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Sample records for european seabass dicentrarchus

  1. Dietary tryptophan and methionine as modulators of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) immune status and inflammatory response.

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    Machado, Marina; Azeredo, Rita; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Afonso, António; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamín

    2015-02-01

    Amino acids regulate key metabolic pathways important to immune responses and their nutritional supply may increase synthesis of immune-related proteins. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine on European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) cellular and humoral status. The immunomodulatory effects of tryptophan and methionine during an inflammatory insult was also evaluated after intraperitoneal injection with inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). A practical isonitrogenous (45% crude protein) and isolipidic (16% crude fat) diets was formulated to include fish meal and a blend of plant feedstuffs as protein sources and fish oil as the main lipid source (CRL diet). Two other diets were formulated similar to the control but including L-tryptophan or L-methionine at ×2 the requirement level (diets TRP and MET, respectively). European seabass weighing 275 g were fed the experimental diets for a period of 15 days before being sampled (trial 1). Then, fish were subjected to a peritoneal inflammation by intraperitoneally injecting UV killed Phdp (10(6) colony forming units ml(-1)) and sampled following 4 and 24 h post-injection (trial 2). Fish injected with a saline solution served as control. The haematological profile, peripheral cell dynamics and several plasma immune parameters were determined in trials 1 and 2, whereas cell migration to the inflammatory focus was also determined in trial 2. MET positively affected European seabass immune status by improving the peripheral leucocyte response, complement activity and bactericidal capacity, a stronger cellular recruitment to the inflammatory focus, and higher plasma peroxidase and bactericidal activities. TRP also seemed to improve immunostimulation, as there was a trend to augment both cell-mediated immunity and humoral capacity. However, TRP failed to improve an inflammatory response, verified by a decrease in blood phagocyte numbers

  2. Anthropogenic noise compromises the anti-predator behaviour of the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).

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    Spiga, Ilaria; Aldred, Nicholas; Caldwell, Gary S

    2017-09-15

    Anthropogenic noise is a significant pollutant of the world's oceans, affecting behavioural and physiological traits in a range of species, including anti-predator behaviours. Using the open field test, we investigated the effects of recordings of piling and drilling noise on the anti-predator behaviour of captive juvenile European seabass in response to a visual stimulus (a predatory mimic). The impulsive nature of piling noise triggered a reflexive startle response, which contrasted the behaviour elicited by the continuous drilling noise. When presented with the predatory mimic, fish exposed to both piling and drilling noise explored the experimental arena more extensively than control fish exposed to ambient noise. Fish under drilling and piling conditions also exhibited reduced predator inspection behaviour. Piling and drilling noise induced stress as measured by ventilation rate. This study provides further evidence that the behaviour and physiology of European seabass is significantly affected by exposure to elevated noise levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Heritability of Boldness and Hypoxia Avoidance in European Seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax

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    Horri, Khaled; Allal, François; Vergnet, Alain; Benhaim, David; Vandeputte, Marc; Chatain, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    To understand the genetic basis of coping style in European seabass, fish from a full factorial mating (10 females x 50 males) were reared in common garden and individually tagged. Individuals coping style was characterized through behavior tests at four different ages, categorizing fish into proactive or reactive: a hypoxia avoidance test (at 255 days post hatching, dph) and 3 risk-taking tests (at 276, 286 and 304 dph). We observed significant heritability of the coping style, higher for th...

  4. Role of dietary seaweed supplementation on growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax

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    Maria João Peixoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to appraise growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax when fed diets supplemented with seaweeds. A control diet (without supplementation was tested against 6 practical diets supplemented either with Gracilaria spp., Ulva spp., or Fucus spp., at 2.5 or 7.5% levels, plus an additional diet with a blend of the three seaweeds, each supplemented at 2.5% (Mix. Seabass juveniles (24.0 ± 6.3 g were fed the experimental diets for 84 days. Dietary seaweed supplementation had no effect on growth rate (DGI: 1.0–1.1, voluntary feed intake (11.3–12.6 g kg −1 ABW−1 day−1, feed conversion ratio (FCR: 1.2–1.4 and protein efficiency ratio (PER: 1.5–1.8. Lipase activity was significantly higher in fish fed Mix diet when compared to control (P < 0.05. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx was significantly affected by seaweeds presence regardless its level of supplementation (P < 0.05. The innate immune system was significantly altered by dietary seaweed supplementation (P < 0.05. Fish fed the 7.5% seaweed supplemented diets had a significant decrease in the ACH50 level, when compared to fish fed 2.5% seaweed supplemented diets (P < 0.05. Moreover, a combined effect of seaweed and supplementation level significantly affected lysozyme (LYS activity (P < 0.05. Fish fed diet with Ulva at 2.5% had an increase in LYS when compared to fish fed control and Ulva at 7.5% diets. Overall, our results indicate that the use of dietary seaweed supplementation improves immune and antioxidant responses in European seabass without compromising growth performance.

  5. Heritability of Boldness and Hypoxia Avoidance in European Seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

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    Sébastien Ferrari

    Full Text Available To understand the genetic basis of coping style in European seabass, fish from a full factorial mating (10 females x 50 males were reared in common garden and individually tagged. Individuals coping style was characterized through behavior tests at four different ages, categorizing fish into proactive or reactive: a hypoxia avoidance test (at 255 days post hatching, dph and 3 risk-taking tests (at 276, 286 and 304 dph. We observed significant heritability of the coping style, higher for the average of risk-taking scores (h2 = 0.45 ± 0.14 than for the hypoxia avoidance test (h2 = 0.19 ± 0.10. The genetic correlations between the three risk-taking scores were very high (rA = 0.96-0.99 showing that although their repeatability was moderately high (rP = 0.64-0.72, successive risk-taking tests evaluated the same genetic variation. A mild genetic correlation between the results of the hypoxia avoidance test and the average of risk-taking scores (0.45 ± 0.27 suggested that hypoxia avoidance and risk-taking tests do not address exactly the same behavioral and physiological responses. Genetic correlations between weight and risk taking traits showed negative values whatever the test used in our population i.e. reactive individual weights were larger. The results of this quantitative genetic analysis suggest a potential for the development of selection programs based on coping styles that could increase seabass welfare without altering growth performances. Overall, it also contributes to a better understanding of the origin and the significance of individual behavioral differences.

  6. Local immune response of two mucosal surfaces of the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, fed tryptophan- or methionine-supplemented diets.

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    Azeredo, R; Machado, M; Guardiola, F A; Cerezuela, R; Afonso, A; Peres, H; Oliva-Teles, A; Esteban, M A; Costas, B

    2017-11-01

    Immune responses relies on an adequate provision of multiple nutrients that sustain the synthesis of key effector molecules. These needs are depicted in the already reported increase of circulating free amino acids in fish under stressful conditions. Since aquaculture and the inherent fish welfare are an emergent call, the immunomodulatory effects of amino acids on gut- and skin-associated lymphoid tissues of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were studied under unstressed conditions and after an inflammatory insult. To achieve this goal, fish were distributed in duplicate tanks (fifteen fish per tank) and were fed for 14 days with methionine or tryptophan-supplemented diets at 2× dietary requirement level (MET and TRP, respectively) or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL). Afterwards, samples of skin and posterior gut were collected from 6 fish per dietary treatment for the assessment of the immune status while the remaining animals were intraperitoneally-injected with inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and subsequently sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. The immune status of both mucosal surfaces was poorly affected, although a tryptophan effect was denoted after bacterial inoculation, with several immune-related genes up-regulated in the gut at 4 h post-injection, which seems to suggest a neuroendocrine-immune systems interaction. In contrast, skin mucosal immunity was inhibited by tryptophan dietary supplementation. Regarding methionine, results were often statistically non-significant, though increasing trends were denoted in a few parameters. Overall, dietary methionine did not significantly affect neither gut nor skin immunity, whereas tryptophan supplementation seems to induce modulatory mechanisms that might be tissue-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

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    Marie-Hélène Omnes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition. We randomly allocated groups of fish (initial mean body weight of 10.2 ± 0.7 g; n = 40 fish per tank to 12 replicate cylindrical-conical tanks (three per treatment. The fish were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for five weeks: control diet (C with tannin-free protein sources (mostly fishmeal as the base diet, containing 55.7% dry matter (DM crude protein, gross energy 22.3 kJ g−1 DM and three experimental diets supplemented with 10, 20, or 30 g TA kg−1 (called TA1, TA2, and TA3, respectively. Tannin ingestion resulted in significantly decreased cumulative feed intake, growth, feed and protein efficiencies, apparent digestibility coefficients, hepatosomatic index, and carcass lipids. The protein digestibility in fish fed the 10 g kg−1 tannin-containing diet was significantly lower than that in fish fed the control diet. This threshold should be taken into account when using novel terrestrial and aquatic plant ingredients for temperate marine fishes.

  8. Comparative study of pineal clock gene and AANAT2 expression in relation to melatonin synthesis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

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    McStay, Elsbeth; Migaud, Herve; Vera, Luisa Maria; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Davie, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    The photoreceptive teleost pineal is considered to be essential to the generation, synchronisation and maintenance of biological rhythms, primarily via melatonin release. The role of internal (circadian clock) and external (light) signals controlling melatonin production in the fish pineal differs between species, yet the reasons underpinning this remain largely unknown. Whilst in salmonids, pineal melatonin is apparently regulated directly by light, in all other studied teleosts, rhythmic melatonin production persists endogenously under the regulation of clock gene expression. To better understand the role of clocks in teleost pineals, this study aimed to characterise the expression of selected clock genes in vitro under different photoperiodic conditions in comparison to in vivo in both Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) (in vitro 12L:12D), a species known to display endogenous rhythmic melatonin synthesis. Results revealed no rhythmic clock gene (Clock, Period 1 &2) expression in Atlantic salmon or European seabass (Clock and Period 1) pineal in vitro. However rhythmic expression of Cryptochrome 2 and Period 1 in the Atlantic salmon pineal was observed in vivo, which infers extra-pineal regulation of clocks in this species. No rhythmic arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (Aanat2) expression was observed in the Atlantic salmon yet in the European seabass, circadian Aanat2 expression was observed. Subsequent in silico analysis of available Aanat2 genomic sequences reveals that Atlantic salmon Aanat2 promoter sequences do not contain similar regulatory architecture as present in European seabass, and previously described in other teleosts which alludes to a loss in functional connection in the pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of changes in water salinity upon exercise and cardiac performance in the European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax )

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    Chatelier, A.; McKenzie, David; Claireaux, G.

    2005-01-01

    The European seabass is an active euryhaline teleost that migrates and forages in waters of widely differing salinities. Oxygen uptake (M-O2) was measured in seabass (average mass and forklength 510 g and 34 cm, respectively) during exercise at incremental swimming speeds in a tunnel respirometer...... in seawater (SW) at a salinity of 30 parts per thousand and temperature of 14 degrees C, and their maximal sustainable (critical) swimming speed (U-crit) determined. Cardiac output (Q) was measured via an ultrasound flow probe on their ventral aorta. The fish were then exposed to acute reductions in water...... performance. This was linked to an exceptional capacity to maintain plasma osmolality and tissue water content unchanged following all salinity challenges. This extraordinary adaptation would allow the seabass to maintain skeletal and cardiac muscle function while migrating through waters of widely differing...

  10. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on hepatic de novo lipogenesis in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

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    Viegas, Ivan; Jarak, Ivana; Rito, João; Carvalho, Rui A; Metón, Isidoro; Pardal, Miguel A; Baanante, Isabel V; Jones, John G

    2016-07-01

    Farmed seabass have higher adiposity than their wild counterparts and this is often attributed to carbohydrate (CHO) feeding. Whether this reflects a reduction in fat oxidation, increased de novo lipogenesis (DNL), or both, is not known. To study the effects of high CHO diets on hepatic TG biosynthesis, hepatic TG deuterium ((2)H) enrichment was determined following 6 days in (2)H-enriched tank water for fish fed with a no-CHO control diet (CTRL), and diets with digestible starch (DS) and raw starch (RS). Hepatic fractional synthetic rates (FSRs, percent per day(-1)) were calculated for hepatic TG-glyceryl and FA moieties through (2)H NMR analysis. Glyceryl FSRs exceeded FA FSRs in all cases, indicating active cycling. DS fish did not show increased lipogenic potential compared to CTRL. RS fish had lower glyceryl FSRs compared with the other diets and negligible levels of FA FSRs despite similar hepatic TG levels to CTRL. DS-fed fish showed higher activity for enzymes that can provide NADPH for lipogenesis, relative to CTRL in the case of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and relative to RS for both G6PDH and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. This approach indicated that elevated hepatic adiposity from DS feeding was not attributable to increased DNL. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Single and combined effects of microplastics and mercury on juveniles of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Changes in behavioural responses and reduction of swimming velocity and resistance time.

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    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Vieira, Luís Russo; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-02-12

    Microplastics and mercury are environmental pollutants of great concern. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of these pollutants, both individually and in binary mixtures, on the swimming performance of juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Microplastics alone, mercury alone and all the mixtures caused significant reduction of the swimming velocity and resistance time of fish. Moreover, changes in behavioural responses including lethargic and erratic swimming behaviour were observed. These results highlight that fish behavioural responses can be used as sensitive endpoint to establish the effects of contamination by microplastics and also emphasizes the need to assess the combined effects of microplastics and other environmental contaminants, with special attention to the effects on behavioural responses in fish and other aquatic species. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Diets supplemented with seaweed affect metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses, but not individual growth rate in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria J.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    in triplicate groups of 20 fish (initial body weight 25.5 ± 4.1 g). Final results showed similar growth rates and digestive activities between diets. Maximum and standard metabolic rates and aerobic metabolic scope revealed comparable results for the three diets. In contrast, fish fed with GR7.5 exhibited......This study investigated the effects of seaweed dietary supplementation on measures of fish performance including aerobic metabolism, digestive enzymes activity, innate immune status, oxidative damage, and growth rate using European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were fed for 49 days...... elevated routine metabolic rate (190.7 mg O2 kg−1 h−1). Fish fed with the GR7.5 and Mix diets had lower alternative complement pathway (ACH50) (62.5 and 63 units mL−1 respectively) than CTRL (84 units mL−1) GR7.5 increased lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase levels, as well as glutathione s...

  13. Shannon Entropy in a European Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax System during the Initial Recovery Period after a Short-Term Exposure to Methylmercury

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    Harkaitz Eguiraun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is an environmental contaminant of increasing relevance as a seafood safety hazard that affects the health and welfare of fish. Non-invasive, on-line methodologies to monitor and evaluate the behavior of a fish system in aquaculture may make the identification of altered systems feasible—for example, due to the presence of agents that compromise their welfare and wholesomeness—and find a place in the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points and Fish Welfare Assurance Systems. The Shannon entropy (SE of a European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax system has been shown to differentiate MeHg-treated from non-treated fish, the former displaying a lower SE value than the latter. However, little is known about the initial evolution of the system after removal of the toxicant. To help to cover this gap, the present work aims at providing information about the evolution of the SE of a European seabass system during a recuperation period of 11 days following a two-week treatment with 4 µg·MeHg/L. The results indicate that the SE of the system did not show a recovery trend during the examined period, displaying erratic responses with daily fluctuations and lacking a tendency to reach the initial SE values.

  14. First record of anisakid juveniles (Nematoda) in the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax (family: Moronidae), and their role as bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution.

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    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Quraishy, Saleh Al; El-Mahdi, Magda; Al-Ghamdi, Ali; Mostafa, Nesma

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the anisakid nematode distribution pattern in the fish collected from coasts of Mediterranean Sea, Egypt, during the period September 2010-April 2011. Two hundred thirty out of 300 (76.7%) Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass) marine fishes belonging to family Moronidae were dissected and found to be infected with larva three nematodes. The larvae had been studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The present work represents the first record of the presence of the parasite in this fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni) in parasites as well as in tissues of fish were measured. The presented results showed that the nematode parasites are able to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues and in some cases that they are able to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in a higher amount than host tissues. This demonstrated their sustainability as bioindicators of environmental pollution by removing heavy metals and help in the survival of fish.

  15. The Bromodomain testis-specific gene (Brdt characterization and expression in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, and European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax

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    M. Úbeda-Manzanaro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple genes and transcription factors are involved in regulation and control of the complex process of sex determination and differentiation of fish species. Also more, several hormonal factors and some environmental conditions can also be adequate spawning strategies and stimuli for inducing reproduction of fish species. Brdt gene belongs to the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET family of transcriptional coregulators. In mammals, Brdt gene is almost exclusively expressed in testis. Furthermore, Brdt protein is involved in elongating spermatids, and is required for proper spermatogenesis and male fertility. However, from our understanding of fish species, the role of this gene as key, during gametogenesis, still remains unknown. In this study, two Brdt mRNA transcripts were isolated from two teleostean fish species, gilthead seabream and European seabass. In both species the shorter form lacked a functional C-terminal domain, which may involve a different function as transcriptional regulator. The pattern of Brdt expression showed that the highest levels occurred in the gonads. Significantly lower levels of expression were detected in brain, pituitary and different organ systems (heart, kidney, gills, among other somatic tissues from both studied species. In situ hybridization approach evidenced that Brdt mRNA expression was restricted to specific cell-types of the germ line, during both oogenesis and spermatogenesis processes.

  16. The European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) innate immunity and gut health are modulated by dietary plant-protein inclusion and prebiotic supplementation.

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    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Kreuz, Eva; Wuertz, Sven; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula; Costas, Benjamín

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in aqua feeds, though a costly strategy, has increased as a means to improve growth. Still, its effects on health improvement are not fully disclosed. Regarding their immunestimulatory properties, research has focused on carbohydrates such as fructooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides demonstrating their modulatory effects on immune defences in higher vertebrates but few studies have been done on their impact on fish immunity. Replacing fish meal (FM) by plant protein (PP) sources is a current practice in the aquaculture business but their content in antinutrients is still a drawback in terms of gut well-functioning. This work intends to evaluate the short-term effect (7 or 15 days feeding the experimental diets) on juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) immune status of dietary i) replacement of FM by PP sources; ii) prebiotics supplementation. Six isoproteic (46%) and isolipidic (15%) diets were tested including a FM control diet (FMCTRL), a PP control diet (PPCTRL, 30 FM:70 PP) and four other diets based on either FM or PP to which short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) or xylooligosaccharides (XOS) were added at 1% (FMFOS, PPFOS, FMXOS, PPXOS). The replacement of FM by PP in the diets induced nitric oxide (NO) and lysozyme production, while immunoglobulins (Ig), monocytes percentage and gut interleukin 10 (IL10) gene expression were inhibited. Dietary scFOS supplementation inhibited total bactericidal activity and neutrophils relative percentage regardless protein source and increased plasma NO and thrombocytes percentage in fish fed FM-based diets, while monocytes percentage was increased in PPFOS-fed fish. XOS supplementation down-regulated immune gene expression in the gut while it partly enhanced systemic response. Inconsistency among results regarding FM replacement by PP-based ingredients exposes the need for further research considering both local and systemic responses. Distinct outcomes of prebiotic

  17. Microplastics cause neurotoxicity, oxidative damage and energy-related changes and interact with the bioaccumulation of mercury in the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758).

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    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Vieira, Luís Russo; Branco, Vasco; Figueiredo, Neusa; Carvalho, Felix; Carvalho, Cristina; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is a global paradigm that raises concern in relation to environmental and human health. This study investigated toxic effects of microplastics and mercury in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine fish widely used as food for humans. A short-term (96 h) laboratory bioassay was done by exposing juvenile fish to microplastics (0.26 and 0.69 mg/L), mercury (0.010 and 0.016 mg/L) and binary mixtures of the two substances using the same concentrations, through test media. Microplastics alone and mercury alone caused neurotoxicity through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, increased lipid oxidation (LPO) in brain and muscle, and changed the activities of the energy-related enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). All the mixtures caused significant inhibition of brain AChE activity (64-76%), and significant increase of LPO levels in brain (2.9-3.4 fold) and muscle (2.2-2.9 fold) but not in a concentration-dependent manner; mixtures containing low and high concentrations of microplastics caused different effects on IDH and LDH activity. Mercury was found to accumulate in the brain and muscle, with bioaccumulation factors of 4-7 and 25-40, respectively. Moreover, in the analysis of mercury concentrations in both tissues, a significant interaction between mercury and microplastics was found. The decay of mercury in the water increased with microplastics concentration, and was higher in the presence of fish than in their absence. Overall, these results indicate that: microplastics influence the bioaccumulation of mercury by D. labrax juveniles; microplastics, mercury and their mixtures (ppb range concentrations) cause neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and damage, and changes in the activities of energy-related enzymes in juveniles of this species; mixtures with the lowest and highest concentrations of their components induced different effects on some biomarkers. These findings and other published

  18. Impact of date palm fruits extracts and probiotic enriched diet on antioxidant status, innate immune response and immune-related gene expression of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

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    Guardiola, F A; Porcino, C; Cerezuela, R; Cuesta, A; Faggio, C; Esteban, M A

    2016-05-01

    The application of additives in the diet as plants or extracts of plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential effects of dietary supplementation of date palm fruit extracts alone or in combination with Pdp11 probiotic on serum antioxidant status, on the humoral and cellular innate immune status, as well as, on the expression levels of some immune-related genes in head-kidney and gut of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after 2 and 4 weeks of administration. This study showed for the first time in European sea bass an immunostimulation in several of the parameters evaluated in fish fed with date palm fruits extracts enriched diet or fed with this substance in combination with Pdp 11 probiotic, mainly after 4 weeks of treatment. In the same way, dietary supplementation of mixture diet has positive effects on the expression levels of immune-related genes, chiefly in head-kidney of Dicentrarchus labrax. Therefore, the combination of both could be considered of great interest as potential additives for farmed fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in behavioural response of Mediterranean seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) under different feeding distributions

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    Daniela Campobello; Gianfranco Martino; Angelo Olivieri; Gianluca Sarà

    2010-01-01

    Captive-induced behavioural deviations may involve many aspects of fish behaviour such as swimming activity and enhancement of individual aggressiveness. We studied seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) behaviour as a function of manual and automatic feeding distribution modes. Under manual mode, the food is distributed over an extended area for a longer period, and its precise location is not always predictable, while with pneumatic automatic feeders, fish receive the same amount of resource, which...

  20. Predictive model of food intake of the Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax in closed aquaculture systems

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    Allan T Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish feeding is the main source of waste in aquaculture and is also responsible for most of the environmental impacts derived from this activity. The European Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax is one of the most farmed fishes in the continent, generating an important load of waste on the environment. The consumption of food in fishes is highly dependent on the water temperature and salinity, which create a source of variability on the amount of the ration consumed by fishes. This issue is often neglected by farmers, which aggravates the ration waste. The use of models in aquaculture is increasing in the recent years, and is an excellent tool to combine an increased production with the mitigation of environmental impacts. In this context, this study aimed at developing a predictive model of the D. labrax consumption rate in closed aquaculture systems. Based on the literature review we were able to develop a conceptual diagram and a prototype of the model using the STELLA software (isee®. The preliminary results indicated that the model was capable of predicting the ration consumption of the D. labrax according to the oscillations in the water temperature and salinity. The consumption rate and growth were higher at 21ºC and with a salinity of 28 psu. Laboratory assays are need to validate the models outputs, and they are scheduled to start in October 2015. Finally, the model’s structure, equations, inputs and outputs were integrated into an easy-to-use software developed by the FoodInTech® company, that will help farmers to increase their yields and reduce the waste of ration and the nutrient load on the environment.

  1. Changes in behavioural response of Mediterranean seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. under different feeding distributions

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    Daniela Campobello

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Captive-induced behavioural deviations may involve many aspects of fish behaviour such as swimming activity and enhancement of individual aggressiveness. We studied seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax behaviour as a function of manual and automatic feeding distribution modes. Under manual mode, the food is distributed over an extended area for a longer period, and its precise location is not always predictable, while with pneumatic automatic feeders, fish receive the same amount of resource, which is concentrated in the same surface area over a shorter period. We compared seabass behaviour under automatic and manual conditions collecting video image recordings before, during, and after feeding distribution, in the morning and in afternoon, on two different days, and analysing data within independent sessions of measurements. Feeding modes significantly affected swimming behaviour: automaticallyfed fish were characterised by vertical movements through the water column (towards the surface and bottom and by horizontal swimming. Manually-fed fish were instead characterised by sharp direction changes during their swimming, mostly towards the surface. Feeding distribution induced changes in collision frequency and elicited aggressive behaviour. In particular, agonistic behaviour (i.e. a fish attacks another fish was almost exclusively recorded during the feeding under automatic distribution, whereas it was constantly expressed during all the distribution phases under manual mode.

  2. Expression and localization of Aquaporin 1a in the sea-bass (Dicentrarchus labrax during ontogeny

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    Ivone eGiffard-Mena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The successful establishment of a species in a given habitat depends on the ability of each of its developing stages to adapt to the environment. In order to understand this process we have studied the adaptation of a euryhaline fish, the sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax, to various salinities during its ontogeny. The expression and localization of Aquaporin 1a (AQP1a mRNA and protein were determined in different osmoregulatory tissues. In larvae, the sites of AQP1a expression are variable and they shift according to age, implying functional changes. In juveniles after metamorphosis (D32-48 post hatch, 15 - 25 mm and in pre-adults, an increase in AQP1a transcript abundance was noted in the digestive tract, and the AQP1a location was observed in the intestine. In juveniles (D87-100 post hatch, 38 - 48 mm, the transcript levels of AQP1a in the digestive tract and in the kidney were higher in sea water than at lower salinity. These observations, in agreement with existing models, suggest that in sea water-acclimated fish, the imbibed water is absorbed via AQP1a through the digestive tract, particularly the intestine and the rectum. In addition, AQP1a may play a role in water reabsorption in the kidney. These mechanisms compensate dehydratation in sea water, and they contribute to the adaptation of juveniles to salinity changes during sea-lagoon migrations. These results contribute to the interpretation of the adaptation of populations to habitats where salinity varies.

  3. Effect of dispersed crude oil on cardiac function in seabass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissier, Florine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lefloch, Nina; Theron, Michael; Lemaire, Philippe; Le Floch, Stéphane; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the impact of dispersed oil was assessed in Dicentrarchus labrax, a fish frequently used as an oil contamination indicator species. Fish were exposed for 48h to (mechanically and chemically) dispersed oil and dispersant alone. The impact of these exposure conditions was assessed on cardiac function by measuring (i) the contraction strength, the contraction and the relaxation speeds (ii) the cardiac energy metabolism using respirometry on permeabilized cardiac fibers. Compared to control, the increase of polycyclic aromatic metabolites observed in the bile indicated oil contamination in our fish. Following 48h of oil exposure at realistic oil concentrations, alterations of cardiac performances were observed. A decrease in contraction strength, contraction and relaxation speeds was observed in the presence of oil without effect of dispersant on these three parameters. Looking at cardiac energy metabolism, dispersant alone decreases all the activity of the respiratory chain and increases the proton leak. From these results, it appears that the observed decrease in cardiac performance in fish exposed to oil was not linked to a decrease in energy availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Response of captive seabass and seabream as behavioural indicator in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pais; Meloni, G.; Serra, S.; Martino, G; Oliveri, A; Sarà, G.

    2007-01-01

    Welfare of cultivate fish at high-density represents an important concern for modern aquaculture. The behaviour of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and seabream (Sparus aurata) reared in cages was studied in a fish farm of northern Sardinia (Italy) in autumn 2006 to test whether captive condition had an effect on the movement patterns of these two species.Video images recorded before, during and after the manual feeding distribution allowed us to collect data on different b...

  5. Response of captive seabass and seabream as behavioural indicator in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pais

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Welfare of cultivate fish at high-density represents an important concern for modern aquaculture. The behaviour of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and seabream (Sparus aurata reared in cages was studied in a fish farm of northern Sardinia (Italy in autumn 2006 to test whether captive condition had an effect on the movement patterns of these two species.Video images recorded before, during and after the manual feeding distribution allowed us to collect data on different behaviours of captive fish. Thus, behaviours indicating the position of fish in the water column, swimming direction and possible aggressive behaviours (aggression, direction change and collision showed juveniles and adults of seabass and seabream were overall affected by feeding rhythms and captive overcrowding. Seabream had a major tendency to swim towards the bottom and higher frequency of horizontal swimming and collisions than seabass. The overall behavioural difference between two species was explained in terms of their differences in ecological features in the wild.

  6. European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.

    2014-05-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 °C) and two seawater pCO2 levels (ambient and 1,000 μatm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 °C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 °C. Similarly, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 °C and 1000 μatm pCO2 were significantly heavier. However, juvenile D. labrax raised under this combination of 19 °C and 1000 μatm pCO2 also exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 °C and ambient pCO2. Most studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested that these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. Whilst the increased survival and growth observed in this study supports this view, we conclude that more work is required to investigate whether the differences in juvenile physiology observed in this study manifest as negative impacts in adult fish.

  7. Dietary probiotic supplementation improved gut amylase to trypsin ratio in European seabass reared at different temperatures and survival after handling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe Ferreira Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics and chemical treatments are often used as disease control strategy. A prophylactic and alternative method to this chemical approach are the probiotics [1]. Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host" (FAO, 2001. The benefits of probiotic treatments are improvements in host nutritional retention [2], antagonistic properties to bacterial pathogen proliferation [3], modulation of immune responses [4], among others. Temperature plays a major role in dietary nutrient utilization and immune responses in fish, and have a modulatory effect on probiotic activity in intestine. The current study evaluated the use of a dietary probiotic supplementation in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, one of the most important fish species in Southern Europe. Fish were fed on a multi-species probiotic (Bacillus sp., Pedicoccus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. , reared under 3 different temperatures (17, 20 and 23 ºC for 70 days. Fish were pair-fed, fixed to the voluntary feed intake of fish reared at 17 º C, in order to have similar probiotic intake among the temperature groups. Final body weight tripled initial weight (12.7 to 30.7g. At the end of the growth trial, all fish were subjected to a handling stress, in which stocking density increased by 6 fold (from 4 kg/m3 to 25 kg/m3, followed by a 15 min chase with a pole. Growth performance was not affected by the dietary treatment. Post-stress cumulative mortality were significantly higher in the 17ºC control group (figure 1A. Digestive enzymes activity were significantly affected by temperature and diet interaction. The activity ratio of amylase to trypsin (figure 1B increased with temperature and dietary probiotic supplementation, an indication that probiotic treatment at 23oC have a positive influence on the metabolic flexibility of carbohydrate-protein utilization. Non-specific immune response (ACH50

  8. Relationships among traits of aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance in individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

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    Stefano Marras

    Full Text Available Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits.

  9. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissolved oxygen regimen (PO2 may affect osmorespiratory compromise in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

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    Genciana Terova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally, in land based mediterranean aquaculture, two techniques are applied to supply water with oxygen: paddling water aeration and application of pure oxygen. The two oxygenation techniques result in quite different PO2 regimens and, consequently, different fish growth performance and gill morphology. Data exist showing a reduction in total respiratory surface (RSA and increasing gas diffusion distance (GDD in gills of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. farmed under elevated PO2 regimens. That such a modification might have an effect on the ion regulation has been defined elsewhere as osmorespiratory compromise. In this study, European sea bass previously acclimatized to two PO2 regimens, mild hypoxia and mild hyperoxia (70-80% and 130-140% of the saturation value, respectively, were challenged for 1 hour with hypo-osmotic plus manipulation stress in two separate trials. During the first trial, when only Na+ loss was determined, the ion efflux during the first 5 min resulted in a rate of 163.72±31 and 112.23±87 nmol g-1min-1 from hypoxia and hyperoxia sea bass groups, respectively, and, if sustained, would approach 15.3 and 11.2% per hour of the total body Na+, respectively. During the second trial, in which both Na+ and Cl- loss were determined, after 60 min the Na+ loss was shown to be 76.86±12 and 179.28±32 nmol g-1 min-1 for the fish previously acclimatized to hyperoxia and hypoxia regimens, respectively, whereas for Cl- this loss was 62.02±11 and 157.28±28 nmol g-1min-1, respectively. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis of an osmotic advantage of sea bass exposed to an elevated PO2 regimen, achievable with application of pure oxygen, instead of simple water aeration.

  11. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax in the Dutch Wadden Sea : From visitor to resident species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J. F. M. F.; Freitas, V.; Quilez, I.; Jouta, J.; Witte, J. Ij.; Van der Veer, H. W.

