WorldWideScience

Sample records for european power system

  1. Adequacy of operating reserves for power systems in future european wind power scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2015-01-01

    operating reserves. To study the effects of these imbalances, anticipated wind scenarios for European power systems are modelled for 2020 and 2030. Wind power forecasts for different time scales and real-time available wind power are modelled. Based on these studies, this paper qualitatively analyzes......Wind power generation is expected to increase in Europe by large extent in future. This will increase variability and uncertainty in power systems. Imbalances caused due to uncertainty in wind power forecast can trigger frequency instability in the system. These imbalances are handled using...... the adequacy of primary and secondary reserves requirements for future European power systems. This paper also discusses the challenges due to the uncertainty in wind power forecasts and their possible solutions for wind installation scenarios for 2020 and 2030....

  2. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  3. Fundamental properties of and transition to a fully renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Rodriguez, Rolando A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a top-down stylized model to analyse the impact of a transition to a European power system based only on wind and solar power. Wind and solar power generation is calculated from high-resolution weather data and based on the country specific electricity demand alone, we introduce...... a model of the conventional power system that facilitates simple spatio-temporal modelling of its macroscopic behaviour without direct reference to the underlying technological, economical, and political development in the system. Using this model, we find that wind and solar power generation can replace...... conventional power generation and power capacity to a large degree if power transmission across the continent is made possible....

  4. European type NPP electric power and vent systems. For safety improvement and proposal of international center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Kenichiro

    2011-01-01

    For prevention of reactor accidents of nuclear power plants, multiplicity and redundancy of emergency power would be most important. At station blackout accident, European type manually operated vent operation could minimize release amount of radioactive materials and keep safety of neighboring residents. After Fukushima Daiichi accident, nuclear power plants could not restart operation even after completion of periodical inspection. This article introduced European type emergency power and vent systems in Swiss, Sweden and Germany with state of nuclear power phaseout for reference at considering to upgrade safety and accident mitigation measures for better understanding of the public. In addition, it would be important to recover trust of nuclear technology to continue to disseminate latest information on new knowledge of accident site and decontamination technologies to domestic and overseas people. As its implementation, establishment of Fukushima international center was proposed. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Improvement of the Performance of Scheduled Stepwise Power Programme Changes within the European Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welfonder, E.; Weissbach, T.; Schulz, U.

    2008-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the electrical energy market, the technical realisation of power transactions based on energy market contracts often effects large stepwise power programme changes – especially at the change of the hour. Due to mainly economic reasons these stepwise power programme changes...... extended discussions with power plant and power system operators as well as with power plant dispatchers the described issues will be adopted into a VGB-recommendation which shall be published by VGB Powertech for Germany and Europe. Subsequently, it is intended to include the main elements of the VGB...

  6. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Andresen, Gorm Bruun; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Through a parametric time-series analysis of 8 years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show that combined with a low-efficiency hydrogen storage and a level of balancing equal to what is today provided by storage lakes, it is sufficient to meet the European electricity demand in a fully renewable power system where the average power generation from combined wind and solar exceeds the demand by only a few percent. - Highlights: ► We model a wind and solar based European power system with storage and balancing. ► We find that storage needs peaks when average renewable generation matches load. ► We find strong synergetic effects when combining storage and balancing. ► We study the effects of a storage capable of storing 6 h average use. ► We find a realisable fully renewable scenario based on wind, solar and hydro power.

  7. Swiss hydropower in competition - an analysis with reference to the future European power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.; Spreng, D.; Moest, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at a number of questions in relation to the future use of Swiss hydropower that are neither clear nor unchallenged. Questions concerning the replacement or refurbishment of hydropower schemes that will have to be renewed in the next few years are asked. Also, developments in the European power market are looked at. The future influence of wind power, trading with CO 2 certificates, increases in the price of gas etc. are examined. An analysis of the competitiveness of Swiss hydropower with reference to the European power supply system that was made by the Centre for Energy Policy and Economics CEPE at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH is described. The 'Perseus'-model developed by CEPE and the Industrial Technology Institute at the University of Karlsruhe in Germany is used to analyse possible developments over the period up to 2030. The results are presented in graphical form and commented on

  8. Economic analysis of the cross-border coordination of operation in the European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    The electricity high voltage transmission networks are interconnected over most of the continents but this is not the case of the power system organizations. Indeed, as described with the concept of integrated power system, the organization over these large networks is divided by several kinds of internal borders. In this context, the research object, the cross-border coordination of operation, is a set of coordination arrangements over internal borders between differing regulatory, technical and market designs. These arrangements can include for instance the famous market couplings, some cost-sharing agreements or common security assessments among several other solutions. The existence and improvement of the cross-border coordination of operation can be beneficial to the whole integrated power system. This statement is verified in the European case as in 2012 where several regional and continental coordination arrangements are successfully implemented.In order to benefit from the European experience and contribute to support the European improvement process, this thesis investigates the cross-border coordination of operation in the European case with four angles of study. First, a modular framework is built to describe the existing solutions and the implementation choices from a regulatory point of view. Second, the thesis analyses the tools available to assess the impact of an evolution of the cross-border coordination. Third, the role of the European Union (EU) is described as critical both for the existing arrangements and to support the improvement process. The last angle of study focuses on two dimensions of the economic modes of coordination between transmission system operators. (author)

  9. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  10. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  11. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  12. Nuclear power: European report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, nuclear power plants were operated and/or built in eighteen European countries. Thirteen of these countries are members of EU-25. Five of the ten countries joining the European Union on May 1, 2004 operate nuclear power stations. A total of 206 power reactors with a gross power of 181,941 MWe and a net power of 172,699 MWe were in operation at the end of the year. In 2004, one nuclear power plant was commissioned in Russia (Kalinin 3), two (Kmelnitzki 2 and Rowno 4) in Ukraine. Five nuclear power plants were decommissioned in Europe in the course of 2004. As announced in 2000, the Chapelcross 1 to Chapelcross 4 plants in Britain were shut down for economic reasons. In Lithuania, the Ignalina 1 unit was disconnected from the power grid, as had been demanded by the EU Commission within the framework of the negotiations about the country's accession to the EU. As a result of ongoing technical optimization in some plants, involving increases in reactor power or generator power as well as commissioning of plants of higher capacity, nuclear generating capacity increased by approx. 1.5 GW. In late 2004, four nuclear generating units were under construction in Finland (1), Romania (1), and Russia (2). 150 nuclear power plants were operated in thirteen states of the European Union (EU-25), which is sixteen more than the year before as a consequence of the accession of new countries. They had an aggregate gross power of 137,943 MWe and a net power of 131,267 MWe, generating approx. 983 billion gross kWh of electricity in 2003, thus again contributing some 32% to the public electricity supply in the EU-25. In largest share of nuclear power in electricity generation is found in Lithuania (80%), followed by 78% in France, 57% in the Slovak Republic, 56% in Belgium, and 46% in Ukraine. In several countries not operating nuclear power plants of their own, such as Italy, Portugal, and Austria, nuclear power makes considerable contributions to public electricity supply as

  13. The European Power System. Decarbonization and Cost Reduction: Lost in Transmissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite

    2012-01-01

    constraints. Wind energy is expected to provide most of the extra renewable energy required in electricity generation to meet this objective. Even though photovoltaic electricity production is less mature than wind energy, this technology is also strongly supported by new energy policies. Overall, the variability of these intermittent technologies can be dealt with by interconnection capacities, to a certain extent. Strong interconnections between neighboring countries are crucial for greater wind-power and solar penetration in the European system

  14. The Cost-Optimal Distribution of Wind and Solar Generation Facilities in a Simplified Highly Renewable European Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; von Bremen, Lüder; Schyska, Bruno; Chattopadhyay, Kabitri; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the European power system from fossil generation towards renewable sources is driven by different reasons like decarbonisation and sustainability. Renewable power sources like wind and solar have, due to their weather dependency, fluctuating feed-in profiles, which make their system integration a difficult task. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been investigated in the past like the optimal mix of wind and PV [1], the extension of the transmission grid or storages [2]. In this work, the optimal distribution of wind turbines and solar modules in Europe is investigated. For this purpose, feed-in data with an hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 7 km covering Europe for the renewable sources wind, photovoltaics and hydro was used. Together with historical load data and a transmission model , a simplified pan-European power power system was simulated. Under cost assumptions of [3] the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for this simplified system consisting of generation, consumption, transmission and backup units is calculated. With respect to the LCOE, the optimal distribution of generation facilities in Europe is derived. It is shown, that by optimal placement of renewable generation facilities the LCOE can be reduced by more than 10% compared to a meta study scenario [4] and a self-sufficient scenario (every country produces on average as much from renewable sources as it consumes). This is mainly caused by a shift of generation facilities towards highly suitable locations, reduced backup and increased transmission need. The results of the optimization will be shown and implications for the extension of renewable shares in the European power mix will be discussed. The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (Wuppertal Institute, Next Energy, University of Oldenburg), that is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 03SFF0439A). [1] Kies, A. et al.: Kies, Alexander, et al

  15. Adequate intraday market design to enable the integration of wind energy into the European power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christoph [University Duisburg-Essen, Chair for Energy Economics and Management Sciences, Universitaetsstrasse 12, 45 117 Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    This contribution analyses the European electricity markets with respect to their aptitude to absorb large amounts of wind energy. Thereby in a first step the market designs of the major European power markets in France, Germany, Scandinavia, Spain and UK are reviewed, with a particular focus on liquidity in the spot and intraday markets. Then some key features of the short-term adjustments required by wind energy are discussed and the necessity of sufficient liquidity in intraday markets is highlighted. For the example of the German market subsequently the discrepancy between the physical short-term adjustment needs and the traded volumes on the intraday market is analyzed. This leads to an evaluation of proposals for improving the liquidity on the short-term market, including the use of continuous spot trading like in UK or the use of intraday auctions like in Spain. (author)

  16. Nuclear power 2005: European report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, nuclear power plants were operated and/or built in eighteen European countries. Thirteen of these countries are members of EU-25. Five of the ten countries joining the European Union on May 1, 2004 operate nuclear power stations. A total of 204 power reactors with a gross power of 181,030 MWe and a net power of 171,8479 MWe were in operation at the end of the year. In 2005, no nuclear power plant was commissioned. Two nuclear power plants were decommissioned in Europe in the course of 2005. In Germany the Obrigheim NPP and in Sweden the Barsebaeck 2 NPP have been permanently shut down due to political decisions. As a result of ongoing technical optimization in some plants, involving increases in reactor power or generator power as well as commissioning of plants of higher capacity, nuclear generating capacity increased by approx. 1.6 GW. In late 2005, five nuclear generating units were under construction in Finland (1), Romania (1), and Russia (3). 148 nuclear power plants were operated in thirteen states of the European Union (EU-25). They had an aggregate gross power of 137,023 MWe and a net power of 130,415 MWe, generating approx. 970 billion gross kWh of electricity in 2005, thus again contributing some 31% to the public electricity supply in the EU-25. In largest share of nuclear power in electricity generation is found in France (80%), followed by 72% in Lithuania, 55% in the Slovak Republic, 55% in Belgium, and 51% in Ukraine. In several countries not operating nuclear power plants of their own, such as Italy, Portugal, and Austria, nuclear power makes considerable contributions to public electricity supply as a result of electricity imports. (All statistical data in the country report apply to 2004 unless indicated otherwise. This is the year for which sound preliminary data are currently available for the states listed.) (orig.)

  17. Norway as a Battery for the Future European Power System—Impacts on the Hydropower System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Graabak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Future power production in Europe is expected to include large shares of variable wind and solar power production. Norway, with approximately half of the hydropower reservoir capacity in Europe, can contribute to balance the variability. The aim of this paper is to assess how such a role may impact the Norwegian hydropower system in terms of production pattern of the plants, changes in reservoir level and water values. The study uses a stochastic optimization and simulation model and analyses an eHighway2050 scenario combined with increases in the hydropower production capacities in Norway. The capacity increases from ca. 31 GW in the present system to 42 and 50 GW respectively. The study uses 75 years with stochastic wind, solar radiation, temperature and inflow data. The results show that the hydropower system is able to partly balance the variable production and significantly reduce the power prices for the analyzed case. The paper shows that some of the power plants utilize their increased capacity, while other plants do not due to hydrological constraints and model limitations. The paper discusses how the modelling can be further improved in order to quantify more of the potential impacts on the future power system.

  18. Modelling of electricity generation of large interconnected power systems: How can a CO2 tax influence the European generation mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a methodology for detailed modelling of electricity generation of large interconnected power systems in a liberalised market. The resulting model, called E-Simulate, respects the technological restrictions and boundary conditions inherent to power generation and simulates the power generation and cross border trade on an hourly basis and on a power plant level. Nevertheless, E-Simulate is sufficiently flexible, transparent and fast. It is a valid, objective and useful tool in the simulation of the impact of power generation topics in the context of liberalised markets and GHG emission reduction. As a comprehensive example of the use and the strength of E-Simulate, we study the effect of a CO 2 tax on power generation and electricity trade in and between eight interconnected European zones: The Netherlands, Belgium/Luxemburg, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland and Italy. A CO 2 tax of 10 Euro /ton CO 2 causes an overall CO 2 emission reduction of about 6%. We notice an overall increase in gas fired generation and a corresponding reduction of coal and lignite fired generation on a trans-national level. In some zones (The Netherlands, Belgium/Luxemburg and Italy), the emissions will rise. In others (France, Germany and Spain), emissions will decrease. This is a result of the CO 2 tax that not only causes a shift towards fuels with lower carbon content but also, and correspondingly, leads to a redistribution of cross border trade

  19. Development of a dispatch model of the European power system for coupling with a long-term foresight energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Renewable sources of electricity production are strongly increasing in many parts of the world. The production costs are going down quickly, thus accelerating the deployment of new solar and wind electricity generation. In the long-term, these variable sources of electricity could represent a high share of the power system. However, long-term foresight energy models have difficulties describing precisely the integration challenges of Variable Renewable Energy Sources (VRES) such as wind or solar. They just do not represent the short-term technical constraints of the power sector. The objective of this paper is to show a new approach of the representation of the challenges of variability in the long-term foresight energy model POLES (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems). We develop a short-term optimization model for the power sector operation, EUCAD (European Unit Commitment and Dispatch) and we couple it to POLES year after year. The direct coupling, with bi-directional exchanges of information, brings technical precision to the long-term coherence of energy scenarios. (author)

  20. History of the idea of a European electric power system. project, advancement, continuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagendijk, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Creating a European electrical network is an idea originating from the inter-war years and that was to be realized only in 1995. By replacing the history of this idea within its historic dimension, this article breaks with the determinist visions. The actor's play and more particularly the international institutions, can explain that the European dimension, even though continually asserted, has only been designed as the growth of the regional networks. Additionally, in the context of cold war, the projects that associate the East to the West had to overcome several obstacles. Parties were brought together many times, but only the fall of the Iron Curtain has enabled a true interconnection between the two halves of Europe

  1. Strategies of development of European power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  2. Role of hydrogen in future North European power system in 2060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2010-01-01

    the heat production in heat pumps and electric heat boilers, and by varying the production of hydrogen in electrolysis plants in combination with hydrogen storage. Investment in hydrogen storage capacity corresponded to 1.2% of annual wind power production in the scenarios without a hydrogen demand from...... the future success of fuel cell technologies have been investigated as well as different electricity and heat demand assumptions. The variability of wind power production was handled by varying the hydropower production and the production on CHP plants using biomass, by power transmission, by varying...

  3. Developmental validation of the PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 and PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Systems: STR multiplexes for the new European standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Valerie C; Hopwood, Andrew J; Sprecher, Cynthia J; McLaren, Robert S; Rabbach, Dawn R; Ensenberger, Martin G; Thompson, Jonelle M; Storts, Douglas R

    2011-11-01

    In response to the ENFSI and EDNAP groups' call for new STR multiplexes for Europe, Promega(®) developed a suite of four new DNA profiling kits. This paper describes the developmental validation study performed on the PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 (European Standard Investigator 16) and the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Systems. The PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 System combines the 11 loci compatible with the UK National DNA Database(®), contained within the AmpFlSTR(®) SGM Plus(®) PCR Amplification Kit, with five additional loci: D2S441, D10S1248, D22S1045, D1S1656 and D12S391. The multiplex was designed to reduce the amplicon size of the loci found in the AmpFlSTR(®) SGM Plus(®) kit. This design facilitates increased robustness and amplification success for the loci used in the national DNA databases created in many countries, when analyzing degraded DNA samples. The PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 System amplifies the same loci as the PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 System, but with the addition of a primer pair for the SE33 locus. Tests were designed to address the developmental validation guidelines issued by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), and those of the DNA Advisory Board (DAB). Samples processed include DNA mixtures, PCR reactions spiked with inhibitors, a sensitivity series, and 306 United Kingdom donor samples to determine concordance with data generated with the AmpFlSTR(®) SGM Plus(®) kit. Allele frequencies from 242 white Caucasian samples collected in the United Kingdom are also presented. The PowerPlex(®) ESI 16 and ESI 17 Systems are robust and sensitive tools, suitable for the analysis of forensic DNA samples. Full profiles were routinely observed with 62.5pg of a fully heterozygous single source DNA template. This high level of sensitivity was found to impact on mixture analyses, where 54-86% of unique minor contributor alleles were routinely observed in a 1:19 mixture ratio. Improved sensitivity combined with the robustness afforded by smaller amplicons

  4. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Bilegan, C.; Pall, S.; Sandru, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear power sector, the main concern for the candidate countries entering the European Union, remains the nuclear safety. New standards and regulation will be issued for improving the general quality of life in a sound environment. For the candidate countries entering the European Union, this situation represents a real challenge. Their national legislation must be improved to meet the European standards. The conditions are different from country to country, and more difficult for those, which operate ''non west European reactor type''. The paper also present the actual status of the Romanian legislation related to nuclear power and environment. There are presented the principles, terms and responsibilities contained in this legislation. The authors discuss some aspects related to the possibilities to improve the national legislation to meet the actual European Commission or EURATOM standards. (author)

  5. Quantification, challenges and outlook of PV integration in the power system: a review by the European PV Technology Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Baccaro, Federica; De Felice, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Integration in the power system has become a limiting factor to the further development of photovoltaics. Proper quantification is needed to evaluate both issues and solutions; the share of annual electricity demand is widely used but we found that some of the metrics which are related to power...... rather than energy better reflect the impact on networks. Barriers to wider deployment of PV into power grids can be split between local technical issues (voltage levels, harmonics distortion, reverse power flows and transformer loading) and system-wide issues (intermittency, reduction of system...... resilience). Many of the technical solutions to these issues rely on the inverters as actuators (e.g., for control of active and reactive power) or as interfaces (e.g., for local storage). This role requires further technical standardisation and needs to be taken into account in the planning of power...

  6. Economics of intermittent renewable energy sources: four essays on large-scale integration into European power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriot, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This thesis centres on issues of economic efficiency originating from the large-scale development of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) in Europe. The flexible resources that are necessary to cope with their specificities (variability, low-predictability, site specificity) are already known, but adequate signals are required to foster efficient operation and investment in these resources. A first question is to what extent intermittent RES can remain out of the market at times when they are the main driver of investment and operation in power systems. A second question is whether the current market design is adapted to their specificities. These two questions are tackled in four distinct contributions.The first chapter is a critical literature review. This analysis introduces and confronts two (often implicit) paradigms for RES integration. It then identifies and discusses a set of evolutions required to develop a market design adapted to the large-scale development of RES, such as new definitions of the products exchanged and reorganisation of the sequence of electricity markets.In the second chapter, an analytical model is used to assess the potential of intra-day markets as a flexibility provider to intermittent RES with low production predictability. This study highlights and demonstrates how the potential of intra-day markets is heavily dependent on the evolution of the forecast errors.The third chapter focuses on the benefits of curtailing the production by intermittent RES, as a tool to smooth out their variability and reduce overall generation costs. Another analytical model is employed to anatomise the relationship between these benefits and a set of pivotal parameters. Special attention is also paid to the allocation of these benefits between the different stakeholders.In the fourth chapter, a numerical simulation is used to evaluate the ability of the European transmission system operators to tackle the investment wave required in order to

  7. Th european market of the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  8. Benefits of coal-fired power generation with flexible CCS in a future northwest European power system with large scale wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wijk, Pieter Cornelis; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Slot, Thijs; Stienstra, Gerard; Van der Veen, Wim; Faaij, André P C

    Coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is projected as a cost-effective technology to decarbonize the power sector. Intermittent renewables could reduce its load factor and revenues, so flexible capture unit operation strategies (flexible CCS) have been suggested to

  9. The situation of European power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The requirement for energy worldwide is going to rise dramatically in the next few years and decades. Despite all developments of renewable energy sources, and despite the expansion of nuclear power in some industrialized countries and emerging countries, coal will turn out to be the key source of energy in the 21st century. Europe as a whole has a lot to offer which strengthens its position with respect to present and future requirements to be met in the construction of new power plants as well as in electricity and power supplies. As regards nuclear power in Germany, if it is to be given another chance, we must seek a dialog, pointing out that - nuclear power offers advantages in ensuring energy supply in Germany, given the development in the world energy markets; - nuclear power makes an important contribution to climate protection; - Germany's energy supply must be adapted to the global situation; - nuclear power offers opportunities in education, training, research and development; - nuclear power is contributing massively to our economic prosperity. The future viability of European power supply will not depend on the debate about nuclear power in Germany. The debate will be decided chiefly by the world market and on a European level. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, Teodor; Bilegan, Constantin

    2001-01-01

    From 1991 through 1996 the European Union signed the Association Agreements with ten East European countries (EE10), namely: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania. In the period 1994-1996 European Union received membership applications from all ten countries. The paper analyzes the approach of complying the requirements and regulations for European Union accession in the field of the Romanian nuclear power based on the CANDU technology. In this process, the real challenge is represented by the preparation and implementation of new regulations aiming to improve the general business environment by introducing International Accounting Standards simplification of bankruptcy laws, reform of taxation procedures and secureness of financial instruments. A new stand-by agreement with the International Monetary Fund and World Bank was set out in late April 1999 for an one-year loan of 475 million dollars. (authors)

  11. Wind power within European grid codes: Evolution, status and outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrana, Til Kristian; Flynn, Damian; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Grid codes are technical specifications that define the requirements for any facility connected to electricity grids. Wind power plants are increasingly facing system stability support requirements similar to conventional power stations, which is to some extent unavoidable, as the share of wind...... power in the generation mix is growing. The adaptation process of grid codes for wind power plants is not yet complete, and grid codes are expected to evolve further in the future. ENTSO-E is the umbrella organization for European TSOs, seen by many as a leader in terms of requirements sophistication...... is largely based on the definitions and provisions set out by ENTSO-E. The main European grid code requirements are outlined here, including also HVDC connections and DC-connected power park modules. The focus is on requirements that are considered particularly relevant for large wind power plants...

  12. Effects of national energy policies on carbon dioxide emissions in a European internal electricity market: Results from a simulation model of the European power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hoster, Frank

    1997-01-01

    This article considers the economic and environmental (in terms of CO2) effects of national energy policies in a European Single Market for electricity. It was found that the combined CO2/Energy-tax proposed by the European Commission would be able to stabilise the current volume of CO2-emissions in the electricity sector. A national single handed effort in introducing a CO2-tax to reduce the emissions was found to be ineffective in the long term and would be in addition allocative inefficien...

  13. Chances of coal in European power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszczyk, Zygmunt; Badura, Henryk

    2017-11-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union has reduced the remnants of import barriers. Moreover, the consolidation and commercialization of the energy sector, the implementation of climate package elements and a whole host of other determinants have caused hard coal mining to begin functioning in a highly competitive market, and its negotiating position, as well as the possibility of survival, depends not only on the level of coal prices in international markets, but also on internal competition. This paper discusses the position of power coal on international markets and presents some current problems concerning the functioning of particular segments of the hard coal market in the European Union and Poland in terms of opportunities and threats that are a result of climate and energy policy.

  14. European clearinghouse on nuclear power plants operational experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranguelova, Vesselina; Bruynooghe, Christiane; Noel, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Learning from operational experience and applying this knowledge promptly and intelligently is one of the ways to improve the safety of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Recent reviews of the effectiveness of Operational Experience Feedback (OEF) systems have pointed to the need for further improvement, with importance being placed on tailoring the information to the needs of the regulators. In 2007, at the request of a number of nuclear safety regulatory authorities in Europe, the Institute for Energy of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (EC JRC) initiated a project on Nuclear Power Plant operational experience feedback, which adopts an integrated approach to the research needed to strengthen the European capabilities for assessment of NPP operational events and to promote the development of tools and mechanisms for the improved application of the lessons learned. Consequently, a so-called ''European Clearinghouse'' on NPP OEF was established, which includes scientific officers from the EC JRC, a number of European nuclear safety regulatory authorities and some of their Technical Support Organizations (TSOs). The paper discusses the activities implemented in 2008 within the framework of the European Clearinghouse on NPP OEF (hereinafter called the European NPP Clearinghouse) and provides an overview of the main conclusions drawn from the safety studies performed. Outlook of the activities carried out in 2009 are given. (orig.)

  15. European protection principles against external hazards by means of Emergency Power Supply and Control Safety System Building in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Dipl Ing [Max Aicher Engineering GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    One of the most important nuclear power plant safety requirements is a redundant and independent power system. This requires such a design of emergency power systems that failure of one will not adversely impact the other. External hazards of natural origin or linked to human activity could potentially affect plant safety. The general objective of the design provisions is to ensure that the safety functions of the systems and components required to return the plant to a safe shutdown state and to prevent and limit radioactive release are not adversely affected. As external hazards are site dependent, Technical Guidelines specify that 'it is not necessary to take all of the hazards in a standardized design; such external hazards as external flooding, drought, ice formation and toxic, corrosive or combustible gases may be dealt with only for a specific plant, on a plant specific basis'. In accordance with the Technical Guidelines, external hazards are taken into consideration at the design stage consistently with internal events or hazards. The basic design principle is to protect against external hazards in accordance with the Technical Guidelines using a 'load case' procedure.

  16. Managing Critical Weather Conditions in a Large-Scale Wind Based European Power System - The TWENTIES Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, N.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Eriksen, P.

    2011-01-01

    the cut-off wind speed (typically 25 m/s). Experience has shown that a large offshore wind farm in this way can be shut down from full power to zero power in less than 5 minutes. Thus, in the planned offshore development in the North Sea, several GW of wind power could be shut down within less than one...

  17. Cleaning power and abrasivity of European toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülknitz, P

    1997-11-01

    For 41 toothpastes available to European consumers in 1995, the cleaning efficacy was evaluated in comparison with abrasivity on dentin (RDA value). For cleaning power assessment, a modified pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement method was developed. The method is characterized by a five-day tea-staining procedure on bovine front teeth slabs on a rotating wheel, standardized brushing of the slabs in a V8 cross-brushing machine, and brightness measurement by a chromametric technique. All tested products were in accordance with the new DIN/ISO standard 11,609 for toothpastes in terms of dentin abrasivity. Not a single product exceeded an RDA value of 200. The majority of toothpastes (80%) had an RDA value below 100. Only three products surpassed the reference in cleaning power. Most products (73%) had a cleaning power (PCR value) between 20 and 80. The correlation between cleaning power and dentin abrasion was low (r = 0.66), which can be explained with the different influence on dentin and stains by factors like abrasive type, particle surface and size, as well as the chemical influence of other toothpaste ingredients. Some major trends could be shown on the basis of abrasive types. The ratio PCR to RDA was rather good in most silica-based toothpastes. A lower ratio was found in some products containing calcium carbonate or aluminum trihydrate as the only abrasive. The addition of other abrasives, such as polishing alumina, showed improved cleaning power. Some active ingredients, especially sequenstrants such as sodium tripolyphosphate or AHBP, also improve the PCR/RDA ratio by stain-dissolving action without being abrasive. The data for some special anti-stain products did not differ significantly from standard products. Compared with data measured in 1988, a general trend toward reduced abrasivity without loss of cleaning efficacy could be noticed on the European toothpaste market. This may be mostly due to the increased use of high-performance abrasives such

  18. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers` sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  19. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers' sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  20. The European system and the Egyptian question 1827-1841 : a study in the theory of balance of power

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Sattar El Badri, Mohammed

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 289-295. This work aims at explaining the events of the Egyptian Question through the tools of balance of power theory. It is the main hypothesis of this work that the Egyptian Question affected the balance of power in Europe, i.e. Equilibrium, and therefore, was subjecte...

  1. What will become of the european nuclear power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulden, O.A.

    1976-01-01

    In a forecast of the development of the future market for power plants and components in Europe a British consultant comes to the conclusion that the nuclear power programs established in various countries in 1974 are oversized in the light of the reduction in the increment of electricity consumption, which is expected to continue, if they are implemented in addition to existing and planned conventional thermal power stations, and that these programs are too costly if they are intended more or less only to substitute for other sources of energy. A streamlining process, which is deemed to be inescapable, is bound to result in a major cutback of the nuclear power station market in Europe and in a hard fight for survival among the power plant manufacturers now in the market. In the author's opinion, the only way out would be a uniform European electricity generation, transmission and distribution system with all the rationalization effects this would entail. (orig.) [de

  2. Switzerland - its position within a liberalised European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland shortly before parliamentary discussions on the liberalisation of Switzerland's electricity market. In particular the interconnection of Switzerland's electricity supply system with that of the rest of Europe is discussed. The power black-out that occurred in Italy in September 2003 is looked at. In particular, its relevance to power supply infrastructures is discussed and the fast-changing international configurations that are resulting from the liberalisation of electricity markets are looked at. Questions of international power transfer capacities and their allocation are looked at in detail in the light of the occurrences in 2003. The lessons that must be learned from the blackout are discussed and Switzerland's geographical position as an important hub of the European power transfer system are considered

  3. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  4. The European Union and Iranian Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    On 14 July 2015, after 12 years of repeated crises around the nuclear issue and the ambitions of Iran in that regard, an agreement was finally signed between Tehran and the members of the UN Security Council plus Germany. Restriction on the enrichment of uranium and the production of plutonium, a strengthening of the inspection regime, the lifting of sanctions against Iran from 2016 onwards, maintaining the arms embargo - these are, broadly speaking, the outlines of this agreement. It will become clear over time how it is to be applied. Above and beyond these aspects, it is probably in the negotiation process that led to the agreement that the greatest lessons are to be learned, at least for the European Union. After reminding us of the context and the role played by economic and financial sanctions, Jean-Francois Drevet goes more precisely into the analysis of the new role the Union has assumed in this diplomatic territory, showing the extent to which 'soft power', as seen in this negotiation, could apply to other conflicts, beginning with those in the Middle East. (author)

  5. East European nuclear power plant review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Western public opinion regards East European nuclear power plants as inefficient and dangerous. However the plants achieve consistently good operating performances. The load factors achieved by each type of plant by country in 1991 are tabulated. These are shown to be good, especially the Hungarian plant. Load factors seem to be dependent on the type of plant rather than where they were installed. WWER 213s worked better than the WWER 320s. This was because of long shutdowns to try and bring the safety standards up to acceptable levels. RBMK performances were depressed because of a 30% derating by safety authorities on 8 out of the 15 units operating. Overall the picture in Eastern Europe is encouraging with improvements in safety related indicators such as break-down frequency whilst the plants still achieve respectable load factors. The performance of the WWER 320s is particularly encouraging. Good load factors from this type of plant in Russia, the Ukraine and Bulgaria may allow older unsafe plant to be phased out. (UK)

  6. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  7. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  8. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe. European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2005-01-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  9. European parliament: nuclear power necessary for Eu at middle term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    In a not binding resolution adopted with a very wide majority, the european deputies, reminding that 30 % of the European electricity is supplied by the nuclear power, considered on October 24., 2007, that this energy was indispensable to cover the energy basic needs of the medium-term. The European Parliament called member states to make efforts in the field of research and development in the sector of energy, nuclear or not. The deputies also asked to the European Commission to present legislative propositions concerning the capture and the storage of CO 2 . (N.C.)

  10. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  11. AES Modular Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  12. Full power in the European tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallia, P.P.; Hugon, M.

    1987-01-01

    A new research campaign begins at Jet (Abingdon, UK). At this occasion, authors review and compare the performances of the three big Tokamaks that are currently in competition: Jet, JT60 and TFTR, insisting upon the European one. Conditions of ignition are reviewed together and energy losses are specified. Magnetic configurations used in tokamaks are shown, together with the technological responses brought these last years

  13. Comparison of development trends of Czechoslovak and European nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibula, M.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical and prognostic data were compared characterizing the development of the power industry, electric power generation and nuclear power in the CSSR and in other European countries. The penetration of nuclear power into the power industry of the individual countries is affected especially by the economic necessity of changing the level and structure of the respective country's national economy with primary power resources and electric power. The analysis shows among others that nuclear energy has become most widely introduced in countries where electric power makes up a high proportion of the power balance and where the country only has an average amount of primary power resources. By the year 2000 nuclear power is envisaged to make up 27.5 to 32.2% of total power output which corresponds to an annual increase of 5.6% in the power output of nuclear power plants. The dependence of Czechoslovakia's increase of power output on nuclear power is greater than that of both the European capitalist and socialist countries. (Z.M.). 1 fig., 4 tabs., 5 refs

  14. Impact of Wind Power Generation on European Cross-Border Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    analysis is employed in order to reduce the problem dimension. Then, nonlinear relationships between forecast wind power production as well as spot price in Germany, by far the largest wind power producer in Europe, and power flows are modeled using local polynomial regression. We find that both forecast...... wind power production and spot price in Germany have substantial nonlinear effects on power transmission on a European scale.......A statistical analysis is performed in order to investigate the relationship between wind power production and cross-border power transmission in Europe. A dataset including physical hourly cross-border power exchanges between European countries as dependent variables is used. Principal component...

