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Sample records for european larch larix

  1. Specific leaf area of European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Helga; Dirnberger, Gerald F; Sterba, Hubert

    The specific leaf area of European larch depends on branch height and canopy depth, indicating that both, the effect of hydraulic limitations and low water potentials in greater branch heights, and light availability affect specific leaf area. Specific leaf area (SLA) is defined as the ratio between projected leaf area and needle dry mass. It often serves as parameter in ecosystem modelling as well as indicator for potential growth rate. We explore the SLA of European larch (Larix decidua) and the most important factors which have an influence on it. Data were collected from eight stands in Styria, Austria. The stands varied in age, elevation and species mixture. Four stands were pure larch stands with only minor proportions of Norway spruce (Picea abies), whereas the other four were mixed stands of larch and spruce. In each stand 15 representative sample trees were felled. The crown of each sample tree was divided into three sections of equal length and in each section a random sample of needles was taken for determining projected leaf area and dry mass of 50 needles. The mean SLA of larch was established to be 117 cm(2) g(-1) with a standard deviation of ±27.9 cm(2) g(-1). SLA varies within the crown, but neither between different mixtures nor years of observation nor social position of the trees. A mixed-effects model, with the plots as random effect, revealed that SLA of larch decreased with increasing branch height (p = 0.0012) and increased with increasing canopy depth (p = 0.029). We conclude that both the hydraulic limitations due to low water potentials in greater branch heights and light availability affect specific leaf area.

  2. Specific leaf area of European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fellner, Helga; Gerald F. Dirnberger; Sterba, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Key message The specific leaf area of European larch depends on branch height and canopy depth, indicating that both, the effect of hydraulic limitations and low water potentials in greater branch heights, and light availability affect specific leaf area. Abstract Specific leaf area (SLA) is defined as the ratio between projected leaf area and needle dry mass. It often serves as parameter in ecosystem modelling as well as indicator for potential growth rate. We explore the SLA of European lar...

  3. A phenological study on European larch (Larix decidua Mill. in the Drahanská vrchovina highlands

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    Emilie Bednářová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenological study on the onset and duration of individual phenological phases of European larch (Larix decidua Mill. has been performed using sample trees growing in the research station of the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, MUAF Brno for altogether 15 years. This study involves also recording of meteorological data. In this region, the European larch is an introduced woody species and its share in the stand composition is approximately 8%. In European larch, the phenological stages have a markedly periodic character but they are also largely dependent on a complex of exogenous conditions, especially of climatic effects; this was corroborated also in studies on the phenology of other forest tree species growing in this region. Results of this phenological study demonstrated that the spring phenophases were influenced above all by air temperatures while the autumn ones were dependent, besides temperatures and precipitation, also on the duration of assimilation apparatus activities. The onset of breaking of needles occurred between Days 89 and the 110 of the calendar year. A full development of the assimilation area was reached between Days 125 and 150. The onset of individual phenophases was determined by threshold air temperatures, which were markedly different in individual forest trees. This requirement could be expressed at best by the sum of effective temperatures (i.e. air temperatures above 5 °C. In the analysed fifteen-year study period, the sum of effective temperatures for European larch ranged from 1 301.0 to 2 337.0 °C within the period delimited by dates of the flushing and 100-percent fall (abscission of needles.Results of a long-term phenologic monitoring of forest woody species may be used when evaluating the condition of forest stands from the viewpoint of expected global climatic changes.

  4. Genetic variability of woolly aphid (Adelges laricis Vall.) resistance in European larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blada, I. [Forest Research Inst., Bucharest (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    One hundred and eleven clones of European larch were exposed to the woolly aphid and then outplanted in three locations using a randomized complete block design. At ages 11 and 19 years resistance was measured on 102 clones at 2 locations. Highly significant genetic differences were observed among the clones at both locations and at both ages. Highly significant clone x location, clone x location x age interactions were also observed. Differences between the most resistant and most susceptible clones was 483%. Sufficient genetic variation for a breeding program was present. Broad-sense heritability estimates for Adelges resistance varied by location. Significant age to age, location to location and age to location phenotypic correlation for resistance were found. Larch resistance seems to be under polygenic control. A substantial genetic gain could be achieved by selecting the best clones and using vegetative propagation, including somaclonal embryogenesis, for multiplication. 23 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Hybrid larch (Larix x eurolepis Henry): a good candidate for cadmium phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudouma, Chris Fabien Moussavou; Riou, Catherine; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2013-03-01

    Studies related to phytoremediation by conifers are still at their beginning. Thus, we investigated the ability of a hybrid larch (Larix x eurolepis) to accumulate cadmium (Cd). One-month-old clonal plantlets grown in vitro were exposed for 1 week to a high Cd concentration (1.5 mM). No significant effect was observed on root and shoot biomass, root length, and needle number as a result of Cd treatment. Leaf photosynthetic pigment content and total soluble protein concentration in roots and shoots remained unchanged compared to control plantlets. Taken together, these results suggested that hybrid larch tolerated Cd in our conditions. The high Cd concentration in shoots (200 μg Cd gram(-1) dry weight) showed the good capacity of larch to translocate Cd and thus a potential use of this species for phytoremediation. Furthermore, under our conditions, phytochelatin biosynthesis pathway was slightly stimulated, suggesting that this pathway did not reach the threshold and/or another mechanism of Cd storage may be involved to explain larch tolerance to Cd.