    This paper analyses the population dynamics, growth and feeding ecology of Dicentrarchus labrax in order to gain a better understanding of its present role in the western Dutch Wadden Sea ecosystem. Otolith analysis showed that the population is mostly comprised of individuals aged 3-5 years old and

  12. Whole genome semiconductor based sequencing of farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Mediterranean genetic stocks using a DNA pooling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesca; Geraci, Claudia; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Fontanesi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is an important marine species for commercial and sport fisheries and aquaculture production. Recently, the European sea bass genome has been sequenced and assembled. This resource can open new opportunities to evaluate and monitor variability and identify variants that could contribute to the adaptation to farming conditions. In this work, two DNA pools constructed from cultivated European sea bass were sequenced using a next generation semiconductor sequencing approach based on Ion Proton sequencer. Using the first draft version of the D. labrax genome as reference, sequenced reads obtained a total of about 1.6 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), spread all over the chromosomes. Transition/transversion (Ti/Tv) was equal to 1.28, comparable to what was already reported in Salmon species. A pilot homozygosity analysis across the D. labrax genome using DNA pool sequence datasets indicated that this approach can identify chromosome regions with putative signatures of selection, including genes involved in ion transport and chloride channel functions, amino acid metabolism and circadian clock and related neurological systems. This is the first study that reported genome wide polymorphisms in a fish species obtained with the Ion Proton sequencer. Moreover, this study provided a methodological approach for selective sweep analysis in this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sound exposure changes European seabass behaviour in a large outdoor floating pen: Effects of temporal structure and a ramp-up procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Y Y; Hubert, J; Bolle, L; Winter, H V; Ten Cate, C; Slabbekoorn, H

    2016-07-01

    Underwater sound from human activities may affect fish behaviour negatively and threaten the stability of fish stocks. However, some fundamental understanding is still lacking for adequate impact assessments and potential mitigation strategies. For example, little is known about the potential contribution of the temporal features of sound, the efficacy of ramp-up procedures, and the generalisability of results from indoor studies to the outdoors. Using a semi-natural set-up, we exposed European seabass in an outdoor pen to four treatments: 1) continuous sound, 2) intermittent sound with a regular repetition interval, 3) irregular repetition intervals and 4) a regular repetition interval with amplitude 'ramp-up'. Upon sound exposure, the fish increased swimming speed and depth, and swam away from the sound source. The behavioural readouts were generally consistent with earlier indoor experiments, but the changes and recovery were more variable and were not significantly influenced by sound intermittency and interval regularity. In addition, the 'ramp-up' procedure elicited immediate diving response, similar to the onset of treatment without a 'ramp-up', but the fish did not swim away from the sound source as expected. Our findings suggest that while sound impact studies outdoors increase ecological and behavioural validity, the inherently higher variability also reduces resolution that may be counteracted by increasing sample size or looking into different individual coping styles. Our results also question the efficacy of 'ramp-up' in deterring marine animals, which warrants more investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Hematological Status as Health Indicator of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. Fed Different Dietary Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Şahan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were fed rich canola oil which is containing monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and rich cottonseed oil which is containing n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA and the effects of these feeds on some hematological parameters were investigated. Experimental fish were fed two times daily with 100% fish oil (FO-control, 100% cottonseed oil (CSO, 100% canola oil (CO and 50% CSO - 50% CO (CSO50-CO50 for 162 days. End of the experiment, total erythrocyte (RBC amount was highest in the CSO group 269.0 x (104 mm3 -1 compared to all other groups. Leukocyte (WBC 96.280 x (103 mm3 -1, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil amounts showed significant increases in only CSO group. Therefore, in terms of fish health and welfare, the exclusive use of cottonseed oil without mixing with the other vegetable oils in sea bass diet formulation can be a viable alternative to fish oil since it has the most suitable fatty acids.

  15. Genetic inactivation of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. eggs using UV-irradiation: observations and perspectives.

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    Julie Colléter

    Full Text Available Androgenesis is a form of uniparental reproduction leading to progenies inheriting only the paternal set of chromosomes. It has been achieved with variable success in a number of freshwater species and can be attained by artificial fertilization of genetically inactivated eggs following exposure to gamma (γ, X-ray or UV irradiation (haploid androgenesis and by restoration of diploidy by suppression of mitosis using a pressure or thermal shock. The conditions for the genetic inactivation of the maternal genome in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. were explored using different combinations of UV irradiation levels and durations. UV treatments significantly affected embryo survival and generated a wide range of developmental abnormalities. Despite the wide range of UV doses tested (from 7.2 to 720 mJ x cm(-2, only one dose (60 mJ x cm(-2 x min(-1 with 1 min irradiation resulted in a small percentage (14% of haploid larvae at hatching in the initial trials as verified by flow cytometry. Microsatellite marker analyses of three further batches of larvae produced by using this UV treatment showed a majority of larvae with variable levels of paternal and maternal contributions and only one larva displaying pure paternal inheritance. The results are discussed also in the context of an assessment of the UV-absorbance characteristics of egg extracts in this species that revealed the presence of gadusol, a compound structurally related to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs with known UV-screening properties.

  16. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing

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    Volckaert Filip AM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690 were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish.

  17. Water temperature influences growth and gonad differentiation in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfuso, F; Guerrera, M C; Fortino, G; Fazio, F; Santulli, A; Piccione, G

    2017-01-15

    The effect of rearing temperature on gonad differentiation and growth was evaluated in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). One control group (CG, n = 60) and two experimental groups (EG1, n = 30; EG2, n = 30) were selected. CG was reared at 15.0 °C during 10 days post-hatch (dph) and at 19.0 °C throughout the remaining larval and post-larval development. EG1 was exposed to 14.5 °C from 1 to 50 dph, followed by an increase to 20 °C until sampling (176 dph). EG2 was exposed to 14.5 °C from 1 to 37 dph, followed by an increase to 20 °C until sampling (226 dph); 30 fish from CG were randomly sampled at 176 dph (CG1, control for EG1) and 30 fish were sampled at 226 dph (CG2, control for EG2). Weight, total and fork length measurement, and gonad collection were performed. All biometric indices were higher in EG1 and EG2 than in CG1 and CG2, respectively. Histologic analysis reported 100% of undifferentiated gonads in CG1 and; EG1 reported 80% of undifferentiated gonads and 20% of gonads at early differentiation toward the male line. CG2 reported 34% of undifferentiated gonads, 10% of gonads at early differentiation toward the female line, 23% of gonads at early differentiation toward the male line, and 33% of gonads with intratesticular oocytes. EG2 reported 47% of gonads differentiated in testis, 33% gonads differentiated in ovary, and 20% of gonads with intratesticular oocytes. These results suggest that water temperature plays an important role in the process of gonad differentiation and growth of sea bass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Screening of ecotoxicological, qualitative and reproductive variables in male European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) reared in three different fish farms: Facility location and typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Corsi, Ilaria; Bonacci, Stefano; Sensini, Cristiana; Cicero, Nicola; Focardi, Silvano; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both facility location and typology of fish farm on some ecotoxicological, qualitative and reproductive variables in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. Several variables were investigated: gonado-somatic index (GSI), liver-somatic index (LSI); 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase and acetylcholinesterase activities; glutathione (GSH), testosterone, 17β-estradiol, total lipid, phospholipid (PL) and triglyceride contents. In addition, the histological sections of gonads were examined. Results suggest that LSI, EROD activity, GSI, GSH, PL, hormone levels and gonad morphology were influenced by different facility locations and typologies of fish farm.

  19. The development of contemporary European sea bass larvae (Dicentrarchus labrax) is not affected by projected ocean acidification scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespel, Amélie; Zambonino-Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Koumoundouros, George; Fragkoulis, Stefanos; Quazuguel, Patrick; Huelvan, Christine; Madec, Laurianne; Servili, Arianna; Claireaux, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification is a recognized consequence of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission in the atmosphere. Despite its threat to marine ecosystems, little is presently known about the capacity for fish to respond efficiently to this acidification. In adult fish, acid-base regulatory capacities are believed to be relatively competent to respond to hypercapnic conditions. However, fish in early life stage could be particularly sensitive to environmental factors as organs and important physiological functions become progressively operational during this period. In this study, the response of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) larvae reared under three ocean acidification scenarios, i.e., control (present condition, [Formula: see text] = 590 µatm, pH total = 7.9), low acidification (intermediate IPCC scenario, [Formula: see text] = 980 µatm, pH total = 7.7), and high acidification (most severe IPCC scenario, [Formula: see text] = 1520 µatm, pH total = 7.5) were compared across multiple levels of biological organizations. From 2 to 45 days-post-hatching, the chronic exposure to the different scenarios had limited influence on the survival and growth of the larvae (in the low acidification condition only) and had no apparent effect on the digestive developmental processes. The high acidification condition induced both faster mineralization and reduction in skeletal deformities. Global (microarray) and targeted (qPCR) analysis of transcript levels in whole larvae did not reveal any significant changes in gene expression across tested acidification conditions. Overall, this study suggests that contemporary sea bass larvae are already capable of coping with projected acidification conditions without having to mobilize specific defense mechanisms.

  20. Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (Pdiets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, Pdiets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most efficient way to increase growth on plant-based diets, meaning that, in this case, indirect selection should be more efficient than direct selection.

  1. A decadal trend of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. responses to climate patterns in the Mondego estuary, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Granja Bento

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine systems support the life cycle stages of commercially important marine fish and are influenced by large and local-scale climatic patterns. Also, extreme events triggered by climate changes may influence the functioning of nursery grounds and recruitment for several fish species. In this study, performed in the Mondego estuary, Portugal, we used an 11-year database (2003-2013 for analyzing the variability in the population of a marine juvenile migrant fish, the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, regarding changes in abundance, population structure, growth rates and secondary production and annual day of peak abundance. Higher densities and production occurred at the beginning of the study, but no differences in 0-group growth could be observed. In order to detect change points in both biological and climatic data, the cumulative sum (CUSUM of the deviations from the mean for the 2003-2013 period were determined for each parameter. The relationship between large- and local-scale drivers and 0-group abundance, secondary production and day of peak abundance were evaluated using a Pearson correlation analysis of CUSUM of biological and environmental data, considering the correspondent yearly values and with a time-lag of 1 year. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index, sea surface temperature (SST and their respective winter values were tested as large-scale factors, while river runoff, salinity and water temperature were considered as local climate patterns. River runoff was the significant factor explaining D. labrax 0-group abundances and the NAO and water temperature were also significant predictors considering the 1-year lag. Regarding D. labrax 0-group secondary production, salinity and water temperature were the significant predictors. The NAO with 1-year lag was also negatively correlated with the day of peak abundance. The observed variability regarding yearly trends in abundance of juvenile fish was mostly linked to local

  2. Application of nonparametric multivariate analyses to the authentication of wild and farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Results of a survey on fish sampled in the retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Novelli, Enrico; Salmaso, Luigi; Corain, Livio; Camin, Federica; Perini, Matteo; Antonetti, Paolo; Balzan, Stefania

    2010-10-27

    The aim of this study was to apply biometric measurements and analyses of proximate composition, fatty acid composition, and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in muscle tissue to reliably differentiate between wild and farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Farmed (n = 20) and wild (n = 19) European sea bass were purchased between March and May 2008 and used as standard samples. In the same months, a survey was conducted to evaluate the truthfulness of the statements on the labels of European sea bass sold in retail markets (declared farmed n = 34 and declared wild n = 33). In addition, data from the literature (reference) were employed to build the profile type of wild and farmed European sea bass. Primarily, an exploration and comparison of the analytical data of the standard data set based on principal component analysis and permutation test were performed. Afterward, an inferential statistical approach based on nonparametric combination test methodology (NPC) was applied on standard samples to check its suitability in discriminating the production method. This multivariate statistical analysis selected 30 variables on a total of 36 available. The validation of standard fish data set was accomplished by a novel nonparametric rank-based method according to profile type (just 1 misclassification over 39 samples). Both the NPC test and nonparametric rank-based method were then applied to survey fishes using the selected variables with the aim to classify the individual European sea bass as "true farmed" or "true wild". The former test segregated 10 fishes over 33 declared wild, whereas the results obtained by the nonparametric rank-based method showed that 11 of 33 declared wild European sea bass samples could be unquestionably attributed to the wild cluster. Moreover, considering the comparative contribution of profile type, a few surveyed farmed samples were ascribed to the wild cluster.

  3. Simulation of a Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) spill in the marine environment: lethal and sublethal effects of acrylonitrile to the European seabass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuparth, T; Capela, R; Rey-Salgueiro, L; Moreira, S M; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2013-10-01

    Despite the extensive maritime transportation of Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS), there is a current lack of knowledge on the effects posed by HNS spills on the marine biota. Among the HNS identified as priority, acrylonitrile was selected to conduct ecotoxicological assays. We assessed the acute and subletal effects of acrylonitrile in seabass, followed by a recovery phase to simulate the conditions of a spill incident. The work aimed at testing a broad range of biological responses induced by acrylonitrile. Sublethal exposure to the highest two doses increased the fish mortality rate (8.3% and 25% mortality in 0.75 and 2 mg L(-1) acrylonitrile concentrations), whereas no mortality were observed in control and 0.15 mg L(-1) treatments. Additionally, important alterations at sub-individual level were observed. Acrylonitrile significantly induced the activities of Catalase- CAT and Glutathione S-Transferase - GST; and the levels of DNA damage were significantly increased. Conversely, Superoxide Dismutase- SOD - activity was found to be significantly inhibited and no effects were found on Lipid Peroxidation- LPO and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase - EROD - activity. Following a 7d recovery period, the levels of CAT, GST and EROD fell to levels at or below those in the control. In the 2 mg L(-1) group, SOD remained at the levels found during exposure phase. This study has gathered essential information on the acute and subletal toxicity of acrylonitrile to seabass. It also demonstrated that 7d recovery allowed a return of most endpoints to background levels. These data will be useful to assist relevant bodies in preparedness and response to HNS spills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of different dietary energy content and feeding regimes on growth and feed utilization of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in aquaculture underlines the need to optimize the feeding strategy for this fish species. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary energy content and feeding regime on growth performance, feed uti- lization and feeding costs for European sea bass. Seven hundreds and forthyfourfish(averageinitial forthyfourfish(averageinitial four fish ( average initial body weight 68g were randomly allocated into twelve tanks 800 l in a closed recirculation system (water temperature: 22°C; dissolved oxygen ≥90% of saturation. Three isoproteic (47% crude protein extruded diets were formulated with different lipid levels i.e. 16% (diet D16, 24% (diet D24 and 32% (diet D32 and each diet was fed at two different feeding regimes (satiation and 80% satiation accord- ing to a bifactorial experimental design. Feed intake (FI was recorded daily. After 77 days, fish were bulk weighed and growth, SGR and FCR were calculated. Feedingregimesaffectedall theanalysed Feeding regimes affected all the analysed parameters (P<0.05, whereas diet influenced only FCR, FI, protein and lipid intake and the economic efficiency ratio (EER. Fish fed the lowest energy content diet (D16 to satiation resulted in the highest feed intake, a FCR similar to that of fish fed diets D24 and D32 and in the lowest EER.

  5. Modalities of the infection of Dicentrarchus labrax by the ectoparasite Diplectanum aequans (Monogenea) in aquaculture. Epidemiological and prophylactic data.

    OpenAIRE

    Silan, Patrick; Maillard, Claude

    1986-01-01

    International audience; Among the three monogeneans which are found on the seabass Dicentrarchus labrax, Diplectanum aequans proved many times to be the most pathogenic in aquaculture. Aspects of demographical patterns peculiar to the parasite were analysed on hosts reared in floating cages, raceways and experimental tanks. While regulating mechanisms occur in the cages which control the demographic expansion, the increase of populations in the tanks sometimes becomes so high that it leads to...

  6. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy for fast fraud detection in seafood: application to the authentication of wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottavian, Matteo; Facco, Pierantonio; Fasolato, Luca; Novelli, Enrico; Mirisola, Massimo; Perini, Matteo; Barolo, Massimiliano

    2012-01-18

    The possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the authentication of wild European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) was investigated in this study. Three different chemometric techniques to process the NIR spectra were developed, and their ability to discriminate between wild and farmed sea bass samples was evaluated. One approach used spectral information to directly build the discrimination model in a latent variable space; the second approach first used wavelets to transform the spectral information and subsequently derived the discrimination model using the transformed spectra; in the third approach a cascaded arrangement was proposed whereby very limited chemical information was first estimated from spectra using a regression model, and this estimated information was then used to build the discrimination model in a latent variable space. All techniques showed that NIRS can be used to reliably discriminate between wild and farmed sea bass, achieving the same classification performance as classification methods that use chemical properties and morphometric traits. However, compared to methods based on chemical analysis, NIRS-based classification methods do not require reagents and are simpler, faster, more economical, and environmentally safer. All proposed techniques indicated that the most predictive spectral regions were those related to the absorbance of groups CH, CH(2), CH(3), and H(2)O, which are related to fat, fatty acids, and water content.

  7. Loss of genetic variation in Greek hatchery populations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis

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    D. LOUKOVITIS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in four reared stocks of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L., originating from Greek commercial farms, was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers and was compared with that of three natural populations from Greece and France. The total number of alleles per marker ranged from 8 to 22 alleles, and hatchery samples showed the same levels of observed heterozygosity with samples from the wild but substantially smaller allelic richness and expected heterozygosity. The genetic differentiation of cultivated samples between them as well as from the wild origin fish was significant as indicated by Fst analysis. All population pairwise comparisons were statistically significant, except for the pair of the two natural Greek populations. Results of microsatellite DNA analysis herein showed a 37 % reduction of the mean allele number in the hatchery samples compared to the wild ones, suggesting random genetic drift and inbreeding events operating in the hatcheries. Knowledge of the genetic variation in D. labrax cultured populations compared with that in the wild ones is essential for setting up appropriate guidelines for proper monitoring and management of the stocks either under traditional practices or for the implementation of selective breeding programmes.

  8. Group-synchronous ovarian development, spawning and spermiation in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. could be regulated by shifts in gonadal steroidogenesis

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    Juan F. Asturiano

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. is a species with group-synchronous ovarian development. A mechanism is required which enables maturation to occur in the first clutches of oocytes without inducing maturation in subsequent clutches. The present study examined the individual plasma variations of testosterone (T, 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?P and 17,20?,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20?S in both sexes, estradiol (E2 and vitellogenin (VTG in females (n=15 and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT in males (n=21, in an effort to elucidate the hormonal control of the reproductive cycle in this species. A sample of oocytes was obtained at every sampling from each female and the stage of development of the most advanced clutch of oocytes was determined and related to the individual hormone plasma levels. Total expressible milt was collected from males at each sampling during the spawning period and variations in the sperm production were related to hormone plasma levels. Successive elevations of plasma T and E2 levels were observed prior to peaks of progestagens, which resulted from the shift in gonadal steroidogenesis and coincided with the maturation-ovulation of the different clutches of oocytes or with increases in the sperm production. Following each progestagens wave, a new shift in gonadal steroidogenesis, resulting in a new elevation in plasma T and E2, was observed. This hormonal pattern was repeated several times depending on the number of ovulations per female. Results from the present study suggest a mechanism, based on shifts in gonadal steroidogenesis, which may be responsible for regulation of group-synchronous ovarian development, ovulation and spermiation in this species. In addition, evidence is presented which supports a role for both 17,20?P and 20?S as the maturation-inducing steroids (MIS in male and female European sea bass.

  9. Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration

  10. Developmental expression of DAX1 in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: lack of evidence for sexual dimorphism during sex differentiation

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    Power Deborah M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DAX1 (NR0B1, a member of the nuclear receptors super family, has been shown to be involved in the genetic sex determination and in gonadal differentiation in several vertebrate species. In the aquaculture fish European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and in the generality of fish species, the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation have not been elucidated. The present study aimed at characterizing the European DAX1 gene and its developmental expression at the mRNA level. Methods A full length European sea bass DAX1 cDNA (sbDAX1 was isolated by screening a testis cDNA library. The structure of the DAX1 gene was determined by PCR and Southern blot. Multisequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis were used to compare the translated sbDAX1 product to that of other vertebrates. sbDAX1 expression was analysed by Northern blot and relative RT-PCR in adult tissues. Developmental expression of mRNA levels was analysed in groups of larvae grown either at 15°C or 20°C (masculinising temperature during the first 60 days, or two groups of fish selected for fast (mostly females and slow growth. Results The sbDAX1 is expressed as a single transcript in testis and ovary encoding a predicted protein of 301 amino acids. A polyglutamine stretch of variable length in different DAX1 proteins is present in the DNA binding domain. The sbDAX1 gene is composed of two exons, separated by a single 283 bp intron with conserved splice sites in same region of the ligand binding domain as other DAX1 genes. sbDAX1 mRNA is not restricted to the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis and is also detected in the gut, heart, gills, muscle and kidney. sbDAX1 mRNA was detected as early as 4 days post hatching (dph and expression was not affected by incubation temperature. Throughout gonadal sex differentiation (60–300 dph no dimorphic pattern of expression was observed. Conclusion The sbDAX1 gene and putative protein coding region is highly conserved

  11. The influence of dietary β-glucans on the adaptive and innate immune responses of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax vaccinated against vibriosis

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    Pier Paolo Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding 1,3/1,6 β-glucans on the innate and the adaptive immune responses of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax was investigated. Two experiments were carried out during the study. In the first, a number of non-specific immune parameters were examined at 4, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 25 days of feeding fish with a semipurified diet containing Macrogard ©, a commercially available form of 1,3/1,6 β-glucans. The respiratory burst activity of head kidney macrophages isolated from the different groups of fish fed the immunostimulant peaked and subsequently decreased at different times during the experiment. Head kidney macrophages from fish fed 250 ppm β-glucans had a statistically higher level of respiratory burst activity at Day 21 of feeding compared with fish fed no immunostimulant. No statistical differences were observed in lyzozyme activity during this trial. In the second experiment, the effect of feeding 1,3/1,6 β-glucans on the immune response of fish to an alginate-encapsulated Vibrio vaccine administered orally was examined. Respiratory burst of head kidney macrophages and serum lysozyme activity decreased in all fish over the course of the trial, while serum lysozyme activity was considerably lower than values obtained in the first experiment. Fish vaccinated orally had significant increases in antibody response by Week 2 post-vaccination, but β-glucans did not appear to affect these levels. Vaccination may have resulted in activating the immune system as a whole, thus masking any difference in immunostimulation by the β-glucans. It may be that the optimal doses and timing of β-glucans administration is different when the immunostimulant is administered alone or in combination with the vaccine. In conclusion, European sea bass can be immunomodulated with oral administration of β-glucan. Optimal doses and administration times have been established when β-glucans are fed alone, although further studies are needed to

  12. Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture

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    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

  13. Identification of conserved genes triggering puberty in European sea bass males (Dicentrarchus labrax) by microarray expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, Mercedes; Medina, Paula; Crespo, Berta; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

    2017-06-05

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process characterized by the activation and/or repression of a number of genes in a spatio-temporal manner. Pubertal development in males starts with the onset of the first spermatogenesis and implies the division of primary spermatogonia and their subsequent entry into meiosis. This study is aimed at the characterization of genes involved in the onset of puberty in European sea bass, and constitutes the first transcriptomic approach focused on meiosis in this species. European sea bass testes collected at the onset of puberty (first successful reproduction) were grouped in stage I (resting stage), and stage II (proliferative stage). Transition from stage I to stage II was marked by an increase of 11ketotestosterone (11KT), the main fish androgen, whereas the transcriptomic study resulted in 315 genes differentially expressed between the two stages. The onset of puberty induced 1) an up-regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle and meiosis progression, 2) changes in genes related with reproduction and growth, and 3) a down-regulation of genes included in the retinoic acid (RA) signalling pathway. The analysis of GO-terms and biological pathways showed that cell cycle, cell division, cellular metabolic processes, and reproduction were affected, consistent with the early events that occur during the onset of puberty. Furthermore, changes in the expression of three RA nuclear receptors point at the importance of the RA-signalling pathway during this period, in agreement with its role in meiosis. The results contribute to boost our knowledge of the early molecular and endocrine events that trigger pubertal development and the onset of spermatogenesis in fish. These include an increase in 11KT plasma levels and changes in the expression of several genes involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, meiosis or RA-signalling pathway. Moreover, the results can be applied to study meiosis in this economically

  14. Role of cholecystokinin and its antagonist proglumide on macronutrient selection in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, V C; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Madrid, J A

    2008-03-18

    Teleost fish are able to adjust their energy intake when fed on pure macronutrient sources, although the exact mechanisms regulating macronutrient selection remain unknown. Since cholecystokinin (CCK) has been reported to modify macronutrient selection patterns in mammals, we explored the effect of CCK administered orally to European sea bass on the selection of separately encapsulated macronutrients. CCK doses of 0.05, 0.15 and 0.25 mg/kg BW administered in gelatine capsules for 5 consecutive days produced a significant inhibition of total food intake (21, 28 and 51%, respectively) at highest doses, evenly reducing the quantity of all the macronutrients ingested and, without affecting their relative proportions in the diet. Oral administration of proglumide, a non-specific CCK receptor antagonist, at doses of 5, 15 and 25 mg/kg BW, induced a quantitative total food intake increase of 2, 18 and 44%, respectively, and an increase of 52% in CH and 43% in P quantity ingested at highest dose. Co-administration of proglumide (25 mg/kg BW) and CCK (0.25 mg/kg BW) in a single preload capsule blocked the effects observed with CCK alone. In conclusion, orally administered CCK induced an anorexigenic effect on both total food and single macronutrient intake, an effect that is counteracted by the CCK antagonist proglumide.

  15. Physiological mechanisms underlying individual variation in tolerance of food deprivation in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, David J; Vergnet, Alain; Chatain, Béatrice; Vandeputte, Marc; Desmarais, Erick; Steffensen, John F; Guinand, Bruno

    2014-09-15

    Although food deprivation is a major ecological pressure in fishes, there is wide individual variation in tolerance of fasting, whose mechanistic bases are poorly understood. Two thousand individually tagged juvenile European sea bass were submitted to two 'fasting/feeding' cycles each comprising 3 weeks of food deprivation followed by 3 weeks of ad libitum feeding at 25°C. Rates of mass loss during the two fasting periods were averaged for each individual to calculate a population mean. Extreme fasting tolerant (FT) and sensitive (FS) phenotypes were identified that were at least one and a half standard deviations, on opposing sides, from this mean. Respirometry was used to investigate two main hypotheses: (1) tolerance of food deprivation reflects lower mass-corrected routine metabolic rate (RMR) in FT phenotypes when fasting, and (2) tolerance reflects differences in substrate utilisation; FT phenotypes use relatively less proteins as metabolic fuels during fasting, measured as their ammonia quotient (AQ), the simultaneous ratio of ammonia excretion to RMR. There was no difference in mean RMR between FT and FS over 7 days fasting, being 6.70±0.24 mmol h(-1) fish(-1) (mean ± s.e.m., N=18) versus 6.76±0.22 mmol h(-1) fish(-1) (N=17), respectively, when corrected to a body mass of 130 g. For any given RMR, however, the FT lost mass at a significantly lower rate than FS, overall 7-day average being 0.72±0.05 versus 0.90±0.05 g day(-1) fish(-1), respectively (Pfood pellets, ammonia excretion and simultaneous RMR were elevated and similar in FT and FS, with AQs of 0.105±0.009 and 0.089±0.007, respectively. At the end of the period of fasting, ammonia excretion and RMR had fallen in both phenotypes, but AQ was significantly lower in FT than FS, being 0.038±0.004 versus 0.061±0.005, respectively (Pfood deprivation did not depend upon their routine energy use when fasting. Rather, it depended upon their relative use of tissue proteins as metabolic fuels when

  16. Using trace elements in otoliths to discriminate between wild and farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arechavala-Lopez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trace elements in otoliths of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. and sea bream (Sparus aurata L. from fish farms and coastal wild populations in the western Mediterranean Sea were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results showed that concentrations of Mg, K, and Mn differed significantly between wild and farmed sea bass, while concentrations of Mg, K, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, and Ba varied significantly between wild and farmed sea bream. Discriminate analysis and cross-validation classification showed that the trace element profile in otoliths can be used to separate farmed fish from wild stocks with high accuracy on both sea bass (individuals correctly classified: 90.7 % and sea bream (individuals correctly classified: 96.6 %. Moreover, trace elements in otoliths resulted to be useful to discriminate among wild fish stocks within each species.

  17. n-TiO{sub 2} and CdCl{sub 2} co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles and cadmium: Genomic, DNA and chromosomal damage evaluation in the marine fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, M.; Bernardeschi, M. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Costagliola, D. [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Della Torre, C. [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, G., E-mail: giada@biomed.unipi.it [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Guidi, P.; Lucchesi, P. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Mottola, F.; Santonastaso, M. [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Scarcelli, V. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Monaci, F.; Corsi, I. [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Stingo, V.; Rocco, L. [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • European sea bass was exposed to CdCl{sub 2} and n-TiO{sub 2} alone and in combination. • Genotoxicity was evaluated by RAPD-assay, comet assay and cytome assay. • CdCl{sub 2} induced DNA primary damage but not chromosomal damage. • n-TiO{sub 2} induced chromosomal damage but not DNA primary damage. • Co-exposure effects depend on the biomarker used. - Abstract: Due to the large production and growing use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO{sub 2}), their release in the marine environment and their potential interaction with existing toxic contaminants represent a growing concern for biota. Different end-points of genotoxicity were investigated in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax exposed to n-TiO{sub 2} (1 mg L{sup −1}) either alone and combined with CdCl{sub 2} (0.1 mg L{sup −1}) for 7 days. DNA primary damage (comet assay), apoptotic cells (diffusion assay), occurrence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities (cytome assay) were assessed in peripheral erythrocytes and genomic stability (random amplified polymorphism DNA-PCR, RAPD assay) in muscle tissue. Results showed that genome template stability was reduced after CdCl{sub 2} and n-TiO{sub 2} exposure. Exposure to n-TiO{sub 2} alone was responsible for chromosomal alteration but ineffective in terms of DNA damage; while the opposite was observed in CdCl{sub 2} exposed specimens. Co-exposure apparently prevents the chromosomal damage and leads to a partial recovery of the genome template stability.

  18. Genomic characterization of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax reveals the presence of a novel uncoupling protein (UCP) gene family member in the teleost fish lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncoupling proteins (UCP) are evolutionary conserved mitochondrial carriers that control energy metabolism and therefore play important roles in several physiological processes such as thermogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), growth control, lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin secretion. Despite their importance in various physiological processes, their molecular function remains controversial. The evolution and phylogenetic distribution may assist to identify their general biological function and structure-function relationships. The exact number of uncoupling protein genes in the fish genome and their evolution is unresolved. Results Here we report the first characterisation of UCP gene family members in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and then retrace the evolution of the protein family in vertebrates. Four UCP genes that are shared by five other fish species were identified in sea bass genome. Phylogenetic reconstitution among vertebrate species and synteny analysis revealed that UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 evolved from duplication events that occurred in the common ancestor of vertebrates, whereas the novel fourth UCP originated specifically in the teleost lineage. Functional divergence analysis among teleost species revealed specific amino acid positions that have been subjected to altered functional constraints after duplications. Conclusions This work provides the first unambiguous evidence for the presence of a fourth UCP gene in teleost fish genome and brings new insights into the evolutionary history of the gene family. Our results suggest functional divergence among paralogues which might result from long-term and differential selective pressures, and therefore, provide the indication that UCP genes may have diverse physiological functions in teleost fishes. Further experimental analysis of the critical amino acids identified here may provide valuable information on the physiological functions of UCP genes. PMID:22577775

  19. Calcium response of KCl-excited populations of ventricular myocytes from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): a promising approach to integrate cell-to-cell heterogeneity in studying the cellular basis of fish cardiac performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Hélène; Marchant, James; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Servili, Arianna; Claireaux, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Climate change challenges the capacity of fishes to thrive in their habitat. However, through phenotypic diversity, they demonstrate remarkable resilience to deteriorating conditions. In fish populations, inter-individual variation in a number of fitness-determining physiological traits, including cardiac performance, is classically observed. Information about the cellular bases of inter-individual variability in cardiac performance is scarce including the possible contribution of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. This study aimed at providing insight into EC coupling-related Ca(2+) response and thermal plasticity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A cell population approach was used to lay the methodological basis for identifying the cellular determinants of cardiac performance. Fish were acclimated at 12 and 22 °C and changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) following KCl stimulation were measured using Fura-2, at 12 or 22 °C-test. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i resulted primarily from extracellular Ca(2+) entry but sarcoplasmic reticulum stores were also shown to be involved. As previously reported in sea bass, a modest effect of adrenaline was observed. Moreover, although the response appeared relatively insensitive to an acute temperature change, a difference in Ca(2+) response was observed between 12- and 22 °C-acclimated fish. In particular, a greater increase in [Ca(2+)]i at a high level of adrenaline was observed in 22 °C-acclimated fish that may be related to an improved efficiency of adrenaline under these conditions. In conclusion, this method allows a rapid screening of cellular characteristics. It represents a promising tool to identify the cellular determinants of inter-individual variability in fishes' capacity for environmental adaptation.

