. In this paper our purpose was to analyse the current stage of CSR in the EU. For this, we divided our research in two parts: in first part we analyze the current stage of CSR reporting of the EU members and in the second part, we study the organizational sectors of company which fulfill their report of sustainability. Our results prove us that are a few factors that influence the current stage of reporting and in last years number of company that report their CSR activity is increasing in all sectors and in all countries. Given the fact that CSR activities are becoming more and more important in any successful business, and taking into account the legislative changes that took place in European Laws, we consider CSR reporting to be even more intense in the years to follow, in EU member states.

  6. Professional burnout in European young oncologists: results of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Young Oncologists Committee Burnout Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Califano, R; Corral, J; de Azambuja, E; De Mattos-Arruda, L; Guarneri, V; Hutka, M; Jordan, K; Martinelli, E; Mountzios, G; Ozturk, M A; Petrova, M; Postel-Vinay, S; Preusser, M; Qvortrup, C; Volkov, M N M; Tabernero, J; Olmos, D; Strijbos, M H

    2017-07-01

    Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologists ≤40 (YOs). A survey was conducted using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and additional questions exploring work/lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with burnout. Total of 737 surveys (all ages) were collected from 41 European countries. Countries were divided into six regions. Results from 595 (81%) YOs were included (81% medical oncologists; 52% trainees, 62% women). Seventy-one percent of YOs showed evidence of burnout (burnout subdomains: depersonalization 50%; emotional exhaustion 45; low accomplishment 35%). Twenty-two percent requested support for burnout during training and 74% reported no hospital access to support services. Burnout rates were significantly different across Europe (P women (60% versus 45% P = 0.0001) and low accomplishment was highest in the 26-30 age group (P balance, access to support services, living alone and inadequate vacation time remained independent burnout factors (P balance, access to support services and adequate vacation time may reduce burnout levels. Raising awareness, support and interventional research are needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  8. Are we Europeans?: Correlates and the relation between national and European identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the correlates of the national identity are plentiful both in Serbian and foreign literature. However, in the past decade or so, a new social identity starts to make its way into the researches of the social psychologists-European identity or the sense of belonging to the Europe and the Europeans. This paper deals with the relation between national and European identity, as well as with the correlates of both of these, or one of them. The sample consisted of 451 subjects, all residents of major cities in the Vojvodina region (northern Serbia, divided into several categories-ethnicity (Serbs and Hungarians, educational level (primary and secondary school or University degree, gender and age. Several scales have been used: Cinnirela's national and European identity scale, Collective self-esteem scale, scale measuring attitudes towards the European integration-STEIN and Social dominance orientation scale-SDO. The questionnaire with the demographic characteristics has also been the part of the instrument. The research has been conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the all of the major Vojvodinian cities. Results show the relation between national and European identity is foggy, but general conclusion is that we can observe them as independent identities. The correlates of the national identity were ethnicity, high social dominance orientation, high collective self-esteem and negative attitude towards the European integrations. Correlates of the European identity were fewer: ethnicity, positive attitude towards the European integration and low social dominance orientation.

  9. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in

  10. LEGAL ASPECTS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN UKRAINE ON THE WAY TO EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kolohoida, Oleksandra; Lukach, Iryna; Poiedynok, Valeriia

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Corporate social responsibility is a new form of dialogue between business, society and the state. This article explores the possibilities of legislating for corporate social responsibility in Ukraine in respect of implementing the Association Agreement of 2014 between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and Ukraine, of the other part. Different approaches to introducing corporate social responsibility standards are examined. The paper considers not only intern...

  11. European Commission Initiatives to Promote Social Concern on the Market: a Counterbalance to Fiscal Discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gómez Urquijo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the significance of recent European Commission initiatives in the face of evidence of non-compliance with the social objectives targeted in the EU 2020 Strategy. In the midst of the ongoing debate regarding austerity and growth, we stress the need to further the EU trend toward differentiated growth-friendly fiscal consolidation. Given that “conditionality” is a new keystone of economic governance and cohesion policy, the difficulties that the Member States encounter and the diversity of their social protections give a new meaning to the European coordination policies that are intended to promote social cohesion. By analysing EU proposals and official documents, we will show how the Commission’s initiatives have introduced diverse elements that are intended to address the social consequences of the economic crisis and reveal how new ideas of growth and new ways to deepen the internal market have been promoted. We will also determine whether we can consider these ideas to be a valid response to current social challenges.

  12. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dogar Cristian; Tatiana Dãnescu

    2012-01-01

    Associating spent amounts in European Social Fund (ESF) financed interventions to eligible activities could be important premises for safeguarding the sound financial management principle. Incorporating management accounting in the beneficiaries accounting systems may provide primary warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002 This study aims to explore some facts in actual accounting management implementation, as a base for future ...

  13. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO...... or small groups of galaxies, suggesting that the sample may include a significant fraction of luminous infrared galaxies. The source counts extracted from a reliable subset of the detected sources are in agreement with strongly evolving models of the starburst galaxy population....

  14. Social suffering and marginalisation among Eastern European students in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Dahlberg, Mette Ginnerskov

    2016-01-01

    Presenter: Lisanne Wilken, dr. phil. Global Studies, Aarhus University. ceklw@cas.au.dk Together with Mette Ginnerskov Hansen; phd-student, Global Studies, Aarhus University Theme 5: Reconsidering "Internationalisation" from peripheral perspectives Social suffering and marginalization among Eastern...... European students in Denmark In recent years Denmark has become a favoured destination for international students from the (South) Eastern Member States of the European Union. In 2013 Denmark was the 2nd most favoured destination for students from Latvia and Lithuania, the 6th most favoured destination...... for students from Romania and the 7th most favoured destination for students from Poland. Students from EU's Eastern member states are often attracted by the fee free access to highly ranked universities, and the possibilities for receiving economic student support, but also by the welfare society...

  15. HOW RESILIENT IS THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL? FLEXIBILITY OR/AND SECURITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta GHEBREA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to assess the resilience of the European social model (ESM against recent challenges. Resilience depends on effectively managing the contradictions of the ESM. Flexicurity is an example of managing contradictions between security and flexibility. The contribution of flexicurity to the resilience of the ESM is determined by the development of the abilities necessary for resilience. Our research evaluates the performance of these abilities using statistical and document analyses. The results show that flexicurity policies perform satisfactorily relative to their resilience abilities. Still, the ability to respond is less effective due to significant differences among the Member States (regarding the implementation of flexicurity policies and to insufficient openness and functionality of the European labour market. Nevertheless, the European flexicurity policies redefine the ESM by adding a touch of a more mobile, autonomous and free-spirited approach, thus representing a solution to both preserve valuable tradition and modernise the ESM.

  16. [European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Adults (ECRHS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, J; Richter, K; Frye, C; Meyer, I; Wölke, G; Wjst, M; Nowak, D; Magnussen, H; Wichmann, H E

    2002-05-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was the first study to assess the geographical variation in asthma, allergy, and allergic sensitization in adults using the same instruments and definitions. The database of the ECRHS includes information from approximately 140 000 individuals aged 20 - 44 years from 22 countries. The aim of this review is to summarize the results of the ECRHS and to present the specific contribution of the German centers in Hamburg and Erfurt. The prevalence ranged from 2.0 - 11.9 % for asthma, 9.5 - 40.9 % for allergic rhinitis, 4.0 - 32.0 % for wheeze, 3.4 - 27.9 % for bronchial hyperreactivity, and 16.2 - 44.5 % for allergic sensitisation against common aeroallergens. Although the prevalence of these atopic disorders were found to be consistently higher for the Hamburg center compared to the Erfurt center, strong regional differences in the prevalences were also found within several other European countries. Overall Europe, the lowest prevalences were seen in the Eastern and Middle European countries with the center Erfurt, followed by the Mediterranean region. The highest prevalences were reported for all English speaking centers. Strong geographic variation was reported for medication for asthma. Asthma seems to be undertreated in several countries. Environmental exposures and in particular indoor factors, and exposures at the workplace are playing a major role for asthma in adulthood. Furthermore, protective effects on atopy were found for exposures to pets (dogs) and a large number of siblings in early childhood. In conclusion, the ECRHS has shown that the prevalence of asthma varies widely. The fact that the geographical pattern is consistent with the distribution of atopy and bronchial responsiveness supports the conclusion that the geographical variations in the prevalence of asthma are true and likely due to environmental factors.

  17. [Social perception of biomedicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Sedeño, Eulalia; Miranda Suárez, María José

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing concern that studies of public understanding of science, especially biomedicine, should be expected to bring shared frameworks to European and national policies. The present article aims to provide a critical overview of the most recent studies of public understanding of biomedicine in Spain. Specifically, this essay reviews the similarities and differences in the latest European and Spanish surveys. Throughout this article we compare the Third National Survey of Social Perception of Science and Technology produced by the Spanish National Science and Technology Foundation, focusing on issues related to biomedicine, and the Medical and Health Research. A special Eurobarometer Public Survey published by the European Commission. The two surveys were compared attending to the three main common items of science, technology and biomedicine: the level of interest, the level of information and political attitudes. Some discrepancies in the results of the two studies, such as public interest in these subjects, may partly be due to the different methodologies used in the survey designs. Further national studies exploring public understanding of science, technology and biomedicine at the national level, as well as the use of European standards, would be of great help in other cross-national studies and policies. Improving qualitative studies would also be useful to strengthen relations among science, technology and society.

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards the possibility that legal instruments should influence a socially responsible behavior for public or private business operators. The aspects analysed for business operators in Romania can represent a model for other European Union states as well.

  19. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  20. Gender and cultural differences in the association between family roles, social stratification, and alcohol use: a European cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard; Knibbe, Ronald A; Kuendig, Hervé; Bloomfield, Kim; Kramer, Stephanie; Grittner, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    First, this paper investigates (i) gender differences in associations of social stratification, family roles, and heavy drinking, and (ii) country differences in these associations. Second, it seeks to explain country differences in the associations of social stratification and family roles with alcohol consumption by societal level variables. Survey data of 25 to 49-years-old from eight European countries were used. Logistic regressions were used to analyse gender differences in the association between family roles (marriage, having children), social stratification (education, employment), and heavy drinking (>20 g/day for women; 30 g/day for men). Gender differences were tested by means of interactions between gender and social stratification/family roles. Structural measures of work desirability, social welfare, and gender equity were used to explain differences in associations across countries. The associations between social stratification, family roles, and heavy drinking varied across gender and countries. A country's social welfare system was associated with heavy drinking only among women. Women in countries with a strong social welfare system, such as Nordic countries, tended to drink more heavily if employed, having lower formal education, and a non-traditional family role. In countries with weak social welfare systems or work desirability, heavy drinking was associated with high education, while effects of family roles and employment were small. It appeared that the social welfare system and gender equity of a country determines to a large extent how education, employment, and family roles are associated with heavy drinking.

  1. Bridging the Gap between Social Animal and Unsocial Machine: A Survey of Social Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Pantic, Maja; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Pelachaud, Catherine; Poggi, Isabella; D’Ericco, Francesca; Schröder, Marc

    Social Signal Processing is the research domain aimed at bridging the social intelligence gap between humans and machines. This paper is the first survey of the domain that jointly considers its three major aspects, namely, modeling, analysis, and synthesis of social behavior. Modeling investigates

  2. A SURVEY AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH ON POLITICAL LEARNING AND SOCIALIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DENNIS, JACK

    A GENERAL SURVEY WAS MADE OF RESEARCH AND LITERATURE IN THE FIELD OF POLITICAL LEARNING AND SOCIALIZATION, AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY WAS PREPARED. THE SURVEY WAS MADE TO PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF THE MAIN CURRENTS OF STUDY OF CHILDREN'S LEARNING OF POLITICAL CONCEPTS. THE SURVEY INCLUDED MAJOR SUBSTANTIVE PROBLEMS OF POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION RESEARCH--(1)…

  3. Customer satisfaction survey to improve the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwouts, Sarah; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis European Network, coordinated from within the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, is the provider of the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment (EQA) scheme. The network aimed to seek feedback from laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis scheme in order to improve services offered. In this study we analysed responses to an on-line customer satisfaction survey conducted between September and November 2009. The survey was sent to 213 laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme of 2008; 69 laboratories (32%) responded. Scores for importance and satisfaction were obtained from a five-point Likert scale for 24 attributes. A score of one corresponded to very dissatisfied/very unimportant and five corresponded to very satisfied/very important. Means were calculated and placed in a two-dimensional grid (importance-satisfaction analysis). Means were subtracted from each other to obtain gap values (gap-analysis). No attribute had a mean score below 3.63. The overall mean of satisfaction was 4.35. Opportunities for improvement enclosed clarity, usefulness and completeness of the general report and individual comments, and user-friendliness of the electronic datasheet. This type of customer satisfaction survey was a valuable instrument to identify opportunities to improve the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme. It should be conducted on a regular basis to reveal new opportunities in the future and to assess effectiveness of actions taken. Moreover, it could be a model for other EQA providers seeking feedback from participants. Overall, the customer satisfaction survey provided a powerful quality of care improvement tool.

  4. An evaluation of the impact of the European Association of Social Psychology: A response to Schruijer (2012)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hewstone, M.; Liebkind, K.; Lewicka, M.; Laszlo, J.; Voci, A.; Contarello, A.; Gomez, A.; Hantzi, A.; Bilewicz, M.; Guinote, A.; Graf, Sylvie; Petkova, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2012), s. 117-126 ISSN 0952-6951 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : social psychology * science * European Association of Social Psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2012

  5. Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in the mental well-being of employed men and women: the role of European welfare regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Palència, Laia; Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    The relation between "neo-Marxian" social class (NMSC) and health in the working population has received considerable attention in public health research. However, less is known about the distribution of mental well-being according to NMSC in a European context. The objectives of this study are (i) to analyse the association of mental well-being and NMSC among employees in Europe (using a welfare regime typology), (ii) to investigate whether the relation between NMSC and mental well-being is the same in women compared to men within each welfare regime, and (iii) to examine within each welfare regime the role of the gender division of labour and job quality as potential mediating factors in explaining this association. Data from the European Social Survey Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. Social class was measured through E.O. Wright's social class scheme. Models separated by sex were generated using Poisson regression with a robust error variance. The associations were presented as prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Women reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in State corporatist/family support and Southern welfare regimes. Men reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in all but the Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. Gender inequalities were more marked and widespread in Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. In all welfare regimes job quality (partly) explained NMSC inequalities in mental well-being for men, the role of the gender division of labour was unclear. This study showed that the relationship between NMSC and mental well-being among employees differs by gender and welfare regimes. It confirms the importance of NMSC and welfare regimes to explain gender and social class inequalities in mental well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. European Union's Policy on Corporate Social Responsibility and Opportunities for the Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission encourages EU member states to promote corporate social responsibility (CSR) among national industries. Several EU member states have responded by legislation on CSR reporting and CSR action plans and strategies. This paper discusses the profitability of CSR and addresses...

  7. Lifestyle and risk factor management in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease. A report from the European Society of Cardiology European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) IV cross-sectional survey in 14 European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Kotseva, Kornelia; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Backer, Guy; Ryden, Lars; Jennings, Catriona; Gyberg, Viveca; Abreu, Ana; Aguiar, Carlos; Conde, Almudena C.; Davletov, Kairat; Dilic, Mirza; Dolzhenko, Maryna; Gaita, Dan; Georgiev, Borislav; Gotcheva, Nina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) IV in primary care was a cross-sectional survey carried out by the European Society of Cardiology, EURObservational Research Programme in 2014-2015 in 71 centres from 14 European countries. The main objective was to determine whether the 2012 Joint European Societies' guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in people at high CVD risk have been followed in clinical practi...

  8. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  9. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  10. The potential of transnational language policy to promote social inclusion of immigrants: An analysis and evaluation of the European Union's INCLUDE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Cui

    2017-08-01

    Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the European level. Challenged by questions as to whether language learning should be prioritised as a human right or as human capital building, how host/mainstream language learning can be reinforced while respecting language diversity, and other problems, member countries still need to find solutions. Confronting these dilemmas, this study analyses the relationship and interactions between language learning and immigrants' social inclusion in different contexts. It explores the potential of enhancing the effectiveness of language policies via a dialogue between policies and practices in different national contexts and research studies in the field of language and social inclusion. The research data are derived from two databases created by a European policy for active social inclusion project called INCLUDE. This project ran from 2013 to 2016 under the EU's lifelong learning programme, with funding support from the European Commission. Through an analysis of these two project databases, the paper reviews recent national language policies and their effect on the social inclusion of migrants. In the second part of her article, the author interprets the process of language learning and social inclusion using poststructuralist theories of language and identity.

  11. Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU) [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, F.; Heath, A.F.; Hewstone, M.; Jonsson, J.; Kalmijn, M.; Kogan, I.; Van Tubergen, F.; Kroneberg, C.; Andersson Rydell, L.; Brolin Låftman, S.

    2013-01-01

    The study currently consists of two waves of a panel survey of adolescents designed to study the complex causal mechanism of structural, social, and cultural integration of populations with experience. The data include surveys of students, parents, and teachers. It enables studying processes of

  12. Self-reported behaviours and attitudes of young European drivers : an analysis of SARTRE-2 results in the framework of PROMISING. Research carried out in commission of the Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen BASt, for a project funded by the European Commission under the Transport RTD Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the European project ‘SARTRE’, a representative survey of drivers was conducted in fifteen European countries. SARTRE stands for `Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe'. One of the aims of SARTRE was to monitor car drivers' changes in opinions, attitudes and norms over time. Five years

  13. Perceived Age Discrimination as a Mediator of the Association Between Income Inequality and Older People's Self-Rated Health in the European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Marques, Sibila; Lima, Maria L; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah; Bratt, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    The relative income hypothesis predicts poorer health in societies with greater income inequality. This article examines whether the psychosocial factors of perceived age discrimination and (lack of) social capital may help explain the adverse effect of inequality on older people's health. Self-rated health, perceived age discrimination, and social capital were assessed in the 2008/9 European Social Survey (European Social Survey Round 4 Data, 2008). The Gini coefficient was used to represent national inequalities in income in each of the 28 European Social Survey countries. Mediation analyses (within a multilevel structural equation modeling paradigm) on a subsample of respondents over 70 years of age (N = 7,819) were used to examine whether perceived age discrimination mediates the negative effect of income inequality on older people's self-rated health. Perceived age discrimination fully mediated the associations between income inequality and self-rated health. When social capital was included into the model, only age discrimination remained a significant mediator and predictor of self-rated health. Concrete instances of age discrimination in unequal societies are an important psychosocial stressor for older people. Awareness that the perception of ageism can be an important stressor and affect older patient's self-reported health has important implications for the way health practitioners understand and treat the sources of patient's health problems in later life. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Comparison of the Selected Indicators of Work Life Balance in European Union Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Živčicová; Kristína Bulková; Tatiana Masárová

    2017-01-01

    The article elaborates on the characteristics and indicators of work life balance (WLB). The focus is on the selected criteria of WLB as well as social life and time spent off work. The WLB factors chosen and discussed are: the amount of stress, exhaustion and lack of time for family activities and responsibilities in the context of WLB. The results of the European survey conducted by the Eurofond are compared with the authors’ questionnaire survey conducted in Slovakia in 2015. The survey r...

  15. Raising European Citizens: Constructing European Identities in French and English Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inari Sakki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Schools play a pivotal role in the formation of identities and in the political socialization of youth. This study explores the social representations of European integration in French and English school textbooks and shows how the social representations are discursively used to construct national and European identities. By analysing the history and civics textbooks of major educational publishers, this study aims to demonstrate how European integration is understood, made familiar and concretized in the school textbooks of the two influential but different European countries. The findings suggest some shared and some diverse patterns in the way the two European countries portray and construct the political project of European integration. These representations, constructed around French Europe in French textbooks and ambivalent Europe in English textbooks, share the images of a strong European economy and a French-led political Europe. However, they position themselves differently with respect to the United States, motivation for the European unification process and the significance of common values and heritage. In both countries textbooks draw upon memories that are important for group identity. While the French textbooks make European integration meaningful in reference to a shared post-war collective memory and to a cultural memory based on a more ancient idea of Europe, shared values and heritage, the English textbooks anchor it more strongly to domestic policy.

  16. Pan-European survey on the implementation of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery with emphasis on cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Thijs; Besselink, Marc G.; Shamali, Awad; Butturini, Giovanni; Busch, Olivier R.; Edwin, Bjørn; Troisi, Roberto; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano; Dagher, Ibrahim; Bassi, Claudio; Abu Hilal, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive (MI) pancreatic surgery appears to be gaining popularity, but its implementation throughout Europe and the opinions regarding its use in pancreatic cancer patients are unknown. A 30-question survey was sent between June and December 2014 to pancreatic surgeons of the European

  17. A survey of US dental practices' use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rachel K; Molnar, Amy; Henry, Jon C

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming the way for businesses, including health care professionals, to communicate with consumers. The study examines the use of social media by dental practices in the US. An electronic survey was sent to 22,682 dentists in the United States. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of social media in the dental practice. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and comparisons were made using a Fisher's exact test. A total of 573 responses were received. Social media was used in 52% of dental practices, the most common being Facebook. The use of social media was most commonly for marketing purposes (91%). Dentists younger than 45 years old were more likely to use social media in their practice than dentists 45 years or older (p > 0.001). Dental practices actively use social media for marketing and communication. Many dentists are unsure how to measure the success of social media in their practice. Additional research is needed to measure the success of social media in a dental practice. Social media is a common way practices market and interact with their patients. There are some difficulties in determining what appropriate content for social media is and how to evaluate the success.

  18. Comparison Of Travel Behaviour In 11 European Countries By Use Of Post- Harmonized European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    2014-01-01

    Travel behaviour comparison among countries has become interesting to understand structural differences in travel behaviour between countries which are important to help developing more sustainable transport policies. To that end, National Travel Surveys (NTS’s) are the most suitable tool. The aim...... of this paper is to compare travel behaviour among 11 European counties using NTS’s. A post-harmonization process is developed to overcome methodological differences between the surveys and to isolate the differences in travel behaviour. Travel behaviour is measured as mileage, time use, and trips per trip...... for Spain to 54 km for Sweden and 52 km for Finland, If only trips shorter than 100 km are included the variation is on par with the variation for time use. The minimum mileage is still made by Spaniards with around 23 km whereas the maximum mileage is made by Belgians with 37 km and by Danes with 35 km per...

  19. Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study from seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Bahareh; Di Rosa, Mirko; Barros, Henrique; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Lindert, Jutta; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella

    2017-08-01

    Being a victim of abuse during one's life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. EuroGeoSurveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicheli, L.; Ludden, J. N.; Robida, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to create safe, healthy and wealthy places to live in, it is vital that we understand our planet. At national level the collection of information on the state of the solid Earth and its processes is normally mandated to Geological Surveys. In fact, a Geological Survey is the national institution responsible for the geological inventory, monitoring, knowledge and research for the security, health and prosperity of the society. And EuroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organisation representing the Geological Surveys from 33 countries around Europe. With one member for each country of the European Union and beyond, including the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the EGS network covers the whole continent. EGS'principal purpose is to provide geoscientific knowledge that underpins European policies and regulations for the benefit of society. Naturally, in our day-to-day activities, we contribute to the merging of economic, environmental and social agendas. Engaging a joint workforce of several thousands of geoscientists, also involving regional geological surveys in Germany, Italy and Spain, we strive to be the first body to be contacted when there is an international need for European geodata, or'geo-help'. For this reason we work on a daily basis with the EU institutions, and are considered the natural source of information on Earth science issues and relevant downstream applications in Europe. Our General Secretariat is based in the European Quarter of Brussels close to the European Commission, the EU Council, the European Parliament, and the political seat of NATO. Our operational strategy is based on the cooperation between national institutions, which enables to synergistically integrate both information and activities of our member organisations. This has allowed us to make significant progress over the years, permitting geology to become a topic deserving great attention on the European agenda. In order to enable a quick but high quality response to requests for

  1. The importance of social dialogue in the process of consolidation of domestic law with the European Union law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjanić Željko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of a social dialogue in the process of consolidation of domestic law with the European Union law is hereby analyzed through the issues of level of development of institutional tripartite dialogue, development of social dialogue as a prerequisite that is ahead for the countries in the process of joining European integration and the mode of consolidation of domestic labour law with the EU law. Social dialogue in the countries that have passed through or are still under the process of transition of legal order, is being developed according to relevant model of the EU countries, which have recognized the social dialogue as an efficient way of reaching compromise and preserving social peace. The key importance in our country is given to tripartite dialogue within the economic social council. The functioning of the economic social council of the Republika Srpska can be a model of social dialogue, and its role is to consolidate labour and social laws as well as other laws that are at stake for social partners, with the European Union law. At the same time, the subject matter of the dialogue in this council is wider then the issue of the law consolidation, and covers a number of other areas, corresponding to trends of development of social dialogue that is prevailing in the EU countries. On the contrary, the absence or flaws in institutional social dialogue regarding its functioning especially at the local level, and having in mind unfavorable circumstances regarding the employees' associations in private companies and forming of the council of employees, are a limiting factor to development of autonomous labour law, as a part of the process of consolidation. In the process of joining the EU, the request for consolidation of labour legislature with the EU law has come out, which includes the necessity of further providing legal prerequisites for social dialogue. The greatest problem in that process, apart from enactment of new labour law

  2. Public Administration as an academic disicpline: Trends and changes in the COCOPS academic survey of European Public Administration scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); D.S.D. Curry; S. Gadellaa (Stefanie)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report summarises the finding from the COCOPS academic survey, a survey of public administration academics in European countries fielded in 2013. Respondents were asked to reflect on the state of the discipline and general trends within the discipline and in

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-01-01

    Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards th...

  4. Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J.; Romo, Lucia; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Graziani, Pierluigi; Rousseau, Amélie; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bischof, Anja; Gässler, Ann-Kathrin; Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriänen, Maria; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Chóliz, Mariano; Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pontes, Halley M.; Lelonek-Kuleta, Bernadeta; Chwaszcz, Joanna; Zullino, Daniele; Rochat, Lucien; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18–29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage. PMID:28425777

  5. Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J; Romo, Lucia; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Graziani, Pierluigi; Rousseau, Amélie; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bischof, Anja; Gässler, Ann-Kathrin; Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriänen, Maria; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Chóliz, Mariano; Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Griffiths, Mark D; Pontes, Halley M; Lelonek-Kuleta, Bernadeta; Chwaszcz, Joanna; Zullino, Daniele; Rochat, Lucien; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18-29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage.

  6. Exploring opportunities to support mental health care using social media: A survey of social media users with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McHugo, Gregory J; Unützer, Jürgen; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-10-20

    Social media holds promise for expanding the reach of mental health services, especially for young people who frequently use these popular platforms. We surveyed social media users who self-identified as having a mental illness to learn about their use of social media for mental health and to identify opportunities to augment existing mental health services. We asked 240 Twitter users who self-identified in their profile as having a mental illness to participate in an online survey. The survey was in English and inquired about participants' mental health condition, use of social media for mental health and interest in accessing mental health programs delivered through social media. Respondents from 10 countries completed 135 surveys. Most respondents were from the United States (54%), Canada (22%) and the United Kingdom (17%) and reported a psychiatric diagnosis of either schizophrenia spectrum disorder (27%), bipolar disorder (25%), major depressive disorder (16%) or depression (20%). Young adults age ≤35 (46%) were more likely to use Instagram (P = .002), Snapchat (P social media (P social media, especially to promote overall health and wellbeing (72%) and for coping with mental health symptoms (90%). This exploratory study demonstrates the feasibility of reaching social media users with mental illness and can inform efforts to leverage social media to make evidence-based mental health services more widely available to those in need. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. The Financing Mechanism of the Social Health Insurance System in Romania and in other European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin AFANASE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The social insurance system is part of the social security system and it works based on the payment of a contribution through which risks and services defined by the law are insured. The social security system, independent of the structure or political and economical order of a state, has the attribution of giving help to those in conditions of social helplessness, as well as preventing such circumstances. In this paper we made a comparative analysis of the financing mechanism of the social health insurance system in Romania with other European countries.