  6. Assessing mortality and regeneration of larch (Larix laricina) after a 1999-2004 landscape level outbreak of the larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) in Alaska (Project WC-EM-08-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Burnside; Mark Schultz; Nicholas Lisuzzo; James Kruse

    2013-01-01

    Larch sawfly (LSF) (Pristiphora erichsonii) is an invasive defoliator in Alaska. Based on aerial survey data, this insect has impacted an estimated 600,000 to 700,000 acres of eastern larch (Larix laricina) stands in Alaska during a 6-year period between 1999 and 2004. Mortality of larch within the sawfly-defoliated area was 80 percent or more (...

  7. Transcriptome profiling and in silico analysis of somatic embryos in Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Shougong; Han, Suying; Li, Xinmin; Qi, Liwang

    2012-09-01

    Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis) is an ecologically and economically important species mainly grown in northeastern China, Japan and Europe. However, erratic flowering and poor germplasm resources caused by high embryo abortion rates have hampered breeding of Larix species. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an effective tool for the production of L. leptolepis with desirable characteristics, such as expression of totipotency, preparation of synthetic seeds, and genetic transformation. However, public genomic resources for this species are limited. We sequenced 591,759 raw expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a 454 sequencing cDNA library of L. leptolepis somatic embryos, resulting in 572,403 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 70,927 unique sequences (UniGenes), including 32,321 contigs and 38,606 singletons. After removal of low-quality sequences, 65,115 UniGenes were annotated using the UniProtKB program. Based on their sequence similarity with known proteins, the matched 30,372 sequences from 664 species were estimated to represent approximately 19,000 unique genes. Gene ontology analysis revealed 21,324 UniGenes assigned to 51 categories. By Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes mapping, 25,773 transcripts were associated with 160 biochemical pathways. Further analysis screened four signal transduction pathways represented by 337 enzymes and 17 secondary metabolites. In silico analysis reveals that 207 UniESTs in Larix are homologous to MAPKs genes identified from other model plants, which may be involved in regulating SE development. This study provides an initial insight into the Larix transcriptomes of the pro-embryogenic mass and is a sound basis for future studies. We constructed a large, full-length 454 sequencing cDNA library of Larix leptolepis during somatic embryogenesis. More than 590,000 sequences were obtained and a deep-coverage EST database was constructed.

  8. Container volume and growing density influence western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedling development during nursery culture and establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew M. Aghai; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Larch tree species (Larix Mill.) are both ecologically and commercially valuable in their native range and are the focus of many restoration, afforestation, and commercial reforestation efforts in the boreal forests of the northern hemisphere. Land use change, shifting climate, and poor natural regeneration are making it increasingly difficult to establish the species...

  9. Statement on the safety of taxifolin-rich extract fromDahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    from Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii) as a novel food ingredient in non-alcoholic beverages, yogurts, chocolate confectionery and food supplements pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. In order to address the present mandate, an intake assessment was carried out by taking into account all...

  10. Structure and Composition of Natural Gmelin Larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii) Forests in Response to Spatial Climatic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2013-01-01

    Many theoretical researches predicted that the larch species would decrease drastically in China under future climatic changes. However, responses of the structural and compositional changes of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii) forests to climatic changes have rarely been reported. Field survey was conducted to examine the structures and compositions of natural Gmelin larch forests along a climatic gradient. Stepwise linear regression analyses incorporating linear and quadratic components of climatic and non-climatic factors were performed on the structural and compositional attributes of those natural Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality, Max Temperature of Warmest Month (TempWarmestMonth), Precipitation of Wettest Month (PrecipWettestMonth), Precipitation Seasonality (PrecipSeasonality) and Precipitation of Driest Quarter (PrecipDriestQuarter) were observed to be effective climatic factors in controlling structure and composition of Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality significantly affected total basal area of larch, while TempWarmestMonth, PrecipWettestMonth and PrecipSeasonality significantly affected total basal area of Mongolian pine, and PrecipDriestQuarter significantly affected mean DBH of larch, stand density of larch and total basal area of spruce and fir. The summer and winter temperatures and precipitations are all predicted to increase in future in Northeast China. Our results showed the increase of total basal area of spruce and fir, the suppression of regeneration and the decrease of stand density of larch under increased winter precipitation, and the decrease of total basal area of larch under increased summer temperature in the region of current Gmelin larch forest. Therefore, we suggest that larch would decrease and spruce and fir would increase in the region of future Gmelin larch forest.