  20. Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geay Florian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM or fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Results We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD, but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD. Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663. Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein

  1. Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, Florian; Ferraresso, Serena; Zambonino-Infante, Jose L; Bargelloni, Luca; Quentel, Claire; Vandeputte, Marc; Kaushik, Sachi; Cahu, Chantal L; Mazurais, David

    2011-10-23

    Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM) or fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD), but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD). Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663). Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein catabolism, amino acid transaminations, RNA

  2. Fermentability of carbohydrates in an in vitro batch culture method using inocula from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Huizinga, H.F.A.; Coolen, R.O.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated in vitro fermentability of wheat-derived carbohydrates using inocula of Nile tilapia and European sea bass. Distal intestinal contents were incubated in bottles containing one of four fermentable substrates, i.e. glucose (GL), native wheat starch (WS), arabinoxylan (ABX) and

  3. Saddleback syndrome in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758): anatomy, ontogeny and correlation with lateral-line, anal and pelvic fin abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoulis, S; Paliogiannis, H; Kokkinias, P; Chiers, K; Adriaens, D; Koumoundouros, G

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the anatomy and ontogeny of saddleback syndrome (SBS) in reared European sea bass. The abnormality was detected at an unusually high frequency (12-94%) during a routine quality control in a commercial hatchery. Anatomically the abnormality was mainly characterized by the loss of 1-5 hard spines and severe abnormalities of the proximal pterygiophores (anterior dorsal fin), size reduction of a few lepidotrichia, missing lepidotrichia and/or lepidotrichia of poor ossification (posterior dorsal fin). SBS was significantly correlated with abnormalities of the anal and pelvic fins in all the examined populations. Moreover, in juvenile fish, SBS was significantly correlated with an abnormal lack of sectors of the lateral line. The examination of early larval samples revealed that SBS was ontogenetically associated with severe abnormalities of the primordial marginal finfold, which developed at the flexion stage (ca 8.5-11.0 mm SL). Histologically, these abnormalities were associated with extensive epidermal erosion. The results are discussed in respect of the critical ontogenetic period and the possible causative factors of SBS in European sea bass. It is suggested that causative factors acted during a wide ontogenetic period including flexion and metamorphosis phases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Muñoz-Cueto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 µg/g body mass in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day–night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a, which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day–night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass.

  5. Effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oil blend on digestive enzymes and tissue histomorphology of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Serra, Cláudia R; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Fernandes, Rui; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-02-01

    The impact of replacing circa 70% fish oil (FO) by a vegetable oil (VO) blend (rapeseed, linseed, palm oils; 20:50:30) in diets for European sea bass juveniles (IBW 96 ± 0.8 g) was evaluated in terms of activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and total alkaline proteases) in the anterior (AI) and posterior (PI) intestine and tissue morphology (pyloric caeca-PC, AI, PI, distal intestine-DI and liver). For that purpose, fish were fed the experimental diets for 36 days and then liver and intestine were sampled at 2, 6 and 24 h after the last meal. Alkaline protease characterization was also done in AI and PI at 6 h post-feeding. Dietary VO promoted higher alkaline phosphatase activity at 2 h post-feeding in the AI and at all sampling points in the PI. Total alkaline protease activity was higher at 6 h post-feeding in the PI of fish fed the FO diet. Identical number of bands was observed in zymograms of alkaline proteases of fish fed both diets. No alterations in the histomorphology of PC, AI, PI or DI were noticed in fish fed the VO diets, while in the liver a tendency towards increased hepatocyte vacuolization due to lipid accumulation was observed. Overall, and with the exception of a higher intestine alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% FO replacement by a VO blend in diets for European sea bass resulted in no distinctive alterations on the postprandial pattern of digestive enzyme activities and intestine histomorphology.

  6. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium molnari in Spanish Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) and European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Cultures: from Hatchery to Market Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitjà-Bobadilla, A.; Padrós, F.; Aguilera, C.; Alvarez-Pellitero, P.

    2005-01-01

    A long-term epidemiological study of Cryptosporidium molnari in aquacultured European sea bass (ESB) and gilthead sea bream (GSB) was performed in different types of facilities on the Atlantic, Cantabric, and Mediterranean coasts. Four types of studies were carried out. In study A, fish raised from juveniles to marketable size (ongrowing stage) were periodically sampled in three different types of cultures. Studies B and C focused on hatchery and nursery facilities. In study D, occasional samplings were performed during mortality or morbidity outbreaks. As a general trend, C. molnari was more prevalent in GSB than in ESB. Data on the distribution pattern of C. molnari in total sampled GSB (studies A, B, and D) had a variance higher than the mean (overdispersion). In GSB (study A), the type of ongrowing system (sea cages, earth ponds, or indoor tanks) was found to have no significant effect. There was a significant relationship between the presence of the parasite and both fish weight and season. The highest infection values were recorded in spring. Prevalence and intensity had convex weight profiles, with a peak in 30- to 100-g fish. In study D, the prevalence of infection was higher in fish recently introduced in sea cages and in preongrowing systems. In studies B and C, fish were almost never infected before entering the postlarval and nursery facilities. The parasite seems to enter the host mainly through the water in production steps with less stringent water treatment. Recirculation systems and fish cannibalism could contribute to oocyst concentration and dispersion in aquaculture facilities. PMID:15640180

  7. Effects of Sodium Butyrate Treatment on Histone Modifications and the Expression of Genes Related to Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms and Immune Response in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Fed a Plant-Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terova, Genciana; Díaz, Noelia; Rimoldi, Simona; Ceccotti, Chiara; Gliozheni, Emi; Piferrer, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the epithelium of the animals' digestive tract provide the essential biochemical pathways for fermenting otherwise indigestible dietary fibers, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Of the major SCFAs, butyrate has received particular attention due to its numerous positive effects on the health of the intestinal tract and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms of action of this four-carbon chain organic acid are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effect on gene expression since butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that play a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. In the present work, we investigated in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) the effects of butyrate used as a feed additive on fish epigenetics as well as its regulatory role in mucosal protection and immune homeostasis through impact on gene expression. Seven target genes related to inflammatory response and reinforcement of the epithelial defense barrier [tnfα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) il1β, (interleukin 1beta), il-6, il-8, il-10, and muc2 (mucin 2)] and five target genes related to epigenetic modifications [dicer1(double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease), ehmt2 (euchromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 2), pcgf2 (polycomb group ring finger 2), hdac11 (histone deacetylase-11), and jarid2a (jumonji)] were analyzed in fish intestine and liver. We also investigated the effect of dietary butyrate supplementation on histone acetylation, by performing an immunoblotting analysis on liver core histone extracts. Results of the eight-week-long feeding trial showed no significant differences in weight gain or SGR (specific growth rate) of sea bass that received 0.2% sodium butyrate supplementation in the diet in comparison to control fish that received a diet without Na-butyrate. Dietary butyrate led to a twofold increase in the acetylation level of histone H4 at

  8. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Calderon, Pedro Buc [Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73, B-1200 Woluwé-Saint-Lambert (Belgium); Thomé, Jean Pierre [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale et Ecotoxicologie, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 août 15, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Rees, Jean François, E-mail: jf.rees@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The methodology of precision-cut liver slices was applied to the European seabass. • Liver slices remained viable and functional in short-term co-exposure studies. • CYP1A induction was blocked in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • HSP70 induction was lower in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • Oxidative stress responses to tBHP were less pronounced at high pressure. - Abstract: Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1 MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15 h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1 MPa) and deep-sea (5–15 MPa; i.e., 500–1500 m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310–10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15 h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1 h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained

  9. Husbandry streaa during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varsamos, S.; Flik, G.; Pepin, S.E.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Breuil, G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In aquaculture management it is important to establish objective criteria to assess health and welfare of the fish. Here we show that European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) confronted with husbandry-associated stress (tank cleaning, i.e. scrubbing, and water temperature variation) during

  10. Dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Cheng, Zhenyan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-02-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to examine the dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass in seawater floating net cages (1.5 m × 1.5 m × 2.0 m). Six isonitrogenous (crude protein 40%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) diets were formulated to contain different concentrations of leucine (0.9%, 1.49%, 2.07%, 2.70%, 3.30% and 3.88% of dry matter). Crystalline L-amino acids were supplemented to simulate the whole body amino acid pattern of Japanese seabass except for leucine. Three groups (30 fish individuals each, 8.0 g ± 0.20 g in initial weight) were fed to apparent satiation at 5:00 and 17:30 every day. During the experimental period, the water temperature ranged from 26 to 32δC and salinity from 26 to 30, and the dissolved oxygen was maintained at 7 mg L-1. The results showed that weight gain ( WG), nitrogen retention ( NR), feed efficiency ( FE) and protein efficiency ratio ( PER) were significantly increased when dietary leucine was increased from 0.90% to 2.70% of dry matter, and then declined. WG was the highest when fish were fed D4 containing 2.70% of leucine. No significant differences were observed in body composition among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). Considering the change of WG, the optimum dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass was either 2.39% of dry matter or 5.68% of dietary protein.

  11. Construction of high-resolution recombination maps in Asian seabass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Bai, Bin; Liu, Peng; Huang, Shu Qing; Wan, Zi Yi; Chua, Elaine; Ye, Baoqing; Yue, Gen Hua

    2017-01-10

    A high-density genetic map is essential for de novo genome assembly, fine mapping QTL for important complex traits, comparative genomic studies and understanding the mechanisms of genome evolution. Although a number of genomic resources are available in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), a high-density linkage map is still lacking. To facilitate QTL mapping for marker-assisted selection and genome assembly, and to understand the genome-wide recombination rates, we constructed high density linkage maps using three families and genotyping by sequencing. A high-density consensus linkage map consisting of 8, 274 markers was constructed based on sex-averaged genetic maps. The genetic maps were then aligned and integrated with the current genome assembly of Asian seabass. More than 90% of the genome contig sequences were anchored onto the consensus genetic map. Evidence of assembly errors in the current genome assembly was identified. A fragment of up to 2.5 Mb belonging to LG14 was assembled into Chr15. The length of family-specific sex-averaged maps ranged from 1348.96 to 1624.65 cM. Female maps were slightly longer than male maps using common markers. Female-to-male ratios were highly variable both across chromosomes within each family and throughout three families for each chromosome. However, the distribution patterns of recombination along chromosomes were similar between sexes across the whole genome. The overall recombination rates were significantly correlated with genome-wide GC content and the correlations were revealed to be stronger in females than in males. These high-density genetic maps provide not only essential tools for facilitating de novo genome assembly and comparative genomic studies in teleosts, but also critical resources for fine mapping QTL and genome-wide association mapping for economically important traits in Asian seabass.

  12. Tracing Asian seabass individuals to single fish farms using microsatellites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Hua Yue

    Full Text Available Traceability through physical labels is well established, but it is not highly reliable as physical labels can be easily changed or lost. Application of DNA markers to the traceability of food plays an increasingly important role for consumer protection and confidence building. In this study, we tested the efficiency of 16 polymorphic microsatellites and their combinations for tracing 368 fish to four populations where they originated. Using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, three most efficient microsatellites were required to assign over 95% of fish to the correct populations. Selection of markers based on the assignment score estimated with the software WHICHLOCI was most effective in choosing markers for individual assignment, followed by the selection based on the allele number of individual markers. By combining rapid DNA extraction, and high-throughput genotyping of selected microsatellites, it is possible to conduct routine genetic traceability with high accuracy in Asian seabass.

  13. Effects of herbal supplements on growth performance of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: Change in body composition and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDAN YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on growth performance, proximate composition and ammonia excretion of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (21 kj/g diets were formulated to contain 0% (control or 1% of thyme, rosemary or fenugreek. The thyme supplementation significantly increased protein efficiency ratio, fillet protein levels, protein and energy retentions (P0.05. The results indicate that dietary thyme improved the protein and energy retentions of sea bass.

  14. Establishment of a cell line from kidney of seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phromkunthong, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from caudal fin and kidney of seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch using tissue explant method were cultured in three different medias with various salt concentrations. Only seabass kidney (SK cells grew well in Leibovitze's-15 medium containing 8 g/l of NaCl supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum at an optimum temperature of 25 oC. Over a period of 24 months, SK cells were subcultured over than 75 passages and exhibited epithelial-like cells. The chromosome number of SK cells was 42. The cells were found to be free from bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma contamination. Seabass cells can be kept at -80 oC and/or in liquid nitrogen (-196 oC for at least 24 months with a survival rate of 83.20 and 74.50 %, respectively. Nine fish viruses were tested for their infectivity and this SK cells were susceptible to sand goby virus (SGV, chub reovirus (CRV, snake-head rhabdovirus (SHRV, red seabream iridovirus (RSIV, seabass iridovirus (SIV and grouper iridovirus-2 (GIV-2.

  15. The forebrain-midbrain acts as functional endocrine signaling pathway of Kiss2/Gnrh1 system controlling the gonadotroph activity in the teleost fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, Felipe; Carrillo, Manuel; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Some teleost species, including European sea bass, harbor two different kisspeptin coding genes: kiss1 and kiss2. Both genes are expressed in the brain, but their differential roles in the central control of fish reproduction are only beginning to be elucidated. In this study, we have examined the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of the highly active sea bass peptides Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 on spermiating male sea bass. Physiological saline, Kiss1-15, or Kiss2-12 was injected into the third ventricle. To establish the gene expression cascade involved in the action of kisspeptins, the expression of the two sea bass kisspeptin receptor genes (kiss1r and kiss2r) and the three sea bass Gnrh genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) were analyzed in the forebrain-midbrain and the hypothalamus. In addition, the protein levels of hypothalamic and pituitary Gnrh1 were measured. Blood samples were collected at different times after injection to analyze the effects of kisspeptins on the release of gonadotropins (Lh and Fsh) and androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone). The present results provide the first evidence that the effects of Kiss2 on central regulation of reproductive function involve the neuroendocrine areas of the forebrain-midbrain in teleost fish. The marked effect of Kiss2 on kiss2r and gnrh1 expression in the forebrain-midbrain and on Gnrh1 release suggest that this neuronal system is involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotroph activity. This hypothesis was confirmed by a surge of plasma Lh in response to Kiss2, which presumably has a strong stimulatory effect on testosterone release, and thus on sperm quality parameters. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  16. Identification and analysis of immune-related transcriptome in Asian seabass Lates calcarifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Fish diseases caused by pathogens are limiting their production and trade, affecting the economy generated by aquaculture. Innate immunity system is the first line of host defense in opposing pathogenic organisms or any other foreign material. For identification of immune-related genes in Asian seabass Lates calcarifer, an important marine foodfish species, we injected bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a commonly used elicitor of innate immune responses to eight individuals at the age of 35 days post-hatch and applied the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique to selectively amplify spleen cDNA of differentially expressed genes. Results Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of 3351 ESTs from two SSH libraries yielded 1692 unique transcripts. Of which, 618 transcripts were unknown/novel genes and the remaining 1074 were similar to 743 known genes and 105 unannotated mRNA sequences available in public databases. A total of 161 transcripts were classified to the category "response to stimulus" and 115 to "immune system process". We identified 25 significantly up-regulated genes (including 2 unknown transcripts) and 4 down-regulated genes associated with immune-related processes upon challenge with LPS. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the differential expression of these genes after LPS challenge. Conclusions The present study identified 1692 unique transcripts upon LPS challenge for the first time in Asian seabass by using SSH, sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Some of the identified transcripts are vertebrate homologues and others are hitherto unreported putative defence proteins. The obtained immune-related genes may allow for a better understanding of immunity in Asian seabass, carrying out detailed functional analysis of these genes and developing strategies for efficient immune protection against infections in Asian seabass. PMID:20525308

  17. Molecular characterization and mapping of Fgf21 gene in a foodfish species asian seabass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Wang

    Full Text Available Fgf21 is a newly discovered fibroblast growth factor. It is typically induced by fasting and plays important roles in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolisms and energy balance in mammals, whereas potential functions of this gene in teleosts are still unknown. We identified the Fgf21 gene and studied its functions in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer. The cDNA of the Fgf21 encoded a protein with 206 amino acids. Analysis of DNA and amino acid sequences of Fgf21 genes revealed that the sequences and structure of the Fgf21 genes were highly conserved in vertebrates. Real-time PCR revealed that Fgf21 was exclusively expressed in the intestine and kidney, which was different from the expression profiles of mammals. Fgf21 was down-regulated under fasting, whereas it was significantly increased during the LPS challenge. Exogenous recombinant FGF21 significantly suppressed the appetite of Asian seabass. Our data suggest that Fgf21 plays a role in energy regulation and acute phase response in Asian seabass, and may have different functions in fish and mammals. In addition, we identified one SNP in Fgf21. By using this SNP, the gene was mapped on the linkage group 23, where a suggestive QTL for growth was mapped previously. Association mapping identified significant associations between Fgf21 genotypes at the SNP and growth traits. These results not only provide important information of the functions of Fgf21, but also suggest that the SNP in this gene can be used as a marker in selecting fast-growing individuals of Asian seabass.

  18. Primary analysis of repeat elements of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer transcriptome and genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eKuznetsova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of our Asian seabass genome project, we are generating an inventory of repeat elements in the genome and transcriptome. The karyotype showed a diploid number of 2n=24 chromosomes with a variable number of B-chromosomes. The transcriptome and genome of Asian seabass were searched for repetitive elements with experimental and bioinformatics tools. Six different types of repeats constituting 8-14% of the genome were characterized. Repetitive elements were clustered in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of all chromosomes, but some of them were preferentially accumulated in pretelomeric and pericentromeric regions of several chromosomes pairs and have chromosomes specific arrangement. From the dispersed class of fish-specific non-LTR retrotransposon elements Rex1 and MAUI-like repeats were analyzed. They were wide-spread both in the genome and transcriptome, accumulated on the pericentromeric and peritelomeric areas of all chromosomes. Every analyzed repeat was represented in the Asian seabass transcriptome, some showed differential expression between the gonads. The other group of repeats analyzed belongs to the rRNA multigene family. FISH signal for 5S rDNA was located on a single pair of chromosomes, whereas that for 18S rDNA was found on two pairs. A BAC-derived contig containing rDNA was sequenced and assembled into a scaffold containing incomplete fragments of 18S rDNA. Their assembly and chromosomal position revealed that this part of Asian seabass genome is extremely rich in repeats containing evolutionally conserved and novel sequences. In summary, transcriptome assemblies and cDNA data are suitable for the identification of repetitive DNA from unknown genomes and for comparative investigation of conserved elements between teleosts and other vertebrates.

  19. An isolate of Piscirickettsia salmonis from white seabass is fully virulent for coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, M.L.; Hedrick, R.P.; Winton, J.R.; Fryer, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The virulence of the WSB-98 isolate of Piscirickettsia salmonis from white seabass Atractoscion nobilis was compared with that of the American Type Culture Collection type strain LF-89, which was originally isolated from coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Chile. In controlled laboratory challenges of juvenile coho salmon, the isolate from white seabass exhibited virulence that was equal to or greater than that of LF-89. The cumulative percent mortality (CPM) was similar between groups of coho salmon receiving an intraperitoneal injection of WSB-98 at 104.5 tissue culture infectious dose with 50% endpoint (TCID50)/fish (CPM = 98%) or an injection of LF-89 at 104.8 TCID50/fish (CPM = 95%). The mean day to death of 9.3 d for WSB-98 and 18.6 d for LF-89, however, differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between the two isolates. The virulence of an isolate of P. salmonis from white seabass for a salmonid species is consistent with the hypothesis that nonsalmonids can serve as natural marine hosts for the bacterium and potential sources for infection of salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  20. Evidence of extensive plasma glucose recycling following a glucose load in seabass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rito, João; Viegas, Ivan; Pardal, Miguel A; Jones, John G

    2017-09-01

    Seabass and other carnivorous fish are highly dependent on gluconeogenesis from dietary amino acids to maintain glycemia. Glucose recycling (glucose→C3-intermediate→glucose) may potentiate the effects of glucose administration in sparing amino acid gluconeogenesis. To date, very few measurements of glucose recycling have been reported in fish. Thus, to determine the extent of glucose recycling following a glycemic challenge, juvenile seabass were given an intraperitoneal glucose load (2gkg -1 ) enriched with [U- 13 C]glucose. 13 C NMR analysis of plasma glucose 13 C-isotopomers was used to determine the fractional contributions of glucose derived directly from the load versus that from glucose recycling at 48h after the load. Both fed and 21-day fasted fish (20 per condition) were studied. In fasted fish, 18±4% of plasma glucose was directly derived from the load while 13±2% was derived from glucose recycling. In fed fish, the load accounted for 6±1% of plasma glucose levels while glucose recycling contributed 16±4%. 13 C NMR analysis of plasma lactate revealed 13 C-isotopomers corresponding to the expected C3-intermediates of peripheral [U- 13 C]glucose catabolism indicating that circulating lactate was a key intermediate in glucose carbon recycling under these conditions. In conclusion, glucose recycling was shown to contribute a significant portion of plasma glucose levels in both fed and fasted seabass 48h after an intraperitoneal glucose challenge and circulating lactate was shown to be an intermediate of this pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Nutrigenomic and Nutritional Analyses Reveal the Effects of Pelleted Feeds on Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Yan Ngoh

    Full Text Available As nutrition-related expenses constitute the majority of the costs for aquaculture farms, it is essential for them to use feeds that provide an ideal combination of nutrients for the species of choice. In this study, the relative effect of consuming three different pelleted feeds (B, C and D in comparison to frozen baitfish (A; control were compared on juvenile Asian seabass (77.3 ± 22.4g that were selected for increased growth rate over two generations. Our objectives were: 1 to evaluate the effects of different pelleted feeds based on overall physiological changes and nutritional quality of fillets; 2 improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms with transcriptomic analysis; 3 if possible, identify the feed type that supports the growth of these fishes without substantially reducing the nutritional quality of fillet. The growth performance, fatty acid composition of fillet, hepatic histology and transcriptome of the fishes (Groups A-D were analyzed. The majority of fatty acids of the fillets, except γ-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3n6, correlated significantly with the respective diets. Asian seabass fed Feed C showed highest specific growth rate (SGR and feed conversion efficiency (FCE with closest histology and transcriptomic profile to control, but their fillet contained the highest n6/n3 ratio. When the liver-based transcriptomes were analyzed, a complex set of differentially expressed genes were detected between groups fed pelleted feeds and controls as well as among the pellet-fed groups themselves. Significant enrichment of genes with growth-related function tallied with the morphological data measured. When compared with control (Group A, 'Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids' and 'Steroid biosynthesis' pathways were significantly enriched in pellet-fed groups. Reduced goblet cell numbers were observed in the gut of pellet-fed fish compared to controls and fads6 was found to be a suitable candidate gene to separate wild

  2. Acoustic stress responses in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax induced by offshore pile driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; Hostens, Kris; Adriaens, Dominique; Ampe, Bart; Botteldooren, Dick; De Boeck, Gudrun; De Muynck, Amelie; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sound generated by pile driving during construction of offshore wind farms is a major concern in many countries. This paper reports on the acoustic stress responses in young European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (68 and 115 days old), based on four in situ experiments as close as 45 m from a pile driving activity. As a primary stress response, whole-body cortisol seemed to be too sensitive to 'handling' bias. On the other hand, measured secondary stress responses to pile driving showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption rate and low whole-body lactate concentrations. Furthermore, repeated exposure to impulsive sound significantly affected both primary and secondary stress responses. Under laboratory conditions, no tertiary stress responses (no changes in specific growth rate or Fulton's condition factor) were noted in young sea bass 30 days after the treatment. Still, the demonstrated acute stress responses and potentially repeated exposure to impulsive sound in the field will inevitably lead to less fit fish in the wild. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepcidin-Dependent Regulation of Erythropoiesis during Anemia in a Teleost Fish, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, João V; Caldas, Carolina; Ramos, Miguel F; Rodrigues, Pedro N S

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a common disorder, characterized by abnormally low levels of red blood cells or hemoglobin. The mechanisms of anemia development and response have been thoroughly studied in mammals, but little is known in other vertebrates, particularly teleost fish. In this study, different degrees of anemia were induced in healthy European sea bass specimens (Dicentrarchus labrax) and at pre-determined time points hematological parameters, liver iron content and the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis and hematopoiesis, with particular attention on hepcidins, were evaluated. The experimental anemia prompted a decrease in hamp1 expression in all tested organs, in accordance to an increased need for iron absorption and mobilization, with slight increases in hamp2 in the kidney and intestine. The liver was clearly the major organ involved in iron homeostasis, decreasing its iron content and showing a gene expression profile consistent with an increased iron release and mobilization. Although both the spleen and head kidney are involved in erythropoiesis, the spleen was found to assume a more preponderant role in the recovery of erythrocyte levels. The intestine was also involved in the response to anemia, through the increase of iron transporting genes. Administration of Hamp1 or Hamp2 mature peptides showed that only Hamp1 affects hematological parameters and liver iron content. In conclusion, the molecular mechanisms of response to anemia present in sea bass are similar to the ones described for mammals, with these results indicating that the two hepcidin types from teleosts assume different roles during anemia.

  4. Hepcidin-Dependent Regulation of Erythropoiesis during Anemia in a Teleost Fish, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João V Neves

    Full Text Available Anemia is a common disorder, characterized by abnormally low levels of red blood cells or hemoglobin. The mechanisms of anemia development and response have been thoroughly studied in mammals, but little is known in other vertebrates, particularly teleost fish. In this study, different degrees of anemia were induced in healthy European sea bass specimens (Dicentrarchus labrax and at pre-determined time points hematological parameters, liver iron content and the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis and hematopoiesis, with particular attention on hepcidins, were evaluated. The experimental anemia prompted a decrease in hamp1 expression in all tested organs, in accordance to an increased need for iron absorption and mobilization, with slight increases in hamp2 in the kidney and intestine. The liver was clearly the major organ involved in iron homeostasis, decreasing its iron content and showing a gene expression profile consistent with an increased iron release and mobilization. Although both the spleen and head kidney are involved in erythropoiesis, the spleen was found to assume a more preponderant role in the recovery of erythrocyte levels. The intestine was also involved in the response to anemia, through the increase of iron transporting genes. Administration of Hamp1 or Hamp2 mature peptides showed that only Hamp1 affects hematological parameters and liver iron content. In conclusion, the molecular mechanisms of response to anemia present in sea bass are similar to the ones described for mammals, with these results indicating that the two hepcidin types from teleosts assume different roles during anemia.

  5. 85-92, 2014 85 Variations in body shape of European seabass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evident from the observed low hatching rate and, later low survival of larvae and has resulted in higher bending of larvae. We sug- gest that the eggs are obtained from a single selected spawnners (not from wild as in this study) and same batch to compare the xenic and axenic conditions. Further investigations that consider.

  6. Amyloodinum ocellatum in Dicentrarchus labrax: Study of infection in salt water and freshwater aquaponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozzi, Valentina; Strofaldi, Silvia; Piquer, Isabel Forner; Di Crescenzo, Davide; Olivotto, Ike; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-10-01

    This investigation is aimed to improve the knowledge on the physiological alterations occurring at morphological and molecular level in European sea bass naturally infected by A. ocellatum and reared at different salinities. European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax) weighing 20 ± 0.5 g were divided in three aquaponics systems: CTRL, reared at 20 ppt salinity; AFI, reared in freshwater (0 ppt) and infected with the dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum; ASI, reared at 20 ppt salinity and infected with A. ocellatum. Beta vulgaris plants were introduced in each of the aquaponic systems. Temperature was increased 1 °C every second day from 18 to 25 °C during the experiment. At the end of the trial, liver, brain, intestine and gills were sampled for molecular and histological analyses. A. ocellatum affected D. labrax growth (insulin-like growth factor I, IGF-I) and appetite (Neuropeptide Y, NPY) signals in ASI. Immune system was activated in ASI by the presence of parasites by producing higher levels of Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α), codifying for a protein involved in lipid metabolism, was upregulated in ASI because of the necessity to produce energy to maintain homeostasis. On the contrary, A. ocellatum did not cause signs of infection in AFI as confirmed by gene expression and histological analysis, that were similar to CTRL. However, in freshwater reared fish, a modification of lipid metabolism was observed through a reduction in PPARα gene expression and hepatic lipid content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of two lysozyme genes and antimicrobial functions of their recombinant proteins in Asian seabass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Hong Fu

    Full Text Available Lysozymes are important proteins of the innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infection. We cloned and analyzed chicken-type (c-type and goose-type (g-type lysozymes from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer. The deduced amino acid sequence of the c-type lysozyme contained 144 residues and possessed typical structure residues, conserved catalytic residues (Glu(50 and Asp(67 and a "GSTDYGIFQINS" motif. The deduced g-type lysozyme contained 187 residues and possessed a goose egg white lysozyme (GEWL domain containing three conserved catalytic residues (Glu(71, Asp(84, Asp(95 essential for catalytic activity. Real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR revealed that the two lysozyme genes were constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues. The c-type lysozyme was most abundant in liver, while the g-type lysozyme was predominantly expressed in intestine and weakly expressed in muscle. The c-type and g-type transcripts were up-regulated in the kidney, spleen and liver in response to a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The up-regulation of the c-type lysozyme was much stronger than that of the g-type lysozyme in kidney and spleen. The recombinant proteins of the c-type and g-type lysozymes showed lytic activities against the bacterial pathogens Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae in a dosage-dependent manner. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the two lysozyme genes. There were significant associations of these polymorphisms with resistance to the big belly disease. These results suggest that the c- and g-type genes play an important role in resistance to bacterial pathogens in fish. The SNP markers in the two genes associated with the resistance to bacterial pathogens may facilitate the selection of Asian seabass resistant to bacterial diseases.

  8. Chromosomal-Level Assembly of the Asian Seabass Genome Using Long Sequence Reads and Multi-layered Scaffolding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Vij

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here the ~670 Mb genome assembly of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer, a tropical marine teleost. We used long-read sequencing augmented by transcriptomics, optical and genetic mapping along with shared synteny from closely related fish species to derive a chromosome-level assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome. The population structure of L. calcarifer species complex was analyzed by re-sequencing 61 individuals representing various regions across the species' native range. SNP analyses identified high levels of genetic diversity and confirmed earlier indications of a population stratification comprising three clades with signs of admixture apparent in the South-East Asian population. The quality of the Asian seabass genome assembly far exceeds that of any other fish species, and will serve as a new standard for fish genomics.

  9. Barcoding of Asian seabass across its geographic range provides evidence for its bifurcation into two distinct species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha eVij

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Asian seabass or barramundi (Lates calcarifer is an important food fish with commercial value and a wide geographic distribution. Though some reports based on molecular and/or morphological data exist, a comprehensive effort to establish species identity across its range is lacking. In order to address this issue and especially to ascertain whether the wide-spread distribution has resulted in bifurcation of the species, we collected Asian seabass samples from various locations representing the Western and Eastern Coastline of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh and Australia. Samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore were collected as part of a previous study. DNA sequence variations, including cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI, 16S rDNA and the highly variable D-loop (or control region, were examined to establish species delineation. Data from all the sequences analyzed concordantly point to the existence of at least two distinct species - one representing the Indian subcontinent plus Myanmar, and a second, representing Southeast Asia (Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia plus Northern Australia. These data are useful for conservation ecology, aquaculture management, for establishing the extent of genetic diversity in the Asian seabass and implementing selective breeding programs for members of this species complex.

  10. Multiple Hepcidins in a Teleost Fish, Dicentrarchus labrax: Different Hepcidins for Different Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, João V; Caldas, Carolina; Vieira, Inês; Ramos, Miguel F; Rodrigues, Pedro N S

    2015-09-15

    Teleost fish rely heavily on their innate immunity for an adequate response against pathogens and environmental challenges, with the production of antimicrobial peptides being one of their first lines of defense. Among those is hepcidin, a small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide that is also the key regulator of iron metabolism. Although most mammals possess a single hepcidin gene, with a dual role in both iron metabolism regulation and antimicrobial response, many teleost fish present multiple copies of hepcidin, most likely because of genome duplications and positive Darwinian selection, suggesting that different hepcidins may perform different functions. To study the roles of hepcidin in teleost fish, we have isolated and characterized several genes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and evaluated variations in their expression levels in response to different experimental conditions. Although several hepcidin genes were found, after phylogenetic analysis they could be clustered in two groups: hamp1-like, with a single isoform similar to mammalian hepcidins, and hamp2-like, with several isoforms. Under experimental conditions, hamp1 was upregulated in response to iron overload and infection and downregulated during anemia and hypoxic conditions. Hamp2 did not respond to either iron overload or anemia but was highly upregulated during infection and hypoxia. In addition, Hamp2 synthetic peptides exhibited a clear antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains in vitro. In conclusion, teleost fish that present two hepcidin types show a degree of subfunctionalization of its functions, with hamp1 more involved in the regulation of iron metabolism and hamp2 mostly performing an antimicrobial role. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Toward responsible stock enhancement: broadcast spawning dynamics and adaptive genetic management in white seabass aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenthal, Kristen M; Drawbridge, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The evolutionary effects captive-bred individuals that can have on wild conspecifics are necessary considerations for stock enhancement programs, but breeding protocols are often developed without the knowledge of realized reproductive behavior. To help fill that gap, parentage was assigned to offspring produced by a freely mating group of 50 white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis), a representative broadcast spawning marine finfish cultured for conservation. Similar to the well-known and closely related red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), A. nobilis exhibited large variation in reproductive success. More males contributed and contributed more equally than females within and among spawns in a mating system best described as lottery polygyny. Two females produced 27% of the seasonal offspring pool and female breeding effective size averaged 1.85 per spawn and 12.38 seasonally, whereas male breeding effective size was higher (6.42 and 20.87, respectively), with every male contributing 1-7% of offspring. Further, females batch spawned every 1-5 weeks, while males displayed continuous reproductive readiness. Sex-specific mating strategies resulted in multiple successful mate pairings and a breeding effective to census size ratio of ≥0.62. Understanding a depleted species' mating system allowed management to more effectively utilize parental genetic variability for culture, but the fitness consequences of long-term stocking can be difficult to address.