  8. Self-Perceived Job Insecurity and Social Context: Are There Different European Cultures of Anxiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Erlinghagen

    2007-01-01

    Job insecurity causes far reaching negative outcomes. The fear of job loss damages the health of employees and reduces the productivity of firms. Thus, job insecurity should result in increasing social costs. Analyzing representative data from 17 European countries, this paper investigates self perceived job insecurity. Our multi level analysis reveals significant cross-country differences in individuals' perception of job insecurity. This finding is not only driven by social-structural or in...

  9. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  10. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-mu m luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of 90-mum-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z = 0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10(9)

  11. A European survey relating to cancer therapy and neutropenic infections: Nurse and patient viewpoints.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Kay

    2011-09-25

    PURPOSE: Severe neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN) are the major causes of morbidity, treatment interruptions and dose reductions in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) conducted an European survey to evaluate nurse perspectives on prevention of infection and FN in this setting, and how much they educate their patients about this. A separate survey explored these issues in patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: 217 nurse participants were identified by EONS from the membership database and 473 cancer patients who were receiving\\/had received chemotherapy were identified through patient advocacy groups. Questionnaires were completed anonymously online for both surveys. RESULTS: More than 90% of the nurses agreed that preventing infections including FN is extremely\\/very important for a successful chemotherapy outcome and said that they, or other health professionals in their practice, advised patients about these issues. Most (90%) indicated that they favoured giving treatment to protect against FN and infections in chemotherapy patients at risk, rather than treating infection after it develops, but 82% expressed concern over patient concordance with measures employed. A substantial proportion of patients reported emergency room visits, hospitalization and\\/or chemotherapy delays or changes as a result of neutropenia, infection or FN. However, only 44% said that their infection risk was discussed with them before starting chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that nurses recognise the importance of reducing the risk of infection and FN in patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as the need to educate patients. However, results of the patient survey suggest a need for better patient education.

  12. The Europeanization of Welfare - The Domestic Impact of Intra-European Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2005-01-01

    Studies of Europeanization have demonstrated that the impact of European integration differs between Member States and across policies. Although Europeanization research has been expanded and clarified in recent years, we still know relatively little about the factors mediating the national...... responses to integration. It is argued that these intervening variables are decisive for how common European demands are mediated nationally and are likely to explain impact variations referring to the same cause....

  13. Harnessing Social Media to Explore Youth Social Withdrawal in Three Major Cities in China: Cross-Sectional Web Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucia Lin; Li, Tim MH; Teo, Alan R; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-01-01

    Background Socially withdrawn youth belong to an emerging subgroup of youth who are not in employment, education, or training and who have limited social interaction intention and opportunities. The use of the internet and social media is expected to be an alternative and feasible way to reach this group of young people because of their reclusive nature. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using various social media platforms to investigate the existence of the phenomenon of youth social withdrawal in 3 major cities in China. Methods A cross-sectional open Web survey was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 to identify and reach socially withdrawn youth in 3 metropolitan cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. To advertise the survey, 3 social media platforms were used: Weibo, WeChat, and Wandianba, a social networking gaming website. Results In total, 137 participants completed the survey, among whom 13 (9.5%) were identified as belonging to the withdrawal group, 7 (5.1%) to the asocial group, and 9 (6.6%) to the hikikomori group (both withdrawn and asocial for more than 3 months). The cost of recruitment via Weibo was US $7.27 per participant. Conclusions Several social media platforms in China are viable and inexpensive tools to reach socially withdrawn youth, and internet platforms that specialize in a certain culture or type of entertainment appeared to be more effective in reaching socially withdrawn youth. PMID:29748164

  14. European feelings of deprivation amidst the financial crisis : Effects of welfare state effort and informal social relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    As European governments have embraced the credo of austerity, the perennial discussion whether welfare states erode the quality of social networks has taken on a more prominent position on political and social science research agendas. While non-believers of this so-called ‘crowding out’ thesis

  15. The Potential of Transnational Language Policy to Promote Social Inclusion of Immigrants: An Analysis and Evaluation of the European Union's INCLUDE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Cui

    2017-01-01

    Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the…

  16. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR SOCIAL RIGHTS (ECSR IN THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS. INTERACTIONS WITH ECHR JURISPRUDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sâmboan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Upon its foundation in 1961, the European Committee for Social Rights (ECSR was meant to be a counterpart of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR in the field of economic, social and cultural rights, i.e. an international body of control regarding the manner in which states understand to respect human rights. But, given the fastidious contents of ESCR and for political reasons, ECSR has never enjoyed the same guarantee mechanisms or level of accessibility that have characterized ECHR. The aim of this study is to show that, in spite of such flaws, the ECSR has proven its efficiency in the European system for the protection of human rights. The analysis of its decisions, as well as their interactions with the ECHR jurisprudence proves that the flexible and protectionist decisions of this jurisdictional body command authority and their coercive nature is recognized at national level. Moreover, this body has an important influence on ECHR. The jurisprudential interpretations of ECSR may also serve as reference points for national users (lawyers, magistrates, organizations, which makes it even more necessary to know and understand it at this level.

  17. Gender Pay Differences in the European Union: Do Higher Wages Make Up For Discrimination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.F. Canton (Erik); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores the role of social interactions at the work floor for understanding gender pay differences in the EU. Using data from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey, we find that sex similarity of subordinate and supervisor decreases the pay disadvantage for women in

  18. Evolutions of the Social Sphere and of the Labour Market in Process of European Integration – is the Nordic Model Worth Following?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ailinca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration in Europe knows different stages and degrees of integration, Economic and Monetary Union (EMU being the penultimate stage which involves harmonizing fiscal and monetary policies. In this respect, in the desire to show the contribution to the increasing of economic integration in the European Union (EU, the article sets as the objectives, in tandem national-European, the identification of discrepancies of social indicators of EU countries in report to the targets of the Europe 2020 strategy. Thus, we used an approach based on a case study of EU countries, comparing the performance of social indicators in EU countries against European targets. The results showed that the Nordic countries are the closest to the social objectives of the Union, offering a good performance of these indicators. The prior work in the literature identifies many types of social models, from which the Nordic model is described as the one that provides the highest level of social welfare. Thus, the value of the study consists in clearly pointing out the qualities of the Nordic social model, arguing with figures and information why it may be more appropriate to its expanded implementation at the level of the European Union. As far as social policies of EU member states may be at least partially adapted to meet the performance of Nordic social model, the research can have several benefic implications, especially for policy makers.

  19. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the inte......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law...... aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  20. Wiki Surveys: Open and Quantifiable Social Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Matthew J.; Levy, Karen E. C.

    2015-01-01

    In the social sciences, there is a longstanding tension between data collection methods that facilitate quantification and those that are open to unanticipated information. Advances in technology now enable new, hybrid methods that combine some of the benefits of both approaches. Drawing inspiration from online information aggregation systems like Wikipedia and from traditional survey research, we propose a new class of research instruments called wiki surveys. Just as Wikipedia evolves over time based on contributions from participants, we envision an evolving survey driven by contributions from respondents. We develop three general principles that underlie wiki surveys: they should be greedy, collaborative, and adaptive. Building on these principles, we develop methods for data collection and data analysis for one type of wiki survey, a pairwise wiki survey. Using two proof-of-concept case studies involving our free and open-source website www.allourideas.org, we show that pairwise wiki surveys can yield insights that would be difficult to obtain with other methods. PMID:25992565

  1. Wiki surveys: open and quantifiable social data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Matthew J; Levy, Karen E C

    2015-01-01

    In the social sciences, there is a longstanding tension between data collection methods that facilitate quantification and those that are open to unanticipated information. Advances in technology now enable new, hybrid methods that combine some of the benefits of both approaches. Drawing inspiration from online information aggregation systems like Wikipedia and from traditional survey research, we propose a new class of research instruments called wiki surveys. Just as Wikipedia evolves over time based on contributions from participants, we envision an evolving survey driven by contributions from respondents. We develop three general principles that underlie wiki surveys: they should be greedy, collaborative, and adaptive. Building on these principles, we develop methods for data collection and data analysis for one type of wiki survey, a pairwise wiki survey. Using two proof-of-concept case studies involving our free and open-source website www.allourideas.org, we show that pairwise wiki surveys can yield insights that would be difficult to obtain with other methods.

  2. Hard times and European youth. The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-02-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATIONS IN DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gănescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility strategies are a topic of great interest for both researchers and practitioners, and require the development of interdisciplinary approaches: economic, ethical and social. The paper analyses the social responsibility strategies employed by European automotive businesses and highlights their impact on business sustainability. From a theoretical perspective, applying the content analysis method on sustainability or social responsibility reports revealed a variety of social responsibility strategies. The utility of the research is supported by formulating a typology of social responsibility strategies, based on objectives of sustainable development and by establishing arguments concerning the impact of these strategies on automotive businesses’ sustainability in the following areas: social and societal, ecological and environmental, distribution chains and suppliers, corporate image, position in relation to competitors and financial performance.

  4. Anesthesia Practice and Clinical Trends in Interventional Radiology: A European Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslam, Philip J.; Yap, Bernard; Mueller, Peter R.; Lee, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine current European practice in interventional radiology regarding nursing care, anesthesia, and clinical care trends.Methods: A survey was sent to 977 European interventional radiologists to assess the use of sedoanalgesia, nursing care, monitoring equipment, pre- and postprocedural care, and clinical trends in interventional radiology. Patterns of sedoanalgesia were recorded for both vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Responders rated their preferred level of sedoanalgesia for each procedure as follows: (a) awake/alert, (b) drowsy/arousable, (c) asleep/arousable, (d) deep sedation, and (e) general anesthesia. Sedoanalgesic drugs and patient care trends were also recorded. A comparison was performed with data derived from a similar survey of interventional practice in the United States.Results: Two hundred and forty-three of 977 radiologists responded (25%). The total number of procedures analyzed was 210,194. The majority (56%) of diagnostic and therapeutic vascular procedures were performed at the awake/alert level of sedation, 32% were performed at the drowsy/arousable level, and 12% at deeper levels of sedation. The majority of visceral interventional procedures were performed at the drowsy/arousable level of sedation (41%), 29% were performed at deeper levels of sedation, and 30% at the awake/alert level. In general, more sedoanalgesia is used in the United States. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported the use of a full-time radiology nurse, 67% used routine blood pressure/pulse oximetry monitoring, and 46% reported the presence of a dedicated recovery area. Forty-nine percent reported daily patient rounds, 30% had inpatient hospital beds, and 51% had day case beds.Conclusion: This survey shows clear differences in the use of sedation for vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Many, often complex, procedures are performed at the awake/alert level of sedation in Europe, whereas deeper levels of sedation are

  5. Social Policies and Families in Stress: Gender and Educational Differences in Work-Family Conflict from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Natascha; Grunow, Daniela; Verbakel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family conflict and used a comparative approach to test whether family policies, in particular support for child care and leave from paid work, are capable of reducing work-family conflict as well as the gender and educational gaps in work-family conflict. We use data from the European Social Survey 2010 for 20 countries and 5296 respondents (parents), extended with information on national policies for maternity and parental leave and child care support from the OECD Family Database. Employing multilevel analysis, we find that mothers and the higher educated report most work-family conflict. Policies supporting child care reduce the level of experienced work-family conflict; family leave policy appears to have no alleviating impact on working parents' work-family conflict. Our findings indicate that family policies appear to be unable to reduce the gender gap in conflict perception and even widen the educational gap in work-family conflict.

  6. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven

  7. Measuring inequalities in health from survey data using self-assessed social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacak, Valerio

    2018-03-01

    Asking participants to assess their social class may be an efficient approach to examining inequalities in heath from survey data. The present study investigated this possibility empirically by testing whether subjective class identification is related to overall health. I used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2012 and the 2014 General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey carried out among adults in the United States. The association between health and class was estimated separately by gender, race and age. The association follows a gradient pattern where health deteriorates with lower class position even after controlling for indicators typically used in research that examines class differences in health-educational attainment, family income and occupational prestige. The results largely hold when the data are stratified by gender, race and age. These findings demonstrate the empirical value of subjective class identification for assessing social inequalities in health from survey data.

  8. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Methods Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot...... more challenging by the interviewers. Conclusions Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey...

  9. A survey of social media policies in U.S. dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rachel K; Webb, Chadleo

    2014-06-01

    Since social media sites began to appear in the 1990s, their popularity has increased dramatically, especially among younger individuals. With this widespread use of social media, institutions of higher education are finding the need to implement social media policies. The purpose of this study was to gather information from accredited U.S. dental schools on their social media policies. A survey sent to academic deans asked questions related to social media policies and violations of policies. The survey yielded a 35.9 percent (n=23) response rate. Social media policies at the university level were reported by 47.8 percent (n=11) of respondents, and 34.8 percent (n=8) had social media policies specifically in the dental school. Schools that had an institutional social media policy were more likely to have a social media policy in the dental school (p=0.01), and dental schools were more likely to have a policy if the academic dean had been in the position less than five years (p=0.01). All twenty-three responding dental schools have official social media pages. Dental educators and administrators may want to look for opportunities to raise awareness of social media professionalism in their dental schools.

  10. Social media for public health: an exploratory policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2015-02-01

    To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of existing policies. This research used a mixed methods approach. A content analysis of social media policies from European institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs) and social media platforms was conducted. Next, individuals responsible for social media in their organization or projects completed a survey about their social media policy. Seventy-five per cent of institutions, NGOs and platforms had a social media policy available. The primary aspects covered within existing policies included data and privacy protection, intellectual property and copyright protection and regulations for the engagement in social media. Policies were intended to regulate staff use, to secure the liability of the institution and social responsibility. Respondents also stressed the importance of self-responsibility when using social media. This study of social media policies for public health in Europe provides a first snapshot of the existence and characteristics of social media policies among European health organizations. Policies tended to focus on legal aspects, rather than the health of the social media user. The effect of such policies on social media adoption and usage behaviour remains to be examined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence and reproduction numbers of pertussis: estimates from serological and social contact data in five European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Kretzschmar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite large-scale vaccination programmes, pertussis has remained endemic in all European countries and has been on the rise in many countries in the last decade. One of the reasons that have been discussed for the failure of vaccination to eliminate the disease is continued circulation of the pathogen Bordetella pertussis by mostly asymptomatic and mild infections in adolescents and adults. To understand the impact of asymptomatic and undiagnosed infection on the transmission dynamics of pertussis we analysed serological data from five European countries in combination with information about social contact patterns from five of those countries to estimate incidence and reproduction numbers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared two different methods for estimating incidence from individual data on IgG pertussis toxin (PT titres. One method combines the cross-sectional surveys of titres with longitudinal information about the distribution of amplitude and decay rate of titres in a back-calculation approach. The second method uses age-dependent contact matrices and cross-sectional surveys of IgG PT titres to estimate a next generation matrix for pertussis transmission among age groups. The next generation approach allows for computation of basic reproduction numbers for five European countries. Our main findings are that the seroincidence of infections as estimated with the first method in all countries lies between 1% and 6% per annum with a peak in the adolescent age groups and a second lower peak in young adults. The incidence of infections as estimated by the second method lies slightly lower with ranges between 1% and 4% per annum. There is a remarkably good agreement of the results obtained with the two methods. The basic reproduction numbers are similar across countries at around 5.5. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with currently used vaccines cannot prevent continued circulation and reinfection with pertussis, but has shifted the bulk

  12. The impact of the European Working Time Regulations on Ophthalmic Specialist Training--a national trainee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, M K; Lewis, G; Mercieca, K; Moutray, T

    2013-01-01

    To assess ophthalmic trainees' perspective of the impact of the European Working Time Regulations (EWTR) on their training. All trainees in ophthalmology in the UK were emailed a link to an electronic survey asking about their experiences of the EWTR. 324 trainees (46% of those invited) responded to the survey. 44.4% of trainees reported that their posts were compliant with the EWTR. 40.7% felt that training had been adversely affected. 49.1% thought that ophthalmic trainees should opt out of the EWTR to work more than 48 h per week, with 57 the mean number of hours suggested appropriate. Many ophthalmic trainees in the United Kingdom are working in rotas which are not compliant with the European Working Time Directive. Many trainees feel that implementation of the EWTD has had a negative effect on training and feel it would be acceptable to work a higher number of hours per week. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Harnessing Social Media to Explore Youth Social Withdrawal in Three Major Cities in China: Cross-Sectional Web Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucia Lin; Li, Tim Mh; Teo, Alan R; Kato, Takahiro A; Wong, Paul Wc

    2018-05-10

    Socially withdrawn youth belong to an emerging subgroup of youth who are not in employment, education, or training and who have limited social interaction intention and opportunities. The use of the internet and social media is expected to be an alternative and feasible way to reach this group of young people because of their reclusive nature. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using various social media platforms to investigate the existence of the phenomenon of youth social withdrawal in 3 major cities in China. A cross-sectional open Web survey was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 to identify and reach socially withdrawn youth in 3 metropolitan cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. To advertise the survey, 3 social media platforms were used: Weibo, WeChat, and Wandianba, a social networking gaming website. In total, 137 participants completed the survey, among whom 13 (9.5%) were identified as belonging to the withdrawal group, 7 (5.1%) to the asocial group, and 9 (6.6%) to the hikikomori group (both withdrawn and asocial for more than 3 months). The cost of recruitment via Weibo was US $7.27 per participant. Several social media platforms in China are viable and inexpensive tools to reach socially withdrawn youth, and internet platforms that specialize in a certain culture or type of entertainment appeared to be more effective in reaching socially withdrawn youth. ©Lucia Lin Liu, Tim MH Li, Alan R Teo, Takahiro A Kato, Paul WC Wong. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 10.05.2018.

  14. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  15. Social networking versus facebook advertising to recruit survey respondents: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Conor; Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-09-17

    Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people's attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region's schools using standard mail and email. Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods.

  16. Social Sustainability through Social Interaction—A National Survey on Community Gardens in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rogge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Community gardening has become a growing movement in cities all over the world, where these diverse collectively managed spaces provide various economic, ecological, and social benefits for urban residents. Particularly in developed countries such as Germany, social benefits are the motivation to participate in community gardens more so than the harvests. Although research on community gardens has grown, including the question of their benefits to a sustainable development, there is little literature studying the social importance and social sustainability of community gardens. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine social interaction, participation, and perceived success as a concept to assess social sustainability. The paper further aims to examine the conditions influencing social sustainability within community gardens. With the help of an online survey, we collect data from 123 community gardens throughout Germany, with which we assess diverse degrees of social sustainability. Causalities of gardens’ social sustainability are analyzed with a multiple linear regression model. Results indicate that there is no significant relationship between size of community and social sustainability, rather aspects of trust and management have a strong effect on social sustainability. Findings like these lead to a better understanding of social interaction in urban communities that contribute to more social sustainability.

  17. Dual sensory loss and social participation in older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljanen, Anna; Törmäkangas, Timo; Vestergaard, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    on the 2004 data collection of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe comprising 27,536 men and women aged 50 years and older. Hearing and vision difficulties, as well as participation in seven different social activities were assessed using a structured computerassisted personal interview......, depressive symptoms, cognition, education and wealth the corresponding odds ratio was 1.21 (95 % CI 1.00–1.47)....

  18. Elections to the European Parliament Through the Prism of Social Media as an Electoral Resource in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katkina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines social media as a relatively new tool of electoral and political activity aimed at creating a positive image of political parties and candidates to the European Parliament. In the modern world of politics it is becoming increasingly important due to such factors as the growing number of World Wide Web users, the decline in the traditional media popularity and the rapid spread of new media, as well as the transformation of the Internet space into the platform for active political interactions. The key role in realizing the task of forming political image belongs to political institutions (parties, state bodies, politicians and social activists, as well as population representatives. The analysis of the efforts of various political subjects in the social media roughly demonstrates three functions of this new phenomenon: social media as a turnout increase tool, as a tool of increasing the recognition of candidates and parties by population; as a tool of informing the population about political and electoral processes in society. Currently, the main obstacle for the strategic research in this area is the fact that social networking technologies are rapidly developing, that embarrasses in making long-term prediction on its use. In spite of the absence of recognized criteria giving the opportunity to evaluate political activity in social media, the key efficiency criteria and success factor is so called “permanent presence” of electoral activity subjects in the Internet.

  19. Radiologists' Usage of Social Media : Results of the RANSOM Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranschaert, Erik R.; Van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; McGinty, Geraldine B.; Parizel, Paul M.

    The growing use of social media is transforming the way health care professionals (HCPs) are communicating. In this changing environment, it could be useful to outline the usage of social media by radiologists in all its facets and on an international level. The main objective of the RANSOM survey

  20. Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior : Social network analyses in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; de Vries, H.

    The co-evolution of adolescents' friendship networks and their smoking behavior is examined in a large sample across six European countries. Selection and influence processes are disentangled using new methods of social network analysis that enable alternative selection mechanisms to be controlled

  1. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povellato, Andrea; Bosello, Francesco; Giupponi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, climate change has become an increasing concern for scientists, public opinions and policy makers. Due to the pervasive nature of its impacts for many important aspects of human life, climate change is likely to influence and be influenced by the most diverse policy or management choices. This is particularly true for those interventions affecting agriculture and forestry: they are strongly dependent on climate phenomena, but also contribute to climate evolution being sources of and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper offers a survey of the existing literature assessing cost-effectiveness and efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies or the effects of broader economic reforms in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The focus is mainly on European countries. Different methodological approaches, research questions addressed and results are examined. The main findings are that agriculture can potentially provide emissions reduction at a competitive cost, mainly with methane abatement, while carbon sequestration seems more cost-effective with appropriate forest management measures. Afforestation, cropland management and bioenergy are less economically viable measures due to competition with other land use. Mitigation policies should be carefully designed either to balance costs with expected benefits in terms of social welfare. Regional variability is one of the main drawbacks to fully assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures. Integration of models to take into account both social welfare and spatial heterogeneity seems to be the frontier of the next model generation

  2. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotseva, Kornelia

    2009-03-14

    The first and second EUROASPIRE surveys showed high rates of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. The third EUROASPIRE survey was done in 2006-07 in 22 countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved and if the Joint European Societies\\' recommendations on cardiovascular disease prevention are being followed in clinical practice.

  3. Social Phobia in an Italian region: do Italian studies show lower frequencies than community surveys conducted in other European countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime prevalence of Social Phobia (SP in European countries other than Italy has been estimated to range from 3.5% to 16.0%. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of SP in Sardinia (Italy in order to verify the evidence of a lower frequency of SP in Italy observed in previous studies (from 1.0% to 3.1%. Methods A randomised cross sample of 1040 subjects, living in Cagliari, in rural areas, and in a mining district in Sardinia were interviewed using a Simplified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDIS. Diagnoses were made according to the 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results Lifetime prevalence of SP was 2.2% (males: 1.5%, females: 2.8% whereas 6-month prevalence resulted in 1.5% (males: 0.9%, females: 2.1%. Mean age at onset was 16.2 ± 9.3 years. A statistically significant association was found with Depressive Episode, Dysthymia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Conclusions The study is consistent with findings reported in several previous studies of a lower prevalence of SP in Italy. Furthermore, the results confirm the fact that SP, due to its early onset, might constitute an ideal target for early treatment aimed at preventing both the accumulation of social disabilities and impairments caused by anxiety and avoidance behaviour, as well as the onset of more serious, associated complications in later stages of the illness.

  4. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  5. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  6. Contextual correlates of happiness in European adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Eva Anna Christina; Lakerveld, Jeroen; McKee, Martin; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Rutter, Harry; Charreire, Hélène; Veenhoven, Ruut; Bárdos, Helga; Compernolle, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine the associations of both objectively assessed and perceived physical and social neighborhood characteristics with happiness in European adults. In addition, we aimed to study how these associations differed among subgroups. Methods Participants (N = 6037) of the cross-sectional SPOTLIGHT survey reported on their level of happiness using a 5-point Likert scale, and on perceived physical and social environmental neighborhood characteristics. Objective physical environmental characteristics were assessed using a Google Street View-based neighborhood audit. Associations of 14 physical and social environmental characteristics with happiness were analyzed using multivariable multinomial regression analyses with clustered standard errors. Results Living in neighborhoods with higher levels of aesthetics and more water and green space was associated with being very happy. Individuals who perceived their neighborhood to be safer, more functional and more aesthetic were more likely to be very happy. The associations of functionality and aesthetics with happiness were strongest in the Ghent region (Belgium), the Randstad (the Netherlands) and Greater London (United Kingdom). Perceived absence of air pollution was only associated with higher levels of happiness in more highly educated participants. Individuals with a larger social network, more social cohesion and who trusted their neighbors were more likely to be very happy. The association between social networks and happiness was somewhat stronger in men than in women. In general, the associations between environmental characteristics and happiness had similar directions and sizes across socio-economic and socio-demographic subgroups. Conclusions This European study provided evidence that both objectively assessed and perceived physical and social characteristics of the neighborhood environment are associated with the happiness of its residents. PMID:29364899

  7. Contextual correlates of happiness in European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Eva Anna Christina; Lakerveld, Jeroen; McKee, Martin; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Rutter, Harry; Charreire, Hélène; Veenhoven, Ruut; Bárdos, Helga; Compernolle, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Mackenbach, Joreintje Dingena

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations of both objectively assessed and perceived physical and social neighborhood characteristics with happiness in European adults. In addition, we aimed to study how these associations differed among subgroups. Participants (N = 6037) of the cross-sectional SPOTLIGHT survey reported on their level of happiness using a 5-point Likert scale, and on perceived physical and social environmental neighborhood characteristics. Objective physical environmental characteristics were assessed using a Google Street View-based neighborhood audit. Associations of 14 physical and social environmental characteristics with happiness were analyzed using multivariable multinomial regression analyses with clustered standard errors. Living in neighborhoods with higher levels of aesthetics and more water and green space was associated with being very happy. Individuals who perceived their neighborhood to be safer, more functional and more aesthetic were more likely to be very happy. The associations of functionality and aesthetics with happiness were strongest in the Ghent region (Belgium), the Randstad (the Netherlands) and Greater London (United Kingdom). Perceived absence of air pollution was only associated with higher levels of happiness in more highly educated participants. Individuals with a larger social network, more social cohesion and who trusted their neighbors were more likely to be very happy. The association between social networks and happiness was somewhat stronger in men than in women. In general, the associations between environmental characteristics and happiness had similar directions and sizes across socio-economic and socio-demographic subgroups. This European study provided evidence that both objectively assessed and perceived physical and social characteristics of the neighborhood environment are associated with the happiness of its residents.

  8. Social Networking Versus Facebook Advertising to Recruit Survey Respondents: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people’s attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Results Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region’s schools using standard mail and email. Conclusions Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods. PMID:25230740

  9. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  10. Physicians prefer greater detail in the biosimilar label (SmPC) - Results of a survey across seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallersten, Anna; Fürst, Walter; Mezzasalma, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    In the European Union, labels (Summaries of Product Characteristics, SmPCs) of biosimilars and their reference products are in many instances almost identical (following a generic approach) despite different data requirements for the authorization of biosimilars and generics. To understand physicians' preferences on type and detail of information in the biosimilar label and their use of information sources when prescribing biologics including biosimilars, EuropaBio surveyed 210 physicians across seven European countries. Among surveyed physicians, 90.5% use the label frequently or occasionally as an information source and 87.2% deemed a clear statement on the origin of data helpful or very helpful. When comparing excerpts from the label of an authorized biosimilar and modified texts with additional information, 78.1-82.9% preferred the samples with additional information. This survey shows that the label is an appropriate vehicle for providing physicians with information about biologics and that physicians prefer more product-specific information in the biosimilar label. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dermatopathology and Social Media: A Survey of 131 Medical Professionals From 29 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlquist, Erin; Lee, Nathan E; Shalin, Sara C; Goodman, Michael; Gardner, Jerad M

    2018-02-01

    - Use of social media in the medical profession is an increasingly prevalent and sometimes controversial practice. Many doctors believe social media is the future and embrace it as an educational and collaborative tool. Others maintain reservations concerning issues such as patient confidentiality, and legal and ethical risks. - To explore the utility of social media as an educational and collaborative tool in dermatopathology. - We constructed 2 identical surveys containing questions pertaining to the responders' demographics and opinions regarding the use of social media for dermatopathology. The surveys were available on Twitter and Facebook for a period of 10 days. - The survey was completed by 131 medical professionals from 29 different countries: the majority (81%, 106 of 131) were 25 to 45 years of age. Most replied that they access Facebook or Twitter several times a day (68%, 89 of 131) for both professional and social purposes (77%, 101 of 131). The majority agreed that social media provides useful and relevant information, but stated limitations they would like addressed. - Social media is a powerful tool with the ability to instantaneously share dermatopathology with medical professionals across the world. This study reveals the opinions and characteristics of the population of medical professionals currently using social media for education and collaboration in dermatopathology.