  11. Structure and Composition of Natural Gmelin Larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii Forests in Response to Spatial Climatic Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingli Zhang

    Full Text Available Many theoretical researches predicted that the larch species would decrease drastically in China under future climatic changes. However, responses of the structural and compositional changes of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii forests to climatic changes have rarely been reported.Field survey was conducted to examine the structures and compositions of natural Gmelin larch forests along a climatic gradient. Stepwise linear regression analyses incorporating linear and quadratic components of climatic and non-climatic factors were performed on the structural and compositional attributes of those natural Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality, Max Temperature of Warmest Month (TempWarmestMonth, Precipitation of Wettest Month (PrecipWettestMonth, Precipitation Seasonality (PrecipSeasonality and Precipitation of Driest Quarter (PrecipDriestQuarter were observed to be effective climatic factors in controlling structure and composition of Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality significantly affected total basal area of larch, while TempWarmestMonth, PrecipWettestMonth and PrecipSeasonality significantly affected total basal area of Mongolian pine, and PrecipDriestQuarter significantly affected mean DBH of larch, stand density of larch and total basal area of spruce and fir.The summer and winter temperatures and precipitations are all predicted to increase in future in Northeast China. Our results showed the increase of total basal area of spruce and fir, the suppression of regeneration and the decrease of stand density of larch under increased winter precipitation, and the decrease of total basal area of larch under increased summer temperature in the region of current Gmelin larch forest. Therefore, we suggest that larch would decrease and spruce and fir would increase in the region of future Gmelin larch forest.

  12. Genetic diversity and breeding of larch (Larix decidua Mill. in Romania

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    Georgeta Mihai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although it is one of the most important coniferous species, the larch (Larix decidua Mill. covers a restricted area in Romania, only 0.3% of the forest area, most being represented by artificial stands. The natural area of the larch is fragmented, being concentrated into five genetic centers: Ceahlău, Ciucas, Bucegi, Lotru and Apuseni. The speed of growth, high productivity, high wood quality and resistance to adversities resulted in initiating research on the genetic variability of the larch. In 1978 and 1982 respectively, by means of international collaboration, two series of comparative trials were installed, with Romanian and foreign provenances of larch, totalizing 6 experimental areas. Selection of seed stands followed, and among them, more than 300 plus trees. There have been installed 26 orchards (134 hectares of which 3 (15 hectares are interspecific seed orchards (Larix x eurolepis. This paper presents the results obtained over the last years, regarding the continuing larch breeding program; genetic variation of the main characters in multisite provenances comparative trials planted in 1982, evaluation of the genetic parameters in a clonal seed orchard in order to advance to the second generation seed orchard, and a study of the genetic diversity by means of primary biochemical markers. The provenance tests include 24 populations of larch, 13 Romanian and 11 from the following countries: Germany (4, Austria (2, Belgium (1 and the Czech Republic (4. The studied characters are total height, diameter at 1.30 meters, volume/tree, branches characters, stem straightness and survival. At the age of 25 years from planting, the variance analysis reveals significant interpopulation genetic variation for all the studied characters. The expected genetic gain and the genetic parameters, estimated in the Adâncata larch seed orchard, shows that selection on the clones level, in the first generation seed orchard, can be successfully applied, being

  13. Genetic diveristy and breeding of larch (Larix decidua Mill. in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Mihai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it is one of the most important coniferous species, the larch(Larix decidua Mill. covers a restricted area in Romania, only 0.3% of the forest area, most being represented by artificial stands. The natural area of the larch is fragmented, being concentrated into five genetic centers: Ceahlãu, Ciucas, Bucegi, Lotru and Apuseni. The speed of growth, high productivity, high wood quality and resistanceto adversities resulted in initiating research on the genetic variability of the larch. In 1978 and 1982 respectively, by means of international collaboration, two series of comparative trials were installed, with Romanian and foreign provenances of larch, totalizing 6 experimental areas. Selection of seed stands followed, andamong them, more than 300 plus trees. There have been installed 26 orchards (134 hectares of which 3 (15 hectares are interspecific seed orchards (Larix x eurolepis.This paper presents the results obtained over the last years, regarding the continuing larch breeding program; genetic variation of the main characters in multisite provenances comparative trials planted in 1982, evaluation of the genetic parameters in a clonal seed orchard in order to advance to the second generation seed orchard, and a study of the genetic diversity by means of primary biochemical markers. The provenance tests include 24 populations of larch, 13 Romanian and 11 from the following countries: Germany (4, Austria (2, Belgium (1 and the Czech Republic (4. The studied characters are total height, diameter at 1.30 meters, volume/tree, branches characters, stem straightness and survival. At the age of 25 years from planting, the variance analysis reveals significant interpopulation genetic variation for all the studied characters. The expected genetic gain and the genetic parameters, estimated inthe Adâncata larch seed orchard, shows that selection on the clones level, in the first generation seed orchard, can be successfully applied, being

  14. Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia

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    M. C. Mack

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyse post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr. aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated c. 1966–2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (≤ 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m−2, n = 66 [mean ± SE] and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33–38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m−2, n = 32, though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr−1 × 104 km−2 than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr−1 × 104 km−2. The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000–2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery

  15. The Larch Genus (Larix Mill., Pinaceae at Peter the Great Botanical Garden

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    Firsov G.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are 148 trees of larches (Larix Mill. cultivating at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (Saint-Petersburg, Russia which belong to 16 species (22 taxa. They are long-lived trees, up to 200 years old, of large sizes. The larches represent the base of tree-stand of Arboretum and form the alleys at the oldest historical regular part of Botanic Garden. The largest trees reach 31,6 m high (L. dahurica and 113 cm in trunk diameter (L. decidua and L. dahurica. The pride of collection being rare Far Eastern species – L. olgensis and related to it L. lubarskii and L. maritima. There are species promising both for repeated and primary introduction, the best prospects being in the flora of China and of adjacent countries of Eastern Asia. The continuous monitoring on winter hardiness as well as on steadiness to pests and diseases is necessary, which is especially true in conditions of the global warming of the climate. The investigation of reproductive abilities, quality of seeds and of seed generation is of importance. This is necessary to involve the best species and forms into city planting and forest economy.