  12. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Afonso, António; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Tort, Lluis; Gesto, Manuel; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Míguez, Jesús M.; José L. Soengas; Kreuz, Eva; Wuertz, Sven; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 ...

  13. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: Tales from a teleost model

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Afonso, António; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Tort, Lluis; Gesto, Manuel; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Míguez, Jesús M.; José L. Soengas; Kreuz, Eva; Wuertz, Sven; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 ...

  14. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: tales from a teleost model

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Azeredo; Marina Machado; António Afonso; Camino Fierro-Castro; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Lluis Tort; Manuel Gesto; Marta Conde-Sieira; Míguez, Jesús M.; José L. Soengas; Eva Kreuz; Sven Wuertz; Helena Peres; Aires Oliva-Teles; Benjamin Costas

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 ...

  15. Adaptation of the fish juvenile growth test (OECD TG 215, 2000) to the marine species Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornambè, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Oteri, F; Martuccio, G; Cicero, A M; Magaletti, E

    2018-02-01

    The OECD TG 215 method (2000) (C.14 method of EC Regulation 440/2008) was developed on the rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) to assess chronic toxicity (28d) of chemicals on fish juveniles. It contemplates to use other well documented species identifying suitable conditions to evaluate their growth. OECD proposes the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. 1758) as Mediterranean species among vertebrates recommended in the OECD guidelines for the toxicity testing of chemicals. In this context, our study is aimed to proposing the adaptation of the growth test (OECD TG 215, 2000) to D. labrax. For this purpose toxicity tests were performed with sodium dodecyl sulfate, a reference toxicant commonly used in fish toxicity assays. The main aspects of the testing procedure were reviewed: fish size (weight), environmental conditions, dilution water type, experimental design, loading rate and stocking density, feeding (food type and ration), test validity criteria. The experience gained from growth tests with the sea bass allows to promote its inclusion among the species to be used for the C.14 method. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. SeaBASS Bio-optical and pigment data collected from 1979-08-22 to 2011-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0086308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) bio-optical, pigment, and other data collected from 1979-08-22 to 2011-12-14....

  17. Administration of a polyphenol-enriched feed to farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Kidney melanomacrophages response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Marcella; Fiocco, Daniela; Fontana, Sergio; Arena, Mattia Pia; Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Gallone, Anna

    2017-09-01

    The reinforcement of the defense mechanism of fish, through the administration of immunostimulants, is considered as a promising alternative to vaccines. Natural immunostimulants such as polyphenols, flavanoids, pigments and essential oils can modulate the innate immune response. In lower vertebrates, melano-macrophage centres, i.e. clusters of pigment-containing cells forming the extracutaneous pigment system, are wide-spread in the stroma of the haemopoietic tissue, mainly in kidney and spleen. In fishes, melano-macrophage centres play an important role in the immune response against antigenic stimulants and pathogens. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a polyphenol-enriched diet on the health status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Farmed sea bass were administered a feed containing a phytocomplex, rich in catechins and epigallocatechins, which was obtained from the seeds of Canosina Nero di Troia Vitis vinifera and mixed with conventional feed at two different concentrations. The effects of such a diet were investigated in juvenile and commercial size samples, i.e. undergoing a short- and long-term period of diet, respectively, focusing on their extracutaneous pigmentary system and, in more detail, on the enzymatic activities leading to melanin biosynthesis. Our results show that prolonged dietary treatments with higher concentration of polyphenols might modulate tyrosinase activity and gene expression in commercial size fishes. An increase of melano-macrophage activity is correlated to a stimulation of cytoprotective functions against antigenic stimulants and pathogens, as an expression of a robust and protective adaptive immune response. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Screening probiotic candidates for a mixture of probiotics to enhance the growth performance, immunity, and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Li; Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Chiu-Shia; Huang, Shih-Ling; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Six bacteria, including, Lactobacillus casei M15, Lac. plantarum D8, Lac. pentosus BD6, Lac. fermentum LW2, Enterococcus faecium 10-10, and Bacillus subtilis E20, and one yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P13 were selected as probiotics for Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, by tracking the growth performance and disease resistance of fish against Aeromonas hydrophila in the first trial. The probiotic efficiency screening results showed that B. subtilis E20 and Lac. pentosus BD6, and S. cerevisiae P13 and Lac. fermentum LW2 respectively improved either the growth performance or disease resistance. Therefore, these four probiotics were then selected to prepare a probiotics mixture, and this was incorporated in equal proportions into diets for Asian seabass at levels of 0 (control), and 106 (MD6), 107 (MD7), 108 (MD8), and 109 (MD9) colony-forming units (cfu) (kg diet)-1. A synergistic effect of the combined probiotics was investigated in this study, and the probiotics mixture was able to improve both the growth performance and health status of fish. After 56 days of feeding, fish fed the MD9 diet had a higher final weight and percentage of weight gain. In addition, protein contents in the dorsal muscle of fish fed the MD8 and MD9 diets were significantly higher compared to the control. For the pathogen challenge test, fish fed the MD7, MD8, and MD9 diets had significantly lower cumulative mortalities after A. hydrophila infection compared to those of fish fed the control and MD6 diets, which might have been due to increased respiratory bursts, decreased superoxide dismutase activity in leucocytes, and increased phagocytic activity. Therefore, we considered that the probiotics mixture could adequately provide probiotic efficiency for Asian seabass, and the diet containing 109 cfu (kg diet)-1 probiotic mixture is recommended to improve the growth and health status of Asian seabass. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically generated underwater noise in the marine environment is ubiquitous, comprising both intense impulse and continuous noise. The installation of offshore wind farms across the North Sea has triggered a range of ecological questions regarding the impact of anthropogenically produced underwater noise on marine wildlife. Our interest is on the impact on the "passive drifters," i.e., the early life stages of fish that form the basis of fish populations and are an important prey for pelagic predators. This study deals with the impact of pile driving and operational noise generated at offshore wind farms on Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass) larvae.

  20. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    .... The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm...

  1. Evaluation of Dicentrarchus labrax Meats and the Vegetable Quality of Beta vulgaris var. cicla Farmed in Freshwater and Saltwater Aquaponic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nozzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to exploit the euryhaline nature of commercially attractive species for their cultivation in freshwater aquaponic systems. This approach may increase the profitability of aquaponic production in coastal countries where the consumption of marine fish is traditional and of commercial relevance. For this purpose, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reared in an aquaponic freshwater (AFW system and an aquaponic saltwater (ASW system (salinity 20 ppt, in combination with chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla seedlings, a salt tolerant plant. At the end of the trial, nitrate and phosphate concentration in water significantly increased in the ASW system, suggesting that the ability of B. vulgaris to absorb these substances was limited by salinity. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that the concentration of some oligoelements such as Fe remained lower with respect to the concentration in the freshwater hydroponic solution, in both AFW and ASW. FTIR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on plants showed that growth at high salinity affected their lipid content. In the case of fish, freshwater had no effects on mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acid profiles, although saturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in D. labrax reared in AFW. Our results demonstrates that it is possible to increase aquaponic profitability by farming D. labrax juveniles in an aquaponic freshwater system together with Beta vulgaris, obtaining good quality products.

  2. In situ mortality experiments with juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in relation to impulsive sound levels caused by pile driving of windmill foundations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Debusschere

    Full Text Available Impact assessments of offshore wind farm installations and operations on the marine fauna are performed in many countries. Yet, only limited quantitative data on the physiological impact of impulsive sounds on (juvenile fishes during pile driving of offshore wind farm foundations are available. Our current knowledge on fish injury and mortality due to pile driving is mainly based on laboratory experiments, in which high-intensity pile driving sounds are generated inside acoustic chambers. To validate these lab results, an in situ field experiment was carried out on board of a pile driving vessel. Juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax of 68 and 115 days post hatching were exposed to pile-driving sounds as close as 45 m from the actual pile driving activity. Fish were exposed to strikes with a sound exposure level between 181 and 188 dB re 1 µPa².s. The number of strikes ranged from 1739 to 3067, resulting in a cumulative sound exposure level between 215 and 222 dB re 1 µPa².s. Control treatments consisted of fish not exposed to pile driving sounds. No differences in immediate mortality were found between exposed and control fish groups. Also no differences were noted in the delayed mortality up to 14 days after exposure between both groups. Our in situ experiments largely confirm the mortality results of the lab experiments found in other studies.

  3. In situ mortality experiments with juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in relation to impulsive sound levels caused by pile driving of windmill foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Bajek, Aline; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Ginderdeuren, Karl; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Impact assessments of offshore wind farm installations and operations on the marine fauna are performed in many countries. Yet, only limited quantitative data on the physiological impact of impulsive sounds on (juvenile) fishes during pile driving of offshore wind farm foundations are available. Our current knowledge on fish injury and mortality due to pile driving is mainly based on laboratory experiments, in which high-intensity pile driving sounds are generated inside acoustic chambers. To validate these lab results, an in situ field experiment was carried out on board of a pile driving vessel. Juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) of 68 and 115 days post hatching were exposed to pile-driving sounds as close as 45 m from the actual pile driving activity. Fish were exposed to strikes with a sound exposure level between 181 and 188 dB re 1 µPa².s. The number of strikes ranged from 1739 to 3067, resulting in a cumulative sound exposure level between 215 and 222 dB re 1 µPa².s. Control treatments consisted of fish not exposed to pile driving sounds. No differences in immediate mortality were found between exposed and control fish groups. Also no differences were noted in the delayed mortality up to 14 days after exposure between both groups. Our in situ experiments largely confirm the mortality results of the lab experiments found in other studies.

  4. Prey preferences of adult sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax in the northeastern Atlantic: implications for bycatch of common dolphin Delphinus delphis

    OpenAIRE

    Spitz, Jerome; Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Cardinaud, M.; Kostecki,; Lorance, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In the northeastern Atlantic, adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is one of largest fish living on the shelf, and this species has important commercial value. However, pelagic trawl fisheries that target sea bass have negative operational interactions with common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). Our goal was to determine the diet of adult sea bass in the Bay of Biscay from stomachcontent and stable-isotope analyses, and explore the dietary overlap between sea bass and common dolphins. We found...

  5. Chronic stress due to high stocking density in open sea cage farming induces variation in biochemical and immunological functions in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer, Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Narasimhulu; Sharma, S R Krupesha; Joseph, Shoji; Dube, Praveen; Philipose, K K

    2014-08-01

    Stocking density is an important factor in cage aquaculture of finfish. Effects of high stocking density (35 fish cubic m(-1)) on a range of biochemical and immunological parameters in Asian seabass reared in open sea floating net cages were compared to fish held in relatively low density (15 fish cubic m(-1)). The results revealed that chronic stress due to high stocking density induced variations in most of the parameters studied as evidenced by increased cortisol and glucose levels and decreased activity of lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and complement. Production of reactive oxygen species, total leucocyte count and total serum protein were also decreased, whereas anti-protease, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities were increased in high stocking-density group when compared to low stocking-density group. Effects of chronic stress due to high stocking density were discussed in relation to variations in these parameters.

  6. Influence of dietary lipid composition on yolk protein components in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliana Carnevali

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of diet on yolk protein composition and egg survival was studied using the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, as an experimental model. Females were fed to satiation with a high essential fatty acid (EFA diet during four different periods in the annual cycle: from September to February (vitellogenesis, Group A, from February to April (spawning, Group B, from April to September (postvitellogenesis, Group C and all the year round (Group D. During the remaining months groups were fed with a low EFA diet. The percentage of egg viability and the hatching rates were observed in every group. The two major yolk proteins, lipovitellin (LV and phosvitin (PV, were isolated from the ovary and their changes were studied by SDS-gel electrophoresis. In fish fed the diet enriched with EFA only for two months (group B a decrease was observed of the 8 kDa PV components associated with a diminished egg viability and hatching. However, no modification of vitellogenin (VTG plasma levels and no improvement in fish growth were observed under the dietary conditions used.

  7. Evaluation of electrical stunning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in seawater and killing by chilling: wel;fare aspects, product quality and possibilities for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Andre, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to assess neural, behavioural responses and product quality in farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) upon electrical stunning in seawater. The electrical sinusoidal 50 Hz or pulse square wave alternating 133 Hz current induced a general epileptiform insult with a current of

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) Tapasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rute D; da Silva, Diogo V; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian tapasin (TPN) is a key member of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway, being part of the multi-protein complex called the peptide loading complex (PLC). Several studies describe its important roles in stabilizing empty MHC class I complexes, facilitating peptide loading and editing the repertoire of bound peptides, with impact on CD8(+) T cell immune responses. In this work, the gene and cDNA of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) glycoprotein TPN have been isolated and characterized. The coding sequence has a 1329 bp ORF encoding a 442-residue precursor protein with a predicted 24-amino acid leader peptide, generating a 418-amino acid mature form that retains a conserved N-glycosylation site, three conserved mammalian tapasin motifs, two Ig superfamily domains, a transmembrane domain and an ER-retention di-lysine motif at the C-terminus, suggestive of a function similar to mammalian tapasins. Similar to the human counterpart, the sea bass TPN gene comprises 8 exons, some of which correspond to separate functional domains of the protein. A three-dimensional homology model of sea bass tapasin was calculated and is consistent with the structural features described for the human molecule. Together, these results support the concept that the basic structure of TPN has been maintained through evolution. Moreover, the present data provides information that will allow further studies on cell-mediated immunity and class I antigen presentation pathway in particular, in this important fish species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural elucidation of olive pomace fed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) polar lipids with cardioprotective activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Smith, Terry; Detopoulou, Maria; Tsikrika, Constantina; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Barkas, Dimitris; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to structurally characterise the polar lipids of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), fed with an experimental diet containing olive pomace (OP), that exhibit cardioprotective activities. OP has been added to conventional fish oil (FO) feed at 4% and this was the OP diet, having been supplemented as finishing diet to fish. Sea bass was aquacultured using either FO or OP diet. At the end of the dietary experiment, lipids in both samples of fish muscle were quantified and HPLC fractionated. The in vitro cardioprotective properties of the polar lipid fractions, using washed rabbit's platelets, have been assessed and the two most biologically active fractions were further analysed by mass spectrometry. The gas-chromatrograpy-mass spectrometric data shows that these two fractions contain low levels of myristic (14:0), oleic (18:1 cis ω-9) and linoleic acids (18:2 ω-6), but high levels of palmitic (16:0) and stearic acids (18:0) as well as eicosadienoic acid (20:2 ω-6). The first fraction (MS1) also contained significant levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 ω-6) and the omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (22:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6). Electrospray-mass spectrometry elucidated that the lipid composition of the two fractions contained various diacyl-glycerophospholipids species, where the majority of them have either 18:0 or 18:1 fatty acids in the sn-1 position and either 22:6 or 20:2 fatty acids in the sn-2 position for MS1 and MS2, respectively. Our research focuses on the structure/function relationship of fish muscle polar lipids and cardiovascular diseases and structural data are given for polar lipid HPLC fractions with strong cardioprotective properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of different salting processes on the evolution of the volatile metabolites of vacuum-packed fillets of farmed and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored under refrigeration conditions: a study by SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Natalia P; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-02-01

    Fish shelf-life extension is a topic of great interest. In this study the behaviour of salted and unsalted farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets during storage was analysed through the evolution of their volatile metabolites. Farmed and wild sea bass fillets were brine-salted for 15 or 75 min, or dry-salted, vacuum-packed and stored at 4 °C for up to 1 month, and their headspaces were studied by Solid Phase Micro extraction-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). At the same storage time, unsalted wild fillets contained, in general, a higher number and abundance of volatile compounds coming from microbiological or endogenous enzymatic activity than unsalted farmed ones. The more intense the salting, the lower the number and abundance of microbiological spoilage metabolites, especially in wild samples. The appearance of oxidation metabolites only in dry-salted wild samples evidences that this kind of salting provokes a certain oxidation in these samples. The better performance of farmed than wild fillets suggests that salted farmed fillets, vacuum-packed and stored under refrigeration conditions, could be a successful alternative to diversify the presence of sea bass in the market. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The European sea bass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Freitas, V.; Quilez, I.; Jouta, J.; Witte, J.IJ.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the population dynamics, growth and feeding ecology of Dicentrarchus labrax in order to gain a better understanding of its present role in the western Dutch Wadden Sea ecosystem. Otolith analysis showed that the population is mostly comprised of individuals aged 3–5 years old and

  12. Temperature effects and genotype-temperature interactions on sex determination in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillant, Eric; Fostier, Alexis; Haffray, Pierrick; Menu, Bruno; Thimonier, Jacques; Chatain, Béatrice

    2002-04-01

    The effect of temperature on sex-ratios in 27 families of sea bass reared in the same tank from the fertilization stage onward was investigated. An excess of males (68%) was found in the groups that were reared at high temperature (mean +/- standard deviation: 20+/-1 degrees C) until they reached the mean size of 8.1 cm (Standard Length, 149 days post-fertilization [p.f.]). Masculinization was higher (89% of males) in the groups maintained at low temperature (13 degrees C), from fertilization to a mean length of 6.5 cm (346 days p.f.). Shifts from high to low temperature at 8.1cm and from low to high temperature at 6.5 cm had no consequence on the sex-ratio. The percentage of males showing intratesticular oocytes was higher at low temperature (63%) than at high temperature (36%), suggesting that these males may be sensitive fish that have been masculinized by environmental factors. Fish sampled in the groups reared at high (2,200 fish) and low (500 fish) temperature were genotyped on three microsatellite loci. This allowed them to be assigned to the breeders used in the crossing design, thus permitting an analysis of parental influence on sex-ratios. In groups reared at high temperature, both parents had a significant additive effect on the percentage of females, and the interaction between sire and dam was not significant. Genotype temperature interactions were also detected and their existence suggests the interesting possibility of selecting nonsensitive genotypes in breeding programs. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Growth parameters in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labraxL.: effects of live weight and water temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ballestrazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary feed intake (VFI and growth rate of sea bass were studied for 147 days, based on different starting live  weights, under natural photoperiods and varied water temperatures. Sea bass (n = 720 were divided into five weight  classes (60-70, 90-110, 130-150, 160-180 and 230-250 g and distributed among 20 tanks. Seven different water tem-  peratures were compared: 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C. A commercial extruded diet (N x 6.25, 43.7% DM; crude  fat, 25.7% DM was used. The trial was performed in a closed-circuit plant, with a daily water turnover rate of 10%. Each  tank was fitted with an apparatus for collecting the uneaten food. Automatic feeders distributed equal amounts of food  for ten meals per day. The daily food allowance was adjusted, based on fish biomass, to permit ad libitum feeding and  to leave approximately 20% uneaten. Fish were exposed to natural photoperiod (March-July. Non-linear regression  equations were used to calculate the best-fitting curves for the data. 

  14. Sound exposure changes European seabass behaviour in a large outdoor floating pen: Effects of temporal structure and a ramp-up procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neo, Y.Y.; Hubert, J.; Bolle, L.J.; Winter, Hendrik V.; Cate, ten C.; Slabbekoorn, H.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sound from human activities may affect fish behaviour negatively and threaten the stability of fish stocks. However, some fundamental understanding is still lacking for adequate impact assessments and potential mitigation strategies. For example, little is known about the potential

  15. Seguimiento a escala piloto de la ovogénesis de la lubina (Dicentrarchus labrax l.) bajo control de fotoperiodo en diferentes estaciones del año

    OpenAIRE

    Bouget, Jean-francois; La Gandera De, Fernando

    1987-01-01

    Se ha realizado, a escala piloto, el seguimiento de la ovogenesis de la lubina (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) controlando las condiciones de fotoperiodo, en distintas epocas del afio con las consiguientes variaciones de temperatura. Se mantuvieron 5 lotes de reproductores en tanques de 12 m3, 3 en condiciones de ascenso primaveral de temperatura, que han manifestado resultados similares; 1 en la fase final del descenso otonal de temperatura, y l en condiciones naturales de fotoperiodo y temperatur...

  16. Effects of multiple freezing (−18 ± 2 °C) and microwave thawing cycles on the quality changes of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Baygar, Taçnur; ALPARSLAN, Yunus

    2014-01-01

    Sensory, chemical [pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA)] and composition (crude protein and crude lipid) analyses were carried out on whole, gutted and fillets of seabass that were frozen (−18 ± 2 °C) and thawed more than once in microwave. It was detected that the sensorial acceptability values decreased certainly for all fish samples (whole, gutted and fillets of sea bass) when compared with control group. While chemical (pH, TVB-N, TM...

  17. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Rees, Jean François

    2016-04-01

    Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1MPa) and deep-sea (5-15MPa; i.e., 500-1500m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310-10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained viable in all experiments (adenosine triphosphate content). High HP precluded the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA expression in D. labrax, as well as that of glutathione peroxidase, and significantly reduced that of heat shock protein 70. High HP (1h) also tended per se to increase the level of oxidative stress in liver cells of the surface fish. Trends to an increased resistance to tBHP were also noted. Whether the latter observation truly

  18. Jerusalem artichoke enriched diet on growth performance, immuno-hematological changes and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Raffic Ali, Sajjad; Ambasankar, Kondusamy; Saiyad Musthafa, Mohamed; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2017-11-01

    A 45 days feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) on growth performance, body composition, biochemical, immuno-hematological parameters and disease resistance in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) fingerlings against Aeromonas hydrophila. JA was supplemented at three different levels viz., control 0, 5, 10, and 20 g kg-1 in the commercial diet (403 g kg-1protein and 89 g kg -1lipid) in L. calcarifer. The results showed that there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in various growth parameters, while the whole body composition showed significant differences (P  0.05) affected by dietary supplementation of JA at different concentration. However, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the fish fed with 20 g kg-1 JA supplemented diet. Biochemical parameters revealed that glucose, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride showed significant (P < 0.05) differences between control and treatments groups. Interestingly, 20 g kg-1 JA supplemented diet significantly modulates the innate immune response and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila compared with control and other treatment groups. The results of the study revealed that 20 g kg-1 JA supplementation has a beneficial effect in the biochemical, immunological and disease resistance in L. calcarifer juveniles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Latitudinal gradients in growth and spawning of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and their relationship with temperature and photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Ferreira, T.; Matos, L.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2009-02-01

    0-group Sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were captured in four estuarine nursery areas along the Portuguese coast, during the spring and summer of 2005. This coast has a North-South orientation which means that it is particularly suited for the investigation of latitudinal trends. Growth and hatch dates were estimated through otolith daily increment analysis. A clear latitudinal gradient in growth rates was detected. D. labrax mean growth rates were 0.48 mm d -1, 0.51 mm d -1, 0.56 mm d -1 and 0.61 mm d -1, from the Ria de Aveiro, the Mondego estuary, the Tagus estuary and the Mira estuary, respectively. A latitudinal gradient also existed in the spawning season of this species, particularly concerning its onset, which occurred earlier in the South. Analysis of sea surface temperature data from the adjacent coastal waters showed that spawning is not triggered by an increase in temperature, as has been argued in other coastal areas at higher latitudes. Photoperiod played a crucial role in the determination of spawning season at the Portuguese coast latitudinal range. The impact of future climate change on the observed patterns is also discussed.

  20. First isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida from diseased sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., cultured in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fernández-Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the first description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as causative agent of furunculosis in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.. Cumulative mortality in affected fish from two floating cages in the Mediterranean coast of Spain was 3.8%. Affected sea bass did not show the typical external signs of furunculosis in the first stages of the disease, however, when the disease progressed, open ulcers appeared on the skin and muscle. Internally, splenomegaly was the only pathological sign observed. Samples from diseased fish were subjected to standardized assays for pathogens screening. Negative results were obtained for parasites and fish viruses. A Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium was observed in smears from liver, kidney and spleen of all analysed fish. Pure bacterial cultures were recovered from liver, kidney and spleen of all diseased fish sampled during the two different outbreaks. Bacteriological, serological, molecular and chemotaxonomic analysis allowed the identification of the causative agent of sea bass mortalities as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The bacterial strains were susceptible to most of antimicrobial agents usually employed in aquaculture except to oxytetracycline. Pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the isolated bacteria were virulent for sea bass, turbot and rainbow trout.

  1. Effects of short term feeding of some marine microalgae on the microbial profile associated with Dicentrarchus labrax post larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba S. El-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial profile and antimicrobial activity of four marine microalgae species, Tetraselmis chuii, Nannochloropsis salina, Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella salina used in aquaculture of Dicentrarchus labrax in the post larval stage to estimate which was the best algal species that could be used as a green water technique and achieving the maximum rate of growth and survival of D. labrax post larvae. The results represented a significant increase in the length and width of D. labrax at p < 0.05 recorded in the case of enrichment with I. galbana followed by N. salina, and the most weight was recorded in the case of N. salina as compared with the control. Significant increase in percentage of survival of D. labrax was recorded in the case of C. salina and T. chuii (70% and 60.1%, respectively as compared with the control (22%. The antibacterial activity (AU of the different microalgal ethanolic extracts against fish indicator pathogens was determined. The results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of C. salina and T. chuii have the most positive records against the fish indicator pathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio damsela, Vibrio fluvialis and Aeromonas hydrophila. The current study was extended to determine the GC–MS of ethanolic extract of C. salina and T. chuii. The main constituents detected in the ethanolic extract were organic acids like hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and an acyclic diterpene alcohol like phytol.

  2. De novo assembly and characterization of seabass Lateolabrax japonicus transcriptome and expression of hepatic genes following different dietary phosphorus/calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang-Le; Ji, Zhong-Li; Rahimnejad, Samad; Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Ling; Song, Kai

    2017-12-01

    Fish farming seriously influences the aquatic environment because most dietary phosphorus (P) is excreted in the effluent. To increase the P utilization in fish, molecular techniques should be explored given the remarkable development of these techniques. Thus, to identify the candidate genes related to P utilization and molecular alterations following administration of a P-deficient diet in seabass Lateolabrax japonicus, we assessed the de novo pituitary, gill, intestine, liver, kidney, scales and vertebra transcriptomes, and we compared the expression of hepatic genes with three diets varying in P and Ca levels: diet I (0.4% P, 0.3% Ca), diet II (0.8% P, 0.3% Ca), and diet III (0.8% P, 3% Ca). In total, we identified 99,392 unigenes, and 37,086 (37.31%) unigenes were annotated. The results showed that 48 unigenes were significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated, while 55 genes were significantly down-regulated in the liver of group I compared with group II. Offering the P-sufficient and high Ca diet, diet III significantly up-regulated 24 unigenes and down-regulated 46 genes in the liver. There were significant differences in the regulation of 8 unigenes (3 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) between groups II and III. Gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis of differently expressed genes were performed for each pair of groups. The GO analysis showed that a large number of biological processes were significantly altered between P-deficient and P-sufficient treatments (I vs II and I vs III). Comparing group I and group II, seven KEGG terms were enriched significantly: glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, one carbon pool by folate, arginine and proline metabolism, the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid elongation, drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, and fatty acid metabolism. There was no significantly enriched KEGG pathway between groups II and III. In conclusion, our study revealed that a P-deficient diet could increase

  3. Antibacterial and anti-PAF activity of lipid extracts from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Andriotis, Michalis; Demopoulos, Constantinos A; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2008-11-15

    The anti-PAF and the antibacterial activities of lipid extracts obtained from cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were evaluated. Total lipids of sea bass and gilthead sea bream exerted PAF-like activity while, in higher amounts they inhibited this PAF activity. Neutral lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream contained only PAF antagonists while the polar lipid fractions contained both PAF antagonists and agonists. Total lipids of sea bass exhibited stronger PAF-like activity than did those of gilthead sea bream; however, neutral lipids of sea bass contained stronger PAF antagonists than did gilthead sea bream. Total lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream exhibited antibacterial activity only towards Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with those of sea bass being more potent. Subsequently, neutral lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream also showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and less so towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), while only neutral lipids of sea bass showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcusfaecalis (E. faecalis). Sea bass neutral lipids were more active against S. aureus than were those of gilthead sea bream, while their activity towards E. coli was similar. Polar lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream showed antibacterial activity against all bacteria strains. Sea bass polar lipids were more active towards S. aureus than were those of gilthead sea bream, while their activities against E. faecalis and E. coli were the same. The detected antibacterial activities of the lipid extracts isolated from sea bass and gilthead sea bream were observed in amounts equal to those that exerted either PAF inhibition or PAF-like activity, suggesting that PAF antagonists and agonists of fish lipids may be responsible for the antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthetic hepcidin from fish: Uptake and protection against Vibrio anguillarum in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Claudio Andrés; Acosta, Félix; Montero, Daniel; Guzmán, Fanny; Torres, Elisa; Vega, Belinda; Mercado, Luis

    2016-08-01

    The generation of a variety of new therapeutic agents to control and reduce the effects of pathogen in aquaculture is urgently needed. The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the major components of the innate defenses and typically have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, absorption and distributions of exogenous AMPs for therapeutics application on farmed fish species need to be studied. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown the properties of hepcidin as an effective antimicrobial peptide produced in fish in response to LPS and iron. Therefore, we decided to investigate the antimicrobial activity of four synthetic variants of hepcidin against Vibrio anguillarum in vitro, and using the more effective peptide we demonstrated the pathogen's ability to protect against the infection in European Sea bass. Additionally the uptake of this peptide after ip injection was demonstrated, reaching its distribution organs such as intestine, head kidney, spleen and liver. The synthetic peptide did not show cytotoxic effects and significantly reduced the accumulated mortalities percentage (23.5%) compared to the European Sea bass control (72.5%) at day 21. In conclusion, synthetic hepcidin shows antimicrobial activity against V. anguillarum and the in vivo experiments suggest that synthetic hepcidin was distributed trough the different organs in the fish. Thus, synthetic hepcidin antimicrobial peptide could have high potential for therapeutic application in farmed fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: tales from a teleost model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, M.; Afonso, A.

    2017-01-01

    the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2x dietary requirement level) or a control...... diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL). Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity......, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led...

  6. Fertilization strategies for Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758): effects of pre-incubation and duration of egg receptivity in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad A Momin; Butts, Ian; Linhart, Otomar

    2017-01-01

    these treatments after 3 min of pre-incubation, which clearly indicates that sea bass eggs are able to be fertilized by sperm for up to 3 min after release into seawater. This study has particular importance for understanding fertilization strategies, reproductive potential, as well as reproductive ecology of sea......Studying gamete biology can provide important information about a species fertilization strategy as well as their reproductive ecology. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about how long sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax eggs can remain viable after being activated in seawater. The objectives...... of this study were to understand the effects of pre-incubation of fresh and overripe sea bass eggs in seawater and to determine the duration of egg receptivity. Pooled eggs (fresh and overripe) from four females were pre-incubated in seawater for 0 min (control), 0.5 min, 1 min, 3 min, 10 min and 30 min...

  7. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  8. Potentiel probiotique de levures productrices des polyamines dans le développement du système digestif du bar Dicentrarchus labrax et de la cabrilla arenera Paralabrax maculatofasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar, Dariel

    2002-01-01

    The interest in probiotics for aquaculture is increasing rapidly. In the present work we evaluated the potential of some yeast to induce the larvae gut maturation in sea bass larvae Dicentrarchus labrax. The production of polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine was quantified in ten yeast strains using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Afterwards, fluorescently labelled yeast adhesion to the intestine of sea bass larvae and the spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciat...

  9. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  10. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  11. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  12. Effects of multiple freezing (-18 ± 2 °C) and microwave thawing cycles on the quality changes of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygar, Taçnur; Alparslan, Yunus

    2015-06-01

    Sensory, chemical [pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA)] and composition (crude protein and crude lipid) analyses were carried out on whole, gutted and fillets of seabass that were frozen (-18 ± 2 °C) and thawed more than once in microwave. It was detected that the sensorial acceptability values decreased certainly for all fish samples (whole, gutted and fillets of sea bass) when compared with control group. While chemical (pH, TVB-N, TMA-N, TBA) values increased, crude protein and crude lipid values decreased after the multiple freezing and thawing cycles under microwave. The obtained results offered that thawing by microwave is not appropriate sea bass because of the undesirable cooking effect of microwave to the some parts of fish such as tail, eye and fins. Also skin dryness, moisture losses in eye fluids and textural deteriorations were observed. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found in general acceptability values and pH, TVB-N, TBA and crude protein results among the sea bass groups thawed in microwave conditions.