  12. Social Science Studies on European and African Agriculture Compared: Bringing Together Different Strands of Academic Debate on GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Fischer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the social science-orientated literature on genetically modified (GM crops in Europe and compared it with the corresponding literature on GM crops in African contexts, in order to determine the nature and extent of north-south cross-fertilisation in the literature. A total of 1625 papers on GM crops and agriculture falling within the ‘social science and humanities’ subject area in the Scopus abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature were analysed for major trends relating to geographical areas. More detailed analysis was performed on papers discussing African (56 papers and European (127 papers contexts. The analysis revealed that studies on policy and politics were common in both strands of the literature, frequently focusing on effects of the relatively restrictive European Union regulations on GM crops. There were also clear differences, however. For example, papers focusing on Africa frequently examined farm-level impacts and production, while this theme was almost non-existent in the Europe literature. It focused instead on policy impacts on trade and consumer attitudes to GM products. The lack of farm-level studies and of empirical studies in general in the European literature indicates a need for empirical research on GM crops in European farming. Social science research on GM crop production in Europe could draw lessons from the African literature.

  13. Parents, siblings and grandparents in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. A survey of policies in eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Mirante, Nadia; Haumont, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe policies towards family visiting in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) and compare findings with those of a survey carried out 10 years earlier. METHODS: A questionnaire on early developmental care practices was mailed to 362 units in eight European countries (Sweden...... medical rounds and procedures followed the same pattern. A composite visiting score was computed using all the variables related to family visiting. Lower median values and larger variability were obtained for the southern countries, indicating more restrictive attitudes and lack of national policy....... CONCLUSIONS: The presence of parents and other family members in European NICUs has improved over a 10-year period. Several barriers, however, are still in place, particularly in the South European countries....

  14. How perceived social support relates to suicidal ideation: a Japanese social resident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Go; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Yoshiharu; Aiba, Miyuki; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Shiratori, Yuki; Matsui, Yutaka; Doi, Nagafumi; Asada, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The loss of social support is one of the major risk factors for suicide. However, there are few empirical studies that have examined how a person's suicide ideation relates to their social support. To examine the relationship between social support and suicidal ideation. Self-report questionnaires were sent to 2,200 randomly selected adults in Japan. The questionnaire inquired the participants about the severity of suicidal ideation, the details of current perceived social support and their degree of satisfaction with this social support. Social support and related indicators were compared among three groups of participants that varied in severity of suicidal ideation. People in the group that had suicide ideation during their lives reported receiving significantly less support from their family and had greater feelings of dissatisfaction with that support than those in the other groups. Furthermore, people who had suicide ideation during the month immediately preceding the survey reported providing less support to their family, relatives or friends, as well as receiving less support from family than other groups, and having stronger feelings of dissatisfaction with social support. Our study identified a strong relationship between the severity of suicidal ideation and perceived social support.

  15. Probes, Surveys, and the Ontology of the Social

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert

    2017-01-01

    By distinguishing between a survey and--a newly introduced term--a "probe," we recast the relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science. The difference turns on the "uniformity" of the phenomenon being examined. Uniformity is a fundamental idea underlying all scientific research but is rarely…

  16. The relationship between social capital and quality management systems in European hospitals: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Antje; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Dersarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A; Mannion, Russell; Wagner, Cordula; Ommen, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4) and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27). Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029). The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of previous research, could have important implications for the work of

  17. Towards a Western EuropeanSocial Movement Society”? An Assessment: 1981–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Quaranta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some social movements scholars argue that contemporary democracies are becoming “social movements societies”: citizens are often mobilized to make claims; protest actions are progressively becoming part of institutional politics; and protest has diffused to new constituents. In other words, participants in protest activities are more difficult to be identified. This article aims to provide an updated assessment of the “social movement society” thesis in Western Europe, with a focus on the expansion, institutionalization, and, in particular, to the diffusion of political protest to new groups. Using the European Values Study, which spans from 1981 to 2009, it is found that in Western Europe forms of protest are more popular than in the past, that a partial institutionalization has occurred, and that traditionally disengaged individuals protest more compared to the past. However, the process of “normalization” of the political protester has yet to be completed, given that differences in the levels of engagement still exist among social groups.

  18. Nephrologists' perceptions regarding dialysis withdrawal and palliative care in Europe: lessons from a European Renal Best Practice survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Biesen, Wim; van de Luijtgaarden, Moniek W. M.; Brown, Edwina A.; Michel, Jean-Pierre; van Munster, Barbara C.; Jager, Kitty J.; van der Veer, Sabine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. There is a variation in dialysis withdrawal rates, but reasons for this variation across European countries are largely unknown. We therefore surveyed nephrologists' perceptions of factors concerning dialysis withdrawal and palliative care and explored relationships between these

  19. Quantifying the prevalence of fuel poverty across the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The literature and policy base for fuel poverty in the UK and Ireland is well established, and there is a growing body of single country studies beyond these two EU member states (for example Brunner et al. (2012), Dubois (2012), and Tirado Herrero and Ürge-Vorsatz (2010)), however, on a European level, the last analysis of fuel poverty was conducted in 2004, prior to the enlargement of the EU. Using survey data this paper presents an updated overview of the prevalence of European fuel poverty in the context of the accession of numerous former social states, and rising fuel prices. Analysis reveals the phenomenon of fuel poverty is occurring across the EU, with particularly high levels of fuel poverty found in Eastern and Southern European states. It is argued that there are both EU and national policy frameworks in place that address climate change and these could be used as a starting point for countries to address fuel poverty through improved domestic energy efficiency measures. This paper reflects research undertaken in 2011, supported by eaga Charitable Trust, within the umbrella of work examining issues of poverty and social exclusion across the EU, which has enabled access to the EU-SILC dataset. - Highlights: ► This research is the first comparative analysis of European fuel poverty since 2004. ► Fuel poverty is a particular problem for eastern and southern European member states. ► Recommendations include the improved integration with current EU climate policies.

  20. A Survey of Models and Algorithms for Social Influence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimeng; Tang, Jie

    Social influence is the behavioral change of a person because of the perceived relationship with other people, organizations and society in general. Social influence has been a widely accepted phenomenon in social networks for decades. Many applications have been built based around the implicit notation of social influence between people, such as marketing, advertisement and recommendations. With the exponential growth of online social network services such as Facebook and Twitter, social influence can for the first time be measured over a large population. In this chapter, we survey the research on social influence analysis with a focus on the computational aspects. First, we present statistical measurements related to social influence. Second, we describe the literature on social similarity and influences. Third, we present the research on social influence maximization which has many practical applications including marketing and advertisement.

  1. COMPULSORY SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES NOT MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper understanding of the "details" of the pension system in our country can only be known if the essential, defining characteristics of pension systems in European Union countries and most developed countries in the world. Among the defining elements of any pension scheme among the most important are (a the share of social contributions and (2 tax base. In the present social security contributions will be applied in the following countries are not EU Member States: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Iceland, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway, Russia, Serbia, Montenegro, Turkey, Ukraine, Japan, United States of America. For a better comparison and social security contributions are presented in Romania. In the vast majority of these countries (a base contributions is the gross income, (2 are used to calculate the progressive contribution rates for retirement, particularly in most developed countries, (3 pension contribution is supported both by the employee (employee and employer, almost equally.

  2. The use of social media in dental hygiene programs: a survey of program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rachel K; Pieren, Jennifer A

    2014-08-01

    The use of social media and social networking sites has become increasingly common by the current generation of students. Colleges and universities are using social media and social networking sites to advertise, engage and recruit prospective students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how social media is being used in dental hygiene program admissions and policy. Researchers developed a survey instrument investigating the use of social media. The survey included questions about demographic information, personal use of social media, program use of social media, social media use in admissions and social media policies. An email was sent to 321 dental hygiene program directors asking them to complete the survey. All participants were provided 4 weeks to complete the survey, and 2 reminder emails were sent. A total of 155 responses were received (48.3% response rate). While 84% of respondents indicated their program had a web page, only 20% had an official Facebook page for the program and 2% had a Twitter page. Thirty-five percent had a program policy specifically addressing the use of social media and 31% indicated that their university or institution had a policy. Only 4% of programs evaluate a potential student's Internet presence, mostly by searching on Facebook. Statistically significant differences (p≤0.05) were noted between those respondents with more personal social media accounts and those with fewer accounts, as those with more accounts were more likely to evaluate a potential student's Internet presence. Open ended responses included concern about social media issues, but some uncertainty on how to handle social media in the program. The concern for social media and professionalism was evident and more research and discussion in this area is warranted. Social media is currently being used in a variety of ways in dental hygiene programs, but not in the area of admissions. There is some uncertainty about the role social media should play in a

  3. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and f...

  4. National nutrition surveys in Europe: a review on the current status in the 53 countries of the WHO European region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippin, Holly L; Hutchinson, Jayne; Evans, Charlotte E L; Jewell, Jo; Breda, Joao J; Cade, Janet E

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the coverage of national nutrition surveys in the 53 countries monitored by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and identify gaps in provision, (2) to describe relevant survey attributes and (3) to check whether energy and nutrients are reported with a view to providing information for evidence-based nutrition policy planning. Dietary survey information was gathered using three methods: (1) direct email to survey authors and other relevant contacts, (2) systematic review of literature databases and (3) general web-based searches. Survey characteristics relating to time frame, sampling and dietary methodology and nutrients reported were tabled from all relevant surveys found since 1990. Fifty-three countries of the WHO Regional Office for Europe, which have need for an overview of dietary surveys across the life course. European individuals (adults and children) in national diet surveys. A total of 109 nationally representative dietary surveys undertaken post-1990 were found across 34 countries. Of these, 78 surveys from 33 countries were found post-2000, and of these, 48 surveys from 27 countries included children and 60 surveys from 30 countries included adults. No nationally representative surveys were found for 19 of 53 countries, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe. Multiple 24hr recall and food diaries were the most common dietary assessment methods. Only 22 countries reported energy and nutrient intakes from post-2000 surveys; macronutrients were more widely reported than micronutrients. Less than two-thirds of WHO Europe countries have nationally representative diet surveys, mainly collected post-2000. The main availability gaps lie in Central and Eastern European countries, where nutrition policies may therefore lack an appropriate evidence base. Dietary methodological differences may limit the scope for inter-country comparisons.

  5. National nutrition surveys in Europe: a review on the current status in the 53 countries of the WHO European region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were (1 to determine the coverage of national nutrition surveys in the 53 countries monitored by the World Health Organization (WHO Regional Office for Europe and identify gaps in provision, (2 to describe relevant survey attributes and (3 to check whether energy and nutrients are reported with a view to providing information for evidence-based nutrition policy planning. Design: Dietary survey information was gathered using three methods: (1 direct email to survey authors and other relevant contacts, (2 systematic review of literature databases and (3 general web-based searches. Survey characteristics relating to time frame, sampling and dietary methodology and nutrients reported were tabled from all relevant surveys found since 1990. Setting: Fifty-three countries of the WHO Regional Office for Europe, which have need for an overview of dietary surveys across the life course. Subjects: European individuals (adults and children in national diet surveys. Results: A total of 109 nationally representative dietary surveys undertaken post-1990 were found across 34 countries. Of these, 78 surveys from 33 countries were found post-2000, and of these, 48 surveys from 27 countries included children and 60 surveys from 30 countries included adults. No nationally representative surveys were found for 19 of 53 countries, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe. Multiple 24hr recall and food diaries were the most common dietary assessment methods. Only 22 countries reported energy and nutrient intakes from post-2000 surveys; macronutrients were more widely reported than micronutrients. Conclusions: Less than two-thirds of WHO Europe countries have nationally representative diet surveys, mainly collected post-2000. The main availability gaps lie in Central and Eastern European countries, where nutrition policies may therefore lack an appropriate evidence base. Dietary methodological differences may limit the scope for

  6. Why Dutch women work part-time: A Oaxaca-decomposition of differences in European female part-time work rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschacht, N.; Tijdens, K.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze differences in female part-time work rates across countries using European Social Survey data for 2012 to study composition and selectivity effects by means of Oaxaca-decompositions. A novel treatment of the selection term distinguishes the effect of country differences in employment

  7. The Political History of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli......This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration...

  8. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  9. The Impact of Social Factors on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for Romania and European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the social factors and the economic growth. A summary of social and economic environment is presented for Romania. As such, the paper analyzes the global evolution of social and economic environment over time and establishes a direct correlation between human development and economic welfare. An econometric model and a clustering model are tested for European Union countries. The results of the paper reveal the social factors that are positively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the expected years of schooling and the life expectancy and, respectively, the factors that are negatively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the population at risk of poverty and the unemployment rate.

  10. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  11. The Emerging Role of Social Work in Primary Health Care: A Survey of Social Workers in Ontario Family Health Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle; McMillan, Colleen; Ambrose-Miller, Wayne; McKee, Ryan; Brown, Judith Belle

    2018-05-01

    Primary health care systems are increasingly integrating interprofessional team-based approaches to care delivery. As members of these interprofessional primary health care teams, it is important for social workers to explore our experiences of integration into these newly emerging teams to help strengthen patient care. Despite the expansion of social work within primary health care settings, few studies have examined the integration of social work's role into this expanding area of the health care system. A survey was conducted with Canadian social work practitioners who were employed within Family Health Teams (FHTs), an interprofessional model of primary health care in Ontario emerging from a period of health care reform. One hundred and twenty-eight (N = 128) respondents completed the online survey. Key barriers to social work integration in FHTs included difficulties associated with a medical model environment, confusion about social work role, and organizational barriers. Facilitators for integration of social work in FHTs included adequate education and competencies, collaborative engagement, and organizational structures.

  12. The substantial burden of systemic lupus erythematosus on the productivity and careers of patients: a European patient-driven online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Caroline; Isenberg, David; Lerstrøm, Kirsten; Norton, Yvonne; Nikaï, Enkeleida; Pushparajah, Daphnee S; Schneider, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the burden of SLE and its effect on patients' lives. The Lupus European Online (LEO) survey included patient-designed questions on demographics, SLE diagnosis, and the impact of SLE on careers. Three SLE-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires were also completed: the Lupus Quality of Life (LupusQoL), the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI)-Lupus v2.0. The survey was available online in five languages from May through August 2010. All self-identified SLE participants were eligible to respond. Survey results were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multivariate linear regression explored factors contributing to impaired productivity. Of the 2070 European SLE patients completing the survey, 93.1% were women, 86.7% were aged Productivity was impaired across all WPAI domains, both at work and in general activities. Fatigue, an inability to plan and reduced physical health were significantly associated with impaired productivity. Patients whose careers were affected by SLE had worse health-related quality of life, more fatigue and worse productivity than patients whose careers were not affected. LEO survey respondents reported that SLE negatively affects their daily lives, productivity and career choices.

  13. Differences in adults' health and health behaviour between 16 European urban areas and the associations with socio-economic status and physical and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Rianne; Koster, Emmy M; van Buren, Laurens P; van Ameijden, Erik J C; Harrison, Annie; Birt, Christopher A; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    With a growing proportion of the European population living in urban areas (UAs), exploring health in urban areas becomes increasingly important. The objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of differences in health and health behaviour between adults living in urban areas (UAs) across Europe. We also explored whether and to what extent such differences can be explained by socio-economic status (SES) and physical or social environment. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, performed between as part of the European Urban Health Indicator System Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) project. Using multi-level logistic regression analysis, UA differences in psychological distress, self-assessed health, overweight and obesity, daily smoking, binge drinking and physical exercise were assessed. Median Odds Ratios (MORs) were calculated to estimate the extent to which the observed variance is attributable to UA, individual-level SES (measured by perceived financial strains, education level and employment status) and/or characteristics of physical and social environment. The dataset included 14 022 respondents in 16 UAs within 9 countries. After correction for age and gender, all MORs, except that for daily smoking, indicated statistically significant UA health differences. SES indicators (partly) explained UA differences in psychological distress, decreasing the MOR from 1.43 [95% credible interval (Cr.I.) 1.27-1.67, baseline model], to 1.25 (95% Cr.I. 1.14-1.40, SES model): a reduction of 42%. Accounting for the quality of green areas reduced the MOR for psychological distress by an additional 40%, to 1.15 (95% Cr.I. 1.05-1.28). Our study showed large differences in health and health behaviour between European UAs. Reducing socio-economic disadvantage and improving the quality of the neighbourhood's green spaces may reduce UA differences in psychological distress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  14. Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Te Velde, S; Brug, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate potential personal, social and physical environmental predictors of daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake in 11-year-old boys and girls in nine European countries.Subjects:The total sample size was 13 305 (90.4% participation rate).Results:Overall, 43...... consistent. Differences between countries in cooking and preparing vegetables might be responsible for this larger diversity.Conclusions:This study showed that especially a combination of personal and social factors is related to daily fruit and vegetable intake in schoolchildren. This shows...... that a comprehensive multilevel intervention strategy based upon a series of individual and social correlates will be most promising in the promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in children.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2008) 62, 834-841; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602794; published online 16 May 2007....

  15. Social Media Use of Cooperative Extension Family Economics Educators: Online Survey Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Zumwalt, Andrew; Bechman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of an online survey conducted by the eXtension Financial Security for All (FSA) Community of Practice (CoP) to determine the social media capacity and activity of its members. The survey was conducted to inform two subsequent FSA CoP programs: an archived webinar on social media programs and impact evaluation methods…

  16. Working conditions survey and trainees situation: new approach to auditing the situation of European trainees in obstetrics and gynaecology ten years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, David; Christopoulos, Panagiotis; Martins, Nuno; Pärgmäe, Pille; Werner, Henrica M J

    2009-12-01

    (1) To review the training and working conditions for trainees in obstetrics and gynaecology (Ob/Gyn) in Europe. (2) To suggest further improvements in working conditions for trainees in Ob/Gyn. It is an observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. The sample is constituted of the answers from the representatives of 25 European Network of Trainees in Ob/Gyn (ENTOG) member countries to a survey designed by ENTOG's executive. The current survey is based on the former ENTOG working conditions survey published in 1997, but has been extended to include questions that have become important recently, and to include new countries that have entered the European Union (EU) since that time. The total number of trainees represented in this study is 6056. The male/female ratio is 35/65. The average number of official working hours is 51.6 h weekly, but varies widely. The average number of duties/month is five, but varies widely from two to nine. Fewer than 50% of countries have a hospital visitation system implemented. Training abroad is possible in most training systems. Compared with the 1997 survey further harmonisation is taking place. Steps towards harmonisation are being made. Hospital visitation systems should be further introduced. Not all countries have remunerated training posts. Assessment should become more homogeneous. Compliance with the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) is a big challenge.

  17. Through Student Eyes: Perceptions and Aspirations of Students from the Armenian State Agrarian University and Selected European Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Glen C.; Briers, Gary E.; Navarro, Maria; Peake, Jason; Parr, Brian; Ter-Mkrtchyan, Ani; Duncan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This research compared attributes of students enrolled in the Armenian State Agrarian University (ASAU) with university students from 30 European countries (EFMD) about graduate study policy issues. A cross-national comparative design used a survey questionnaire to explore contextual, social and cultural phenomena. Samples included 801 ASAU and…

  18. Social media, knowledge translation, and action on the social determinants of health and health equity: A survey of public health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumbe-Eyoh, Sume; Mazzucco, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    The growth of social media presents opportunities for public health to increase its influence and impact on the social determinants of health and health equity. The National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health at St. Francis Xavier University conducted a survey during the first half of 2016 to assess how public health used social media for knowledge translation, relationship building, and specific public health roles to advance health equity. Respondents reported that social media had an important role in public health. Uptake of social media, while relatively high for personal use, was less present in professional settings and varied for different platforms. Over 20 per cent of those surveyed used Twitter or Facebook at least weekly for knowledge exchange. A lesser number used social media for specific health equity action. Opportunities to enhance the use of social media in public health persist. Capacity building and organizational policies that support social media use may help achieve this.

  19. Social support and the intimate partner violence victimization among adults from six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nicole Geovana; Costa, Diogo; Soares, Joaquim; Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Lindert, Jutta; Sundin, Örjan; Toth, Olga; Barros, Henrique; Fraga, Silvia

    2018-05-21

    Social support may buffer the negative effects of violence on physical and mental health. Family medicine providers play an essential role in identifying the available social support and intervening in intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aimed at assessing the association between social support and the IPV victimization among adults from six European countries. This is a cross-sectional multi-centre study that included individuals from Athens (Greece), Budapest (Hungary), London (UK), Östersund (Sweden), Porto (Portugal) and Stuttgart (Germany). Data collection was carried out between September 2010 and May 2011. The sample consisted of 3496 adults aged 18-64 years randomly selected from the general population in each city. The revised Conflict Tactics Scales was used to assess IPV victimization. Social support was assessed with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Participants reporting physical assault victimization experienced lower social support (mean ± SD) than their counterparts, 66.1 ± 13.96 versus 71.7 ± 12.90, P social support among participants reporting lifetime and past year victimization, independent of demographic, social and health-related factors. Results showed a statistically significant association between low social support and IPV victimization. Although the specific mechanisms linking social support with experiences of violence need further investigation, it seems that both informal and formal networks may be associated with lower levels of abusive situations.

  20. The Relationship between Social Capital and Quality Management Systems in European Hospitals: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Antje; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; DerSarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A.; Mannion, Russell; Wagner, Cordula; Ommen, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. Objectives We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. Methods We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. Results The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4) and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27). Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029). Conclusion The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of previous research, could

  1. Feedback from European Social Partners as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document provides European social partners' responses to the Commission's memorandum on lifelong learning. Part 1, Opinion of the European Center of Enterprises, makes comments and proposals related to the memorandum's six key messages, which are new basic skills for all; more investment in human resources; innovation in teaching and…

  2. Feedback surveys for transnational social change networks : a step ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Feedback surveys are an assessment exercise that differs from conventional evaluation by creating a comparative data set. Transnational social change networks are international networks with members spread across multiple countries working to collectively organize towards a common long-term goal that would not be ...

  3. Predictors of social leisure activities in older Europeans with and without multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenkamp, Henrike; Gagliardi, Cristina; Principi, Andrea; Golinowska, Stanislawa; Moreira, Amilcar; Schmidt, Andrea E; Winkelmann, Juliane; Sowa, Agnieszka; van der Pas, Suzan; Deeg, Dorly J H

    Older people spend much time participating in leisure activities, such as taking part in organized activities and going out, but the extent of participation may differ according to both individual and environmental resources available. Chronic health problems become more prevalent at higher ages and likely necessitate tapping different resources to maintain social participation. This paper compares predictors of participation in social leisure activities between older people with and those without multimorbidity. The European Project on Osteoarthritis (EPOSA) was conducted in Germany, UK, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden ( N  = 2942, mean age 74.2 (5.2)). Multivariate regression was used to predict social leisure participation and degree of participation in people with and without multimorbidity. Fewer older people with multimorbidity participated in social leisure activities (90.6 %), compared to those without multimorbidity (93.9 %). The frequency of participation was also lower compared to people without multimorbidity. Higher socioeconomic status, widowhood, a larger network of friends, volunteering, transportation possibilities and having fewer depressive symptoms were important for (the degree of) social leisure participation. Statistically significant differences between the multimorbidity groups were observed for volunteering and driving a car, which were more important predictors of participation in those with multimorbidity. In contrast, self-reported income appeared more important for those without multimorbidity, compared to those who had multimorbidity. Policies focusing on social (network of friends), physical (physical performance) and psychological factors (depressive symptoms) and on transportation possibilities are recommended to enable all older people to participate in social leisure activities.

  4. Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic) use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs.

  5. 77 FR 57074 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Social Capital Survey of Northeast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Social Capital Survey of Northeast Groundfish Fishery Permit Holders AGENCY... action over time. The value of these relationships is commonly referred to in social and economic literature as social capital. A baseline of existing social capital in the groundfish fishery in the...

  6. Harm reduction and viral hepatitis C in European prisons: a cross-sectional survey of 25 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Rob; Stumo, Samya R; Halford, Rachel; Werling, Klára; Reic, Tatjana; Stöver, Heino; Robaeys, Geert; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2018-05-11

    Current estimates suggest that 15% of all prisoners worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this number is even higher in regions with high rates of injecting drug use. Although harm reduction services such as opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are effective in preventing the further spread of HCV and HIV, the extent to which these are available in prisons varies significantly across countries. The Hep-CORE study surveyed liver patient groups from 25 European countries in 2016 and mid-2017 on national policies related to harm reduction, testing/screening, and treatment for HCV in prison settings. Results from the cross-sectional survey were compared to the data from available reports and the peer-reviewed literature to determine the overall degree to which European countries implement evidence-based HCV recommendations in prison settings. Patient groups in nine countries (36%) identified prisoners as a high-risk population target for HCV testing/screening. Twenty-one countries (84%) provide HCV treatment in prisons. However, the extent of coverage of these treatment programs varies widely. Two countries (8%) have NSPs officially available in prisons in all parts of the country. Eleven countries (44%) provide OST in prisons in all parts of the country without additional requirements. Despite the existence of evidence-based recommendations, infectious disease prevention measures such as harm reduction programs are inadequate in European prison settings. Harm reduction, HCV testing/screening, and treatment should be scaled up in prison settings in order to progress towards eliminating HCV as a public health threat.

  7. Third European Company Survey: Workplace innovation in European companies

    OpenAIRE

    Oeij, P.; Žiauberyté-Jakštiené, R.; Dhondt, S.; Corral, A.; Totterdill, P.; Preenen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace innovation (WPI) is a developed and implemented practice or combination of practices which enables employees to participate in organisational change and renewal and hence improve the quality of working life and organisational performance. This report looks at reasons for enabling WPI, adoption and implementation, and impact on organisation and management, employees and employee representatives. The research is based on 51 companies identified in Eurofound’s third European Company Su...

  8. Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Frederike

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates if and to what extent natural disasters affect social capital. Twelve different events in Europe are examined in a quantitative analysis, using data derived from the European Social Survey and the EM-DAT International Disaster Database. The study uses social trust as an indicator of social capital and offers evidence that a change in social trust is a possible occurrence during or after a disaster, but that it is not an inevitable consequence of it. The results reveal that social trust decreases after a disaster with a death toll of at least nine. Changes in social capital, therefore, are found to be more probable as the severity of the event increases. National, rather than regional, disasters lead more frequently to significant shifts in social trust. This evaluation of 12 separate cases pinpoints several disasters that have had an effect on social trust, but it does not identify any general patterns, underlining the significance of contextual dependency. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  9. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiser, Prisca; Becker, Thomas; Losert, Carolin

    2009-01-01

    of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a) stakeholder analysis, (b) international literature reviews, (c) Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d) focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities.Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network...... by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. METHODS AND DESIGN: HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii) identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet...... consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well...

  10. Measuring the effect of ethnic and non-ethnic discrimination on Europeans' self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.

  11. Social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice process : A Dutch survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwet, R.J.M.; Beneken Genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; Schalk, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the

  12. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...... allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional...

  13. Age-Related Patterns in Social Networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for Socioemotional Selectivity across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…

  14. Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnieks Dāvis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and

  15. A LOOK AT SOME OF THE EUROPEAN UNION’S MAJOR SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Moraliyska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU's economy accounts for a significant share of the world economy. Measured in terms of GDP, it is still the biggest in the world. In addition to that, being a single market of 28 countries, the EU has been a major trading player accounting for around 20% of global exports and imports. However, EU’s trade was hit by the global recession. It is additionally hindered by the attempts of its economic policy to provide for a sustainable growth by investing in transport, energy and research in order to minimize the impact of further economic development on the environment. The most serious problems of the EU are connected with the unstable and comparatively low employment, continuing energy dependence, demographic change and population’s aging, as well as the persisting economic and social disparities within member states and between European regions in the North and South, West and East. The migration crisis adds to the problem with the lack of coherent solution, unsuccessful integration, growing inequalities and fragile multilateralism, having both – their social and economic effects. This paper aims to explore the most pressing challenges before the European Union’s economy today and in the years to come – aging population and social disparities.