  16. Intraspecific variability of European larch for wood properties: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paques, L.E.; Rozenberg, P. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 45 - Olivet (France). Station d`Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers

    1995-12-31

    Wood properties of several natural populations of European larch (Larix decidua Mill) were determined from samples collected in one replicate of the II. International IUFRO provenance experiment, planted in Brittany in 1959. According to provenances, proportion of heartwood ranges from 35 to 58% of basal area, basic density from 442 to 505 g/dm{sup 3} and Young modulus of elasticity from 8474 to 14522 MPa. Positive correlations between girth and heartwood proportion and between wood density and modulus of elasticity but negative correlations between ring width and both density and MOE have been found both at the individual and at the population levels. Variability between and within provenances is high for two major traits (proportion of heartwood and Young modulus of elasticity) for which a SW - NE gradient is shown. For wood density parameters including pilodyn, a greater homogeneity is observed. Besides a now largely recognized superiority for growth traits, Central European populations from the Sudetan Mountains and Central Poland would also produce wood with better properties. On the reverse, Alpine populations from the French Alps growing at low elevations have a slower growth, a denser wood with less heartwood and less strength. Used as a control, the hybrid larch origin (Larix x eurolepis) represents the best compromise for wood properties with the highest strength but an average wood density and one of the highest proportion of heartwood. These preliminary results must be confirmed from a larger set of provenances and completed with other major wood properties such as durability and shrinkage. 17 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Genetic variation, phenotypic stability, and repeatability of drought response in European larch throughout 50 years in a common garden experiment

    OpenAIRE

    George, Jan-Peter; Grabner, Michael; Karanitsch-Ackerl, Sandra; Mayer, Konrad; Wei?enbacher, Lambert; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Assessing intra-specific variation in drought stress response is required to mitigate the consequences of climate change on forest ecosystems. Previous studies suggest that European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), an important European conifer in mountainous and alpine forests, is highly vulnerable to drought. In light of this, we estimated the genetic variation in drought sensitivity and its degree of genetic determination in a 50-year-old common garden experiment in the drought-prone ...

  18. Physiological responses of the hybrid larch (Larix × eurolepis Henry) to cadmium exposure and distribution of cadmium in plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Amandine; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne; Faugeron, Céline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction of Cd is a growing biotechnology although we currently know few Cd hyperaccumulators, i.e., plant species able to accumulate at least 0.1 mg Cd g(-1) dry weight in aerial organs. Owing their deep root system and high biomass, trees are more and more preferred to herbaceous species for phytoextraction. Assuming that conifers could be relevant models under cold climates, we investigated cadmium tolerance of the hybrid larch Larix × eurolepis Henry (Larix decidua × Larix kaempferi) and the efficiency of this species to store this metal. In vitro grown larches were chosen in order to reduce time of exposure and to more rapidly evaluate their potential efficiency to accumulate Cd. One-month-old plantlets were exposed for 2 and 4 weeks to 250 and 500 μM Cd. Results showed that they tolerated a 4-week exposure to 250 μM Cd, whereas the content of photosynthetic pigment strongly dropped in plantlets growing in the presence of 500 μM Cd. In the presence of 250 μM Cd, shoot growth slightly decreased but photosynthetic pigment and total soluble carbohydrate contents were not modified and no lipid peroxidation was detected. In addition, these plantlets accumulated proline, particularly in shoots (two to three times more than control). In roots, Cd concentration in the intracellular fraction was always higher than in the cell wall fraction contrary to shoots where Cd concentration in the cell wall fraction increased with time and Cd concentration in the medium. In shoots, Cd concentration was lower than in roots with a ratio of 0.2 after 4 weeks of exposure but stayed around 0.2 mg g(-1) dry weight, thus a value higher than the threshold requested for Cd hyperaccumulators. Hybrid larch would thus be a relevant candidate for field test of Cd phytoextraction.

  19. Variability in Larch (Larix Decidua Mill. Tree-Ring Growth Response to Climate in the Polish Carpathian Mountains

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    Małgorzata Danek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate–growth relationship of larch (Larix decidua Mill. in the Polish Carpathian Mountains was studied. We explored the spatial variability of the common signal observed in larch tree-ring growth, distinguished regions with uniform tree-ring growth patterns (dendrochronological signal, and determined the climatic factors that are particularly important for the growth of larch in this area. Uniformity in the growth reaction across the analyzed area was found in the positive response to May temperatures (significant correlation values range from 0.21 to 0.48; this indicates that the warm beginning of the growing season is important for larch growth across the study area. The signal variability from west to east found in the principal components analysis (PCA results and differences in climate response between analyzed sites suggest their relation to increasing influence of the continental climate to the east. However, the observed relationship is not stable and does not occur systematically. Although the climate–growth response of larch at lower elevations is highly variable, a positive influence of July precipitation and a negative influence of April precipitation, and previous May and July temperature can be observed. The growth of larch from the highest study sites (Tatra Mountains, above 950 m a.s.l. is related to temperature. This is manifested by a strong positive correlation with temperature during late spring, early summer, and the end of the previous growing season, and a negative or no response to late spring/summer precipitation. No relation between the observed correlations and slope aspect was found.