  15. Stabilising system frequency using HVDC between the Continental European, Nordic, and Great Britain systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.E.S.; Escudero Concha, C.; Gibescu, M.; van Putten, J.; Doorman, G.L.; Kling, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    For future efficiency improvement of the frequency containment process (primary control) within European power systems, cooperation between (multiple) synchronous areas using their controllable HVDC interconnections is optioned. However, the differences in system size, HVDC interconnection capacity,

  16. Evaluating and projecting the European security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.

    1991-01-01

    Components of the new European security system are described taking into account the new policy making and possibilities to resolve conflicts. Programmes for political and economic integration and co-operation managed by the European Community will provide main positive content of the new European security system. An insight of the future of nuclear armaments in Europe is included together with confidence building measure and the role of NATO

  17. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  18. European wind power integration study. Periodic report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This periodic report no. 1 describes the work done in the Danish part of the European Wind Power Integration Study in the period until 1.4.1991. The R and D project was initiated January 1, 1989 upon prior establishment of registration equipment at 7 wind farms and at the Tjaereborg turbine. ELSAM and the meteorological service centre in Karup (VTC-Karup) have supplied data for the task. Wind Predictability, Potential and Benefits, Wind Farm - Grid Interface, Distribution System Strength, Wind Farm Cost and Operation, and Co-generation Wind Turbines/Other renewables were measured and modelled. The statistical distribution of the wind speed variations (changes in wind speed from one period of time to another) has been established with great certainty in the report. The wind speed variations follow a Weibull distribution, irrespective of the time intervals with which the data are considered. Duration curves and power distributions for the 7 wind farms have been estimated. Registration equipment for one-minute measurements was chosen in order to clarify the short-term variations in the wind power production. The possibility of working out production forecasts, to be applied in the daily load dispatching, were to be assessed for the total amount of wind power production in Jutland and Funen. The report has examined whether it would be possible to have only one wind measurement and then let it be `guiding` for the total wind farm production. Some simulations are to be carried out in the attempt to set up guidelines for the connection between the strength of distribution systems and the requirements which must be made to the wind farms which are to be places in the system. (EG)

  19. European nuclear data studies for fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullhusen, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Mondelaers, W.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear data needs for fast systems are highlighted and the following projects are described: Joint European research projects: MUSE Experiments for Sub-critical Neutronics Validation; High- and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data for ADS (HINDAS); and the Time-Of-Flight facility for Nuclear Data Measurements for ADS (n T OF N D A DS); European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS-NUDATRA); and CANDIDE; Programmes for transnational access to experimental facilities in Europe: European Facilities for Nuclear Data Measurements (EFNUDAT); Neutron Data Measurements at IRMM (NUDAME); European facility for innovative reactor and transmutation neutron data (EUFRAT) (P.A.)

  20. Mobility and power in networked European space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper seeks to contribute to debates about how urban, social and critical theory can conceptualise the socio-technologies of connection, resilience, mobility, and collapse in contemporary urban space. The paper offers a theoretical frame for conceptualising this New Urban Condition, focusing...... on themes of mobility, power, flow, network and scale. The analysis suggests the importance of close atention to the knowledge claims which are deployed in multi-level struggles to assert smooth futures in face of dysfunction....

  1. Power system relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Stanley H; Niemira, James K

    2013-01-01

    The previous three editions of Power System Relaying offer comprehensive and accessible coverage of the theory and fundamentals of relaying and have been widely adopted on university and industry courses worldwide. With the third edition, the authors have added new and detailed descriptions of power system phenomena such as stability, system-wide protection concepts and discussion of historic outages. Power System Relaying, 4th Edition continues its role as an outstanding textbook on power system protection for senior and graduate students in the field of electric power engineering and a refer

  2. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  3. The European Community case for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.; Nordwall, J.H. de; Viseur, R.; Vivante, C.; Graziani, G.; Rinaldini, C.; Zanantoni, C.

    1977-01-01

    Making conservative assumptions on the development of energy demand, the major requirements in terms of annual and cumulative uranium, separative work, reprocessing capacity and fossile fuel are reviewed for a reference case assuming the use of conventional, LWR, FBR power stations and recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors. A very long-term view is taken to show how the long-term future is affected by decisions taken in the medium-term future. A saturation of the demand is assumed in the long term, both because this assumption seems to be reasonable and because it helps making the scenario simpler and our arguments clearer. Four main conclusions are drawn: (1) Even assuming that conventional power stations are used in the long term only to cover peak-load demand, the number of conventional stations and the fossil-fuel consumption will be quite large. (2) Supplying enough uranium and enrichment capacity will pose formidable problems, particularly in view of the large increase in the demand in the last decades of our century. (3) Fast breeder reactors should be used to considerably reduce such demands. In any case, the availability of large reprocessing capacity is a must. (4) From the analysis of the sensitivity of the results to FBR breeding ratio and to the out-of-pile time (due to cooling and reprocessing), the conclusion is drawn that both are very important, the latter being more important in the short term, the former in the long term. The achievement of an advanced reprocessing technology must be considered as a primary development goal. (author)

  4. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  5. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 2: Power quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gerdes, G.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the work done in the power quality subtask of the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments project funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality subtask has been to make recommendations andprovide background for new standards...... for measurement and testing of wind turbine power quality. The focus in the work has been to support the ongoing standardisation work in IEC with a new standard IEC61400-21 for measurement and assessment of powerquality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. The work has also been based on the power...... quality measuremnet procedure in the Measnet cooperation of European test stations for wind turbines. The first working item of the project has been toverify the state of the art of the measurement procedures by analyses and comparisons of the measurements and data processing software of the participating...

  6. Power system health analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which combines both probabilistic indices and deterministic criteria to reflect the well-being of a power system. This technique permits power system planners, engineers and operators to maximize the probability of healthy operation as well as minimizing the probability of risky operation. The concept of system well-being is illustrated in this paper by application to the areas of operating reserve assessment and composite power system security evaluation

  7. Issues related to gas use by European power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchere, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-fired combined cycle frequently appears as a least-cost option for newly built power plants. Moreover, this option also brings obvious environmental benefits. But, power utilities, facing unavoidable long term uncertainties about electricity demand are not at ease with long term commitments such a a take-or-pay formula or a price indexation not reflecting the market place in the power generation industry. Due to the flexibilities in the management of existing power plants (deferred closures, etc...) or even on the demand side (load shifting, peak clipping, etc...), early decision making is not compulsory. Therefore, a gas breakthrough in the power sector interfuel competition will require a mutual understanding of constraints and flexibilities faced by partners: gas sellers and power utilities. A fair rent sharing between them would certainly be a prerequisite to a large but possibly temporary access of natural gas to the European power sector. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Wind power and a liberalised North European electricity exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L H; Morthorst, P E; Skytte, K [and others

    1999-03-01

    Conditions for wind power on a liberalised North European electrical power market are addressed in the paper. Results are presented from a recently completed study carried out by Risoe National Laboratory in collaboration with the Danish electric utilities Eltra, Elsam and Elkraft. A main result from the study is, that the market will be able to provide the necessary power regulation, that will be required year 2005 as consequence of the expected wind power capacity extension, according to the Danish energy plan, Energy21. The averege sales price on the market for the wind-generated electricity is less than the average spot market price, due to provision of power regulation to balance the unpredictability of the wind power. This reduction in the market value of wind power has been calculated to 10-20 DKK/MWh of 1.3-2.7 EUR/MWh. (au)

  9. Design of a lighting system with high-power LEDs, large area electronics, and light management structure in the LUMENTILE European project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, L.; Simonetta, M.; Benetti, G.; Tramonte, A.; Capelli, G.; Benedetti, M.; Randone, E. M.; Ylisaukko-oja, A.; Keränen, K.; Facchinetti, T.; Giuliani, G.

    2017-02-01

    LUMENTILE (LUMinous ElectroNic TILE) is a project funded by the European Commission with the goal of developing a luminous tile with novel functionalities, capable of changing its color and interact with the user. Applications include interior/exterior tile for walls and floors covering, high-efficiency luminaries, and advertising under the form of giant video screens. High overall electrical efficiency of the tile is mandatory, as several millions of square meters are foreseen to be installed each year. Demand is for high uniformity of the illumination of the top tile surface, and for high optical extraction efficiency. These features are achieved by smart light management, using a new approach based on light guiding slab and spatially selective light extraction obtained using both diffusion and/or reflection from the top and bottom interfaces of the optical layer. Planar and edge configurations for the RGB LEDs are considered and compared. A square shape with side length from 20cm to 60cm is considered for the tiles. The electronic circuit layout must optimize the electrical efficiency, and be compatible with low-cost roll-to-roll production on flexible substrates. LED heat management is tackled by using dedicated solutions that allow operation in thermally harsh environment. An approach based on OLEDs has also been considered, still needing improvement on emitted power and ruggedness.

  10. The development strategies of the european electric power companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaud, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study takes stock on the european market of the electric power and of its development perspectives. It details the strategy and the place of the main operators and shows their forces and weaknesses. It provides a comparison of the financial performances of 28 companies (growth, margins, profitability, debt and war chest). (A.L.B.)

  11. The European Community care for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.; Nordwall, J.H. de; Viseur, R.; Vivante, C.; Graziani, G.; Rinaldini, C.; Zanantoni, C.

    1977-01-01

    In recent times a large number of studies have investigated the various policies which can be followed to satisfy a given electric energy demand. Installation policies concerning conventional stations and several types of nuclear stations have been analyzed from the point of view of consumptions, expenditures, investments etc. The exercise is usually repeated for several demand-growth curves. Sometimes an optimization of the power station installation policy based on minimizing consumption of a type of fuel or expenditures is made. In the study presented here a different attitude is taken, in the sense that it is assumed that the energy demand growth will be large enough to justify the growth of nuclear energy production; this will be limited by a number of technological constraints, namely: 1- The Uranium delivery rate. This rate (tons/year) is assumed to increase from 1985 by 10% per annum and to reach a saturation level after a given number of years. 2- Availability of reprocessing capacity. It is assumed to increase with a given doubling time after 1985. 3- Development of reprocessing technology, which is represented here by the out-of-pile time of the fuel. 4-Availability and technology of fast reactors, represented by the year of first installlation and by their physical characteristics. All the values defining the above-mentioned constraints are varied parametrically and their effects on the penetration of thermal and fast reactors and on the consequent consumptions and expenditures are assessed. A few considerations on the demand of conventional energy resulting from such constraints and from various hypotheses on the total demand are made, to show that a considerable production of conventional energy must be foreseen in the next few decades

  12. Power System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Haruhito

    Electric power generation that relies on various sources as the primary sources of energy is expected to bring down CO2 emissions levels to support the overall strategy to curb global warming. Accordingly, utilities are moving towards integrating more renewable sources for generation, mostly dispersed, and adopting Smart Grid Technologies for system control. In order to construct, operate, and maintain power systems stably and economically in such background, thorough understanding about the characteristics of power systems and their components is essential. This paper presents modeling and simulation techniques available for the analysis of critical aspects such as thermal capacity, stability, voltage stability, and frequency dynamics, vital for the stable operation of power systems.

  13. Optimization in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geraldo R.M. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses, partially, the advantages and the disadvantages of the optimal power flow. It shows some of the difficulties of implementation and proposes solutions. An analysis is made comparing the power flow, BIGPOWER/CESP, and the optimal power flow, FPO/SEL, developed by the author, when applied to the CEPEL-ELETRONORTE and CESP systems. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. European sail tower SPS [Solar Power Satellite] concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seboldt, W.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N. [Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Cologne (Germany). German Aerospace Center; Klimke, M. [HOPE Worldwide Deutschland, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called ''System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE and U)'' a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called ''European Sail Tower SPS'' and consists mainly of deplorable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such an SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150 m x 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal lightweight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW{sub e}. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology

  15. The European system of veterinary specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.

  16. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  17. Fossil fuel power generation within the European Research Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-10

    The report is the first in a series of three produced by the PowerClean Thematic Network that looks at and defines future requirements for research and development of fossil fuel power generation in the European Union. It makes the case for fossil fuel R & D with emphasis on the need for clean coal technologies (to increased efficiency and other CO{sub 2} capture and storage) For satisfying future energy demands of the enlarged European Union between now and 2030. The report concludes that affirmative R, D and D action is needed to support the EU power industry, working together on a Europe-wide basis, to establish the use of coal and other fossil fuels in near-zero emissions power plant. The role model would be the European Research Area, as in the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), but with a more comprehensive range of technical objectives recognising the importance of fossil fuels. Section headings are: introduction; current energy use; future needs and requirements; the future for clean fossil fuel energy in Europe; comparison with approaches adopted elsewhere (USA Vision 21 and FutureGen programmes, Japan); and responsibilities for EU coal R, D & D. 14 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The European Union’s normative power in global politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    comparison. Both political and scholarly assessments argue that ‘we are one of the most important, if not the most important, normative powers in the world’ (Barroso in Peterson, 2008: 69) and that ‘Europe has tremendous normative power’ (Moravcsik, 2010: 18). The normative power approach set out here makes...... it possible to explain, understand, and judge the EU in global politics by rethinking the nature of power and actorness in a globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era. The EU uses normative power in global politics but the question is whether it is more prone than other actors to do so? In areas...... which are core to the ‘European project’, it seems clear that the EU is more disposed to use normative power....

  19. Exploring the premises of European education systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    This paper (part of a project carried out under the EU’s Marie Curie programme of Intra-European Fellowships, FP7-People-2011-IEF, CETH, 298656) explores the emergence of the European education systems in Modernity. As the paper argues, the institution of education in Europe was associated....... Understanding the historical premises of European education would allow us to understand the trajectory that education systems have had till today, in Europe and beyond........ This fundamental antinomy, between autonomy and rational control, explicated by Castoriadis, constitutes the very particularity of the European imaginary, which has been incarnated, as the paper argues, in the institution of education since the Enlightenment – although its first traces appeared much earlier...

  20. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity of conven......Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity......, one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  1. Structural change in European power and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    After decades of stability the European power and gas industries are now undergoing fundamental changes. Made possible by policy reforms and technological developments, these changes are largely driven by commercial forces which have developed their own momentum and dynamics. New commercial risks are a key feature of the emerging market order and companies cannot protect themselves through a ''no move strategy''. This report explores the key changes and examines the emerging commercial strategies in response to the new environment. (author)

  2. Personal power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Rankin, Derek; Leal, Elisangela Martins; Walther, David C. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The lack of compact, efficient, human compatible, lightweight power sources impedes the realization of machine-enhanced human endeavor. Electronic and communication devices, as well as mobile robotic devices, need new power sources that will allow them to operate autonomously for periods of hours. In this work, a personal power system implies an application of interest to an individual person. The human-compatible gravimetric energy density spans the range from 500 to 5000Wh/kg, with gravimetric power density requirements from 10 to 1000W/kg. These requirements are the primary goals for the systems presented here. The review examines the interesting and promising concepts in electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical approaches to small-scale power, as well as their technological and physical challenges and limitations. Often it is the limitations that dominate, so that while the technology to create personal autonomy for communications, information processing and mobility has accelerated, similar breakthroughs for the systems powering these devices have not yet occurred. Fuel cells, model airplane engines, and hummingbird metabolism, are three promising examples, respectively, of electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical power production strategies that are close to achieving personal power systems' power demands. Fuel cells show great promise as an energy source when relatively low power density is demanded, but they cannot yet deliver high peak powers nor respond quickly to variable loads. Current small-scale engines, while achieving extraordinary power densities, are too inefficient to achieve the energy density needed for long-duration autonomous operation. Metabolic processes of flying insects and hummingbirds are remarkable biological energy converters, but duplicating, accelerating, and harnessing such power for mobility applications is virtually unexplored. These challenges are significant, and they provide a fertile environment for

  3. Ancillary Services for the European Grid with High Shares of Wind and Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hulle, Frans; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2012-01-01

    to be better understood. This relates both to the technical capabilities of the plants for delivering specific services and to the quantification of the needs. The paper presents the approach of the European IEE project REserviceS, aiming at establishing reference guidance for the ongoing developments......With significantly increasing share of variable renewable power generation like wind and solar PV, the need in the power system for ancillary services supporting the network frequency, voltage, etc. changes. Turning this issue around, market opportunities will emerge for wind and solar PV...... technology to deliver such grid services. In the European power system, adequate market mechanisms need to be developed to ensure that there will be an efficient trading of these services. For that purpose a range of (economic) characteristics of wind (and solar) power as providers of grid services need...

  4. Europe's Constitutional Court : The Role of the European Court of Justice in the Intertwined Separation of Powers and Division of Powers in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knook, A.D.L.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the Role of the European Court of Justice in the Intertwined Separation of Powers and Division of Powers of the European Union. This constitutional role is examined from five different angles. Chapters II and III examine the role of the Court of Justice in the Separation of Powers

  5. Nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Cavallaro, L.; Paulovich, K.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an inherently safe modular nuclear power system for producing electrical power at acceptable efficiency levels using working fluids at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The system comprising: a reactor module for heating a first fluid; a heat exchanger module for transferring heat from the first fluid to a second fluid; a first piping system effecting flow of the first fluid in a first fluid circuit successively through the reactor module and the heat exchanger module; a power conversion module comprising a turbogenerator driven by the second fluid, and means for cooling the second fluid upon emergence thereof from the turbogenerator; a second piping system comprising means for effecting flow of the second fluid in a second fluid circuit successively through the heat exchanger module and the power conversion module; and a plurality of pits for receiving the modules

  6. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems

  7. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  8. Mobile nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

  9. European Clearinghouse for Nuclear Power Plants Operational Experience Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Ramos, M.; Noel, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the European Union, in order to support the Community activities on operational experience, a centralized regional network on nuclear power plants operational experience feedback (European Clearinghouse on Operational Experience Feedback for Nuclear Power Plants) was established in 2008 at the EC JRC-IE, Petten (The Netherlands) on request of nuclear Safety Authorities of several Member States. Its main goal is to improve the communication and information sharing on OEF, to promote regional collaboration on analyses of operational experience and dissemination of the lessons learned. The enlarged EU Clearinghouse was launched in April 2010, and it is currently gathering the Regulatory Authorities of Finland, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Romania, Slovenia, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Czec Republic, France, Germany, Slovak Republic, and Spain (these last six countries as observers). The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the IAEA, the EC Directorates General of the JRC and ENER are also part of the network. Recently, collaboration between some European Technical Support Organizations (such IRSN and GRS) and the EU Clearinghouse has been initiated. This paper explains in detail the objectives and organization of the EU Clearinghouse, as well as the most relevant activities carried out, like research work in trend analysis of events ocurred in NPP, topical reports on particular events, dissemination of the results, quarterly reports on events reported publicly and operational experience support to the members of the EU Clearinghouse. (Author)

  10. LEGAL PERSONALITY AND POWERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin FUEREA

    2010-01-01

    Based on legal personality, EU won through Treaty of Lisbon, in accordance with the system of division of competences between the Union and the Member States as provided for in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the Member States. When the Treaties confer on the Union a competence shared with the Member States in a specific area, the Member States shall exercise their compet...

  11. Westinghouse Electric Company experiences in chemistry on-line monitoring in Eastern European nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balavage, J.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company has provided a number of Chemistry On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Systems to Nuclear Power Plants in Eastern Europe. Eleven systems were provided to the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in the south of the Czech Republic. Four systems were provided to the Russian NPP at Novovoronezh. In addition, a system design was developed for primary side chemistry monitoring for units 5 and 6 of another eastern European VVER. The status of the Temelin OLM systems is discussed including updates to the Temelin designs, and the other Eastern European installations and designs are also described briefly. Some of the problems encountered and lessons learned from these projects are also discussed. (R.P.)

  12. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  13. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  14. European pathways for Slovak research and education in the nuclear power domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    New approaches of the European Commission (DG RTD Energy) to the development of nuclear power engineering (focussed on fission and reactor systems) through various support programmes, which can be of use also in Slovak conditions, are discussed. The following topics are described in detail: Globalization of European research and education; Competency in the nuclear power domain; EU platforms for directing EURATOM research activities (SET, SNE-TP, ENEF, ENSREG); ENEN, EHRO-N, ENELA and their position in European education; Objectives of EURATOM research and professional training programmes; Focus on the creation of competencies serving the nuclear sector at the EU level (ECVET); and Towards mutual recognition of nuclear competencies new EURATOM educational programmes in the domain of fission (examples of EFTS: TRASNUSAFE, ENEN III, ENETRAP II, PETRUS II). (orig.)

  15. New institutional analysis of European electric power reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Yannick

    2002-01-01

    This research thesis reports a comparative analysis of reforms of the electric power sector implemented in European countries. In the first part, the authors proposes a presentation of the theoretical framework adopted for this analysis which is notably based on the New Institutional Economy approach. He also proposes an approach to the electric power industry based on the Transaction Cost Theory, and presents an overview of the various European reforms in the field of electricity, and of still unresolved problems which emerged after the creation of different power markets. The next part addresses an assessment of the attractive and desirable characters of reforms which have been implemented in the United Kingdom, in Germany and in Spain, with an attempt to identify winners and losers, and to classify these reforms. In the third part, the author defines a framework for the analysis of the feasibility of reforms which combine institutional and industrial dimensions, notably by reference to Noll and Williamson works. In the last part, the author sheds a new light on the concept of credibility. He introduces the conventional arbitrage of the Transaction Cost Theory between commitment stability and flexibility to generate uncertainty. He notably shows that the main problem in centralised institutional environments, is to guarantee the stability of commitments in front of opportunism, whereas in decentralised institutional environments, the main problem is to produce flexibility to manage uncertainty [fr

  16. European Conference on Complex Systems 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkilionis, Markus; Nicolis, Gregoire

    2013-01-01

    The European Conference on Complex Systems, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. ECCS'12, its ninth edition, took place in Brussels, during the first week of September 2012. It gathered about 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. More specifically, the following tracks were covered:  1. Foundations of Complex Systems 2. Complexity, Information and Computation 3. Prediction, Policy and Planning, Environment 4. Biological Complexity 5. Interacting Populations, Collective Behavior 6. Social Systems, Economics and Finance This book contains a selection of the contributions presented at the conference and its satellite meetings. Its contents reflect the extent, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied.  

  17. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  18. Controlling Delegated Powers in the Post-Lisbon European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Most European Union rules are made by the Commission, not the Council of Ministers or the European Parliament. But although the Commission is an important rule-maker, it is not autonomous. The member states have always taken care to install committees to control the Commission (comitology). However......, the Lisbon Treaty introduced alternative control mechanisms (delegated acts) and a reform of the comitology system (implementing acts). This article investigates how the post-Lisbon control system works in daily legislative practice. It represents the first investigation of the institutional preferences...... of the Council, the Parliament and the Commission in the new system. Further, it utilizes better data than previous studies. The analysis is based on data on the control preferences of all actors before the first trilogue meeting for a large number of cases in the period 2010–13. The results indicate...

  19. European Crises of Legally-constituted Public Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    . The dual (trans-)national re-constitution of Western Europe in the years immediately after the Second World War, which the European integration process was an integrated part of, successfully remedied this development. However, over the last decades, Europe has experienced a ‘turn to governance’, which......The ‘turn to corporatism’ in the interwar period implied an erosion of the fragile institutionalisation of legally-constituted public power due to its suspension of the legal infrastructure of society and the concomitant breakdown of the distinction between the public and private realms of society...

  20. Examining market power in the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, R.G.; Gabriel, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a mixed complementarity equilibrium model for the European natural gas market. This model has producers as Cournot players with conjectured supply functions relative to their rivals. As such, these producers can withhold production to increase downstream prices for greater profits. The other players are taken to be perfectly competitive and are combined with extensive pipeline, seasonal, and other data reflecting the current state of the market. Four market scenarios are run to analyze the extent of market power by these producers as well as the importance of pipeline and storage capacity. (author)

  1. Examining market power in the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, Rudolf G.; Gabriel, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a mixed complementarity equilibrium model for the European natural gas market. This model has producers as Cournot players with conjectured supply functions relative to their rivals. As such, these producers can withhold production to increase downstream prices for greater profits. The other players are taken to be perfectly competitive and are combined with extensive pipeline, seasonal, and other data reflecting the current state of the market. Four market scenarios are run to analyze the extent of market power by these producers as well as the importance of pipeline and storage capacity

  2. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Amario-Hita, J C; Balato, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes....... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current spectrum of contact allergy to allergens present in the European baseline series (EBS) across Europe. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA, www.essca-dc.org) in consecutively patch-tested patients......, 2013/14, in 46 departments in 12 European countries. RESULTS: Altogether, 31 689 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to a similar analysis in 2004, the prevalence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone went up to around 20% in several departments. In comparison, contact allergy...

  3. Wind power in modern power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, and large-scale wind turbines/wind farms have been developed and connected to power systems. However, the traditional power system generation units are centralized located synchronous generators with different characteristics compared...... with wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of the issues about integrating large-scale wind power plants into modern power systems. Firstly, grid codes are introduced. Then, the main technical problems and challenges are presented. Finally, some possible technical solutions are discussed....

  4. Power system harmonics and passive filter designs

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2015-01-01

    J.C. Das is a consultant of electrical power systems at Power Systems Studies, Inc., USA. He is Life Fellow of IEEE (UK), Fellow of IET (India), and has authored approximately sixty technical papers and published 190 study reports of real-world power systems. He is the author of three books including ARC Flash Hazard Analysis and Mitigation. He is a registered P.E. in the states of Georgia and Oklahoma, C.Eng. in UK, and Eur Ing in Europe. J. C. Das is also a member of CIGRE, Federation of European Engineers, and other technical associations and organizations.

  5. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D20 Report. Consistency with other EU policies, System and Market integration. A Smart Power Market at the Centre of a Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R.; Grau, T. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Hobbs, B.; Newbery, D. [Electricity Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Borggrefe, F. [University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Barquin, J.; Echavarren, F. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Bialek, J.; Dent, C. [Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Con Hirschhausen, C. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kunz, F.; Weigt, H. [Technical University of Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Nabe, C.; Papaefthymiou, G. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany); Weber, C. [Duisberg-Essen University, Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. In the EU, at least 200 gigawatts (GWs) of new and additional renewable electricity sources may be needed by 2020. The aim of this report is to analyse whether the current electricity market and system design is consistent with such an ambitious target. Using an international comparison, we identify opportunities to improve the power market design currently in place across EU countries so as to support the large scale integration of renewable energy sources.

  6. Electric power system / emergency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    One factor of reliability of reactor safety systems is the integrity of the power supply. The purpose of this paper is a review and a discussion of the safety objectives required for the planning, licensing, manufacture and erection of electrical power systems and components. The safety aspects and the technical background of the systems for - the electric auxiliary power supply system and - the emergency power supply system are outlined. These requirements result specially from the safety standards which are the framework for the studies of safety analysis. The overall and specific requirements for the electrical power supply of the safety systems are demonstrated on a 1300 MW standard nuclear power station with a pressurized water reactor. (orig.)

  7. Power system protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata, S.S.; Damborg, M.J.; Jampala, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Power systems of the 21st century will be more modern, and complex, utilizing the latest available technologies. At the same time, generating plants will have to operate with minimal spinning margins and energy transportation has to take place at critical levels due to environmental and economical constraints. These factors dictate that the power systems be protected with optimum sensitivity, selectivity and time of operation to assure maximum reliability, and security at minimal cost. With an increasing role played by digital computers in every aspect of protection, it is important to take a critical and fresh look at the art and science of relaying and protection. The main objective of this paper is to review the past, present and future of power system protection from a software point of view

  8. European Educational Systems and Assessment Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry; Cross, David; Grangeat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This chapter surveys the status of educational systems and assessment practices across eight European countries that are part of the ASSIST-ME project. First, variations in country educational systems are examined to identify possible connections between systems and educational practices....... Such associations are useful both for understanding different existing assessment conditions as well as for providing possible pathways for change. Next, the chapter takes a closer look at teacher practices in these educational systems in order to identify the actual assessment practices of teachers in each country....... With these understandings of the systems and current uses of assessment, it is possible to identify affordances and challenges for improving assessment practices....

  9. The European Constitution: sovereignty, legitimacy and constituent power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Hannah Arendt’s and Carl Schmitt’s writings on the constituent power, this article sets out to develop an interpretative framework which would aid the understanding of the legitimation crisis of European integration initiated by the EU constitutional failure of 2004. The question raised in this essay is whether the successful establishment of democratic constitutional legitimacy is conditional upon the existence of a federal state. From the perspective of the constituent power, two opposing answers are given based on two rivalling notions of the ultimate meaning of constitutional politics: freedom and security. The article concludes that even though the EU as a case remains undecided, it seems likely that democracy and constitutional politics have parted ways in the EU both in the Arendtian and in the Schmittian sense. If that is the case, the constitutional crisis is a serious problem for the future of democracy in the EU.

  10. 2nd European Conference on Green Power Marketing 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarises the information presented at the European Conference on Green Power Marketing held in 2002 in St. Moritz, Switzerland. It takes a look at the market chances of ecologically produced electricity for use in Switzerland and for export. The opinions of experts from the areas of research, business, politics, marketing and non-governmental organisations that were presented at the meeting are summarised. International perspectives and trends are discussed and strategies and management issues are examined. Product and price policies are discussed, as are instruments for the communication of 'Green Power' issues. Also, issues concerning customer needs, renewable energy sources, climate change and sustainability are dealt with and the situation in Australia is looked at

  11. Hybrid Pricing in a Coupled European Power Market with More Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette; Cai, Hong; Panos, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    In the European market, the promotion of wind power leads to more network congestion. Zonal pricing (market coupling), which does not take the physical characteristics of transmission into account, is the most commonly used method to relieve congestion in Europe. Zonal pricing fails to provide adequate locational price signals regarding the energy resource scarcity and thus creates a large amount of unscheduled cross-border flows originating from wind-generated power, making the interconne...

  12. The impact of climate change on the European energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can affect the economy via many different channels in many different sectors. The POLES global energy model has been modified to widen the coverage of climate change impacts on the European energy system. The impacts considered are changes in heating and cooling demand in the residential and services sector, changes in the efficiency of thermal power plants, and changes in hydro, wind (both on- and off-shore) and solar PV electricity output. Results of the impacts of six scenarios on the European energy system are presented, and the implications for European energy security and energy imports are presented. Main findings include: demand side impacts (heating and cooling in the residential and services sector) are larger than supply side impacts; power generation from fossil-fuel and nuclear sources decreases and renewable energy increases; and impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. There remain many more climate change impacts on the energy sector that cannot currently be captured due to a variety of issues including: lack of climate data, difficulties translating climate data into energy-system-relevant data, lack of detail in energy system models where climate impacts act. This paper does not attempt to provide an exhaustive analysis of climate change impacts in the energy sector, it is rather another step towards an increasing coverage of possible impacts. - Highlights: • Expanded coverage of climate change impacts on European energy system. • Demand side impacts are larger than supply side impacts. • Power from fossil and nuclear sources decreases, renewable energy increases. • Impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. • Synergies exist between climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation

  13. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric

  14. UNISAT-3 Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Bulgarelli, Fabio; Graziani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    An overview of the UNISAT-3 microsatellite power subsystem is given. This is an educational, low weight and low cost microsatellite designed, built, launched and operated in space by students and professors of Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, at University of Rome "La Sapienza". The satellite power system is based on terrestrial technology solar arrays and NiCd batteries. The microsatellite hosts other solar arrays, including multi-junction solar cells and mono- crystalline silicon high efficiency solar cells, in order to compare their behaviour in orbit. Moreover a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking ) system has been designed and tested, and it is a technological payload of UNISAT-3. The MPPT design follows the studies performed in the field of solar powered racing cars, with modifications to make the system suitable for use in space. The system design, numerical simulation and hardware ground testing are described in the paper. The experiment and the performance evaluation criterion are described, together with the preliminary results of the first eight months of operation in orbit.

  15. Safe ageing management of nuclear power plants: An European synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandemange, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ageing of nuclear power plants means evolution of material or equipment properties on one side, and evolution of personnel skill and procedure adequacy on the other side, both of which, after a certain time, may not be compatible with the required safety provisions, or with an economic operation of the plant. Repair or replacement of components, as well as change in service conditions for a better compatibility with component reduced capabilities can be used to mitigate ageing effects. The paper summarises the results of a study conducted in this field with the support of the European Commission. It presents: the synthesis of the work done under international auspices, and in the European context; the comparison of ageing management approaches used in several European countries with international recommendations; the summary of the various potential phenomena and their governing parameters, the methods of in-service ageing identification and possible mitigation methods; illustrative ageing management practices, taking material ageing aspects as examples. Concerning the first topic, the European report identifies 56 OECD and IAEA reports on ageing management issues, 35 being summarised in an appendix to the report. It also identifies numerous European and international studies covering topics of interest to ageing and Plant Life management. ageing management approaches have been considered from the regulatory point of view and from the utilities management point of view. Contributors to the study have identified a general consensus in Europe, with no limited time operating authorisation, the safety being a utility responsibility under continuous surveillance by the regulatory authority. Practical ageing management methods include: periodic safety reviews (PSR), a ten years periodicity being a common practice, completed by continuous ageing management taking into account safety and industrial anticipation needs; the implementation of life-time management programmes

  16. Wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  17. Powering laser diode systems

    CERN Document Server

    Trestman, Grigoriy A

    2017-01-01

    This Tutorial Text discusses the competent design and skilled use of laser diode drivers (LDDs) and power supplies (PSs) for the electrical components of laser diode systems. It is intended to help power-electronic design engineers during the initial design stages: the choice of the best PS topology, the calculation of parameters and components of the PS circuit, and the computer simulation of the circuit. Readers who use laser diode systems for research, production, and other purposes will also benefit. The book will help readers avoid errors when creating laser systems from ready-made blocks, as well as understand the nature of the "mystical failures" of laser diodes (and possibly prevent them).

  18. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  19. Recommendations to harmonize European early warning dosimetry network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Bleher, M.; De Cort, M.; Dabrowski, R.; Neumaier, S.; Stöhlker, U.

    2017-12-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, followed by the Fukushima Nuclear power plant accident 25 years later, it became obvious that real-time information is required to quickly gain radiological information. As a consequence, the European countries established early warning network systems with the aim to provide an immediate warning in case of a major radiological emergency, to supply reliable information on area dose rates, contamination levels, radioactivity concentrations in air and finally to assess public exposure. This is relevant for governmental decisions on intervention measures in an emergency situation. Since different methods are used by national environmental monitoring systems to measure area dose rate values and activity concentrations, there are significant differences in the results provided by different countries. Because European and neighboring countries report area dose rate data to a central data base operated on behalf of the European Commission, the comparability of the data is crucial for its meaningful interpretation, especially in the case of a nuclear accident with transboundary implications. Only by harmonizing measuring methods and data evaluation, is the comparability of the dose rate data ensured. This publication concentrates on technical requirements and methods with the goal to effectively harmonize area dose rate monitoring data provided by automatic early warning network systems. The requirements and procedures laid down in this publication are based on studies within the MetroERM project, taking into account realistic technical approaches and tested procedures.