  16. Projecting social contact matrices in 152 countries using contact surveys and demographic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiesha Prem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneities in contact networks have a major effect in determining whether a pathogen can become epidemic or persist at endemic levels. Epidemic models that determine which interventions can successfully prevent an outbreak need to account for social structure and mixing patterns. Contact patterns vary across age and locations (e.g. home, work, and school, and including them as predictors in transmission dynamic models of pathogens that spread socially will improve the models' realism. Data from population-based contact diaries in eight European countries from the POLYMOD study were projected to 144 other countries using a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimated the proclivity of age-and-location-specific contact patterns for the countries, using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Household level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for nine lower-income countries and socio-demographic factors from several on-line databases for 152 countries were used to quantify similarity of countries to estimate contact patterns in the home, work, school and other locations for countries for which no contact data are available, accounting for demographic structure, household structure where known, and a variety of metrics including workforce participation and school enrolment. Contacts are highly assortative with age across all countries considered, but pronounced regional differences in the age-specific contacts at home were noticeable, with more inter-generational contacts in Asian countries than in other settings. Moreover, there were variations in contact patterns by location, with work-place contacts being least assortative. These variations led to differences in the effect of social distancing measures in an age structured epidemic model. Contacts have an important role in transmission dynamic models that use contact rates to characterize the spread of contact-transmissible diseases. This study provides estimates of mixing patterns for

  17. Projecting social contact matrices in 152 countries using contact surveys and demographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, Kiesha; Cook, Alex R; Jit, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Heterogeneities in contact networks have a major effect in determining whether a pathogen can become epidemic or persist at endemic levels. Epidemic models that determine which interventions can successfully prevent an outbreak need to account for social structure and mixing patterns. Contact patterns vary across age and locations (e.g. home, work, and school), and including them as predictors in transmission dynamic models of pathogens that spread socially will improve the models' realism. Data from population-based contact diaries in eight European countries from the POLYMOD study were projected to 144 other countries using a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimated the proclivity of age-and-location-specific contact patterns for the countries, using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Household level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for nine lower-income countries and socio-demographic factors from several on-line databases for 152 countries were used to quantify similarity of countries to estimate contact patterns in the home, work, school and other locations for countries for which no contact data are available, accounting for demographic structure, household structure where known, and a variety of metrics including workforce participation and school enrolment. Contacts are highly assortative with age across all countries considered, but pronounced regional differences in the age-specific contacts at home were noticeable, with more inter-generational contacts in Asian countries than in other settings. Moreover, there were variations in contact patterns by location, with work-place contacts being least assortative. These variations led to differences in the effect of social distancing measures in an age structured epidemic model. Contacts have an important role in transmission dynamic models that use contact rates to characterize the spread of contact-transmissible diseases. This study provides estimates of mixing patterns for societies for which

  18. Genetic Bio-Ancestry and Social Construction of Racial Classification in Social Surveys in the Contemporary United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Fu, Yilan; Lee, Hedwig; Cai, Tianji; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Li, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Self-reported race is generally considered the basis for racial classification in social surveys, including the U.S. census. Drawing on recent advances in human molecular genetics and social science perspectives of socially constructed race, our study takes into account both genetic bio-ancestry and social context in understanding racial classification. This article accomplishes two objectives. First, our research establishes geographic genetic bio-ancestry as a component of racial classification. Second, it shows how social forces trump biology in racial classification and/or how social context interacts with bio-ancestry in shaping racial classification. The findings were replicated in two racially and ethnically diverse data sets: the College Roommate Study (N = 2,065) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,281). PMID:24019100

  19. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  20. Physical working conditions as covered in European monitoring questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Tynes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of workers with demanding physical working conditions in the European work force remains high, and occupational physical exposures are considered important risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD, a major burden for both workers and society. Exposures to physical workloads are therefore part of the European nationwide surveys to monitor working conditions and health. An interesting question is to what extent the same domains, dimensions and items referring to the physical workloads are covered in the surveys. The purpose of this paper is to determine 1 which domains and dimensions of the physical workloads are monitored in surveys at the national level and the EU level and 2 the degree of European consensus among these surveys regarding coverage of individual domains and dimensions. Method Items on physical workloads used in one European wide/Spanish and five other European nationwide work environment surveys were classified into the domains and dimensions they cover, using a taxonomy agreed upon among all participating partners. Results The taxonomy reveals that there is a modest overlap between the domains covered in the surveys, but when considering dimensions, the results indicate a lower agreement. The phrasing of items and answering categories differs between the surveys. Among the domains, the three domains covered by all surveys are “lifting, holding & carrying of loads/pushing & pulling of loads”, “awkward body postures” and “vibrations”. The three domains covered less well, that is only by three surveys or less, are “physical work effort”, “working sitting”, and “mixed exposure”. Conclusions This is the fırst thorough overview to evaluate the coverage of domains and dimensions of self-reported physical workloads in a selection of European nationwide surveys. We hope the overview will provide input to the revisions and updates of the individual countries’ surveys in

  1. Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni Bányai

    Full Text Available Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs.

  2. The Influence of the Family, the School, and the Group on the Environmental Attitudes of European Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rosa; Escario, José-Julián; Sanagustín, María-Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The attitudes of young people arise from an intense interaction with their social groups of reference, and in this work we examine the extent to which this background conditions the individual environmental attitudes of the young. Using data provided by the PISA 2006 survey for the European Union, we test for the influence of the family, the…

  3. New production concepts in the clothing industry : new ways of work for unpredictable markets : results from a European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Peeters, M.H.H.

    1994-01-01

    This brochure summarises the results of a survey carried out among 86 clothing companies representing eight different West European countries. The research examined the effect of new ways of work in clothing companies on personnel policy, on the organisation of work and on the effectiveness of the

  4. Labor force participation, unemployment and occupational attainment among immigrants in West European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gorodzeisky

    Full Text Available The present paper examines modes of immigrants' labor market incorporation into European societies with specific emphasis on the role played by immigrant status (i.e. first-generation immigrants, immigrant descendants and native born without migrant background, region of origin, and gender. The data were obtained from the European Union Labour Forces Survey 2008 Ad-Hoc Module for France, Belgium, UK and Sweden. In order to supplement the results from the country-specific analysis, we replicated the analysis using pooled data from the five rounds of the European Social Survey conducted between 2002 and 2010, for nine 'old immigration' Western European countries together. The analysis centered on two aspects of incorporation: labor force status and occupation. Multinominal, binary logistic as well as linear probability regression models were estimated. The findings suggest that in all countries non-European origin is associated with greater disadvantage in finding employment not only among first-generation immigrants, but also among sons and daughters of immigrants (i.e. second-generation. Moreover, the relative employment disadvantage among immigrant men of non-European origin is especially pronounced in the second-generation. The likelihood of attaining a high-status job is influenced mostly by immigrant status, regardless of region of origin and gender. The results of the study reveal that patterns of labor force incorporation vary considerably across origin groups and across generations. The patterns do not vary as much across countries, despite cross-country differences in welfare state regimes, migration integration policy and composition of migration flows.

  5. Social Workers' Orientation toward the Evidence-Based Practice Process: A Dutch Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwet, Renske J. M.; Kolmer, Deirdre M. Beneken genaamd; Schalk, René

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers' orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the EBP Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS), along with…

  6. Mapping the scope of occupational therapy practice in palliative care: A European Association for Palliative Care cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Gail; Morgan, Deidre

    2018-05-01

    Occupational therapists play an integral role in the care of people with life-limiting illnesses. However, little is known about the scope of occupational therapy service provision in palliative care across Europe and factors influencing service delivery. This study aimed to map the scope of occupational therapy palliative care interventions across Europe and to explore occupational therapists' perceptions of opportunities and challenges when delivering and developing palliative care services. A 49-item online cross-sectional survey comprised of fixed and free text responses was securely hosted via the European Association for Palliative Care website. Survey design, content and recruitment processes were reviewed and formally approved by the European Association for Palliative Care Board of Directors. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse data. Setting/respondents: Respondents were European occupational therapists whose caseload included palliative care recipients (full-time or part-time). In total, 237 valid responses were analysed. Findings demonstrated a consistency in occupational therapy practice in palliative care between European countries. Clinician time was prioritised towards indirect patient care, with limited involvement in service development, leadership and research. A need for undergraduate and postgraduate education was identified. Organisational expectations and understanding of the scope of the occupational therapy role constrain the delivery of services to support patients and carers. Further development of occupational therapy in palliative care, particularly capacity building in leadership and research activities, is warranted. There is a need for continuing education and awareness raising of the role of occupational therapy in palliative care.

  7. Trends and correlates of the public's perception of healthcare systems in the European Union: a multilevel analysis of Eurobarometer survey data from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaud, AlJohara M; Taddese, Henock B; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2018-01-08

    The aim of the study is to assess trends in public perceptions of health systems in 27 European Union (EU) member states following the financial crisis (2009-2013), in order to discuss observed changes in the context of the financial crisis. Repeated cross-sectional studies. 27 EU countries. EU citizens aged 15 years and older. The study mainly uses the Eurobarometer Social Climate Survey, conducted annually between 2009 and 2013, thereby analysing 116 706 observations. A multilevel logistic regression was carried out to analyse trends over time and the factors associated with citizens' perceptions of their healthcare systems. Europeans generally exhibit positive perceptions of their national healthcare systems, 64.0% (95% CI 63.6% to 64.4%). However, we observed a significant drop in positive perceptions in the years following the crisis, especially within countries most affected by the crisis. Concerning fiscal characteristics, wealthier countries and those dedicating higher proportion of their national income to health were more likely to maintain positive perceptions. At the individual level, perceptions of healthcare systems were significantly associated with respondents' self-perceptions of their social status, financial capacity and overall satisfaction in life. Our finding confirms previous observations that citizens' perceptions of their healthcare systems may reflect their overall prospects within the broader socioeconomic systems they live in; which have in turn been affected by the financial crisis and the policy measures instituted in response. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify targets for quality improvement in antifungal use in European hospitals and determine the variability of such prescribing. Hospitals that participated in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Point Prevalence Surveys (ESAC-PPS) were included. The WHO...

  9. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  10. Drivers and barriers for psychosocial risk management: an analysis of the findings of the European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milczarek, M.; Irastorza, X.; Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Iavicoli, S.; Mirabile, M.; Buresti, G.; Gagliardi, D.; Houtman, I.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Vartia, M.; Pahkin, K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, EU-OSHA carried out the first Europe-wide establishment survey on health and safety at the workplace, the European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER). Following on from the initial analysis presented in the descriptive overview report in 2010, four secondary analysis

  11. The interface between child/adolescent and adult mental health services: results from a European 28-country survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Giulia; Singh, Swaran P; Marsanic, Vlatka Boricevic; Dieleman, Gwen; Dodig-Ćurković, Katarina; Franic, Tomislav; Gerritsen, Suzanne E; Griffin, James; Maras, Athanasios; McNicholas, Fiona; O'Hara, Lesley; Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Paul, Moli; Russet, Frederick; Santosh, Paramala; Schulze, Ulrike; Street, Cathy; Tremmery, Sabine; Tuomainen, Helena; Verhulst, Frank; Warwick, Jane; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    Transition-related discontinuity of care is a major socioeconomic and societal challenge for the EU. The current service configuration, with distinct Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS) and Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS), is considered a weak link where the care pathway needs to be most robust. Our aim was to delineate transitional policies and care across Europe and to highlight current gaps in care provision at the service interface. An online mapping survey was conducted across all 28 European Countries using a bespoke instrument: The Standardized Assessment Tool for Mental Health Transition (SATMEHT). The survey was directed at expert(s) in each of the 28 EU countries. The response rate was 100%. Country experts commonly (12/28) reported that between 25 and 49% of CAMHS service users will need transitioning to AMHS. Estimates of the percentage of AMHS users aged under 30 years who had has previous contact with CAMHS were most commonly in the region 20-30% (33% on average).Written policies for managing the interface were available in only four countries and half (14/28) indicated that no transition support services were available. This is the first survey of CAMHS transitional policies and care carried out at a European level. Policymaking on transitional care clearly needs special attention and further elaboration. The Milestone Study on transition should provide much needed data on transition processes and outcomes that could form the basis for improving policy and practice in transitional care.

  12. Increasing social capital to combat social exclusion; The Social Action contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Boeck, T. G.; McCullogh, P.; Ward, David, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    This chapter explores some of the findings of a TSER Project "Making New Local Policies Against Social Exclusion In European Cities" which was based on European and local networks. The importance of this chapter was that it was one of the first to highlight the contextual importance of social capital. It has policy implications for drawing together issues of social exclusion and community cohesion. It influenced local policy making and was presented in several international conferences.

  13. Strategy 2020 and the European Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity is an integrated concept, resulted from the combination of two fundamental elements flexibility and security. The strategy was recognized as one of the key objectives for European Labour markets in the context of the European Employment Strategy and Lisbon Strategy. The implementation of flexicurity can only be specific, taking account of national and regional characteristics in spite of the fact that all labour markets in Europe are faced with similar challenges.

  14. Living with parents or grandparents increases social capital and survival: 2014 General Social Survey-National Death Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Muennig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After nearly a century-long trend toward single-family living arrangements, people in wealthy nations are increasingly living in multi-generational households. Multi-generational living arrangements can, in theory, increase psychological, social, and financial capital—factors associated with improvements in health and longevity. Methods: We conducted a survival analysis using the 2014 General Social Survey-National Death Index, a prospective multi-year survey. We explored whether single generational living arrangements were associated with a higher risk of mortality than multi-generational living arrangements. Results: We explored this association for different groups (e.g., the foreign-born and those with high self-reported stress in family relationships. Healthy subjects who live in two-generation households were found to have lower premature mortality (hazard ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.82, 0.99. Otherwise, we found little evidence that living arrangements matter for the respondents’ risk of premature mortality. Conclusions: Healthy people living in two-generation households have longer survival than healthy people living on their own. Keywords: Immigrant Health, Survival, Social capital and health

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility in Engineering Education. A French Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, C.; Huet, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a survey of how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is being discussed and taught in engineering education in France. We shall first describe how those questions have been recently tackled in various programmes of higher education in France. We shall also analyse what faculty members have to…

  16. Trends and Correlates of Consenting to Provide Social Security Numbers: Longitudinal Findings from the General Social Survey (1993-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…

  17. Experiencing European integration: transnational lives and European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, T.

    2015-01-01

    European integration has generated a wide array of economic, political, and social opportunities beyond the nation state. Scandinavians spending their retirement at the Mediterranean coast; Germans employing a Polish caretaker; international exchange students staying in Prague; Italian baristas

  18. The integration of rural regions of Ireland and Poland into the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienaber Birte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the enlargement of the European Union, Ireland is often mentioned as a key example for the Central and Eastern European countries of a successful European integration process. Thereby, the development of the complete Republic of Ireland since the EU accession in 1973 is analyzed. If you survey separately the economic and social development of urban and rural regions, it emerges that the rural regions could hardly participate in the economic success of Ireland and that disparities have increased. Many farmers are dependent on public welfare to make a living, as the Irish living costs have increased during the last years. Consequently today about one third of the Irish households live - in spite of the economic success of the Celtic Tiger - under the relative poverty line. Against the background of this depletion process, the question comes up whether Ireland can act as a paradigm for the European integration process of Poland. Looking at the initial situation of Ireland in 1973 and the current situation in Poland, several parallels exist, however, also strong distinctions. While major similarities can be determined with the agricultural structures as well as with the social value system, developments in Poland are still subject to the not yet completed transformation process from a socialist to a democratic and capitalist system.

  19. Problems of the social non-acceptance of mining projects with particular emphasis on the European Union – a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badera Jarosław

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the social non-acceptance of the mining industry (particularly development projects is relatively new, so more widely discussed for a relatively short time. In this paper, an extensive review of worldwide literature on this topic has been presented with special regard to the specificity of the European Union countries, where the NIMBY (Not In My Backyard phenomenon is one of the key reasons for local community opposition. The problem is recognized mainly from the perspective of the mineral industry, but also from the point of view of government, NGOs or local communities. There are case studies, publications in the range of sustainable development, corporate social responsibility, geo-ethics, proposals for new analytical methods (for example multi-criteria and others or effective solutions. The improvement in social acceptance for the mineral industry may be achieved by further development of technological, organizational and scientific methods which minimizes mining influences on the environment and society developing. Modern approach to social issues associated with mineral activity includes also strategies of bilateral communication, mediation/negotiation, cooperation between stakeholders to a larger extent then in the past. However, it is the continuous need of extensive, in-depth social debate on mineral development projects in the European Union, both in energetic and non-energetic branch.

  20. Design and Implementation Aspects of the Geological Data Infrastructure for European Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Pedersen, Mikael; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François; Serrrano, Jean-Jacques; Grellet, Sylvain; Lee, Kathryn; Harrison, Matthew; Demicheli, Luca; Delfini, Claudia; Hugelier, Sara; van Daalen, Tirza

    2014-05-01

    Digital geological data play a vital role in responding to the key social and economic challenges facing the European and global communities in the 21st century. These challenges include sustainable supply of energy, water and mineral resources, mitigating the impacts of natural hazards, and responding to climate change by exploiting renewable energy sources and capturing and storing greenhouse gases. As a response to these challenges the European geological surveys have enhanced their collaboration to prepare the implementation of a European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), in order to provide easily accessible, interoperable and harmonized geological information on a European and international level. The high-level objective is to create a proper information base that supports the provision of geological services for European and international organisations, international industry and any other stakeholder working at cross-border or international level. It is additionally expected that the easy access to geological data at European level will enhance the development of new applications. The datasets to be served by the EGDI will primarily originate from the National Geological Survey Organisations (NGSO's) in Europe and the infrastructure will build further on the results of past, present and future European research projects and international programs in which these surveys are involved, for example the OneGeology-Europe project that serves regularly updated geological maps at 1:1M scale for the European area via a web portal. To prepare the implementation of the EGDI the NGSO's collaborate under the framework of the EU-FP7 EGDI-Scope study. This paper will present the main results and conclusions of this program, covering the following main issues that are taken into account to achieve the objectives of the EGDI: Stakeholder involvement: The study has exchanged with representative stakeholders from organisations and institutions to cover perspectives from

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN MOLDOVAN ENTERPRISES AS A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE OF INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia BUCIUSCAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  2. Development of social responsibility In moldovan enterprises as a strategic objective of integration in the european community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendrea Mariana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  3. Social media use among young rheumatologists and basic scientists: results of an international survey by the Emerging EULAR Network (EMEUNET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Studenic, Paul; Ammitzbøll, Christian Gytz; Canavan, Mary; Jani, Meghna; Ospelt, Caroline; Berenbaum, Francis

    2017-04-01

    To explore perceptions, barriers and patterns of social media (SM) use among rheumatology fellows and basic scientists. An online survey was disseminated via Twitter, Facebook and by email to members of the Emerging European League Against Rheumatism Network. Questions focused on general demographics, frequency and types of SM use, reasons and barriers to SM use. Of 233 respondents (47 countries), 72% were aged 30-39 years, 66% female. 83% were active users of at least one SM platform and 71% were using SM professionally. The majority used SM for communicating with friends/colleagues (79%), news updates (76%), entertainment (69%), clinical (50%) and research (48%) updates. Facebook was the dominant platform used (91%). SM was reported to be used for information (81%); for expanding professional networks (76%); new resources (59%); learning new skills (47%) and establishing a professional online presence (46%). 30% of non-SM users justified not using SM due to lack of knowledge. There was a substantial use of SM by rheumatologists and basic scientists for social and professional reasons. The survey highlights a need for providing learning resources and increasing awareness of the use of SM. This could enhance communication, participation and collaborative work, enabling its more widespread use in a professional manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. A Survey of Text Mining in Social Media: Facebook and Twitter Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. Salloum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Text mining has become one of the trendy fields that has been incorporated in several research fields such as computational linguistics, Information Retrieval (IR and data mining. Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques were used to extract knowledge from the textual text that is written by human beings. Text mining reads an unstructured form of data to provide meaningful information patterns in a shortest time period. Social networking sites are a great source of communication as most of the people in today’s world use these sites in their daily lives to keep connected to each other. It becomes a common practice to not write a sentence with correct grammar and spelling. This practice may lead to different kinds of ambiguities like lexical, syntactic, and semantic and due to this type of unclear data, it is hard to find out the actual data order. Accordingly, we are conducting an investigation with the aim of looking for different text mining methods to get various textual orders on social media websites. This survey aims to describe how studies in social media have used text analytics and text mining techniques for the purpose of identifying the key themes in the data. This survey focused on analyzing the text mining studies related to Facebook and Twitter; the two dominant social media in the world. Results of this survey can serve as the baselines for future text mining research.

  5. EUROPEAN-TURKISH IDENTITY INTERACTION FROM THE SOCIALCONSTRUCTIVIST PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Unalp Cepel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Identity formation efforts of the EU draw attentionin Turkey’s membershipprocess. This paper is based on a hypothesis that identity, culture, norms andvalues which construct the social structure affectEuropean and Turkish identityinteraction. In the paper, right and left views within the Turkish parliament andEuropean parliament will be analyzed in the framework of social constructivism.Social constructivism which is provided as an alternative area of study in thesocial sciences to the European integration, is still evaluated as a debatedapproach in the internatioal relations literature.Wendt, Checkel, Smith,Katzenstein, Keohane and Krasner define social constructivism as an approachbetween rationalism represented with neo-realism, neo-liberalism and neo-liberalinstitutionalism- and reflectivism represented withpost-modernism and post-structuralism. On the other hand, some other authors evaluate socialconstructivism within the critical theories. This paper is based on the firstdefinition.The first assumption of the social constructivism asserts that material structuresshould be observed beyond the biological facts(Jupille, Caporaso, Checkel,2003.According to this asumption, material structures gain importance by interpretingwithin the social conditions and environment. By following this assumption, thispaper will focus on different foreign policy strategies of Turkey and Europe as aresult of different identity perceptions. The second assumption points to the natureof the actors and their relations with the institutional environment. In accordancewith this assumption, opinions, values and discourses of the party groups in theTurkish parliament and European parliament will betaken into consideration.Social constructivism stresses on the social interaction of the states and non-state actors. In this respect analyzing the social interaction within the framework ofTurkish-European identity will make a contributionto the literature.

  6. The association between online gaming, social phobia, and depression: an internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han-Ting

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online gaming technology has developed rapidly within the past decade, and its related problems have received increasing attention. However, there are few studies on the psychiatric symptoms associated with excessive use of online games. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of online gamers, and the association between online gaming hours, social phobia, and depression using an internet survey. Methods An online questionnaire was designed and posted on a popular online game websites, inviting the online gamers to participate the survey. The content of the questionnaire included demographic data, profiles of internet usage and online gaming, and self-rating scales of Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS, Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, and Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS. Results A total of 722 online gamers with a mean age of 21.8 ± 4.9 years completed the online survey within one month. 601 (83.2% participants were male, and 121 (16.8% were female. The mean weekly online gaming time was 28.2 ± 19.7 hours, which positively associated with history of online gaming (r = 0.245, p  Conclusion The online gamers with longer weekly gaming hours tended to have a longer history of online gaming, and more severe depressive, social phobic, and internet addiction symptoms. Female online gamers had fewer weekly online gaming hours and a shorter previous online gaming history, but tended to have more severe somatic, pain, and social phobic symptoms. The predictors for depression were higher social phobic symptom, higher internet addiction symptoms, longer online gaming hours, and female gender.

  7. Emission of biocides from hospitals: comparing current survey results with European Union default values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Bitsch, Annette; Hahn, Stefan; Hahn, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    Under the European Union (EU) Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, comprehensive evaluations on substances of the Third Priority List were conducted until 31 July 2007. This list includes, among other categories, disinfectants for human hygiene (e.g., skin and surface disinfection). For environmental exposure assessment of biocides, the EU emission scenarios apply. Currently available default values for disinfectants are based on consumption data from not more than 8 hospitals and were originally assembled for other purposes. To revalidate these default values, a survey on annual consumption data was performed in 27 German hospitals. These data were analyzed to provide consumption data per bed and day and per nurse and day for particular categories of active ingredients and were compared with default values from the EU emission scenario documents. Although several deviations were detected, an overall acceptable correspondence between Emission Scenario Documents default values and the current survey data was found. (c) 2009 SETAC

  8. Patients' perceptions of information and education for renal replacement therapy: an independent survey by the European Kidney Patients' Federation on information and support on renal replacement therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Biesen

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate renal replacement modality is of utmost importance for patients with end stage renal disease. Previous studies showed provision of information to and free modality choice by patients to be suboptimal. Therefore, the European Kidney Patients' Federation (CEAPIR explored European patients' perceptions regarding information, education and involvement on the modality selection process.CEAPIR developed a survey, which was disseminated by the national kidney patient organisations in Europe.In total, 3867 patients from 36 countries completed the survey. Respondents were either on in-centre haemodialysis (53% or had a functioning graft (38% at the time of survey. The majority (78% evaluated the general information about kidney disease and treatment as helpful, but 39% did not recall being told about alternative treatment options than their current one. Respondents were more often satisfied with information provided on in-centre haemodialysis (90% and transplantation (87% than with information provided on peritoneal dialysis (79% or home haemodialysis (61%, and were more satisfied with information from health care professionals vs other sources such as social media. Most (75% felt they had been involved in treatment selection, 29% perceived they had no free choice. Involvement in modality selection was associated with enhanced satisfaction with treatment (OR 3.13; 95% CI 2.72-3.60. Many respondents (64% could not remember receiving education on how to manage their kidney disease in daily life. Perceptions on information seem to differ between countries.Kidney patients reported to be overall satisfied with the information they received on their disease and treatment, although information seemed mostly to have been focused on one modality. Patients involved in modality selection were more satisfied with their treatment. However, in the perception of the patients, the freedom to choose an alternative modality showed room for

  9. Reviewing and addressing the link between mass media and the increase in obesity among European children: The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) and The European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Artur; Caroli, Margherita; Radziewicz-Winnicki, Igor; Nowicka, Paulina; Weghuber, Daniel; Neubauer, David; Dembiński, Łukasz; Crawley, Francis P; White, Martin; Hadjipanayis, Adamos

    2018-04-01

    This study reviewed the link between social media and the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in Europe. A task force from the European Academy of Paediatrics and the European Childhood Obesity Group searched published literature and developed a consensus statement. It found that there was evidence of a strong link between obesity levels across European countries and childhood media exposure and that parents and society needed a better understanding of the influence of social media on dietary habits. Health policies in Europe must take account of the range of social media influences that promote the development of childhood obesity. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F J

    2013-01-01

    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  11. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Melchiorre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. METHODS: The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  12. Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989

  13. Present practice and treatment strategies in endourological stone management: results of a survey of the European Society of Uro-technology (ESUT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauer, P. C.; Laguna, M. P.; Alivizatos, G.; Joyce, A.; Muschter, R.; Swartz, R.; Tolley, D.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The European Society of Urological Technology (ESUT) conducted a survey in order to assess and record the current trends between urologists with regard to the application of endourological stone management to identify trends and differences in treatment strategies among urologists.

  14. Social attitudes and regional inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Muštra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As the budgets of the European Union (EU become tighter, the questions about the effectiveness of EU’s expenditure, especially the most important parts such as Cohesion policy, are hotly debated. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the presence of social attitudes may influence the effectiveness of EU budget expenditure, measured by the level of regional inequalities. The analysis starts by focusing on individuals’ attitudes towards income from their own effort and income which is derived from other people’s effort, having in mind that individual actions depend on their attitudes. The next step establishes the link between the income from other people’s effort with the re-distributive dimension of the EU budget, considering that different attitudes among individuals in the EU could lead to significant differences in effectiveness of this redistributive policy among European regions and, consequently, diverse regional inequalities. Empirical research uses data for 27 EU countries observed over two waves of European Value Surveys: 1999-2000 (Wave 1 and 2008–2009 (Wave 2. The results indicate a significant role of social attitudes for regional inequalities, which raises the question of the appropriateness of simplification and uniform regional policy instruments in solving EU regional problems.

  15. Happiness in the Context of European Human Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Maria

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When we think about our values, we think about what is important in our lives (security, independence, wisdom, success, goodness, pleasure. This article has as its starting point the assumption that happiness is the result of manifestation of human values. The first part deals with the concept of human values, and the second part is focused on the analysis of secondary sources (data obtained from the investigation conducted by the European Social Survey. Data was retrieved and processed by me in Excel, and SPSS. In order to test research hypotheses correlation was used. To support the argument we used a series of tables and representative images.