  20. 76 FR 81359 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Management and Budget has waived its review under Executive Order 12866. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 301... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated... domestic quarantine regulations by expanding the regulated area for European larch canker to include...

  1. Soil respiration of the Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii) forest and the response to fire disturbance in Da Xing'an Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongxin Hu; Long Sun; Haiqing Hu; David R. Weise; Futao Guo

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high frequency of wildfire disturbances in boreal forests in China, the effects of wildfires on soil respiration are not yet well understood. We examined the effects of fire severity on the soil respiration rate (Rs) and its component change in a Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii) in Northeast China. The results showed...

  2. Polysaccharide arabinogalactan from larch Larix sibirica as carrier for molecules of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acid: preparation, physicochemical and pharmacological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyachenko, Yulia S; Dushkin, Alexandr V; Polyakov, Nikolay E; Khvostov, Mikhail V; Tolstikova, Tatyana G; Tolstikov, Genrikh A; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z

    2015-05-01

    Inclusion complexes of salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) with polysaccharide arabinogalactan (AG) from larch wood Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii were synthesized using mechanochemical technology. In the present study, we have investigated physicochemical properties of the synthesized complexes in solid state and in aqueous solutions as well as their anti-aggregation and ulcerogenic activity. The evidence of the complexes formation was obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation technique. It was shown that in aqueous solution the molecules of SA and ASA are in fast exchange between the complex with AG macromolecules and solution. The stability constant of aspirin complex was calculated. It was shown that mechanochemically synthesized complexes are more stable when compared to the complex obtained by mixing solutions of the components. Complexes of ASA show two-fold increase of anti-platelet effect. It allows to reduce the dose of the antithrombotic drug and its ulcerogenic activity. These results substantiate the possibility to design new preparations on the basis of ASA with increased activity and safety.

  3. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptome resources and genome-wide marker development for Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi

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    Wanfeng LI,Suying HAN,Liwang QI,Shougong ZHANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available While the differential responses of trees to changes in climatic and environmental conditions have been demonstrated as they age, the underlying mechanisms and age control of tree growth and development are complex and poorly understood particularly at a molecular level. In this paper, we present a transcriptome analysis of Larix kaempferi, a deciduous conifer that is widely-grown in the northern hemisphere and of significant ecological and economic value. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we obtained about 26 million reads from the stems of 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 25- and 50-year-old L. kaempferi trees. Combining these with the published Roche 454 sequencing reads and the expressed sequence tags (both mainly from Larix embryogenic cell cultures, we assembled 26670549 reads into 146786 transcripts, of which we annotated 79182 to support investigations of the molecular basis of tree aging and adaption, somatic embryogenesis and wood formation. Using these sequences we also identified many single-nucleotide polymorphisms, simple sequence repeats, and insertion and deletion markers to assist breeding and genetic diversity studies of Larix.

  5. Intraspecific variability of the Siberian larch Larix sibirica Ledeb. seed scales

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    A. P. Barchenkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of morphological features variability of the Siberian larch seed scales are presented in the paper. Variation of seed scales size, forms of flat and scale edge ofithave been analyzed. Population analysis has been carried out on the phenotypic races and, depending on growing conditions. Four races of the Siberian larch have been investigated. The populations from highlands and low mountains sites of every race have been studied. Samples of seed scales have been selected from thirty trees on each plot. The length and widthof the seed scale, the form index of scaleand the edge form ofseed scale have been considered. The classification of trees on tight scale, wide scale and intermediate forms have been carried out in accordance with the index form of seed scales. The geographic variation analysis of seed scales sizes showed the differentiation of features between races, and, depending on growing conditions. The trees with small scales dominate in larch populations of Baikal race of this species. The largest seed scales have been found in the trees of Sayan race populations in the Kuznetsky Alatau low mountains sites. Polymorphism in the form of seed scale and form its edge has been detected in the studied larch populations. The dominance of «wide scale» and «intermediate» forms trees have been observed in the northern populations (the polar race. The «intermediate» form trees on type flat seed scale predominate in populations of the Sayan race. The most variability of seed scale forms have been found in populations of the Altai and Sayan races. Increased occurrence of wide scale form in the upper mountain belt have been found in both races (more than 50 %. In contrast, more than 50 % of the trees that have cones of tight scale form have been revealed in populations of the Baikal Olkhon Island at altitude of 500 meters above sea level.

  6. 76 FR 52543 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the domestic quarantine regulations to expand the regulated area for European larch canker to include additional areas in Maine. We are also correcting some misidentifications...