  20. Power system optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Zeljko; Cehil, Mislav

    2007-01-01

    Long-term gas purchase contracts usually determine delivery and payment for gas on the regular hourly basis, independently of demand side consumption. In order to use fuel gas in an economically viable way, optimization of gas distribution for covering consumption must be introduced. In this paper, a mathematical model of the electric utility system which is used for optimization of gas distribution over electric generators is presented. The utility system comprises installed capacity of 1500 MW of thermal power plants, 400 MW of combined heat and power plants, 330 MW of a nuclear power plant and 1600 MW of hydro power plants. Based on known demand curve the optimization model selects plants according to the prescribed criteria. Firstly it engages run-of-river hydro plants, then the public cogeneration plants, the nuclear plant and thermal power plants. Storage hydro plants are used for covering peak load consumption. In case of shortage of installed capacity, the cross-border purchase is allowed. Usage of dual fuel equipment (gas-oil), which is available in some thermal plants, is also controlled by the optimization procedure. It is shown that by using such a model it is possible to properly plan the amount of fuel gas which will be contracted. The contracted amount can easily be distributed over generators efficiently and without losses (no breaks in delivery). The model helps in optimizing of fuel gas-oil ratio for plants with combined burners and enables planning of power plants overhauls over a year in a viable and efficient way. (author)

  1. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  2. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE IN THE EU’S INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN VATAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European External Action Service (EEAS is a new institution of the European Union, whose foundation was laid by the Treaty of Lisbon with the role to support the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in fulfilling his mandate and, also to assist the President of the European Council, European Commission, President and other Commissioners to exercise their powers in international relations. Since the establishment of the European External Action Service (EEAS is relatively recent, this article tries to highlight the crucial role of the European External Action Service (EEAS in the European Union's institutional system and its contribution to strengthening the coherence and increasing impact and visibility of European Union action at international level and thus the one of the Member States.

  3. The electric power engineering handbook power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Power Systems, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) covers all aspects of power system protection, dynamics, stability, operation, and control. Under the editorial guidance of L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Andrew Hanson, Pritindra Chowdhuri, Gerry Sheble, and Mark Nelms, this carefully crafted reference includes substantial new and revised contributions from worldwide leaders in the field. This content provides convenient access to overviews and detailed information on a diverse arr

  4. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  5. The European reliability data system. An organized information exchange on the operation of European nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.; Amesz, J.; Bastianini, P.; Capobianchi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The paper revises the aims and objectives of the European Reliability Data System (ERDS), a centralized system collecting and organizing, at European level, information related to the operation of LWRs. The ERDS project was started in 1977 and after a preliminary feasibility study that ended in 1979 is now proceeding towards the final design and implementation stages. ERDS exploits information collected in national data systems and information deriving from single reactor sources. The paper describes first the development of the four data banks constituting the system: Component Event Data Bank, CEDB; Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, AORS; Operating Unit Status Report, OUSR; and Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank, GRPDB. Several typical aspects concerning the project are then outlined from the need of homogeneization of data and therefore the need for setting up reference classifications, to the problem of data transcoding and input into the system. Furthermore, the need is stressed of involving much more deeply nuclear power plant operators into the process of data acquisition by providing them with a useful feedback from the data analysis. (author)

  6. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, G.; Nguyen Phuoc, V. T.

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The system operates in parallel with the grid with extra inductors to absorb line-to-line voltage and phase differences, and permits peak power use from the PV array. Reactive power is gained internally, and a power system controller monitors voltages, frequencies, and currents. A booster preregulator adjusts the input voltage from the array to provide voltage regulation for the inverter, and can commutate 450 amps. A total harmonic distortion of less than 5 percent is claimed, with a rating of 5 kVA, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase, and 4-wire.

  7. Self-Denial in Federalizing Power in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Because the conflicts that led to the American Revolution mainly arose fromconstitutional issues, the history of these conflicts offers lessons for the design of the newEuropean Union constitution. One lesson is the importance of avoiding needless conflictsbetween federal and member......-state governments. In particular, forcing decisions on wheresovereignty lies may cause great conflict. Another lesson is that a federal system depends ongood will among the federal and member-state governments, and because this good will is easilydissipated, efforts should be made to nurture it. Federal exercise...

  8. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  9. Reactive Power Management in Electric Power Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ferranti effect) would limit the power transfer and the transmission range in the absence of any compensation measures. Journal of EAEA, Vol 14, 1997. In this paper, the management of the reactive power is explored with the aim of improving the quality and the reliability of the supply in the EELPA's interconnected system ...

  10. Power System for Intelligent House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jahelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Power supply of intelligent houses or house phones is possible to do with standard transformer with voltage stabilizer or with intelligent power supply. Standard solution can has as a result of failure fuse blown or fire occurrence. Intelligent power supply switch off power and tests with little current whether short circuit is removed. After it resume system power supply. At the same time it cares of system backup with accumulator, informs control system about short circuit or failure net power supply, or can switch off all system power after command from control system.

  11. TOPEX electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  12. AEi systems designing power sstem for world's largest particle accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Weinberg, Lee

    2007-01-01

    "AEi Systems, a world leader in power systems analysis and design, announced today that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (the European Centre for Nuclear Research) near Geneva, Switzerland, has engaged AEi Systems to design and develop a radiation-hard power supply for CERN's giant ATLAS particle detector." (1 page)

  13. Human networks in the European electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjot, Dominique; Kurgan-van Hentenryk, Ginette

    2004-01-01

    Behind electrical systems, we should not forget the human networks. The European case is interesting for that matter. There were major players involved, from the pioneers up to the conceivers of national and international systems. More particularly, the engineers should be considered for their technical as well as organizational performance. Attitudes must also be stressed: in Europe, electricity has constantly been developed with both nationalist and internationalist considerations, as shown by the passage from Unternehmergeschaeft to Bankgeschaeft after 1918. Neither should we forget the role played by institutions in the formation of networks: schools, holdings, cartels, and also those frontier zones formed by small countries like Belgium and Switzerland. The human networks, finally, left long term results such as: interconnection, inter-firm cooperation, technocracy, and the growing intervention of the State

  14. Power Systems Development Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the PSDF would be to provide a modular facility which would support the development of advanced, pilot-scale, coal-based power systems and hot gas clean-up components. These pilot-scale components would be designed to be large enough so that the results can be related and projected to commercial systems. The facility would use a modular approach to enhance the flexibility and capability for testing; consequently, overall capital and operating costs when compared with stand-alone facilities would be reduced by sharing resources common to different modules. The facility would identify and resolve technical barrier, as well as-provide a structure for long-term testing and performance assessment. It is also intended that the facility would evaluate the operational and performance characteristics of the advanced power systems with both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Five technology-based experimental modules are proposed for the PSDF: (1) an advanced gasifier module, (2) a fuel cell test module, (3) a PFBC module, (4) a combustion gas turbine module, and (5) a module comprised of five hot gas cleanup particulate control devices. The final module, the PCD, would capture coal-derived ash and particles from both the PFBC and advanced gasifier gas streams to provide for overall particulate emission control, as well as to protect the combustion turbine and the fuel cell

  15. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-07-01

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC12 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SW) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC12 began on May 16, 2003, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until May 24, 2003, when a scheduled outage occurred to allow maintenance crews to install the fuel cell test unit and modify the gas clean-up system. On June 18, 2003, the test run resumed when operations relit the start-up burner, and testing continued until the scheduled end of the run on July 14, 2003. TC12 had a total of 733 hours using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,850 F at pressures from 130 to 210 psig.

  16. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO 2 emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO 2 constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)

  17. The European Commission in the power relations of the European Union after the 2004–07 enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ostrovskaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available pplying a comparative perspective, this article argues that the current crisis of European Union integration cannot be resolved by member states either transferring additional competences to the EU level or strengthening the intergovernmental dimension of integration. The systemic character of the ongoing process is weakening the institutional structure, which affects both the institutions and their power relations. The European Commission (EC, once a highly independent supranational actor on the eve of the integration process in the 1950s, now faces growing competition from intergovernmental elements in the institutional balance. The theoretical approach of historical neo-institutionalism offers new, useful insights into this research area. The articles uses this theory to analyze the EC’s evolution since the time of its creation in the form of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, focusing on the links between the gradual changes in its internal structure and its institutional position. Although the phenomenon of “path dependence” was initially present in the EC’s internal systems, the later development of its competences in the institutional balance provoked member states to limit the commission’s activities in the second half of the 1960s. First attempts were made mainly by appointing weak presidents, but the later reform of the EC’s internal structure, undertaken by Neil Kinnock in the beginning of the 21st centry, directed its further structural development as a more technocratic institution. Consequently, the EC was not able to pursue its aims effectively in preparing for its enlargement to include Central and Eastern Europe. The increased heterogeneity of the member states after the 2004–07 enlargement also weakened the EC’s position in the institutional balance, diminishing its traditional function as the “engine of integration.”

  18. Development of the European activation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Robin [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Kopecky, Jiri [JUKO Research (Netherlands); Sublet, Jean-Christophe [CEA, Service de Physique des Reacteurs et du Cycle, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2002-08-01

    The ability to predict the effects of neutron irradiation on an arbitrary material is a fundamental need of fusion technology. The European Fusion Technology Programme has long recognised this fact, and has developed the European Activation System (EASY). This integrated package relies on research in several areas and can be described as an example of successful international co-operation. Modern software tools were used to produce a user-friendly application (SAFEPAQ-II) running under Windows-98 or NT in which all nuclear data are stored in relational databases. Cross section data from almost 50 sources are read and converted from standard formats to databases. By a series of manipulations these data are selected, modified and processed to yield SAFEPAQ-II databases. All reactions can be graphically displayed with experimental data and uncertainty estimates. Following internal validation and processing the data can then be written out in standard EAF (European Activation File) format (including a set of nine multi-group files) ready for use by the FISPACT inventory code. The various EAF data libraries have been extensively validated against integral measurements using fusion relevant materials and three complementary neutron spectra. Results from such studies have also been fed back to improve library development. New user tools allow the graphical viewing of all multi-group cross sections and decay data. User feedback on bugs and new options have been incorporated in EASY-2001 which is fully documented and provides a complete and reliable tool for prediction of activation in fusion and other applications. (J.P.N.)

  19. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-06-18

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards.

  20. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards

  1. Time-zero efficiency of European power derivatives markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Juan Ignacio; Rodriguez, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    We study time-zero efficiency of electricity derivatives markets. By time-zero efficiency is meant a sequence of prices of derivatives contracts having the same underlying asset but different times to maturity which implies that prices comply with a set of efficiency conditions that prevent profitable time-zero arbitrage opportunities. We investigate whether statistical tests, based on the law of one price, and trading rules, based on price differentials and no-arbitrage violations, are useful for assessing time-zero efficiency. We apply tests and trading rules to daily data of three European power markets: Germany, France and Spain. In the case of the German market, after considering liquidity availability and transaction costs, results are not inconsistent with time-zero efficiency. However, in the case of the French and Spanish markets, limitations in liquidity and representativeness are challenges that prevent definite conclusions. Liquidity in French and Spanish markets should improve by using pricing and marketing incentives. These incentives should attract more participants into the electricity derivatives exchanges and should encourage them to settle OTC trades in clearinghouses. Publication of statistics on prices, volumes and open interest per type of participant should be promoted. - Highlights: •We test time-zero efficiency of derivatives power markets in Germany, France and Spain. •Prices in Germany, considering liquidity and transaction costs, are time-zero efficient. •In France and Spain, limitations in liquidity and representativeness prevent conclusions. •Liquidity in France and Spain should improve by using pricing and marketing incentives. •Incentives attract participants to exchanges and encourage them to settle OTC trades in clearinghouses.

  2. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT4 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT4. GCT4 was planned as a 250-hour test run to continue characterization of the transport reactor using a blend of several Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: Operational Stability--Characterize reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal-feed rate, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids-circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. Secondary objectives included the following: Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. Effects of Reactor Conditions on Synthesis Gas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam/coal ratio, solids-circulation rate, and reactor temperature on CO/CO{sub 2} ratio, synthesis gas Lower Heating Value (LHV), carbon conversion, and cold and hot gas efficiencies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) Testing--Provide syngas in support of the DSRP commissioning. Loop Seal Operations--Optimize loop seal operations and investigate increases to previously achieved maximum solids-circulation rate.

  3. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  4. Common cause failure investigations using the European Reliability Data System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Games, A.M.; Breewood, M.; Amendola, A.; Keller, A.Z.

    1984-01-01

    The European Reliability Data System (ERDS) has provided data for use in investigations into common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants. These investigations have been made on two levels, at a system and inter-system level. Data have been used from the Component Event Data Bank and from the Licensee Event Report Files, both part of the ERDS. The two studies required different methodologies although both commenced with a temporal sorting procedure for the failure events. The studies demonstrated that different types of common cause failure necessitate different search algorithms, and thus a data search must be closely related to an appropriate CCF classification system, which in the first instance would not be based on causes of failure. (author)

  5. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  6. Vertebrobasilar System in the European Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flešárová S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the arterial arrangement of the cervical spinal cord in the hare using the corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 10 adult European hares (Lepus Europeus. The arterial system of the cervical spinal cord was injected using Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17. The fusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries was found in 70% of the cases without a connecting branch and in 30% of the cases with one connecting branch just posterior to the fusion. The ventral spinal artery was in connection with the right vertebral artery in 60% of the cases and by means of an anastomosis of two spinal branches arising from the bilateral vertebral arteries in 40% of the cases. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that there is a high variability of the blood supply to the cervical part of the spinal cord in the hare.

  7. The European Activation System. EASY-2001 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.

    2001-03-01

    This document gives an overview of the European Activation System (EASY) as released in 2001. EASY-2001 consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. It is designed to investigate fusion devices that will act as intense sources of high energy (14 MeV) neutrons and cause significant activation of the surrounding materials. However, the very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 20 MeV

  8. European quality system for tissue banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, M; Navarro, A; Koller, J; Loty, B; de Guerra, A; Cornu, O; Vabels, G; Fornasari, P M; Costa, A N; Siska, I; Hirn, M; Franz, N; Miranda, B; Kaminski, A; Uhrynowska, I; Van Baare, J; Trias, E; Fernández, C; de By, T; Poniatowski, S; Carbonell, R

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this project were to analyze the factors that influence quality and safety of tissues for transplantation and to develop the method to ensure standards of quality and safety in relation to tissue banking as demanded by European Directive 2004/23/EC and its technical annexes. It is organized in 4 Working Groups, the objectives of each one being focused in a specific area. The Guide of Recommendations for Tissue Banking is structured into 4 parts: (1) quality systems that apply to tissue banking and general quality system requirements, (2) regulatory framework in Europe, (3) standards available, and (4) recommendations of the fundamental quality and safety keypoints. This Working Group handled design of a multinational musculoskeletal tissue registry prototype. This Working Group handled design and validation of a specialized training model structured into online and face-to-face courses. The model was improved with suggestions from students, and 100% certification was obtained. The Guide for Auditing Tissue Establishments provides guidance for auditors, a self-assessment questionnaire, and an audit report form. The effectiveness and sustainability of the outputs were assessed. Both guides are useful for experienced tissue establishments and auditors and also for professionals that are starting in the field. The registry prototype proves it is possible to exchange tissues between establishments throughout Europe. The training model has been effective in educating staff and means having professionals with excellent expertise. Member states could adapt/adopt it. The guides should be updated periodically and perhaps a European organization should take responsibility for this and even create a body of auditors.

  9. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  10. Training of nuclear power plant personnel in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misenta, R.; Matfield, R.S.; Volta, G.; Ancarani, A.; Lhoir, J.

    1981-01-01

    After the Three Mile Island accident the Commission of the European Communities undertook various actions in order to assess the status of the training of nuclear power plant personnel with particular attention to their training for incidents and accidents. This presentation attempts a review of the training situation in the six member states of the European Community together with some other European states, that are operating nuclear power plants. Schemes for the training of control room operators, shift leaders, major European training centres and simulator training will be described

  11. Improving the profile of the European tourist destinations through the European tourism indicators system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura CISMARU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the most recent European Policy for Tourism, the competitiveness of the European tourism industry is directly linked to the image of Europe and to its perception, as a collection of sustainable and high-quality tourist destinations. In such context, improving the profile of the European tourist destinations has become a main target. During the last years, the European Commission focused on the sustainable development of tourist destinations. Several projects were developed, the most recent one introducing a practical tool - the European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS for the sustainable development of destinations. The present paper advances the idea that such tool can be successfully used in order to achieve the goal of improving the profile of the European tourist destinations.

  12. Towards a foundation for holistic power system validation and testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, M.; Lehnhoff, S.; Heussen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    , and intelligent solutions for system operation have transformed the power system into a smart grid. To support the development process of smart grid solutions on system level they have to be tested in a holistic manner covering the multi-domain aspect of a such complex systems. This paper introduces the concept...... of holistic power system testing and discuss first steps towards a corresponding methodology that is being developed in the European ERIGrid research infrastructure project....

  13. Capturing low-carbon power system dynamics : Interactions between intermittent renewables and power plants with CO2 capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Sjoerd

    2015-01-01

    Low-carbon power systems are needed by the year 2050 to meet climate change mitigation targets. This dissertation investigates the operational and economic feasibility of such future low-carbon power systems by simulating the Dutch and European power systems. Particular attention is paid to the

  14. High power communication satellites power systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Peterson, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses a planned study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. These high power satellites can play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities can be significant.

  15. Interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassina, E.

    2001-01-01

    The import of electric power from foreign countries at profitable prices is today a determinant factor to prime the competition in a national free trade. It is important to define the power transmission capacity and economic regulations for import forms in 2001 [it

  16. Nuclear power and growth in the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maigaard, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the form of a textbook the author reviews the European Communities energy policy since 1973. It is the authors conclusion that EEC has failed in creating an energy policy based on international cooperation. (BP)

  17. International development and the ecuation of power within the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Simona SCUTARU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the European Union, we can talk about a high degree of power and this means that states have different capacities to reach prosperity, but they also have the capacity to help other states reach a similar degree of welfare. Development Assistance plays a very important role in the world, being offered to states which can not surpass economic, social or political difficulties. In order to reach a certain balance at the international level, between levels of development that states possess, a fundamental need occurs: states that are economically, socially and politically left behind must receive development assistance. The present work aims to analyse the degree to which the European Union contributes to international development. Both EU institutions and EU and OECD member states play fundamental roles on the world stage by granting funds to fragile and less developed states.Rethinking the third world might mean a restructuring of the political systems of states and of their economic systems, so that these countries become more developed and less dependent on other states. European institutions and assistance policies also need to change their way of regarding the matter of international development and of approaching the problem of poverty so that the needs of the third world states could be satisfied in an appropriate manner. Europe has the role of transformative power because it helps the third world states develop their economies and political systems so that they could satisfy the needs of their citizens. As a consequence, these economies are transforming. They are not autarchic systems, so when we are talking about transformation, we are talking about development.

  18. Carbon price signal. Impact Analysis on the European Electricity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement signed by 195 countries late in December 2015, after COP 21, created a new basis for efficient cooperation between countries in the fight against climate change. The technologies being rolled out by the electricity sector will have very different impacts on climate change and, for the time being, investments other than public aid for renewable energies are being guided primarily by prices. To shed more slight on the issue of greenhouse gas emissions, which is closely related to the challenges addressed at COP21, RTE initiated a study in 2015 based on the models used in its Generation Adequacy Report. ADEME wanted to contribute to this effort and offer its support. The present document outlines the approach taken to assessing the impact of the carbon price signal on emissions from the European electric power system, its production costs and its structural evolution over the medium term. This approach was discussed with members of the 'Network Outlook Committee' of the Transmission System Users' Committee which includes environmental NGOs as well as the main economic actors from the power sector. Key findings resulting from the analysis developed in this report include: Simulations conducted with the current generation fleet show that the carbon price would have to be close to euro 30/tonne at the European level to drive a significant reduction in emissions (about 100 million tonnes a year, or 15 %) from the European power sector. A higher price of about euro 100/tonne would help drive an emissions reduction of close to 30%. Over the medium and long terms, beyond an impact on the number of hours fossil fuel power plants would be run, having a high carbon price would send a signal encouraging investment in renewable energies and could incentivise the development of flexible and storage capacity. It would notably guarantee the profitability of gas-fired plants and renewable power development. The following assumptions are factored into the study

  19. Skylab technology electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, A. P.; Smith, O. B.; Nassen, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    The solar array/battery power systems for the Skylab vehicle were designed to operate in a solar inertial pointing mode to provide power continuously to the Skylab. Questions of power management are considered, taking into account difficulties caused by the reduction in power system performance due to the effects of structural failure occurring during the launching process. The performance of the solar array of the Apollo Telescope Mount Power System is discussed along with the Orbital Workshop solar array performance and the Airlock Module power conditioning group performance. A list is presented of a number of items which have been identified during mission monitoring and are recommended for electrical power system concepts, designs, and operation for future spacecraft.

  20. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  1. Reactor power control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisawa, Teruaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To restore reactor-power condition in a minimum time after a termination of turbine bypass by reducing the throttling of the reactor power at the time of load-failure as low as possible. Constitution: The transient change of the internal pressure of condenser is continuously monitored. When a turbine is bypassed, a speed-control-command signal for a coolant recirculating pump is generated according as the internal pressure of the condenser. When the signal relating to the internal pressure of the condenser indicates insufficient power, a reactor-control-rod-drive signal is generated. (J.P.N.)

  2. Power system protection 3 application

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  3. Power Aware Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The goal of PADS was to study power aware management techniques for wireless unattended ground sensor applications to extend their operational lifetime and overall capabilities in this battery-constrained environment...

  4. Water Powered Bioassay System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Liwei

    2004-01-01

    ... of 0.2 1/hr without requiring electrical power. A low-leakage, hole-in-the-wall micro valve was demonstrated that provided fluidic resistance 255 times higher in the closed state than in the open state...

  5. Nuclear power is really assisting Romania on its accession way to the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif Constantin

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The scenario is well-known: oil and gas prices are continuously raising, the climate changes are increasingly harmful, affecting the environment worldwide and the demand for energy is increasingly stringent while the economic and environmental challenges rest the same. The energy mixes hardly cope with the requirements as the restriction ranges and the failure risks of the energy systems are greater and greater. Armies of scientists, economists, politicians, experts and specialists involved in the energy field, including the environmental defenders of the civil society are thoroughly debating these controversial aspects, hoping that an optimum solution will be reached complying with the requirements of the Lisbon strategy and with the sustainable development as well. We must not forget the fund generated by strong financial and political interests that returns huge profits to limited groups of individuals only. The European Union and the USA, China, Japan and South Korea, as well, have been paying a special attention to nuclear technologies, even during the 'hibernation' period determined by the incorrect information on the Chernobyl accident. This error that caused the freezing of the nuclear programs for almost two decades, showed the world wide great loss entailed by the energy capacities shortages. The communities have finally become aware and now, they are reviewing their policies and strategies, especially within the present background determined by the necessity of increasing the security of energy supply. The officials of the European Parliament and European Commission are reconsidering the way of approaching the future energy development, where nuclear is one of the main options. Together with the representatives of the European nuclear industry, FORATOM acknowledges the moment as a priority and a chance to improve and regain public's trust. This is a key element for energy development and coordination of the political actions, through and

  6. Developing the European Center of Competence on VVER-Type Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, Nikolay; Pironkov, Lyubomir; Kulikov, Evgeny; Glebov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the European educational projects CORONA and CORONA-II which are dedicated to preserving and further developing nuclear knowledge and competencies in the area of VVER-type nuclear power reactors technologies (Water-Water Energetic Reactor, WWER or VVER). The development of the European Center of Competence for…

  7. Envisioning a Common European Asylum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Türk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bolder approach is needed if the European Union is to overcome fragmentation and manage refugee movements effectively and in accordance with international obligations. Imaginative moves in this direction could also advance the global refugee protection regime.

  8. Development of European urban tourist systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Senta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between urban development and tourism is a significant process in Europe today. Development of tourism has caused many organizational changes in urban environment. In the middle of the 20th century cultural and historical heritage in the cities was impetus of development of tourism in European cities. Nowadays, in many European cities tourism is recognized as a mean of further economic development. Strategy of polycentricity, outlined in European spatial development perspective is supporting that process, too. Many tourist centres and metropolitan tourist areas have been developed. In the period from 1996. to 2007. number of visitors in European cultural capitals was growing continuously by rate of 25,6%. In the same period, the number of international tourist arrivals increased by rate of only 7%.

  9. Prices vs. quantities. Incentives for renewable power generation. Numerical analysis for the European power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagl, Stephan

    2013-02-15

    In recent years, many countries have implemented policies to incentivize renewable power generation. This paper outlines the effects of weather uncertainty on investment and operation decisions of electricity producers under a feed-in tariff and renewable quota obligation. Furthermore, this paper tries to quantify the sectoral welfare and investments risks under the different policies. For this purpose, a spatial stochastic equilibrium model is introduced for the European electricity market. The numerical analysis suggests that including the electricity market price in renewable policies (wholesale price + x) reduces the loss of sectoral welfare due to a renewable policy by 11-20 %. Moreover, investors face an only slightly higher risk than under fixed price compensations. However, electricity producers face a substantially larger investment risk when introducing a renewable quota obligation without the option of banking and borrowing of green certificates. Given the scenario results, an integration of the hourly market price in renewable support mechanisms is mandatory to keep the financial burden to electricity consumers at a minimum. Additionally, following the discussion of a European renewable quota after 2020, the analysis indicates the importance of an appropriate banking and borrowing mechanism in light of stochastic wind and solar generation.

  10. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  11. Nuclear power. A key contributor to a decarbonised European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    The European energy sector is currently facing a new set of challenges in the light of the COP21 Paris agreement, the Energy Union initiative and new market design projections. Nuclear energy sector understands the post COP21 constellation as a unique opportunity for all low carbon technologies which will be basic for transition towards COP21 commitments. A new policy outlook for Europe is needed in order to provide low carbon capacity, lead to the modernisation of technical processes and contribute to the prosperity of Europeans. The benefits of nuclear are highlighted for a low carbon future and for the security of supply and recommend actions for supporting new investments.

  12. Handbook of power systems I

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, P M; Pereira, Mario V; Iliadis, Niko A

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the world's most challenging problems, and power systems are an important aspect of energy-related issues. The Handbook of Power Systems contains state-of-the-art contributions on power systems modeling. In particular, it covers topics like operation planning, expansion planning, transmission and distribution modelling, computing technologies in energy systems, energy auctions, risk management, market regulation, stochastic programming in energy, and forecasting in energy. The book is separated into nine sections, which cover the most important areas of energy systems. The con

  13. Power systems engineering and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, U G

    1972-01-01

    Power Systems Engineering and Mathematics investigates the application of mathematical aids, particularly the techniques of resource planning, to some of the technical-economic problems of power systems engineering. Topics covered include the process of engineering design and the use of computers in system design and operation; power system planning and operation; time scales and computation in system operation; and load prediction and generation capacity. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by outlining the stages in the synthesis of designs (or operating states) for engineerin

  14. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  15. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  16. Limits to power system growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.M.; Klein, A.C.; Webb, B.J.; Pauley, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of space nuclear power systems a variety of conversion techniques may be used, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. A study was performed which analyzed over 120 proposed system designs. The designs were compared to identify the optimum conversion system as a function of power level and find limits to specific mass (kg/kWe) for each power cycle. Furthermore, the component masses were studied to determine which component of the overall design contributes the most to total system mass over a variety of power levels. The results can provide a focus for future research efforts by selecting the best conversion technology for the desired power range, and optimizing the system component which contributes most to the total mass

  17. Challenges facing the European power transmission tariffs: The case of inter-TSO compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilov, Dimo; Dimitrov, Yulian; Francois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to problems important for all EU power consumers-the unfairness in individual payments for power transmission and in the cross-border subsidy element in the mechanism of Inter-Transmission System Operators (TSO) Compensation (ITC). A brief review of power transmission tariffs brings out the structure of the problems. A short retrospection explains their growth. The essence of the ITC mechanism is explained and existing shortcomings are illustrated. The deficiencies of existing regulations for transmission pricing are analyzed. In the light of this analysis, the ITC problem is reconsidered and defined more precisely. The basic prerequisites to an ITC reformulation process are presented. The main principles of a new simple, transparent and equitable approach are suggested, in accordance with the contemporary legal positions and functions of the TSOs. - Highlights: → Investigations in the mechanism known as Inter-TSO Compensation (ITC). → Deficiencies in European regulations for cross-border power transmission payments. → Main principles of a new approach avoiding the existing cross-subsidies. → Appeal for reconsideration and a more precise definition of the ITC problem. → Public welfare enhancement by fairness in payment for power transmission.

  18. Power system protection 2 systems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  19. European research and development strategy for clean power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    We need more rather than less money for research, energy research in particular, research being an important contributor to progress, in order to achieve peak performance, comply with the quest for knowledge about the structure of the world, or to be able to further improve our quality of life at far less expense of materials and energy. This latter concept is in line with European identity. If we succeed in demonstrating to the world that people can live a better life if they manage their affairs sustainably, we Europeans will have won a new trademark: a sustainable Europe which can be left to future generations. For this purpose Europeans, more than before, must perceive Europe as a space of knowledge. Science policy must be geared to Europe, not just to a national territory. Also, Europe should devote more attention to fundamental research. Some outstanding projects are needed, particularly in energy research, with the participation of industry in order to reduce materials consumption and avoid emissions. Education, too, must be given much attention. In the absence of enthusiastic young scientists, engineers, and skilled workers who know their neighboring countries and their technologies and languages from an early age, European energy policy is bound to remain fragmented. (orig.)

  20. Electrical power systems for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  1. Impact of advanced wind power ancillary services on power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  2. Impact of integrating wind power in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav

    2006-04-01

    of wind power in Norway. Local control enables operation of a large wind farm on a fairly weak regional grid, and marked based balancing tackles large magnitudes of wind power. A future with high penetration of wind power seems thus viable, though the operational challenges with respect to operating reserves, frequency control and transmission capacity are expected to become increasingly important. The hourly wind power variations may be significant within local areas, but uncorrelated between distant sites. Hence, sufficient transmission capacity may be a key for efficient operation of a future Norwegian and indeed a European power system with a large share of wind power. The findings of this report are largely based on literature survey. Specific Norwegian studies are generally lacking on wind impact on system operation, balancing and adequacy. It may thus be relevant to carry out such studies, and then possible both for Norway as a whole and for Norwegian regions (author) (ml)

  3. Renewable energy and CCS in German and European power sector decarbonization scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludig, Sylvie

    2013-11-06

    system costs are lower when transmission and storage are available. Restrictions on transmission expansion induce high amounts of storage since high local shares of solar PV lead to large output variations. In contrast, a highly interconnected European power grid allows for optimized renewable power generation siting in regions with highest potentials, which requires large-scale transmission expansions but limits total power system costs. Results from a detailed study for Germany show that the level of power demand is strongly relevant for the realization of high renewable shares and ambitious decarbonization targets. A broad technology portfolio allows to hedge against the failure to meet efficiency goals for electricity demand. CCS is necessary to reach ambitious government targets if power demand is not sufficiently decreased by efficiency measures, as is offshore wind energy. Even in case of decreasing demand, at least one of both technologies needs to be available. The choice of transmission expansion corridors is strongly influenced by technology availability: in scenarios without offshore wind energy, north-south interconnections, which are crucial in all other scenarios, only play a minor role. The studies in this thesis show that a large-scale decarbonization of the German and European power sectors is achievable through large shares of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. CCS is not a prerequisite for successful CO{sub 2} emission strategies, but allows reaching mitigation targets at a lower cost. A portfolio of renewable energy integration options is essential to manage temporal and spatial fluctuations; the optimal technology mix is determined by the underlying power system.

  4. Power reactor information system (PRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Since the very beginning of commercial operation of nuclear power plants, the nuclear power industry worldwide has accumulated more than 5000 reactor years of experience. The IAEA has been collecting Operating Experience data for Nuclear Power Plants since 1970 which were computerized in 1980. The Agency has undertaken to make Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) available on-line to its Member States. The aim of this publication is to provide the users of PRIS from their terminals with description of data base and communication systems and to show the methods of accessing the data

  5. Impacts of Wind Power on Power System Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittal, E.; Keane, A.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.; Ackermann, T.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines how wind power will impact the stability of power systems. It focuses on the three aspects of power system stability: voltage stability, rotor angle stability and frequency stability. It completes a detailed analysis as to how wind power in power systems will impact the

  6. Electrical power system WP-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) WP-40 are presented. Topics covered include: key EPS technical requirements; photovoltaic power module systems; solar array assembly; blanket containment box and box positioning subassemblies; solar cell; bypass diode assembly; Kapton with atomic oxygen resistant coating; sequential shunt unit; gimbal assembly; energy storage subsystem; thermal control subsystem; direct current switching unit; integrated equipment assembly; PV cargo element; PMAD system; and PMC and AC architecture.

  7. Power learning or path dependency? Investigating the roots of the European Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer-Rynning, Christilla; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    A key motive for establishing the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was restoring public confidence in the wake of multiplying food scares and the BSE crisis. Scholars, however, have paid little attention to the actual political and institutional logics that shaped this new organization. This article explores the dynamics underpinning the making of EFSA. We examine the way in which learning and power shaped its organizational architecture. It is demonstrated that the lessons drawn from the past and other models converged on the need to delegate authority to an external agency, but diverged on its mandate, concretely whether or not EFSA should assume risk management responsibilities. In this situation of competitive learning, power and procedural politics conditioned the mandate granted to EFSA. The European Commission, the European Parliament and the European Council shared a common interest in preventing the delegation of regulatory powers to an independent EU agency in food safety policy.

  8. Partnership of power and business: european approaches and conceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Serhii Andriiovych Kvitka

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the most common European scientific concept of interaction between government and business. On this basis, the analysis of the main achievements and shortcomings of theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of business as a political actor. Interest groups and pressure groups are a form of protective groups that influence the actions of the modern authorities, both in Europe and in Ukraine . In terms of pluralism, society is composed of a large num...

  9. Study on flexibility in the Dutch and NW European power market in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    There has been a debate in the Netherlands about the compatibility of new investment by individual utilities in the thermal plant park with Government policy to have 12 GW of onshore and offshore wind generation capacity installed by the year 2020. The key areas of concern are: (a) whether sufficient flexibility will exist in the power system to permit uncertain, intermittent wind generation output to be accommodated; and (b) whether the available sources of flexibility will be accessible by relevant market participants. In this context, EnergieNed asked Frontier Economics to carry out a study of the year 2020 for the Dutch and North West European power system. The requirement was to undertake quantitative modelling and qualitative analysis of the system in the year 2020 under a small number of scenarios in order to answer a series of specific questions. Frontier Economics was also asked to look at experience in Denmark and other countries with high wind and combined heat and power plant (CHP) penetration.