  16. Access of children with cerebral palsy to the physical, social and attitudinal environment they need: a cross-sectional European study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colver, Allan F; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkinson, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    for disabled children in Europe. Method. One thousand one-hundred and seventy-four children aged 8-12 years were randomly selected from population-based registers of children with cerebral palsy in eight European regions. 743 children joined the study; one further region recruited 75 children from multiple...... sources. Researchers visited these 818 children and administered the European Child Environment Questionnaire, which records parents' perceptions of availability of the physical, social and attitudinal environment needed in home, school and community. Multilevel, multivariable regression related child...... access on these domains to their impairments and socio-demographic characteristics. Results. Children with more impaired walking ability had less access to the physical environment, transport and social support they needed than other children. They also experienced less favourable attitudes from family...

  17. ROMANIAâ€(tm)S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danescu Tatiana; Dogar Cristian

    2012-01-01

    The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF) financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiaryâ€(tm)s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiar...

  18. Results of a Quality of Work Life Index in Spain. A Comparison of Survey Results and Aggregate Social Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royuela, Vicente; Lopez-Tamayo, Jordi; Surinach, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    The European Union launched the Lisbon Strategy in 2000 with the aim of establishing itself as the world's most powerful economy. The importance of job quality has returned to the top of the European employment and social policy agenda. As targets are set, significant progress has been made in the creation of indicators. In this study, we compute…

  19. Welfare State Regimes and Attitudes Towards Redistribution in 15 Western European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    Social Survey and the third wave of the European Values Study, and by means of an ordered mixed probit model with concomitant variables, we find strong evidence that structural characteristics affect mass opinion in a manner consistent with regime theory. For example, public support for redistribution...... increases with total social expenditure relative to GDP, family benefits, and active labour market policies. Furthermore, we find that institutionalised left-wing political power as measured by left-wing government seats and neo-corporatism are significant predictors of support for redistribution.- See more...... at: http://www.sfi.dk/s%c3%b8geresultat-10668.aspx?Action=1&NewsId=248&PID=32427#sthash.ISdYS6vF.dpuf...

  20. Inequality, Poverty, and Material Deprivation in New and Old Members of European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Teo; Šućur, Zoran; Zrinščak, Siniša

    2007-01-01

    Aim To analyze the main indicators of income inequality, objective and subjective poverty, material deprivation, and the role of public social transfers in the reduction of poverty in 15 old and 10 new member states of the European Union (EU), undergoing post-communist socio-economic transition, as well as in Croatia, a candidate EU country. Method Objective poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, poverty thresholds in purchasing power standards (PPS), total social expenditure, inequality indicators, and risks of poverty according to demographics were calculated using the data from the Eurostat databases (in particular, Household Budget Survey). For Croatia, Central Bureau of Statistics first releases on poverty indicators were used, as well as database of the Ministry of Finance (social expenditure). Subjective poverty rates and non-monetary deprivation index were calculated using the European Quality of Life Survey, which was carried out in 2003 in EU countries and in 2006 in Croatia. Results According to the indicators of income inequality and objective poverty, there was a divide among old EU member states (EU15), with UK, Ireland and South European countries having higher and Continental and Nordic countries lower indicators of inequality and poverty. Among new member states (NMS10), Baltic countries and Poland had the highest and Slovenia and the Czech Republic the lowest indicators of inequality and poverty. In all EU15 countries, except Greece, subjective poverty rates were lower than objective ones, whereas in all NMS10 countries the levels of subjective poverty were much higher than those of objective poverty. With some exceptions, NMS10 countries had low or even decreasing social expenditures. The share of respondents who were deprived of more than 50% of items was 6 times higher in the NMS10 than in the EU15 countries. When standard of living was measured by income inequality, relative poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, total social protection

  1. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    vegetation- plot databases on a single software platform. Data storage in EVA does not affect on-going independent development of the contributing databases, which remain the property of the data contributors. EVA uses a prototype of the database management software TURBOVEG 3 developed for joint management......The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  2. Prevalence of Psychosomatic and Emotional Symptoms in European School-Aged Children and its Relationship with Childhood Adversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; De Vriendt, Tineke; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood stress and psychosomatic and emotional symptoms (PES) has increased in parallel, indicating that adverse, stressful circumstances and PES in children might be associated. This study describes the prevalence of PES in European children, aged 4–11 years old, and examines...... quantitatively (i.e. the number of adversities) and qualitatively (i.e. the type of adversity). This study demonstrates the importance and the impact of the child’s family and social context on the occurrence of PES in children younger than 12 years old....... the relationship among PES, negative life events (NLE) and familial or social adversities in the child’s life. Parent-reported data on childhood adversities and PES was collected for 4,066 children from 8 European countries, who participated in the follow-up survey of IDEFICS (2009–2010), by means of the ‘IDEFICS......-demographics, family lifestyle and health of the child. Chi-square analyses were performed to investigate the prevalence of PES among survey centres, age groups and sex of the child. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the childhood adversity exposure between PES groups and logistic regression analyses were...

  3. Does corporate social responsibility put reputation at risk by inviting activist targeting? An empirical test among European SMEs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is believed to improve a company’s reputation. However,CSR may also put reputation at risk by making the company a more attractive target for activists’campaigns. We test this effect on a sample of 1355 European small and medium-sized enterprises(SMEs). We find

  4. Macroeconomic and social change and popular demand for redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper tests the self-interest hypothesis arguing that changes in macroeconomic and social conditions affect popular demand for redistribution. I analyze data from four waves of the European Social Survey and use a synthetic cohort design to generate pseudo panel data for socio......-demographic groups that are matched over time. I estimate fixed effect models and find that (1) changes in macroeconomic and social conditions affect the demand for redistribution; (2) results are mostly consistent with the self-interest hypothesis claiming that agents demand more redistribution in economically hard...... times (and vice versa in good times); and (3) the effect of macroeconomic and social conditions on the demand for redistribution are highly non-linear....

  5. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, “Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China” [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article.

  6. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hang; Wang, Puqing; Zhu, Yueji

    2016-06-01

    Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, "Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China" [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article.

  7. European MEDIA Programme: the role of 'language' and 'visual images' in the processes of constructing European culture and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozić-Vrbancić, Senka; Vrbancić, Mario; Orlić, Olga

    2008-12-01

    Questions of diversity and multiculturalism are at the heart of many discussions on European supranational identity within contemporary anthropology, sociology, cultural studies, linguistics and so on. Since we are living in a period marked by the economic and political changes which emerged after European unification, a call for a new analysis of heterogeneity, cultural difference and issues of belonging is not surprising. This call has been fuelled by the European Union's concern with "culture" as one of the main driving forces for constructing "European identity". While the official European policy describes European culture as common to all Europeans, Europe is also-seen as representing "unity in diversity". By analysing contemporary European MEDIA policies and programs this article attempts to contribute to a small but growing body of work that explores what role "language" and "visual images" play in the process of constructing European culture and supranational European identity. More specifically, the article explores the complex articulation of language and culture in order to analyse supranational imaginary of European identity as it is expressed through the simple slogan "Europe: unity in diversity". We initially grounded our interest in the politics of identity within the European Union within theoretical frameworks of "power and knowledge" and "identity and subjectivity". We consider contemporary debates in social sciences and humanities over the concepts of language", "culture" and "identity" as inseparable from each other (Ahmed 2000; Brah 1996, 2000; Butler 1993, Derrida 1981; Gilroy 2004; Laclau 1990). Cultural and postcolonial studies theorists (e.g. Brah 1996; Bhabha 1994; Hall 1992, 1996, among others) argue that concepts of "culture" and "identity" signify a historically variable nexus of social meanings. That is to say, "culture" and "identity" are discursive articulations. According to this view, "culture" and "identity" are not separate

  8. Online and Social Media Data As an Imperfect Continuous Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Fernando; Gamon, Michael; Hofman, Jake M; Kıcıman, Emre; Rothschild, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a large body of research on utilizing online activity as a survey of political opinion to predict real world election outcomes. There is considerably less work, however, on using this data to understand topic-specific interest and opinion amongst the general population and specific demographic subgroups, as currently measured by relatively expensive surveys. Here we investigate this possibility by studying a full census of all Twitter activity during the 2012 election cycle along with the comprehensive search history of a large panel of Internet users during the same period, highlighting the challenges in interpreting online and social media activity as the results of a survey. As noted in existing work, the online population is a non-representative sample of the offline world (e.g., the U.S. voting population). We extend this work to show how demographic skew and user participation is non-stationary and difficult to predict over time. In addition, the nature of user contributions varies substantially around important events. Furthermore, we note subtle problems in mapping what people are sharing or consuming online to specific sentiment or opinion measures around a particular topic. We provide a framework, built around considering this data as an imperfect continuous panel survey, for addressing these issues so that meaningful insight about public interest and opinion can be reliably extracted from online and social media data.

  9. E-WIN Project 2016: Evaluating the Current Gender Situation in Neurosurgery Across Europe-An Interactive, Multiple-Level Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklacova, Anna; Bradac, Ondrej; de Lacy, Patricia; Benes, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    The proportion of women among neurosurgeons appears to be growing worldwide with time. Official data concerning the current situation across Europe have not yet been published. Thus, there are still concerns about gender inequality. The European Women in Neurosurgery Project 2016 was designed to recognize the current situation across Europe. The office holders of the national neurosurgical societies of 39 countries forming the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies were contacted to provide data stating the proportion of women in neurosurgery. Obtained data were supplied with the results of an online survey. The response rate of national office holders was 90%. The number of reported neurosurgeons was 12,985, and overall proportion of women represented was 12%. Two hundred thirty-seven responses to online questionnaire were taken into account. The overall proportion of female respondents was 30%. There was no intergender variability in responses regarding amount of working time per week, exposure to surgeries, or administrative work. Male respondents reported dedicating significantly more time to scientific work and feeling more confident dictating own career direction. Female respondents reported being less often married, having fewer children, a stronger perception of gender significance level, and a higher appreciation of personal qualities. Neurosurgery is a challenging field of medicine. The results of our survey did not imply an overall feeling of gender inequality among European respondents, although women believe that the gender issue to be more important than men do and that they have to sacrifice more of their personal lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements Self-Reported by Consumers in the PlantLIBRA Survey Involving Six European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Restani

    Full Text Available The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS have been described.To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey.From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS.Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8% and 4 as probable (4.6%. Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian; seven to Camellia sinensis (tea; six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree and Paullinia cupana (guarana. Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems.Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals.

  11. Exploring integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European union and European economic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Maria; O’Shea, Miriam; Larkin, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Theory and methods: Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted...... from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey. A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. Results: We identified ‘in-principle’ complex problems...

  12. Protection of refugees and other vulnerable persons under the European Social Charter//Protección de refugiados y otras personas vulnerables en la Carta Social Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jimena Quesada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article argues the need to focus on underexploited European legal instruments, in particular the European Social Charter (ESC and the European Committee of Social Rights (ECSR, in order to better guarantee the rights of refugees and other vulnerable persons in need of protection. From this point of view, the author suggests that potential justiciability, without real effectiveness, is meaningless. Similarly, the discourse on indivisibility of human rights is empty without taking into account the indivisibility of their guarantees. In this sense, the essay illustrates the current status of refugees and other vulnerable people under the ESC providing examples of the practical impact of the decisions adopted by the ECSR through recent developments of its innovative activity (urgent procedures, third-party interventions, immediate measures and its case law in the framework of the judicial collective complaint mechanism. Finally, the main challenges for the ESC in relation to interpretation and enforcement of legal standards in favour of refugees and other vulnerable persons are submitted to critical scrutiny under the idea of strengthening positive synergies between constitutional and international levels of guarantee. Resumen: El presente artículo sostiene la necesidad prestar atención a instrumentos jurídicos europeos infrautilizados, en particular la Carta Social Europea y el Comité Europeo de Derechos Sociales, con objeto de mejorar las garantías de los derechos de los refugiados y otras personas vulnerables necesitadas de protección. Desde este punto de vista, el autor postula que una potencial justiciabilidad, sin real efectividad, carece de sentido. De modo similar, el discurso sobre la indivisibilidad de los derechos humanos queda vacío si no se toma en consideración la indivisibilidad de sus garantías. En este sentido, el trabajo ilustra el estadio actual de los refugiados y otras personas vulnerables en el ámbito de

  13. Student supervision as educational method in faculties of social work. A study in seven European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godelieve van Hees

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Student supervision as educational method in faculties of social work. A study in seven European countries Supervision Meets Education (Van Hees & Geiβler-Piltz, 2010 is the title of a comparative study on the use of supervision in training social workers as part of the Bachelor degree programmes at seven European universities and universities of applied sciences. It is the first research project to be carried out by the Supervision in Social Work Education in Europe (SSWEE network. Supervision is seen as an educational method and to indicate this specific form of supervision, the term “student supervision” has been used. The results of the study are based on seven case studies and a comparative analysis to answer the question: how is supervision integrated into the curriculum and why is it done in this way? The second part of the study concerns a comparative analysis of the case studies. This article details the main results of the differences and similarities not only regarding the way that “supervision” is understood in various settings but also the variety of organizational approaches to supervision within the study programmes themselves. In conclusion, we can say that this description of “the current state of play” provides common ground from which one go on to develop student supervision methodology in the context of European Higher Education and the challenges of a changing profession. Opleidingssupervisie als didactische methode in opleidingen Sociaal Werk. Een zoektocht in zeven Europese landen Dit artikel doet verslag van een vergelijkende studie naar de praktijk van supervisie in de Bachelor Social Work aan zeven verschillende Europese universiteiten en hogescholen, genaamd Supervision Meets Education (Van Hees & Geiβler-Piltz, 2010. Het betreft een onderzoeksproject van het “Network Supervision in Social Work Education in Europe (SSWEE”. Supervisie wordt hier besproken als een didactische methode waarvoor in

  14. A Mysterious European Threesome: Work-care Regimes, Policies and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anália Torres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Arguing that European family lives are affected by many societal factors, this article discusses the interplay between three sets of phenomena: the management of work and care responsibilities, workcarepolicies and regimes, and gender order within the family context. Based on discussions about orientations to work and care, we compare European countries and analyze regularities and singularities among them. Identifying and assessing the interplay between structural, institutional and cultural determinants of orientations we try to explain country diversity mobilizing data from the European Social Survey (rounds 2002, 2004 and 2006 and data from Eurobarometer 2003.The paper is organized around three analytical axes. First, we nalyze how work and family orientations are perceived by the Europeans. Secondly, we assess different European political policies regarding work and care arrangements, the outcome being a proposal for a workcare political typology. And finally we discuss the connectionsbetween those policies and the production or reproduction of gender order within the family. We conclude that in countries with more egalitarian gender values and policies targeted at workcarearrangements, individuals experience less workfamily conflict. Conversely, in countries with more traditional gender values and restricted or disadvantaged policies we found more familyworkconflict. But institutional constraints don’t act alone: orientations to work and care differ according to age, education, family forms and employment status.

  15. ROMANIA’S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dogar Cristian; Dãnescu Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF) financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiary’s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiaryâ€...

  16. Determinants of information behaviour and information literacy related to healthy eating among Internet users in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedźwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were gr...... literacy of the information-poor, men, the uneducated, and the economically disadvantaged.......Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were...... grouped by age and sex (n=3003, age +16) in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, and the UK. Analysis. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyse the influence of social, demographic, psychological and economic characteristics on the information seeking of the respondents. Results...

  17. Does organ donation legislation affect individuals' willingness to donate their own or their relative's organs? Evidence from European Union survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline

    2008-02-27

    Maintaining adequately high organ donation rates proves essential to offering patients all appropriate and available treatment options. However, the act of donation is in itself an individual decision that requires a depth of understanding that interacts with the social setting and the institutional framework into which an individual is embedded. This study contributes to understanding factors driving organ donation rates by examining how country regulation, individuals' awareness of regulatory setting, social interactions and socio-demographic determinants influence individuals' willingness to donate their own organs or those of a relative. We draw representative data from the Eurobarometer survey 58.2 undertaken in 2002 with respondents throughout the European Union to capture heterogeneity in institutional setting. We use logistic regression techniques to estimate the determinants of willingness to donate one's own organs and those of a deceased relative. We employ interaction terms to examine the relationship between institutional setting and respondent's awareness of organ donation legislation in their country. Our findings indicate that individuals are more likely to donate their organs than to consent to the donation of a relative's organs. Both decisions are affected by regulation (presumed consent), awareness of regulation and social interactions such as the ability to count on others in case of a serious problem (reciprocity). Furthermore, education (more educated), age (younger), expressing some sort of political affiliation determine willingness to donate one's own organs and consent to the donation of those of a relative. This study confirms and develops further previous research findings that presumed consent organ donation policy positively affects the willingness of individuals to donate their own organs and those of relative by highlighting the importance of awareness of this regulation and an individual's level of social interactions in making

  18. The Management of Social Services in the European Union from the Perspective of Global Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina-Elena Stegaroiu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper at hand aims at a brief analysis of the social services and the social phenomenon currently happening in many of the Member States (MS of the European Union (EU in the context of a more prominent economic crisis and, in the same time, as a result of the augmentation in the workers' migration. Presently, the labor force markets are continuously transforming and adapting to the search of adequate solutions in order to flex the specific activities through the conformation of the social services to the ever growing demand operating on this particular market. The conclusions of this study lead to a warning regarding the drastic drop of birth in the context of an increase of the life expectancy, aspects which must be supported through strategic measures and services, carefully delineated by domains and sectors of activity to better identify specific lines of actions through a new approach to the regulation of the labor force employment services on the labor force markets.

  19. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubiak, Christine; de Andres-Trelles, Fernando; Kuchinke, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    in relation to the wide spectrum of clinical research, the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) developed a multinational survey in ten European countries. However a lack of common classification framework for major categories of clinical research was identified, and therefore reaching...... with cell therapy, etc.); diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.); and epidemiology studies. Our classification...

  20. Experience of Forming Professional and Communicative Competency of Future Social Workers in Education Systems of Western European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyuk, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the experience of forming professional and communicative competency of future social workers in the education systems of Western European countries, in particular, France, Germany and Switzerland. On the basis of generalization of the studied data it has been found out that each country has its own techniques of forming…

  1. Social mobility and demand for redistribution in Europe: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Castillo, Antonio M; Marqués-Perales, Ildefonso

    2018-03-14

    The literature on preferences for redistribution has paid little attention to the effect of social mobility on the demand for redistribution and no systematic test of the hypotheses connecting social mobility and preferences for redistribution has yet been done to date. We use the diagonal reference model to estimate the effect of origin and destination classes on preferences for redistribution in a large sample of European countries using data from the European Social Survey. Our findings are consistent with the logic of acculturation in the sense that newcomers tend to adapt their views to those of the destination class at early stages and that upward and downward mobility do not have distinctive effects on the formation of political preferences. However, even though social origins seem to have a limited impact on preferences for redistribution, the evidence does not support the hypothesis that mobile and non-mobile individuals are alike. We also find that the effect of social origin on preferences varies largely across countries. The empirical evidence leads to the conclusion that the effect of social origin on preferences for redistribution increases in contexts of strong familism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  2. Disparity in dental attendance among older adult populations: a comparative analysis across selected European countries and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the USA and selected European countries. The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004-2006 data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the USA for respondents≥51 years of age. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental-care coverage, and of oral and general health status, on dental-care use. We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified according to social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified according to welfare state regime or according to the presence or absence of social health insurance. The findings of this study suggest that income and education have a stronger, and more persistent, correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that: (i) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared with relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding; and that (ii) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey distribution of European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieschke, Renee L.

    2017-03-31

    A partnership established between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) allows for USGS storage and redistribution of images acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on the European Union's Sentinel-2 satellite mission. The MSI data are acquired from a pair of satellites, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are part of a larger set of ESA missions focusing on different aspects of Earth observation. The primary purpose of the Sentinel-2 series is to collect multispectral imagery over the Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, and inland and coastal waters. Sentinel-2A was launched in 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in 2017.The collaborative effort between ESA and USGS provides for public access and redistribution of global acquisitions of Sentinel-2 data at no cost, which allows users to download the MSI imagery from USGS access systems such as Earth- Explorer, in addition to the ESA Sentinels Scientific Data Hub. The MSI sensor acquires 13 spectral bands that are highly complementary to data acquired by the USGS Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The product options from USGS include a Full-Resolution Browse (FRB) image product generated by USGS, along with a 100-kilometer (km) by 100-km tile-based Level-1C top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product that is very similar (but not identical) to the currently (2017) distributed ESA Level 1C product.

  4. Inequality, poverty, and material deprivation in new and old members of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Teo; Sucur, Zoran; Zrinscak, Sinsa

    2007-10-01

    To analyze the main indicators of income inequality, objective and subjective poverty, material deprivation, and the role of public social transfers in the reduction of poverty in 15 old and 10 new member states of the European Union (EU), undergoing post-communist socio-economic transition, as well as in Croatia, a candidate EU country. Objective poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, poverty thresholds in purchasing power standards (PPS), total social expenditure, inequality indicators, and risks of poverty according to demographics were calculated using the data from the Eurostat databases, in particular, Household Budget Survey. For Croatia, Central Bureau of Statistics first releases on poverty indicators were used, as well as database of the Ministry of Finance (social expenditure). Subjective poverty rates and non-monetary deprivation index were calculated using the European Quality of Life Survey, which was carried out in 2003 in EU countries and in 2006 in Croatia. According to the indicators of income inequality and objective poverty, there was a divide among old EU member states (EU15), with UK, Ireland and South European countries having higher and Continental and Nordic countries lower indicators of inequality and poverty. Among new member states (NMS10), Baltic countries and Poland had the highest and Slovenia and the Czech Republic the lowest indicators of inequality and poverty. In all EU15 countries, except Greece, subjective poverty rates were lower than objective ones, whereas in all NMS10 countries the levels of subjective poverty were much higher than those of objective poverty. With some exceptions, NMS10 countries had low or even decreasing social expenditures. The share of respondents who were deprived of more than 50% of items was 6 times higher in the NMS10 than in the EU15 countries. When standard of living was measured by income inequality, relative poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, total social protection expenditures, and non

  5. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  6. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  7. A Survey of K-12 Teachers' Utilization of Social Networks as a Professional Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Leah J.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2018-01-01

    Teachers are increasingly using social networks, including social media and other Internet applications, to look for educational resources. This study shares results from a survey examining patterns of social network application use among K-12 teachers in the United States. A sample of 154 teachers (18 males, 136 females) in the United States…

  8. Association between participation in life situations of children with cerebral palsy and their physical, social, and attitudinal environment: a cross-sectional multicenter European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Allan; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Dickinson, Heather O

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate how participation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) varied with their environment. Home visits to children. Administration of Assessment of Life Habits and European Child Environment Questionnaires. Structural equation modeling of putative associations between specific domains of participation and environment, while allowing for severity of child's impairments and pain. European regions with population-based registries of children with CP. Children (n=1174) aged 8 to 12 years were randomly selected from 8 population-based registries of children with CP in 6 European countries. Of these, 743 (63%) agreed to participate; 1 further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. Thus, there were 818 children in the study. Not applicable. Participation in life situations. For the hypothesized associations, the models confirmed that higher participation was associated with better availability of environmental items. Higher participation in daily activities-mealtimes, health hygiene, personal care, and home life-was significantly associated with a better physical environment at home (Ptransport and physical environment in the community. Participation in social roles (responsibilities, relationships, recreation) was associated with attitudes of classmates and social support at home. School participation was associated with attitudes of teachers and therapists. Environment explained between 14% and 52% of the variation in participation. The findings confirmed the social model of disability. The physical, social, and attitudinal environment of disabled children influences their participation in everyday activities and social roles. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Who makes European Cohesion Policy: a practitioners’ learning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Sbaraglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the European Social Fund (ESF, the European Union subsidizes social inclusion and occupational trainee projects. This policy instrument is formulated by European Union institutions and implemented by regions through a call for projects which requires innovative actions and a result-oriented strategy. It is a key vantage point to observe sub-national implementation of an European Union policy instrument in a sub-national practitioner’s perspective, a topic under-investigated in the literature. For a project to receive funding, sub-national practitioners must take the European Union requirements (accounting standards, evidence of innovation etc. and their social needs into account. Against this backdrop, this research tackles an original question: how can local practitioners adapt their policy actions to fit with European Union requirements? Taking the region of Wallonia in Belgium as a case study, the ESF implementation is considered as a specific policy process in sub-national policy sectors. Adopting an in-depth qualitative perspective, this research contends that it depends on practitioners’ learning, practices and experience of past applications, their specific socio-economic context and income maximization.

  10. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kerry; White, Caroline; Thompson, Andrew

    2017-05-04

    This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence. A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of alopecia, aged 13 or above and sufficient English to complete the survey. Exclusion criteria included experiencing hair loss as a result of chemotherapy treatment or psychological disorder. Participants (n=338) were predominantly female (97.3%), Caucasian (93.5%) and aged between 35 and 54 years (49.4%) with a diagnosis of alopecia areata (82.6%). The Social Phobia Inventory measured symptoms of social anxiety, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety and depression. Survey questions were designed to measure the use of wigs. Open-ended questions enabled participants to comment on their experiences of wearing wigs. Clinically significant levels of social anxiety (47.5%), anxiety (35.5%) and depression (29%) were reported. Participants who reported worries about not wearing a wig reported significantly higher levels of depression: t(103)=3.40, p≤0.001; anxiety: t(109)=4.80, p≤0.001; and social anxiety: t(294)=3.89, p≤0.001. Wearing wigs was reported as increasing social confidence; however, the concealment it afforded was also reported as both reducing fear of negative evaluation and maintaining anxiety. Overall, 46% of participants reported that wearing a wig had a positive impact on their everyday life with negative experiences related to fears of the wig being noticed. Psychological interventions alongside wig provision would be beneficial for people living with alopecia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  11. Cross-section analyses of attitudes towards science and nature from the International Social Survey Programme 1993, 2000, and 2010 surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Joseph Anthony L

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores public attitudes towards science and nature in twelve countries using data from the International Social Survey Programme environment modules of 1993, 2000, and 2010. Analysis of attitude items indicates technocentric and pessimistic dimensions broadly related to the Dominant Social Paradigm and New Environmental Paradigm. A bi-axial dimension scale is utilized to classify respondents among four environmental knowledge orientations. Discernible and significant patterns are found among countries and their populations. Relationships with other substantial variables in the surveys are discussed and findings show that the majority of industrialized countries are clustered in the rational ecologist categorization with respondents possessing stronger ecological consciousness and optimism towards the role of modern institutions, science, and technology in solving environmental problems. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Psychosocial work exposures among European employees: explanations for occupational inequalities in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    Social inequalities in mental health have been demonstrated but understanding the mechanisms remains unclear. This study aims at exploring the role of psychosocial work factors in explaining occupational inequalities in mental health among European employees. The study sample covered 33,443 employees coming from the European Working Conditions Survey 2010. Mental health was measured by the WHO-5 well-being index and socioeconomic position by occupation. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were constructed including job demands, job influence and development, role stressors, social support, quality of leadership, discrimination, violence at work, working hours, job promotion, job insecurity and work-life imbalance. Multilevel linear regressions and bootstrap analyses were performed. Occupational differences were observed for poor mental health and almost all psychosocial work factors. Factors related to job demands, influence and development at work, social relationships and leadership, working hours and other factors contributed to explain the occupational inequalities in mental health. In particular, factors related to influence and development contributed substantially. Among men, workplace violences were found to contribute little whereas among women these factors did not play a role. Future prevention interventions should have a broad and comprehensive focus in order to reduce social inequalities in mental health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Globalization and Europeanization. A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The specialized studies and literature present moreover and insistently the connection between globalization and Europeanization, more precisely between globalization and a European model of integration, whose features aim to set up a global-type European society. The development of the European model of integration starts with economic elements, it reveals nowadays the Economic and Monetary Union and in perspective it will be structured within a sui generis system of transnational governance. The values of the European model of integration become fundamental values of a social process, with powerful economic and political determinations, aiming the multi-causal interference between individual, community and European construction. This process, remarked increasingly in the specialized literature, being assigned with the name of Europeanization, has got original, functional features in the spectrum of significations of the globalization paradigm. As essential global-type formula, within Europeanization, we shall find models with economic, political or social finality, integrating also a model of administration among the latter ones. When we say administration, we refer to its up dated and adequate contents to the new European developments. This assertion derives from a less economic modality to conceptualize the relationship between globalization and Europeanization, presenting Europeanization more as a political adaptation to globalization and even a political expression of globalization. In this context, the development of a system for European governance on several levels (local, regional, national, intergovernmental and supranational suggests its evolution towards globalization. In fact, the literature specific for Europeanization asserts the fact that the European model has also features with integrative nature related to the supranational and trans-governmental dimensions, as well as features with normative nature in view of harmonization

  14. Development of a cross-cultural deprivation index in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Elodie; Pornet, Carole; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Lillini, Roberto; Vercelli, Marina; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández Fontelo, Amanda; Borrell, Carme; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Pina, Maria Fatima de; Mayer, Alexandra; Delpierre, Cyrille; Rachet, Bernard; Launoy, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Despite a concerted policy effort in Europe, social inequalities in health are a persistent problem. Developing a standardised measure of socioeconomic level across Europe will improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and causes of inequalities. This will facilitate developing, implementing and assessing new and more effective policies, and will improve the comparability and reproducibility of health inequality studies among countries. This paper presents the extension of the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a standardised measure first developed in France, to four other European countries-Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, using available 2001 and 1999 national census data. The method previously tested and validated to construct the French EDI was used: first, an individual indicator for relative deprivation was constructed, defined by the minimal number of unmet fundamental needs associated with both objective (income) poverty and subjective poverty. Second, variables available at both individual (European survey) and aggregate (census) levels were identified. Third, an ecological deprivation index was constructed by selecting the set of weighted variables from the second step that best correlated with the individual deprivation indicator. For each country, the EDI is a weighted combination of aggregated variables from the national census that are most highly correlated with a country-specific individual deprivation indicator. This tool will improve both the historical and international comparability of studies, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in health and implementation of intervention to tackle social inequalities in health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROBINSON, Jo; RODRIGUES, Maria; FISHER, Steve; BAILEY, Eleanor; HERRMAN, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community’s overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Aim Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. Methods A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Results Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one’s feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Conclusions Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be

  16. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen

    2015-02-25

    Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community's overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one's feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be developed and implemented.