  7. The Alleviation of Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms in Changbai Larch (Larix olgensis Seedlings by the Application of Exogenous Organic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous organic acids are beneficial in protecting plants from the stress of heavy metal toxins (e.g., Pb in soils. This work focuses on the potential role of organic acids in protecting Changbai larch (Larix olgensis seedlings from the stress of growing in nutrient deficient soil. The seedlings were planted in a nutrient rich or deficient soil (A1 horizon of a Haplic Cambisol without organic acid as the nutrient rich control, or fully-mixed A1 + B horizons in a proportion of 1:2 as deficient in pots in a greenhouse. In A1 + B horizons the seedlings were treated daily with concentrations of oxalic or citric acid (OA or CA at a rate approximately equivalent to 0, 0.04, 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0 mmol·kg−1 of soil for 10, 20, and 30 days. Nutrient deficiency stressed the seedlings as indicated by lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA content in leaves significantly increasing, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, proline, photosynthetic pigment contents, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm decreasing. The stress increased in controls over the application periods. When nutrient deficient plants were exposed to an organic acid (especially 5.0 or 10.0 mmol·L−1 for 20 days, the stress as indicated by the physiological parameters was reversed, and survival rate of seedlings, and biomass of root, stem, and leaf significantly increased; CA was more effective than OA. The results demonstrate that exogenous organic acids alleviate nutrient deficiency-induced oxidative injuries and improve the tolerance of L. olgensis seedlings to nutrient deficiency.

  8. Étude comparative des caractéristiques physiques et mécaniques du bois des mélèzes d'Europe (Larix decidua Mill., du Japon (Larix kaempferi (Lambert Carr. et de leur hybride (Larix x eurolepis Henry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourez B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison study of physical and mechanical characteristics of European (Larix decidua Mill., Japanese (Larix kaempferi (Lambert Carr. and hybrid (Larix x eurolepis Henry larch woods. This present research aims to compare physical and mechanical characteristics between two larch species and their hybrid (Larix decidua Mill., Larix kaempferi (Lambert Carr. et Larix x eurolepis Henry. From each species, normalised samples have been sawn from five trees, and submitted to normalised tests according to the norms NBN 225, NF B 51-016 and DIN 52189. The Japanese (Larix kaempferi (Lambert Carr. and hybrid (Larix x eurolepis Henry larches present similar physical and mechanical properties, always lower than those observed for the European one. This is partly explained by a higher mean wood density for this species. Whatever the species, juvenile wood presents lower physical and mechanical properties than mature wood. The larch wood produced in the Walloon Region presents a large technological potential that it is interesting to promote, without forgetting to adapt the classification procedures. Consequently, larch appears to be a versatile species, which can be used for numerous purposes, inside as well as outside.

  9. On the Effect of Thinning on Tree Growth and Stand Structure of White Birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev and Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gradel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North Mongolia are largely dominated either by larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. or birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev. The increasing demand for timber and firewood is currently met by removal of wood from these forest stands. Therefore, silvicultural approaches that account for both utilization and protection are needed. Thinning trials were established in the research area Altansumber, in the mountain forest steppe west of the town of Darkhan. We analyzed the response of non-spatial and spatial structure and growth of birch and larch stands on thinning. Before thinning, spatial tree distribution was largely clumped. Thinning promoted regular tree distribution. Ingrowth of new stems after thinning tended to redirect stand structure towards clumping. Both relative and absolute tree growth and competition were evaluated before, directly after, and three years after the thinning. Competition played a significant role in tree growth before thinning. A reduction in competition after thinning triggered significantly increased growth of both birch and larch. The observed positive growth response was valid in absolute and relative terms. A methodically based forest management strategy, including thinning operations and selective cuttings, could be established, even under the harsh Mongolian conditions. Our findings could initiate the development of broader forest management guidelines for the light-taiga dominated stands.

  10. The Effect of Soil Manganese on Japanese Larch (Larix Leptolepis Sieb. and Zucc.) Seedlings in the Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; William E. Sharpe; Pamela J. Edwards

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of 9 year old Japanese larch trees and soil subjected to appliitions of triple ambient annual nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposftfon revealed elevated available soil and foliar manganese (Mn) levels and decreased growth compared to controls. A greenhouse study was conducted in which Japanese larch seedlings were grown in geld collected soil...

  11. Preliminary Results of De Novo Whole Genome Sequencing of the Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. and the Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Krutovsky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Illumina HiSeq2000 DNA sequencing generated 2 906 977 265 high quality paired-end nucleotide sequences (reads and 576 Gbp for Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. that corresponds to 48X coverage of the larch genome (12.03 Gbp, and 3 427 566 813 reads and 679 Gbp for Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour that corresponds to 29X coverage of its genome (23.6 Gbp. These data are not enough to assemble and annotate whole genomes, but the obtained nucleotide sequences have allowed us to discover and develop effective highly polymorphic molecular genetic markers, such as microsatellite loci that are required for population genetic studies and identification of the timber origin. Sequence data can be used also to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Genomic studies of Russian boreal forests and major phytopathogens associated with them will also allow us to identify biomarkers that can be used for solving important scientific and economic problems related to the conservation of forest genetic resources and breeding more resilient and fast growing trees with improved timber and resistance to diseases and adverse environmental factors.