  10. Autonomously managed high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.J.; Bechtel, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The need for autonomous power management capabilities will increase as the power levels of spacecraft increase into the multi-100 kW range. The quantity of labor intensive ground and crew support consumed by the 9 kW Skylab cannot be afforded in support of a 75-300 kW Space Station or high power earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center is managing a program to develop necessary technologies for high power system autonomous management. To date a reference electrical power system and automation approaches have been defined. A test facility for evaluation and verification of management algorithms and hardware has been designed with the first of the three power channel capability nearing completion

  11. The Impacts of Bologna Process on European Higher Education Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer ÇELİK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of Bologna Process on European higher education systems. It focuses on the influences of the main components of Bologna Process (i.e., implementing two-cycle system, increasing the student and academic staffs' mobility, European Credit Transfer System, quality assurance and qualification framework on the transformation of higher education systems. Although Bologna Process is perceived as a move to increase the quality of higher education system in Turkey, there are very serious criticisms from academics, students, and businessmen to the Bologna Process in various European countries. This study claims that the Process did not achieve its goals, more importantly the main instruments of the Process (qualifications, quality assurance agency etc. brought about hyper-bureaucratization, hierarchization and standardization of European higher education systems.

  12. Power generation systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A power generation system includes a plurality of submerged mechanical devices. Each device includes a pump that can be powered, in operation, by mechanical energy to output a pressurized output liquid flow in a conduit. Main output conduits are connected with the device conduits to combine pressurized output flows output from the submerged mechanical devices into a lower number of pressurized flows. These flows are delivered to a location remote of the submerged mechanical devices for power generation.

  13. Power turbine ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  14. Protection of industrial power systems

    CERN Document Server

    DAVIES, T

    2006-01-01

    The protection which is installed on an industrial power system is likely to be subjected to more difficult conditions than the protection on any other kind of power system. Starting with the many simple devices which are employed and covering the whole area of industrial power system protection, this book aims to help achieve a thorough understanding of the protection necessary.Vital aspects such as the modern cartridge fuse, types of relays, and the role of the current transformer are covered and the widely used inverse definite-minimum time overcurrent relay, the theory of the M

  15. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems. This particular application was for a solar cell power system demonstration project in Tangaye, Upper Volta, Africa. The techniques involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of a fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  16. Optimization of power system operation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the latest applications of new technologies topower system operation and analysis, including new and importantareas that are not covered in the previous edition. Optimization of Power System Operation covers both traditional andmodern technologies, including power flow analysis, steady-statesecurity region analysis, security constrained economic dispatch,multi-area system economic dispatch, unit commitment, optimal powerflow, smart grid operation, optimal load shed, optimalreconfiguration of distribution network, power system uncertaintyanalysis, power system sensitivity analysis, analytic hierarchicalprocess, neural network, fuzzy theory, genetic algorithm,evolutionary programming, and particle swarm optimization, amongothers. New topics such as the wheeling model, multi-areawheeling, the total transfer capability computation in multipleareas, are also addressed. The new edition of this book continues to provide engineers andac demics with a complete picture of the optimization of techn...

  17. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  18. European development of He-cooled divertors for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Giniyatulin, R.; Kuznetsov, V.; Mazul, I.; Ovchinnikov, I.; Ihli, T.; Janeschitz, G.; Krauss, W.; Kruessmann, R.; Karditsas, P.; Maisonnier, D.; Sardain, P.; Nardi, C.; Papastergiou, S.; Pizzuto, A.

    2005-01-01

    Helium-cooled divertor concepts are considered suitable for use in fusion power plants for safety reasons, as they enable the use of a coolant compatible with any blanket concept, since water would not be acceptable e.g. in connection with ceramic breeder blankets using large amounts of beryllium. Moreover, they allow for a high coolant exit temperature for increasing the efficiency of the power conversion system. Within the framework of the European power plant conceptual study (PPCS), different helium-cooled divertor concepts based on different heat transfer mechanisms are being investigated at ENEA Frascati, Italy, and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. They are based on a modular design which helps reduce thermal stresses. The design goal is to withstand a high heat flux of about 10-15 MW/m 2 , a value which is considered relevant to future fusion power plants to be built after ITER. The development and optimisation of the divertor concepts require an iterative design approach with analyses, studies of materials and fabrication technologies, and the execution of experiments. These issues and the state of the art of divertor development shall be the subject of this report. (author)

  19. Power Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Power Systems Integration Laboratory Power Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy System Integration Facility's Power Systems Integration Laboratory focuses on the microgrid applications. Photo of engineers testing an inverter in the Power Systems Integration Laboratory

  20. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  1. Th european market of the electric power; Le marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  2. Th european market of the electric power; Le marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  3. Safety of nuclear power reactors in the former Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Eastern European countries (including the former Soviet Union). The current international design, fabrication, construction, operation, safety, regulatory standards and practices, and ways to resolve plant problems are addressed in light of experience with the Western nuclear power development programs

  4. The European Network of Coloproctology: a strategy towards the European research and healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbini, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Many documents from the International Institutions point out that Health represents an engine of economic and social development. Based on these documents and concepts, the European Parliament decided to create a system of European Reference Networks as a synthesis of clinical and research activities, particularly in the field of rare diseases. This initiative, properly implemented, could be first step towards a new European health system. This article instead, wanting to deepen this perspective, postulates that the ERNs may also be related to widespread diseases, such as those of coloproctological interest, with the aim of setting up a European Network of Coloproctology (ENCP). Here are analyzed: (a) the documents related to ERNs and others related to research and training, the characteristics of the coloproctological diseases, and proposal of the ENCP; (b) a survey that involves 14 out of 25 of the National and Regional Representative of the European Society of Coloproctology. Hundred percent of the people interviewed agree to the ENCP project. The percentage of the approved proposed fields of activity of the ENCP are: Healthcare 71%, Research 100%, Training 86%, Support to legislation 78%, Professional Mobility 64%, Patient Database 71%, and Expenditure control 64%. From the analysis of the documents and the result of the survey, ERNs are appropriate not only in relation to rare diseases but also in those fields with higher diffusion and the creation of a European Network of Coloproctology is then postulated.

  5. European coal technology applied by the Danish power companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydenberg, B. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The development of coal-fired power plants has shown remarkable improvements with regard to efficiency and cleaner technology, and as coal remains the most important fuel for electric power production, it is important to make use of this technological development to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Of the three available technologies: Integrated Coal Gasification and Combined Cycle, Fluid Bed Combustion and Pulverised Coal with Ultra Supercritical Steam Data, the technology chosen by I/S ELSAM is the PC-USC with power production efficiencies growing from 45% to 50%. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also......This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling, wind power...

  7. Techno-economic analysis of large-scale integration of solar power plants in the European grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tielens, Pieter; Ergun, Hakan; Hertem, Dirk van [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper different options to connect large solar power plants in North Africa to the European power system are compared from a transmission system investment point of view. Three different possible DC connections from Tunisia to Italy are investigated from a cost-based perspective. In the second part of the paper, the impact of the power fluctuations from CSP and PV power plants on the frequency control is examined in a qualitative manner. It is shown that the frequency response mainly depends on the amount of PV installed and the inertia present in the grid. The results of the simulations give a first estimation of the maximum amount of PV integration in the Tunisian grid without reaching certain frequency limits after a sudden power fluctuation. (orig.)

  8. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the RPS's technology portfolio is to advance performance of radioisotope power systems through new and novel innovations being developed and transitioned...

  9. Solar power satellite system; Uchu hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-05

    The solar power satellite system is a system that converts solar energy into electric energy in the space, transmits power to earth through wireless resort such as microwave and supplies energy of new concept. In order to realize this system it is necessary to have new technologies such as space power transmission at low cost, construction of large space buildings and wireless high power transmission. In this paper, the principles, characteristics and the necessary technology of this system were explained. Besides Japan`s SPS2000 Plan (cooperative research by universities, government agencies and private corporations on the model of solar power satellite) the group of Europe, Russia and the United States has also proposed some ideas concerning the solar power satellite system. As far as the microwave power transmission, which is the key technology for solar power satellite system, is concerned, ground demonstration tests at the level of several tens of kW are discussed in Canada and France. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power......The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... systems are illustrated....

  11. Obligations to power supply and Antitrust Law of the European Community; Strombezugsverpflichtungen und EG-Kartellverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, Dirk

    2008-07-01

    In the European electricity supply industry, a change to competition-oriented national markets under development of a common European electricity market is observed for some years. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on obligations to the current power supply and on the trust prohibition in the European Community. The contribution under consideration consists of the following three chapters: (a) Discussion of fundamental questions regarding to cartel legal evaluation of obligations to power supply; (b) Conditions of the art. 81 sect. 1 EEC and application to obligations for power supply; (c) Exemption from the obligation to power supply according to art. 1 sect. 3 EEC. In particular, the regulation of the group exemption for vertical agreements of 22nd December, 1999, is considered.

  12. Power Systems Advanced Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    California Institute of Technology

    2007-03-31

    In the 17 quarters of the project, we have accomplished the following milestones - first, construction of the three multiwavelength laser scattering machines for different light scattering study purposes; second, build up of simulation software package for simulation of field and laboratory particulates matters data; third, carried out field online test on exhaust from combustion engines with our laser scatter system. This report gives a summary of the results and achievements during the project's 16 quarters period. During the 16 quarters of this project, we constructed three multiwavelength scattering instruments for PM2.5 particulates. We build up a simulation software package that could automate the simulation of light scattering for different combinations of particulate matters. At the field test site with our partner, Alturdyne, Inc., we collected light scattering data for a small gas turbine engine. We also included the experimental data feedback function to the simulation software to match simulation with real field data. The PM scattering instruments developed in this project involve the development of some core hardware technologies, including fast gated CCD system, accurately triggered Passively Q-Switched diode pumped lasers, and multiwavelength beam combination system. To calibrate the scattering results for liquid samples, we also developed the calibration system which includes liquid PM generator and size sorting instrument, i.e. MOUDI. In this report, we give the concise summary report on each of these subsystems development results.

  13. CANDU nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the components that make up a CANDU reactor. Major emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. The reasons for CANDU's performance and the inherent safety of the system are also discussed

  14. High power lasers & systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  15. Economic Operation of Power Systems with Significant Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa

    This dissertation addresses economic operation of power systems with high penetration of wind power. Several studies are presented to address the economic operation of power systems with high penetration of variable wind power. The main concern in such power systems is high variability...... and unpredictability. Unlike conventional power plants, the output power of a wind farm is not controllable. This brings additional complexity to operation and planning of wind dominant power systems. The key solution in face of wind power uncertainty is to enhance power system flexibility. The enhanced flexibility......, cooperative wind-storage operation is studied. Lithium-Ion battery units are chosen as storage units. A novel formulation is proposed to investigate optimal operation of a storage unit considering power system balancing conditions and wind power imbalances. An optimization framework is presented to increase...

  16. Finacial Expertise, Authority and Power in the European Football 'Industry'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertbert F. Moorhouse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provoke discussion about two issues. Firstly, how do economic ideas, concepts, theories, principles and information enter into the discourse of the owners and controllers of Europe’s most popular sport – football – and into political discussion about the game? It stresses the role management consultants have created for themselves in the new football 'industry'. Secondly, as a specific example of the general concern, the paper considers the role of the Deloitte company in European football. Its publications – especially the Annual Reviews of Football Finance – have been very influential and the company has acted as consultants for UEFA on many of the key issues in contemporary football. The paper critically assesses the approach Deloitte has adopted to the commercialisation of football, and explores difficulties in the way it has analysed some of the key issues in European football. It suggests that some countervailing forces need to be created to limit the authority and influence Deloitte currently exercise.

  17. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1995. Report about operation, construction, and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Report about Operation, Construction, and Planning in 18 European Countries Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1995. The ''Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1995'' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1995, 214 (1994: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,010 (176,322) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation in seventeen countries, and 26 (30) units with 24,786 (28,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (245) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,796 (204,408) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1048 TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1994; 792 TWh of this aggregate was converted in 137 units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 77%, has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 75% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 5%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power plants are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiation physics of high power spallation targets. State of the art simulation methods and experiments, the 'European Spallation Source' (ESS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Cloth, P.; Neef, R.D.; Schaal, H.

    1998-01-01

    Particle transport and nuclear interactions of planned high power spallation targets with GeV proton beams can be simulated using widely developed Monte Carlo transport methods. This includes available high energy radiation transport codes and systems for low energy, earlier developed for reactor physics and fusion technology. Monte Carlo simulation codes and applied methods are discussed. The capabilities of the world-wide existing state-of-the-art computer code systems are demonstrated. Results of computational studies for the 'European Spallation Source' (ESS) mercury high power target station are given. The needs for spallation related data and planned experiments are shown. (author)

  19. Diversification criteria for power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharbach, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Growing power demand, fuel availability and prices, technology changes, the environmental impacts of energy consumption, the changing regulatory environments and the uncertainties around such elements make the planning for optimal power mix a challenging task. The diversity approach is advocated as a most appropriate planning methodology for the optimal energy mix (Hickey et al., 2010). Shannon Wiener Index (SWI), which is the most cited diversity metric has been used to assess power systems diversity mainly from an energy perspective. To our best knowledge, there is no rigorous justification why energy has been the main variable used in diversification exercises rather than other variables such as capacity. We use a stylized power generation framework to show that diversity based on energy or capacity could lead to different outcomes in terms of vulnerability to fuel exposure, among others. We also introduce a Shannon Wiener Index ratio (SWIR) that we believe captures better the diversity of a power system compared to the standard SWI. - Highlights: • Ranking power systems, from a diversity perspective, based on one criteria has many shortcomings. • Diversity based on energy or capacity could lead to different outcomes in terms of vulnerability to fuel exposure, among others. • A Shannon Wiener Index ratio (SWIR) captures better the diversity of a power system compared to the standard SWI.

  20. Constructing a unitary title regime for the European Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    The European Patent System without any unitary title allows Member States to retain institutional arrangements within their borders and to prevent any moves to delegate responsibility outside the national sphere. This intergovernmental patent regime suffers from fragmentation due to national

  1. TENDENCIES OF ICT INTRODUCTION IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES EDUCATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna D. Malytska

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Importance of information and communication technologies introduction in education systems is admited by all foreign countries. Information processes, creation of uniform information space, using ICT, become one of priority approaches of the European states and Ukraine development. In the article the international documents of the European Union, the Great Britain, Russia, Ukraine, which form perspective approaches of education systems development are analysed. The priority areas of ICT introduction are outlined by the European countries, the basic tendencies concerning ICT use at schools of the Great Britain are defined, the basic initiatives of the Russian Federation and Ukraine on this problem are considered.

  2. Brayton cycle space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, A.; Trimble, S.W.; Harper, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The latest accomplishments in the design and development of the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) for space applications are described, together with a reexamination of the design/cost tradeoffs with respect to current economic parameters and technology status. The results of tests performed on a ground test version of the flight configuration, the workhorse loop, were used to confirm the performance projections made for the flight system. The results of cost-model analysis indicate that the use of the highest attainable power conversion system efficiency will yield the most cost-effective systems. 13 references

  3. The role of power sources in the European electricity mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonin Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate in Europe about energy transition enhances the necessity to evaluate the performance of the envisaged mix of power sources, in terms of production cost, CO2 emissions and security of supply. In this study, we use MIXOPTIM, a Monte-Carlo simulator of the behavior of a mix of power sources on a territory, to evaluate the performance of the present EU power mix. After a validation on the French mix, we applied it to the whole EU territory and made variational calculations around the present mix to evaluate the performance impacts induced by small changes in installed renewable power and nuclear power. According to the analyzed criteria, the study shows that a plausible way to keep an affordable MWh in Europe with minimal amount of CO2 emissions and acceptable security of supply could be to extend the life of existing Gen II nuclear reactors. All other options lead to the degradation of the mix performance, on at least one of the three criteria listed above.

  4. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej; Chrystian Firlej

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Uni...

  5. Results of stress tests of European nuclear power plants after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Novakova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the European Council laid down the requirement that a transparent and comprehensive risk assessment exercise ('stress tests') be carried out at each European nuclear power plant. The stress tests concentrated on the nuclear power plants' safety margins in the light of the lessons learned from the accident. The reviews focused on natural external events including earthquake, tsunami and extreme weather, loss of safety functions, and severe accident management. The stress test procedure comprised 3 steps: (i) The nuclear facility operators performed the stress tests and prepared proposals for safety improvements. (ii) The national regulators performed independent reviews of the stress tests and prepared national reports. (iii) The reports submitted by the national regulators were subjected to review at a European level. The article describes the scope of the stress tests and their results, verified at the European level. (orig.)

  6. Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling for European Railway Traffic Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    signalling system. Therefore, the entire maintenance system needs to change from the previous system to the newest system, and hence, new optimisation techniques need to be established so as to facilitate managers in creating ideal maintenance strategies. The aim of this thesis is to develop new maintenance......The European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the newest signalling standard that has been introduced in the railway industry. The aim of ERTMS is to ensure better signalling communication amongst various train systems, and hence, to help in attaining improved connectivity and commuting...... between European countries. In various countries across the world, there is a gradual shift from the current signalling systems to ERTMS. Amongst the European countries, Denmark was the first country to commence a full upgrading of its signalling system to ERTMS. A variety of maintenance requirements...

  7. Space Station power system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

  8. TradeWind Deliverable 5.1: Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemström, Bettina; Uski-Joutsenvuo, Sanna; Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the main activities and results of Work Package 5 – Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids in the TradeWind project. VTT is the leader of Work Package 5 and carries the overall responsibility of this report. The work is based on power...... flow simulations with a grid and market model developed in TradeWind Work Package 3, led by Sintef Energy Research. VTT, Sintef Energy Research and Risø have carried out the simulations of the different scenarios, analysed the results and written Chapter 4 about the impact of wind power on cross...

  9. Electric power system applications of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Structure of a Generic Electric Power System  Power System Models  Power System Control Power System Security Assessment  Power System Optimization as a Function of Time  Review of Optimization Techniques Applicable to Power Systems Electric Power System Models  Complex Power Concepts Three-Phase Systems Per Unit Representation  Synchronous Machine Modeling Reactive Capability Limits Prime Movers and Governing Systems  Automatic Gain Control Transmission Subsystems  Y-Bus Incorporating the Transformer Effect  Load Models  Available Transfer Capability  Illustrative Examples  Power

  10. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  11. European concerted action on offshore wind energy deployment: inventory and analysis of power transmission barriers in eight member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyte, Achim; Gardner, Paul; Snodin, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The European Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD) was carried out by eight sea-bordering European Union member states, with the objective to remove not explicitly technical barriers to offshore wind energy. Within the COD, an inventory of relevant aspects affecting the grid integration of offshore wind energy on a large scale in the eight countries has been made. Collected data items for this inventory are national plans and prospects for offshore wind energy, information about the transmission system, possibilities for grid connection, aspects of the grid codes, balancing, connection and energy pricing. The comprehensive COD reports were published and presented in October 2005 during the Copenhagen Offshore wind conference. This paper provides a short description of the situation for each country. Thereafter, country-specific information is grouped based on geography and membership in a synchronous zone. Additionally, a view is developed on the desirable facilities for the trans-European exchange of power from large wind farms. Finally, we elaborate overall conclusions in order to arrive at generalized observations, recommendations for policy makers and issues that will emerge in the near future. As a general conclusion, many things need to be done on a technical level in order to integrate large amounts of offshore wind power into our power systems. However, none of these measures is technically unknown. Therefore, the feasibility of integrating large amounts of offshore wind power is mainly a question of finance and hence based on political decisions. (Author)

  12. Power system stabilizer control for wind power to enhance power system stability

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez García, José Luís; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol; Bianchi, Fernando Daniel; Sumper, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a small signal stability analysis for power systems with wind farm interaction. Power systems have damping oscillation modes that can be excited by disturbance or fault in the grid. The power converters of the wind farms can be used to reduce these oscillations and make the system more stable. These ideas are explored to design a power system stabilized (PSS) for a network with conventional generators and a wind farm in order to increase the damping of the oscillation...

  13. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... key characteristics of the developing European IS research profile: (1) continuation of the traditional European IS research profile as developed in the first decade; (2) convergence with aspects of the North American tradition and (3) development of a distinct approach to design science. We place...... these observed characteristics within broader historical and contextual features such as the changing European academic landscape, with increasing pressures to ‘publish or perish’ in order to be internationally competitive. Our contribution lies in providing a contemporaneous account of the dominant contextual...

  14. Needs and Possibility of Involving Nuclear Power Plant in the Macedonian Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, T.; Causevski, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Macedonian Power System (MPS) used to be a part of the former Yugoslav Power System, and it was connected to the European system by 400 kV transmission lines. At the present time, the MPS works isolated from the UCPTE, only connected to the Yugoslav and Greek power systems. The connections with the Bulgarian and Albanian power systems are on a lower voltage level. The reliability and stability of the MPS needs to be improved. Macedonia is located in the central area of the Balkan, where the transmission systems from other Balkan countries are crossing. in the near future, the Macedonian Power System needs to be linked to the European system. To prepare for the energy demand at the beginning of the 21-st century, when the local coal reserves get exhausted, Macedonia needs to start with activities for substitution of the existing coal-fired thermal power plants with nuclear plants. This paper discusses the activities for global development solutions in the area of power generation. (author)

  15. Economic Issues in Power System Decarbonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving the 80% decrease in carbon-dioxide emissions until 2050, which is the primary goal of the European Union's long-term energy policy, assumes, inter alia, that the electricity part of the system will be able to produce at least 96% of electricity from renewable sources. Moreover, the power system in the widest sense of the word should significantly increase its energy efficiency. Such tremendously ambitious goals, which may as well seem almost unattainable from today's perspective, will certainly require hefty capital investments in plants based on clean technologies, thus, the costs of pollution externalities will not be avoidable anymore. They will have to be bore by the society through substantial increase in energy prices relative to other products and services. Today's subvention schemes, which support current development of renewable sources, will have to be completely abandoned until such a distant future as 2050 is. The power system will have to become self-sustainable in an economic sense. This work pertains to economic challenges which face the power system in a forthcoming processes of rapid decarbonization, as well as to some widely-spread blunders about them.(author)

  16. Power Quality in DC Power Distribution Systems and Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Whaite

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses power quality considerations for direct current (DC electric power distribution systems, particularly DC microgrids. First, four selected sample DC architectures are discussed to provide motivation for the consideration of power quality in DC systems. Second, a brief overview of power quality challenges in conventional alternating current (AC distribution systems is given to establish the field of power quality. Finally, a survey of literature addressing power quality issues in DC systems is presented, and necessary power quality considerations in DC distribution system design and operation are discussed.

  17. Recent space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Yasuda, Hideshi; Hishida, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    For the advance of mankind into the space, the power sources of large output are indispensable, and it has been considered that atomic energy is promising as compared with solar energy and others. Accordingly in USA and USSR, the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use has been carried out since considerable years ago. In this report, the general features of space nuclear reactors are shown, and by taking the system for the SP-100 project being carried out in USA as the example, the contents of the recent design regarding the safety as an important factor are discussed. Moreover, as the examples of utilizing space nuclear reactors, the concepts of the power source for the base on the moon, the sources of propulsive power for the rockets used for Mars exploration and others, the remote power transmission system by laser in the space and so on are explained. In September, 1988, the launching of a space shuttle of USA was resumed, and the Jupiter explorer 'Galileo' and the space telescope 'Hubble' were successfully launched. The space station 'Mir' of USSR has been used since February, 1986. The history of the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use is described. (K.I.)

  18. Light-water reactors reference system classification for the European reliability data system (ERDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, M.; Mancini, G.

    1982-01-01

    The reference system classification represents a basic stage in the organization of the European reliability data system (ERDS) for light-water reactors, a project actually in development at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra. This project is concerned with operational reliability data collection from the various ''national'' data banks, and centralization in a European reliability data system, so improving the significance of the resulting reliability evaluations. In the framework of the ERDS project, the reference system classification provides a LWR functional break-down and represents a plant-unique identification in the process of homogenization of event-data coming from the various ''national'' organizations. The report, after a brief description of the main objectives of the ERDS project, reviews the criteria followed in the elaboration of the reference system classification; then the detailed classification is presented. The nuclear power station is subdivided in about 180 systems. To each system a sheet is associated, containing: a comprehensive description of system-functions and boundaries; a descritpion of the plant operating mode, linked to the various system functions; a list of the main interface system; and finally, a list of the main components, including type and safety classification

  19. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Lauer, M.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness

  20. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness. (author)

  1. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  2. TFTR neutral beam power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, A.; Murray, H.; Winje, R.

    1977-01-01

    The TFTR NB System will be composed of four beam lines, each containing three ion sources presently being developed for TFTR by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) will provide the necessary power required to operate these Ion Sources in both an experimental or operational mode as well as test mode. This paper describes the technical as well as the administrative/management aspects involved in the development and building of this system. The NBPS will combine the aspects of HV pulse (120 kV) and long pulse width (0.5 sec) together to produce a high power system that is unique in the Electrical Engineering field

  3. Wind-powered aqueduct systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, F R; Ljungstroem, O [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The MITRE Corporation is proposing to develop a preliminarydesign for a system that would use large-scale wind-driven units to provide power for the pumping of water from the main reservoir to auxiliary reservoirs in other parts of an aqueduct system. The study would include a comparison of the cost and effectiveness of alternative methods of performing such operations.

  4. The power outage of November 4, 2006: a plea for a genuine European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, Andre

    2006-01-01

    As a power outage affected several millions European people in November 2006, this article identifies and discusses actions to be implemented at the European level to avoid such a situation and thus strengthen energy security for all European citizen. It proposes a detailed analysis of the situation of electricity transport grids before the incident, of what happened in terms of overloads for some very high voltage lines: the de-energizing of a line over the Ems River resulted in a domino triggering off of very high voltage lines connected to different areas of Europe; a decrease of current frequency resulted in the disconnection of power plants and grid managers had to reduce consumption in emergency. The article draws some early lessons of the incident before the UCTE (Power Transport Coordination Union) inquiry, and recommends some actions regarding grid coordination, harmonisation of abilities and decisions, and performance of provisional assessments of the electricity supply/demand balance

  5. Large scale solar thermal power for the European Union{exclamation_point}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    Southern Europe, on the edge of the sunbelt, represents the ideal location for solar thermal generated power. Last year. SAWIE reported on the THESEUS project, a proposed 50 MWe solar thermal power plant for Frangokastello, southern Crete, which was submitted for support under the European Union`s THERMIE Programme. Funding was approved for the design phase for this innovative power plant, the first large-scale SEGS-style plant on European soil, at the end of last year. However, the THERMIE Programme also provided support for another Southern European plant, proposed by Colon Solar for Huelva in Southern Spain. Whilst hurdles remain to be overcome before both plants are built and commissioned, there is an excellent chance that by the start of the new Millennium, the solar collectors from these two plants could be generating over half a million MWh of energy a year. SAWIE compares the two projects. (author)

  6. European power struggles. Can the EU's decarbonisation agenda break the state-company axis in the power sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattich, T; Ydersbond, IM; Scholten, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe’s power system is still marked by a distinct national component, and despite some regions with strongly integrated power systems, electricity supply today still has a largely national basis. Policies to decarbonise the power sector may fundamentally alter this situation, because power

  7. Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, R.

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA has been collecting Operating Experience data for Nuclear Power Plants of the IAEA Member States since 1970. In order to facilitate an analysis of nuclear power plant performance as well as to produce relevant publications, all previously collected data supplied from the questionnaires were computerized in 1980 and the Power Reactor Information System was implemented. PRIS currently contains production records for the years up to and including 1990 and about 98% of the reactors-years operating experience in the world is contained in PRIS. (orig.)

  8. Optimization of photovoltaic power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rekioua, Djamila

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic generation is one of the cleanest forms of energy conversion available. One of the advantages offered by solar energy is its potential to provide sustainable electricity in areas not served by the conventional power grid. Optimisation of Photovoltaic Power Systems details explicit modelling, control and optimisation of the most popular stand-alone applications such as pumping, power supply, and desalination. Each section is concluded by an example using the MATLAB(R) and Simulink(R) packages to help the reader understand and evaluate the performance of different photovoltaic syste

  9. Aggregated Wind Park Models for Analysing Power System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeller, Markus; Achilles, Sebastian [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    The increasing amount of wind power generation in European power systems requires stability analysis considering interaction between wind-farms and transmission systems. Dynamics introduced by dispersed wind generators at the distribution level can usually be neglected. However, large on- and offshore wind farms have a considerable influence to power system dynamics and must definitely be considered for analyzing power system dynamics. Compared to conventional power stations, wind power plants consist of a large number of generators of small size. Therefore, representing every wind generator individually increases the calculation time of dynamic simulations considerably. Therefore, model aggregation techniques should be applied for reducing calculation times. This paper presents aggregated models for wind parks consisting of fixed or variable speed wind generators.

  10. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 - First results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W; Ayala, F; Bircher, AJ; Brasch, J; Coenraads, PJ; Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Elsner, P; Fartasch, M; Mahler, V.; Fortina, AB; Frosch, PJ; Fuchs, T; Johansen, JD; Menne, T; Jolanki, R; Krecisz, B; Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Larese, F; Orton, D; Peserico, A; Rantanen, T; Schnuch, A

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series,

  11. Future of European Financial Supervision, Towards a European System of Financial Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arons, T.M.C.

    The 2008 financial crisis made clear the shortcomings in the European structure of financial supervision. In the cur­rent system of financial supervision the financial supervi­sor of the home Member State is in principle the only autho­rity entitled to supervise financial institutions even in case

  12. European Vocational Education Systems. A Guide to Vocational Education and Training in the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Helen

    This book describes the 12 vocational education systems conducted by the members of the European Community. The 12 country chapters (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom) follow the same model and are organized into the following six sections: key facts,…

  13. 2004 winter meeting: nuclear power and the continuity of supply in the enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This year's Winter Meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. focused on Nuclear Energy and Safety of Supply in the Enlarged European Union. Numerous participants from Germany and abroad discussed contributions from politics, industry, and science in Berlin, February 4 to 5, 2004. The general understanding was that a secure, economically viable and non-polluting supply of energy for Europe and the European Union was indispensable, and that the power industry faced major projects as a result of the foreseeable need to build new power plants, or replace decommissioned old plants, of 40,000 MW generating capacity in Germany and 200,000 MW in Europe. (orig.)

  14. Fair chance required for nuclear power. Plea of the European Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The first Euroatom European nuclear conference was held in Brussels on November 25/26, 2004 was attended by more than 250 renowned experts, including more than 20 managers of the board from a dozen European countries. They all agreed that the construction of new nuclear power plants will depend on the public opinion, i.e. it will be a political and communication problem rather than a technical problem. A swing of public opinion is difficult as rational arguments do not apply when emotions are high. The economic efficiency of nuclear power was proved again by the new reactor constructed in Finland. (orig.)

  15. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The first edition of the present Safety Guide was developed in the early 1980s. The text has now been brought up-to-date, refined in several details and amended to include non-electrical diverse and independent power sources. This Guide applies to NPP for which the total power supply comprises a normal power supply and an emergency power supply (EPS), which may be electrical or a combination of electrical and non-electrical. The Guide provides general guidance for all types of EPS and specific guidance on the design safety requirements and the features of the electrical and non-electrical portions of the EPS. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  16. European wind integration study (EWIS). Towards a successful integration of large scale wind power into European electricity grids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, W.

    2010-03-15

    Large capacities of wind generators have already been installed and are operating in Germany (26GW) and Spain (16GW). Installations which are as significant in terms of proportion to system size are also established in Denmark (3.3GW), the All Island Power System of Ireland and Northern Ireland (1.5GW), and Portugal (3.4GW). Many other countries expect significant growth in wind generation such that the total currently installed capacity in Europe of 68GW is expected to at least double by 2015. Yet further increases can be expected in order to achieve Europe's 2020 targets for renewable energy. The scale of this development poses big challenges for wind generation developers in terms of obtaining suitable sites, delivering large construction projects, and financing the associated investments from their operations. Such developments also impact the networks and it was to address the immediate transmission related challenges that the European Wind Integration Study (EWIS) was initiated by Transmission System Operators (TSOs) with the objective of ensuring the most effective integration of large scale wind generation into Europe's transmission networks and electricity system. The challenges anticipated and addressed include: 1) How to efficiently accommodate wind generation when markets and transmission access arrangements have evolved for the needs of traditional controllable generation. 2) How to ensure supplies remain secure as wind varies (establishing the required backup/reserves for low wind days and wind forecast errors as well as managing network congestion in windy conditions). 3) How to maintain the quality and reliability of supplies given the new generation characteristics. 4) How to achieve efficient network costs by suitable design and operation of network connections, the deeper infrastructure including offshore connections, and crossborder interconnections. EWIS has focused on the immediate network related challenges by analysing detailed

  17. Electric power prices, price control and competition on the European domestic electric power market. Stromtarife, Preisaufsicht und Wettbewerb im Europaeischen Binnenmarkt fuer Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigt, N

    1993-01-01

    If one speaks of electric power prices and price control in the year 1992, this subject has a different dimension than it did two or three years ago, when the new federal rate scale for electric power (ETO Elt) was drawn up and put into practice. Since the beginning of this year, a draft for guidelines which was drawn up by the EC Commission exists which, going on the assumption that the European domestic electric power market will set an example, does away with territorial protection and in the name of third party access (TPA) allows for electric power-line transit, thus introducing at least partial competition to the electric power market. We no longer think in terms of closed systems with clear-cut responsibilities in regard to power supply, which form the basis for the laws on electric power prices, the cartel laws, the practices of the electric power control board and the cartel authorities. Thus, using the new federal rate scale for electric power and its principles as formulated in Article 1 as a point of departure, developments will go in the direction of a competitive system in accordance with the ideas of the EC Commission and German free-enterprise theoreticians, as laid down for example by the deregulation commission. Thus developments will lead us away from the status quo in the direction of possible reforms, if not to say revolutionary structural changes and the consequnces which they will bring for price and cartel laws. (orig.)

  18. Experiences with Learning Management Systems in 113 European Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the major findings from six regional analyses conducted within the framework of the European Web-edu project (http://www.nettskolen.com/in_english/webedusite/index.html. It analyses the experiences of European institutions with the Learning Management Systems that they have purchased or developed themselves. Data was collected from in-depth interviews with 113 European experts, usually the systems managers in the institutions, in 17 countries. The analyses of the interviews revealed as many as 52 different commercial and 35 self-developed LMS systems. The article presents the data from these interviews and includes a series of important findings from the study. One conclusion is that there is a host of commercial and self-developed systems that seem to work satisfactorily in various educational institutions throughout Europe. The systems are not able to handle all the functions the institutions want, and they can be improved in many ways. But most systems encountered in the analyses seem to be good enough for handling online education successfully. Another conclusion is that the European market is not dominated by the American LMS systems. In countries that do not use English as the first language, locally developed LMS systems have successfully ousted the American products. Remarkably, a large number of the LMS systems used in Europe are commercial systems developed locally, or self-developed systems built by the institutions.