  17. Social Support Strategies for Immigrants: The Context of Social Work Practice in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Bartkevičienė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of migration flows makes Lithuania one of the immigrants host countries which, like other European Union countries, faces the challenge of integration of immigrants and in this process an important role has a social worker. The aim of research was to reveal the social support strategies used by social workers in solving social problems of immigrants during the process of their integration. The qualitative research using semi-structured interview method and content analysis method was done. The survey results suggest that immigrants during the process of integration face these social problems: the search for housing, employment, legal, financial, lack of access to relevant information. The results revealed that social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, evaluate their nature and level and then apply the appropriate level of intervention. Social workers apply these micro level interventions: information and consultancy of immigrants, mediation and emotional support, which include individual social assistance. Social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, apply these mezzo level interventions: development of social network of immigrants, organization of socio-cultural events, organization and coordination of volunteer activities. Social workers providing social assistance to immigrants' integration process, use the following macro level interventions: dissemination of information onimmigrantissues, conduction and dissemination of researches based on immigrant integration issues, dissemination of best practice of social workers.

  18. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, K.; White, C.; Thompson, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence.\\ud \\ud Design A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media.\\ud \\ud Participants Inclusion criteria were a...

  19. Images of Women in European History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, Mildred

    1978-01-01

    Suggests an approach to the teaching of European history which emphasizes the role of women. Discusses women's social and political roles during the Renaissance, amid 19th century European liberalism, and as reflected in 20th century visual and literary arts. (AV)

  20. European Perspectives on Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranzini, G.; Etter, Michael; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2017-01-01

    The present report ‘Privacy in the Sharing Economy: European Perspectives’, covers the Privacy part of Ps2share: a European Horizon 2020 Research Project focusing on the sharing economy. Within this document, we present the results of a widespread European survey (N=6111), covering both users and

  1. Methods and representativeness of a European survey in children and adolescents: the KIDSCREEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Rueden Ursula

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to compare three different sampling and questionnaire administration methods used in the international KIDSCREEN study in terms of participation, response rates, and external validity. Methods Children and adolescents aged 8–18 years were surveyed in 13 European countries using either telephone sampling and mail administration, random sampling of school listings followed by classroom or mail administration, or multistage random sampling of communities and households with self-administration of the survey materials at home. Cooperation, completion, and response rates were compared across countries and survey methods. Data on non-respondents was collected in 8 countries. The population fraction (PF, respondents in each sex-age, or educational level category, divided by the population in the same category from Eurostat census data and population fraction ratio (PFR, ratio of PF and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze differences by country between the KIDSCREEN samples and a reference Eurostat population. Results Response rates by country ranged from 18.9% to 91.2%. Response rates were highest in the school-based surveys (69.0%–91.2%. Sample proportions by age and gender were similar to the reference Eurostat population in most countries, although boys and adolescents were slightly underrepresented (PFR Conclusion School-based sampling achieved the highest overall response rates but also produced slightly more biased samples than the other methods. The results suggest that the samples were sufficiently representative to provide reference population values for the KIDSCREEN instrument.

  2. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  3. HIV/AIDS Course Content in CSWE-Accredited Social Work Programs: A Survey of Current Curricular Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Diana; Shears, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed program directors at all bachelor of social work and master of social work programs accredited by the Council on Social Work Education using an online tool that assessed whether and how their respective social work programs are covering content related to HIV/AIDS. Of the 650 program directors, 153 (24%) participated in the…

  4. Disparity in Dental Attendance Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093

  5. Tracing the Interface Between Numerical Flexibility and Income Security for European Youth during the Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Finn, Mairéad

    benefit schemes. This paper adopts a comparative European approach in order to shed light on the interaction between flexibility and income security, for youth. Special extracts of the aggregate European Labour Force Survey data are used to trace the development of (involuntary) temporary employment among...... duration than adults. In a majority of EU countries youth are also disadvantaged with regard to unemployment benefits. Eligibility criteria require a certain minimum period in employment before unemployment insurance benefits can be accessed; and means-testing applies to unemployment and social assistance...... underexplored. This allows us to assess if developments during the economic crisis have improved or rather deteriorated the situation of youth with regard to different dimension of flexibility and security....

  6. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  7. The European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The creation of a single European market also will have its effects on the power and electricity sector. Expectations tied to this abandonment of borders on the electricity market are different: some hope for a reduction of energy costs, others fear safeguarded supplies to be at risk. It cannot be fully judged at present what the situation will be on a strongly integrated, European power and electricity market, and the brochure in hand is intended to present a first survey of the situation from the perspective of the power industry and energy policy, concentrating on main aspects. The survey is compiled in the form of reprints of journal articles written on this topic by a number of well-known German experts in the field. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Cytomegalovirus infection management in solid organ transplant recipients across European centers in the time of molecular diagnostics: An ESGICH survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, David; San-Juan, Rafael; Manuel, Oriol; Giménez, Estela; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Hirsch, Hans H; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Aguado, José María

    2017-12-01

    Scant information is available about how transplant centers are managing their use of quantitative molecular testing (QNAT) assays for active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection monitoring in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The current study was aimed at gathering information on current practices in the management of CMV infection across European centers in the era of molecular testing assays. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study was conducted by the European Study Group of Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts (ESGICH) of the Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID). The invitation and a weekly reminder with a personal link to an Internet service provider (https://es.surveymonkey.com/) was sent to transplant physicians, transplant infectious diseases specialists, and clinical virologists working at 340 European transplant centers. Of the 1181 specialists surveyed, a total of 173 responded (14.8%): 73 transplant physicians, 57 transplant infectious diseases specialists, and 43 virologists from 173 institutions located at 23 different countries. The majority of centers used QNAT assays for active CMV infection monitoring. Most centers preferred commercially available real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays over laboratory-developed procedures for quantifying CMV DNA load in whole blood or plasma. Use of a wide variety of DNA extraction platforms and RT-PCR assays was reported. All programs used antiviral prophylaxis, preemptive therapy, or both, according to current guidelines. However, the centers used different criteria for starting preemptive antiviral treatment, for monitoring systemic CMV DNA load, and for requesting genotypic assays to detect emerging CMV-resistant variants. Significant variation in CMV infection management in SOT recipients still remains across European centers in the era of molecular testing. International multicenter studies are required to achieve commutability of CMV testing and

  9. Asthma control and management in 8,000 European patients: the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David; Fletcher, Monica; van der Molen, Thys

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, and previous studies have reported low levels of control. Recent developments in the availability and use of online sources of information about asthma might add to patients’ knowledge and help improve control. Aims: To investigate whether asthma control has improved by assessing levels of symptoms, exacerbations and Global Initiative for Asthma-defined control in a real-life population of patients who use the Internet and social media, as well as evaluate patient perception of control and attitudes to asthma. Methods: Online surveys were conducted among 8,000 patients with asthma (aged 18–50 years, ⩾2 prescriptions in the previous 2 years, use of social media) from 11 European countries. Results: Levels of asthma control were low: 45% of respondents had uncontrolled asthma. Acute exacerbations were common: 44% of respondents reported having used oral steroids for asthma in the previous 12 months, 24% had visited an emergency department and 12% had been hospitalised. More than 80% of respondents (overall, and among those with a history of exacerbations) considered their asthma to be controlled. Of those who had an exacerbation requiring oral steroids, 75% regarded their asthma as not serious. Conclusions: Asthma control in Europe remains poor; symptoms and exacerbations are common. Many patients regard their asthma as controlled and not serious despite experiencing symptoms and exacerbations. There is a need to assess patients’ control, risk and inhaler technique, and to ensure that patients are prescribed, and take, appropriate treatments. PMID:24921985

  10. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Pablo; Reynolds, Jillian; García-Altés, Anna; Gual, Antoni; Anderson, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Drug use accounts for one of the main disease groups in Europe, with relevant consequences to society. There is an increasing need to evaluate the economic consequences of drug use in order to develop appropriate policies. Here, we review the social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union. A systematic search of relevant databases was conducted. Grey literature and previous systematic reviews were also searched. Studies reporting on social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco were included. Methodology, cost components as well as costs were assessed from individual studies. To compare across studies, final costs were transformed to 2014 Euros. Forty-five studies reported in 43 papers met the inclusion criteria (11 for illegal drugs, 26 for alcohol and 8 for tobacco). While there was a constant inclusion of direct costs related to treatment of substance use and comorbidities, there was a high variability for the rest of cost components. Total costs showed also a great variability. Price per capita for the year 2014 ranged from €0.38 to €78 for illegal drugs, from €26 to €1500 for alcohol and from €10.55 to €391 for tobacco. Drug use imposes a heavy economic burden to Europe. However, given the high existing heterogeneity in methodologies, and in order to better assess the burden and thus to develop adequate policies, standardised methodological guidance is needed. [Barrio P, Reynolds J, García-Altés A, Gual A, Anderson P. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Social movements and the construction of crisis actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    of social movements occurs when they collaborate with similar movements in other countries, claim a European identity, invoke Europe-wide solidarity, contest authorities beyond the state and ascribe responsibility for solving the crisis to European Union (EU). By targeting EU authorities, social movements......This article examines the Europeanization of social movements following the European sovereign debt crisis. It develops a theoretical framework to measure degrees of social movement Europeanization, incorporating targets, participants, and issue frame dimensions of mobilization. Europeanization...... may contribute to the construction of the EU as a crisis actor and through deliberative processes define the roles and identities of such actors....

  12. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-04

    Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students' opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Data were collected from the Universitas 21 "Use of social media in health education" survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media "almost always" reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education. ©Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Emily Cutts, Sushma Kavikondala, Alejandra Salcedo, Karan D'Souza, Martin Hernandez-Torre, Claire Anderson, Agnes Tiwari, Kendall

  13. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Survey of nuclear safeguards in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmelin, W.

    1992-01-01

    The control of the peaceful use of nuclear energy comprises activities related to nuclear safety, to the protection of persons and of the environment, to physical protection of the nuclear materials against theft or terrorism and to nuclear safeguards. Nuclear safeguards means the set of measures performed by the IAEA in the context of non-proliferation safeguards and, in the framework of the Euratom Treaty, those measures enabling the European Commission to satisfy itself that the nuclear material is not diverted from its intended and declared uses (particularly to unlawful non-peaceful applications) and that the obligations arising from International Agreements are complied with. This contribution to the International Conference on Peaceful Application of Nuclear Energy at Liege briefly reviews the history of nuclear safeguards in Europe since the early 1960ies. It also notes the practical aspects for, constraints and impacts to the nuclear operators imposed on them by the European law such as inspections, accountancy, reporting and describes the trend of the future development of the safeguards operation. The paper finally addresses non-proliferation issues and, notably, the relations between the IAEA and Euratom which in an exemplary way resulted in effective international safeguards and high non-proliferation credentials of the European Community. (author)

  15. Extension of social security coverage for the informal economy in Indonesia : surveys in the urban and rural informal economy

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, John; Hirose, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extension of social security coverage to workers in the informal economy. In particular, the paper presents the results of surveys assessing social security needs of workers in the informal economy in both urban and rural areas. The outcome of these surveys provides primary information for the development of effective policy on social security coverage extension to these groups of workers.

  16. How social policies can improve financial accessibility of healthcare: a multi-level analysis of unmet medical need in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Sabine

    2016-03-05

    The article explores in how far financial accessibility of healthcare (FAH) is restricted for low-income groups and identifies social protection policies that can supplement health policies in guaranteeing universal access to healthcare. The article is aimed to advance the literature on comparative European social epidemiology by focussing on income-related barriers of healthcare take-up. The research is carried out on the basis of multi-level cross-sectional analyses using 2012 EU-SILC data for 30 European countries. The social policy data stems from EU-SILC beneficiary information. It is argued that unmet medical needs are a reality for many individuals within Europe - not only due to direct user fees but also due to indirect costs such as waiting time, travel costs, time not spent working. Moreover, low FAH affects not only the lowest income quintile but also the lower middle income class. The study observes that social allowance increases the purchasing power of both household types, thereby helping them to overcome financial barriers to healthcare uptake. Alongside healthcare system reform aimed at improving the pro-poor availability of healthcare facilities and financing, policies directed at improving FAH should aim at providing a minimum income base to the low-income quintile. Moreover, categorical policies should address households exposed to debt which form the key vulnerable group within the low-income classes.

  17. Changing principles in European social security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Clasen, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The provision of social security benefits rests on normative principles of social justice. Most strongly manifest in earnings-related social insurance, the principle of reciprocity has been increasingly questioned on grounds of equity, adequacy and fiscal viability, in the wake of socio-economic

  18. Social capital and antenatal depression among Chinese primiparas: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi; Ogihara, Atsushi; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weijue; Huang, Liu; Zhang, Baodan; Zhang, Xueni; Xu, Liangwen; Yang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between social capital and antenatal depression among Chinese primiparas. A cross-sectional design was used and a questionnaire survey was conducted with 1471 participants using the intercept method at the provincial hospital in Zhejiang in 2016. Antenatal depression was evaluated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and social capital was assessed by the Chinese version of Social Capital Assessment Questionnaire (C-SCAQ). The prevalence of antenatal depression was assessed among Chinese primiparas in their third trimesters. The antenatal depression prevalence among sub-groups with lower social trust (ST), social reciprocity (SR), social network (SN), and social participation (SP) were significantly higher than those among higher score sub-groups. In the fully adjusted model, primiparas' antenatal depression was significantly associated with ST, SR, SN, and SP. Compared to the structural social capital, the cognitive social capital was a more crucial dimension to the prevalence of antenatal depression. For future community pregnancy health care management programs in China, it might be beneficial to add more social capital related intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kubiak, Christine

    2009-10-16

    Abstract Background Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception across the EU member states. Methods In order to summarise the current situation in relation to the wide spectrum of clinical research, the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) developed a multinational survey in ten European countries. However a lack of common classification framework for major categories of clinical research was identified, and therefore reaching an agreement on a common classification was the initial step in the development of the survey. Results The ECRIN transnational working group on regulation, composed of experts in the field of clinical research from ten European countries, defined seven major categories of clinical research that seem relevant from both the regulatory and the scientific points of view, and correspond to congruent definitions in all countries: clinical trials on medicinal products; clinical trials on medical devices; other therapeutic trials (including surgery trials, transplantation trials, transfusion trials, trials with cell therapy, etc.); diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.); and epidemiology studies. Our classification was essential to develop a survey focused on protocol submission to ethics committees and competent authorities, procedures for amendments, requirements for sponsor and insurance, and adverse event reporting following five main phases: drafting, consensus, data collection, validation, and finalising. Conclusion The list of clinical research categories as used for the survey could serve as a contribution to the, much needed, task of harmonisation and simplification of the

  20. Common definition for categories of clinical research: a prerequisite for a survey on regulatory requirements by the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Nuria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception across the EU member states. Methods In order to summarise the current situation in relation to the wide spectrum of clinical research, the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN developed a multinational survey in ten European countries. However a lack of common classification framework for major categories of clinical research was identified, and therefore reaching an agreement on a common classification was the initial step in the development of the survey. Results The ECRIN transnational working group on regulation, composed of experts in the field of clinical research from ten European countries, defined seven major categories of clinical research that seem relevant from both the regulatory and the scientific points of view, and correspond to congruent definitions in all countries: clinical trials on medicinal products; clinical trials on medical devices; other therapeutic trials (including surgery trials, transplantation trials, transfusion trials, trials with cell therapy, etc.; diagnostic studies; clinical research on nutrition; other interventional clinical research (including trials in complementary and alternative medicine, trials with collection of blood or tissue samples, physiology studies, etc.; and epidemiology studies. Our classification was essential to develop a survey focused on protocol submission to ethics committees and competent authorities, procedures for amendments, requirements for sponsor and insurance, and adverse event reporting following five main phases: drafting, consensus, data collection, validation, and finalising. Conclusion The list of clinical research categories as used for the survey could serve as a contribution to the, much needed, task of harmonisation and

  1. Recruiting migrants for health research through social network sites: an online survey among chinese migrants in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Wong, Kam Cheong; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-04-27

    Traditionally, postal surveys or face to face interviews are the main approaches for health researchers to obtain essential research data. However, with the prevalence of information technology and Internet, Web-based surveys are gaining popularity in health research. This study aims to report the process and outcomes of recruiting Chinese migrants through social network sites in Australia and to examine the sample characteristics of online recruitment by comparing the sample which was recruited by an online survey to a sample of Australian Chinese migrants collected by a postal survey. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe and compare the process and outcomes of online recruitment with postal survey questionnaires. Chi square tests and t tests were performed to assess the differences between the two samples for categorical and continuous variables respectively. In total, 473 Chinese migrants completed the online health survey from July to October 2013. Out of 426 participants recruited through the three Chinese social network sites in Australia, over 86.6% (369/426) were recruited within six weeks. Participants of the Web-based survey were younger, with a higher education level or had resided in Australia for less time compared to those recruited via a postal survey. However, there was no significant difference in gender, marital status, and professional occupation. The recruitment of Chinese migrants through social network sites in our online survey was feasible. Compared to a postal survey of Chinese migrants, the online survey attracted different group of Chinese migrants who may have diverse health needs and concerns. Our findings provided insightful information for researchers who are considering employing a Web-based approach to recruit migrants and ethnic minority participants.

  2. Social inclusion affects elderly suicide mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Leppik, Lauri; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Wu, Jing; Värnik, Airi

    2010-12-01

    National attitudes towards the elderly and their association with elderly suicide mortality in 26 European countries were assessed, and Eastern and Western European countries compared. For each country, mean age-adjusted, gender-specific elderly suicide rates in the last five years for which data had been available were obtained from the WHO European Mortality Database. Questions about citizens' attitudes towards the elderly were taken from the European Social Survey. Correlations between attitudes and suicide rates were analyzed using Pearson's test. Differences between mean scores for Western and Eastern European attitudes were calculated, and data on labor-market exit ages were obtained from the EUROSTAT database. Perception of the elderly as having higher status, recognition of their economic contribution and higher moral standards, and friendly feelings towards and admiration of them are inversely correlated with suicide mortality. Suicide rates are lower in countries where the elderly live with their families more often. Elderly suicide mortality and labor-market exit age are inversely correlated. In Eastern European countries, elderly people's status and economic contribution are seen as less important. Western Europeans regard the elderly with more admiration, consider them more friendly and more often have elderly relatives in the family. The data also show gender differences. Society's attitudes influence elderly suicide mortality; attitudes towards the elderly are more favorable among Western European citizens; and extended labor-market inclusion of the elderly is a suicide-protective factor.

  3. Innovative treatment modalities for urinary incontinence: a European survey identifying experience and attitude of healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Arnoud W; Dicker, Maarten F A; Opmeer, Brent C; Angles, Sonia S; Raatikainen, Kaisa E; Alonso, Joan F; Tăut, Diana; Airaksinen, Olavi; Cardozo, Linda D; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R

    2017-11-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common condition in women, with a reported prevalence ranging from 25% to 51%. Of these women, an estimated 38% suffer from stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A European research consortium is investigating an innovative system based on information and communication technology for the conservative treatment of women with SUI. When introducing a new intervention, implementation barriers arise and need to be identified. Therefore, we investigated healthcare providers' experience with and attitude towards innovative care options. We performed an online survey to assess (1) the characteristics and practice of healthcare providers, (2) current protocols for SUI, (3) current use of biofeedback, and (4) knowledge about serious gaming. The survey was sent to members of professional societies in Europe (EUGA), UK (BSUG) and The Netherlands (DPFS). Of 341 questionnaires analyzed (response rate between 18% and 30%), 64% of the respondents had access to a protocol for the treatment of SUI, and 31% used biofeedback when treating patients with SUI. However, 92% considered that biofeedback has a clear or probable added value, and 97% of those who did not use biofeedback would change their practice if research evidence supported its use. Finally, 89% of respondents indicated that they had no experience of serious gaming, but 92% considered that it could be useful. Although inexperienced, European urogynecologists and physical therapists welcome innovative treatment options for the conservative treatment of SUI such as portable wireless biofeedback and serious gaming. Scientific evidence is considered a prerequisite to incorporate such innovations into clinical practice.

  4. Assessment of the effectiveness of European air quality policies and measures. Final report on Task 3.3. Survey to access successes and failures of the EU Air Quality Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of Task 3.3 of the title project was to survey the views of European policy makers and other stakeholders directly involved in air quality policy development and implementation on the successes and failures of the present European air quality policies. The survey also included several decisionmakers from the USA, Japan and Switzerland to learn about these countries' experiences with specific air quality policies. A list of approximately 90 people to be surveyed during the project was developed. The list included representatives from the European Commission, the European Parliament, national-level representatives from the Member States, including those designated by the CAFE Steering Group, along with representatives of local authorities, NGOs, industry and academia. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire and follow-up interviews. The questionnaire consists of four major parts. Part 1 includes questions about the impact of EU legislation on air quality. Part 2 is designed to learn about stakeholder opinions on the adequacy of Community-level measures with respect to air quality protection. Part 3 asks for opinions about various measures used in Community-level legislation on air quality as well as ideas for new or modified measures that could be effective in achieving better air quality in the EU. Part 4 includes questions about stakeholder involvement and transparency and was designed to assist with the implementation of Task 3.4 (on public participation and transparency) of the project. The analysis of responses for this part of the questionnaire is presented in the parallel Report for Task 3.4. The final version of the questionnaire used to interview European stakeholders is attached as Appendix II. For the decision-makers from the USA, Switzerland, and Japan a separate questionnaire was developed, and is attached as Appendix III. In all, the team received 49 responses from the 90 enquiries.

  5. A survey of social outcome in schizophrenia in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, K; Daniels, B; Jones, I; McInnes, M

    1997-06-01

    To survey the social outcome of patients with schizophrenia attending State mental health facilities in southern Tasmania. Using the Statewide Mental Health Register, patients using inpatient and outpatient facilities who received a diagnosis of schizophrenia between 1981 and 1988 were identified (n = 771), and demographic and illness measures, and admissions and length of inpatient stay were compiled. The Life Skills Profile (LSP) was completed by mental health personnel for the 247 who were regular attenders or inpatients in 1991. Social morbidity as indexed by the LSP was highest in psychiatric hospital inpatients and patients in long-term rehabilitation programs, and lower in patients attending community centres. The majority of patients in suburban settings and attending community centres lived with their families, whereas patients in the inner city or in the rehabilitation service were mainly in hostel accommodation or living alone. Patients with schizophrenia attending State services were of a similar age range but had a longer duration of illness and more admissions, and had spent more days in hospital than patients who were not in regular contact with the service. The distribution of social morbidity in schizophrenia confirms that the public health system is supporting a group with high social morbidity. Patients with the highest morbidity are receiving the highest levels of care and intervention.

  6. European communication monitor 2015: excellence in strategic communication: creating communication value through listening, messaging and measurement: results of a survey in 41 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfass, A.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Moreno, A.; Tench, R.

    2015-01-01

    The ECM 2015 survey is based on responses from 2,253 communication professionals in 41 countries. Detailed analyses are available for 20 countries and different types of organisations (companies, non-profits, governmental, agencies). The study was organised by the European Public Relations Education

  7. Emergency surgery and Limitation of therapeutic effort in relation to neurologic deterioration in elderly patients – a survey of European surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Păduraru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In emergency surgery, a very heterogeneous approach is required in the decision making process, especially when considering the patient’s postoperative quality of life as well as medical, ethical, and legal factors. In some cases, the presence of an Advance Directive (AD form may potentially help resolve the surgeon’s dilemma. Objectives. The primary objective of this survey was to investigate the opinions of surgeons across a representative cross-section of European countries regarding the decision making process using a specific case scenario so as to identify similarities and differences in practice. A secondary objective was to identify the possibility of establishing a more uniform approach and best practice. Method. A survey was conducted of surgeons from a range of European countries. Questionnaires were designed to obtain an overview of decision making in relation to the Limitation of Therapeutic Effort (LTE using a specific case study and the level of awareness and practical use of ADs. Surveys were distributed via email to the members of the ESTES (European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery and AEC (Association of Spanish surgeons, with voluntary, anonymous participation. Conclusions. Clear and additional support in the form of legal and ethical guidance with clinical protocols for surgical practice in such case scenarios is necessary. Wider use of ADs, together with education about their role and support for patients and relatives, would benefit the type of patient described in our scenario. A multidisciplinary team should play a more active role in decision making in order to avoid surgical procedures that are potentially futile. The concepts of LTE and Quality of life need a broader understanding among surgeons as well as more consistent application.

  8. Psychosocial working conditions and psychological well-being among employees in 34 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Malard, Lucile; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial working conditions and psychological well-being among employees in 34 European countries. Another objective was to examine whether these associations varied according to occupation and country. The study was based on data from the European Working Conditions Survey 2010 including 33,443 employees, 16,512 men and 16,931 women, from 34 European countries. Well-being was measured by the WHO-5 well-being index. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were constructed including job demands, role stressors, work hours, job influence and freedom, job promotion, job insecurity, social support, quality of leadership, discrimination and violence at work, and work-life imbalance. The associations between these factors and well-being were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Different models were performed including interaction tests. When all 25 psychosocial work factors were studied simultaneously in the same model with adjustment variables, 13 showed a significant association with poor well-being among both genders: quantitative demands, demands for hiding emotions, low possibilities for development, low meaning of work, low role conflict, low quality of leadership, low social support, low sense of community, job insecurity, low job promotion, work-life imbalance, discrimination, and bullying. The association with low sense of community on poor well-being was particularly strong. A large number of psychosocial work factors were associated with poor well-being. Almost no country and occupational differences were found in these associations. This study gave a first European overview and could be useful to inform cross-national policy debate.