  12. An iTRAQ-based proteomics approach to clarify the molecular physiology of somatic embryo development in Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    Full Text Available Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr is a native high-value forest tree species in North China whose clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis (SE has the potential to rapidly capture the benefits of breeding or genetic engineering programs and to improve raw material uniformity and quality. To date, research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of SE, but proteomic studies are still in the early stages. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ analysis was performed on three developmental stages of SE in L. principis-rupprechtii in an attempt to identify a wide range of proteins that are regulated differentially during this process. Proteins were extracted and analyzed from the pro-embryogenic mass (PEM, globular embryo (GE, and cotyledon embryo (CE stages of embryo development. We detected 503 proteins in total and identified 96 proteins expressed differentially during different developmental stages. The identified proteins were analyzed further to provide information about their expression patterns and functions during SE. Four clusters of proteins based on shared expression profiles were generated. Functional analysis showed that proteins involved in primary metabolism, phosphorylation, and oxidation reduction were upregulated during somatic embryo development. This work provides novel insights into the process of larch embryo development in vitro and a basis for further study of the biological process and opportunities for practical application of this knowledge.

  13. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    100 years in larch CWD. Consequently, the decay of Picea abies and Larix decidua is very low. Several uncertainties, however, remain: 14C dating of CWD from decay classes 4 and 5 and having a pre-bomb age is often difficult (large age range due to methodological constraints) and fall rates of both European larch and Norway spruce are missing.

  14. A Comparison of Hierarchical and Non-Hierarchical Bayesian Approaches for Fitting Allometric Larch (Larix.spp. Biomass Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate biomass estimations are important for assessing and monitoring forest carbon storage. Bayesian theory has been widely applied to tree biomass models. Recently, a hierarchical Bayesian approach has received increasing attention for improving biomass models. In this study, tree biomass data were obtained by sampling 310 trees from 209 permanent sample plots from larch plantations in six regions across China. Non-hierarchical and hierarchical Bayesian approaches were used to model allometric biomass equations. We found that the total, root, stem wood, stem bark, branch and foliage biomass model relationships were statistically significant (p-values < 0.001 for both the non-hierarchical and hierarchical Bayesian approaches, but the hierarchical Bayesian approach increased the goodness-of-fit statistics over the non-hierarchical Bayesian approach. The R2 values of the hierarchical approach were higher than those of the non-hierarchical approach by 0.008, 0.018, 0.020, 0.003, 0.088 and 0.116 for the total tree, root, stem wood, stem bark, branch and foliage models, respectively. The hierarchical Bayesian approach significantly improved the accuracy of the biomass model (except for the stem bark and can reflect regional differences by using random parameters to improve the regional scale model accuracy.

  15. Larix decidua δ18O tree-ring cellulose mainly reflects the isotopic signature of winter snow in a high-altitude glacial valley of the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Giovanni; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Cherubini, Paolo; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Maugeri, Maurizio; Stenni, Barbara; Fusco, Stella; Maggi, Valter; Pelfini, Manuela

    2017-02-01

    We analyzed the chronologies of cellulose stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) and tree-ring widths from European larch (Larix decidua) in a high-altitude site (2190ma.s.l.) at the bottom of a glacial valley in the Italian Alps, and investigated their dependence on monthly meteorological variables and δ18O precipitation values. The δ18O of tree-ring cellulose appears to be strongly driven by the δ18O of winter snowfall (November to March), which suggests that larch trees mostly use the snow-melt water of the previous winter during the growing season. This water, which also comes from the slope streams and from the underground flow of nearby steep slopes, infiltrates the soil in the valley bottom. The tree-ring cellulose δ18O values were also found to be influenced by the August precipitation δ18O and mean temperature. The associated regression model shows that the δ18O chronology from the tree rings explains up to 34% of the variance in the winter precipitation δ18O record, demonstrating the potential for reconstructing the δ18O isotopic composition of past winter precipitation in the study region. Unlike most other tree-ring studies that focus on growing season signals, in our study the summer signal was small and the winter signal dominant due to the special conditions of the glacial valley. Site topography, geomorphology and soil characteristics in particular influence the stable isotope signal in tree-ring cellulose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Disturbance and climate signal in Norway spruce and European larch dendrochronological series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Střelcová, Katarína; Fleischer, Peter, Jr.; Fleischer, Peter, Sr.; Holeksa, Jan; Zelo, Tomas; Vido, Jaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Norway spruce and European larch, dominant natural tree species in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia), might be seriously threatened by projected climate change and intensified disturbance regime. Regional climate change scenarios project +2 °C increases in the 2050-2070 period and relatively stable precipitation regime when compared to long term normal. Such a climate change might shift both species on the edge of their bioclimatological conditions. Tree ring width is a good indicator of climate and disturbance impact on tree growth. The aim of our study was to identify abrupt growth changes indicating climatological stress on spruce and larch. We analysed local historical meteorological data (1890-2016) to reveal occurrence of such events in past. We hypothesize that number of stress days is increasing as a consequence of changing climate. Using band dendrometers we identified growth changes on five mature spruce and five larch trees during the 2008-2016 period. Each specific growth period was characterized by set of climatological parameters and indexes. Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and rate of photosynthesis (GPP) coincided well with abrupt growth decline, indicating physiological stress. These stress stimulating conditions were identified in past along historical climate records and verified on two-hundred tree cross sections. We applied combined step and trend intervention detection (CSTID) method for minimizing the effects of disturbance in tree ring width chronologies and enhance the climate signals.