  19. PowerFactory applications for power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive set of guidelines and applications of DIgSILENT PowerFactory, an advanced power system simulation software package, for different types of power systems studies. Written by specialists in the field, it combines expertise and years of experience in the use of DIgSILENT PowerFactory with a deep understanding of power systems analysis. These complementary approaches therefore provide a fresh perspective on how to model, simulate and analyse power systems. It presents methodological approaches for modelling of system components, including both classical and non-

  20. The BPX electrical power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttar, D.; Bronnev, G.; Fromm, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) which when operating at a toroidal field of 8.1 tesla and a plasma current of 10.6 megamps, requires peak power of 1235 megawatts and total pulse energy of over 21 gigajoules. These requirements are twice and over four times the corresponding figures for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), respectively. The design of the BPX power system has evolved, along with the tokamak, over a period of several years and has included studies of several alternative approaches. The reapplication of the existing TFTR power and energy facilities has been basic to all approaches. Among the new sources of pulse power and energy that have been considered are: direct utility grid pulsing, new flywheel units, and lead-acid storage batteries. The toroidal field power requirements are the greatest of the BPX subsystems and, fortunately, are sufficiently free of dynamics to allow the consideration of all approaches. Additional design challenges were presented by the multiplicity of plasma control scenarios incorporated in the BPX physics planning and the power response demanded of the plasma position control system

  1. System driven technology selection for future European launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, P.; Ramusat, G.; Sirbi, A.; Bouilly, Th.; Lavelle, F.; Cardone, T.; Fischer, H.; Appel, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the framework of the next generation launcher activity at ESA, a top-down approach and a bottom-up approach have been performed for the identification of promising technologies and alternative conception of future European launch vehicles. The top-down approach consists in looking for system-driven design solutions and the bottom-up approach features design solutions leading to substantial advantages for the system. The main investigations have been focused on the future launch vehicle technologies. Preliminary specifications have been used in order to permit sub-system design to find the major benefit for the overall launch system. The development cost, non-recurring and recurring cost, industrialization and operational aspects have been considered as competitiveness factors for the identification and down-selection of the most interesting technologies. The recurring cost per unit payload mass has been evaluated. The TRL/IRL has been assessed and a preliminary development plan has been traced for the most promising technologies. The potentially applicable launch systems are Ariane and VEGA evolution. The main FLPP technologies aim at reducing overall structural mass, increasing structural margins for robustness, metallic and composite containment of cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen propellants, propellant management subsystems, elements significantly reducing fabrication and operational costs, avionics, pyrotechnics, etc. to derive performing upper and booster stages. Application of the system driven approach allows creating performing technology demonstrators in terms of need, demonstration objective, size and cost. This paper outlines the process of technology down selection using a system driven approach, the accomplishments already achieved in the various technology fields up to now, as well as the potential associated benefit in terms of competitiveness factors.

  2. Continuous hydrino thermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Randell L.; Zhao, Guibing; Good, William [BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The specifics of a continuous hydrino reaction system design are presented. Heat from the hydrino reactions within individual cells provide both reactor power and the heat for regeneration of the reactants. These processes occur continuously and the power from each cell is constant. The conversion of thermal power to electrical power requires the use of a heat engine exploiting a cycle such as a Rankine, Brayton, Stirling, or steam-engine cycle. Due to the temperatures, economy goal, and efficiency, the Rankine cycle is the most practical and can produce electricity at 30-40% efficiency with a component capital cost of about $300 per kW electric. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25% the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1064 per kW electric. (author)

  3. Power Management for Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive...... penetration of renewable, fossil-free energy sources such as solar and wind power. To facilitate such intermittent power producers, we must not only control the production of electricity, but also the consumption, in an ecient and exible manner. By enabling the use of thermal energy storage in supermarkets...... of temperature dependent efficiencies in the refrigeration cycle. -Nonlinear economic MPC with uncertain predictions and the implementation of very simple predictors that use entirely historical data of, e.g., electricity prices and outdoor temperatures. Economic MPC for wind turbines, including -Optimal steady...

  4. Continuous hydrino thermal power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Randell L.; Zhao, Guibing; Good, William

    2011-01-01

    The specifics of a continuous hydrino reaction system design are presented. Heat from the hydrino reactions within individual cells provide both reactor power and the heat for regeneration of the reactants. These processes occur continuously and the power from each cell is constant. The conversion of thermal power to electrical power requires the use of a heat engine exploiting a cycle such as a Rankine, Brayton, Stirling, or steam-engine cycle. Due to the temperatures, economy goal, and efficiency, the Rankine cycle is the most practical and can produce electricity at 30-40% efficiency with a component capital cost of about $300 per kW electric. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25% the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1064 per kW electric.

  5. Power system studies of new ancillary services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  6. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1996. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1996. The 'Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1996' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1996, 216 (1995: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,916 (177,010) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 24 (26) units with 23,086 (24,786) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (241) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,002 (201,796) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1067 (1048) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1995; 802 (792) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (137) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 86 (77)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 76 (75)% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 4 (5)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  7. 1997: Nuclear power plants in Europe. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1997. The '1997: Nuclear Power Plants in Europe' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1997, 216 (1996: 216) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 180, 184 (177, 916) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 22 (24) units with 20,054 (23,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 238 (240) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 200,238 (201,002) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1138 (1067) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1996: 806 (802) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (142) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 35,4 (36,0)%. Lithuania, with 83,4 (85,6)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 77,4 (76,0)% and Belgium with 57,2 (55,5)%. The lowest percentage, only 4,8 (3,8)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power is operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  8. Issuing certifications of conformity to 'green' power. International approaches and European perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truffer, B.; Markard, J.

    1999-01-01

    The deregulation of the power markets results in an increasing challenge to individual power generators and distributors to place their products in the market. To do so, they need to actively and credibly describe the advantages of their offers to customers. In the sector of the nascent market for power generated from renewable energy sources, independent product certification is an important factor of support. The article analyses international trends in certification procedures for green power with a view to the future of European labelling. (orig.) [de

  9. European BWR R and D cluster for innovative passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, E.F.; Lensa, W. von

    1996-01-01

    The main technological innovation trends for future nuclear power plants tend towards a broader use of passive safety systems for the prevention, mitigation and managing of severe accident scenarios. Several approaches have been undertaken in a number of European countries to study and demonstrate the feasibility and charateristics of innovative passive safety systems. The European BWR R and D Cluster combines those experimental and analytical efforts that are mainly directed to the introduction of passive safety systems into boiling water reactor technology. The Cluster is grouped around thermohydraulic test facilities in Europe for the qualification of innovative BWR safety systems, also taking into account especially the operating experience of the nuclear power plant Dodewaard and other BWRs, which already incorporated some passive safety features. The background, the objectives, the structure of the project and the work programme are presented in this paper as well as an outline of the significance of the expected results. (orig.) [de

  10. On the way to becoming ''quite ordinary enterprises''. Strategic orientation of the power utilities in the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    Competition is an indispensable prerequisite of evolution. In the sector of electricity supply it is defined, inter alia, by the choice of source of primary energy. On the other hand, opening of the European market entails new challenges. In many European countries, electric energy is converted at less expense than in Germany. The builders of capital intensive power grid systems are trying to protect themselves against their competitive chances deteriorating also by their being required to make these grid systems available to competitors not having to bear these expenses. Nuclear power plants are among the most capital intensive generating units in the power industry. However, operating them is not only a matter of the power utilities; to them, nuclear power is one tpye of primary energy out of many others. Instead, the government must indicate the direction, through its energy policy, in which future technologies are to create international competitive advantages to domestic industries. In addition, the government must provide the funds necessary in the launching phase. (orig.) [de

  11. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  12. Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    This project has been initiated - and this report written - in order to assess how the European patent system best fulfils its objective of defining the exclusive rights granted to inventors so as to further the goal of enhancing social and economic welfare by means of encouraging inventions...... and their distribution. Finding the right balance is important, since the reward offered to inventors in the form of exclusive rights provides the incentive to innovate, but if the reward is too excessive, it may hamper innovation and the distribution of knowledge. The general premise of this report is that the European...... patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation. Therefore, it is not the objective of the report to evaluate whether such system should or should not exist. Rather, the report works from the starting position that the European patent system may be operating in certain ways...

  13. TPX power systems design overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1993-01-01

    The power systems for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) supply the Toroidal Field (TF). Poloidal Field (PF), Field Error Correction (FEC), and Fast Vertical Position Control (FVPC) coil systems, the Neutral Beam (NB), Ion Cyclotron (IC), Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive systems, and all balance of plant loads. Existing equipment from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), including the motor-generator (MG) sets and the rectifiers, can be adapted for the supply of the TPX PF systems. A new TF power supply is required. A new substation is required for the heating and current drive systems (NB, IC, LH, and EC). The baseline TPX load can be taken directly from the grid without special provision, whereas if all upgrade options are undertaken, a modest amount of reactive compensation will be required. This paper describes the conceptual design of the power systems, with emphasis on the AC, TF, and PF Systems, and the quench protection of the superconducting coils

  14. Estimation of power system variability due to wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Verboomen, J.; Van der Sluis, L.

    2007-01-01

    The incorporation of wind power generation to the power system leads to an increase in the variability of the system power flows. The assessment of this variability is necessary for the planning of the necessary system reinforcements. For the assessment of this variability, the uncertainty in the

  15. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  16. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  17. The new regulatory state: the social powers of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    1999-03-01

    The understanding of the European Union poses a challenge for Sociology and its traditional conceptions of the state. In particular, the impact of the social dimension has been underestimated and undervalued. This paper explores the implications of the developing social dimension of the European Union for European social relations in the context of globalization which allegedly reduces the power of states to act effectively in the social realm. It argues for a broader conceptualization of the social dimension and for a new conception of the regulatory state. It argues that the significance of a politico-legal project social justice. It concludes with a re-consideration of the powers of the state in an era of globalization

  18. The electric power engineering handbook power system stability and control

    CERN Document Server

    Grisby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    With contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, Power System Stability and Control, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) updates coverage of recent developments and rapid technological growth in essential aspects of power systems. Edited by L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Miroslav Begovic, Prabha Kundur, and Bruce Wollenberg, this reference presents substantially new and revised content. Topics covered include: * Power System Protection * Power System Dynamics and Stability *

  19. Modelling the Baltic power system till 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberga, Andra; Lauka, Dace; Barisa, Aiga; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic model was developed to evaluate changes in the energy system till 2050. • Wind energy has the potential to become dominant in the Baltic region. • Solar energy has the potential to become popular from 2025 till 2050. - Abstract: The European Union has given a long-term commitment towards a low-carbon society. Power sector is to play an important role in achieving ambitious emission reduction goals. This article presents results of a research aimed at evaluating development of the Baltic power system under current framework conditions. Special focus is put on renewable energy analysis to estimate the potential of power sector decarbonization. A dynamic energy-economy model was developed by applying system dynamics modelling approach in order to evaluate changes in the energy system till 2050. Underlying structure of the model is based on energy resource flows according to the national electricity mix of each Baltic State. The model calculates energy generation costs of each technology taking into account national support schemes. Based on cost estimation, the installed capacity of each energy resource is determined. Modelling results suggest that wind energy has the potential to become dominant in the Baltic region. This is explained by increasing competitiveness of wind-generated power price compared to fossil-fuel-based generation. Solar energy has the potential to become popular from 2025 onwards due to decreasing investment costs. The market share of other renewable electricity technologies, such as hydro and biomass, will continue to increase reaching maximum between 2020 and 2030. Biogas plants are still not expected to play considerable role in electricity generation.

  20. European Power Electronic conference in Aalborg, Denmark - 1000 participants discussing the future energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives conference with technical sponsorship of IEEE Industrial Electronic Society has been held in Aalborg, Denmark, during the first days of September 2007 with an overwhelming success and participation. It was hosted by Aalborg University's I...

  1. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  2. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO 2 emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10 9 euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  3. European Short-term Electricity Market Designs under High Penetration of Wind Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Avila, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The EU has ambitious policies for decarbonization of the electricity sector. Due to recent technological developments, wind power already represents a significant share of the generation mix in some European countries. As a result, short-term electricity markets and balancing arrangements must be

  4. Policy making, Comitology and the Balance of power in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steunenberg, Bernard; Steunenberg, B.; Koboldt, Christian; Schmidtchen, Dieter

    1996-01-01

    Using simple game theory, this paper analyzes the working properties of the different procedures laid down in the comitology decision, i.e., the European Council's decision on procedures for the exercise of implementing powers conferred on the Commission. Furthermore, it addresses the question of

  5. Improving the explanatory power of bargaining models - New evidence from European Union studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selck, TJ

    Focusing on recent studies of European Union legislative decision-making, this research note evaluates the current literature that attempts to improve the explanatory power of bargaining models by integrating game-theoretic spatial models with micro-level data gained from expert interviews or from

  6. Composite type nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Koichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention realizes a high thermal efficiency by heating steams at the exit of a steam generator of a nuclear power plant to high temperature by a thermal super-heating boiler. That is, a thermal superheating boiler is disposed between the steam generator and a turbogenerator to heat steams from the steam generator and supply them to the turbogenerator. In this case, it may be possible that feedwater superheating boiler pipelines to the steam generator are caused to pass through the thermal superheating boiler so that they also have a performance of heating feedwater. If the system of the present invention is used, it is possible to conduct base load operation by nuclear power and a load following operation by controlling the thermal superheating boiler. Further, a hydrogen producing performance is applied to the thermal superheating boiler to produce hydrogen when electric power load is lowered. An internally sustaining type operation method can be conducted of burning hydrogen by the superheating boiler upon increased electric power load. As a result, a power generation system which has an excellent economical property and can easily cope with the load following operation can be attained. (I.S.)

  7. Revisiting the dose calculation methodologies in European decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roos, Per; Hou, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents examples of current needs for improvement and extended applicability of the European decision support systems. The systems were originally created for prediction of the radiological consequences of accidents at nuclear installations. They could however also be of great value in...... for, to introduce new knowledge and thereby improve prognoses....

  8. A European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananasso, Fulvio; Mistretta, Ignazio

    1991-10-01

    The paper analyzes the technical and market issues that influence the strategy of implementation of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the payload EMS (European Mobile System) embarked on ITALSAT F-2. The final goal is to determine services, network architecture, and added value chain that make LMSS via EMS profitable for a typical telecommunication company.

  9. Power management for energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.

    2013-02-15

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive control of a commercial multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor, and is used to cool multiple areas or rooms, e.g., in supermarkets. For control of the commercial refrigeration application as well as the wind turbine application, we propose an economic optimizing model predictive controller, economic MPC. Our investigations are primarily concerned with: 1) modeling of the applications to suit the chosen control framework; 2) formulating the MPC controller laws to overcome challenges introduced by the industrial applications, and defining economic objectives that reect the real physics of the systems as well as our control objectives; 3) solving the involved, non-trivial optimization problems eciently in real-time; 4) demonstrating the feasibility and potential of the proposed methods by extensive simulation and comparison with existing control methods and evaluation of data from systems in actual operation. We demonstrate, i.a., substantial cost savings, on the order of 30 %, compared to a standard thermostat-based supermarket refrigeration system and show how our methods exhibit sophisticated demand response to real-time variations in electricity prices. Violations of the temperature ranges can be kept at a very low frequency of occurrence inspite of the presence of uncertainty. For the power output from wind turbines, ramp rates, as low a 3 % of the rated power per minute, can be effectively ensured with the use of energy storage and we show how the active use of rotor inertia as an additional energy storage can reduce the needed storage capacity by up to 30 % without reducing the power output. (Author)

  10. Dynamic influences of wind power on the power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Pedro

    2003-03-01

    The thesis first presents the basics influences of wind power on the power system stability and quality by pointing out the main power quality issues of wind power in a small-scale case and following, the expected large-scale problems are introduced. Secondly, a dynamic wind turbine model that supports power quality assessment of wind turbines is presented. Thirdly, an aggregate wind farm model that support power quality and stability analysis from large wind farms is presented. The aggregate wind farm model includes the smoothing of the relative power fluctuation from a wind farm compared to a single wind turbine. Finally, applications of the aggregate wind farm model to the power systems are presented. The power quality and stability characteristics influenced by large-scale wind power are illustrated with three cases. In this thesis, special emphasis has been given to appropriate models to represent the wind acting on wind farms. The wind speed model to a single wind turbine includes turbulence and tower shadow effects from the wind and the rotational sampling turbulence due to the rotation of the blades. In a park scale, the wind speed model to the wind farm includes the spatial coherence between different wind turbines. Here the wind speed model is applied to a constant rotational speed wind turbine/farm, but the model is suitable to variable speed wind turbine/farm as well. The cases presented here illustrate the influences of the wind power on the power system quality and stability. The flicker and frequency deviations are the main power quality parameters presented. The power system stability concentrates on the voltage stability and on the power system oscillations. From the cases studied, voltage and the frequency variations were smaller than expected from the large-scale wind power integration due to the low spatial correlation of the wind speed. The voltage quality analysed in a Brazilian power system and in the Nordel power system from connecting large

  11. 76 FR 48159 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY... American Electric Reliability Corporation and to cover increased investments and replacements in..., prepared a Current Power Repayment Study using existing system rates. The Study indicates that Southwestern...

  12. Perspectives of new fossil-fuelled power plants with CO2 capture in the liberalised European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of an increasing importance of climate change mitigation and the liberalization of the European energy supply this study assesses the perspectives of power plants with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS power plants represent one option to reduce CO 2 emissions of fossil energy based electricity production significantly. In this study the deployment of CCS power plants is investigated for the European electricity market until 2050 taking different energy and climate policy framework conditions into consideration. By applying an integrated model-based approach, structural changes of the whole energy system are incorporated, including their implications on costs and emissions. The study addresses uncertainties concerning future CCS power plant invest costs and efficiencies explicitly, and analyses the effects of changes of these parameters with respect to the perspectives of CCS power plants in Europe. Thereby, interdependencies on horizontal level related to competition of different technologies within the electricity sector are examined, but also vertical interdependencies resulting from effects between the upstream and energy demand sectors. In order to reflect the heterogeneity among the national energy systems in Europe, country specific particularities on technical aspects and energy policy are taken into account, such as potentials and costs of CO 2 storage, and national regulations on the use of nuclear power and renewable energy. The results of the analysis reveal a strong influence of the stringency of the EU greenhouse gas reduction target and the policy on the use of nuclear energy on the perspectives of CCS power plants in the European electricity market. Comparing the influence of different policy frameworks analysed in this study with the influences of the variation of the technical and economic CCS power plant parameters shows, that uncertainties concerning energy policy measures can have a stronger influence on the

  13. Aspects of the European system of financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Zoltán B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the main stages of the development of the European financial supervisory regulation and the current European System of Financial Supervision. The financial economic crisis highlighted the weaknesses in the supervisory system and the fact that the supervisor has an important role in consumer protection and in the mitigation of risk-taking by financial institutions. The European Union has developed a new financial strategy known as Banking Union, which has a three-pillar framework. These three pillars are the Single Supervisory Mechanism, the Single Resolution Mechanism and the Common Deposit Guarantee Scheme. This system is intended to achieve a single economic and monetary union at supranational level and to avoid the emergence of a new crisis as far as possible.

  14. Power-scheduling - Introduction of the FPBG1 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, A.; Meier, W.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at the Scheduled Balance Group system (in German: 'Fahrplanbilanzgruppensystem', FPBG) which was successfully introduced in Switzerland in December 2005. The development of the system is described and the reasons for the development of a new concept for Switzerland are discussed. The system permits the use of standard European scheduling processes for national and international power traders and supports Switzerland's function as an important power hub in Europe. The basics behind the concept are discussed and the mechanisms of its functioning are illustrated in graphical form. The implementation of the system by the ETRANS company is looked at and various questions posed in this connection are answered

  15. Hydrogen fuel cell power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Batteries are typically a necessary and prime component of any DC power system, providing a source of on-demand stored energy with proven reliability. The integration of batteries and basic fuel cells for mobile and stationary utility applications poses a new challenge. For high value applications, the specification and operating requirements for this hybrid module differ from conventional requirements as the module must withstand extreme weather conditions and provide extreme reliability. As an electric utility company, BCHydro has embarked in the development and application of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Supply (HFCPS) for field trial. A Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)- type fuel cell including power electronic modules are mounted in a standard 19-inch rack that provides 48V, 24V, 12V DC and 120V AC outputs. The hydrogen supply consists of hydrogen bottles and regulating devices to provide a continuous fuel source to the power modules. Many tests and evaluations have been done to ensure the HFCPS package is robust and suitable for electric utility grade operation. A field trial demonstrating this standalone system addressed reliability, durability, and installation concerns as well as developed the overall system operating procedures. (author)

  16. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  17. Power System Operation with Large Scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannarat, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Chen, Z.

    2007-01-01

    to the uncertain nature of wind power. In this paper, proposed models of generations and control system are presented which analyze the deviation of power exchange at the western Danish-German border, taking into account the fluctuating nature of wind power. The performance of the secondary control of the thermal......The Danish power system starts to face problems of integrating thousands megawatts of wind power, which produce in a stochastic behavior due to natural wind fluctuations. With wind power capacities increasing, the Danish Transmission System Operator (TSO) is faced with new challenges related...... power plants and the spinning reserves control from the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units to achieve active power balance with the increased wind power penetration is presented....

  18. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Union with a distinction between value systems and surface systems. At the practical level characteristics have been established of property taxation volvasystems in the European Union considering the range of subjective and objective methods for determining and updating the tax base, as well as the amount of tax burden. Subsequently, an analysis has been done of the fiscal functions of property tax within the European Union. It has been noted that the role of the property tax in individual Member States of the European Union is different. Results indicate that the key cause of a significant variation in effects of a fiscal nature is the adopted method of determining the so-called tax value of the property (market value or rental value of the property, as determined for the purposes of establishing the tax base as well as accepted rates. It was found that tax revenues in countries where cadastral systems exist are much greater than in the case of surface systems. It should also be noted that, in countries where the dimension of property taxes is made conditional on the data collected in cadastral records, the tax potential varies, and the reasons for this state of affairs are the specific solutions adopted in particular European countries.

  19. Power system dynamics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwatny, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores a consistent modeling and analytic framework that provides the tools for an improved understanding of the behavior and the building of efficient models of power systems. It covers the essential concepts for the study of static and dynamic network stability, reviews the structure and design of basic voltage and load-frequency regulators, and offers an introduction to power system optimal control with reliability constraints. A set of Mathematica tutorial notebooks providing detailed solutions of the examples worked-out in the text, as well as a package that will enable readers to work out their own examples and problems, supplements the text. A key premise of the book is that the design of successful control systems requires a deep understanding of the processes to be controlled; as such, the technical discussion begins with a concise review of the physical foundations of electricity and magnetism. This is followed by an overview of nonlinear circuits that include resistors, inductors, ...

  20. Handbook of power systems engineering with power electronics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hase, Yoshihide

    2012-01-01

    Formerly known as Handbook of Power System Engineering, this second edition provides rigorous revisions to the original treatment of systems analysis together with a substantial new four-chapter section on power electronics applications. Encompassing a whole range of equipment, phenomena, and analytical approaches, this handbook offers a complete overview of power systems and their power electronics applications, and presents a thorough examination of the fundamental principles, combining theories and technologies that are usually treated in separate specialised fields, in a single u

  1. Applying an overall criterion according to the European norms, for ecological assessment of the thermal electrical power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardu, Mircea; Petrescu, Camelia

    2006-01-01

    This work consists of assessing the thermal power plants impact on the environment by the global considering of the pollutant SO 2 and NO x emissions. This assessment takes into account the emission comparisons with the admissible values provided by the European norms. The conclusion we might draw is that the SN proposed global criterion application, (S from sulfur, namely the sulfur dioxide and N from nitrogen, namely the nitrogen oxides), the investment expenses for installing the necessary SDN and SDS systems (were SDN stands for denox plant and SDS for desulfurization systems), and the operation expenses are smaller (in case of pit coal they are even smaller) if we apply such criterion. The ecologic analysis model we applied as an estimation for large solid fuels categories (lignite, pit coal) and for the 330 MW existing power units, can also be applied to the actual cases for different fuel qualities or unit unitary power levels

  2. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    will be an important balancing measure to enable the Danish government’s energy strategy, which implies 50% wind power penetration in the electric power system. An EV will be a storage device for smoothing power fluctuations from renewable resources especially wind power and provide valuable system services...... for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity....... This paper analyse the potential for using EVs in Denmark and identify the benefits of the electric power system with high wind power generation by intelligent charging of the EVs. Based on the analysis important technology gabs are identified, and the corresponding research and development initiatives...

  3. Five years of partnership programme between German and East European nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, P.

    1995-01-01

    In a jointly adopted communique in August 1992 the regulations governing the partnerships were laid down. The following principles are given priority: bilateral exchange of operating experience on the basis of equal partnership; the knowledge gained from the exchange of experience is used to improve the operation and safety of the respective partner plant; the partnership programme is free from commercial interests and does not include transfer of funds. Since the establishment of the first partnership relations (Biblis) with an east european nuclear power plant (Balakowo) late in April 1990, a total of 126 reciprocal visits was paid, 82 of which to German nuclear power plants. The balance of the efforts made by German nuclear power plant operators to integrate east european nuclear plant operators can be considered positive. (orig./HP) [de

  4. SOLAR POWER PLANTS IN THE EU. AN ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY ENGINE FOR THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea SAVEANU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish that the European Union is facing severe ecological problems, by analysing the ecological footprint of selected member states. Many of these problems are related to carbon and carbon equivalent emissions, some of which are generated by fossil fuel power plants. It is then shown that the European Union has potential in the solar power renewable energy sector. Finally, we calculate roughly how much land would be necessary in order to replace fossil fuel power plants, as well as nuclear plants, which are largely seen as environmentally dangerous. It is concluded that developing this alternative energy sector would help improve the ecological sustainability of the Union, by diminishing a significant part of its carbon footprint.

  5. The European power industry : asymmetries and price volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabel, M.; Soares, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    A time series model was used to obtain empirical evidence on the spot price volatility of the Spanish electricity market. The model was based on a single market operator and 2 system operators. A generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model was used to model and forecast conditional variances related to the spot price volatility of the Spanish electricity market. A correlogram analysis was used to model the processes behind the time series. Autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions were used to demonstrate that the the derived electricity spot price series was not a random walk. Lags in various areas were attributed to the fact that a large proportion of electricity is consumed by industry. Weekly cycles justified values presented by a lags multiple of 7. Results of the modelling study showed that the method can be used in the risk management of electricity portfolios as well as in the pricing and hedging of different types of derivatives in electricity markets. It was concluded that further work is needed to reduce instability and asymmetries between generators, consumers and regulators. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  6. A method and system for power management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchard, Arthur Tadeusz; Goossens, Koos Gerard Willen; Milutinovic, A.; Molnos, Anca Mariana; Steffens, Elisabeth Francisca Maria

    2009-01-01

    A method and system for power management is provided. To control power supplied to a second electronic device (106), an electronic system (100) comprises a power management subsystem (110), a first electronic device (102); The power management subsystem (110) monitors the power consumed by the first

  7. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  8. French power system reliability report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesseron, J.M.

    2009-06-01

    The reliability of the French power system was fully under control in 2008, despite the power outage in the eastern part of the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region on November 3, which had been dreaded for several years, since it had not been possible to set up a structurally adequate network. Pursuant to a consultation meeting, the reinforcement solution proposed by RTE was approved by the Minister of Energy, boding well for greater reliability in future. Based on the observations presented in this 2008 Report, RTE's Power System Reliability Audit Mission considers that no new recommendations are needed beyond those expressed in previous reliability reports and during reliability audits. The publication of this yearly report is in keeping with RTE's goal to promote the follow-up over time of the evolution of reliability in its various aspects. RTE thus aims to contribute to the development of reliability culture, by encouraging an improved assessment by the different players (both RTE and network users) of the role they play in building reliability, and by advocating the taking into account of reliability and benchmarking in the European organisations of Transmission System Operators. Contents: 1 - Brief overview of the evolution of the internal and external environment; 2 - Operating situations encountered: climatic conditions, supply / demand balance management, operation of interconnections, management of internal congestion, contingencies affecting the transmission facilities; 3 - Evolution of the reliability reference guide: external reference guide: directives, laws, decrees, etc, ETSO, UCTE, ENTSO-E, contracting contributing to reliability, RTE internal reference guide; 4 - Evolution of measures contributing to reliability in the equipment field: intrinsic performances of components (generating sets, protection systems, operation PLC's, instrumentation and control, automatic frequency and voltage controls, transmission facilities, control systems, load

  9. Direct containment heating integral effects tests in geometries of European nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Leonhard; Albrecht, Giancarlo; Caroli, Cataldo; Ivanov, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The DISCO test facility at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) has been used to perform experiments to investigate direct containment heating (DCH) effects during a severe accident in European nuclear power plants, comprising the EPR, the French 1300 MWe plant P'4, the VVER-1000 and the German Konvoi plant. A high-temperature iron-alumina melt is ejected by steam into scaled models of the respective reactor cavities and the containment vessel. Both heat transfer from dispersed melt and combustion of hydrogen lead to containment pressurization. The main experimental findings are presented and critical parameters are identified. The consequences of DCH are limited in reactors with no direct pathway between the cavity and the containment dome (closed pit). The situation is more severe for reactors which do have a direct pathway between the cavity and the containment (open pit). The experiments showed that substantial fractions of corium may be dispersed into the containment in such cases, if the pressure in the reactor coolant system is elevated at the time of RPV failure. Primary system pressures of 1 or 2 MPa are sufficient to lead to full scale DCH effects. Combustion of the hydrogen produced by oxidation as well as the hydrogen initially present appears to be the crucial phenomenon for containment pressurization.

  10. Direct containment heating integral effects tests in geometries of European nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Leonhard [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: meyer@iket.fzk.de; Albrecht, Giancarlo [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Caroli, Cataldo [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Ivanov, Ivan [Technical University of Sofia, BG-1797 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-10-15

    The DISCO test facility at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) has been used to perform experiments to investigate direct containment heating (DCH) effects during a severe accident in European nuclear power plants, comprising the EPR, the French 1300 MWe plant P'4, the VVER-1000 and the German Konvoi plant. A high-temperature iron-alumina melt is ejected by steam into scaled models of the respective reactor cavities and the containment vessel. Both heat transfer from dispersed melt and combustion of hydrogen lead to containment pressurization. The main experimental findings are presented and critical parameters are identified. The consequences of DCH are limited in reactors with no direct pathway between the cavity and the containment dome (closed pit). The situation is more severe for reactors which do have a direct pathway between the cavity and the containment (open pit). The experiments showed that substantial fractions of corium may be dispersed into the containment in such cases, if the pressure in the reactor coolant system is elevated at the time of RPV failure. Primary system pressures of 1 or 2 MPa are sufficient to lead to full scale DCH effects. Combustion of the hydrogen produced by oxidation as well as the hydrogen initially present appears to be the crucial phenomenon for containment pressurization.

  11. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  12. NUCLEAR THERMIONIC SPACE POWER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, R. C.; Rasor, N. S.

    1963-03-15

    The various concepts for utilizing thermionic conversion in space reactor power plants are described and evaluated. The problems (and progress toward their solution) of the in-core concept, particularly, are considered. Progress in thermionic conversion technology is then reviewed from both the hardware and research points of view. Anticipated progress in thermionic conversion and the possible consequences for the performance of electrical propulsion systems are summarized. 46 references. (D.C.W.)

  13. Selectivity of power system protections at power swings in power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses out-of-step protection systems such as: generator pole slip protections, out of step tripping protections, distance protections of step-up transformer, distance protections of transmission lines and transformers, power swing blocking, and special out-of-step protection. It is shown that all these protections make up a protection system, to which a setting concept uniform for the entire power system has to be applied. If a power system is inappropriately equipped with these protections, or their settings are inappropriate, they may operate unselectively, thus contributing to the development of power system blackouts. In the paper the concepts for a real power system are given for the two stages: target stage fully compliant with selectivity criteria, and transitional stage between the current and target stages.

  14. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Segmented Thermoelectric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Flight times are long; - Need power systems with >15 years life. Mass is at an absolute premium; - Need power systems with high specific power and scalability. 3 orders of magnitude reduction in solar irradiance from Earth to Pluto. Nuclear power sources preferable. The Overall objective is to develop low mass, high efficiency, low-cost Advanced Radioisotope Power System with double the Specific Power and Efficiency over state-of-the-art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs).

  15. Electrical power systems for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Major challenges in power system development are described. Evolutionary growth, operational lifetime, and other design requirements are discussed. A pictorial view of weight-optimized power system applications shows which systems are best for missions of various lengths and required power level. Following definition of the major elements of the electrical power system, an overview of element options and a brief technology assessment are presented. Selected trade-study results show end-to-end system efficiencies, required photovoltaic power capability as a function of energy storage system efficiency, and comparisons with other systems such as a solar dynamic power system.

  16. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  17. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  18. Instrumentation for Power System Disturbance Monitoring, Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the level of instrumentation for power system disturbance monitoring, data acquisition and control in Nigerian Electric Power System; National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) is presented. The need for accurate power system disturbance monitoring is highlighted. A feature of an adequate monitoring, data ...

  19. A review of the European offshore wind innovation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, A.J.; Negro, S.O.; Harmsen, R.; Heimeriks, G.J.; Luo, L.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind has the potential of becoming an important pillar of the future European energy system. It can contribute to policy objectives on climate change, energy security, green growth and social progress. However, the large potential of offshore wind does not automatically lead to a large

  20. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  1. Dimension, Egalitarianism and Decisiveness of European Voting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Carreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of three major aspects has been carried out that may apply to any of the successive voting systems used for the European Union Council of Ministers, from the first one established in the Treaty of Rome in 1958 to the current one established in Lisbon. We mainly consider the voting systems designed for the enlarged European Union adopted in the Athens summit, held in April 2003 but this analysis can be applied to any other system. First, it is shown that the dimension of these voting systems does not, in general, reduce. Next, the egalitarian effects of superposing two or three weighted majority games (often by introducing additional consensus are considered. Finally, the decisiveness of these voting systems is evaluated and compared. (original abstract

  2. Lunar power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified

  3. MEMS Rotary Engine Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Pisano, Albert P.; Fu, Kelvin; Walther, David C.; Knobloch, Aaron; Martinez, Fabian; Senesky, Matt; Stoldt, Conrad; Maboudian, Roya; Sanders, Seth; Liepmann, Dorian

    This work presents a project overview and recent research results for the MEMS Rotary Engine Power System project at the Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center of the University of California at Berkeley. The research motivation for the project is the high specific energy density of hydrocarbon fuels. When compared with the energy density of batteries, hydrocarbon fuels may have as much as 20x more energy. However, the technical challenge is the conversion of hydrocarbon fuel to electricity in an efficient and clean micro engine. A 12.9 mm diameter Wankel engine will be shown that has already generated 4 Watts of power at 9300rpm. In addition, the 1mm and 2.4 mm Wankel engines that BSAC is developing for power generation at the microscale will be discussed. The project goal is to develop electrical power output of 90milliwatts from the 2.4 mm engine. Prototype engine components have already been fabricated and these will be described. The integrated generator design concept utilizes a nickel-iron alloy electroplated in the engine rotor poles, so that the engine rotor also serves as the generator rotor.