  9. A large survey among European trainees in clinical microbiology and infectious disease on training systems and training adequacy: identifying the gaps and suggesting improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, E; Ong, D S Y; Martin-Quiros, A; Skevaki, C; Cortez, J; Dedić, K; Maraolo, A E; Dušek, D; Maver, P J; Sanguinetti, M; Tacconelli, E

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to perform a survey among European clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious disease (ID) trainees on training satisfaction, training tools, and competency assessment. An online, anonymous survey in the English language was carried out between April and July 2015. There were 25 questions: seven in a 5-point Likert scale (1: worst scenario, 5: best scenario) and the remainder as closed multiple-choice questions in five areas (satisfaction, adequacy, system, mentorship, and evaluation of training). Included were 419 respondents (215 CM, 159 ID, and 45 combined CM/ID) from 31 European countries [mean age (standard deviation) 32.4 (5.3) years, 65.9 % women]. Regarding satisfaction on the training scheme, CM and ID scored 3.6 (0.9) and 3.2 (1.0), respectively. These scores varied between countries, ranging from 2.5 (1.0) for Italian ID to 4.3 (0.8) for Danish CM trainees. The majority of respondents considered training in management and health economics inadequate and e-learning and continuing medical education programs insufficient. Many trainees (65.3 % of CM and 62.9 % of ID) would like to have more opportunities to spend a part of their training abroad and expected their mentor to be more involved in helping with future career plans (63.5 % of CM and 53.4 % of ID) and practical skills (53.0 % of CM and 61.2 % of ID). Two-thirds of the respondents across the specialties agreed that a European exam should be developed, but half of them thought it should not be made mandatory. This survey shows high heterogeneity in training conditions in European countries, identifies perceived gaps in training, and suggests areas for improvements.

  10. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  11. Social Networking in School Psychology Training Programs: A Survey of Faculty and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Segool, Natasha; Burt, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites has become an emerging focus in school psychology training, policy, and research. The purpose of the current study is to present data from a survey on social networking among faculty and graduate students in school psychology training programs. A total of 110 faculty and 112 graduate students in school…

  12. Smoking in school-aged adolescents: design of a social network survey in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorant, Vincent; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Alves, Joana; Federico, Bruno; Kinnunen, Jaana; Kuipers, Mirte; Moor, Irene; Perelman, Julian; Richter, Matthias; Rimpelä, Arja; Robert, Pierre-Olivier; Roscillo, Gaetano; Kunst, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, smoking accounts for a large share of socio-economic inequalities in health. As smoking initiation occurs around the age of 13, it is likely that school context and social networks at school play a role in the origin of such inequalities. So far, there has been little generic

  13. What Are the Main Drivers of Young Consumers Purchasing Traditional Food Products? European Field Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vlontzos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France. Data collection was made by distributing a developed questionnaire through social media and university mail services. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to identify consumer perception comparing the overall sample with two subsets (consumers from Eastern and Western European countries. Six major factors were revealed: consumer behavior, uncertainty about health issues, cost, influence of media and friends and availability in store. Young adults had a positive attitude to local and traditional food products, but they expressed insecurity about health issues. Cost factor had less of an influence on interviewees from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly. Influence of close environment was a different factor in Eastern countries compared to Western ones, for which it was common to see an influence from media. Females and older people (25–30 years old have fewer doubts about Traditional Food Products, while media have a high influence on consumers’ decisions. The aim of this survey was to identify the consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries.

  14. What Are the Main Drivers of Young Consumers Purchasing Traditional Food Products? European Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgiakos, Leonidas

    2018-01-01

    In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years) regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France). Data collection was made by distributing a developed questionnaire through social media and university mail services. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify consumer perception comparing the overall sample with two subsets (consumers from Eastern and Western European countries). Six major factors were revealed: consumer behavior, uncertainty about health issues, cost, influence of media and friends and availability in store. Young adults had a positive attitude to local and traditional food products, but they expressed insecurity about health issues. Cost factor had less of an influence on interviewees from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly). Influence of close environment was a different factor in Eastern countries compared to Western ones, for which it was common to see an influence from media. Females and older people (25–30 years old) have fewer doubts about Traditional Food Products, while media have a high influence on consumers’ decisions. The aim of this survey was to identify the consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries. PMID:29439536

  15. Social Media Use Among Physicians and Trainees: Results of a National Medical Oncology Physician Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilman, Rachel; Rajmohan, Yanchini; Brooks, Edward; Urgoiti, Gloria Roldan; Chung, Caroline; Hammad, Nazik; Trinkaus, Martina; Naseem, Madiha; Simmons, Christine; Adilman, Rachel; Rajmohan, Yanchini; Brooks, Edward; Roldan Urgoiti, Gloria; Chung, Caroline; Hammad, Nazik; Trinkaus, Martina; Naseem, Madiha; Simmons, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Cancer management requires coordinated care from many health care providers, and its complexity requires physicians be up to date on current research. Web-based social media support physician collaboration and information sharing, but the extent to which physicians use social media for these purposes remains unknown. The complex field of oncology will benefit from increased use of online social media to enhance physician communication, education, and mentorship. To facilitate this, patterns of social media use among oncologists must be better understood. A nine-item survey investigating physician social media use, designed using online survey software, was distributed via e-mail to 680 oncology physicians and physicians in training in Canada. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 207 responses (30%) were received; 72% of respondents reported using social media. Social media use was highest, at 93%, in respondents age 25 to 34 years and lowest, at 39%, in those age 45 to 54 years. This demonstrates a significant gap in social media use between younger users and mid- to late-career users. The main barrier to use was lack of free time. The identified gap in social media use between age cohorts may have negative implications for communication in oncology. Despite advancements in social media and efforts to integrate social media into medical education, most oncologists and trainees use social media rarely, which, along with the age-related gap in use, may have consequences for collaboration and education in oncology. Investigations to further understand barriers to social media use should be undertaken to enhance physician collaboration and knowledge sharing through social media.

  16. Patient blood management knowledge and practice among clinicians from seven European university hospitals: a multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, P M; Dall'Omo, A M; D'Antico, S; Valfrè, A; Pendry, K; Wikman, A; Fischer, D; Borg-Aquilina, D; Laspina, S; van Pampus, E C M; van Kraaij, M; Bruun, M T; Georgsen, J; Grant-Casey, J; Babra, P S; Murphy, M F; Folléa, G; Aranko, K

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the knowledge about Patient Blood Management (PBM) principles and practices amongst clinicians working in seven European hospitals participating in a European Blood Alliance (EBA) project. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 4952 clinicians working in medical, surgery and anaesthesiology disciplines. The responses were analysed, and the overall results as well as a comparison between hospitals are presented. A total of 788 responses (16%) were obtained. About 24% of respondents were not aware of a correlation between preoperative anaemia (POA) and perioperative morbidity and mortality. For 22%, treatment of POA was unlikely to favourably influence morbidity and mortality even before surgery with expected blood loss. More than half of clinicians did not routinely treat POA. 29%, when asked which is the best way to treat deficiency anaemia preoperatively, answered that they did not have sufficient knowledge and 5% chose to 'do nothing'. Amongst those who treated POA, 38% proposed red cell transfusion prior to surgery as treatment. Restrictive haemoglobin triggers for red blood cell transfusion, single unit policy and reduction of number and volumes of blood samples for diagnostic purposes were only marginally implemented. Overall, the responses indicated poor knowledge about PBM. Processes to diagnose and treat POA were not generally and homogeneously implemented. This survey should provide further impetus to implement programmes to improve knowledge and practice of PBM. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  17. A European perspective on e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2004-01-01

    E-learning at Work , edited by Anne Marie Kanstrup. Roskilde Universitetsforlag, pages Pp.15-29. 2004 Short description: Based on a survey of 149 European e-learning and adult vocational training projects, the author presents examples of how ICT facilitates a positive change and development...... of workplace-related learning. Abstract: Based on a survey of 149 European e-learning and adult vocational training projects, the author presents examples of how ICT facilitates a positive change and development of workplace-related learning.The chapter ends with a suggestion for a historical categorisation...... that focus is on designing the technical tools rather than on the use of tools for e-learning in general, where ICT is just one integrated element among many: objective, motivation, ways to learning, profession, workplace etc. The rojects also reveal that different European countries move at different paces...

  18. Conservation Motivation, Social Equality and Left-Right Ideological Preferences in Western and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarics, Márton

    2017-05-01

    We investigated how attitudes towards social equality can influence the relationship between conservation motivation (or openness) and personal ideological preferences on the left-right dimension, and how this relationship pattern differs between Western and Central & Eastern European (CEE) respondents. Using data from the European Social Survey (2012) we found that individual-level of conservation motivation reduces cultural egalitarianism in both the Western European and the CEE regions, but its connection with economic egalitarianism is only relevant in the CEE region where it fosters economic egalitarianism. Since both forms of egalitarianism were related to leftist ideological preferences in Western Europe, but in the CEE region only economic egalitarianism was ideologically relevant, we concluded that the classic "rigidity of the right" phenomenon is strongly related to cultural (anti)egalitarianism in Western Europe. At the same time, conservation motivation serves as a basis for the "rigidity of the left" in the post-socialist CEE region, in a great part due to the conventional egalitarian economic views.

  19. Cultural values and random breath tests as moderators of the social influence on drunk driving in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami; Assailly, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The social influence on drunk driving has been previously observed in several countries. It is noteworthy, however, that the prevalence of alcohol in road fatalities is not the same in all countries. The present study aimed to explore whether cultural values and the number of roadside breath tests moderate the link between the perceived drunk driving of one's peers and self-reported behavior. Based on the European survey SARTRE 4, the responses of 10,023 car drivers from 15 countries were analyzed. Two cultural values, "tradition" and "conformism," were identified as possibly being linked to social influence. Country scores for these values were taken from the European Social Survey. The number of random roadside breath tests per inhabitant was used as an indicator of drunk-driving enforcement in each country. A hierarchical multilevel modeling analysis confirmed the link between friends' drunk driving and one's own drunk driving in all countries, but the strength of the link was much stronger in some countries (e.g., Italy, Cyprus, and Israel) than in others (e.g., Finland, Estonia, and Sweden). Both the measured value of "tradition" and the number of alcohol breath tests were found to moderate the link between friends' and one's own drunk driving. European stakeholders should take into account cultural specificities of target countries when designing campaigns against drunk driving. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, E.; Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Janssen, E.; Mons, U.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; de Vries, H.; Thrasher, J.F.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  1. Making the energy transition a European success. Tackling the democratic, innovation, financing and social challenges of the energy union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin-Carlin, Thomas; Vinois, Jean-Arnold; Rubio, Eulalia; Fernandes, Sofia; Delors, Jacques; Letta, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    If there is one project today which carries a positive vision for Europe, it is definitely the energy transition. Energy is the foundation of our nations' power and is a key element in our daily lives. If Europe's architects are preparing a democratic, innovative, economically viable and socially fair Energy Union, it will contribute to a Europe that serves its citizens and paves the way for the rest of the world. If we fail in this project, the architects will have to give way to the fire-fighters, who will exhaust themselves putting out the fires caused by our past mistakes: climate refugees, dependence on Russia and Saudi Arabia, worsened energy poverty, the bankruptcy of energy suppliers who failed to adapt their strategy. The Energy Union, which we have been championing since 2010 and which is currently fully supported by President Juncker, is an ambitious project which can already be bolstered by the successes achieved by the European Union. The USA's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement further strengthens European leadership and enables us to attract innovators and investors who understand the opportunity created by the energy transition. This Report clearly sets out four objectives which could contribute to the success of the Energy Union, and in turn restore trust between Europe and Europeans. - Firstly, democracy must be at the heart of the Energy Union's governance. This involves mechanisms for more direct participation of citizens, local elected representatives and civil society in the major choices which shape national and European energy strategies. - Secondly, Europe must implement a genuine innovation-driven industrial policy to make our companies the world leaders in clean energy. - Thirdly, public and private investment arbitrations must fully integrate the energy transition's objectives. - Fourthly, the Energy Union must serve a just and fair energy transition via a 'Social Pact for the Energy Transition' which strives to create jobs for our

  2. Use of Social Media for Professional Development by Health Care Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media can be used in health care settings to enhance professional networking and education; patient communication, care, and education; public health programs; organizational promotion; and research. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the use of social media networks for the purpose of professional development among health care professionals in Saudi Arabia using a purpose-designed Web-based survey. Methods A cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken. A link to the survey was posted on the investigator’s personal social media accounts including Twitter, LinkedIn, and WhatsApp. Results A total of 231 health care professionals, who are generally social media users, participated in the study. Of these professionals, 70.6% (163/231) use social media for their professional development. The social media applications most frequently used, in the descending order, for professional development were Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and LinkedIn. The majority of respondents used social media for professional development irrespective of their age group, with the highest proportion seen in those aged 20-30 years. Social media were perceived as being most beneficial for professional development in terms of their impact on the domains of knowledge and problem solving and least helpful for enhancing clinical skills. Twitter was perceived as the most helpful type of social media for all domains listed. Respondents most frequently reported that social media were useful for professional development for the reasons of knowledge exchange and networking. Conclusions Social media are frequently used by health care professionals in Saudi Arabia for the purposes of professional development, with Twitter most frequently used for this purpose. These findings suggest that social media networks can be powerful tools for engaging health care professionals in their professional development. PMID:27731855

  3. Use of Social Media for Professional Development by Health Care Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsobayel, Hana

    2016-09-12

    Social media can be used in health care settings to enhance professional networking and education; patient communication, care, and education; public health programs; organizational promotion; and research. The aim of this study was to explore the use of social media networks for the purpose of professional development among health care professionals in Saudi Arabia using a purpose-designed Web-based survey. A cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken. A link to the survey was posted on the investigator's personal social media accounts including Twitter, LinkedIn, and WhatsApp. A total of 231 health care professionals, who are generally social media users, participated in the study. Of these professionals, 70.6% (163/231) use social media for their professional development. The social media applications most frequently used, in the descending order, for professional development were Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and LinkedIn. The majority of respondents used social media for professional development irrespective of their age group, with the highest proportion seen in those aged 20-30 years. Social media were perceived as being most beneficial for professional development in terms of their impact on the domains of knowledge and problem solving and least helpful for enhancing clinical skills. Twitter was perceived as the most helpful type of social media for all domains listed. Respondents most frequently reported that social media were useful for professional development for the reasons of knowledge exchange and networking. Social media are frequently used by health care professionals in Saudi Arabia for the purposes of professional development, with Twitter most frequently used for this purpose. These findings suggest that social media networks can be powerful tools for engaging health care professionals in their professional development.

  4. Access of children with cerebral palsy to the physical, social and attitudinal environment they need: a cross-sectional European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Allan F; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkinson, Kathryn; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jérôme; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Thyen, Ute

    2011-01-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities requires states 'to ensure to persons with disabilities access, on an equal basis with others, to the physical environment, transportation, information and communications.' We explored whether this convention was respected for disabled children in Europe. One thousand one-hundred and seventy-four children aged 8-12 years were randomly selected from population-based registers of children with cerebral palsy in eight European regions. 743 children joined the study; one further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. Researchers visited these 818 children and administered the European Child Environment Questionnaire, which records parents' perceptions of availability of the physical, social and attitudinal environment needed in home, school and community. Multilevel, multivariable regression related child access on these domains to their impairments and socio-demographic characteristics. Children with more impaired walking ability had less access to the physical environment, transport and social support they needed than other children. They also experienced less favourable attitudes from family and friends. However, attitudes of teachers and therapists were similar for children with all levels of impairment. The access of children, across all impairment severities, to their needed environment showed significant variation between regions (p ≤ 0.0001), some regions consistently providing better access on most or all domains. European states need to substantially improve environmental access for disabled children in order to meet their obligations under UN Conventions. In some regions, many environmental factors should and realistically could be changed. Legislation and regulation should be directed to making this happen. Local environmental planners and health and social service providers should listen carefully to parents to address mismatches between policy intentions and parental

  5. Social inequality in adolescents' healthy food intake: the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bart; Abel, Thomas; Moor, Irene; Elgar, Frank J; Lievens, John; Sioen, Isabelle; Braeckman, Lutgart; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-04-01

    Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P economic, cultural and social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Assistance Models in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although, in general in terms, the main focus of social protection is social insurance, the globalization challenges and the wide, macro and micro level spread of all major economic, both positive or negative trends, highlight the vital importance of social assistance as the means to address material deprivation and an instrument to promote social inclusion. While social security acts as a pillar of public welfare, social assistance is the way through which citizens are being provideed with support beyond the boundary of social insurance.

  7. A survey of social media data analysis for physical activity surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sam; Young, Sean D

    2018-07-01

    Social media data can provide valuable information regarding people's behaviors and health outcomes. Previous studies have shown that social media data can be extracted to monitor and predict infectious disease outbreaks. These same approaches can be applied to other fields including physical activity research and forensic science. Social media data have the potential to provide real-time monitoring and prediction of physical activity level in a given region. This tool can be valuable to public health organizations as it can overcome the time lag in the reporting of physical activity epidemiology data faced by traditional research methods (e.g. surveys, observational studies). As a result, this tool could help public health organizations better mobilize and target physical activity interventions. The first part of this paper aims to describe current approaches (e.g. topic modeling, sentiment analysis and social network analysis) that could be used to analyze social media data to provide real-time monitoring of physical activity level. The second aim of this paper was to discuss ways to apply social media analysis to other fields such as forensic sciences and provide recommendations to further social media research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail CARADAICĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the relation between globalization and the process of European integration? Does the European integration have its own way, or is it deeply dependent on globalization? Those are the main questions I will try to answer in this paper by using an alternative critical approach: neo-gramscianism. Neo-gramscianism is a historical materialist view on the European integration process and international political economy which offers a better understanding of the social changes in terms of social forces agency and super structural influence (the neoliberal ideology of globalization and European integration. My aim is to analyze the globalization process through a neo-gramscian theoretical framework and to observe how its main components affect European Integration. I will do this by assuming the definition of globalization provided by Andreas Bieler, who understands this process through three main pillars: transnationalization of finance, transnationalization of production and ideological shift from Keynesianism to neoliberalism. Finally I will try to formulate some conclusions regarding the emergence of European Round Table of Industrialists – the first lobby group of big capital at the European Union level – and Economic and Monetary Union – the internal market program that symbolizes the shift to neo-liberalism.

  9. An Assessment of the Results of European Parliament Elections in Greece and European Union Under the Shadow of Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    On January 1, 1981, Greece became the tenth member of the European Economic Community and, 20 years later, on January 1, 2001, joined the euro area. In May of 2010 and February of 2012, Greece signed the first and the second economic adjustment programs and adopted austerity policies throughout the public sector in order to avoid the economic collapse, affecting residents' income and health status. We studied the questionnaires of polls conducted in Greece before the elections of the European Parliament (May 25, 2014) and the "Europeans 2014" Eurobarometer's survey in March of 2014. The responses of Greek voters from the Greek polls were alarming, pointing out their declining personal economic situation and Greece's national economic situation, with a sense that the country was heading in the wrong direction, declaring themselves unsatisfied and insecure. The responses of Greek voters from the "Europeans 2014" survey were even more alarming. Health was the first priority for the voters. As the Greek polls and the Eurobarometer's survey forecasted, but more significantly as the results of the Euro-elections showed, Greek voters preferred to put their hopes in something new. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Radiotherapy equipment and departments in the European countries: final results from the ESTRO-HERO survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian; Dunscombe, Peter; Borras, Josep M; Coffey, Mary; Slotman, Ben; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Lievens, Yolande; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Feyen, Karen; Hadjieva, Tatiana; Odrazka, Karel; Grau Eriksen, Jesper; Jaal, Jana; Bly, Ritva; Chauvet, Bruno; Willich, Normann; Polgar, Csaba; Johannsson, Jakob; Cunningham, Moya; Magrini, Stefano; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Untereiner, Michel; Pirotta, Martin; Karadjinovic, Vanja; Levernes, Sverre; Sladowski, Krystol; Lurdes Trigo, Maria; Šegedin, Barbara; Rodriguez, Aurora; Lagerlund, Magnus; Pastoors, Bert; Hoskin, Peter; Vaarkamp, Jaap; Cleries Soler, Ramon

    2014-08-01

    measured by GNI per capita, and availability of radiotherapy equipment in the countries. In many low income countries in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe there was very limited access to radiotherapy and especially to equipment for IMRT or IGRT. The European average number of MV machines per million inhabitants and per department is now better in line with QUARTS recommendations from 2005, but the survey also showed a significant heterogeneity in the access to modern radiotherapy equipment in Europe. High income countries especially in Northern-Western Europe are well-served with radiotherapy resources, other countries are facing important shortages of both equipment in general and especially machines capable of delivering high precision conformal treatments (IMRT, IGRT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiotherapy equipment and departments in the European countries: Final results from the ESTRO-HERO survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian; Dunscombe, Peter; Borras, Josep M.; Coffey, Mary; Slotman, Ben; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Lievens, Yolande; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Feyen, Karen; Hadjieva, Tatiana; Odrazka, Karel; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Jaal, Jana; Bly, Ritva; Chauvet, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    relation between socio-economic status, as measured by GNI per capita, and availability of radiotherapy equipment in the countries. In many low income countries in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe there was very limited access to radiotherapy and especially to equipment for IMRT or IGRT. Conclusions: The European average number of MV machines per million inhabitants and per department is now better in line with QUARTS recommendations from 2005, but the survey also showed a significant heterogeneity in the access to modern radiotherapy equipment in Europe. High income countries especially in Northern-Western Europe are well-served with radiotherapy resources, other countries are facing important shortages of both equipment in general and especially machines capable of delivering high precision conformal treatments (IMRT, IGRT)

  12. SOCIAL POLICIES AND STRUCTURAL REFORMS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Brunet Cid

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and structural policies in contemporary Europe. The presentation is organized in four sections. First, we discuss the emerging Europe, the new unity based on democracy and the market economy, the special European Union formula, and comparisons with America. Second, we analyze the dynamics of the European economy, the convergence process, the gaps between United States in productivity and standard of living, competitiveness issues, and the emergence of a new European economy and new European policy mix.Third, we consider European social conditions, the stationary and aging population, Europe’s low employment rate and permanently high unemployment. European economic growth could draw on two major sources: the labor reserves and reforms in factor, product and service markets. In a monetary union, advanced industrial relations should promote labor mobility and salary flexibility. The social security systems permit the redistribution and cohesion which defines the European model.Fourth, for the new Europe, the structural reform strategy is the way forward for the challenge of European economic policy and social policy: more and better jobs thanks to sustainable growth in a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy, favoring greater social cohesion.

  13. Research Data Services in European Academic Research Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Tenopir, Carol; Talja, Sanna; Horstmann, Wolfram; Late, Elina; Hughes, Dane; Pollock, Danielle; Schmidt, Birgit; Baird, Lynn; Sandusky, Robert J.; Allard, Suzie

    2017-01-01

    Research data is an essential part of the scholarly record, and management of research data is increasingly seen as an important role for academic libraries. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of the Association of European Research Libraries (LIBER) academic member libraries to discover what types of research data services (RDS) are being offered by European academic research libraries and what services are planned for the future. Overall, the survey found that librar...

  14. Social Media Analyses for Social Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F.; Pasek, Josh; Guggenheim, Lauren; Lampe, Cliff; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2016-01-01

    Demonstrations that analyses of social media content can align with measurement from sample surveys have raised the question of whether survey research can be supplemented or even replaced with less costly and burdensome data mining of already-existing or “found” social media content. But just how trustworthy such measurement can be—say, to replace official statistics—is unknown. Survey researchers and data scientists approach key questions from starting assumptions and analytic traditions that differ on, for example, the need for representative samples drawn from frames that fully cover the population. New conversations between these scholarly communities are needed to understand the potential points of alignment and non-alignment. Across these approaches, there are major differences in (a) how participants (survey respondents and social media posters) understand the activity they are engaged in; (b) the nature of the data produced by survey responses and social media posts, and the inferences that are legitimate given the data; and (c) practical and ethical considerations surrounding the use of the data. Estimates are likely to align to differing degrees depending on the research topic and the populations under consideration, the particular features of the surveys and social media sites involved, and the analytic techniques for extracting opinions and experiences from social media. Traditional population coverage may not be required for social media content to effectively predict social phenomena to the extent that social media content distills or summarizes broader conversations that are also measured by surveys. PMID:27257310

  15. Social Media Analyses for Social Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Pasek, Josh; Guggenheim, Lauren; Lampe, Cliff; Conrad, Frederick G

    2016-01-01

    Demonstrations that analyses of social media content can align with measurement from sample surveys have raised the question of whether survey research can be supplemented or even replaced with less costly and burdensome data mining of already-existing or "found" social media content. But just how trustworthy such measurement can be-say, to replace official statistics-is unknown. Survey researchers and data scientists approach key questions from starting assumptions and analytic traditions that differ on, for example, the need for representative samples drawn from frames that fully cover the population. New conversations between these scholarly communities are needed to understand the potential points of alignment and non-alignment. Across these approaches, there are major differences in (a) how participants (survey respondents and social media posters) understand the activity they are engaged in; (b) the nature of the data produced by survey responses and social media posts, and the inferences that are legitimate given the data; and (c) practical and ethical considerations surrounding the use of the data. Estimates are likely to align to differing degrees depending on the research topic and the populations under consideration, the particular features of the surveys and social media sites involved, and the analytic techniques for extracting opinions and experiences from social media. Traditional population coverage may not be required for social media content to effectively predict social phenomena to the extent that social media content distills or summarizes broader conversations that are also measured by surveys.

  16. Exposure to psychosocial work factors in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, I; Sultan-Taïeb, H; Chastang, J-F; Vermeylen, G; Parent-Thirion, A

    2012-04-01

    Although psychosocial work factors are recognized as major occupational risk factors, little information is available regarding the prevalence of exposure to these factors and the differences in exposure between countries. To explore the differences in various psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. The study was based on a sample of 14,881 male and 14,799 female workers from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey. Eighteen psychosocial work factors were studied: low decision latitude (skill discretion and decision authority), high psychological demands, job strain, low social support, iso-strain, physical violence, sexual harassment, bullying, discrimination, work-family imbalance, long working hours, high effort, job insecurity, low job promotion, low reward and effort-reward imbalance. Covariates were age, number of workers in household, occupation, economic activity, self-employed/employee, public/private sector and part/full time work. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Significant differences in all psychosocial work factors were observed between countries. The rank of the countries varied according to the exposure considered. However, some countries, especially Denmark, Netherlands and Norway, displayed a significantly lower prevalence of exposure to four factors or more, while some Southern and Eastern countries, especially Czech Republic, Greece, Lithuania and Turkey, had a higher prevalence. Differences in psychosocial work exposures were found between countries. This study is the first to compare a large set of psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. These findings may be useful to guide prevention policies at European level.

  17. European study of occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX -. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1997-11-01

    The ESOREX-Project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Its purpose is to survey in each of these countries 1. the administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, 2. the numbers of occupationally radiation exposed persons and dose distributions for the year 1995. The study shall describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the quantity structures. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyze the possibilities for a European harmonization. In order to achieve the co-operation of the European states the European Commission and the BfS organized an international introductory workshop in Luxembourg in May, 1997. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  18. Social Media Enters the Mainstream: Report on the Use of Social Media in Advancement, 2014. [Fifth Annual Survey of Social in Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer; Stoner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This white paper reports on findings from the fifth survey of social media in advancement, conducted by CASE, Huron Education and mStoner. Nearly 2,000 respondents provided feedback on the tools they are using, how they use them, which are most successful, and how to measure return on investment. This year the authors focused on three key…

  19. The spatialization of the european project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper argues the need for more critical analysis of the ?spatialisation of the European Project? than has been the case in much previous academic work on the European Union`s spatial policy so far. The focus is on the EU, and the way that this huge institutional and territorial setting...... is organised, driven and imagined according to a particular hegemonic spatiality which gives shape to the political, economic, social and territorial dimensions of the European project....

  20. SURVEY ON SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H Thomas R; Rakar, Fredrik

    of social enterprises and highlights the diversity of the social entrepreneurship sector in Sweden. The image of social entrepreneurship in Sweden as being dominated by a well-educated middle class and tied to the university environments – rather than being sprung out of bottom-up organising...