  13. Response of plasma and gastrointestinal melatonin, plasma cortisol and activity rhythms of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to dietary supplementation with tryptophan and melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M J; Martínez, F J; Míguez, J M; Madrid, J A

    2007-04-01

    Melatonin is an effective antioxidant, immunostimulant, gonadal maturating regulator and antistress indoleamine that may be potentially useful for fish farmers. We have explored two possible ways of increasing plasma melatonin levels through the diet: direct melatonin supplementation (ME diet) and supplementation with the melatonin precursor tryptophan (TRP diet). To this end, a group of sea bass was fed a commercial diet (STD diet) at a regular time for 16 days, after which plasma, intestine, and bile samples were taken at four different time points: 120 min before, and 15, 180 and 480 min after feeding. Locomotor activity, intestinal and biliary melatonin, and plasma melatonin, serotonin and cortisol levels were measured. This same sampling process and analyses were also carried out after feeding sea bass TRP diet or ME diet for 1 week. Our results show that melatonin, but not tryptophan supplementation of the diet increases plasma, intestine and bile levels of melatonin. Plasma serotonin levels, on the other hand, were increased by dietary tryptophan, but not by melatonin, confirming the availability of supplemented tryptophan for serotonin synthesis. Both treatments were equally effective in reducing the high cortisol levels observed with the STD diet.

  14. Outcome of EPIZONE Extension ON VER/VNN: Pathogenicity study of 10 betanodavirus strains with an in vivo challenge in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.; Cappellozza, E.

    2012-01-01

    to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of circulating viruses, ten selected VER/VNN strains differing for origin and/or genotype were tested “in vivo” by challenging sea bass juveniles in infection trials. The infection was performed under controlled conditions and all the infected groups were...

  15. Accumulation of 137Cs in the European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus Labrax (L.) in a salinity gradient : Importance of uptake via gills, diet and ingested water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattink, J.; Celis, N.; De Boeck, G.; Krijger, G.C.; Blust, R.

    2009-01-01

    Radio-caesium is an important radionuclide released considering food and feed products. In aquatic environments caesium tends to accumulate in fish, both through its diet and its gills. This presentation discusses the caesium accumulation in fish living in estuaries. The aim of this work is to

  16. Comparative pathogenicity study of ten different betanodavirus strains in experimentally infected European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.; Mancin, M.

    2014-01-01

    nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, with the RGNNV genotype appearing as the most widespread in the Mediterranean region, although SJNNV-type strains and reassortant viruses have also been reported. The existence...

  17. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  18. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  19. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  20. Innate immunity and antioxidant systems in different tissues of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to crude oil dispersed mechanically or chemically with Corexit 9500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussauze, Matthieu; Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lemaire, Philippe; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine; Theron, Michaël

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of chemically dispersed oil by the dispersant Corexit 9500 on innate immunity and redox defenses in a marine model fish. Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed 48h to four experimental conditions: a control group (C), a group only exposed to the dispersant (D; 3.6mg/L) and two groups exposed to 80mg/L oil mechanically or chemically dispersed (MD; CD). Alternative pathway of complement activity and lysozyme concentration was measured in plasma in order to evaluate the general fish health status. Total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analyzed in gills, liver, brain, intestine and muscle. The chemical dispersion induced a significant reduction of lysozyme concentration when compared to the controls, and the hemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway was increased in mechanical and chemical dispersion. The analysis of SOD, GPX and total glutathione showed that antioxidant defenses were activated in liver and reduced in intestine and brain. Dispersant was also responsible for an SOD activity inhibition in these two last tissues, demonstrating a direct effect of this dispersant on reactive oxygen species homeostasis that can be interpreted as a signal of tissue toxicity. This result should raise concern about the use of dispersants and show that they can lead to adverse effects on marine species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: A multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Claudia, Virno Lamberti [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Barbara, Pisanelli [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Ginevra, Moltedo [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Francesco, Regoli, E-mail: f.regoli@univpm.i [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities. - A biological risk for marine organisms can be excluded for DEG concentrations as those normally associated to produced waters discharged in the Adriatic Sea.

  2. Total lipid in the broodstock diet did not affect fatty acid composition and quality of eggs of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Navas

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether an increase in the quantity of lipids ingested by sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax broodstock could improve egg quality, three year-old sea bass were fed three different diets: a natural diet (Control group, and two artificial diets containing 10% or 17% of total lipids. In two consecutive reproductive seasons, the spawning results, the lipid classes and the fatty acid composition of the eggs were studied. No differences in the absolute content of lipids or in the percentage of different lipid classes were observed between the eggs from the three groups. Both experimental groups fed with the artificial diets produced eggs of poor quality, with low percentages of buoyancy and hatching. Those observed in the eggs from the Control Group were significantly higher (p> 0.01 than those of the experimental groups. The higher hatching rate of the eggs from the Control Group was associated with higher DHA:EPA and AA:EPA ratios. The data obtained showed that the fatty acid composition of the eggs was affected by the fatty acid composition of the diets but not by the total quantity of lipids administered to the broodstock.

  3. Do the visual conditions at the point of escape affect European sea bass escape behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. PAPADAKIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, an important species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, has been reported to escape from sea cage installations. Fish escapes are caused mainly by operational and technical failures that eventually result into a creation of a tear. Escapees may interact with wild stocks through interbreeding, transfer of pathogens and competition for food. The aim of this study was to examine at which extent the presence of a visible obstacle close to a tear on the net have an influence on sea bass propensity to escape. Fish were initially confined into small sea cages, with a tear at one side. The escape behavior was tested under experimental conditions. It is clearly demonstrated that sea bass was able to locate a tear on the net pen, immediately after its appearance. Crossings occurred in all cages, in singles or in a series of up to seven individuals. The presence of an obstacle close to the net tear altered the escape behavior of D. labrax resulting in a delay that eventually reduced the escape rate. Concluding, it is highly recommended that sea bass cages should be kept internally the culture array. Furthermore, the placement of artificial obstacles close to the sea cages could be an efficient practice that mitigates the escape risk after severe environmental conditions.

  4. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  5. Impact of temperature on sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, retina: Fatty acid composition, expression of rhodopsin and enzymes of lipid and melatonin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mehdi; Bejaoui, Safa; Rabeh, Imen; Besbes, Raouf; El Cafsi, M 'Hamed; Falcon, Jack

    2017-06-01

    Teleost fish are ectothermic vertebrates. Their metabolism, physiology and behavior rely on the external temperature. This study, on the retina of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, reports on the impact of temperature on the fatty acid composition and mRNA abundance of key enzymes of lipid metabolism: fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), fatty acid elongase-5 (ELOVL5), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), triglyceride lipase and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). We also report on the effects on the photopigment molecule rhodopsin and on enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway, namely arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases 1a and 1b and acetylserotonin methyltransferase. Juvenile fish were placed for 30 days at 18, 23 or 28 °C. At 23 °C, the fatty acid composition of D. labrax retina showed, as generally reported for the retina of other fish species, particularly high amounts of docosahexaenoic (DHA), palmitic and oleic acids. The fatty acids composition was not significantly (P > 0.05) altered between 23 and 28 °C, but did increase at 18 °C compared to 23 and 28 °C. At 18 °C there were noticeable increases in total DHA, ecosapentaenoic, arachidonic, oleic, linoleic, palmitoleic and stearic acids. A negative correlation was found in the abundance of neutral (NL) vs. polar (PL) lipids: 18 °C induced an increase in NL and a decrease in PL, while 28 °C induced higher PL with decreased NL. In NL the changes affected mainly triglycerides. FADS2 and ELOVL5 mRNA abundance decreased from 18° to 28 °C while SREBP-1 and triglyceride lipase mRNA remained stable. Conversely PLA2 mRNA was more abundant at 23 than at 18 and 28 °C. Temperature increased and decreased rhodopsin mRNA abundance, at 28 °C and 18 °C respectively, while there was no effect on mRNA from the melatonin synthesis enzymes. In conclusion the data indicate a temperature induced redistribution of fatty acids among the lipid classes that might affect the physical properties of

  6. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  7. Analysis of the interaction of polycyclic aromatic compounds in a model organism: integration of genotoxic and histopathological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pereira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to their toxicity, especially their carcinogenic potential, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are considered priority in biomonitoring programmes. Many of these compounds are listed through the European Water Framework Directive as priority pollutants. Benzo(bfluoranthene (B[b]F, considered potentially carcinogenic, and phenanthrene (Phe, non-carcinogenic, are two common PAHs in coastal waters and own distinct proprieties that are reflected in their mechanisms of toxicity. Still, their interaction effects onto the aquatic biota remain largely unknown. This work aimed to analyze the genotoxic effects caused by the interaction of B[b]F and Phe and their relation to histopathological alterations in the liver. The model organism was the seabass Dicentrarchus labrax, an important coastal species for fisheries and aquaculture. For the purpose, fish were injected with the two compounds (5 µg/g fish ww, isolated or in mixture, and incubated for 24h. The results only revealed minor clastogenic and aneugenic alterations, determined through erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities. On the other hand, the Comet assay showed significant DNA strand breakage in the individuals injected with B[b]F and the combination of the two compounds. On the contrary, Phe failed to cause significant genotoxic effects. Significant hepatic histopathological alterations were also found in animals injected with B[b]F, relating especially to inflammation-related responses. Overall, the results indicate no significant additive effect between B[b]F and Phe, under the current experimental conditions. Nonetheless, the seabass revealed to be sensitive to exposure to B[b]F (a higher molecular weight PAH, likely due to more efficient bioactivation of the pollutant (yielded genotoxic metabolites and reactive oxygen species, when compared to Phe. It is of paramount importance to understand the long-term interaction effects between PAHs under ecologically-relevant scenarios, since

  8. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  9. State of the art of Italian aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007, Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, seabream (Sparus aurata, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and European eel (Anguilla anguilla but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006 through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, striped bass, catfish and ornamental fish, Italy ranks fourth with 69,100 t after Norway (655,364 t, Great Britain (141,793 t and Greece (83,600 t. Over the last 15 years, Italian finfish production has known a decrease related to all the species mainly reared (trout, eel, carps, catfish except for the eurhyaline species that have had an important expansion (Table 1. Based on these considerations, in this work we describe the main features of fish aquaculture in Italy focalizing the attention to the single sectors of the farmed species and their trend for the future.

  10. PCB contamination in fish community from the Gironde Estuary (France): blast from the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, N; Tapie, N; Le Ménach, K; Chassot, E; Elie, P; Rochard, E; Budzinski, H

    2014-03-01

    The contamination of the Gironde Estuary, southwest of France, by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed using six fish of high ecological and economic importance as bioindicator species. The concentrations of 21 PCB congeners and total fat contents were determined in the muscle and liver of eels (Anguilla anguilla), seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), flounders (Platichthys flesus), meagres (Argyrosomus regius), mullets (Liza ramada), and soles (Solea vulgaris). In addition, information regarding the trophic ecology of the studied fish was obtained through the analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (i.e., δ(13)C and δ(15)N) in muscle. Results revealed high PCB concentrations in fish compared to monitored European estuaries. The muscle of eels was by far the most contaminated fish flesh (Σ7PCBs=1000±440 ng g(-1) on a dry weight basis), while the higher PCB concentrations in liver were measured in flounder (Σ7PCBs=2040±1160 ng g(-1) d.w.). A quantile regression approach allowed to investigate the fate of PCBs in the Gironde estuarine fish assemblage, and revealed a general process of trophic magnification. Finally, most of the analysed fish presented PCB concentrations in muscle meat above the current European maximum limits for sea products, while the derived "Toxic Equivalent Quantity" (TEQ) revealed human health concerns only for high-fat fish consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of myostatin, fibroblast growth factor 6, insulin-like growth factor I and II in liver and muscle of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. during long-term fasting and refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saroglia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The exceptionally fast growth that fish experience after periods of fasting has been called “compensatory growth”. This phenomenon has been studied in intensive aquaculture as a means of enhancing growth rates, but the mechanisms by which food intake activates an increase in somatic growth, and especially in muscle growth, are complex and not yet fully understood. In the present paper, we describe the molecular cloning and sequencing of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax myostatin (MSTN and fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6, which have been shown to be major genetic determinants of skeletal muscle growth, together with insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI and IGF-II, which are potent mitogens known to play important roles in growth and development. We then report the pattern of expression of the four aforementioned genes, in liver and myotomal muscle in response to prolonged fasting and refeeding. Nutritional status significantly influenced the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN, whereas the muscular FGF6 expression levels were not affected by the feeding status of the animals. Taken together these data indicate that IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN are involved in the sea bass muscle compensatory growth induced by refeeding, whereas FGF6 probably has not a role in this phenomenon.

  12. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  13. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  14. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  15. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  16. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  17. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  18. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  19. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  20. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  1. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate administration during early life: effects on performance, immunity and microbial community of European sea bass yolk-sac larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andrea; Roth, Olivia; Schryver, Peter De; Bayer, Till; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Künzel, Sven; Bossier, Peter; Miest, Joanna J; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2017-11-08

    The reliable production of marine fish larvae is one of the major bottlenecks in aquaculture due to high mortalities mainly caused by infectious diseases. To evaluate if the compound poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) might be a suitable immunoprophylactic measure in fish larviculture, its capacity to improve immunity and performance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) yolk-sac larvae was explored. PHB was applied from mouth opening onwards to stimulate the developing larval immune system at the earliest possible point in time. Larval survival, growth, microbiota composition, gene expression profiles and disease resistance were assessed. PHB administration improved larval survival and, furthermore, altered the larva-associated microbiota composition. The bacterial challenge test using pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum revealed that the larval disease resistance was not influenced by PHB. The expression profiles of 26 genes involved e.g. in the immune response showed that PHB affected the expression of the antimicrobial peptides ferritin (fer) and dicentracin (dic), however, the response to PHB was inconsistent and weaker than previously demonstrated for sea bass post-larvae. Hence, the present study highlights the need for more research focusing on the immunostimulation of different early developmental stages for gaining a more comprehensive picture and advancing a sustainable production of high quality fry.

  2. A standard experimental diet for the study of fatty acid requirements of weaning and first ongrowing stages of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): selection of the basal diet

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P.; Van Stappen, G.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    A standard experimental diet was developed to study lipid nutrition in marine fish larvae during weaning and first ongrowing. Basal diets were prepared by extrusion-cooking, crumbling of the pellets, and sieving to obtain particles in the size ranges 150-300 µm and 300-500 µm. Three protein sources in the extruded basal diet were evaluated: (1) micronized cod protein granulate (COD); (2) a mixture of casein, gelatin, and albumin (CGA); (3) a mixture of cod fish meal, whey protein, soybean pro...

  3. The Highly Conserved Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-2 Form Acts as a Melatonin-Releasing Factor in the Pineal of a Teleost Fish, the European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Servili, Arianna; Lethimonier, Christèle; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Kah, Olivier; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    .... In addition, in many teleost fish, there is a third gene called GnRH-3. If the main function of GnRH-1 is unambiguously to stimulate gonadotropin release, the other two GnRH forms still lack clear functions...

  4. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  5. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  6. Exploring a Nonmodel Teleost Genome Through RAD Sequencing—Linkage Mapping in Common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Tereza; Tsakogiannis, Alexandros; Taggart, John B.; Palaiokostas, Christos; Tsaparis, Dimitris; Lagnel, Jacques; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Magoulas, Antonios; Papandroulakis, Nikos; Mylonas, Constantinos C.; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S.

    2015-01-01

    Common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) is a benthopelagic marine fish belonging to the teleost family Sparidae, and a newly recruited species in Mediterranean aquaculture. The paucity of genetic information relating to sparids, despite their growing economic value for aquaculture, provides the impetus for exploring the genomics of this fish group. Genomic tool development, such as genetic linkage maps provision, lays the groundwork for linking genotype to phenotype, allowing fine-mapping of loci responsible for beneficial traits. In this study, we applied ddRAD methodology to identify polymorphic markers in a full-sib family of common pandora. Employing the Illumina MiSeq platform, we sampled and sequenced a size-selected genomic fraction of 99 individuals, which led to the identification of 920 polymorphic loci. Downstream mapping analysis resulted in the construction of 24 robust linkage groups, corresponding to the karyotype of the species. The common pandora linkage map showed varying degrees of conserved synteny with four other teleost genomes, namely the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and medaka (Oryzias latipes), suggesting a conserved genomic evolution in Sparidae. Our work exploits the possibilities of genotyping by sequencing to gain novel insights into genome structure and evolution. Such information will boost the study of cultured species and will set the foundation for a deeper understanding of the complex evolutionary history of teleosts. PMID:26715088

  7. Shift in trophic level of Mediterranean mariculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Adamopoulos, Nikolaos; Pauly, Daniel; Mente, Eleni

    2014-08-01

    The mean trophic level of the farmed fish species in the Mediterranean has been increasing. We examined the farming-up hypothesis (i.e., the increase in the production of high-trophic-level species) in the Mediterranean by determining the trophic level of the aquafeeds (i.e., what the fish are fed) of 5 species of farmed marine fishes: common dentex (Dentex dentex), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and red porgy (Pagrus sp.). The mean trophic level of aquafeed used in mariculture from 1950 to 2011 was higher (3.93) than the prey farmed fish consume in the wild (3.72) and increased at a faster rate (0.48/decade) compared with that based on their diets in the wild (0.43/decade). Future expected replacement of the fishmeal and oil in aquafeeds by plant materials may reverse the farming-up trend, although there are a number of concerns regarding operational, nutritional, environmental, and economic issues. The farming-up reversal can be achieved in an ecologically friendly manner by facilitating the mariculture of low-trophic-level fishes and by promoting high efficiency in the use of living marine resources in aquafeeds. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  9. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  10. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  11. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  12. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  13. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  14. Timetabling on European Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  15. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  16. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  17. European DHC Research Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, Robin; Williams, Jonathan (Building Research Establishment, BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford (United Kingdom)); Werner, Sven (Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Euroheat and Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues

  18. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  19. Aggregation of European storm-petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus ssp. melitensis) around cage fish farms. Do they benefit from the farmś resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Giménez, F; Sallent-Sánchez, A; Eguía-Martínez, S; Martínez-Ródenas, J; Hernández-Llorente, M D; Palanca-Maresca, C; Molina-Pardo, J L; López-Pastor, B; García-Castellanos, F A; Ballester-Moltó, M; Ballesteros-Pelegrín, G; García-García, B; Barberá, G G

    2016-12-01

    Cage aquaculture aggregates wild fauna due to food provision. Several seabirds frequent fish farms, including the European storm-petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus melitensis). This work investigates the presence of storm-petrels around two aquaculture areas interspersed between breeding colonies in western Mediterranean Sea. Contribution of aquaculture-derived resources to their diet was assessed. Storm-petrels were mist-netted at the colonies and marked by bleaching feathers. Density around aquaculture areas was estimated through visual counts. Marks recognition was conducted visually and by photo-capture. Storm-petrel regurgitates were used as target tissue to estimate diet sources contribution. Contribution of surface zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and aquaculture wastes was estimated through Bayesian mixing modelling combining carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and fatty acids as biomarkers. Storm-petrel density was high in open-sea aquaculture area, but not observed around near shore farms. Temporal variability of storm-petrels density during the breeding season was linked to their reproductive phenology. Within the open-sea aquaculture area, bluefin tuna farm was more attractive for storm-petrels than seabream/seabass farms. Visual identification of bleaching marks was not useful. Photo-capture showed that 8.3% of the storm-petrels watched around farms were firstly trapped in some of the nearby colonies, and 91.7% were unmarked. Qualitative evidence of aquaculture-derived wastes utilization was obtained. However, its estimated contribution was low (4.3%) when compared to ichthyoplankton (61.1%) or zooplankton (34.6%). The studied open-sea farms significantly aggregated storm-petrels along their entire breeding season. Storm-petrels got a slight profit from aquaculture resources. Nevertheless, some concerns arise regarding the cost/benefit balance of the interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term exposure of sea bream (Sparus aurata and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax fry to high concentrations of the pesticide Dimilin® (diflubenzuron; effects on survival and histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELIDIS Panagiotis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of Dimilin® on the survival and histology of two commercially important marine fish species, sea bream and sea bass, after a short-term exposure, were examined. Sea bream and sea bass fry of similar mean weight (0.25±0.05g SD were exposed to three concentrations of the pesticide (diflubenzuron, 1500, 1000 and 500 ppm, for 96 h. For each species, three groups of ten fish (replicates were exposed to each concentration,while three groups were not exposed and kept as controls. The mortality was recorded daily and tissue samples from fish of allgroups were collected for histological examination, after 24 and 96 h exposure. During the first 24 h of exposure, almost all seabream exposed to 1500 and 1000 ppm died. Similarly, almost all sea bass fry exposed to 1500 ppm also died but few fishexposed to 1000 ppm survived. Throughout the exposure period, sea bream fry exposed to 500 ppm exhibited similar survivalwith this of the control groups (percentage of alive fish after 96 h: 73.3±25.1% SD and 70±17.3% SD respectively, while seabass fry exposed to the same concentration exhibited significantly lower survival rate compared to that of the control groups(percentage of alive fish after 96 h: 26.6±20.8% SD and 86.6±5.7% SD respectively. The histological examination indicatedsimilar findings for both species. As the fish exposed to 1500 and 1000 ppm died in the first 24 h of exposure, before collectingthe tissue samples, the gills exhibited severe lesions of autolysis.The tissue samples of the fish exposed to 500 ppm werecollected from live fish and these revealed severe extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the gill respiratory epithelium.These lesions became more pronounced after 96 h exposure. Only areas of mild hyperplasia / hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium were observed in fish from the control groups, after 24 and 96 h exposure. No lesions in the internal organs of the fish exposed to Dimilin® were

  1. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...... coming from new global streaming services. Comparing cases of historical, contemporary and crime drama from several countries, this study shows the importance of creative co-production and transnational mediated cultural encounters between national cultures of Europe....

  2. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    with the case of Sweden. Sweden is a good example because it has a high density of internet use, a politically active population as reflected in voter turnout and many politicians and political parties with a web presence. The main research questions of the paper are: Which actors are involved in the Swedish...... of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether...... or not non-Swedish Twitter users are participating in and/or affecting the Swedish Eurosceptic dialogue on social media....

  3. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  4. European Universe Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  5. The European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martinelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European identity is not only a scientifically interesting question, but also a politically important issue: in fact, sixty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome, the European Union finds itself for the first time facing risks that threaten its own existence. The European Union is a limited and incomplete project because Europe’s economic integration has not been accompanied by a genuine supranational political union and greater cultural integration. The deficit of democratic representation and cultural integration is due to the fact that the community process is based only on economic rationality and not on a feeling of common belonging. In the current situation in which the Union faces difficult challenges which threaten to undermine the future, it necessary to affirm the policy of interests with a policy of identity. In this essay, we will first concentrate on the concept of identity – that is on the nucleus of values and common institutions –; then we will discuss how the European identity has changed over time (also in relation to national identities and what are the mechanisms that may favour its taking root in the current situation. The European project of political unification needs to be re-emphasized, finding the way to a European collective identity, not contrasted with but alongside the different national identities, referring to loyalty and shared commitment to a whole collection of cultural values: fundamental human rights, civil liberties, democratic political institutions, rule of law, freedom of movement of people, goods and capital, social justice and non-violent resolution of conflicts.

  6. European Gas Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Iben; Bieber, Martin; Gandrup, Tobias; Lehmann, Tina; Weinberger, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The focal point of the project is, as it is implied in the title, European gas dependency, to be more specific; the dependency of Russian gas. We chose Russia, because the EU's import of gas is mainly supplied by Russia. We present background information and knowledge to describe why the case is of relevance and that a situation of dependency exists. We solely look at the dependency from the European Union's point of view, taking point of departure in the Green Paper. The Green Paper is a pap...

  7. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  8. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality...

  10. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....

  11. European Psychology Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA SCHÖN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.

  12. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  13. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  14. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    ’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...

  15. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  16. Becoming Pan-European?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Brüggemann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    be platforms of a transnational European discourse. Four ideal-types of transnational media can be distinguished: (1) national media with a transnational mission, (2) international media, (3) pan-regional media and (4) global media. Within this framework the article analyses transnational media in Europe...

  17. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  18. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  19. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  20. The Europeanness of European cinema: Identity, meaning, globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Gertjan

    2015-01-01

    According to its editors, the aim of The Europeanness of European cinema is ‘to revisit the issue of the significance of European cinema as a category in the wake of the recent acceleration in transnational filmmaking and globalization as a whole’ (p. 7). Taking the transnational prominence of European cinema as a starting point, the anthology’s introduction presents some brief reflections about what ‘Europeanness’ – the central, overarching concept for the various chapters – has meant histor...

  1. European core curriculum in neurorehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandrini, G.; Binder, H.; Homberg, V.; Saltuari, L.; Tarkka, I.; Smania, N.; Corradini, C.; Giustini, A.; Katterer, C.; Picari, L.; Diserens, K.; Koenig, E.; Geurts, A.C.; Anghelescu, A.; Opara, J.; Tonin, P.; Kwakkel, G.; Golyk, V.; Onose, G.; Perennou, D.; Picelli, A.

    2017-01-01

    To date, medical education lacks Europe-wide standards on neurorehabilitation. To address this, the European Federation of NeuroRehabilitation Societies (EFNR) here proposes a postgraduate neurorehabilitation training scheme. In particular, the European medical core curriculum in neurorehabilitation

  2. European and Integration Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soviet scientific school of pan-European integration studies began to emerge in the 1960s at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (Russian Academy of Science. Among the leading scientists who have developed methodological approaches of Soviet integration studies were M.M. Maximova, Y.A. Borko, Y. Shishkov, L.I. Capercaillie. Later, a new center for integration studies became the Institute of Europe, created in 1987. It was led by such renowned scientists as Academicians V.V. Zhurkin and N.P. Shmelev. In the 1980s the subject of the integration process in Europe attracted attention of experts from MGIMO. An important role in the development of school of integration research in the USSR was played by a MGIMO professor, head of the chair of history of international relations and foreign policy of the USSR V.B. Knyazhinskiy. His work contributed to the deliverance of the national scientific community from skepticism about the prospects for European integration. Ideas of V.B. Knyazhinsky are developed today in MGIMO by his followers A.V. Mal'gin and T.V. Ur'eva. In the mid-1990s, having retired from diplomatic service, professor Yu. Matveevskiy started to work at MGIMO. With a considerable practical experience in the field, he produced a series of monographs on the history of European integration. In his works, he analyses the development of integration processes in Western Europe from their inception to the present day, showing the gradual maturation of the necessary spiritual and material prerequisites for the start of integration and traces the various stages of the "integration". In the late 1990s, the growing demand from the domestic business and government for professionals who are capable of interacting with the European Union, has produced the necessary supply in the form of educational programs based on accumulated scientific knowledge. Setting up a discipline "European Integration" was a major step in the development

  3. The Shoah within European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the Epilogue of Postwar, titled: From the House ofthe Dead: An essay on Modern European memory, Tony Judt concludes that: ‘those who would become full Europeans in the dawn of the twenty-first century must first assume a new and far more oppressive heritage. Today the pertinent European reference

  4. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...... availability. Alone the biogas energy potential projected in the scenario representing low substrate availability corresponds to a doubling of the European biogas production in 2015. The results shows that sustainable alternatives to the use of maize are present in all the member states of the EU28...

  5. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  6. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  7. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...... European consensus, we find markedly lower levels of support for nudges in two nations: Hungary and Denmark. We are not, in general, able to connect support for nudges with distinct party affiliations....

  8. Pirating European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Science has gained a lot of attention not only within the academic community but also among policy-makers. Some international publishers have been active in moving towards open access publications and research data, but, overall, modest results have been achieved so far. In this context, the digital piracy engines emerge as vital actors in disseminating and determining the impact of research. This study examines the Sci-Hub downloads data in order to uncover patterns of piracy in European Studies research. We identify journals and the subjects of articles that have been pirated the most. We also study the geographical distribution of download requests. The analysis reveals that the readers are mostly interested in subjects reflecting the current major European challenges, specifically populism and the economic crisis. Both developing countries as well as the ‘old’ EU members are active in illegal downloads.

  9. Stature of early Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The ancestors of modern Europeans arrived in Europe at least 40,000 years before present. Pre-glacial maximum Upper Palaeolithic males (before 16,000 BC) were tall and slim (mean height 179 cm, estimated average body weight 67 kg), while the females were comparably small and robust (mean height 158 cm, estimated average body weight 54 kg). Late Upper Palaeolithic males (8000-6600 BC) were of medium stature and robusticity (mean height 166 cm, estimated average body weight 62 kg). Stature further decreased to below 165 cm with estimated average body weight of 64 kg in Neolithic males of the Linear Band Pottery Culture, and to 150 cm with estimated average body weight of 49 kg in Neolithic females. The body stature of European males remained within the range of 165 to 170 cm up to the end of the 19th century.

  10. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  11. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  12. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  13. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  14. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making.......Traditionally, the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) has mainly been considered the somewhat dull predecessor to the more famous Court of Justice of the European Communities, which in 1963-64 ‘constitutionalised’ the Treaties of Rome with the seminal judgments of Van...

  15. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  16. The European populist challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Stavrakakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Europe, the word ‘populism’ usually refers to right-wing populism or the populist extreme right. Is, however, the concept of ‘populism’ the proper theoreticopolitical instrument through which such identifications should be perceived, categorized and debated? What are the implications (direct and indirect of such a naming? And what are the risks for critical analysis and for democratic politics in the European context? The hypothesis explored in this essay is that sticking to a restrictive association between ‘populism’ and the extreme right poses certain dangers that have to be seriously taken into account, especially in times of crisis. For a start, it is often premised on a rather simplistic euro-centrism that reduces the broad conceptual spectrum covered by the category ‘populism’ in its global use to a very particular European experience and then essentializes the resulting association, over-extending its scope. In addition, the category ‘populism’ is aften used to describe political forces, identities and discourses in which the role of ‘the people’ is only secondary or peripheral, to the extent that it has to coincide with strongly hierarchical and elitist visions of society. What complicates things even further is that, within the context of the European (economic and political crisis, whoever questions/ resists the austerity agenda – especially on the left – is increasingly discredited and denounced as an irresponsible populist. Indeed, it is not by coincidence that doubts are increasingly voiced both in the theoretical and in the political literature regarding the rationale behind such a strong association between populism and the extreme right. A series of points will thus be raised that may help us develop a plausible theoretico-political strategy in the new emerging conditions from a discursive perspective.*

  17. European Network Against Racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    of discussions about intersectionality, the article investigates ENAR´s attention and ability to integrate questions of e.g. gender, sexuality or age in their policy input, given the potentially rigid compartmentalisation of discrimination strands within the European Commission´s system of civil society...... consultations. The article therefore overall aims to assess ENAR´s position as potentially hemmed in between 1) the Commission vs. member organisations’ expectations for its focus and modus operandi and 2) attention to intersectional discrimination vs. potential compartmentalisation within the Commission...

  18. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  19. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  20. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  1. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  2. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional......Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...

  3. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  4. Fast growers sprint slower: effects of food deprivation and re-feeding on sprint swimming performance in individual juvenile European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Marras, Stefano; McKenzie, David J

    2014-03-15

    While many ectothermic species can withstand prolonged fasting without mortality, food deprivation may have sublethal effects of ecological importance, including reductions in locomotor ability. Little is known about how such changes in performance in individual animals are related to either mass loss during food deprivation or growth rate during re-feeding. This study followed changes in the maximum sprint swimming performance of individual European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, throughout 45 days of food deprivation and 30 days of re-feeding. Maximum sprint speed did not show a significant decline until 45 days of food deprivation. Among individuals, the reduction in sprinting speed at this time was not related to mass loss. After 30 days of re-feeding, mean sprinting speed had recovered to match that of control fish. Among individuals, however, maximum sprinting speed was negatively correlated with growth rate after the resumption of feeding. This suggests that the rapid compensatory growth that occurs during re-feeding after a prolonged fast carries a physiological cost in terms of reduced sprinting capacity, the extent of which shows continuous variation among individuals in relation to growth rate. The long-term repeatability of maximum sprint speed was low when fish were fasted or fed a maintenance ration, but was high among control fish fed to satiation. Fish that had been previously food deprived continued to show low repeatability in sprinting ability even after the initiation of ad libitum feeding, probably stemming from variation in compensatory growth among individuals and its associated negative effects on sprinting ability. Together, these results suggest that food limitation can disrupt hierarchies of maximum sprint performance within populations. In the wild, the cumulative effects on locomotor capacity of fasting and re-feeding could lead to variable survival among individuals with different growth trajectories following a period of food

  5. Early life low intensity stress experience modifies acute stress effects on juvenile brain cell proliferation of European sea bass (D. Labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokos, S; Pavlidis, M; Yiotis, T; Tsalafouta, A; Papandroulakis, N; Dermon, C R

    2017-01-15

    Early life adversity may be critical for the brain structural plasticity that in turn would influence juvenile behaviour. To address this, we questioned whether early life environment has an impact on stress responses latter in life, using European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, as a model organism. Unpredictable chronic low intensity stress (UCLIS), using a variety of moderate intensity stressors, was applied during two early ontogenetic stages, flexion or formation all fins. At juvenile stage, fish were exposed to acute stress and plasma cortisol, brain mRNA expression of corticosteroid receptors' genes (gr1, gr2, mr) and brain cell proliferation (using BrdU immunohistochemistry) were determined in experimental and matched controls. UCLIS treatment specifically decreased brain gr1 expression in juveniles, but had no effect on the juvenile brain cell proliferation pattern within the major neurogenic zones studied of dorsal (Dm, Dld) and ventral (Vv) telencephalic, preoptic (NPO) areas, periventricular tectum gray zone (PGZ) and valvula cerebellum (VCe). In contrast, exposure to acute stress induced significant plasma cortisol rise, decreases of cerebral cell proliferation in juveniles, not previously exposed to UCLIS, but no effect detected on the expression levels of gr1, gr2 and mr in all groups of different early life history. Interestingly, juveniles with UCLIS history showed modified responses to acute stress, attenuating acute stress-induced cell proliferation decreases, indicating a long-lasting effect of early life treatment. Taken together, early life mild stress experience influences an acute stress plasticity end-point, cerebral cell proliferation, independently of the stress-axis activation, possibly leading to more effective coping styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms o...