  4. European standards applied by Gas Transmission System Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, M.; Kuchta, K.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Teperek, T.

    2005-01-01

    The lecture described actual state of implementation of European standards concerning transmission of natural gas and underlined their importance for proper performance of Transmission System Operator (TSO). European standards implemented to Polish Standards as PN-EN, necessary for TSO, related to design, construction and operation of high pressure gas network were also described. The lecture underlined as well the impact of standards application on preparation process of national regulations. They obligate TSO to create the technical conditions that ensure safety of gas transmission network functioning as well as environmental and surroundings safety. (authors)

  5. European health systems and the internal market: reshaping ideology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Leite Borges, Danielle

    2011-12-01

    Departing from theories of distributive justice and their relation with the distribution of health care within society, especially egalitarianism and libertarianism, this paper aims at demonstrating that the approach taken by the European Court of Justice regarding the application of the Internal Market principles (or the market freedoms) to the field of health care services has introduced new values which are more concerned with a libertarian view of health care. Moreover, the paper also addresses the question of how these new values introduced by the Court may affect common principles of European health systems, such as equity and accessibility.

  6. The strategic role of power grids in the implementation of a European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of low carbon and renewable energies, the World is living a third energy revolution. In this new context, the European Union has adopted an ambitious energy policy with a triple objective: reducing the volume of carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere in order to fight against a possible disastrous climatic change, increasing the security of its energy supplies by limiting its fossil fuels dependence and by reinforcing the solidarity between member states in particular during crisis situation, and completing the building up of domestic electricity and gas markets by a better integration of these markets at the European scale and in relation with neighboring areas (Mediterranean region, Russia). This article explains the key of success of such a policy: a prominent part of electricity in the European energy mix, with a strategic role given to power grids

  7. Impact of the economic recession on the European power sector's CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declercq, Bruno; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the economic recession on CO 2 emissions in the European power sector, during the years 2008 and 2009. Three main determinants of the power sector's emissions are identified: the demand for electricity, the CO 2 price, and fuel prices. A counterfactual scenario has been set up for each of these, i.e., what these parameters would have been if not affected by the recession. A simulation model of the European power sector is then employed, comparing a historical reference simulation (taking the parameters as actually occurred) with the counterfactual scenarios. The lower electricity demand (due to the recession) is shown to have by far the largest impact, accounting for an emission reduction of about 175 Mton. The lower CO 2 price (due to the recession) resulted in an increase in emissions by about 30 Mton. The impact of fuel prices is more difficult to retrieve; an indicative reduction of about 17 Mton is obtained, mainly as a consequence of the low gas prices in 2009. The simulated combined impact of the parameters results in an emission reduction of about 150 Mton in the European power sector over the years 2008 and 2009 as a consequence of the recession. - Research highlights: → CO 2 emissions are simulated for the European power sector. → Emissions reduced drastically because of the economic recession in 2008 and 2009. → Lower electricity demand had highest impact and accounts for reduction of about 175 Mton. → Impact of different CO 2 and fuel prices on emissions is more limited.

  8. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  9. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical......This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  10. Feasibility study for the European Reliability Data System (ERDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the Reactor Safety Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, the JRC - Ispra Establishment has performed a feasibility study for an integrated European Reliability Data System, the aim of which is the collection and organization of information related to the operation of LWRs with regard to component and systems behaviour, abnormal occurrences, outages, etc. Component Event Data Bank (CEGB), Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank, Operating Unit Status Reports and the main activities carried out during the last two years are described. The most important achievements are briefly reported, such as: Reference Classification for Systems, Components and Failure Events, Informatic Structure of the Pilot Experiment of the CEDB, Information Retrieval System for Abnormal Occurrences Reports, Data Bank on Component Reliability Parameters, System on the Exchange of Operation Experience of LWRs, Statistical Data Treatment. Finally, the general conclusions of the feasibility study are summarized: the possibility and the usefulness for the creation of an integrated European Reliability Data System are outlined. (author)

  11. The 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Doležel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This short note reports on my experience from The 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS. The conference was titled “Information Systems for a smart, sustainable and inclusive world“, and took place in Guimarães, Portugal in June 2017. I discuss the thematic focus of the conference and its scope. Then I refer about two workshops I attended during the conference.

  12. Public financing systems for radiology: experience in 12 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesteloot, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper illustrates the evolution in public health care financing systems in 12 European countries, in terms of the financing of radiology services. The financing systems for radiology used by public health care financing agencies are described in detail. The implications of these new financing conditions for health care delivery are briefly sketched. The paper concludes with some strategies to help radiologists cope with the tightening financing conditions for medical imaging. (orig.) (orig.)

  13. Similarities and differences between five European drug reimbursement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    3349-357 Objectives: The aim of our study is to compare five European drug reimbursement systems, describe similarities and differences, and obtain insight into their strengths and weaknesses and formulate policy recommendations. Methods: We used the analytical Hutton Framework to assess in detail drug reimbursement systems in Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. We investigated policy documents, explored literature, and conducted fifty-seven interviews with relevant s...

  14. System and method for advanced power management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Albuquerque, NM; Symons, Philip C [Surprise, AZ; Butler, Paul C [Albuquerque, NM; Corey, Garth P [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-07-28

    A power management system is provided that includes a power supply means comprising a plurality of power supply strings, a testing means operably connected to said plurality of power supply strings for evaluating performance characteristics of said plurality of power supply strings, and a control means for monitoring power requirements and comprising a switching means for controlling switching of said plurality of power supply strings to said testing means.

  15. THESEUS: the first-scale 50 MEw THErmal Solar EUropean power station for the Island of Crete, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhof, Rainer [Pilkington Solar International (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The first solar power plant to receive funding from the European Union is to be constructed on the Island of Crete, Greece. This utility-scale 50 MWe plant is based on technology known as THERMIE (THErmal Solar European power station) and it represents a major breakthrough for Europe`s small solar thermal power community. The proposed THESEUS project uses an advanced parabolic trough collector field as the primary heat source and will be constructed between 1977 and 1999. (UK)

  16. THE EUROPEAN UNION MILITARY POWER: THE NEW CHALLENGES WITH OLD DILEMMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerim Ramadani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent crises show clearly that Europeans security depends on external developments. The Common Security and Defense Policy failed to provide security, while the European Union military missions were limited in terms of their scope. This inability threatens the interests and security of the member states. Exactly, this research explores the concept of military power of the EU. In order to elaborate anatomy of military power of the EU, the descriptive-analytic method is used. Military performance analysis proves that the EU is able to have the greatest impact in the global arena. The research shows that with the achievement of a political strategy among the stakeholder, on which the replacement of the consensus mechanism with an ordinary majority is predicted, the EU would be able to lead a proactive and efficient security policy.

  17. CRASH - Community Road Accident System Homepage : feasibility study on a European Road Safety Information System, financially supported by the European Commission.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. Poppe, F. Blokpoel, A. & Kars, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the result of a feasibility study, financially supported by the European Commission. The study investigated the possibilities for the development and maintenance of a European Road Safety Information System with relevant and internationally comparable information. Recommendations on

  18. Wind power variability and power system reserves in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2017-01-01

    Variable renewable generation, primarily from wind and solar, introduces new uncertainties in the operation of power systems. This paper describes and applies a method to quantify how wind power development will affect the use of short-term automatic reserves in the future South African power sys...

  19. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2018-01-01

    Power density, efficiency, cost, and reliability are the major challenges when designing a power electronic system. Latest advancements in power semiconductor devices (e.g., silicon carbide devices) and topological innovations have vital contributions to power density and efficiency. Nevertheless......, dedicated heat sink systems for thermal management are required to dissipate the power losses in power electronic systems; otherwise, the power devices will be heated up and eventually fail to operate. In addition, in many mission critical applications (e.g., marine systems), the operating condition (i...

  20. Making them fit to help themselves? Safety engineering partnerships with East European nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobottka, H.

    1997-01-01

    The low technological standard of nuclear power plants in East Europe is a matter of concern. NPP operators are in a bad financial situation as they often are compelled to sell their electricity below cost price, or payment increasingly is delayed, or not coming in at all. Special EU programmes and partnership agreements with West European electricity companies have been instigated in order to lead out of the crisis. Will they remain no more than a pebble dropped into the sea? (orig.) [de

  1. EUR, an European utility requirements documents for future LWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Lienard, Michel; Redon, Ramon; Essmann, Juergen; Taylor, David T.

    2004-01-01

    A group of the major European utilities are developing a common requirement document which will be used for the LWR nuclear power plants to be built in Europe from the beginning of the next century. This document provides harmonised policies and technical requirements that will allow the implementation of a design developed in one country into another one. The objectives and contents of the document, the organisation set up for its production and the main requirements are summarised in the paper. (author)

  2. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  3. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  4. Dynamic Influences of Wind Power on The Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Pedro Andrè Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    between different wind turbines.Here the wind speed model is applied to a constant rotational speed wind turbine/farm, but the model is suit-able to variable speed wind turbine/farm as well. The cases presented here illustrate the influences of the wind power on the power systemquality and stability...... integration due to the low spatial correlation of the wind speed. The voltage quality analysed in a Brazilian power system and in the Nordel power system from connecting largeamount of wind power showed very small voltage variations. The frequency variations analysed from the Nordel showed also small varia...

  5. Power quality in power systems and electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this must-have reference covers power quality issues in four parts, including new discussions related to renewable energy systems. The first part of the book provides background on causes, effects, standards, and measurements of power quality and harmonics. Once the basics are established the authors move on to harmonic modeling of power systems, including components and apparatus (electric machines). The final part of the book is devoted to power quality mitigation approaches and devices, and the fourth part extends the analysis to power quality solutions for renewable

  6. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  7. Secondary mirror system for the European Solar Telescope (EST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaller, L.; Siegel, B.; Prieto, G.; Hernandez, E.; Casalta, J. M.; Mercader, J.; Barriga, J.

    2010-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a European collaborative project to build a 4m class solar telescope in the Canary Islands, which is now in its design study phase. The telescope will provide diffraction limited performance for several instruments observing simultaneously at the Coudé focus at different wavelengths. A multi-conjugated adaptive optics system composed of a tip-tilt mirror and several deformable mirrors will be integrated in the telescope optical path. The secondary mirror system is composed of the mirror itself (Ø800mm), the alignment drives and the cooling system needed to remove the solar heat load from the mirror. During the design study the feasibility to provide fast tip-tilt capabilities at the secondary mirror to work as the adaptive optics tip-tilt mirror is also being evaluated.

  8. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON THE DELEGATION OF POWERS TO NATIONAL AND EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Alexandru Lăzărescu Simion

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Romania's accession to the European Union, have created the conditions to issue a new category of delegation of powers at the national level, used in the management of EU funds. Thus, delegation under delegation agreements concluded between ministries function with role management authorities and legal entities subordinated, coordination or subordination or coordination outside a hierarchy is a concrete way to exercise the powers conferred by the provisions Romania Community and pursue assimilated by delegating temporary administrative office.

  9. A game theoretic model of the Northwestern European electricity market-market power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lise, Wietze; Linderhof, Vincent; Kuik, Onno; Kemfert, Claudia; Ostling, Robert; Heinzow, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a static computational game theoretic model. Illustrative results for the liberalising European electricity market are given to demonstrate the type of economic and environmental results that can be generated with the model. The model is empirically calibrated to eight Northwestern European countries, namely Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. Different market structures are compared, depending on the ability of firms to exercise market power, ranging from perfect competition without market power to strategic competition where large firms exercise market power. In addition, a market power reduction policy is studied where the near-monopolies in France and Belgium are demerged into smaller firms. To analyse environmental impacts, a fixed greenhouse gas emission reduction target is introduced under different market structures. The results indicate that the effects of liberalisation depend on the resulting market structure, but that a reduction in market power of large producers may be beneficial for both the consumer (i.e. lower prices) and the environment (i.e. lower greenhouse gas permit price and lower acidifying and smog emissions)

  10. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  11. Modelling of electrical power systems for power flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The industry systems in Brazil are responsible for a consumption of over 50% (fifty per cent) of the total electrical power generated: therefore, they are import loads in power flow studies, and their modeling should be as much the best. Usually, in power flow studies, the industry systems are modeled by taking the influence of the power (active and reactive) and of the current on the voltage into account. Since the inducting motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversize, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristic of power on shaft versus voltage into account. Since the induction motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversized, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristics of power on shaft versus voltage for the analysis of power systems, aiming a load flow study. Thereafter, a model of an equivalent motor which has a basis the typical performance curve of an induction motor is present. This model is obtained from empirical parameters, surveyed from a population of over 1000 motors. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Mitigation of Power System Oscillation Caused by Wind Power Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    oscillation mitigation controllers are proposed and compared. A model of direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm connected to the IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system is adopted as the test system. The calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0. Results are presented to show......Wind power is increasingly integrated in modern power grids, which brings new challenges to the power system operation. Wind power is fluctuating because of the uncertain nature of wind, whereas wind shear and tower shadow effects also cause periodic fluctuations. These may lead to serious forced...... oscillation when the frequencies of the periodic fluctuations are close to the natural oscillation frequencies of the connected power system. By using modal analysis and time-domain simulations, this study studies the forced oscillation caused by the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Three forced...

  13. Solar-powered cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  14. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  15. Nuclear power systems: Their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Mankind utilizes energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. Canada is one of a growing number of countries which have chosen to embrace nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy systems. As of August 1992 there were 433 power reactors operating in 35 countries and accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, thirteen countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with France leading at nearly 70%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 68 power reactors are under construction in 16 countries, enough to expand present generating capacity by close to 20%. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether or not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR has irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety back into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents which have occurred to date. (author). 7 refs

  16. Nuclear excited power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.Z.; Cox, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A power generation system is described, comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing helium through the reactor, the helium being excited and forming alpha particles by high frequency radiation from the core of the gaseous core nuclear reactor; a reaction chamber; means for coupling chlorine and hydrogen to the reaction chamber, the helium and alpha particles energizing the chlorine and hydrogen to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for coupling the helium back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor; and means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, to be coupled back to the reaction chamber in a closed loop. The patent also describes a power generation system comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing hydrogen through the reactor, the hydrogen being excited by high frequency radiation from the core; means for coupling chlorine to a reaction chamber, the hydrogen energizing the chlorine in the chamber to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, and means for coupling the hydrogen back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor in a closed loop

  17. Nuclear reactor power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The redundant signals from the sensor assemblies measuring the process parameters of a nuclear reactor power supply are transmitted each in its turn to a protection system which operates to actuate the protection apparatus for signals indicating off-process conditions. Each sensor assembly includes a number of like sensors measuring the same parameters. The sets of process signals derived from the sensor assemblies are each in its turn transmitted from the protection system to the control system which impresses control signals on the reactor or its components to counteract the tendency for conditions to drift off-normal status requiring operation of the protection system. A parameter signal selector prevents a parameter signal which differs from the other parameter signals of the set by more than twice the allowable variation from passing to the control system. Test signals are periodically impressed by a test unit on a selected pair of a selection unit and control channels. This arrangement eliminates the possibility that a single component failure which may be spurious will cause an inadvertent trip of the reactor during test. (author)

  18. Study on European Nuclear Safety Practices during Planned Outages at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The present project was aimed at providing: a description of the current status of nuclear safety practices during planned outages at nuclear power plants followed in Europe; the criteria for the safety analysis of future reactors at the design stage; proposing a set of recommendations on good practices and criteria leading to the improvement of nuclear safety during those conditions. The work was organised in 3 phases: Collecting data on current practices; Analysis of questionnaire answers and drawing up of safety good practices references and recommendations; Collecting relevant ideas related to the future reactors at design stage (European Pressurised Water Reactor, European Passive Plant project, European Utilities Requirements and Utilities Requirement Document project). The key element of the performed work was the detailed questionnaire, based on bibliographical review, expert experience and outage practices available in the working team. Different safety areas and activities were covered: outage context; nuclear safety; outage strategy, organisation and control; operating feedback; use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The questionnaire was answered by 12 European nuclear power plants, representing 9 different European countries and three different types of reactors (Pressurised Water Reactor, Boiling Water Reactor and Water Water Energy Reactor). Conclusions were drawn under the following headers: Organisational survey and generalities Organisational effectiveness Quality of maintenance Quality of operation Engineering support, management of modification Specific aspects Each analysed subject includes the following topics: Questions background with a summary and the aim of the questions. Current status, that describes common practices, as derived from the answers to the questionnaire, and some examples of good specific practices. Identified good practices. (author)

  19. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Maniyar

    2004-06-22

    The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

  20. Design characteristics of EU-APR1400 on-site power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.H.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the global nuclear market, US and European design requirements have been largely used to develop the design of nuclear power plants(NPPs). The APR1400 design was developed on the basis of US regulatory guide and EPRI utility requirements document(URD). In order to enlarge the export market of APR1400, KHNP (Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd) has developed the EU-APR1400 design which complies with the European nuclear design requirements. In this paper, the design characteristics of EU-APR1400 on-site power system developed according to the European design requirements of electrical power system are described. The European main design requirements of electrical power system involve 50 Hz rated frequency, 400/110 kV grid voltage, the application of the diversity and the redundancy, and so on. The EU-APR1400 on-site power system has been developed on the basis of these requirements. The representative designs include the redundancy, diversity, independence design, the emergency power supply design, the design for providing electrical power to the dedicated severe accident systems, and the design for European grid requirements. (author)

  1. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -link capacitance in power electronic converter systems; wind turbine systems; smart control strategies for improved reliability of power electronics system; lifetime modelling; power module lifetime test and state monitoring; tools for performance and reliability analysis of power electronics systems; fault...... for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of PECS at different levels of complexity. Drawing on the experience of an international team of experts, this book explores the reliability of PECS covering topics including an introduction to reliability engineering in power...... electronic converter systems; anomaly detection and remaining-life prediction for power electronics; reliability of DC-link capacitors in power electronic converters; reliability of power electronics packaging; modeling for life-time prediction of power semiconductor modules; minimization of DC...

  2. Application of Synchrophasor Measurements for Improving Situational Awareness of the Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obushevs, A.; Mutule, A.

    2018-04-01

    The paper focuses on the application of synchrophasor measurements that present unprecedented benefits compared to SCADA systems in order to facilitate the successful transformation of the Nordic-Baltic-and-European electric power system to operate with large amounts of renewable energy sources and improve situational awareness of the power system. The article describes new functionalities of visualisation tools to estimate a grid inertia level in real time with monitoring results between Nordic and Baltic power systems.

  3. Reduction of electricity use in Swedish industry and its impact on national power supply and European CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Dag; Trygg, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Decreased energy use is crucial for achieving sustainable energy solutions. This paper presents current and possible future electricity use in Swedish industry. Non-heavy lines of business (e.g. food, vehicles) that use one-third of the electricity in Swedish industry are analysed in detail. Most electricity is used in the support processes pumping and ventilation, and manufacturing by decomposition. Energy conservation can take place through e.g. more efficient light fittings and switching off ventilation during night and weekends. By energy-carrier switching, electricity used for heat production is replaced by e.g. fuel. Taking technically possible demand-side measures in the whole lines of business, according to energy audits in a set of factories, means a 35% demand reduction. A systems analysis of power production, trade, demand and conservation was made using the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which uses linear programming and considers the time-dependent impact on demand for days, weeks and seasons. Electricity that is replaced by district heating from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant has a dual impact on the electricity system through reduced demand and increased electricity generation. Reduced electricity consumption and enhanced cogeneration in Sweden enables increased electricity export, which displaces coal-fired condensing plants in the European electricity market and helps to reduce European CO 2 emissions. Within the European emission trading system, those electricity conservation measures should be taken that are more cost-efficient than other ways of reducing CO 2 emissions. The demand-side measures turn net electricity imports into net export and reduce annual operation costs and net CO 2 emissions due to covering Swedish electricity demand by 200 million euros and 6 Mtonne, respectively. With estimated electricity conservation in the whole of Swedish industry, net electricity exports would be larger and net CO 2 emissions would be

  4. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M.; Pereira, Ivo F.; Fernandes, Ricardo; Praça, Isabel; Vale, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition of an ontology allowing the communication between multi-agents systems. • Social welfare evaluation in different electricity markets. • Demonstration of the use of the proposed ontology between two multi-agents systems. • Strategic biding in electricity markets. • European electricity markets comparison. - Abstract: The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models, respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform provides the means for the exemplification of the usefulness of this ontology. A case study using the proposed multi-agent platform is presented, considering a scenario based on real data that simulates the European Electricity Market environment, and comparing its performance using different market mechanisms. The main goal is to demonstrate the advantages that the integration of various market models and simulation platforms have for the study of the electricity markets’ evolution

  5. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  6. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping

    2002-01-01

    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  7. Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis technologies, their possible deployment scenarios, and the economic impacts of this deployment. As a research approaches used to estimate direct and indirect economic impacts of offshore renewable energy projects

  8. A master system for power system fault phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Myung Ho; Jang, Sang Ho; Hong, Joon Hee; Min, Wan Ki; Yoo, Chang Hwan [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    This report includes as follows - Real time digital simulator - Remote measuring, analyzing and reproducing system of power system fault data -Power system reduction method program using EMTP -Test system for protection device. (author). 22 refs., 38 figs.

  9. Attitudes of European citizens towards pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to map citizen attitudes towards pigmeat production systems, and to investigate whether these attitudes associate with pork and pork product consumption. A conjoint experimentwas carried out with empirical data collected from 1931 individuals in four European countries...... pork with specific fat content, and finally the preferred quality characteristics of the pork end-product. The results of the conjoint analysis were used for a subsequent cluster analysis in order to identify European citizen clusters. Respondents' socio-demographic profile, attitudes towards issues...... that are expected to influence the way people evaluate pig meat production systems, and consumption frequency of various pork products are used as background information to identify segment profiles. Pork appears to play a substantial role as a part of the diet for most respondents in the four countries...

  10. REVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAMS OF URBAN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Kovalskyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of sustainable development of the territory should be in a state of control and management. The system of urban monitoring of Ukraine does not fully provide information on the level of sustainable development of settlements and regions. Therefore, it is necessary to create systems for monitoring indicators of sustainable development of human settlements and regions. The objective of this study is to analyze the existing programs for stimulating sustainable development in European countries and to develop recommendations on the need to organize such systems in Ukraine and to improve the system of urban monitoring. The article describes such systems and programs: URBACT is a program for sharing best practices between cities by creating thematic networks. URBACT’s mission is to encourage cities to work together and develop integrated solutions to common urban problems, through networking, to learn from each other’s experiences and identify best practices in order to improve urban policies; URBAN AUDIT – a large set of statistical information. The main objective of the system is to provide objective and comparable statistical data on European cities; URBAN ATLAS – provides a pan-European comparison of urban land use data. The information is in the form of open geospatial data. The system is aimed at facilitating work on site planning and site accounting. It is necessary to adopt the best practices of implementing sustainable development technology and apply it in other countries that have chosen a model for their development – a model for sustainable development of the territory. The current system of town-planning monitoring in Ukraine needs to be improved and given a new task – to take into account indicators of sustainable development of the territories. This system is most suitable for this task, since urban monitoring already takes into account certain indicators in the form of spatial data.

  11. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  12. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  13. Nova pulse power system description and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Whitham, K.; Merritt, B.T.; Gritton, D.G.; Oicles, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Nova laser system is designed to produce critical data in the nation's inertial confinement fusion effort. It is the world's largest peak power laser and presents various unique pulse power problems. In this paper, pulse power systems for this laser are described, the evolutionary points from prior systems are pointed out, and the current status of the hardware is given

  14. Power Electronics Control of Wind Energy in Distributed Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  15. The Optimization of power reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danupoyo, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    A power reactor is an important part in nuclear powered electrical plant systems. Success in controlling the power reactor will establish safety of the whole power plant systems. Until now, the power reactor has been controlled by a classical control system that was designed based on output feedback method. To meet the safety requirements that are now more restricted, the recently used power reactor control system should be modified. this paper describes a power reactor control system that is designed based on a state feedback method optimized with LQG (Linear-quadrature-gaussian) method and equipped with a state estimator. A pressurized-water type reactor has been used as the model. by using a point kinetics method with one group delayed neutrons. the result of simulation testing shows that the optimized control system can control the power reactor more effective and efficient than the classical control system

  16. How to play the game as the bridge between two European power markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Amundsen, Eirik Schrøder; Donslund, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    in concert. In particular, we look at: the exercise of market power and gaming of the dominant power generator; the role of the large capacity of volatile wind power; the role of the guaranteed fixed prices and the design and functioning of the special auction system of transmission capacity in the interface...

  17. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  18. Control of power plants and power systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canales-Ruiz, R.

    1996-01-01

    The 88 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the International Federation of Automatic Control Symposium held in Mexico in 1995. The broad areas which they cover are: self tuning control; power plant operations; dynamic stability; fuzzy logic applications; power plants modelling; artificial intelligence applications; power plants simulation; voltage control; control of hydro electric units; state estimation; fault diagnosis and monitoring systems; system expansion and operation planning; security assessment; economic dispatch and optimal load flow; adaptive control; distribution; transient stability and preventive control; modelling and control of nuclear plant; knowledge data bases for automatic learning methods applied to power system dynamic security assessment; control of combined cycle units; power control centres. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers relating to nuclear power plants. (UK)

  19. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...... presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control...

  20. Integrating wind power in the (French) power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellen, A.

    2007-03-01

    RTE and EDF have no other technological option than to restrain the contribution of the French wind power fleet to base-load generation where it comes in direct competition with the nuclear power plants. The author aims to explain this situation and answer the following questions. Why the fossil fueled reactor fleet in France will not be affected by an evolution of the wind power capacity? Why, in France electric power generation-demand SYSTEM wind power cannot be a substitute for fossil fueled thermal units? (A.L.B.)

  1. Trends on nuclear power generation and industry in European and American nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai, Kunihiro

    2001-01-01

    In European and American nations, competitive principle was also recently introduced to electric industry allowed its local exclusion as a public business before today by liberalization of electric power market due to regulative relaxation, and then the existing electric power companies are now under serious competition with the other companies, of course with IPP which is its new comer. And, as nuclear power generation has already established there its position for an important source essential for electric power supply, by liberalization of electric power economy has also been severely required to the nuclear power generation. Then, the electric power companies intend to carry out cost-down by various means such as contraction of periodical inspection, and so on. Especially, in U.S.A., not only rationalization effort at a pace of every company but also various cost-down procedures ranging to reorganization of business such as purchase of other company power station, establishment of operation company integrally carrying out operation management of some companies, and so on, As a result, the nuclear power generation has come to obtain an evaluation to be an electric source sufficiently capable of competing with the other sources even at competitive market. On the other hand, its new construction continues at difficult condition. By adding to traditional objection against nuclear energy, in general, by recently entering of environmental protection party to the regime in some nations of western Europe, political environment around nuclear energy becomes unstable. And, liberalization of electric power also forms an investment environment advantageous for natural gas burning thermal power plants capable of carrying out short term capital recovery, in general. Therefore, the electric companies tend strongly to correspond to rather life elongation of the present plant than new plan construction. (G.K.)

  2. Voltage control in the future power transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan

    Wind energy in Denmark covers 42% of the total power consumption in 2015, and will share up to 50% by 2020. Consequently, the conventional power plants are decommissioning. Under the progress of the green transition, the national decision leads to underground many overhead lines in the future...... stages. The voltage uncertainty caused by the wind power forecasting errors is estimated, which is applied as a voltage security margin to further constrain the voltage magnitude in the optimization problem. The problem under the uncertainty is therefore converted to a deterministic problem, which...... to ensure a highly reliable transmission, e.g. balancing the generation and the consumption in large geographic regions, the exchange capacities will be enlarged by upgrading the interconnections. The Danish power system, the electricity transportation hub between the Nordic and continental European systems...

  3. Integration of wind power in the Danish generation system. EC wind power penetration study, phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-06-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has asked utilities in the member countries to carry out a coordinated study of the wind energy potential. The main objective is to show the consequences for the future electricity system when integrating wind power production covering 5, 10 or 15% of total demand. In addition to the best estimate scenario believed to be operational, some additional calculations have been carried out: wind power production as a negative load only (not operational for the total system); different levels of investment in wind farms. The methodology is based on the following steps: define a reference scenario for year 2000; define an alternative scenario with a certain amount of wind power production; calculate time-series for electrical load and district heating from combined heat/power production; calculate time-series for wind power production; make economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis; show environmental differences. Incorporation of wind power into the ELSAM power system, with the wind energy meeting, about 5% of demand will give rise to additional control capacity, or call for new contracts with neighbouring countries. The study includes estimated network investments. The simulations have been made with the SIM and SLUMP computer programmes. The economic analyses and the sensitivity analyses have been carried out using spreadsheets. The conclusion concerning profitability - based on the best estimate assumptions - is that the studied wind power scenarios are unprofitable. (EG)

  4. Liberalising European electricity markets: opportunities and risks for a sustainable power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The process of liberalising European electricity markets, encompassing a wide range of restructuring activities, has mainly been spurred by the attempt to increase the economic efficiency of the whole sector. This process might be used to trigger a development towards a sustainable power sector by increasing the use of renewable energy sources and enhancing energy efficiency on the supply and demand side. However, by taking a closer look at the current trends of the European electricity markets, it becomes obvious that the liberalisation not only implies opportunities but also risks for the creation of a sustainable power sector. Many of these risks are due to market distortions and imperfections caused by the delay in creating a fully functional single European market. Thus, in the short-term, the market liberalisation tends to constitute more risks than opportunities without government actions to prevent these risks. In the long run, though, the efficiency gains of the sector and the appearance of new market factors are likely to bring forth the opportunities of liberalisation and actively foster a transformation towards a sustainable electricity sector. (author)

  5. SOME CRITICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofte Claudia Simona

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to clarify and understand the decisional process in European which is related to the determination of the identity of the Union, answering to several questions concerning the implementation of the European Union into an organization, the different relations with other organizations and with the international law. In the family of the international organizations, the European Union has its own place because it realizes an economic integration project and a political one, a supranational but refusing the traditional categories of constitution and the international law. Qualifying as an international organization sui generis, EU developed a new legal order, deciding to create a supranational organization, formed by Member States and their citizens. The integration process is a permanent challenge opened to a new and developing process for solving all the internal and external problems of the EU. The States have an international "sensitivity" when the application of EU rules exceeds their obligations laid down in the Treaties to third countries and international organizations to which they have not exempted obligations. It was argued that the concept of "demos" or acting people is intrinsically linked to that of the nation-State. The issue of democratic deficit of the European Union is bound to four basic problems: the construction as a whole and therefore of the institutional system, under the principle of conferral, the Union shall act only within the limits that Member States have been conferred in the Treaties to attain the objectives that they set, The Treaty of Lisbon reinforces the legitimacy of the operation of the Union based on free and democratic will expressed by Member States. European construction is achieved through a democratic transfer of competences of the democratic States to a Commission subject to a weak democratic control, while the European Central Bank preserves absolute dominion over its monetary policy

  6. European Reliability Data System: main developments and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amesz, J.; Capobianchi, S.; Kalfsbeek, H.W.; Mancini, G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper revises the aims and objectives of the European Reliability Data System (ERDS), a centralized system collecting and organizing information related to the operation of light water reactors. The paper first describes the recent developments of the four data banks constituting the system: Component Event Data Bank, Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, Operating Unit Status Report and Reliability Parameters Data Bank. Then several issues are discussed referring mostly to the status of classification schemes and their use, to the operation of the banks (data input and transcoding) and to the retrieval and utilization of the information; in this latter case particularly the analysis potential of the data collection scheme of the AORS (Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System) is demonstrated. Finally, emphasis is given to the increasing role which artificial intelligence techniques such as natural language and expert systems and fuzzy logic may play in improving the future capabilities of the system

  7. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  8. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Campbell, D.J.

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project

  9. The European Union in International Politics: Acting as a Global Civilian Power (GCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War the European Community lacking common military instruments was perceived as the example of a civilian power. However, in the early 1990s, under the framework of CFSP, the first concrete defence initiatives have been launched. By the end of the 1990s and after the agreement on the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP the first Rapid Reaction Forces were on the European military agenda. Such defence and military capabilities challenged the idea of the EU as a civil or civilian power. Thus, a main concern in the paper has been to assess the character and identity of the EU`s activities in the context of international relations. For this purpose, this study has explored the EU policy instruments such as the enlargement policy, external aid, environmental policy at the global level, multilateralism, and the EU armed forces. The study concludes that the enlargement policy accounts for an important EU strategy to shape the international environment through civilian means. Furthermore, the international aid policy of the EU states has primarily been based on the sense of duty to other countries as constructivists point out. The EU has also been vocal and has used environmental foreign policy as an instrument to demonstrate its global leadership role which is a clear indication of its commitment to global welfare. Thanks to its presence in the major multilateral interventions of the last decade, the EU has qualified itself as great supporter of multilateralism. Lastly, the EU military capabilities are not achieved by creating permanent European armed forces but are still based on the voluntary contributions of its member states. Therefore, the EU still can be portrayed as a global civilian power (GCP or civilian power Europe (CPE.

  10. EURADOS intercomparison 2006 to harmonise European early warning dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.; Thompson, I. M. G.; Wissmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the European Radiation Dosimetry (EURADOS) Working Group on Environmental Radiation Monitoring (WG3) organised a third European intercomparison of dosimetry systems operated in national early warning networks. Similar to the intercomparisons in 1999 and 2002, the main aim of this exercise was to support the process of harmonisation of area monitoring in Europe by providing the network operators with basic information on the calibration and performance of their dosimetry systems. In order to characterise these systems, their following basic parameters were investigated: the response to terrestrial and cosmic radiation, the detectors' inherent background, the response at low dose rates, the energy dependence of the response as well as the sensitivity of the detector systems to small changes of the dose rate in a natural environmental radiation field. In the 2006 EURADOS intercomparison, scientists from seven countries participated to study the characteristics of 11 detector systems. All results are presented in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H * (10). The advent of this quantity has caused the development of new detector systems for area monitoring. Some of these new systems participated in a EURADOS intercomparison for the first time. The results are consistently presented together with uncertainties so that statistical effects can be distinguished from real detector features, which improves the interpretation of the results. By using the results of this intercomparison, some detectors were re-calibrated. The achievable improvements concerning harmonisation in dose-rate measurements in the natural environment are discussed. (authors)

  11. GPS synchronized power system phase angle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sterlina, Patrick S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) synchronized equipment for the measurement and analysis of key power system quantities. Two GPS synchronized phasor measurement units (PMU) were installed before testing. It was indicated that PMUs recorded the dynamic response of the power system phase angles when the northern California power grid was excited by the artificial short circuits. Power system planning engineers perform detailed computer generated simulations of the dynamic response of the power system to naturally occurring short circuits. The computer simulations use models of transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage components. This work will compare computer simulations of the same event with field measurement.