  1. Host social organization and mating system shape parasite transmission opportunities in three European bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, J; Kerth, G

    2017-02-01

    For non-mobile parasites living on social hosts, infection dynamics are strongly influenced by host life history and social system. We explore the impact of host social systems on parasite population dynamics by comparing the infection intensity and transmission opportunities of three mite species of the genus Spinturnix across their three European bat hosts (Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, Myotis nattereri) during the bats' autumn mating season. Mites mainly reproduce in host maternity colonies in summer, but as these colonies are closed, opportunities for inter-colony transmission are limited to host interactions during the autumn mating season. The three investigated hosts differ considerably in their social system, most notably in maternity colony size, mating system, and degree of male summer aggregation. We observed marked differences in parasite infection during the autumn mating period between the species, closely mirroring the predictions made based on the social systems of the hosts. Increased host aggregation sizes in summer yielded higher overall parasite prevalence and intensity, both in male and female hosts. Moreover, parasite levels in male hosts differentially increased throughout the autumn mating season in concordance with the degree of contact with female hosts afforded by the different mating systems of the hosts. Critically, the observed host-specific differences have important consequences for parasite population structure and will thus affect the coevolutionary dynamics between the interacting species. Therefore, in order to accurately characterize host-parasite dynamics in hosts with complex social systems, a holistic approach that investigates parasite infection and transmission across all periods is warranted.

  2. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro regional mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and its effectiveness rises with the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for a more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. Changes in the spatial organization utilization and structure of cities, as well as in social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" section Belgrade-Niš have been analyzed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional, spatial and urban policy, land use transport, environmental and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sartorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure plans and projects.

  3. Anaesthetic and ICU management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a survey of European practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velly, Lionel J; Bilotta, Federico; Fàbregas, Neus; Soehle, Martin; Bruder, Nicolas J; Nathanson, Michael H

    2015-03-01

    Many aspects of the perioperative management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) remain controversial. It would be useful to assess differences in the treatment of SAH in Europe to identify areas for improvement. To determine the clinical practice of physicians treating SAH and to evaluate any discrepancy between practice and published evidence. An electronic survey. Physicians identified through each national society of neuroanaesthesiology and neurocritical care. A 31-item online questionnaire was distributed by the ENIG group. Questions were designed to investigate anaesthetic management of SAH and diagnostic and treatment approaches to cerebral vasospasm. The survey was available from early October to the end of November 2012. Completed surveys were received from 268 respondents, of whom 81% replied that aneurysm treatment was conducted early (within 24 h). Sixty-five percent of centres treated more than 60% of SAH by coiling, 19% had high-volume clipping (>60% of aneurysms clipped) and 16% used both methods equally. No clear threshold for arterial blood pressure target was identified during coiling, temporary clipping or in patients without vasospasm after the aneurysm had been secured. Almost all respondents used nimodipine (97%); 21% also used statins and 20% used magnesium for prevention of vasospasm. A quarter of respondents used intra-arterial vasodilators alone, 5% used cerebral angioplasty alone and 48% used both endovascular methods to treat symptomatic vasospasm. In high-volume clipping treatment centres, 58% of respondents used endovascular methods to manage vasospasm compared with 86% at high-volume coiling treatment centres (P practice patterns of European physicians involved in early treatment of SAH. Significant differences were noted among countries and between high and low-volume coiling centres.

  4. European social model and challenges of globalization: searching the ways of balancing of the needs of the economy and societ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Topishko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of the fundamental models of social policy in the EU and social procection system as one of its mechanisms has been characterized. The changes in the division of responsibility between the subjects of social partnership in providing social protection is analyzed. Special attention paid to the increasing socio-economic contradictions in terms of global transformations and social orientation of stabilization measures by governments. The principles on which reform is carried taxation and social welfare systems is observed. It is also described the change in the tax system in terms of finding ways to fiscal consolidation, including the measures of increasing rate of progressivity of the tax system and fiscal role of indirect taxes, broadening the tax base, increase the tax burden on passive income. Approaches to adopt the European model of social protection to globalization and the rise of the economic crisis has been investigated. The ways to achieve a balance between the social functions of the state and the level of financial supportis outlined.

  5. TACKLING THE INFORMAL ECONOMY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: A SOCIAL ACTOR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin C. Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, participants in the informal economy have started to be viewed less as rational economic actors who engage in the informal economy when the pay-off is greater than the expected cost of being caught and punished, and more as social actors who engage when their tax morale (i.e., motivation to pay taxes is low. To evaluate this new social actor approach and the implications for tackling the informal economy, this paper reports evidence from 41,689 face-to-face interviews conducted across the European Union. Multilevel logistic regression analysis reveals a strong association between participation in the informal economy and the level of tax morale. Finding that higher tax morale (and thus lower participation in the informal economy is strongly correlated at the country-level with greater levels of state intervention and at the individual-level with characteristics such as gender, age, education and employment status, the outcome is to confirm a structuralist political economy explanation and refute the modernization and neo-liberal explanations and remedies, as well as to uncover the importance of some policy solutions not considered until now, including older citizens mentoring of younger people, and improving women’s participation in the labour force.

  6. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  7. User-Generated Geographic Information for Visitor Monitoring in a National Park: A Comparison of Social Media Data and Visitor Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuokko Heikinheimo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Protected area management and marketing require real-time information on visitors’ behavior and preferences. Thus far, visitor information has been collected mostly with repeated visitor surveys. A wealth of content-rich geographic data is produced by users of different social media platforms. These data could potentially provide continuous information about people’s activities and interactions with the environment at different spatial and temporal scales. In this paper, we compare social media data with traditional survey data in order to map people’s activities and preferences using the most popular national park in Finland, Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park, as a case study. We compare systematically collected survey data and the content of geotagged social media data and analyze: (i where do people go within the park; (ii what are their activities; (iii when do people visit the park and if there are temporal patterns in their activities; (iv who the visitors are; (v why people visit the national park; and (vi what complementary information from social media can provide in addition to the results from traditional surveys. The comparison of survey and social media data demonstrated that geotagged social media content provides relevant information about visitors’ use of the national park. As social media platforms are a dynamic source of data, they could complement and enrich traditional forms of visitor monitoring by providing more insight on emerging activities, temporal patterns of shared content, and mobility patterns of visitors. Potentially, geotagged social media data could also provide an overview of the spatio-temporal activity patterns in other areas where systematic visitor monitoring is not taking place.

  8. Informal and Formal Social Support and Caregiver Burden: The AGES Caregiver Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Koichiro; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the associations of informal (eg, family members and friends) and formal (eg, physician and visiting nurses) social support with caregiver’s burden in long-term care and the relationship between the number of available sources of social support and caregiver burden. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey in 2003 and used data of 2998 main caregivers of frail older adults in Aichi, Japan. We used a validated scale to assess caregiver burden. Results Multiple linear regression demonstrated that, after controlling for caregivers’ sociodemographic and other characteristics, informal social support was significantly associated with lower caregiver burden (β = −1.59, P support was not (β = −0.30, P = 0.39). Evaluating the associations by specific sources of social support, informal social supports from the caregiver’s family living together (β = −0.71, P social support was associated with lower caregiver burden only if it was from family physicians (β = −0.56, P = 0.001). Compared to caregivers without informal support, those who had one support (β = −1.62, P supports (β = −1.55, P support. Conclusions Social support from intimate social relationships may positively affect caregivers’ psychological wellbeing independent of the receipt of formal social support, resulting in less burden. PMID:27180934

  9. Elections to the European Parliament through the prism of social media as an electoral resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the social media as a relatively new tool for electoral and political activities for creating a positive image of political parties and candidates (on the example of the European Parliament. The social media are becoming increasingly important in the nowadays world politics due to the growing number of the Internet users, the fall in the popularity of traditional media, and the fast spread of new media as well as the transformation of the Internet into the area for active political actions. The key role in the formation of the political image belongs to political institutions (parties, government agencies, certain politicians and public figures, as well as to representatives of the electorate, i.e. population. The analysis of the efforts of various political actors in the social media allows to identify their three basic functions: a tool to increase voter turnout; a tool to increase the popularity of candidates and parties; a tool to increase public awareness of the political and electoral processes in general. Currently the most serious obstacle for strategic studies of social networks is the tremendous pace of their technological development that complicates long-term predictions in the field. However, despite the lack of universally accepted criteria for assessing the efficiency of political activities in the social media, the author believes that the key success factor is the so-called “permanent presence” of electoral subjects in the Internet.

  10. Specific Features in Accessing European Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alexandra CĂLDĂRARU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: European Funds are the European Union financial instruments in order to assist Member States in reducing the existing disparities between regions and between countries, and for harmonization with the economic, social and cultural European standards. This paper intends to present some general characteristics applicable to the most important financing programs, and also to outline certain features of the main financing lines, referring to investment projects development and their implementation, based on the Applicant Guides analysis. The paper treats institutional, legal, financial, technical, social and environmental aspects and outlines proposals and recommendations to achieve a better EU funds absorption and also a higher success rate of initiated projects. In knowledge-based economy circumstances, training consultancy specialists, that represent the intellectual capital in this area, will ensure the professional management of the developing process, submission and ongoing competitive projects, and will help enhance the funds absorption at national level. Thus, the European support for investments in ensuring sustainable growth will help overcoming the difficulties encountered by our country, and will sustain the Romanian economy recovery.

  11. Me, My “Selfie” and I: A Survey of Self-disclosure Motivations on Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Williamson; Trey Stohlman; Heather Polinsky

    2017-01-01

    Personal photo-sharing has become a popular activity across social media platforms as a self-disclosure activity. A survey of 366 (N=366) individuals via a web-based questionnaire measured correlations between photo-sharing on social networking sites (SNS) and fulfillment of self-disclosure goals. Data analysis indicated respondents posted selfies to social media to meet the information storage and entertainment self-disclosure goals. Facebook users also posted selfies to aide in relational d...

  12. Using online social media for recruitment of human immunodeficiency virus-positive participants: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Patrick; Bare, Michael G; Johnson, Mallory O; Saberi, Parya

    2014-05-01

    There are many challenges in recruiting and engaging participants when conducting research, especially with HIV-positive individuals. Some of these challenges include geographical barriers, insufficient time and financial resources, and perceived HIV-related stigma. This paper describes the methodology of a recruitment approach that capitalized on existing online social media venues and other Internet resources in an attempt to overcome some of these barriers to research recruitment and retention. From May through August 2013, a campaign approach using a combination of online social media, non-financial incentives, and Web-based survey software was implemented to advertise, recruit, and retain participants, and collect data for a survey study with a limited budget. Approximately US $5,000 was spent with a research staff designated at 20% of full-time effort, yielding 2034 survey clicks, 1404 of which met the inclusion criteria and initiated the survey, for an average cost of US $3.56 per survey initiation. A total of 1221 individuals completed the survey, yielding 86.97% retention. These data indicate that online recruitment is a feasible and efficient tool that can be further enhanced by sophisticated online data collection software and the addition of non-financial incentives.

  13. Financial incentives to promote renewable energy systems in European electricity markets: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Huber, C.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    Renewable energy systems may contribute to sustainable development. Therefore, one of the challenges for energy policy is to ensure that renewable energy options have a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents a survey on promotion mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewable energies in European electricity markets. Strategies include rebates and tax incentives, regulated rates, system benefit charges, bidding-oriented mechanisms and various types of green pricing programs. The paper concludes that efficient promotion mechanisms should focus on incentives per kWh generated rather than on rebates on the investment in generating capacity (kW), and that there is no one single program type which has the best application to the promotion of all renewable technologies. For example, enhanced buy-back rates work as a dissemination strategy for wind energy but they do not work for photovoltaics. (author)

  14. Measuring Social Relations in New Classroom Spaces: Development and Validation of the Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Baepler, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the need for reliable and valid information concerning how innovative classrooms on college and university campuses affect teaching and learning. The Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) survey was developed though a three-stage process involving approximately 1300 college students. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  15. Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a survey on forces, conditions and jurisdictional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroezen, Marieke; Francke, Anneke L; Groenewegen, Peter P; van Dijk, Liset

    2012-08-01

    The number of Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries where nurses are legally allowed to prescribe medicines is growing. As the prescribing of medicines has traditionally been the task of the medical profession, nurse prescribing is changing the relationship between the medical and nursing professions. To gain more insight into the forces that led to the introduction of nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries, as well as into the legal, educational and organizational conditions under which nurses prescribe in these countries. Moreover, this study sought to determine which consequences nurse prescribing has for the division of jurisdictional control over prescribing between the nursing and medical professions. International survey. An email survey was sent to 60 stakeholders of professional nursing or medical associations or government bodies, at national, state or provincial level across ten Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries, namely Australia, Canada, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The survey addressed the reasons for the introduction of nurse prescribing and the conditions under which nurses are or will be prescribing medicines. The response rate was 65% (n=39). It was shown that a diversity of forces led to the introduction of nurse prescribing, and respondents from nursing and medical associations and government bodies cited different forces as being important for the introduction of nurse prescribing. Representatives of nurses' associations oftentimes emphasized the medication needs of patients living in remote geographical areas, while representatives of medical associations more often pointed to workforce shortages within the health care service. The conditions under which nurses prescribe medicines vary considerably, from countries where nurses prescribe independently to countries in which prescribing by nurses is only

  16. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  17. Motives for using Facebook, patterns of Facebook activities, and late adolescents' social adjustment to college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B Bradford

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and late adolescents' social adjustment to the college environment. Anonymous self-report survey data from 193 mostly European American students (M age = 20.32; 54 % female) attending a major Midwestern university indicated that motives and activity patterns were associated directly with social adjustment, but the association between one activity, status updating, and social adjustment also was moderated by the motive of relationship maintenance. Findings provide a more comprehensive portrait of how Facebook use may foster or inhibit social adjustment in college.

  18. The Status of Nuclear Education in Social Studies: Report of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Carole L.

    1985-01-01

    The vast majority of social studies teachers participating in this survey said that they taught about nuclear warfare. Most of the teachers taught about nuclear arms to students in grades 9-12. U.S. history and government courses were most frequently named as the courses in which the topic fit. (RM)

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility in banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Kvasničková Stanislavská; K. Margarisová; K. Šťastná

    2012-01-01

    After popularity increase of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility over last century in the USA, with the 21st century the concept comes into the European Union as well, actually into Czech Republic. For the European Union, the concept of social responsibility becomes one of the tool for achieving the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy (Lisbon Strategy, 2000). With the start of the financial and economic crisis, the European Commission sees in the Corporate Social R...

  20. The European Water Framework Directive: How Ecological Assumptions Frame Technical and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Steyaert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Water Framework Directive (WFD is built upon significant cognitive developments in the field of ecological science but also encourages active involvement of all interested parties in its implementation. The coexistence in the same policy text of both substantive and procedural approaches to policy development stimulated this research as did our concerns about the implications of substantive ecological visions within the WFD policy for promoting, or not, social learning processes through participatory designs. We have used a qualitative analysis of the WFD text which shows the ecological dimension of the WFD dedicates its quasi-exclusive attention to a particular current of thought in ecosystems science focusing on ecosystems status and stability and considering human activities as disturbance factors. This particular worldview is juxtaposed within the WFD with a more utilitarian one that gives rise to many policy exemptions without changing the general underlying ecological model. We discuss these policy statements in the light of the tension between substantive and procedural policy developments. We argue that the dominant substantive approach of the WFD, comprising particular ecological assumptions built upon "compositionalism," seems to be contradictory with its espoused intention of involving the public. We discuss that current of thought in regard to more functionalist thinking and adaptive management, which offers greater opportunities for social learning, i.e., place a set of interdependent stakeholders in an intersubjective position in which they operate a "social construction" of water problems through the co-production of knowledge.

  1. Demand Side Management for the European Supergrid: Occupancy variances of European single-person households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2012-01-01

    The prospect of a European Supergrid calls for research on aggregate electricity peak demand and Europe-wide Demand Side Management. No attempt has been made as yet to represent a time-related demand curve of residential electricity consumption at the European level. This article assesses how active occupancy levels of single-person households vary in single-person household in 15 European countries. It makes use of occupancy time-series data from the Harmonised European Time Use Survey database to build European occupancy curves; identify peak occupancy periods; construct time-related electricity demand curves for TV and video watching activities and assess occupancy variances of single-person households. - Highlights: ► Morning peak occupancies of European single households tale place between 7h30 and 7h40. ► Evening peaks take place between 20h10 and 20h20. ► TV and video activities during evening peaks make up about 3.1 GWh of European peak electricity load. ► Baseline and peak occupancy variances vary across countries. ► Baseline and peak occupancy variances can be used as input for Demand Side Management choices.

  2. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies in the European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication paper investigates requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies. We refer to European cross-border regions, which are located in the European Baltic Sea Region. We hypothesize that there is no efficient cross-border spatial planning without engagement from various stakeholders, supported by novel spatial planning technologies. This study presents the results from a survey that identifies the requirements for spatial planning technologies adequate for cross - border regions. On the basis of this survey, carried out within the INTECRE project partners coming from the Baltic Sea Region, the study provides general recommendations about cross - border spatial planning technologies. Addressed in the survey are the following central issues: definition of the scope of such technologies, the data base and international planning data provision, features and properties of planning technologies, and stakeholder involvement. The research findings are transferable to wider European and extra- European contexts.

  4. Survey of corporate social responsibility practices in Nigerian manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyomi, Oladele John

    2013-01-01

    Based on stakeholders’ theory, this study examined the practice of corporate social responsibility by manufacturing companies in Nigeria. It employed survey research design to study 15 randomly selected companies in the food and beverages sector. A total of 225 questionnaires were administered to collect data. Data analysis revealed that CSR is a familiar concept in the sector as most of the companies do engage in CSR activities regularly. The major areas of focus of the CSR activities includ...

  5. Social Entrepreneurship and the Mobilization of Social Capital in European Social Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The article is originally published in Social Enterprise: At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society (Marthe Nyssens, ed.)......The article is originally published in Social Enterprise: At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society (Marthe Nyssens, ed.)...

  6. Behaviours and beliefs about pain and treatment among Chinese immigrants and New Zealand Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ping Carolyn; Johnson, Malcolm H

    2013-03-01

    To investigate how pain is construed and managed across Western and Chinese cultures. Adults from the general public completed an anonymous survey developed for this study. Participants responded to recruitment posters and handouts that were distributed to Auckland community centres, libraries and relevant social organisations. 165 participants were recruited with slightly more Chinese respondents (57.0%). 128 participants (77.5%) reported having experienced persistent pain which did not recover within expected periods in the last 5 years, and occurred more among Chinese (60.2%) than New Zealand Europeans (39.8%). Pain behaviours and coping strategies were found to be significantly different between Europeans and Chinese. However, differences in perceptions regarding pain and treatment were not substantial. Interestingly, for both cultures some participants reported behaving differently than expected according to their perceptions. Acculturation levels, however, did not show any great impact on Chinese immigrants. The high incidence of persistent pain reported in the study compared to random population surveys suggest individuals who had pain experiences were more likely to respond to the study. It is evident that culture plays an important role in determining various aspects of pain experience and response, although further investigation using randomised samples instead of self-selected survey populations is required to clarify the picture. The effect of acculturation levels particularly should be further investigated.

  7. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela; Freisling, Heinz; van Rossum, Caroline; Ruprich, Jiri; Slimani, Nadia; Temme, Elisabeth; Trolle, Ellen; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Huybrechts, Inge; de Boer, Evelien

    2015-08-01

    To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot studies for Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption among Kids in Europe. One protocol included a 3-day food diary which was checked with a parent, and data were entered afterwards using EPIC-Soft. The alternative protocol consisted of two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries followed by EPIC-Soft completion interviews. Both protocols included general and food propensity questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The protocols were compared using evaluation questionnaires among the participating parents and study personnel. The parents found the questionnaires and instructions for filling in the food diaries understandable. Food description and food quantification was evaluated as problematic by 29 and 15% of the participants for the 3-day diaries versus 15 and 12% for the 1-day diaries. The protocol with 1-day food diaries was evaluated as less burdensome by the parents and logistically more challenging by the interviewers. Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey in children 0-10 years. The positive evaluation of feasibility of tools and materials is an important step towards harmonised food consumption data at European level among the younger age groups.

  8. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Social Emotional Health Survey-Primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Yang, Chunyan; Jiang, Xu; Furlong, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Social Emotional Health Survey-Primary (SEHS-P) was originally developed to assess U.S. elementary students' positive psychological traits: gratitude, zest, optimism, and persistence, and the higher-order latent construct of covitality. The present study evaluated the validity of a Chinese version of SEHS-P with a sample of 653 Chinese…

  9. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  10. Analysis of Fertility in Ten Central And Eastern European Countries After 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ-Vasile JEMNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.

  11. Personality and professional commitment of students in nursing, social work, and teaching: A comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesje, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are often portrayed as possessing specific traits and dispositions associated with care and empathy. The assumption has been that possessing these traits makes nurses competent, engaged, and well suited to their job. This proposition has been mostly normative, and few studies have investigated how this plays out empirically. The aims of this study were to investigate (a) whether possessing a personality trait related to empathy and care was more common among nursing students than students in teaching and social work programs and (b) whether nursing students possessing an affirming personality trait judged themselves to be more suited to their future work - understood as commitment to the profession - than students in teaching and social work. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All first-year students attending seven Norwegian universities and university colleges were invited to participate in the study. Of the 1675 students who participated in the survey, 527 were nursing students, 668 were students in teaching, and 480 were social work students. A response rate of 65 percent was achieved. The survey was conducted by Oslo and Akershus University College in the autumn of 2012. Data collection methods included both a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and an online survey. Instruments used included Blau's Career Commitment Scale and Orlinsky and Rønnestad's Interpersonal Adjective Scale. Analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed on the data. Nursing students did not differ from students in teaching and social work programs in terms of the degree of affirming personality trait. Furthermore, the regression analysis revealed an equally strong association between having an affirming personality trait and being committed to the profession among all these student groups. The results of this study indicate that the narrative of nursing students as individuals who possess a special personality characteristic does not entirely reflect reality

  12. Professional Burnout in European Young Oncologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Sutanuka; Califano, R; Corral, Javier

    2017-01-01

    ≤40 (YOs). Methods: A survey was conducted using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and additional questions exploring work/lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with burnout. Results: 737 surveys (all ages) were collected from 41 European......Background: Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologists...... = 0.0001 ) and low accomplishment was highest in the 26-30 age group ( p work/life balance, access to support services, living alone and inadequate vacation time remained independent burnout factors ( p 

  13. The sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans (SALLEE Project: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Rebecca S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since May 2004, ten Central and Eastern European (CEE countries have joined the European Union, leading to a large influx of CEE migrants to the United Kingdom (UK. The SALLEE project (sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans set out to establish an understanding of the sexual lifestyles and reproductive health risks of CEE migrants. CEE nationals make up a small minority of the population resident in the UK with no sampling frame from which to select a probability sample. There is also difficulty estimating the socio-demographic and geographical distribution of the population. In addition, measuring self-reported sexual behaviour which is generally found to be problematic, may be compounded among people from a range of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This paper will describe the methods adopted by the SALLEE project to address these challenges. Methods The research was undertaken using quantitative and qualitative methods: a cross-sectional survey of CEE migrants based on three convenience samples (recruited from community venues, sexual health clinics and from the Internet and semi-structured in-depth interviews with a purposively selected sample of CEE migrants. A detailed social mapping exercise of the CEE community was conducted prior to commencement of the survey to identify places where CEE migrants could be recruited. A total of 3,005 respondents took part in the cross-sectional survey, including 2,276 respondents in the community sample, 357 in the clinic sample and 372 in the Internet sample. 40 in-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken with a range of individuals, as determined by the interview quota matrix. Discussion The SALLEE project has benefited from using quantitative research to provide generalisable data on a range of variables and qualitative research to add in-depth understanding and interpretation. The social mapping exercise successfully located a large number

  14. #europehappinessmap: A Framework for Multi-Lingual Sentiment Analysis via Social Media Big Data (A Twitter Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Coşkun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and popularity of social media platforms have generated a new social interaction environment thus a new collaboration and communication network among individuals. These platforms own tremendous amount of data about users’ behaviors and sentiments since people create, share or exchange their information, ideas, pictures or video using them. One of these popular platforms is Twitter, which via its voluntary information sharing structure, provides researchers data potential of benefit for their studies. Based on Twitter data, in this study a multilingual sentiment detection framework is proposed to compute European Gross National Happiness (GNH. This framework consists of a novel data collection, filtering and sampling method, and a newly constructed multilingual sentiment detection algorithm for social media big data, and tested with nine European countries (United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Turkey, Portugal, The Netherlands, Italy, France and Spain and their national languages over a six year period. The reliability of the data is checked with peak/troughs comparison for special days from Wikipedia news lists. The validity is checked with a group of correlation analyses with OECD Life Satisfaction survey reports’, Euro-Dollar and other currency exchanges, and national stock market time series data. After validity and reliability confirmations, the European GNH map is drawn for six years. The main problem addressed is to propose a novel multilingual social media sentiment analysis framework for calculating GNH for countries and change the way of OECD type organizations’ survey and interview methodology. Also, it is believed that this framework can serve more detailed results (e.g., daily or hourly sentiments of society in different languages.

  15. Social closure and discriminatory practices related to the Roma minority in the Czech Republic through the perspective of national and European institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cviklová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While differentiating among notions of social exclusion, social closure and bridging social capital, the article analyses the evolution of cultural and social borders between the Czech majority on the one hand and the Roma minority on the other. Special attention has been paid to current legal practices concerning discrimination which have shifted the burden of proof in favor of ethnic minorities and have introduced cleavages between the processes of direct and indirect discrimination. It is explained that the unequal access to elementary education has been crucial in generating social exclusion of the minority. In relation to this, the landmark decision of the European Court of Human Rights is discussed, as it particularly highlights the importance of educational segregation of Roma people in Czech schools for children with learning disabilities.

  16. Social survey of Three Mile Island area residents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunn, S.D.; Johnson, J.H. Jr; Zeigler, D.J.

    1979-08-01

    Recognizing that there is concern among government officials, utility company officials, engineers, physical, social, and behavioral scientists, and the general public about the consequences of the Three Mile Island accident, the overall objective of this report is to examine how the accident affected TMI area residents. This final report is a detailed analysis and description of the summary results published previously. A questionnaire was mailed to a sample of residents in the Three Mile Island area within one month of the accident. The survey instrument and sampling design are discussed in a subsequent chapter. Because of the nature of the accident and individual memories about dates, places, and events, it was necessary to conduct a survey as soon as possible after the accident. Area residents were asked a variety of questions including: (1) when and how they learned about the accident; (2) where they evacuated and why; (3) what confidence they placed in reports by the government and utility companies; (4) how their attitudes toward nuclear power have changed as a result of the accident; and (5) what impact the accident is likely to have on themselves and the Three Mile Island area. These questions and others are examined in this report. The results are analyzed in light of a number of social, economic, and political characteristics. Both statistical tests and a graphical presentation of the results are included

  17. THE ALLOCATION OF EUROPEAN FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Monica POP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to analyze the extent to which economic and social cohesion of the enlarged European Union in order to develop a harmonious, balanced and sustainable community has been achieved with the Funds, the European Investment Bank (EIB and other financial instruments and how Romania attracts or not such funds. We analyzed using the statistical data, the absorption and implementation of funds in Romania. Consequently, we present only the results. Conclusions outlined the reducing of the economic, social and territorial disparities which have arisen particularly in regions with developmental delays and in relation to economic and social reorganization. The most important benefits of funding (in general are the growth, the competitive advantage, the employment and improvement of the environment.

  18. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  19. European Social Work Research Association SIG to Study Decisions, Assessment, and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Killick, Campbell; Bertotti, Teresa; Enosh, Guy; Gautschi, Joel; Hietamäki, Johanna; Sicora, Alessandro; Whittaker, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest in professional judgement and decision making is often separate from the discourse about "risk," and the time-honored focus on assessment. The need to develop research in and across these topics was recognized in the founding of a Decisions, Assessment, and Risk Special Interest Group (DARSIG) by the European Social Work Research Association in 2014. The Group's interests include cognitive judgements; decision processes with clients, families, other professionals and courts; assessment tools and processes; the assessment, communication, and management of risk; and legal, ethical, and emotional aspects of these. This article outlines the founding and scope of DARSIG; gives an overview of decision making, assessment, and risk for practice; illustrates connections between these; and highlights future research directions. Professional knowledge about decision making, assessment, and risk complements knowledge about effectiveness of interventions. DARSIG promises to be a useful mechanism for the purpose.

  20. Using Online Social Media for Recruitment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Participants: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Patrick; Bare, Michael G; Johnson, Mallory O

    2014-01-01