  7. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  8. Rectors of European universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Several rectors of European universities visited CERN recently while in Geneva for a conference on coordination between their institutions. The visit began with a welcome by Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of Collider Programmes,and continued with tours of CMS, ALICE and the LHC magnet assembly hall. Photos 01, 02: The visitors in the ALICE assembly hall: (left to right) Dr. Raymond Werlen, Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference of Rectors of Swiss Universities; visit guide Prof. Alain Blondel, Department of Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics, University of Geneva; Prof. Adriano Pimpão, Rector of the University of Algarve, President of the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities; Prof. Jean-Pierre Finance, Conference of University Presidents, France; Prof. Jean-Paul Lehners, Vice-President of the Centre Universitaire, Luxemburg.

  9. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  10. European project ISAWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jochen; Smietanski, Guillaume; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2001-08-01

    As air traffic is increasing, the probability of encountering 'surveillance' alerts during flight is also increasing. In order to ensure safety, new on board systems need to be developed to provide the crew with a better 'situation awareness' (SA) about its external environment and potential hazards. In addition, the means to manage the data generated by these new systems needs to be build up. Despite the tremendous amount of information, crew workload must not increase. This is where the ISAWARE project comes in with the Integrated Situation Awareness System (ISAS) concept. ISAWARE (Increasing Safety through collision Avoidance WARning intEgration) is a project partly funded by the European Community, executed by a well balanced composition of several European aerospace companies (airframers, a helicopter manufacturer, avionics suppliers, airlines), one research laboratory and one university. The overall objective of the ISAWARE project is to conduct research into the potential improvements to flight safety that can be achieved by providing the pilot with complete predictive situation awareness during all phases of the flight. The Integrated Situational Awareness System (ISAS) merges data from different safety systems concerning terrain, traffic, weather and other. The system ensures the alerts consistency, prioritises alerts and anticipates threats along a predicted trajectory earlier than current systems can provide. The second main axis of the research is the development of synthetic vision displays (PFD, ND and HUD) to enhance the Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The key focus of the project is the development of a ground-based demonstrator rig which is interfaced to a dynamic flight simulator. This rig is used for the evaluation of the ISAWARE concept by a representative range of active airline crews.

  11. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding

  12. Getting European universities into shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Most European universities lag behind the best universities in the Anglo-Saxon world. A key challenge is to raise resources per student in Europe to US levels. The Lisbon agenda demands fundamental reform of the European university system in order to enhance efficiency, yet avoid grade inflation, to

  13. European Industry, 1700-1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  14. Developments in European Civil Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, P.; Mańko, R.; Cortés, P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is structured as follows. In Section B we explore the legal basis for the creation of European civil procedures and Europeanization of procedural private law in general. In Section C we provide an overview of existing EU instruments on civil procedure, which we propose to divide into

  15. Third European Stroke Science Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dichgans, Martin; Planas, Anna M.; Biessels, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; van der Worp, Bart|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189855010; Sudlow, Cathie; Norrving, B.; Lees, Kennedy; Mattle, Heinrich P.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Eibsee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, November 19 to 21, 2015: The European Stroke Organization convened >120 stroke experts from 27 countries to discuss latest results and hot topics in clinical, translational, and basic stroke research. Since its inception in 2011, the European Stroke Science

  16. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  17. Adult Education and European Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negt, Oskar

    2008-01-01

    Europe is coming together. This is a historic project; for the first time in modern history, will and consciousness are used for bringing political, social and cultural unity to the European continent. In this process lifelong learning and hence adult education are gaining in importance. The European project takes place in an age characterised by…

  18. Ranking the European armed forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeres, R.J.M.; Bogers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of collectiveness aimed for in European defence policy raises issues such as burden sharing and relative performance measurement of the European Armed Forces (EAF). This paper compares EAF performance rates on three dimensions: input, throughput and output. In order to express

  19. The Ideology of European Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dona

    1979-01-01

    Describes the evolution of anthropology as a particular manifestation of western European culture. Examines the political implications of the discipline's roots in European intellectual, social, and emotional thought, and discusses the role of Black anthropologists in creating a new anthropology for the redefinition of African peoples. (Author/GC)

  20. The Europeanization of National Judiciaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Mayoral, Juan A.

    2018-01-01

    The article is underpinned by the idea that the national courts/judges are expected to act as decentralized European Union judges. However, the general knowledge concerning the impact of EU law on the functioning of national courts as EU judges and the process of Europeanization of national judic...

  1. Action Research in European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective.......The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective....

  2. Market forces in european soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates

  3. Market forces in european soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2002-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates

  4. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  5. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  6. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  7. European environmental stratifications and typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazeu, G.W,; Metzger, M.J.; Mücher, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    A range of new spatial datasets classifying the European environment has been constructed over the last few years. These datasets share the common objective of dividing European environmental gradients into convenient units, within which objects and variables of interest have relatively homogeneous...... characteristics. The stratifications and typologies can be used as a basis for up-scaling, for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, for the representative selection of sites for studies across the continent and for the provision of frameworks for modeling exercises and reporting at the European...... scale. This paper provides an overview of five recent European stratifications and typologies, constructed for contrasting objectives, and differing in spatial and thematic detail. These datasets are: the Environmental Stratification (EnS), the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP), the Spatial...

  8. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  9. The European XFEL Project

    CERN Document Server

    Trunk, U

    2008-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation photon source to be built in Hamburg. Electron bunches, accelerated to 17.5GeV by the XFEL linac, are distributed to three long SASE undulators. There photon pulses with full lateral coherence and wavelengths between 0.1nm and 4.9nm (12.4 keV and 0.8 keV) are generated for three beamlines. It will deliver around 1012photons within each 100 fs pulse, reaching a peak brilliance of 1033photonss−1mm−2mrad−2(0.1%BW)−1. Thus it will offer unprecedented possibilities in photon science research including nano-object imaging and studies (e.g. by coherent X-ray scattering) and ultra fast dynamic analysis of plasma and chemical reactions (e.g. by X-ray photo correlation spectroscopy). The detector requirements for such studies are extremely challenging: position sensitive area detectors have to provide a dynamic range of ≥ 104, with single-photon sensitivity, while withstanding radiation doses up to 1GGy (TID). Furthermore the detectors have to record data from tra...

  10. EUROPEAN HARMONIZATION OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS REGULATIONS?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cirstea Andreea; Baltariu Carmen-Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    ... No. 1606/2002 adopted by the European Parliament and European Council on the 19th of July 2002, which regulates the application of IAS/IFRS regarding the financial reporting of listed European companies...

  11. Experiencing European integration: transnational lives and European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, T.

    2015-01-01

    European integration has generated a wide array of economic, political, and social opportunities beyond the nation state. Scandinavians spending their retirement at the Mediterranean coast; Germans employing a Polish caretaker; international exchange students staying in Prague; Italian baristas

  12. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Baruch

    2007-06-01

    The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is the best social mechanism for dealing with morally offensive technologies.

  13. Old European Couples' Retirement Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Ranzani, Marco

    This study investigates old European couples' retirement choices in order to bridge the gap between the European and the American literature. The typical European family approaching retirement is a dual-earner family: the dataset used in this paper reveals that 78 percent of working males...... correlated with education, age, and health status, together with partner's employment status, partner's education and partner's health status. We also perform a sensitivity analysis in order to check whether the results on the correlation of health status are robust to two alternative measures of health...

  14. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  15. Public Accountability in the European Union: Is the European Parliament able to hold the European Council accountable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne van de Steeg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Council occupies a central role in European politics. Yet it is not officially accountable to any public or parliamentary body for the decisions it makes on behalf of European citizens. National parliaments are only entitled to exert control over their own Heads of Government or State. The European Parliament, as a supranational institution, is the only parliamentary body that regularly discusses European politics with the European Council as a collective, namely via the European Council Presidency. As such, it alone has the possibility to hold the Council accountable for the agreements made at European Summits. However, the European Parliament has limited rights to impose pressure on the European Council Presidency. Nonetheless, despite the lack of a formal accountability arrangement, the European Council Presidency is more forthcoming than could have been expected.

  16. Post Crisis European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop, Napoleon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is still evolving, at least from the point of view of some features making the entire process of its reversing very difficult - uncertainties, confusions and lack of investors` trust. More then that, every rim of the Atlantic Ocean has its own opinion as to the timing of the exit stimulus measures. There are prevailing risks taken into consideration when we talk about the next stage of the economic growth e.g. its sustainability on a log run or inflaming the inflation. It is for sure, that according to the core economic policies practiced either in USA or Europe, in Europe what count most is the danger of the inflation, if the right time of stopping the flood of the governmental funds to the real economy is not well chosen. The economic situation in Europe, as all over the world, in spite of some signs that the economy is on the right track ( South East Asia, USA or Germany, there are a lot of doubts as to the assurance that recession is over and there is no way for an immediate return. Notabilities in economics see that governmental intervention should be continued, just because the economic growth consigned by statistics is not convincing. Convictions, if they exist, are blended with a lot of obsessions which in my opinion are making up a serious agenda of the debates in Europe: budgetary deficit in excess, danger of the inflation, new regulation of the financial sector, credibility of the euro zone. Romania has to be involved in all these debates as it is passing through all the mentioned difficulties which need solutions within the frame of European standards, as a member of the EU.

  17. European Integration through Economic Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoiu Gheorghe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The thematic topicality of the main issues of European integration through convergence, in the context subsequent to financial-inspired global recession, is relevant through both the ever more extended international impact of the inertiality of a number of integration processes, and the specific developments of convergence in the Eurozone or the European Monetary Union (EMU. The regionally structured system of the European economy, approached aggregatively from the micro-economic to the macro-economic level, like the physical system or molecularly investigated system, from economic transactions, as a major milestone, to the complexity of the transactions tissue or flows, or activities, similar to biological systems, is permanently faced with various specific disturbing factors. The European Union (EU has historically evolved in an alternative manner, sometimes divergently or towards differentiation through separation, and sometimes convergently or coherently towards unity, fusion, integrity, evincing divergence or convergence trends, with the latter eventually becoming prevalent in the contemporary world.

  18. Renowned European Laboratory turns 50

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A European Laboratory that was the birthplace of the World Wide Web and home of Nobel prize-winning developments in the quest to understand the makeup of matter wished itself a happy 50th birtheday on Tuesday

  19. [French European military haemovigilance guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailliol, A; Clavier, B; Cap, A; Ausset, S

    2010-12-01

    European military transfusion services follow operational guidelines established by their respective national health systems and conform with European Union directives and NATO standards as applicable to member countries. Certain features are common to all of these standards, especially the pre-selection of volunteer, almost exclusively unpaid donors. NATO requirements are very close to European guidelines, with the exception that NATO permits the use of blood products collected in emergency conditions in theater when circumstances allow no better option. Blood product traceability exists for every country but is not always centralized or computerized. Serious adverse event reporting relies on national haemovigilance networks. Military considerations become important mainly in overseas operations, where the overall policy is to implement the relevant national, European or NATO guidelines with adjustments made for unique wartime circumstances and the risk/benefit ratio for the individual patient needing a transfusion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. European Integration and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul; Bakker, Liesbeth

    1990-01-01

    There appears to be considerable enthusiasm about the expected macroeconomic consequences of European integration. If we regard integration, however, in the light of the environment and environmental policy, concern seems more appropriate. Predicted growth in production levels will damage the

  1. Papillomatosis in a European bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literák, I; Tomita, Y; Ogawa, T; Shirasawa, H; Smíd, B; Novotny, L; Adamec, M

    2006-01-01

    Five European bison (Bison bonasus) from three European zoos were shipped to the Bukovské Vrchy Hills (Slovakia) in June 2004 and kept together in an acclimatization enclosure. The European bison were released into the wild in December 2004. At that time, papillomas were found at the medial canthus of the left eye of a 12-yr-old female bison. Cutaneous papillomatosis was confirmed histologically. Negative stain transmission electron microscopic examination revealed papillomavirus in the papillomas, and papillomavirus DNA also was detected using the polymerase chain reaction with FAP59 and FAP64 primers. The amplified 413 bp DNA sequence was identical to that of BAPV2 bovine papillomavirus. This paper is the first report of papillomatosis in European bison.

  2. European strategies for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The most recent developments of strategies and policies in the mental health field in Europe are related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health signed by all the Ministers of Health of all Member States in the European Region (2005). The Action Plan proposes ways and means of developing comprehensive mental health policies, listing 12 areas in which challenges are indicated and detailed actions are required. Afterwards the Green Paper on Mental Health has been launched by the European Commission for the definition of an European strategy. The more precise European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being has been presented in 2008. Many other international bodies (OECD, Council of Europe, etc.) have actively worked to stress the mental health issue. All are clearly referring to the Italian model, started 30 years ago.

  3. European Hospitality Without a Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Rosello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How do European governments conceptualize what they call "hospitality" when they draft immigration laws and when they allow the concepts of asylum, of illegal immigrants, to change according to a constantly evolving political context? What consequences…

  4. Proton Football European Championship 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:

  5. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  6. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  7. NEW EUROPEAN PIPELINE PROJECT EASTRING

    OpenAIRE

    Karch, Lukáš; Varga, Augustín

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the idea of a new European gas pipeline project called Eastring promoted by company Eustream. Eustream is the Slovak gas transmission system operator and has been one of the key players in European gas transmission from Russia to Europe in the last decades. Previous Russian-Ukrainian crisis resulted in reviewing gas flow directions from Russia to Europe in order to enhance the security of gas supplies to Europe. Russia plans to stop gas transmission to Europe via Ukraine...

  8. A European Open Science Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    EIROforum IT working group; CERN IT Department

    2015-01-01

    This document outlines the position of EIROforum on a European Open Science Cloud. It explores the essential characteristics of a European Open Science Cloud if it is to address the big data needs of the latest generation of Research Infrastructures. The high‐level architecture and key services as well as the role of standards is described. A governance and financial model together with the roles of the stakeholders, including commercial service providers and downstream business sectors, that...

  9. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  10. Architecture of European plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, J-P A; Banic, A; Molea, G; Mazzola, R; Poëll, J G

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-256.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training, examination, quality assurance and relations with the European Commission and Parliament all are aspects covered by the organisations to be discussed.

  11. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor powe...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  12. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  13. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  14. The globalization and Europeanization of mortgage markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Do globalization and Europeanization lead to the deterritorialization of European mortgage markets? Neither economic globalization nor EU policies have resulted in one European mortgage market. The various European mortgage markets are still quite different from one another in many respects. In most

  15. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  16. Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit

    CERN Document Server

    European Gender Summit, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit to the European Parliament and the Council, the European Commission, the Council of Europe, EU Member and Associate States, Science Institutions. Developing Systematic Implementation Strategy to Advance EU Policy on Gender Equality in Science, as part of HORIZON 2020, European Research Area and Innovation Union.

  17. Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law.......Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law....

  18. Local connected fractal dimension analysis in gill of fish experimentally exposed to toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, Maurizio, E-mail: mmanera@unite.it [Faculty of Biosciences, Food and Environmental Technologies, University of Teramo, Piano d’Accio, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Giari, Luisa [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); De Pasquale, Joseph A. [Morphogenyx Inc., PO Box 717, East Northport, NY 11731 (United States); Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • An objective, operator unbiased method was developed to evaluate gill pathology. • The method relies on the measure of local connected fractal dimension frequency. • Exposure classes were adequately discriminated by linear discriminant analysis. - Abstract: An operator-neutral method was implemented to objectively assess European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) gill pathology after experimental exposure to cadmium (Cd) and terbuthylazine (TBA) for 24 and 48 h. An algorithm-derived local connected fractal dimension (LCFD) frequency measure was used in this comparative analysis. Canonical variates (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to evaluate the discrimination power of the method among exposure classes (unexposed, Cd exposed, TBA exposed). Misclassification, sensitivity and specificity, both with original and cross-validated cases, were determined. LCFDs frequencies enhanced the differences among classes which were visually selected after their means, respective variances and the differences between Cd and TBA exposed means, with respect to unexposed mean, were analyzed by scatter plots. Selected frequencies were then scanned by means of LDA, stepwise analysis, and Mahalanobis distance to detect the most discriminative frequencies out of ten originally selected. Discrimination resulted in 91.7% of cross-validated cases correctly classified (22 out of 24 total cases), with sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 95.5% (1 false negative with respect to 21 really positive cases) and 75% (1 false positive with respect to 3 really negative cases). CVA with convex hull polygons ensured prompt, visually intuitive discrimination among exposure classes and graphically supported the false positive case. The combined use of semithin sections, which enhanced the visual evaluation of the overall lamellar structure; of LCFD analysis, which objectively detected local variation in complexity, without the possible bias

  19. SEABIOPLAS project Seaweed co-products as micro-additives in fish feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Dias Peixoto

    2014-05-01

    The role of the CIIMAR team in the project is to study the use of seaweeds and their extracts in fish nutrition. Several variables, such as zootecnical parameters, metabolic and digestive enzymes, as well as stress and immune response parameters will be used as indicators of growth performance, fish health and welfare conditions. To do so, several feeding trials will be carried out under controlled rearing conditions, where biotic and abiotic factors will be used as stressors to determine the protective effects of seaweed supplementation in fish diets. Juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, will be used as the fish model, in a fast growing stage (IBW: 15-50 g. Each dietary treatment (control diet vs. experimental diets will be fed in triplicate groups for approximately 90 days, twice a day to apparent satiety. Fish will be individually marked with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag prior to the beginning of the trials for monitoring individual fish performance. During the trials, samplings will be carried out at different times for determination the effects of treatment duration on the results. Growth performance will be determined by means of growth rate (% body weight/day; feed conversion ratio (FCR; voluntary fed intake (VFI, % body weight/day; protein efficiency ratio (PER; nutrient retention efficiency (%. To evaluate fish health and welfare condition, several stress biomarkers will be determine, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidation (LP, oxidized protein (POx; Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. In addition, gross morphometric indices: such as the condition factor (K and hepato-somatic index (HSI will be calculated as auxiliary indicators of health status and liver condition of fish. For immune parameters, plasma for humoral analyses parameters will be used (peroxidase, lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity and superoxide anion production.

  20. INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa FLOREA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We live nowadays a posteriori establishment through institutional treaties and a well-built jurisprudence that set up some of the general treaties. The structure of the European Union as well as the particular nature of the community legal order led to the establishment of some general principles, such as the principle of the institutional balance, the principle of solidarity between member states, the principle of primacy, the principle of the immediate and direct effect of the European law. It is certain that the legal order of the community law has its basis in the legal order of the International public law from which it has continuously delineated. The European communities, as subjects of the International public law are obliged to comply with the general International law, its fundamental principles and its bases, leading to some obligations capable to produce effects in the community legal order. The Court Of Justice of the European Union established as principles applicable in the European law the principles of the International public law, especially when it was called to assert regarding the International relationships of the Community as well as those of the 28 member states, confirming in the matter of the applicability of the treaties, the pacta sunt servanda rule, the principle of the good faith, the legitimate faith or the rebus sic standibus exception, all of them belonging to the custom International law.

  1. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  2. Response to the European Commission's consultation on the future of European company law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böckli, P.; Davies, P.; Ferran, E.; Ferrarini, G.; Garrido, J.; Hopt, K.; Pietrancosta, A.; Pistor, K.; Skog, R.; Soltysinski, S.; Winter, J.; Wymeersch, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the views of the European Company Law Experts (ECLE) on the future of European company law. The paper accompanies the responses of the European Company Law Experts to the European Commission’s Consultation on the future of European Company Law of spring 2012. In the first part of

  3. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    . The paper focuses exclusively on the national policy processes that are involved with managing European Union (EU) issues. More specifically, this paper discusses two aspects of multi-level governance. First is the important role of private interests in the coordination of decision making at the national...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems.......This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts...

  4. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  5. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  6. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form......; II" cover the core rules of contract: formation, authority of agents, validity, interpretation, contents, performance, non-performance and remedies. The articles previously published in Part I (1995) are included in a revised and re-ordered form. Throughout Europe there is great interest...

  7. What Is Medieval European Literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The editors of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures explain the scope and purpose of the new journal by mapping out the significance and possible meanings of the three key terms of the subtitle: ‘literature,’ ‘medieval,’ ‘Europe.’ The specific theme of Issue 1 is introduced: ‘Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation.’ With respect to this theme, theoretical problems concerning teleology and the present possibilities for literary historical narratives are raised. Finally the editors state the journal’s commitment to a scholarly forum which is non-profit and open-access. The bibliography refers to key critical reading which shapes the journal’s approach to medieval European literatures.

  8. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding......What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  9. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    . On the basis of that discussion, Eurostat launched another public consultation named; ‘Towards implementing European Public Sector Accounting Standards for EU member states-Public consultation on future EPSAS governance principles and structures’. This paper seeks to provide an in-depth understanding......Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renaming...... of the negotiations and interactions that took place prior to, during and after the issuance of the public consultation on the ‘Suitability of IPSAS’. The focus of this paper is therefore on a systematic analysis of the construction of regional-transnational governance of public sector accounting, using the EPSAS...

  10. European courts and old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Graham P

    2013-09-01

    There are two major European Courts, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The ECJ deals with legal matters, mainly involving the interpretation of EU law and ensuring that the law is applied evenly across all 27 EU member states. The ECHR aims to make certain that civil and political rights of citizens in the 46 member states of the Council of Europe are observed. Most cases involving older citizens are about social policy (such as pension arrangements, equality, age discrimination and mandatory retirement). There have been few cases dealing with patients' rights, long-term care or housing. Referrals of selected cases involving old people should be considered if their rights are not being protected. In this Commentary, there is an account of how these Courts have evolved, together with guidance on whom to refer, to which Court, and when and how referrals should be made.

  11. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  12. 1. European Hydrogen Energy Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This conference is the first of a series of EHA (European Hydrogen Association) conferences that will take place every two years in Europe with the collaboration of the national European Hydrogen Associations. EHEC 2003 takes place within the context of the debates on long term energy strategies organized by the international authorities and the governments of many countries. Under the patronage of the European Commission and the French government, the conference will aim at providing a comprehensive picture of the research work and demonstrations on hydrogen and fuel cells that the currently being carried out all over the globe. EHEC 2003 will provide an opportunity to define the role that hydrogen will have in tomorrow's energy landscape and, in particular, the benefits with regard to: 1)sustainable development of energy 2)control of climate change 3)development of renewable energy 4)increase demand for ground transport. (O.M.)

  13. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  14. Humanities in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the publication strategies of researchers in the humanities, including their choices of language, publication type and co-authorship. Based on data from Denmark, we compare the publication profile of the humanities with the other major fields of science in 2012 an...... conjuncture of the European Union’s internationalization policies in the 1990s and 2000s and a change in the international scientific hierarchy during the 20th century has contributed to the universalization of English in the Danish (and European) scientific field....

  15. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Materlik, G.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, X-ray synchrotron radiation became a powerful tool for studies of condensed matter, and in view of that a proposal for the construction of a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) was elaborated in some detail by the European Synchrotron Radiation Project. The heart...... by a great flexibility and a small emittance (7×10−9 rad m) leading to a very high brilliance (1019 photons/(s mm2 mrad2) in a relative bandwidth of 0.1% in case of a 1 Å undulator). The overview, as seen from the users point of view, gives a brief account of the storage ring, emitted radiation...

  16. European Union a New Babylon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  17. Passionate patriotism or European enslavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Mihajlo P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study A passionate patriotism or European enslavement, from the eminent professor Petar Anđelković, represents another attempt by this author to analyze the Serbian society in the context of its development. This book is a logical continuation of his essay published in 2013, Serbian Society-without past, what is our present?, and represents a symbiosis of texts that the author has already published and in which he addresses the very relevant questions of Serbia's relations with the new world order and with the inevitable role of the European Union, as an existential challenge to the very existence of the Serbian society.

  18. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...

  19. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology

  20. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : a consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology

  1. Scientific education and European citizenship. Suggestions and results from the European project SEDEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceriani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts seemingly distant from each other, scientific education and European citizenship, have been the basis for "SEDEC - Science Education for the Development of European Citizenship", a European project funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates/Comenius programme, aiming at producing training material addressed to European teachers. Started in autumn 2005, the project will end in 2008 with an in-service training course for European teachers and educators.

  2. Scientific education and European citizenship. Suggestions and results from the European project SEDEC (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceriani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts seemingly distant from each other, scientific education and European citizenship, have been the basis for "SEDEC - Science Education for the Development of European Citizenship", a European project funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates/Comenius programme, aiming at producing training material addressed to European teachers. Started in autumn 2005, the project will end in 2008 with an in-service training course for European teachers and educators.

  3. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; van Terwisga, S.; Verburg, T.; Burghouwt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are

  4. 5th European Rheology Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Global sustainable development of the world economy requires better understanding and utilization of natural recourses. In this endeavor rheology has an indispensable role. The Rheology Conferences are therefore always an important event for science and technology. The Fifth European Rheology Conference, held from September 6 to 11 in the Portoro-z, Slovenia, will be the first AlI-European rheology meeting after the formal constitution of the European Society ofRheology. As such it will be a special historical event. At this meeting the European Society of Rheology will introduce the Weissenberg Medal, to be bestowed every four years to an individual for hislhers contribution to the field of Rheology. The recipient ofthe first award will be professor G. Marrucci ofthe Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Italy. Two mini Symposia will be part of the Conference. The first, on Industrial Rheology, will commemorate the late professor G. Astarita. The second will honor the eightieth birthday of professor N.W. Tschoeg...

  5. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  6. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non...

  7. A European Social Simulation Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, S

    This is a proposal to form a European Social Simulation Association (ESSA). ESSA is intended to coordinate with similar organisations in North America, Latin America and Australasia and other regions to organise an international federation to support the development of social simulation research,

  8. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  9. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...

  10. Biotechnology and the European public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaskell, George; Allum, Nick; Bauer, Martin; Durant, John; Allansdottir, Agnes; Bonfadelli, Heinz; Boy, Daniel; de Cheveigne, Suzanne; Fjaestad, Bjorn; Gutteling, Jan M.; Hampel, Juergen; Jelsoe, Erling; Correia Jesuino, Jorge; Kohring, Matthias; Kronberger, Nicole; Midden, Cees; Hviid Nielsen, Torben; Przestalski, Andrzej; Rusanen, Timo; Sakellaris, George; Torgersen, Helge; Twardowski, Tomasz; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    The latest European sample survey of public perceptions of biotechnology reveals widespread opposition to genetically modified (GM) food in much of Europe, but public attitudes to medical and environmental applications remain positive. Data from the fourth Eurobarometer survey carried out in

  11. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets

  12. Virtual Models of European Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sanya Gertsen

    2003-01-01

    The study provides a detailed report on the current and possible future use of ICT by European universities for educational and organisational purposes. The report presents: • A general description of the current situation regarding the use of ICT in EU universities in both the educational...

  13. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  14. Architecture of European Plastic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,

  15. Scholarships for European vet students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Jordon; Takacs, Daniella

    2017-02-25

    Every year, students from European vet schools can apply for $5000 scholarships, which aim to 'enhance the academic experience of students'. Among last year's recipients were Jordon Egan, from the Royal Veterinary College, and Daniella Takács, from the University of Veterinary Medicine in Budapest. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Impacts of European livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, M.A.; Vries, De Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering

  17. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  18. Early contamination of European flounder (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, M.; Martinho, F.; Vernisseau, A.; Marchand, P.; Le Bizec, B.; van der Veer, H.W.; Cabral, H.N.; Ramos, F.; Pardal, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Contamination levels and profiles of 7 polychlorinated-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were investigated in juvenile European flounder (Platichthys flesus) captured in different nursery areas in the northeastern Atlantic coast

  19. Governance and European Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutay, Acar

    This book provides a critical analysis of the European Union’s approach to ‘governance’, focusing on the way in which civil society is incorporated within the EU decision-making process and arguing that it is not conducive to the democratisation of EU governance.\

  20. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  1. Obesogenic Diets in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intemann, Timm; Hebestreit, Antje; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Poor nutrition is a major contributor to the overall burden of disease. Worldwide, nutrition-related diseases have become a major health concern, reportedly causing a loss of over 56 million years of healthy life for European citizens in the year 2000. Childhood obesity is one of th...

  2. Drugs in society: European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountain, J.; Korf, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This unique overview of the variation in the ways recreational and other drugs are used across Europe includes critical reflections on current drug policy. Contributions from a wide range of professionals and academics in different countries offer a truly international perspective on the European

  3. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of

  4. The European NEO Coordination Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.

    An operational approach to NEO (Near-Earth Object) hazard monitoring has been developed at European level within the framework of the Space Situational Awareness Program (SSA) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through federating European assets and profiting of the expertise developed in European Universities and Research Centers, it has been possible to start the deployment of the so-called SSA NEO Segment. This initiative aims to provide a significant contribution to the worldwide effort to the discovery, follow-up and characterization of the near-Earth object population. A major achievement has been the inauguration in May 2013 of the ESA NEO Coordination Centre located at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy). The goal of the NEOCC Precursor Service operations is twofold: to make available updated information on the NEO population and the associated hazard and to contribute to optimize the NEO observational efforts. This is done by maintaining and improving a Web Portal publicly available at http://neo.ssa.esa.int and by performing follow-up observations through a network of collaborating telescopes and facilities. An overview of the SSA-NEO System and a summary of the first two years of NEOCC operations is presented.

  5. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  6. The European Approach to Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the character of European (Union’s) privacy law and policy in the field of online media and electronic communications. Contrary to current understanding, this field of law is more fragmented and ill-developed than is often assumed, in particular by those discussing

  7. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  8. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  9. THE EUROPEAN LOCATION FRAMEWORK – FROM NATIONAL TO EUROPEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Pauknerova, E.; P. Sidlichovsky; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, toge...

  10. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  11. TOWARDS A POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ŞTEFAN DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available David McCrone pointed that the odds for the emergence of a European identity were quite feeble ten years ago. He claimed that surfacing a European identity needed at least three conditions, namely a pivotal nation to organize the European culture around its particular culture, a well-defined otherness, and a clear-cut political model. I argue that among the three conditions deemed necessary for the emergence of a European identity by McCrone, only the last one, that is, the political model of the European Union, still needs to be clarified. The other two have already been fulfilled. Nowadays, Germany seems to be the pivotal nation around which the European Union revolves politically and economically, whilst clear-cut Internal and External Significant Others of the European Union have already been forged. The article is a a foray into the political mechanisms of creating the Internal and External Significant Others of the European Union

  12. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  13. The Citizen, the Culture and European Union

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marine Imberechts

    2009-01-01

    From the beginning of its work (1988), the European Centre of Culture tried to attract theattention of the European institutions on the urgent need to bring in the greatest number of citizens asense of belonging to a new space...

  14. European labs fight back against cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1997-01-01

    Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.

  15. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  16. Globalized Trade, Logistics and Intermodality: European Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henstra, D.; Ruijgrok, C.J.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes megatrends that are shaping international trade, logistics organization and (multi)modal transport in Europe. It focuses on impacts on the European context, both from the peculiarities arising from the European unification process and the European transport policies but

  17. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  18. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  19. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common

  20. Conditions for spatial segregation: some European perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; de Winter, M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates some theses on the theme of spatial segregation in Europe. Spatial segregation as an important issue on the political agendas of European nations; Two views of segregation in Europe; Strategies of European nations to deal with segregation; Segregation in European cities

  1. Flexibilization of labour in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, O.; van der Pijl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Labour market flexibilization has been at the heart of the ‘extended relaunch’ of European integration (the completion of the Single Market and the introduction of the euro in 2002) from the start in the 1980s. Yet the parallel Europeanization of labour market policies, via the European Employment

  2. European Conference „Meetbike“. Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd-Axel AHRENS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The information is devoted European Conference „Meetbike“ 3-4 April2008 in Dresden, Germany. Stronger networking of European bicycle-friendly cities and better cooperation of bike use and public transport has been considered. Results of the European Conference „MeetBike“ are presented.

  3. The Political History of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli....... It was shortlisted for the European Book Prize 2011...