  12. Computer-aided power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kusic, George

    2008-01-01

    Computer applications yield more insight into system behavior than is possible by using hand calculations on system elements. Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis: Second Edition is a state-of-the-art presentation of basic principles and software for power systems in steady-state operation. Originally published in 1985, this revised edition explores power systems from the point of view of the central control facility. It covers the elements of transmission networks, bus reference frame, network fault and contingency calculations, power flow on transmission networks, generator base power setti

  13. Market power in the European electricity market - The impacts of dry weather and additional transmission capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lise, Wietze; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Hers, Sebastiaan

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a static computational game theoretic model of a fully opened European electricity market and can take strategic interaction among electricity-producing firms into account. The model is run for a number of scenarios: first, in the baseline under perfect competition, the prices differ due to the presence of various generation technologies and a limited ability to exchange electricity among countries. In addition, when large firms exercise market power, the model runs indicate that prices are the highest in countries where the number of firms is low. Second, dry weather would increase the prices in the hydro-rich Nordic countries followed by the Alpine countries. The price response would be about 20% higher with market power. Third, more transmission capacity would lower the prices in countries with high prices and it also reduces the impact of market power. Hence, more transmission capacity can improve market competitiveness. (author)

  14. Effects of internalising external production costs in a North European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Ramskov, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of integrating national power markets is to improve the overall efficiency thereby making a potential for reducing electricity prices. However, efficiency is not necessarily improved if external environmental protection costs are neglected. In this paper, we analyse the effects of regulating an integrated power market by using environmental producer taxes based on external production costs. The analysis is based on an empirical equilibrium model for the North European power market. The results show that internalising costs will increase electricity producer prices by 40-50% in the period from 1995 to 2020. Further, demand for electricity will be reduced by 10%. We conclude, however, that in order to achieve the national Kyoto targets of reducing CO 2 emissions, further regulation is needed, such as national CO 2 taxes or cost efficient mechanisms like tradeable permits and joint implementation. (author)

  15. Market power in the European electricity market - The impacts of dry weather and additional transmission capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lise, Wietze [IBS Research and Consultancy, Agahamami Cadessi 1/6, Aga Han, Cihangir, 34433 Beyoglu, Istanbul (Turkey); Energy Markets and International Environmental Policy Group, ECN Policy Studies, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hobbs, Benjamin F. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hers, Sebastiaan [Energy Markets and International Environmental Policy Group, ECN Policy Studies, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    This paper uses a static computational game theoretic model of a fully opened European electricity market and can take strategic interaction among electricity-producing firms into account. The model is run for a number of scenarios: first, in the baseline under perfect competition, the prices differ due to the presence of various generation technologies and a limited ability to exchange electricity among countries. In addition, when large firms exercise market power, the model runs indicate that prices are the highest in countries where the number of firms is low. Second, dry weather would increase the prices in the hydro-rich Nordic countries followed by the Alpine countries. The price response would be about 20% higher with market power. Third, more transmission capacity would lower the prices in countries with high prices and it also reduces the impact of market power. Hence, more transmission capacity can improve market competitiveness. (author)

  16. Promoting investments in combined heat and power production in East-European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoom, F.; Van Harmelen, T.

    1992-01-01

    The study concerns the evaluation of the potential of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) locations, both in industry and district heating with a heat demand of at least 20 GJ/h or ca. 1 MWe capacity. In fact 58 Hungarian locations were analyzed on scope and profitability for investment in CHP, using financial accounting models and criteria such as Internal Rate of Return and Pay-back Period. Due to the already existing favourable infrastructure in East European countries the present expectations in Hungary about the CHP capacity to be developed in the future are very optimistic (1300 up till 2000 MWe in the year 2000). Clearly there exist an overoptimism concerning the possibilities of increasing the energy efficiency in former East-European countries by investment in cogeneration. A more financially and economic attractive way for efficiency improvements is promoting energy saving in these countries and thus avoiding investments in supply technologies. 6 refs

  17. Compensating active power imbalances in power system with large-scale wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale wind power penetration can affectthe supply continuity in the power system. This is a matterof high priority to investigate, as more regulating reservesand specified control strategies for generation control arerequired in the future power system with even more highwind power penetrat...

  18. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    , the Working Group recognizes that the protection and enforcement of the rights of inventors through the patent system must be done in a manner to stimulate innovation and the diffusion of knowledge. In order to propose meaningful policy options that meet these objectives as much as possible, the evidence put......The present report is based on an independent, policy-oriented investigation of the current European patent system. The central premise of the report is that the patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation and the diffusion of knowledge, and thus that the system...... is contributing in a constructive way to economic and social welfare objectives. In acknowledging the importance of the patent system in relation to many aspects of society, it is also essential to continually evaluate whether the system is working as effectively as it could be. In addition, because of some...

  19. The National System for quality control and the European experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, A.; Vassileva, J.; Ingilizova, K.; Slavchev, A. and others

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the work is to present the structure and functions of the National System for quality control (NSQC) in the medical irradiation, created to guarantee the safety and the safe use of the radiological equipment. Material and method: The approaches are studies in the development of the NSQC, applied in Bulgaria and some European Union members - such as Germany and Great Britain - and the specifics of the way in which the Directive for medical irradiation EURATOM 97/43 is implemented in national legislations. Results: The advantages and disadvantages of Bulgarian NSQC are analysed and some ideas for tis improvement are suggested. Conclusions: The developed draft NSQC for medical irradiation is in compliance with the requirement of the European Directive. The real advantages and disadvantages of the NSQC will show after its implementation in the practical radiation protection and control in the country

  20. Application Model for a Stirling Engine Micro-Generation System in Caravans in Different European Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a simple model obtained from a commercial Stirling engine and used for heating a caravan. The Stirling engine has been tested in the lab under different electrical load conditions, and the operating points obtained are presented. As an application of the model, a series of transient simulations was performed using TRNSYS. During these simulations, the caravan is traveling throughout the day and is stationary at night. Therefore, during the night-time hours, the heating system is turned on by means of the Stirling engine. The study was performed for each month of the year in different European cities. The different heating demand profiles for different cities induce variation in the electricity production, as it has been assumed that electricity is only generated when the thermal demand requires the operation of the Stirling system. As a result, a comparison of the expected power generation in different European cities is presented.

  1. The impact of European balancing rules on wind power economics and on short-term bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves-Ávila, J.P.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Ramos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind power represents a significant percentage of the European generation mix and this will increase to fulfill the renewable energy targets. Different balancing rules are applied to wind power among the countries; for instance, to what extent wind power producers (WPPs) are responsible for the energy imbalances and how those imbalances are penalized. This paper discusses those different rules and evaluates their effects on WPP bidding strategies. To do so, a quantitative analysis is presented for an offshore wind farm, considering the differences in the balancing rules and prices of Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The quantitative approach consists of a stochastic optimization model that maximizes the profits of a WPP by trading in different markets (day-ahead and intraday) and computes the final energy delivered. The model considers uncertainties of most important parameters such as wind energy forecasts and prices at different time frames. The results show that the imbalance pricing design and the allocation of balance responsibility significantly affect WPP’ revenues. Additionally, WPPs deviate differently from the expected energy depending on the balancing rules, which can impact the system. Furthermore, these balancing rules should be considered with other market regulations, such as the design of support schemes. - Highlights: • European countries apply different imbalance pricing rules. • The allocation of balance responsibility to wind power varies between the countries. • A stochastic optimization model is used to compare the effect of balancing rules. • Balancing rules have an important impact on wind generators bidding strategies. • Balancing rules have also an effect on the system imbalances

  2. Digital simulation of power electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehring, P.; Jentsch, W.; John, G.; Kraemer, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following paper contains the final report on the NETSIM-Project. The purpose of this project is to develop a special digital simulation system, which could serve as a base for routine application of simulation in planning and development of power electronic systems. The project is realized in two steps. First a basic network analysis system is established. With this system the basic models and methods in treating power electronic networks could be probed. The resulting system is then integrated into a general digital simulation system for continous systems (CSSL-System). This integrated simulation system allows for convenient modeling and simulation of power electronic systems. (orig.) [de

  3. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  4. Organ Donation European Quality System: ODEQUS project methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, M; Guasch, X; Gomez, M P; Páez, G; Teixeira, L

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the number of organ donors among hospitals cannot be explained only by the number of intensive care unit beds used or neurologic patients treated. The figures obtained are influenced by the organizational structure of the donation process and how efficient it is. The Organ Donation European Quality System (ODEQUS) is a 3-year project (from October 2010 to September 2013) co-financed by the European Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC20091108) which aims to define a methodology to evaluate organ procurement performance at the hospital level. ODEQUS's specific objectives are to identify quality criteria and to develop quality indicators in three types of organ donation (after brain death, after cardiac death, and living donation). Those tools will be useful for hospitals' self-assessment as well as for developing an international auditing model. A consortium has been established involving 14 associated partners from Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, as well as five collaborating partners from Greece, Hungary, Malta, Slovenia, and Turkey. The project has been established in three steps: 1) Design of a survey about the use of quality tools in a wide sample of European hospitals; 2) Development of quality criteria and quality indicators by the project experts. The main fields considered have been organizational structures, clinical procedures, and outcomes; and 3) Elaboration of an evaluation system to test the quality indicators in 11 European hospitals. Two types of training have been designed and performed: one concerns the development of quality criteria and quality indicators, whereas another is focused on how to use evaluation tools. Following this methodology, the project has so far identified 131 quality criteria and developed 31 quality indicators. Currently, the quality indicators are being tested in 11 selected hospitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Energy efficiency comparison between geothermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal water which can be considered for generating electricity with the temperature ranging from 80℃ to 150℃ in China because of shortage of electricity and fossil energy. There are four basic types of geothermal power systems: single flash, double flash, binary cycle, and flash-binary system, which can be adapted to geothermal energy utilization in China. The paper discussed the performance indices and applicable conditions of different power system. Based on physical and mathematical models, simulation result shows that, when geofluid temperature ranges from 100℃ to 130℃, the net power output of double flash power is bigger than flash-binary system. When the geothermal resource temperature is between 130℃ and 150℃, the net power output of flash-binary geothermal power system is higher than double flash system by the maximum value 5.5%. However, the sum water steam amount of double flash power system is 2 to 3 times larger than flash-binary power system, which will cause the bigger volume of equipment of power system. Based on the economy and power capacity, it is better to use flash-binary power system when the geofluid temperature is between 100℃ and 150℃.

  6. Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifu Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.

  7. Integration of stochastic generation in power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Schavemaker, P.H.; Sluis, van der L.; Kling, W.L.; Kurowicka, D.; Cooke, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic generation, i.e., electrical power production by an uncontrolled primary energy source, is expected to play an important role in future power systems. A new power system structure is created due to the large-scale implementation of this small-scale, distributed, non-dispatchable

  8. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  9. Power processing systems for ion thrusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, B. G.; Garth, D. R.; Finke, R. C.; Shumaker, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The proposed use of ion thrusters to fulfill various communication satellite propulsion functions such as east-west and north-south stationkeeping, attitude control, station relocation and orbit raising, naturally leads to the requirement for lightweight, efficient and reliable thruster power processing systems. Collectively, the propulsion requirements dictate a wide range of thruster power levels and operational lifetimes, which must be matched by the power processing. This paper will discuss the status of such power processing systems, present system design alternatives and project expected near future power system performance.

  10. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  11. Information technology law and health systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah; Ter Linden, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of European Union (EU) law relating to information technology (IT) on health systems. The study identifies EU directives relating to IT, analyzes them in terms of their impact on the use of IT in health systems, and outlines their implications for health technology assessment (HTA). Analysis is based on a review of literature identified through relevant databases and Internet searches. Developments in IT have serious implications for EU health systems, presenting policy makers with new challenges. The European Commission has adopted a range of legal measures to protect consumers in the "information society" However, as few of them are health-specific, it is not evident that they have implications for health, health systems, or HTA, and they may not be effective in protecting consumers in the health sector. In light of the growing importance of IT in the health sector, legal and nonlegal measures need to be further developed at EU and international level. Where possible, future initiatives should pay attention to the particular characteristics of health goods and services and health systems. Although definitions of HTA usually recognize the importance of evaluating both the indirect, unintended consequences of health technologies and the legal aspects of their application, it seems that, in practice, HTA often overlooks or underestimates legislative matters. Those involved in HTA should be aware of the legal implications of using IT to provide health goods and services and compile, store, transfer, and disseminate health information electronically.

  12. Front hadron calorimeter of the European hybrid spectrometer monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borotav, M.; Vlasov, E.V.; David, Zh. and others.

    1985-01-01

    A complex system for light control (SLC) of the front hadron calorimeter (FHC) of the European hybrid spectrometer is described. The FHC includes 200 plastic scintillators. The SLC permits to conduct autonomous correction of multiplication factor drift of photoelectron multipliers (PEM) and to identify failed elements. Control functions are exercised by two independent subsystems. The first one is a part of the general system of data acquisition. The second one - a system of on-line control of FHC state is intended for continuous successive by-channel analog-to-digital transformation of signals-responses on reper light pulses recorded from the PEM dinodes. The systems are presented in the CAMAC standard. The structural diagram of the system, functional correlation of modules and ideology of software are presented. On-line control permits to bring the detector in the mode corresponding to any of earlier conducted calibrations at the accuracy of 5%

  13. Genişlemelerle Birlikte Avrupa Birliği Bakanlar Konseyi’nde Oylama Gücü Dağılımı(Voting Power Distribution With The Enlargements In The Council of The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Burcu ESKİCİ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, enlargement is one of the most important issue for European Union. The situation that makes this issue important is the influence of membership of the candidate states on the voting power distribution. With the enlargements, European Union decision-making processes were regulated several times. The last regulation to the European Union voting system was brought by the Treaty of Lisbon. In this study, voting power distribution in Council of the European Union is evaluated for candidate states and member states considering the acts adopted by the Treaty of Lisbon and determined as candidate states determined as Turkey, Croatia, Iceland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In the analysis, member states are grouped the according to the enlargement of the EU and the effect of the states that take part in these groups on the decision and changes of voting power are calculated using Banzhaf power index for power measurement.

  14. Self-Oscillating Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakov, Sergei A.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Ra'di, Younes

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wireless power transfer systems consist of a microwave power generator and transmitter located at one place and a microwave power receiver located at a distance. Here we show that wireless power transfer can be realized as a single distributed microwave generator with an over-the-air feedback, so that the microwave power is generated directly at the place where the energy needs to be delivered. We demonstrate that the use of this paradigm increases efficiency and dramatically red...

  15. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  16. The Future of Nuclear Power in the Light of European Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickardt, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    1. Energy policy post-Fukushima: • Following the initial shock: differentiated development, no cohesive European policy; • EU: Nuclear Power (NP) remains important in the context of climate policy; • Bulk of European countries: Keep or even expand share of NP (UK, Eastern Europe); • Germany and Switzerland (CH): Exit from NP, in Germany based on previously fixed shutdown deadlines for every facility, in CH based on exclusion of new builds. 2. Switzerland's focus: • Current CH electricity supply: twin pillars of NP + hydro power; high sustainability. • Federal Council's new energy strategy and its consequences: Strain on economy and companies due to market distortion and high renovation costs; plus growing environmental stress, dependency on imports and social inequality due to artificially high electricity prices. 3. Future of nuclear power in Switzerland: Conceivable possibilities: • Short-term: Relatively rapid ban on nuclear power (but poss. with back-door research/no ban on thinking about the technology); • Medium-term: Ban on new facilities but old plants continue to operate; • Long-term: Re-entry/new start, poss. even sanctioned by politicians, on the following grounds: rather new facilities than old, good for the climate, costeffectiveness, energy security. 4. A new look for nuclear power? HTR technology of particular interest due to the following benefits: • Disposal (less waste, recycling); • Technical controllability, core meltdown impossible; • Manageable dimensions (particularly important in CH); • Financial feasibility. Whether NP will remain on the agenda, and which technology wins through also depends heavily on external factors: climate policy, cost-effectiveness/financial feasibility, readiness for market, change in value, trends in other energy sources. 5. Summary: Future of NP difficult to predict. If technology is mature and launched on the market within a reasonable time frame, the potential is there. Opportunities

  17. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  18. Probabilistic Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft. This paper discusses our development of a diagnostic capability for an electrical power...

  19. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  20. The European fossil-fuelled power station database used in the SEI CASM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.

    1996-01-01

    The database contains details of power stations in Europe that burn fossil-fuels. All countries are covered from Ireland to the European region of Russia as far as the Urals. The following data are given for each station: Location (country and EMEP square), capacity (net MW e and boiler size), year of commissioning, and fuels burnt. A listing of the database is included in the report. The database is primarily used for estimation of emissions and abatement costs of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the SEI acid rain model CASM. 24 refs, tabs

  1. The European fossil-fuelled power station database used in the SEI CASM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, P. [comp.] [Stockholm Environment Inst. at York (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    The database contains details of power stations in Europe that burn fossil-fuels. All countries are covered from Ireland to the European region of Russia as far as the Urals. The following data are given for each station: Location (country and EMEP square), capacity (net MW{sub e} and boiler size), year of commissioning, and fuels burnt. A listing of the database is included in the report. The database is primarily used for estimation of emissions and abatement costs of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the SEI acid rain model CASM. 24 refs, tabs

  2. European stress tests for nuclear power plants. The Swedish National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku region in north Honshu, Japan, suffered a severe earthquake with an ensuing tsunami and an accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Due to the accident the Council of the European Union declared in late March that Member States were prepared to begin reviewing safety at nuclear facilities in the European Union by means of a comprehensive assessment of risk and safety ('stress testing'). On 25 May, SSM ordered the licensees of the nuclear power plants to conduct renewed analyses of the facilities' resilience against different kinds of natural phenomena. They were also to analyse how the facilities would be capable of dealing with a prolonged loss of electrical power, regardless of cause. On 31 October, the licensees reported on their stress tests to SSM. After reviewing these reports, SSM produced a summary stress test report, which was submitted to the Government on the 15 December. The present report is the national report on Swedish stress tests of nuclear power plants. The report will be submit to the European Commission no later than 31 December. Based on the review SSM has drawn the conclusion that the stress tests carried out by Swedish licensees are largely performed in accordance with the specification resolved within the European Union. The scope and depth of these analyses and assessments are essentially in accordance with ENSREG's definition of 'a comprehensive assessment of risk and safety'. The stress tests show that Swedish facilities are robust, but the tests also identify a number of opportunities to further strengthen the facilities' robustness. SSM will order the respective licensees to present an action plan for dealing with the results from the stress tests. The Authority will then examine the plans and adopt a standpoint on proposed measures as well as check that the necessary safety improvements are made. In a number of cases, the stress tests indicate deficiencies in relation to, or alternatively

  3. The European power plant infrastructure-Presentation of the Chalmers energy infrastructure database with applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaerstad, Jan; Johnsson, Filip

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a newly established database of the European power plant infrastructure (power plants, fuel infrastructure, fuel resources and CO 2 storage options) for the EU25 member states (MS) and applies the database in a general discussion of the European power plant and natural gas infrastructure as well as in a simple simulation analysis of British and German power generation up to the year 2050 with respect to phase-out of existing generation capacity, fuel mix and fuel dependency. The results are discussed with respect to age structure of the current production plants, CO 2 emissions, natural gas dependency and CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) under stringent CO 2 emission constraints. The analysis of the information from the power plant database, which includes planned projects, shows large variations in power plant infrastructure between the MS and a clear shift to natural gas-fuelled power plants during the last decade. The data indicates that this shift may continue in the short-term up to 2010 since the majority of planned plants are natural gas fired. The gas plants are, however, geographically concentrated to southern and northwest Europe. The data also shows large activities in the upstream gas sector to accommodate the ongoing shift to gas with pipelines, liquefaction plants and regasification terminals being built and gas fields being prepared for production. At the same time, utilities are integrating upwards in the fuel chain in order to secure supply while oil and gas companies are moving downwards the fuel chain to secure access to markets. However, it is not yet possible to state whether the ongoing shift to natural gas will continue in the medium term, i.e. after 2010, since this will depend on a number of factors as specified below. Recently there have also been announcements for construction of a number of new coal plants. The results of the simulations for the German and British power sector show that combination of a relatively low

  4. Smart Power Supply for Battery-Powered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence; Prokop, Norman F.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A power supply for battery-powered systems has been designed with an embedded controller that is capable of monitoring and maintaining batteries, charging hardware, while maintaining output power. The power supply is primarily designed for rovers and other remote science and engineering vehicles, but it can be used in any battery alone, or battery and charging source applications. The supply can function autonomously, or can be connected to a host processor through a serial communications link. It can be programmed a priori or on the fly to return current and voltage readings to a host. It has two output power busses: a constant 24-V direct current nominal bus, and a programmable bus for output from approximately 24 up to approximately 50 V. The programmable bus voltage level, and its output power limit, can be changed on the fly as well. The power supply also offers options to reduce the programmable bus to 24 V when the set power limit is reached, limiting output power in the case of a system fault detected in the system. The smart power supply is based on an embedded 8051-type single-chip microcontroller. This choice was made in that a credible progression to flight (radiation hard, high reliability) can be assumed as many 8051 processors or gate arrays capable of accepting 8051-type core presently exist and will continue to do so for some time. To solve the problem of centralized control, this innovation moves an embedded microcontroller to the power supply and assigns it the task of overseeing the operation and charging of the power supply assets. This embedded processor is connected to the application central processor via a serial data link such that the central processor can request updates of various parameters within the supply, such as battery current, bus voltage, remaining power in battery estimations, etc. This supply has a direct connection to the battery bus for common (quiescent) power application. Because components from multiple vendors may have

  5. Power system damping - Structural aspects of controlling active power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, O.

    1997-04-01

    Environmental and economical aspects make it difficult to build new power lines and to reinforce existing ones. The continued growth in demand for electric power must therefore to a great extent be met by increased loading of available lines. A consequence is that power system damping is reduced, leading to a risk of poorly damped power oscillations between the generators. This thesis proposes the use of controlled active loads to increase damping of such electro-mechanical oscillations. The focus is on structural aspects of controller interaction and of sensor and actuator placement. On-off control based on machine frequency in a single machine infinite bus system is analysed using energy function analysis and phase plane plots. An on-off controller with estimated machine frequency as input has been implemented. At a field test it damped oscillations of a 0.9 MW hydro power generator by controlling a 20kW load. The linear analysis uses two power system models with three and twenty-three machines respectively. Each damper has active power as output and local bus frequency or machine frequency as input. The power system simulator EUROSTAG is used both for generation of the linearized models and for time simulations. Measures of active power mode controllability and phase angle mode observability are obtained from the eigenvectors of the differential-algebraic models. The geographical variation in the network of these quantities is illustrated using the resemblance to bending modes of flexible mechanical structures. Eigenvalue sensitivities are used to determine suitable damper locations. A spring-mass equivalent to an inter-area mode provides analytical expressions, that together with the concept of impedance matching explain the structural behaviour of the power systems. For large gains this is investigated using root locus plots. 64 refs, 99 figs, 20 tabs

  6. Development of an autonomous power system testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.R.; Adams, T.; Liffring, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A power system testbed has been assembled to advance the development of large autonomous electrical power systems required for the space station, spacecraft, and aircraft. The power system for this effort was designed to simulate single- or dual-bus autonomous power systems, or autonomous systems that reconfigure from a single bus to a dual bus following a severe fault. The approach taken was to provide a flexible power system design with two computer systems for control and management. One computer operates as the control system and performs basic control functions, data and command processing, charge control, and provides status to the second computer. The second computer contains expert system software for mission planning, load management, fault identification and recovery, and sends load and configuration commands to the control system

  7. Power source system for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: When using an external system power source and an exclusive power source in a power source circuit for supplying power to the coils of a nuclear fusion apparatus, to minimize the capacity of the exclusive power source and provide an economical power source circuit construction. Structure: In the initial stage of the power supply, rectifying means provided in individual blocks are connected in parallel on the AC side, and power is supplied to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from an external system power source with the exclusive power source held in the disconnected state. Further, at an instant when the limit of permissible input is reached, the afore-mentioned parallel circuit consisting of rectifying means is disconnected, while at the same time the exclusive power source is connected to the input side of the rectifying means provided in a block corresponding to the exclusive power source side, thereby supplying power to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from both the external system power source and exclusive power source. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles...... (EVs) are assumed; comprising 2.5%, 15%, 34%, and 53% of the private passenger vehicle fleet in 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030, respectively. Results show that when charged/discharged intelligently, EVs can facilitate significantly increased wind power investments already at low vehicle fleet shares....... Moreover, due to vehicle-to-grid capability, EVs can reduce the need for new coal/natural gas power capacities. Wind power can be expected to provide a large share of the electricity for EVs in several of the countries. However, if EVs are not followed up by economic support for renewable energy...

  9. Dynamic Performance of the ITER Reactive Power Compensation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhicai; Fu Peng; Xu Liuwei

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic performance of a reactive power compensation (RPC) system for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) power supply is presented. Static var compensators (SVCs) are adopted to mitigate voltage fluctuation and reduce the reactive power down to a level acceptable for the French/European 400 kV grid. A voltage feedback and load power feedforward controller for SVC is proposed, with the feedforward loop intended to guarantee short response time and the feedback loop ensuring good dynamics and steady characteristics of SVC. A mean filter was chosen to measure the control signals to improve the dynamic response. The dynamic performance of the SVC is verified by simulations using PSCAD/EMTDC codes.

  10. Keys to success for wind power in isolated power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J C; Lundsager, P; Bindner, H; Hansen, L; Frandsen, S [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    It is generally expected that wind power could contribute significantly to the electricity supply in power systems of small and medium sized isolated communities. The market for such applications of wind power has not yet materialized. Wind power in isolated power systems have the main market potentials in developing countries. The money available world-wide for this technological development is limited and the necessary R and D and pilot programmes have difficult conditions. Consequently, technology developed exclusively for developing countries rarely becomes attractive for consumers, investors and funding agencies. A Danish research project is aimed at studying development of methods and guidelines rather than `universal solutions` for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. This paper report on the findings of the project regarding barriers removal and engineering methods development, with a focus on analysis and specification of user demand and priorities, numerical modeling requirements as well as wind power impact on power quality and power system operation. Input will be provided on these subjects for establishing of common guidelines on relevant technical issues, and thereby enabling the making of trustworthy project preparation studies. (au) EFP-97. 12 refs.

  11. Multiobjective clearing of reactive power market in deregulated power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.; Amjady, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market which is cleared in the form of multiobjective context. Total payment function (TPF) of generators, representing the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation, is considered as the main objective function of reactive power market. Besides that, voltage security margin, overload index, and also voltage drop index are the other objective functions of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the reactive power market. A Multiobjective Mathematical Programming (MMP) formulation is implemented to solve the problem of reactive power market clearing using a fuzzy approach to choose the best compromise solution according to the specific preference among various non-dominated (pareto optimal) solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  12. On energy efficient power allocation for power-constrained systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the energy efficiency (EE) has become an important factor when designing new wireless communication systems. Due to economic and environmental challenges, new trends and efforts are oriented toward “green” communication especially for energy-constrained applications such as wireless sensors network and cognitive radio. To this end, we analyze the power allocation scheme that maximizes the EE defined as rate over the total power including circuit power. We derive an explicit expression of the optimal power with instantaneous channel gain based on EE criterion. We show that the relation between the EE and the spectral efficiency (SE) when the optimal power is adopted is strictly increasing in contrast with the SE-EE trade-off discussed in the literature. We also solve a non-convex problem and compute explicitly the optimal power for ergodic EE under either a peak or an average power constraint. When the instantaneous channel is not available, we provide the optimal power equation and compute simple sub-optimal power. In the numerical results, we show that the sup-optimal solution is very close to the optimal solution. In addition, we show that the absence of the channel state information (CSI) only affects the EE and the SE performances at high power regime compared to the full CSI case.

  13. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...

  14. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and f...

  15. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  16. Study of aircraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The formulation of a philosophy for devising a reliable, efficient, lightweight, and cost effective electrical power system for advanced, large transport aircraft in the 1980 to 1985 time period is discussed. The determination and recommendation for improvements in subsystems and components are also considered. All aspects of the aircraft electrical power system including generation, conversion, distribution, and utilization equipment were considered. Significant research and technology problem areas associated with the development of future power systems are identified. The design categories involved are: (1) safety-reliability, (2) power type, voltage, frequency, quality, and efficiency, (3) power control, and (4) selection of utilization equipment.

  17. Direct current power delivery system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  18. Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Fagerholm, Nora; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry has been proposed as a sustainable agricultural system over conventional agriculture and forestry, conserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem service provision while not compromising productivity. However, the available evidence for the societal benefits of agroforestry...... is fragmented and does often not integrate diverse ecosystem services into the assessment. To upscale existing case-study insights to the European level, we conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of agroforestry on ecosystem service provision and on biodiversity levels. From 53 publications we extracted...... a total of 365 comparisons that were selected for the meta-analysis. Results revealed an overall positive effect of agroforestry (effect size = 0.454, p agroforestry practices...

  19. Optimized Bunch Compression System for the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Limberg, Torsten; Brinkmann, Reinhard; Decking, Winfried; Dohlus, Martin; Flöettmann, Klaus; Kim, Yujong; Schneidmiller, Evgeny

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL bunch compressor system has been optimized for greater flexibility in parameter space. Operation beyond the XFEL design parameters is discussed in two directions: achieving the uppermost number of photons in a single pulse on one hand and reaching the necessary peak current for lasing with a pulse as short as possible on the other. Results of start-to-end calculations including 3D-CSR effects, space charge forces and the impact on wake fields demonstrate the potential of the XFEL for further improvement or, respectively, its safety margin for operation at design values.

  20. PEP magnet power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    The dc electrical requirements of the PEP magnets fall mainly into two categories: (1) high power and current of single polarity and (2) low-power bi-polar. The first category will be thyristor-chopper controlled off common 600 V dc busses. The second group will utilize continuously controlled push-pull transistor actuators

  1. Intelligent power system data management systems (DBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, A.; Macdonald, E. [GE Digital Energy, Markham, ON (Canada); Schreiner, Z. [Intelligent Process Solutions GmbH, Lindau (Germany); Bizjak, J. [Elektro Ljubljana d.d., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    Network owners/operators from around the world have moved from electromechanical products to intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). Most networks have a multi-generation technology mix because protection assets have a normal application lifespan of between 10 and 40 years. Associated data capture and maintenance management regimes have therefore moved from paper based into digitized media, creating a significant increase in the volume of acquired data, such that there is now a mix of paper and digitized storage. Data is rarely consolidated or used for decision making in asset management processes once testing is completed, having a major impact on overall power system reliability. This paper presented the concept of intelligent operative maintenance management, now becoming more recognized in the industry. The concept was described as the management of operational data, resulting actions and responses, wherever and by whoever they are needed, without any additional overhead. The paper discussed new techniques of testing as well as planning and operative maintenance. The practical benefits of the new system were also presented, with particular reference to central management; simplification of routine protocols; secondary testing; and reduced cost of data handling. It was concluded that the main benefit from all of the techniques discussed in this paper is that experienced expert test engineers can focus more time upon making good, critical decisions to ensure that utilities maximize their customer service and safety regimes. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  2. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb

    2001-08-31

    The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity

  3. Power system reliability analysis using fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkanovski, A.; Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    2006-01-01

    The power system reliability analysis method is developed from the aspect of reliable delivery of electrical energy to customers. The method is developed based on the fault tree analysis, which is widely applied in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The method is adapted for the power system reliability analysis. The method is developed in a way that only the basic reliability parameters of the analysed power system are necessary as an input for the calculation of reliability indices of the system. The modeling and analysis was performed on an example power system consisting of eight substations. The results include the level of reliability of current power system configuration, the combinations of component failures resulting in a failed power delivery to loads, and the importance factors for components and subsystems. (author)

  4. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokova Viktoria Aleksandrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems: I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD. II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism. III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation. Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in the UK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission. Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.

  5. Scheduling of Power System Cells Integrating Stochastic Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.M.

    2008-12-01

    Energy supply and climate change are nowadays two of the most outstanding problems which societies have to cope with under a context of increasing energy needs. Public awareness of these problems is driving political willingness to take actions for tackling them in a swift and efficient manner. Such actions mainly focus in increasing energy efficiency, in decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, power systems are undergoing important changes in the way they are planned and managed. On the one hand, vertically integrated structures are being replaced by market structures in which power systems are un-bundled. On the other, power systems that once relied on large power generation facilities are witnessing the end of these facilities' life-cycle and, consequently, their decommissioning. The role of distributed energy resources such as wind and solar power generators is becoming increasingly important in this context. However, the large-scale integration of such type of generation presents many challenges due, for instance, to the uncertainty associated to the variability of their production. Nevertheless, advanced forecasting tools may be combined with more controllable elements such as energy storage devices, gas turbines, and controllable loads to form systems that aim to reduce the impacts that may be caused by these uncertainties. This thesis addresses the management under market conditions of these types of systems that act like independent societies and which are herewith named power system cells. From the available literature, a unified view of power system scheduling problems is also proposed as a first step for managing sets of power system cells in a multi-cell management framework. Then, methodologies for performing the optimal day-ahead scheduling of single power system cells are proposed, discussed and evaluated under both a deterministic and a stochastic framework that directly integrates the

  6. 9{sup th} international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 9th International Workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants at 18th to 19th October, 2010 in Quebec (Canada), lectures and poster papers were presented to the following themes: (1) Keynote session and panel; (2) European grid integration studies; (3) Modeling; (4) Wind forecasting; (5) North American grid integration studies; (6) Voltage stability and control; (7) Grid codes and impact studies; (8) Canadian University research (WESNet); (9) Operation and dispatch; (9) Offshore wind power plants; (10) Frequency Control; (11) Methodologies to estimate wind power impacts on power systems, summaries from IEAWIND collaboration; (12) HVDC; (13) Grid codes and system impact studies; (14) Modeling and validation; (15) Regulations, markets and offshore wind energy; (16) Integration issues; (17) Wind turbine control system; (18) Energy management and IT solutions.

  7. Faults and Diagnosis Systems in Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Choi, Uimin

    2014-01-01

    A power converter is needed in almost all kinds of renewable energy systems and drive systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and for interfacing with the load, which can be grid-connected or working in standalone mode. Further, it drives the motors efficiently. Increasing...... efforts have been put into making these systems better in terms of reliability in order to achieve high power source availability, reduce the cost of energy and also increase the reliability of overall systems. Among the components used in power converters, a power device and a capacitor fault occurs most...... frequently. Therefore, it is important to monitor the power device and capacitor fault to increase the reliability of power electronics. In this chapter, the diagnosis methods for power device fault will be discussed by dividing into open- and short-circuit faults. Then, the condition monitoring methods...

  8. Nuclear power project management information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Lailong; Zhang Peng; Xiao Ziyan; Chun Zengjun; Huang Futong

    2001-01-01

    Project Management Information System is an important infrastructure facility for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Station. Based on the practice of Lingao nuclear power project management information system (NPMIS), the author describes the NPMIS design goals, system architecture and software functionality, points out the outline issues during the development and deployment of NPMIS

  9. Trading in the rain. Rainfall and European power sector emissions. Research note no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Analysts often say that temperature and rainfall have an impact on the price of CO 2 , as they influence the conditions of electric power supply and demand. Rainfall mainly affects the capacity of hydropower production, the third largest source of electricity in Europe and by far the leading source of renewable energy. The variability of hydroelectric volumes is indeed usually offset by other, higher-emitting sources of electricity, which has repercussions on the European allowances trading market. In 2005, rainfall was unusually low in several European countries: in the Iberian peninsula and in France, drought is believed to have brought about a rise of approximately 15 Mt CO 2 in power sector emissions. In contrast, hydrological conditions were particularly good in the Nordic countries, allowing them to reduce CO 2 emissions in the region as a whole through hydropower-based exports. The additional allowances demand would therefore have been 'only' about 9 Mt CO 2 . To make the interaction with the CO 2 market easier to understand, an indicator of rainfall in Europe must include this compensating phenomenon resulting from the heterogeneity of the climatic conditions and volumes produced in Europe

  10. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  11. Handbook of co₂ in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rebennack, Steffen; Pardalos, Panos; Pereira, Mario; Iliadis, Niko

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of CO₂in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂emissions considerations, CO₂market mechanism modeling, CO₂regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.

  12. DC power supplies power management and surge protection for power electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kularatna, Nihal

    2011-01-01

    Modern electronic systems, particularly portable consumer electronic systems and processor based systems, are power hungry, compact, and feature packed. This book presents the most essential summaries of the theory behind DC-DC converter topologies of both linear and switching types. The text discusses power supply characteristics and design specifications based on new developments in power management techniques and modern semiconductors entering into the portable electronics market. The author also addresses off-the-line power supplies, digital control of power supply, power supply protection

  13. European Train Control System: A Case Study in Formal Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, André; Quesel, Jan-David

    Complex physical systems have several degrees of freedom. They only work correctly when their control parameters obey corresponding constraints. Based on the informal specification of the European Train Control System (ETCS), we design a controller for its cooperation protocol. For its free parameters, we successively identify constraints that are required to ensure collision freedom. We formally prove the parameter constraints to be sharp by characterizing them equivalently in terms of reachability properties of the hybrid system dynamics. Using our deductive verification tool KeYmaera, we formally verify controllability, safety, liveness, and reactivity properties of the ETCS protocol that entail collision freedom. We prove that the ETCS protocol remains correct even in the presence of perturbation by disturbances in the dynamics. We verify that safety is preserved when a PI controlled speed supervision is used.

  14. Artificial intelligence in power system optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2013-01-01

    With the considerable increase of AI applications, AI is being increasingly used to solve optimization problems in engineering. In the past two decades, the applications of artificial intelligence in power systems have attracted much research. This book covers the current level of applications of artificial intelligence to the optimization problems in power systems. This book serves as a textbook for graduate students in electric power system management and is also be useful for those who are interested in using artificial intelligence in power system optimization.

  15. Power system protection 1 principles and components

    CERN Document Server

    Association, Electricity Training

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  16. Neutral Beam Power System for TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, S.; Bowen, O.N.; O'Conner, T.; Edwards, J.; Fromm, N.; Hatcher, R.; Newman, R.; Rossi, G.; Stevenson, T.; von Halle, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will utilize to the maximum extent the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) equipment and facilities. This is particularly true for the TFTR Neutral Beam (NB) system. Most of the NB hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, power systems, service infrastructure, and control systems can be used as is. The major changes in the NB hardware are driven by the new operating duty cycle. The TFTR Neutral Beam was designed for operation of the Sources for 2 seconds every 150 seconds. The TPX requires operation for 1000 seconds every 4500 seconds. During the Conceptual Design Phase of TPX every component of the TFTR NB Electrical Power System was analyzed to verify whether the equipment can meet the new operational requirements with our without modifications. The Power System converts 13.8 kV prime power to controlled pulsed power required at the NB sources. The major equipment involved are circuit breakers, auto and rectifier transformers surge suppression components, power tetrodes, HV Decks, and HVDC power transmission to sources. Thermal models were developed for the power transformers to simulate the new operational requirements. Heat runs were conducted for the power tetrodes to verify capability. Other components were analyzed to verify their thermal limitations. This paper describes the details of the evaluation and redesign of the electrical power system components to meet the TPX operational requirements

  17. Acceptance test report: Backup power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    Acceptance Test Report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 Backup Power System. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. Backup power includes a single 125 KW diesel generator, three 10-kva uninterruptible power supply units, and all necessary control

  18. Wind power systems. Applications of computational intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingfeng [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Singh, Chanan [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Kusiak, Andrew (eds.) [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources such as wind power have attracted much attention because they are environmentally friendly, do not produce carbon dioxide and other emissions, and can enhance a nation's energy security. For example, recently more significant amounts of wind power are being integrated into conventional power grids. Therefore, it is necessary to address various important and challenging issues related to wind power systems, which are significantly different from the traditional generation systems. This book is a resource for engineers, practitioners, and decision-makers interested in studying or using the power of computational intelligence based algorithms in handling various important problems in wind power systems at the levels of power generation, transmission, and distribution. Researchers have been developing biologically-inspired algorithms in a wide variety of complex large-scale engineering domains. Distinguished from the traditional analytical methods, the new methods usually accomplish the task through their computationally efficient mechanisms. Computational intelligence methods such as evolutionary computation, neural networks, and fuzzy systems have attracted much attention in electric power systems. Meanwhile, modern electric power systems are becoming more and more complex in order to meet the growing electricity market. In particular, the grid complexity is continuously enhanced by the integration of intermittent wind power as well as the current restructuring efforts in electricity industry. Quite often, the traditional analytical methods become less efficient or even unable to handle this increased complexity. As a result, it is natural to apply computational intelligence as a powerful tool to deal with various important and pressing problems in the current wind power systems. This book presents the state-of-the-art development in the field of computational intelligence applied to wind power systems by reviewing the most up

  19. Safety requirements for a nuclear power plant electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, L F; Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    This work aims at identifying the safety requirements for the electric power system in a typical nuclear power plant, in view of the UNSRC and the IAEA. Description of a typical system is provided, followed by a presentation of the scope of the information required for safety evaluation of the system design and performance. The acceptance and design criteria that must be met as being specified by both regulatory systems, are compared. Means of implementation of such criteria as being described in the USNRC regulatory guides and branch technical positions on one hand and in the IAEA safety guides on the other hand are investigated. It is concluded that the IAEA regulations address the problems that may be faced with in countries having varying grid sizes ranging from large stable to small potentially unstable ones; and that they put emphasis on the onsite standby power supply. Also, in this respect the Americans identify the grid as the preferred power supply to the plant auxiliaries, while the IAEA leaves the possibility that the preferred power supply could be either the grid or the unit main generator depending on the reliability of each. Therefore, it is found that it is particularly necessary in this area of electric power supplies to deal with the IAEA and the American sets of regulations as if each complements and not supplements the other. (author)

  20. European roadmap to the realization of fusion energy: Mission for solution on heat-exhaust systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnyanskiy, M., E-mail: mikhail.turnyanskiy@euro-fusion.org [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Neu, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmapysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Fachgebiet Plasma-Wand-Wechselwirkung, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [Assoc. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE/DIETI – Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 (Italy); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [Association EURATOM/Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Donne, T. [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Eich, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmapysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Falchetto, G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Federici, G.; Kalupin, D.; Litaudon, X.; Mayoral, M.L.; McDonald, D.C. [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Reimerdes, H. [EPFL, CRPP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Romanelli, F.; Wenninger, R. [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); You, J.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmapysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A summary of the main aims of the Mission 2 for a solution on heat-exhaust systems. • A description of the EUROfusion consortium strategy to address Mission 2. • A definition of main unresolved issues and challenges in Mission 2. • Work Breakdown Structure to set up the collaborative efforts to address these challenges. - Abstract: Horizon 2020 is the largest EU Research and Innovation programme to date. The European fusion research programme for Horizon 2020 is outlined in the “Roadmap to the realization of fusion energy” and published in 2012 [1]. As part of it, the European Fusion Consortium (EUROfusion) has been established and will be responsible for implementing this roadmap through its members. The European fusion roadmap sets out a strategy for a collaboration to achieve the goal of generating fusion electricity by 2050. It is based on a goal-oriented approach with eight different missions including the development of heat-exhaust systems which must be capable of withstanding the large heat and particle fluxes of a fusion power plant (FPP). A summary of the main aims of the mission for a solution on heat-exhaust systems and the EUROfusion consortium strategy to set up an efficient Work Breakdown Structure and the collaborative efforts to address these challenges will be presented.

  1. European roadmap to the realization of fusion energy: Mission for solution on heat-exhaust systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnyanskiy, M.; Neu, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Bachmann, C.; Brezinsek, S.; Donne, T.; Eich, T.; Falchetto, G.; Federici, G.; Kalupin, D.; Litaudon, X.; Mayoral, M.L.; McDonald, D.C.; Reimerdes, H.; Romanelli, F.; Wenninger, R.; You, J.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A summary of the main aims of the Mission 2 for a solution on heat-exhaust systems. • A description of the EUROfusion consortium strategy to address Mission 2. • A definition of main unresolved issues and challenges in Mission 2. • Work Breakdown Structure to set up the collaborative efforts to address these challenges. - Abstract: Horizon 2020 is the largest EU Research and Innovation programme to date. The European fusion research programme for Horizon 2020 is outlined in the “Roadmap to the realization of fusion energy” and published in 2012 [1]. As part of it, the European Fusion Consortium (EUROfusion) has been established and will be responsible for implementing this roadmap through its members. The European fusion roadmap sets out a strategy for a collaboration to achieve the goal of generating fusion electricity by 2050. It is based on a goal-oriented approach with eight different missions including the development of heat-exhaust systems which must be capable of withstanding the large heat and particle fluxes of a fusion power plant (FPP). A summary of the main aims of the mission for a solution on heat-exhaust systems and the EUROfusion consortium strategy to set up an efficient Work Breakdown Structure and the collaborative efforts to address these challenges will be presented.

  2. Oral healthcare systems in the extended European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, Eeva; Eaton, Kenneth A

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a survey of the systems for the provision of oral healthcare in the 28 member and accession states of the EU/EEA in 2003. Descriptions of the systems were collected from the principal dental advisers to governments in the individual states. In many states these were the Chief Dental Officers (CDOs). In states without a CDO, descriptions were gathered from CDO equivalents or senior academics. A template (model description) was used to guide all respondents. Additional statistical information on oral healthcare costs and workforce was collected from the Council of European Chief Dental Officers, WHO and World Bank websites. The study showed that in broad terms there were six patterns (Beveridgian, Bismarkian, The Eastern European (in transition), Nordic, Southern European and Hybrid) for the administration and financing of oral healthcare in the expanding EU. The extent and nature of government involvement in planning and coordinating oral healthcare services and the numbers and pay of the oral healthcare workforce varied between the different models. The biggest recent changes in European oral healthcare were found to have occurred in Eastern Europe, where there has been wide scale privatization of the previously public dental services. However, most of the EU accession (Eastern European) states seemed to be slowly developing insurance systems to cover oral health treatment costs. In the existing EU/EEA, the public dental services such as those in the Nordic countries still have strong political support and some expansion has occurred. In Southern Europe public dental services seemed to have gained some acceptance for the treatment of children and special needs groups. In UK, which has a unique public dental service system, there are plans to make big changes in the delivery, commissioning and remuneration of dental services in the near future. Some EU member states which operate the Bismarkian system with health insurances offering wide

  3. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  4. The liberalization of the European energy market from the perspective of the Austrian regional power company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, H.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the liberalization of the European energy sector from an Austrian perspective, emphasizing its effect on a regional power company (KELAG). The energy market's changing conditions are creating new opportunities for consumers that allow them to optimize their ability to fulfill their power requirements. Decentralized solutions are now just as viable for large industrial customers as the ability to have all energy supplied through the utility network. In addition, partnerships with independent power producers (IPP's) or cooperation between the large customers in energy production can be considered. From a regional perspective, the central management concept of KELAG is the answer to an altered market situation, since this concept created tremendous potential for streamlining the management of energy production and operation of the network. The liberalization of the energy market for large industrial customers in Carinthia's electricity sector was preceded by a series of important decisions. The Verbundgesellschaft combine their generating facilities. In the future the power plants of Draukraft in Carinthia will be supervised and controlled remotely from KELAG's central control unit in Klagenfurt, as a result of which the central control unit becomes the primary energy control for Carinthia. (author)

  5. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu V.S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Power distribution systems are basic parts of power systems and reliability of these systems at present is a key issue for power engineering development and requires special attention. Operation of distribution systems is accompanied by a number of factors that produce random data a large number of unplanned interruptions. Research has shown that the predominant factors that have a significant influence on the reliability of distribution systems are: weather conditions (39.7%, defects in equipment(25% and unknown random factors (20.1%. In the article is studied the influence of random behavior and are presented estimations of reliability of predominantly rural electrical distribution systems.

  6. Power system SCADA and smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Mini S

    2015-01-01

    Power System SCADA and Smart Grids brings together in one concise volume the fundamentals and possible application functions of power system supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). The text begins by providing an overview of SCADA systems, evolution, and use in power systems and the data acquisition process. It then describes the components of SCADA systems, from the legacy remote terminal units (RTUs) to the latest intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), data concentrators, and master stations, as well as:Examines the building and practical implementation of different SCADA systemsOf

  7. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  8. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high......). A collection of methodologies based on Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile analysis are presented in this paper to perform reliability-oriented design of power electronic systems. The corresponding design procedures and reliability prediction models are provided. Further on, a case study...... on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical components IGBTs. Different aspects of improving the reliability of the power converter are mapped. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to achieve more reliable power electronic systems are addressed....

  9. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventi......Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...

  10. HVDC transmission power conversion applications in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chan-Ki; Jang, Gil-Soo; Lim, Seong-Joo; Lee, Seok-Jin

    2009-01-01

    HVDC is a critical solution to several major problems encountered when trying to maintain systemic links and quality in large-scale renewable energy environments. HDVC can resolve a number of issues, including voltage stability of AC power networks, reducing fault current, and optimal management of electric power, ensuring the technology will play an increasingly important role in the electric power industry. To address the pressing need for an up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of the subject, Kim, Sood, Jang, Lim and Lee have collaborated to produce this key text and reference.  Combin

  11. Propulsion element requirements using electrical power system unscheduled power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Frank; Hodge, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of using the electrical energy from the Space Station's Electrical Power System (EPS) during the periods of peak solar insolation which is currently not specifically allocated (unscheduled power) to produce propulsion propellants, gaseous hydrogen, and oxygen by electrolyzing water is investigated. Reboost propellant requirements are emphasized, but the results are more generally relevant because the balance of recurring propellant requirements are an order of magnitude smaller and the nonrecurring requirements are not significant on an average basis.

  12. Hybrid power filter for advanced power quality in industrial systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, J.; Müller, Z.; Kasembe, A. G.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, october 2013 (2013), s. 157-167 ISSN 0378-7796 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : hybrid power filter * power quality * industrial system Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779613001417

  13. Main Characteristics of Nuclear Power Plants in the European Union and Candidate Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillington, J.N.; Turland, B.D.; Haste, T.J.; Seiler, J.M.; Tapia, J.; Carretero, A.; Perez, T.; Geutges, A.; Sehgal, B.R.; Mattila, L.; Holmstrom, H.; Karwat, H.; Maroti, L.; Husarcek, J.

    2001-10-01

    The main objective was to advise the EC on future challenges and opportunities in terms of enhanced co-operation in the area of nuclear safety and harmonization of safety requirements and practices in an enlarged European Union Part of this activity was to provide a summary of the plant characteristics of the operating civil nuclear power plants in the EU Member and Candidate Countries. The present report provides these data in three formats: A reference table which lists the main characteristics of nuclear power-producing reactors operating in the European Union (EU) and Candidate Countries, as at 31 December 1999. Also included, for the sake of completeness, are data for reactors in the former Soviet Union, such as Russia and the Ukraine. The format adopted follows that in the annual International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reference data report ''Nuclear Power Reactors of the World'', from which much of the information was taken; A summary table indicating totals by reactor type covering Western and Eastern Europe separately, again from IAEA sources, giving number of plant, total generating capacity and total years in operation. A list of the abbreviations for different reactor types is also provided; A set of detailed data sheets giving main plant characteristics for different reactor types ordered by country. These data sheets cover reactors in EU Member and Candidate Countries only. Details are provided on the origin of the data where these are available, so that further information may be obtained if desired and where permitted by commercial and/or proprietary considerations. (author)

  14. Real-time impact of power balancing on power system operation with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2017-01-01

    Highly wind power integrated power system requires continuous active power regulation to tackle the power imbalances resulting from the wind power forecast errors. The active power balance is maintained in real-time with the automatic generation control and also from the control room, where...... power system model. The power system model takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan from power balancing model and the generation and power exchange capacities for the year 2020 into account. The real-time impact of power balancing in a highly wind power integrated power system is assessed...

  15. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  16. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  17. New architectures for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, M.; Patton, A.D.; Biglic, O.

    1992-01-01

    Electric power generation and conditioning have experienced revolutionary development over the past two decades. Furthermore, new materials such as high energy magnets and high temperature superconductors are either available or on the horizon. The authors' work is based on the promise that new technologies are an important driver of new power system concepts and architectures. This observation is born out by the historical evolution of power systems both in terrestrial and aerospace applications. This paper will introduce new approaches to designing space power systems by using several new technologies

  18. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  19. The electrical system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga; Gunarwan Prayitno

    2009-01-01

    In these system, electrical power system is supplied from two-offsite transmission system respective main transformer and house service transformer; and reserve transformer. The electrical load in these system consist of safety electrical system and non-safety electrical system, The safety electrical and non safety electrical systems consist of four 6,9 kV AC medium voltage bus and 480 V AC low voltage bus system. The DC power system consist of four safety 125 V DC power system and the two non-safety 125 DC power systems. The equipment in these electrical system is main turbine-generator; GTG safety; GTG alternate; uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and battery system. To protect electrical equipment and building to direct stroke and non direct stroke disturbances is installed netral grounding system and lightning protection and protection the personnel to touch-voltage is installed equipment grounding system and station grounding. The lightning arrester system is connected to station station grounding system. (author)

  20. Five Indisputable Facts on Modern Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland; Helman, Udi [Helman Analytics; Summers, Kate [Pacific Hydro; Bakke, Jordan [Midcontinent Independent System Operator

    2017-08-01

    This presentation overviews five indisputable facts about modern power systems: Fact one: The grid can handle more renewable generation than previously thought. Fact two: Geographic and resource diversity provide additional reliability to the system. Fact three: Wind and solar forecasting provide significant value. Fact four: Our electric power markets were not originally designed for variable renewables -- but they could be adapted. Fact five: Modern power electronics are creating new sources of essential reliability services.

  1. Analysis of power system collapse risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleschova, Z.; Belan, A.; Cintula, B.; Smitkova, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper are analysed the initialization events with considering different scenarios and their impact on the power system transient stability. As an initialization event is considered a short circuit at various places of power line. In each scenario are considered protection failures (backup protection), circuit-breaker failures (breaker failure relay activation). The individual states are analysed and the power system collapse risk assessed based on the simulation experiments results (Authors)

  2. Artificial intelligence techniques in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughton, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    Since the early to mid 1980s much of the effort in power systems analysis has turned away from the methodology of formal mathematical modelling which came from the fields of operations research, control theory and numerical analysis to the less rigorous techniques of artificial intelligence (AI). Today the main AI techniques found in power systems applications are those utilising the logic and knowledge representations of expert systems, fuzzy systems, artificial neural networks (ANN) and, more recently, evolutionary computing. These techniques will be outlined in this chapter and the power system applications indicated. (Author)

  3. Multimegawatt nuclear systems for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design and performance capability requirements of multi-MW nuclear powerplants for SDI systems are considered. The candidate powerplant configurations encompass Rankine, Brayton, and thermionic cycles; these respectively provide the lightest to heaviest system masses, since reactor and shield masses represent only 10-30 percent of total closed power system weight for the Rankine and Brayton systems. Many of the gas reactor concepts entertained may be operated in dual mode, thereby furnishing both long term low power and high power for short periods. Heat rejection is identified as the most important technology, since about 50 percent of the total closed mass is constituted by the heat rejection system. 9 references

  4. Proceedings: Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The EPRI Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop, held April 24--25, 1991, in Princeton, New Jersey, brought together utilities, architect/engineers, and equipment suppliers to discuss common problems with power plant auxiliary systems. Workshop participants presented papers on monitoring, identifying, and solving problems with auxiliary systems. Panel discussions focused on improving systems and existing and future plants. The solutions presented to common auxiliary system problems focused on practical ideas that can enhance plant availability, reduce maintenance costs, and simplify the engineering process. The 13 papers in these proceedings include: Tutorials on auxiliary electrical systems and motors; descriptions of evaluations, software development, and new technologies used recently by electric utilities; an analysis of historical performance losses caused by power plant auxiliary systems; innovative design concepts for improving auxiliary system performance in future power plants

  5. Reliability of power electronic converter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Henry Shu-hung; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of Power Electronic Converter Systems (PECS) at different levels of complexity.

  6. Improved Power System of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowitz, Mario

    2003-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an insight into physics and engineering that can modernize electric power systems. Topics covered are Flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), Custom Power, Greatly improved Capacitors, Electrical Insulation, Distribution Cables, Improved Polymeric Insulation, Underground Vault Explosions, Fault Location, Smart Cables, Neutral and Ground, Corrosion and Protection, Conventional Transformers, Compact Transformers, Ferroresonance, and Solid State Transformers.

  7. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  8. Incipient fault detection and power system protection for spaceborne systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B. Don; Hackler, Irene M.

    1987-01-01

    A program was initiated to study the feasibility of using advanced terrestrial power system protection techniques for spacecraft power systems. It was designed to enhance and automate spacecraft power distribution systems in the areas of safety, reliability and maintenance. The proposed power management/distribution system is described as well as security assessment and control, incipient and low current fault detection, and the proposed spaceborne protection system. It is noted that the intelligent remote power controller permits the implementation of digital relaying algorithms with both adaptive and programmable characteristics.

  9. Efficiency vs Effectiveness: a Benchmarking Study on European Healthcare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates a benchmarking study concerning the healthcare systems in 32 European countries as of 2011 and 2014. Particularly, this study proposes a two-dimensional approach (efficiency/effectiveness models to evaluate the performance of national healthcare systems. Data Envelopment Analysis has been adopted to compute two performance indices, measuring efficiency and effectiveness of these healthcare systems. The results of the study emphasize that the national healthcare systems achieve different efficiency and effectiveness levels. Their performance indices are uncorrelated and behave differently over time, suggesting that there might be no real trade-off between them. The healthcare systems’ efficiencies remain generally stable, while the effectiveness values significantly improved from 2011 to 2014. However, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness scores, the authors identified a group of countries with the lowest performing healthcare systems that includes Ukraine, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Lithuania, and Romania. These countries need to implement healthcare reforms aimed at reducing resource intensity and increasing the quality of medical services. The results also showed the benefits of the proposed approach, which can help policy makers to identify shortcomings in national healthcare systems and justify the need for their reform.

  10. Simulating European wind power generation applying statistical downscaling to reanalysis data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Aparicio, I.; Monforti, F.; Volker, P.; Zucker, A.; Careri, F.; Huld, T.; Badger, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Wind speed spatial resolution highly influences calculated wind power peaks and ramps. •Reduction of wind power generation uncertainties using statistical downscaling. •Publicly available dataset of wind power generation hourly time series at NUTS2. -- Abstract: The growing share of electricity production from solar and mainly wind resources constantly increases the stochastic nature of the power system. Modelling the high share of renewable energy sources – and in particular wind power – crucially depends on the adequate representation of the intermittency and characteristics of the wind resource which is related to the accuracy of the approach in converting wind speed data into power values. One of the main factors contributing to the uncertainty in these conversion methods is the selection of the spatial resolution. Although numerical weather prediction models can simulate wind speeds at higher spatial resolution (up to 1 × 1 km) than a reanalysis (generally, ranging from about 25 km to 70 km), they require high computational resources and massive storage systems: therefore, the most common alternative is to use the reanalysis data. However, local wind features could not be captured by the use of a reanalysis technique and could be translated into misinterpretations of the wind power peaks, ramping capacities, the behaviour of power prices, as well as bidding strategies for the electricity market. This study contributes to the understanding what is captured by different wind speeds spatial resolution datasets, the importance of using high resolution data for the conversion into power and the implications in power system analyses. It is proposed a methodology to increase the spatial resolution from a reanalysis. This study presents an open access renewable generation time series dataset for the EU-28 and neighbouring countries at hourly intervals and at different geographical aggregation levels (country, bidding zone and administrative

  11. Power electronics and control techniques for maximum energy harvesting in photovoltaic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Femia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) so

  12. Power quality in electric distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    the power quality of the electric system is defined by the constant values of the voltage and frequency, the good value of the power factor close to unity, and balanced three phase voltages and currents. capacitors are widely installed in distribution systems for reactive power compensation to achieve power and energy loss reduction, voltage regulation and system capacity release. the extent of these benefits depends greatly on low the capacitors are placed on the system . the problem of how to place capacitors on the system such that these benefits are achieved and / or maximized against the cost associated with the capacitor placement is termed the general capacitor placement problem.the presented mathematical model has been developed to determine the size, number, and location of fixed capacitor banks that will maximize the saving derived from reduction in peak power and energy loss, and that will minimize the capital and installation costs of capacitors

  13. Optimal control applications in electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, G S; Soliman, S A

    1987-01-01

    Significant advances in the field of optimal control have been made over the past few decades. These advances have been well documented in numerous fine publications, and have motivated a number of innovations in electric power system engineering, but they have not yet been collected in book form. Our purpose in writing this book is to provide a description of some of the applications of optimal control techniques to practical power system problems. The book is designed for advanced undergraduate courses in electric power systems, as well as graduate courses in electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and industrial engineering. It is also intended as a self-study aid for practicing personnel involved in the planning and operation of electric power systems for utilities, manufacturers, and consulting and government regulatory agencies. The book consists of seven chapters. It begins with an introductory chapter that briefly reviews the history of optimal control and its power system applications and also p...

  14. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  15. RODOS: a comprehensive European - integrated decision support system for Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, Gh.; Gheorghiu, Adriana; Gheorghiu, Dorina; Slavnicu, Dan; Craciunescu, Teddy

    1998-01-01

    This work is basically dedicated to RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn support System), a comprehensive (computerized) decision support system ((C)DSS), integrated at European scale, which is in progress to be customized and implemented also for Romania to cope with the off-site response to nuclear emergencies. The first part deals with a short introduction regarding the need for a decision support system especially in case of a nuclear accident; there are also briefly reviewed the criteria one could demand that a CDSS should fulfill and the need for CDSS to give unequivocal answers to all encountered matters. Subsequently, there are mentioned some of the most known DSS in the world for off-site response to nuclear emergencies together with certain recent accomplishment of the IAEA in this field. The next chapter is dedicated to the four basic related projects (ECURIE, EURDEP, OSEP and RODOS) of the European Commission whose purpose consists in the optimisation of the nuclear emergency preparedness and response everywhere in Europe. Further on there are presented the basic features (the overall structure and functions), along with component software subsystems of the RODOS and, then, the background of RODOS implementation in Romania is reviewed (Romanian reasons to adhere to the RODOS project, needs, national legal framework and competent authorities in the nuclear domain, national radiological and meteorological networks. Finally, it is shortly reported the present status of RODOS customization and implementation in Romania (RODOS dedicated technical environment, collection of data and their transfer into RoGIS database, real-time on-line connection to networks, collection of data for countermeasure modules, source term assessment for CANDU-reactor, other related achievements) together with some concluding remarks. (authors)

  16. ETSON proposal on the European operational experience feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqua, Michael; Bertrand, Remy; Gelder, Pieter de

    2007-01-01

    The new IAEA Safety Fundamentals states regarding the operating experience feedback: The feedback of operating experience from facilities and activities - and, where relevant, from elsewhere - is a key means of enhancing safety. Processes must be put in place for the feedback and analysis of operating experience, including initiating events, accident precursors, near misses, accidents and unauthorized acts, so that lessons may be learned, shared and acted upon. This presentation deals with the proposal of the ETSON (European TSO Network) to optimize the European operating experiences feedback (OEF). It is generally recognized that the efficiency of nuclear safety supervision by public authorities is based on two key requirements: - the existence of a competent authority at national level, benefiting from an appropriate legislative and regulatory basis, from adequate (quantitatively and qualitatively) human resources, particularly for inspection purposes, - the availability of resources devoted to highly specialised independent technical expertise, in order to provide competent authorities with pertinent technical opinions on: -- the safety files provided by operators, for the purpose of licensing corresponding activities, -- the exploitation for regulatory purposes of the operating experience feed back from licensed nuclear installations. There are two worldwide systems intended to learn lessons from experience: the WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) system established by the licensees with access restricted to operating organizations and the IRS system jointly operated by IAEA and OECD/NEA accessible to regulators and to some other users nominated by the regulators in their countries. The IRS itself is dedicated to the analysis of safety significant operating events. NEA/CNRA runs a permanent working group on operating experience (WGOE). WGOE provides among other things also generic reports on safety concerns related to operating experiences and

  17. Space power plants and power-consuming industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyshev, L.; Semashko, N.

    1996-01-01

    An opportunity to create the space power production on the basis of solar, nuclear and fusion energies is analyzed. The priority of solar power production as the most accessible and feasible in comparison with others is emphasized. However, later on, it probably will play an auxiliary role. The possibilities of fusion power production, as a basic one in future, are also considered. It is necessary to create reactors using the fueling cycle with helium-3 (instead of tritium and deuterium, later on). The reaction products--charged particles, mainly--allow one to organize the system of direct fusion energy conversion into electricity. The produced energy is expected not to be transmitted to Earth, but an industry in space is expected to be produced on its basis. The industrial (power and science-consuming) objects located on a whole number of space apparatus will form a single complex with its own basic power plant. The power transmission within the complex will be realized with high power density fluxes of microwave radiation to short distances with their receivers at the objects. The necessary correction of the apparatus positions in the complex will be done with ion and plasma thrusters. The materials present on the Moon, asteroids and on other planets can serve as raw materials for industrial objects. Such an approach will help to improve the ecological state on Earth, to eliminate the necessity in the fast energy consumption growth and to reduce the hazard of global thermal crisis

  18. Application of a new Terrestrial Telecommunications System in the European Air Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draško Marin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeronautical Public Correspondence (APC is a telecommtmicationsse!Vice, which enables passengers onboard aircraftto make telecommunication calls to people on the ground.This article describes the terrestrial communications seiVicewhich is based on cellular network for the European CEPTmember countries (CEPT- European Conference of Postaland Telecommunications Administrations named TerrestrialFlight Telecommunications System (TFTS.This system is a Pan-European System, which means theusage of hannonised frequencies in Europe with hannonisedstandards for the TFTS equipment, which have been issued bythe European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI.Frequencies allocated for TFTS have been designated bythe World Administrative Radio Conference, WARC-92 withfrequency bandwidth of 2x5 MHz:1670- 1675 MHz, for ground to air1800- 1805 MHz, for air to ground.TFTS planning is perfonned by the application of frequencyblocks (42 blocks with 164 channels in total. Bandwidthof each radio channel, which contains 4 speech channels,is equal to 30.3 kHz.Due to the very high flight of the aircraft (about 13,000 m,it needs a long distance between the centres of cells (radio stationon the ground to avoid the eo-channel or adjacent channelinteJference.The article presents the planning process with typical cellradius of240km or 350km. In the viewofthatfact, the need ispointed out for finding a compromise solution with regard toemitting power and the influence of interference.Final(v, it is noted that TFTS ground radio stations inCroatia, which are located in Zagreb and Split, may cover theterritory of some neighbouring countries other than Croatia,which is important from the commercial point of view.

  19. Making concentrated solar power competitive with coal: The costs of a European feed-in tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williges, Keith; Lilliestam, Johan; Patt, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has yet to determine how exactly to reach its greenhouse gas emissions targets for the future. One potential answer involves large-scale development of concentrated solar power (CSP) in the North African region, transmitting the power to Europe. CSP is a relatively young and little utilized technology and is expensive when compared to other methods of generation. Feasibility studies have shown it is possible to generate enough power from CSP plants in Africa to spearhead the EUs climate goals. However, the costs of such a project are less well known. Currently, CSP must compete with low cost coal-fired electricity plants, severely hindering development. We examine the possible investment costs required for North African CSP levelized electricity cost to equal those of coal-fired plants and the potential subsidy costs needed to encourage growth until the technologies reach price parity. We also examine the sensitivity of investment and subsidies to changes in key factors. We find that estimates of subsidy amounts are reasonable for the EU and that sensitivity to such factors as perceived risk and learning rates would enable policy-makers to positively influence the cost of subsidies and time required for CSP to be competitive with coal.

  20. A Global Civilian Power? The Future Role of the European Union in International Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions about the future of the European Union as an international actor continue to puzzle students of international relations and particularly students of EU foreign policy. What kind of predictions can we make about the future role of the EU in international politics? While the question is often framed in terms of military versus normative and/or global civilian power Europe, there are indications that ambitions in both directions may very well coincide. However, despite the EU’s development towards deepened defense integration since the 1990s, such developments are by far outweighed by developments pointing in the direction of the EU consolidating its role as a global civilian power. In this article, we analyze the union’s civilian policies and contrast the findings of our analysis with developments in the field of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP. Based on our analysis of EU enlargement policy, external aid, global environmental policy and the union’s commitment to multilateralism, our conclusion is that the EU’s international role in the next decades will continue to be best described in terms of a global civilian power.