  4. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  5. MAPPING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Avadanei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the main tendencies influencing European capitalmarkets development. In order to point out their implications, we structured our study onfour chapters. The first one illustrates the consolidation of stock exchanges at the Europeanlevel; the seconds presents some considerations about the deregulation/re-regulation of EUcapital markets; the third section highlights the globalization implications on their evolutionand the fourth one indicates the effects of financial innovation. The progressive integrationof European capital markets over the past decade contributed to the lowering of capital costas a result of increased risk diversification opportunities and reduced transaction costs dueto the specialization of financial system provisions. Moreover, the expansion of thesemarkets improved firms financing decisions, leading to an increased share of non-bankfunding sources.

  6. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent......, Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...

  7. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, C.; Stoeckli, S. J.; Haerle, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Optimum management of the N0 neck is unresolved in oral cancer. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) can reliably detect microscopic lymph node metastasis. The object of this study was to establish whether the technique was both reliable in staging the N0 neck and a safe oncological procedure...... in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB...... was undertaken with an average of 3.2 nodes removed per patient. Patients were excluded if the sentinel node (SN) could not be identified. A positive SN led to a neck dissection within 3 weeks. Analysis was performed at 3-year follow-up. Results: An SN was found in 99.5% of cases. Positive SNs were found in 23...

  8. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...... years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize...... the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden...

  9. European global navigation satellite launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    The European Space Agency launched its first Galileo satellite on 28 December 2005.When fully deployed, the Galileo system will provide a European global navigation alternative to the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (Glonass).The Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites (27 operational plus three active spare satellites) that are scheduled to be launched and fully operational by the end of 2008.The system will provide real-time positioning within one meter of accuracy and be fully inter-operable with the U.S. and Russian systems. However, unlike GPS and Glonass, Galileo will be under civilian rather than military control.

  10. European Research in Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, C.Guedes; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Incecik, A.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is presented of the results obtained in Europe by a network with a large number of research groups in the field of Marine Structures during a period of 6 years. The European Union has funded a project aimed at improving the collaboration among European research groups specialized...... in marine structures, which has led, among other results to a number of benchmark studies organized in 6 main topical areas, namely, Methods and Tools for Loads and Load Effects, Methods and Tools for Strength Assessment, Experimental Analysis of Structures, Materials and Fabrication of Structures, Methods...... and Tools for Structural Design and Optimization and Structural Reliability, Safety and Environmental Protection. This paper presents an overview of various studies performed, which helps identifying the level of consistency and robustness of different numeric tools used in this field....

  11. European Strategy for Astroparticle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevas, Stavros

    2010-02-01

    Astroparticle Physics emerged worldwide, in the last 20 years, from a field of charismatic pioneers transgressing disciplinary frontiers using risky and innovative detection techniques to a full blown global science activity involving many hundreds of researchers and hundred million or billion dollar scale projects. I will report on the recent effort to develop a strategic vision, roadmap and action plan for this field in Europe, performed under the auspices of ApPEC (Astroparticle Physics European Coordination) and in the context of the European Union program ASPERA. I will describe the many links that tie the proposed large observatories to the corresponding US and more generally worldwide infrastructures, as well as the efforts for a global coordination in progress. )

  12. Integrating the European Securities Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    The cross-border securities settlement in Europe is still said to be highly inefficient. One main reason can be seen in technical barriers between the different domestic settlement systems. Beside efforts to implement industry-specific communication standards an integration of the different settlement systems is necessary. The CSD-link model, the hub and spokes model, and the European CSD model aim to integrate European securities settlement. They have in common that they address the problem of interlinkage of national Central Securities Depositories and differ essentially in the way of achieving integration. These models are evaluated from a macro-economic perspective considering transaction costs, risks, and the integration of the cross-border securities settlement process.

  13. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  14. The European Network of Uropathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Berney, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    In pathology there is a need to rapidly disseminate professional information to the appropriate target groups. This is a surprisingly difficult task on an international level. Therefore, the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP) was recently organized by the Uropathology Working Group of the Eu...... conducted. Here we report on the methods used to organize this novel information network. We think that ENUP could serve as a model for other fields of pathology and other geographic regions....

  15. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    relationships between Turkey, the United States, the Kurds, and Europe. As a source often critical of Turkey and the United States ( Noam Chomsky ...2008, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/080220Altheaupdate10. pdf . 129 Ibid. 130 Ibid. 131 Ibid. 132 The Council of the European Union...Factsheet, “EU Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUPM),” March 2006, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/Factsheet_060312. pdf . 48

  16. The European Digital Kitchen Project

    OpenAIRE

    Seedhouse, Paul; Preston, Anne; Olivier, Patrick; Dan, Jackson; Philip, Heslop; Madeline, Balaam; Rafiev, Ashur; Kipling, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the European Digital Kitchen, an EU-funded language learning project which promotes learning of languages, cultures and cuisines in digital interactive kitchens. The project involves taking a normal kitchen and specifically adapting it for language learning using the next generation of digital technology, namely activity recognition and sensor technology. We intend that learners will be able to learn aspects of the language whilst performing a meaningful real-world tas...

  17. European Missile Defense and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Russian of meeting between then Prime Minister Putin and defence experts in Sarov, Russia , February 24, 2012. 64. Viktor Yesin and Yevgeniy Savostyanov... Putin Letter to Obama to Address Missile Defense, Security,” RIA-Novosti, May 15, 2013, available from en.rian.ru/ russia /20130515/181170446.html...UNITED STATES · ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barrac , ’A STR KNG T H ..,... WI SDOM EUROPEAN MISSILE DEFENSE AND RUSSIA Keir Giles with

  18. [European perspectives of health telematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienhoff, O; Verhey, J

    2005-06-01

    The European perspectives of the present German developments in the field of health telematics are discussed critically. It is pointed out that technical projects have been financed with considerable means in the EU, however with out having any lasting effect on the value of health telematics in the health systems of Europe. A decisive cause is that the "health" topic was not codified in the Roman contracts. The international, global market is a crucial factor for international development and thus also for the orientation of the German projects and their economical and political success. The USA plays a dominant role on the global market. Caused by different reasons a corresponding market potential in the EU cannot be expected in the foreseeable future. With regard to the new options provided by telematics, it is therefore recommended that the national health services be reorganized, thus increasing quality and efficiency. With regard to progressively individualized medical care, the subject of "health" should afterwards be included in the European contracts. In the long run, an adjustment of the systems and uniform use of telematics could be achieved. Till then the coordination between the national governments in the area of health politics is seen as the most effective means for European integration.

  19. The accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Callewaert, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Provided for under the Treaty of Lisbon, the accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights is destined to be a landmark in European legal history because it will finally make it possible for individuals and undertakings to apply to the European Court of Human Rights for review of the acts of European Union institutions, which unquestionably play an increasingly important role in our daily lives. After nearly three years of negotiations, a draft agreement on Europe...

  20. Through Thick and Thin: ‘European Identification’ for a Justified and Legitimate European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Anna C. Davidson

    2008-01-01

    Debates on the viability of European integration often rest on the need for some form of common European identity. This article looks at European integration through the framework of normative political theory to explore what form of European identity is needed for the EU to be considered both justified – having a good or just reason for existence, and legitimate – having consent from its citizens. It critiques arguments for a purely justified EU, which rule out the need for a common European...

  1. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  2. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsselt, René J T; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in the field of gerontology in the European Nordic countries is elaborated. Third, two postgraduate Gerontology and Geriatrics programs offered by the European Centre of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Malta are presented. In 1995, the Centre was designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for healthy aging. To provide a context for these initiatives, a short overview is presented of developments in the European Higher Education Area, and the current state and recent developments in gerontology training in Europe is elaborated. The article concludes with discussion of the feasibility and sustainability of European internationalization efforts in education and training in gerontology.

  3. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  4. Letter to European Science Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Département de Linguistique AppliquéeEt de Didactique des languesDirecteur : Claude Springerhttp://dladl.u-strasbg.fr Dr. Rüdiger KleinEUROCORES Programme CoordinatorEuropean Science Foundation1, quai Lezay MarnésiaBP 90015F-67080 Strasbourg Cedex Strasbourg, le 22 mai 2006 Dear colleague, The Editorial Board of the journal ALSIC (Apprentissage des langues et système d’information et de communication which comprises 45 people from universities in 9 different countries was astonished to note...

  5. European perspectives of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The new European wind atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    European Wind Atlas” aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions; standing on three legs: A data bank from a series of intensive measuring campaigns; a thorough examination and redesign of the model chain from global, mesoscale to microscale models and creation of the wind atlas...... database. Although the project participants will come from the 27 member states it is envisioned that the project will be opened for global participation through test benches for model development and sharing of data – climatologically as well as experimental. Experiences from national wind atlases...... will be utilized, such as the Indian, the South African, the Finnish, the German, the Canadian atlases and others....

  7. popscience - European Researchers Night 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeanneret, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Vendredi 26 septembre 2014, le CERN célèbrera la Nuit européenne des chercheurs à Genève et à St-Genis-Pouilly. Le thème de l’édition 2014 est inspiré d’Andy Warhol : « Pop science is for everyone ». On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”.

  8. The early European lithium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, M

    1999-12-01

    Cade's discovery of lithium's antimanic effect soon became known in Europe and was confirmed by a Danish controlled trial. The same investigators discovered a prophylactic action of lithium against both manic and depressive recurrences, which was confirmed by a Swiss-Czech-Danish cooperative trial. The evidence of these studies was met with skepticism based on methodological speculations, but a Danish randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of discontinuation design established the prophylactic action of lithium, as did a number of European controlled trials of start design and discontinuation design. The review ends with personal memories of John Cade.

  9. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless......This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  10. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address......Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...

  11. European ecological networks and greenways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ib; Jongman, Rob H.G.; Kulvik, Mart

    2004-01-01

    In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been...... renewed. Within the framework of nature conservation, the notion of an ecological network has become increasingly important. Throughout Europe, regional and national approaches are in different phases of development, which are all based on recent landscape ecological principles. Ecological networks....... This complex interaction between cultural and natural features results in quite different ways for the elaboration of ecological networks and greenways....

  12. An important day for European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Today is an important day for the future of European science. It is the day on which CERN’s relationship with the European Union reaches maturity. Ever since the early 1950s, CERN and the European project have grown together. CERN was a child of the European movement: the first discussions at Denis de Rougemont’s European Cultural Conference in Lausanne in 1949 led directly to the foundation of CERN in 1954. More recently, the European Union has become an Observer at the CERN Council, links between CERN and the EU have strengthened as Europe has pursued the goal of creating a European Research Area, and CERN has benefited from European support for projects as varied as Grid computing and future accelerator R&D, not forgetting, of course, the numerous Marie Curie fellows whose careers have received a boost thanks to European funds. Today, that collaboration goes one step further with the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the European C...

  13. The European-American exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F

    1993-01-01

    The European-American exchange of infectious diseases was responsible for the demographic havoc of the native population in the New World after 1492. Prior to this date medical writers describe the presence in Spain of viral diseases like influenza, parotitis, smallpox, measles, poliomyelitis, and rabies; there were also rickettsiasis, diphtheria, salmonellosis, plague, tubercolosis, leprosy, malaria, scabies and tinea. In America, before European arrivals, there were no records of human viral diseases, though there were records of rickettsiasis, treponematosis--pinta, yaws and syphilis--leihsmaniasis, amibiasis and perhaps leprosy. With the discovery of America in 1492, Columbus's sailors were contaminated by yaws and spread this disease into Europe. In 1493 influenza, as a zoonosis, was introduced into Santo Domingo and was responsible for the annihilation of the natives of the Antilles in less than a quarter of a century; in 1518 smallpox was also introduced in Santo Domingo and then to the American continent by negro slaves: by the same means measles were introduced in 1531. The previous existence or introduction of other infectious diseases in America is also discussed.

  14. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C. [CEPN, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Croft, J. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Pfeffer, W. [GRS, Koeln (Germany); Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-03-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe.

  15. Citizenship Education Development: European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Suslov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the European experience of the citizenship education developmentan important aspect of internal policy in the most countries. The education in question is considered to be the democratic citizenship training aimed at developing the loyal attitude to different value priorities in society, social responsibility, active citizenship position, awareness of democratic rights, capability of using and protecting them.The author looks at the transformation of citizenship education concept in the last three decades from the civics education (i.e. history, political science, law, etc. to the democratic citizen education. The paper analyzes differ- ent approaches to citizenship education in several European countries including the post-soviet ones. It is emphasized that both in western and eastern Europe a lot of effort is made for spreading and supporting the education in question. The author recommends considering the foreign experience of integrating the democratic citizenship education into the state academic curricula at the primary, secondary and higher school levels. 

  16. European Integration and Labour Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julda Kielyte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies how European integration might affect the migration of workers in the enlarged EU. Unlike the reduced-form migration models, we base our empirical analysis on the theory of economic geography à la Krugman (1991, which provides an alternative modelling of migration pull and push factors. Parameters of the theoretical model are estimated econometrically using historical migration data. Our empirical findings suggest that European integration would trigger selective migration between the countries in the enlarged EU. In the Baltics, Lithuania would gain about 7.25% of the total work force. In the Visegrád Four, the share of the mobile labour force would increase the most in Hungary, 8.35%, compared to the pre-integration state. Our predictions for the East-West migration are moderate and lower than those of reduced-form models: between 5.44% (from the Baltics and 3.61% (from the Visegrád Four would emigrate to the EU North. Because migrants not only follow market potential, but also shape the region’s market potential, the long-run agglomeration forces are sufficiently weak to make a swift emergence of a core-periphery pattern in the enlarged EU very unlikely.

  17. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Europeanization and social movement mobilization during the European sovereign debt crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses Europeanization of social movements in the context of the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Europeanization occurs when movements collaborate, or make horizontal communicative linkages with movements in other countries, contest authorities beyond the state, frame issues...... as European and claim a European identity. The article presents a theoretical framework and research design for measuring the degree of social movement Europeanization followed by results of a pilot study on mobilization in Spain and Greece during 2011. While many contentious action events studied only...

  19. The European Public on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarta, Ancuta-Gabriela

    This study explorers the European public on social media by discussing the case of communicative interactions taking place on the official Facebook page of the European Parliament. Based on the theoretical framework conceptualizing the public and the public sphere on social network sites, the study...... examines the European social media public from two perspectives. The first is a top-down, institutional perspective of European Parliament, based on a case-study approach to the way this European institution constructs and addresses the public through its social media communication. The second is a bottom......-up perspective of the public of social media users, informed by a content analysis of Facebook comments and a discourse analysis of live chat interactions with Members of the European Parliament. Results confirm a discursive potential of the Facebook public of users. In the case of the Facebook comment threads...

  20. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PRIORITY - THE SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ignat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At the level of European Union, starting from the necessity of insurance economic growth, social community law gradually developed, benefitting by sinuous construction, extremely complex, beingcontinuously transformed. Familiarization with the model of social community law prescribed by European Union represents not only a forward step in the process of harmonization with community law, but also an alignment in settlement of European Union, which finally establishes the modernization of the whole domestic law system.

  1. Is there a European medical sociology?

    OpenAIRE

    Henckes, Nicolas; Baszanger, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Is there a European sociology of health, illness and medicine – or, in short, a European medical sociology? While the answer to this question would certainly have been negative just a few years ago, this chapter argues that over the last thirty years a series of new analyses have emerged in the field which have laid the groundwork for a medical sociology at the European level. These examine how health issues are increasingly framed as consumer goods, public issues and ...

  2. European Union Financial Crisis: a Marxist Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Farneubun, Petrus K.

    2016-01-01

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national government and economic policies. Responding to the crisis, numerous attemps have been proposed to accelerate the recovery, but the crisis still hit Eurozone and brought serious consequences politically and...

  3. Book Review: Diversity in European Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Machková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The case book “Diversity in European Marketing” is the result of the scientific cooperation of the CEMS Marketing Faculty Group. Prestigious Central European Universities - Corvinius University of Budapest and University of Economic, Prague - are members of CEMS - the Global Alliance in Management Education of 26 leading business schools and 70 multinational companies. Four authors from these two Universities share in this book their experience of Central European Marketing specifics.

  4. The European Boidiversity Observation Network - EBONE

    OpenAIRE

    Halada, L.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Gerard, F; Whittaker, L.; R. G. H. Bunce; Bauch, B.; Schmeller, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    EBONE (European Biodiversity Observation Network) is a project developing a system of biodiversity observation at regional, national and European levels as a contribution to European reporting on biodiversity. The project focuses on GEO (Group of Earth Observations) task BI 07-01 to unify many of the disparate biodiversity observation systems and creates a platform to integrate biodiversity data with other types of information. The system will make use of existing networks of site observation...

  5. Theory and reform in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssochoou, Dimitris N.; Tsinisizelis, Michael J.; Stavridis, Stelios; Ifantis, Kostas

    2003-01-01

    This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a rich spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing. The book examines constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links ...

  6. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  7. The spatialization of the european project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper argues the need for more critical analysis of the ?spatialisation of the European Project? than has been the case in much previous academic work on the European Union`s spatial policy so far. The focus is on the EU, and the way that this huge institutional and territorial setting...... is organised, driven and imagined according to a particular hegemonic spatiality which gives shape to the political, economic, social and territorial dimensions of the European project....

  8. Estimating catches of marine and freshwater recreational fisheries in the Netherlands using an online panel survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der T.; Graaf, de M.; Lyle, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we describe a two-phase survey design and implications of approaches to non-response adjustments on estimates of the total catch taken by Dutch recreational fishers, including marine catches for Atlantic cod and European seabass and European eel in freshwater. The survey comprised

  9. Developments in international/European health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2009-03-01

    International (European) organizations have impact on health law. The most recent developments are: a revision of the world Medical's Association Declaration of Helsinki, a proposal for a Directive (European Commission) on standards of quality and safety of human organs intended for transplantation, accompanied by a ten point action plan; a proposal (European Commission) for a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border health care; a proposal (European commission) for a Directive on information to the general public on medicinal products subject to medical prescription.

  10. European Identity between Ethnic and Civic Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European identity is not a reality, but a necessity for a stabile future of the European political construction. The democratic deficit problem results from the fact that the European project was conceived as a top-down type of action. Its legitimization is however a bottom-up process. For this reason, the institutional project needs to be supported by an ideological project for a European identity. There are two ways, two different patterns for the second charge: the ethnic-cultural identity or the civic identity. Each has his advantages, but also disadvantages. This paper analyzes the results of one sociological research among young Romanian students.

  11. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  12. European Union Climate Change Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewiner, C.

    2007-08-15

    In March 2007, the European Union Ministers asked Member States to commit to energy consumption and Greenhouse Gases (GHG), mainly CO2 emissions, reductions of 20%, as well as a portion of 20% of renewable energies in their energy production. The horizon of this 'three times 20% objective' is 2020. The underlying assumption is of course an improved security of energy (and electricity) supplies as well as a growing European economy with sustained tertiary and industrial employment. These objectives were articulated to respond to the present Climate Change issues by avoiding an increase of our Planet's temperature beyond 2 to 3 degrees. In the US, the current government has recognized that CO2 is an issue and has begun to take action, issuing a number of executive orders to reduce emissions. This follows a ruling by the US Supreme Court on CO2. It may be that what is happening in Europe will be a model that the US will follow. These different objectives are interlinked and each European country is in a different situation. Moreover, 2020 is a relatively short time horizon compared to the lead time for construction of large plants such as nuclear plants. It is also a short time frame for the industrialization, at reasonable costs, of carbon sequestration equipment, for the renovation of a significant portion of the existing buildings and houses, and for the switch of the present car fleet to electrical cars. More than 20% of the cars bought in 2007 will still be on the road in 2020. More than 80% of the refrigerators bought in 2007 will still be in operation in 2020, and less than 1/3 of the industrial and utility infrastructures in place today will be renewed by 2020. It is even shorter at the Research and Development time scale to find and industrialize new energy savings devices or low energy consumption and low carbon emitting equipment. One important question is also the net cost linked to these objectives that has not been evaluated today. The

  13. Training of European urology residents in laparoscopy: results of a pan-European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furriel, Frederico T. G.; Laguna, Maria P.; Figueiredo, Arnaldo J. C.; Nunes, Pedro T. C.; Rassweiler, Jens J.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the participation of European urology residents in urological laparoscopy, their training patterns and facilities available in European Urology Departments. A survey, consisting of 23 questions concerning laparoscopic training, was published online as well as distributed on paper, during

  14. THE CONSOLIDATION OF EU GOVERNANCE: THE EUROPEAN SEMESTER AND THE EVALUATION OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION DEEPENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae TODERAS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Once it was introduced as an instrument for deepening European integration, the legitimacy, opportunity and utility of European Semester were repeatedly questioned from the perspective of its contribution to the institutionalization of European governance. Also, there is a strong and direct link between the further deepening of the European Union’s political and economic integration on the one hand, and the development of a culture of evaluating policies and programs on the other. Taking these aspects into account, the following questions arise: does the European Commission have, in its position as manager of the European Semester, a real capacity of evaluating all aspects regarding the deepening of European integration? Can the European Semester be a means for diffusing evaluation practice at the level of Member States? This is why, in this paper, we propose to give answers to these questions.

  15. European perspectives on security research

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Europe’s networked societies of today are shaped by a growing interconnection in almost all areas of life. The complexity of our infrastructures and the concurrent accessibility to means of destruction by terrorist groups and individual perpetrators call for innovative security solutions. However, such evolving innovations inevitably raise fundamental questions of concern in our societies. How do we balance the imperatives of securing our citizens and infrastructures on the one hand, and of protecting of our sacredly held civil liberties on the other? The topical network ‘Safety and Security’ of acatech – the German Academy of Science and Engineering – invited experts from the science academies of various European countries to share their perspectives on security research and the aspect of safety during a two-day workshop hosted by the Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut in March 2010. This publication is a compilation of contributions made during the workshop.

  16. Reindustrialization Process in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the economic growth and empolyment in EU European institutions have launches ambitious initiatives for a reindustrialization process based on new technologies and green energies. The aim is to increase the share of processing industry in GDP from 15.1% in 2013 to 20% in 2020 according to the objectives of Europe 2020 Strategy and also with those of other EU strategies and common policies. The focus will be laid on innovation and research activites, on supporting/financing SMEs and their internationalization, on the integration of EU firms into global value chains, on developing green energies, bio and key enabling technologies, on smart networks and on free trade and sustainable development.

  17. The European perspective for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangler, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    LSST is a next generation telescope that will produce an unprecedented data flow. The project goal is to deliver data products such as images and catalogs thus enabling scientific analysis for a wide community of users. As a large scale survey, LSST data will be complementary with other facilities in a wide range of scientific domains, including data from ESA or ESO. European countries have invested in LSST since 2007, in the construction of the camera as well as in the computing effort. This latter will be instrumental in designing the next step: how to distribute LSST data to Europe. Astroinformatics challenges for LSST indeed includes not only the analysis of LSST big data, but also the practical efficiency of the data access.

  18. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen and Liefferink's edited volume takes a different approach to comparative environmental policy studies. It looks at how domestic environmental policies and activities In six specific countries (Sweden, Austria, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway) have affected environme......Andersen and Liefferink's edited volume takes a different approach to comparative environmental policy studies. It looks at how domestic environmental policies and activities In six specific countries (Sweden, Austria, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway) have affected...... environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...

  19. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    a normal atlas. Produced by leading soil scientists from Europe and other parts of the world under the auspice of the International Year of Biodiversity 2010, this unique document presents an interpretation of an often neglected biome that surrounds and affects us all. The European Atlas of Soil...... world. The first part of the book provides an overview of the below ground environment, soil biota in general, the ecosystem functions that soil organism perform, the important value it has for human activities and relevance for global biogeochemical cycles. The second part is an 'Encyclopedia of Soil...... Biodiversity is an essential reference to the many and varied aspects of soil. The overall goal of this work is to convey the fundamental necessity to safeguard soil biodiversity in order to guarantee life on this planet....

  20. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  1. European Conference on Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias; Data Science, Learning by Latent Structures, and Knowledge Discovery; ECDA 2013

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises papers dedicated to data science and the extraction of knowledge from many types of data: structural, quantitative, or statistical approaches for the analysis of data; advances in classification, clustering, and pattern recognition methods; strategies for modeling complex data and mining large data sets; applications of advanced methods in specific domains of practice. The contributions offer interesting applications to various disciplines such as psychology, biology, medical and health sciences; economics, marketing, banking, and finance; engineering; geography and geology;  archeology, sociology, educational sciences, linguistics, and musicology; library science. The book contains the selected and peer-reviewed papers presented during the European Conference on Data Analysis (ECDA 2013) which was jointly held by the German Classification Society (GfKl) and the French-speaking Classification Society (SFC) in July 2013 at the University of Luxembourg.

  2. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  3. When Culture Hampers European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Petersen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with Denmark’s skeptical attitude towards the EU cooperation. From a hermeneutical-institutional approach the aim of this article is to analyze why Denmark has been rejecting several initiatives from the EU. It illustrates how different democratic understandings hamper European...... integration. Based on Ronald Dworkin’s theoretical framework the article discusses two different perceptions on democracy: majoritarian democracy and constitutional democracy. It is shown when and why EU’s member states prefer to handle EU-related judicial disputes without involving supranational institutions....... In addition, the article provides tentative comparisons to Britain and the Nordic countries since they show similar attitudes to supranational institutions. The article concludes that Denmark’s majoritarian democracy provides political cultures incompatible with the EU’s constitutional democracy and this can...

  4. Kant's Theory of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      Abstract:Immanuel Kant developed a rather wide range of concepts to describe the process of an "ever broader union" of European states. Kant's theory posed a dilemma with two aspects. On the one hand republican states were free, and on the other they were obliged to follow rules of a union...... of states, for instance regulations of non-intervention. Debates have focused this dilemma as if it was a real contradiction. The argument in the present paper is that there is no such contradiction. To the contrary, in his philosophy of reflective judgement, Kant describes the compelling duty......, but to let it cooperate with other states rather than to isolate it. Kant observes a guarantee that such a form of integration could emerge and succeed, because the military powers of Europe had to develop complexities of separated powers in their organisation of states. Underneath the unity of isolated...

  5. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  6. [AIDS prevention in European prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, G; Harding, T W

    1995-01-01

    Informations on HIV/AIDS in prisons which include 32 prison-systems in 17 European countries have been collected. The principle of equivalence of preventive measures and health care between prisons and the outside community, prison authorities should strive to prevent HIV transmission in prisons. There have been major developments in effective prevention programmes in the community, there has been less progress within the prison-systems. Information on AIDS is provided to prisoners in almost all prison-systems. While condom distribution is practiced in a growing number of systems, no prison systems have adopted syringes/needle distribution or exchange during incarceration. A few system have accepted distribution of a disinfectant (diluted bleach) with instruction on cleaning injection materials. Despite clear recommendations made by international bodies in 1987/88, it must be concluded that discrimination and segregation (restriction from access to workshops, specially work in kitchens) remain widespread in 1992.

  7. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  8. Impressions of European Integration : A comparative analysis of the impact of EU news in European newspapers on European audiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Lam, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the coverage of the EU in the European press affects the knowledge and attitude towards the EU of the average European newspaper reader. This outcome is the more relevant now that the EU is steadily growing in size and impact, but conversely is confronted with a general

  9. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  10. Nutritional risk of European elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, C; Oliveira, B; Afonso, C; Lumbers, M; Raats, M; de Almeida, M D V

    2013-11-01

    The elderly constitute a population group with a high prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases and high risk of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated to nutritional risk in free-living European elderly. The sample included 644 European citizens, free living in the community, aged 65 years or more. The sample was quota controlled for age groups (65-74, ≥75 years), gender (male/female) and living circumstances (living alone/with others). Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with nutritional risk. Several variables regarding socio-demographic characteristics, food choice, health status and the satisfaction with food-related life were included in the analysis. According to the recoded score of the 'Determine your nutritional health' (NSI checklist), 53% of the elderly were at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk was more likely to occur in elderly who considered that it was more important to choose foods 'easy to chew'; with lower average number of fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake episodes and lower score for general health. It was also found in non-married participants; those that did not identify changes in their appetite; and those that felt changes in health status. In this sample, the lowest nutritional risk was found for body mass index (BMI) around 18.5 kg/m(2). Country of residence, gender and age were not found to have a significant effect on nutritional risk. Attention should be drawn to the living circumstances, changes in appetite or health, the general heath perception, F&V intake, choice of foods easy to chew and having a low or high BMI.

  11. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  12. National And European Law: Problem Of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to one of the main problems for all integration communities –problem of implementation of the integration law norms in the national legal system of member states. Author, on the example of certain member states of the European Union considers mechanism of the European Union law action in it's member states. In the article constitutional norms of the number of member states which set a ratio of the national and European laws are analyzed. According to the principle of competence giving, member states voluntary transfer part of the competence to the European Union. Competences which are transferred to the member states are the competences of the European Union. In the course of research author investigates opinions of scientists and analyze regulations. Author pays separate attention to the question of the European Union creation. For example, author notes that consideration by the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe of the question of compliance of the Treaty to the Constitution of Germany became neither more nor less a most important milestone on the way of Treaty on the European Union ratification by Germany. In the decision on this matter Court defined a number of reference points for the purpose of possible excise if the European integration elimination out of those limits which are set for the government of Germany by its Constitution. The decision of the Constitutional Court of Germany though meant approval of the Treaty on the European Union in the political sense, it was nevertheless unambiguously directed against broad interpretation and federalist vision of the European integration. It is obvious that states, on the basis of constitutional norms may leave contracts that are burdensome for them. It concerns not only international treaties, but also Treaties of the European Union.

  13. The european hematology association roadmap for european hematology research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Engert (Andreas); C.L. Balduini (Carlo); A. Brand (Anneke); B. Coiffier (Bertrand); C. Cordonnier (Charlotte); H. Döhner (Hartmut); De Wit, T.D. (Thom Duyvené); Eichinger, S. (Sabine); W.E. Fibbe (Willem); Green, T. (Tony); De Haas, F. (Fleur); A. Iolascon (Achille); T. Jaffredo (Thierry); F. Rodeghiero (Francesco); G. Salles (Gilles); J.J. Schuringa (Jan Jacob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European

  14. EERA and Its European Conferences on Educational Research: A Patchwork of Research on European Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, Edwin; Hofbauer, Susann

    2014-01-01

    The process of Europeanisation is closely linked to the process of an emerging European Educational Research Area and an education research identity. The European Conferences on Educational Research (ECER), European Educational Research Association (EERA) and its networks are involved in new directions and strands of educational research in…

  15. A European legal method? On European private law and scientific method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between European private law and scientific method. It argues that a European legal method is a good idea. Not primarily because it will make European private law scholarship look more scientific, but because a debate on the method of a normative science

  16. Metadata-catalogue of European spatial datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, J.P.M.; Kooistra, L.

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate a more effective accessibility of European spatial datasets, an assessment was carried out by the GeoDesk of the WUR to identify and describe key datasets that will be relevant for research carried out within WUR and MNP. The outline of the Metadata catalogue European spatial

  17. The Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    express for the EU and fellow Europeans, and the passion with which supporters of the EU argue for greater integration and enlargement are today central to understanding European integration. Being mindful of Europe - reflecting on the ways in which psychology and politics are deeply implicated in under...

  18. European labour law legislation 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    This publication brings together the most important European and international regulation in the area of labour law. It includes regulations from, among others, the European Union, the Council of Europe and the International Labour Organisation. The selected regulations are decisive to some extent

  19. Profile and competences for the European dentist.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Holbrook, W.P.; Delap, E.; Martinez, C.; Walmsley, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the profile and competences for the European Dentist as approved by the General Assembly of the Association for Dental Education in Europe at its annual meeting held in Cardiff in September 2004. A task-force drafted the document, which was then sent to all European Dental

  20. European Industrial Doctorates: Marie Curie Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    European industrial doctorates are joint doctoral training projects funded by the European Union (EU) and open to all research fields. The project brings together an academic participant (university, research institution, etc.) and a company. They have to be established in two different EU Member States or associated countries. Associated partners…

  1. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the

  2. Is there a European way of war?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennesson, P.; Breuer, F.; de Franco, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Europe is the region of the world where the network of security institutions is the densest. Yet, these institutions did not erase differences about conceptions of force employment among European countries and between European countries and the United States. Why have concepts of military power a...

  3. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  4. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  5. European Values Study 1981-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, A.R.C.M.; Halman, L.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The European Values Study is a large-scale, cross-national, and longitudinal survey research program on basic human values providing insight into the ideas, beliefs, preferences, attitudes, values and opinions of citizens all over Europe. It is a unique research project on how Europeans think about

  6. ESMN / European Solar Physics Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    I briefly present the European Solar Magnetometry Network as a contemporary example of solar physics collaboration across European borders,and I place it in larger-scale context by discussing the past and future of Europe-wide solar physics organization.Solar physics from space is inherently

  7. Changing European Governance, Changing Research and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    This chapter examines two fundamental dimensions of the changing European governance, namely the coordination of national policies and the changes in membership (accession of Central and Eastern European Countries in the mid-2000, and of Brexit in late 2010s). In particular this chapter looks...

  8. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the…

  9. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii.

  10. European Frontiers in RF GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, F.E. van; Hek, P. de

    2015-01-01

    In this overview paper, a summary of the European academic and industrial status on RF GaN is given. The roles of EDA and ESA are highlighted, and examples of on-going research activities are presented. A set of HPAs over frequency, representative of today's European status, is discussed. © 2015

  11. Learning Environment Perceptions of European University Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Wierstra, R.F.A.; Linden, J.L. van der; Lodewijks, H.G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a study of the experiences of 610 Dutch students and 241 European students who studied at least three months abroad within the framework of an international exchange program. The Dutch students went to a university in another European country and the foreign students went to a

  12. A European Vision for Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Sue; Tuckett, Alan; Boucher, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) is the UK national coordinator for the European Agenda for Adult Learning, with the challenge of creating a coherent message across the four countries to inform European cooperation on adult learning. To start the debate, the journal staff asked Sue Waddington, Alan Tuckett, and Fiona…

  13. Insights into the European Years’ Communication Toolboxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia-Mihaela Cmeciu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1983 the European syntagm “unity in diversity” has been implemented in the European Years’ communication campaigns. Dependent on subsidiarity and decentralization, European Years focus on a specific issue which constitutes the subject of a year-long awareness campaign. Beyond the involvement of Europe’s citizens through their local, regional and national authorities in the implementation of the European Years’ policies, there is a unity at the level of the visual communication of the EU by two important image-building elements: EY logos and communication toolboxes. The European Years’ communication toolboxes can be considered signs of inclusion since every organization is expected to customize the templates in the official campaign design of the European Year. The analysis will focus on the image-building elements of three European Years (2010, 2011, 2012. Having social semiotics as the qualitative research method and the analytical framework based on the distinction between design resources and representational resources, I will analyze the double layers of the high intensity point of inclusion: (1 the European Years’ branding process; (2 the visual deontic modality within the visual guidelines of the EY communication toolbox.

  14. European Sustainable Construction Regulation : Homogeneity and Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, J.; Van Bueren, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the negative impact of the construction industry and the built environment on the ecological environment, the European Commission (EC) aims to harmonise and improve sustainable construction regulatory frameworks in Member States of the European Union. This paper discusses the topics of

  15. Training Issues for the European Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, B.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the results of an investigation carried out for the European Commission. Aims to identify themes and issues in the field of continuing training in the European automotive industry. A large number of interviews were carried out in all the major car manufacturing countries of

  16. Political values in a European museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Marijn; Huistra, Pieter; Wirt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The last decades have seen the rise of a European politic of cultural identity. One of the most recent initiatives in this respect, dating from 2007, is the House of European History that is due to open its doors in 2015. In this article, we investigate the recent history of the House, in particular

  17. Transnational Lives in European Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in European education began, and how…

  18. The European Insurance Industry: A PEST Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The insurance industry plays an important role for European economic stability and the threats and opportunities it faces should be carefully determined. In this paper we highlight the main challenges by using a Political, Economic, Social and Technological (PEST analysis. This work applies conventional actuarial thought on this area by focusing strictly on the European sector.

  19. Five political ideas of European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the possible implications of leading contemporary theories of political philosophy for some of the main questions that the political institutions of the European Union will have to decide on concerning the future of European contract law. Thus, it explores what a utilitarian,

  20. The Politics of European Human Rights Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agha, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 200-215 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30299S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Court of Justice of the European Union * European Court of Human Rights * religious symbols Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  1. Brexit and the problem of European disintegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosamond, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The Brexit referendum provokes speculation about the likelihood of European disintegration. This article discusses how scholarship might deal with the issue of disintegration and argues that it should be thought of as an indeterminate process rather than an identifiable outcome. Within the EU...... within which European integration has been embedded historically....

  2. ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Pazderníková, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the reasons and beginnings of creation of European energy policy, the role of environment in this policy and different kinds of energy sources with special focus on the renewable ones. The hot topic of liberalization of European energy policy is also discussed. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  3. A comparative approach to European Union citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.N.J. Goudappel (Flora)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAfter a short description of the theoretical and philosophical background of the notions of citizenship and nationality, the contents of European Union citizenship will be described. This notion of European Citizenship will then be compared to the notions of citizenship and nationality

  4. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  5. Quality of Power Supply in European View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Hradilek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with comparisons of situation in quality of power supply regulation in some of European countries, which are interested in CEER (Council of European Energy Regulators. Especially we focused our analysis on reliability indices, relationship between supplier and consumer and electric power supply aftereffects. There are discussed differences in each countries and comparison with situation in Czech Republic.

  6. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  7. Regional Economic Integration: The European Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jacquet

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional initiatives have flourished since the end of the Cold War. Given the degree of integration it has achieved, the European Union is often cited as a model of regional integration. This article argues that European integration has been the product of very specific historical conditions, implying that the politics and dynamics of regional integration in Europe may not be appropriate for and replicable in other regions. It also discusses European monetary union (EMU and argues that integration within EMU is still incomplete in particular because economic policies are not sufficiently coordinated. Finally, it discusses the contribution of regional integration to global governance and suggests that the "European model" can be a source of inspiration for the rest of the world not as much as a process to emulate as for the lessons that can be learned from the dynamics and experience of European integration about some important issues in managing economic interdependence.

  8. A more coherent European wide legal language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Heutger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to elaborate on the interaction between law and language. The use of the different (legal languages of the European Union Member States is one of the most practical and most difficult problems in the process of European integration. The linguistic matters are directly contacting all legal issues. In February 2003 the Commission launched an Action Plan on a more coherent European Contract Law. With this Action Plan a sector specific approach of legal and linguistic harmonization will start. On of the official aims will be the preparation of a common frame of reference, providing a pan-European terminology and rules. This contribution will reflect the need of a better and more coherent legal language use on a European Union level and describe a more concept-based approach of linguistic legal integration.

  9. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  10. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  11. Consensus document on European brain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Luca, Monica; Baker, Mary; Corradetti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    will increase exponentially in the years to come due to ageing of the European population, it is necessary to act now in order to curb this increase and possibly reverse the trend. Thus, establishing a strong European platform supporting basic and clinical research in neuroscience is needed to confront...... the economic and social challenge posed by management of brain diseases in European countries. To setup a platform for discussion, EBC published in 2006 a Consensus Document on European Brain Research, describing needs and achievements of research in Europe and presenting proposals for future research programs....... Since 2006, European research in neuroscience has advanced tremendously. The present document represents an update elaborated to reflect changes in research priorities and advances in brain research that have taken place since 2006. The same approach and format have been used here as in the previous...

  12. An introduction to European intergovernmental organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Cogen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    An Introduction to European Intergovernmental Organizations provides an up-to-date and accessible reference to European intergovernmental organizations other than the European Union. The EU is so dominant that people often overlook the multitude of older and newer, smaller and larger intergovernmental organizations rooted in the history of contemporary Europe which continue to help shape its future. The specialized character of these organizations adds value to cooperation in Europe as a whole, creates permanent channels of communication regardless of EU membership and allows the possibility for non-European involvement through organizations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and NATO. It also allows sub regional groups of states, such as the Nordic countries or the Benelux countries to exist and express their own identity via their own organizations. This book looks at the history of Non-EU organizations, their decision-making characteristics, membership policies, legal powers actio...

  13. European dimension and European identity through the perspective of geography teaching in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses geography teaching inSloveniaas viewed through the prism of a European dimension and identity. The author aims to identify to what extent the ‘European dimension’ and ‘European identity’ exist within school geography curricula, and how they are represented and constructed. Surveys discussed in the paper cover a 15 year period and dealing with the three most important elements of (geography education: teachers, content and pupils/students. Using the results of the surveys, the author suggests possibilities for the development of geography teaching, particularly with regard to subject areas concerning the implementation of European identity issues within the framework of European dimension.

  14. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BALCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project in 2010 and the results obtained from the Leonardo Da Vinci Life Learning European Union project called “Web Based Basic Vocational Training” between the years 2010-2012 were presented. Since the partners of these projects are Turkey, Spain and Germany, the structure of vocational education, institutions of public and private vocational education and the diplomas and certificates entitled after these educations are included. As Turkey is on its way to become a European Union member, a number of advices are presented for Turkey to reach its destination about vocational education standards that European Union has aimed. The purpose of the study is not only to be a guide for the young who want to get professional training in the countries that are European Union members or candidates about how and where to have education opportunities but also to give a chance for trainers and training managers, participating in vocational training, so as to glimpse different practices from different countries and compare these practices between the countries of European Union and their countries. The study is also very important as it has the opportunities for training managers to see if their countries' vocational education is close enough to vocational education in European Union.

  15. Gender perspectives in European research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, Ineke

    2008-01-01

    Attention to sex and gender aspects in biomedical and health-related research has been a major initiative of the EU gender equality policy for research. The EU funded GenderBasic project (2005-2008), conceived to stimulate this attention to sex and gender and to provide practical tools to researchers, resulted in the publication of 10 reviews by high-level scientists in a Supplement to Gender Medicine in December 2007: "Bringing Gender Expertise to Biomedical and Health-Related Research". Four commissioned reviews covered methodological aspects of addressing sex and gender in biomedical research--ranging from basic, molecular to public health research--next to six reviews that addressed sex and gender aspects relevant to selected health areas: anxiety disorders, asthma, metabolic syndrome, nutrigenomics, osteoporosis and work-related health. The review articles, that were discussed at an expert meeting, attended - upon invitation - by a mixed audience of basic and clinical researchers, epidemiologists, social scientists and gender researchers, came up with excellent state of the art data, solutions to methodological and conceptual problems, practical tools and interesting questions for further research. The expert meeting created great enthusiasm among the participants and a real exchange took place among researchers from various backgrounds. Most life sciences researchers were familiar with the concept of sex differences but confessed that the effects of socially constructed gender until now, had received too little attention. The GenderBasic project yielded three major achievements for European research: (1) it stimulated and promoted research into sex differences; (2) it stimulated research into the workings of gender, illustrated by useful examples in particular in understanding masculinity and its effects on the health of individual men; (3) it highlighted sex-gender interaction and granted gender a prominent place on the research agenda that resulted from

  16. Prospects for European labour demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  17. Through Thick and Thin: ‘European Identification’ for a Justified and Legitimate European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Davidson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Debates on the viability of European integration often rest on the need for some form of common European identity. This article looks at European integration through the framework of normative political theory to explore what form of European identity is needed for the EU to be considered both justified – having a good or just reason for existence, and legitimate – having consent from its citizens. It critiques arguments for a purely justified EU, which rule out the need for a common European identity, as well as those requiring a thick common identity for a legitimate EU. In contrast, this article argues for a European identification that is both desirable as an identity and works to sustain a justified and legitimate EU. The proposed conception of European identification takes into consideration national and sub-national identities and opens up the potential for Europeanised identities at multiple levels.

  18. Globalization and Europeanization. A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The specialized studies and literature present moreover and insistently the connection between globalization and Europeanization, more precisely between globalization and a European model of integration, whose features aim to set up a global-type European society. The development of the European model of integration starts with economic elements, it reveals nowadays the Economic and Monetary Union and in perspective it will be structured within a sui generis system of transnational governance. The values of the European model of integration become fundamental values of a social process, with powerful economic and political determinations, aiming the multi-causal interference between individual, community and European construction. This process, remarked increasingly in the specialized literature, being assigned with the name of Europeanization, has got original, functional features in the spectrum of significations of the globalization paradigm. As essential global-type formula, within Europeanization, we shall find models with economic, political or social finality, integrating also a model of administration among the latter ones. When we say administration, we refer to its up dated and adequate contents to the new European developments. This assertion derives from a less economic modality to conceptualize the relationship between globalization and Europeanization, presenting Europeanization more as a political adaptation to globalization and even a political expression of globalization. In this context, the development of a system for European governance on several levels (local, regional, national, intergovernmental and supranational suggests its evolution towards globalization. In fact, the literature specific for Europeanization asserts the fact that the European model has also features with integrative nature related to the supranational and trans-governmental dimensions, as well as features with normative nature in view of harmonization

  19. European rating of drug harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-06-01

    The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed criteria weights that would apply, on average, across the EU. Weighted averages of the scores provided a single, overall weighted harm score (range: 0-100) for each drug. Alcohol, heroin and crack emerged as the most harmful drugs (overall weighted harm score 72, 55 and 50, respectively). The remaining drugs had an overall weighted harm score of 38 or less, making them much less harmful than alcohol. The overall weighted harm scores of the EU experts correlated well with those previously given by the UK panel. The outcome of this study shows that the previous national rankings based on the relative harms of different drugs are endorsed throughout the EU. The results indicates that EU and national drug policy measures should focus on drugs with the highest overall harm, including alcohol and tobacco, whereas drugs such as cannabis and ecstasy should be given lower priority including a lower legal classification. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. 5th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Euromech Committee, the Fifth European Turbulence Conference was held in Siena on 5-8 July 1994. Following the previous ETC meeting in Lyon (1986), Berlin (1988), Stockholm (1990) and Delft (1992), the Fifth ETC was aimed at providing a review of the fundamental aspects of turbulence from a theoretical, numerical and experimental point of view. In the magnificent town of Siena, more than 250 scientists from all over the world, spent four days discussing new ideas on turbulence. As a research worker in the field of turbulence, I must say that the works presented at the Conference, on which this book is based, covered almost all areas in this field. I also think that this book provides a major opportunity to have a complete overview of the most recent research works. I am extremely grateful to Prof. C. Cercignani, Dr. M. Loffredo, and Prof. R. Piva who, as members of the local organizing committee, share the success of the Conference. I also want to thank Mrs. Liu' Catena, for her inva...

  1. How Europe Matters. Different Mechanisms of Europeanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Lehmkuhl

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available While much has been written about the European Union (EU, most of the scholarly work is concerned with the developments at the European level. It is only recently, that we observe increasing attempts to address this research deficit. Notwithstanding a growing number of studies explicitly concerned with the Europeanization of domestic institutions, we still lack consistent and systematic concepts to account for the varying patterns of institutional adjustment across countries and policy sectors. In order to arrive at a more general understanding of the domestic impact of European policy-making, this paper provides a more comprehensive explanatory framework. We distinguish three types of European policy-making, namely positive integration, negative integration, and what might be called "framing" integration, which are characterized by distinctive mechanisms of Europeanization, and hence require distinctive approaches in order to explain their domestic impact. We argue that it is the specific mechanism, rather than the nominal category of the policy area that is the most important factor to be taken into account when investigating the domestic impact of varying European policies.

  2. European Citizenship between Past and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union, an organization built on the ruins of the Second World War the desire to curb the war on the continent once and for all, was doomed from the beginning to end in one day political contours, so Europe is now united policy at the core of the future of Europe. This aspiration has become increasingly manifest in the adoption in 1992 of the Treaty of Maastricht, culminating today with the debate on the European Constitution. “Europe” today was forged from the beginning of the ruling political elites and not the citizens. Is it possible to continue this course today? Talking about European citizenship is part of the broader theory and political philosophy, legal and sociological. East European citizenship a recent concept (established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992 born of an old idea (dating approximately from the 40s that refers to a reality uncertain and inconsistent. Holders of European citizenship are nationals of Member States of the European Union. Citizenship as a concept has a content both political (the right of citizenship Fortress defining an individual's personal status and legal (on the set of subjective rights that an individual may invoke. Existential condition of citizenship is the ability to have rights (individual rights as positive theory of law and be able to implement them. As a consequence, European citizenship exists to the extent that its holders can enjoy rights derived from this status.

  3. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffrennes, M. [EC, DG XVII, Nuclear Energy, Brussels (Belgium); Engl, G. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Estorff, U. von [EC, JRC/IAM, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    ENDEF, an initiative of the European Commission, DG XVII (Energy) was well supported by the European industrial institutions working in assistance with nuclear industrial organisations in the CEEC`s (Central and Eastern European Countries) and NIS`s (New Independent States). This Forum provides effectively a platform for open discussion between representatives of industrial actors active in the NDE (Non Destructive Examination)/ISI (In Service Inspection) field with the purpose to establish a co-operation pattern between qualified representatives of the EU (European Union) industry to offer a better co-ordinated and well defined assistance to the CEEC`s and NIS in the field of NDE/ISI, and to lay the ground for further industrial co-operation. ENDEF developed a strategy to follow for the establishment of co-operation projects. This strategy is now used to understand the extent of past or present assistance projects and to identify the areas where more co-operation is needed. ENDEF encourages the creation in the NIS`s and CEEC`s of similar forums in order to increase the co-operation and co-ordination. ENDEF is also working in perfect agreement with the European Network ENIQ, piloted by the European plant operators. This identity of views lead to the leadership by the ENDEF co-ordinator of the ENIQ Task 3 involving Applications of the European Methodology for ISI qualification in the CEEC`s and NIS`s and presently fully integrated in ENDEF. (orig.)

  4. European Energy Security amid Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of overall analysis of the European dependence on Russia for its energy needs (mainly gas and oil this paper tries to argue that economic sanction against Russia will have limited success. It will hurt the region badly, but it has more potential to jeopardize the European energy security aspect – a long cherished goal of the European nations. So, the best means to solve the Ukraine crisis is political and diplomatic tools, not the economic ones.

  5. European Neighbourhood Policy. A Polish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcinkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the bing-bang enlargement of the EU in 2004, the Union needed to define a coherent policy towards its new neighbours. The European Neighbourhood Policy was formulated when Poland became a member of the EU. Due to its close ties with the Eastern European countries, Poland tried to shape the EU foreign policy towards its neighbouring countries and became their advocate in Brussels. In 2009 it succeeded in establishing the Eastern Partnership as one of the dimensions of the European Neighbourhood Policy.

  6. European Market Making and Policy Duplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that private regulation has been essential to the making of the common European market. The distinction between negative and positive integration, usually used to understand the making of the common European market, only gives us part of the picture, as it focuses on public...... authorities and the regulation issued by them, and tends to ignore private authorities. A focus on private regulation is suggested to enlarge the focus on positive and negative integration, and this is used in an analysis of EU's removal of barriers to trade from 1958 to 2000. The paper shows that private...... regulation in the form of technical standardisation has become essential to European market making....

  7. European Higher Health Care Education Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Liisa; Kelly, Hélène; Bergknut, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Education in Health and Rehabilitation, whose goal is to nurture educational development and networking among member institutions. The framework is the result of a collaborative endeavor by nine nurse educators from five different European countries. The production of the framework will be described......This article concerns the European Curriculum in Cultural Care Project (2005-2009), which aimed at developing a curriculum framework for the enhancement of cultural competence in European health care education. The project was initiated and supported by the Consortium of Institutes in Higher...

  8. CFC legislation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with ...

  9. An overview on European SPS activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhartz, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    The organization of space and energy research in Europe is discussed. The European situation is highlighted with emphasis on the dependency of energy imports and on the energy requirements of Europe. The status of SPS research in the countries that form the European Space Agency was reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the unfavorable geographical and climatic situation of large parts of Europe, terrestrial solar energy conversion is unlikely to make a significant contribution to Europe's future energy supply. Thus, SPS development is of special interest to the European community.

  10. The 2014 European Elections in Romania – Media Frames and Their Implications in the Europeanization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ștefăniță

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the implications of the media in two major processes at the EU level – the process of Europeanization and the process of building a European identity. So, it analyses European subjects, by focusing on the visibility and the media framing of these subjects during the 2014 EU Parliament elections. Recent theoretical studies in the domain show that media could be one of the actors that might be responsible for influencing the Europeanization process – either in the sense of enabling the emergence and functioning of a European public sphere or in the sense of even preventing its birth. Thus, our empirical research aims at investigating the degree of Europeanization of the Romanian media discourse in order to reveal the current situation regarding the public sphere in Romania today. Since the content analysis indicates a low degree of visibility of the European issues and rather low levels of issue-specific frames that might sustain the development of a mature European identity, we can conclude that media still have to struggle to accomplish the transition from the national level to the European(ized one.

  11. The Impact of European Democracy Promotion on Party Financing in the East European Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the cooperation of European institutions (the EU, the Council of Europe, and the OSCE in democracy promotion affects the success of European conditionality on party financing in the East European Neighbourhood. It examines the two major European-level factors, the determinacy of requirements and the rewards, based on the Ukrainian, Moldovan and Georgian case studies and a cross-case comparative analysis before and during Action Plans’ period. The paper shows that there exists a European-level influence on party financing changes in line with the European standards set by the Venice Commission. Also, the cooperation of European institutions in democracy promotion contributes to the success of the common European leverage in the field of party financing. Although the EU lacks a specific party financing conditionality in Action Plans, the reference to the standards set by the Council of Europe and the OSCE increases indirectly the determinacy of its requirements and offers domestic elites a clearer picture of its demands. At the same time, the EU’s merit in the joint European influence on party financing lies in its increased leverage on aspiring European members, even in the case of low credibility of EU membership.

  12. European Strategies for Smarter Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Barresi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On a worldwide scale, cities and regions must tackle the challenges set by the radical change in our society and in our economy, aiming to develop effective public policies and boost their managerial, evaluation and planning skills. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a rich social fabric go hand in hand, the social capital being able to produce an added value for the cities. We are exactly in a new phase of urban growth centred on the economy of services characterized by widespread digital technologies and new innovative organization patterns, which encourage the participation in the civic policy processes through the realization of structures to share information and data so as to define intervention policies. The most recent studies and trials about innovation and competitiveness, such as the examples illustrated in the present work (Amsterdam, Paredes, Aarhus and Gent show a growing interest in measuring the relationship between innovation and economic growth at various territorial levels, key factors in conceiving inclusive smart strategies, linked to principles of sustainability and territorial cohesion, and building smarter cities. In the light of these remarks, the article is divided into three parts: the first part is focussed on the above-mentioned central issues of the international debate; the second part examines four significant European initiatives; the third part draws preliminary conclusions and directions for further research.

  13. Review of European microgravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Hans

    1994-01-01

    AA In a French/Russion cooperation, CNES developed a microgravity detection system for analyzing the Mir space station micro-g-environment for the first time. European efforts to characterize the microgravity (1/9) environment within a space laboratory began in the late seventies with the design of the First Spacelab Mission SL-1. Its Material Science Double Rack was the first payload element to carry its own tri-axial acceleration package. Even though incapable for any frequency analysis, the data provided a wealth of novel information for optimal experiment and hardware design and operations for missions to come. Theoretical investigations under ESA contract demonstrated the significance of the detailed knowledge of micro-g data for a thorough experiment analysis. They especially revealed the high sensitivity of numerous phenomena to low frequency acceleration. Accordingly, the payloads of the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2 were furnished with state-of-the-art detection systems to ensure frequency analysis between 0.1 and 100 Hz. The Microgravity Measurement Assembly (MMA) of D-2 was a centralized system comprising fixed installed as well as mobile tri-axial packages showing real-time data processing and transmission to ground. ESA's free flyer EURECA carried a system for continuous measurement over the entire mission. All EURECA subsystems and experimental facilities had to meet tough requirements defining the upper acceleration limits. In a French/Russion cooperation, CNES developed a mi crogravity detection system for analyzing the Mir space station micro-g-environment for the first time. An approach to get access to low frequency acceleration between 0 and 0.02 Hz will be realized by QSAM (Quasi-steady Acceleration Measurement) on IML-2, complementary to the NASA system Spacelab Acceleration Measurement System SAMS. A second flight of QSAM is planned for the Russian free flyer FOTON.

  14. European Conference on Molecular Biology EMBO

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    European Conference on Molecular Biology, which eventually led to the setting up of EMBO, was held at CERN in April. Olivier Reverdin is adressing the delegates. Bernard Gregory is on the left and Willy Spuhler in the centre.

  15. How Ancient Europeans Saw the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bandović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book: Peter Wells. How Ancient Europeans Saw the World: Vision, Patterns, and the Shaping of the Mind in Prehistoric Times. 2012. Princeton University Press. 285 pp.

  16. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... important. Product quality comes in third followed by trustworthiness of the supplier and marketing support offered. Price and quality plus marketing support offered seem to be relatively more important to wholesalers than retailers. The majority of Eastern European retailers use central buying departments....... Only a minority combine local and central buying. Apparently, buying functions are organised differently in the Baltic countries than in the Central European countries. This seems partly to be attributable to size differentials as Baltic retail chains are smaller than Central European retailers...

  17. The Europeanization of Health Care Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the Europeanization process and the impact of the European Union (EU) on national healthcare policies, using the example of Denmark. The analysis reveals that although health policy formally falls within the competence of member states, the impact of the EU is becoming increasi......The paper examines the Europeanization process and the impact of the European Union (EU) on national healthcare policies, using the example of Denmark. The analysis reveals that although health policy formally falls within the competence of member states, the impact of the EU is becoming...... increasingly conspicuous and has contributed to a gradual restructuring of healthcare boundaries as well as of some of its organizing principles. Furthermore, the process and impact have a de-structuring effect on the more traditional governance tools used in relation to healthcare. The paper concludes...

  18. A European Research Agenda for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Sloep, P. (2008). A European Research Agenda for Lifelong Learning. Paper read at EADTU Annual Conference 2008, Lifelong learning in higher education: networked teaching and learning in a knowledge society. September, 18-19, 2008, Poitiers, France.

  19. Professional Burnout in European Young Oncologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Sutanuka; Califano, R; Corral, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background: Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologis...

  20. Exploring the premises of European education systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    This paper (part of a project carried out under the EU’s Marie Curie programme of Intra-European Fellowships, FP7-People-2011-IEF, CETH, 298656) explores the emergence of the European education systems in Modernity. As the paper argues, the institution of education in Europe was associated....... Understanding the historical premises of European education would allow us to understand the trajectory that education systems have had till today, in Europe and beyond........ This fundamental antinomy, between autonomy and rational control, explicated by Castoriadis, constitutes the very particularity of the European imaginary, which has been incarnated, as the paper argues, in the institution of education since the Enlightenment – although its first traces appeared much earlier...

  1. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  2. The European farm entrepreneur: A comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.L.; McElwee, G.; Schoorlemmer, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    Entrepreneurship in agriculture is an important issue in Europe. Policymakers, researchers, farmers' unions and advisory services are concerned with the development of entrepreneurship in agriculture. This paper reports on the interim findings of a European Union funded research project established

  3. Reproduction of European Eel in Aquaculture (REEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Tybjerg, Lars; Støttrup, Josianne

    Project aim: Enhance methods and technology applied to produce and culture European eel larvae as basis for the development of a future self-sustained eel aquaculture. Background: The severe decline of the European eel stock calls for conservation measures including national eel management plans...... and establishment of a self-sustained eel aquaculture. In 2005, the National Institute of Aquatic Resources at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Aqua), the Faculty of Life Sciences at Copenhagen University (KU-Life) and the eel aquaculture industry started to build up a research and technology platform...... feeding. The results were in particular promising because they evidenced that methods successfully applied to Japanese eel has a potential for application also to the European eel. ROE II and III were supported by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and the European Commission through...

  4. [European curriculum for further education in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl-Wagner, B

    2014-11-01

    The European training curriculum for radiology of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) aims to harmonize training in radiology in Europe. Levels I and II constitute the centerpiece of the curriculum. The ESR recommends a 5-year training period in radiology with 3 years of level I and 2 years of level II training. The undergraduate (U) level curriculum is conceived as a basis for teaching radiology in medical schools and consists of a modality-oriented U1 level and an organ-based U2 level. Level III curricula provide contents for subspecialty and fellowship training after board certification in radiology. The curricular contents of all parts of the European Training Curriculum are divided into the sections knowledge, skills as well as competences and attitudes. The European training curriculum is meant to be a recommendation and a basis for the development of national curricula, but is not meant to replace existing national regulations.

  5. Consensus document on European brain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Luca, Monica; Baker, Mary; Corradetti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    the economic and social challenge posed by management of brain diseases in European countries. To setup a platform for discussion, EBC published in 2006 a Consensus Document on European Brain Research, describing needs and achievements of research in Europe and presenting proposals for future research programs....... Since 2006, European research in neuroscience has advanced tremendously. The present document represents an update elaborated to reflect changes in research priorities and advances in brain research that have taken place since 2006. The same approach and format have been used here as in the previous......Psychiatric and neurological diseases combined represent a considerable social and economic burden in Europe. A recent study conducted by the European Brain Council (EBC) quantified the 'cost and burden' of major brain diseases in Europe, amounting to €386bn per year. Considering that these costs...

  6. A stakeholder dialogue on European vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega-Leinert, de la A.C.; Schröter, D.; Leemans, R.; Fritsch, U.; Pluimers, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    A stakeholder dialogue was embedded in the ATEAM project to facilitate the development and dissemination of its European-wide vulnerability assessment of global change impacts. Participating stakeholders were primarily ecosystem managers and policy advisers interested in potential impacts on

  7. Functional foods: traditional use and European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    The concept of functional foods was born in Japan in the 1980s. They are foods that were developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods have not already been defined by the legislation in Europe. Generally, they are considered as those foods which are intended to be consumed as part of the normal diet and which contain biologically active components which offer the potential of enhanced health or reduced risk of disease. Attention concerning this category of foods has grown, new products have appeared in the European market and interest has turned to define the standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of this kind of foods. In the European Union, there is harmonised legislation on health claims, while compounds, ingredients, plants are still regulated only at national level. The question of traditional use and the role of European Food Safety Authority as European Authority for Food Safety will be examined.

  8. Collaborators await European approval of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sweet, William N

    1994-01-01

    Physicists are awaiting the authorization of the proposed $2.5 billion European LHC. Germany, France, the UK and Switzerland are still arguing on how much extra contributions host countries should provide for the proton-proton collider's construction.

  9. From National Identity to European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CINPOES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, and especially in the past few years, the European Union has been going through a mixed process of expansion and consolidation. In the last ten years alone there were two new waves of accession, the EU launched the single currency and failed attempts have been made to introduce a constitution. With all these transformations taking place, attention is more and more centred on the question whether a European identity is emerging. This article investigates this issue examining comparativelythe patterns of national identity and of European identity formation and focusing on whether the relationship between the two is a zero-sum type. The aim is to show that although national identity is not necessarily an obstacle for the development of European identity, nationalism is.

  10. ENLIGHT at its second European appointment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN hosts the preparatory meeting of ENLIGHT++ to focus European efforts in light-ion hadron therapy. On Friday, 24 March, CERN hosted the preparatory meeting of ENLIGHT++, which continues the vision started by the European Network for Research in Light-Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT). Clinicians, oncologists, physicists, radiobiologists, information and communication technology experts and engineers from around Europe came for the one-day workshop to coordinate European efforts in radiation therapy using light-ion beams for cancer therapy. Following a welcome from CERN's Chief Scientific Officer Jos Engelen, key note presentations began with Jean-Pierre Gérard, Director-General of the Centre Antoine-Lacassagne and former chairman of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), who illustrated the compelling reasons why ion therapy is needed. The following talks were given by Germaine Heeren, manager of the original ENLIGHT project (Belgium), and Thomas Haberer from the Heidelberg Io...

  11. General Issues in International and European Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gentian Zyberi

    2015-01-01

    As a former editor of the predecessor to this journal, namely Merkourios, it gives me great pleasure to write the editorial for the 81st issue of the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law (“UJIEL...

  12. Entrepreneurship and employment growth across European regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Doran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the impact of regional entrepreneurial activity on employment growth. Specifically it analyses whether new firm formation in European NUTS-2 regions can stimulate job creation and drive employment growth.

  13. Promoting ethnic entrepreneurship in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.; Swagerman, A.

    2011-01-01

    European cities are increasingly faced with the challenge of integrating people from very diverse backgrounds. As migrant populations increase, so do the opportunities for new business, job creation and international competitiveness. This report shows that ethnic entrepreneurs, however small their

  14. EUROPEAN NAUTICAL TOURISTS: EXPLORING DESTINATION IMAGE PERCEPTIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yen E Lam González; Javier de León Ledesma; Carmelo J León González

    2015-01-01

      The present paper aims at exploring the European nautical tourists' perceptions of image, in relation to the type of nautical sport they carry out and the type of nautical destination they visit...

  15. European Flood Awareness System - now operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS

  16. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Chauzat

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera. Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities. The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations. This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding

  17. Why a European chapter of IALE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Antrop, Marc; de Blust, Geert

    2009-01-01

    Association (IALE) and its national chapters. The reasons have to do with the development of the scientific discipline of landscape ecology, with the concept landscape with its multiple interpretations, with the landscape characteristics of Europe and with the changing demands for research, planning......The European Association for Landscape Ecology (EALE) groups landscape ecologists working on the specific problems of landscapes in Europe. The specificity of European landscapes, their history, use, conservation and constant change justify such an association besides the existing International...

  18. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  19. European Anti-dumping Law and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Eeckhout

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines recent developments in the European Union's anti-dumping policy, as it is applied towards China. It concentrates on recent court cases involving dumping from China and on the basic non-market economy issue. The author essentially argues that the European Union's policy does not take account sufficiently of China's development towards a market economy, and that there are various legal flaws in the way the policy is applied.

  20. Modeling Risk Convergence for European Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu LUPU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the convergence of risk on a sample of 13 European indexes. We use a set of 31 model specifications of a significant number of models belonging to the GARCH class and on their estimates we build an aggregate index in a Value-at-Risk approach. We use this index as a base for our convergence analysis. The results indicate a positive and significant tendency of convergence growth for the European financial market