  17. A 520 year record of summer sunshine for the eastern European Alps based on stable carbon isotopes in larch tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Polona; McCarroll, Danny; Robertson, Iain; Loader, Neil J.; Gagen, Mary; Young, Giles HF; Bale, Roderick J.; Sonninen, Eloni; Levanič, Tom

    2014-08-01

    A 520-year stable carbon isotope chronology from tree ring cellulose in high altitude larch trees ( Larix decidua Mill.), from the eastern European Alps, correlates more strongly with summer temperature than with summer sunshine hours. However, when instrumental records of temperature and sunshine diverge after AD1980, the tree ring time series does not follow warming summer temperatures but more closely tracks summer sunshine trends. When the tree ring stable carbon isotope record is used to reconstruct summer temperature the reconstruction is not robust. Reconstructed temperatures prior to the twentieth century are higher than regional instrumental records, and the evolution of temperature conflicts with other regional temperature reconstructions. It is concluded that sunshine is the dominant control on carbon isotope fractionation in these trees, via the influence of photosynthetic rate on the internal partial pressure of CO2, and that high summer (July-August) sunshine hours is a suitable target for climate reconstruction. We thus present the first reconstruction of summer sunshine for the eastern Alps and compare it with the regional temperature evolution.

  18. Weakening climatic signal since mid-20th century in European larch tree-ring chronologies at different altitudes from the Adamello-Presanella Massif (Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Anna; Leonelli, Giovanni; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Pelfini, Manuela; Baroni, Carlo

    2012-05-01

    Tree rings from temperature-limited environments are highly sensitive climate proxies, widely used to reconstruct past climate parameters for periods prior to the availability of instrumental data and to analyse the effect of recent global warming on tree growth. An analysis of the climatic signal in five high-elevation tree-ring width chronologies of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) from the tops of five different glacial valleys in the Italian Central Alps revealed that they contain a strong summer-temperature signal and that tree-ring growth is especially influenced by June temperatures. However, a moving correlation function analysis revealed a recent loss of the June temperature signal in the tree-ring chronologies. This signal reduction primarily involves the two lowest-altitude chronologies. It is probable that the observed increasing importance of late-summer temperature for tree-ring growth over the past 50 yr is an effect of the lengthening growing season and of the variations in the climate/tree-ring relationship over time. All the chronologies considered, especially those at the highest altitudes, show an increasing negative influence of June precipitation on tree-ring growth. The climatic signal recorded in tree-ring chronologies from the Italian Central Alps varies over time and is also differentially influenced by climatic parameters according to site elevation.

  19. Proceedings. Larch genetics and breeding. Research findings and ecological-silvicultural demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Owe [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The genus Larix Mill. (larch) represents a great part of the boreal and alpine forests. Larch species are the most common conifers in Siberia and they have an important role in European and North American forest ecosystems and forest economies. The value of these group of species are expected to increase in the future. There are at least three different reasons for that assumption: 1. Larch has highly appreciated technical wood properties., 2. Intensive cutting during the past three centuries has made larch a threatened group of species in some parts of the world., 3. Increasing access to Siberia will make forestry and forest harvest of larch an important part of the forest economy and ecology. In August 1995 a group of forest scientists gathered under the framework of IUFRO working group S2.02-07 in southern Sweden for exchange of experience in the fields of breeding and silviculture of larch. This proceedings was compiled on the basis of the presentations of this working group. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 12 of the 17 papers

  20. The eastern larch beetle in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner

    1986-01-01

    The eastern larch beetle (Dendroctonus simplex LeConte) exists throughout the range of tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) in interior Alaska where it has a 1-year life cycle. Beetles overwinter as adults in the bark of the trunk below snowline in infested trees. Tamarack trees that are slow growing because of repeated...

  1. Summer temperature dependency of larch budmoth outbreaks revealed by Alpine tree-ring isotope chronologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Anne; Saurer, Matthias; Büntgen, Ulf; Treydte, Kerstin S; Bugmann, Harald; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2009-05-01

    Larch budmoth (LBM, Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) outbreaks cause discernable physical alteration of cell growth in tree rings of host subalpine larch (Larix decidua Mill.) in the European Alps. However, it is not clear if these outbreaks also impact isotopic signatures in tree-ring cellulose, thereby masking climatic signals. We compared LBM outbreak events in stable carbon and oxygen isotope chronologies of larch and their corresponding tree-ring widths from two high-elevation sites (1800-2200 m a.s.l.) in the Swiss Alps for the period AD 1900-2004 against isotope data obtained from non-host spruce (Picea abies). At each site, two age classes of tree individuals (150-250 and 450-550 years old) were sampled. Inclusion of the latter age class enabled one chronology to be extended back to AD 1650, and a comparison with long-term monthly resolved temperature data. Within the constraints of this local study, we found that: (1) isotopic ratios in tree rings of larch provide a strong and consistent climatic signal of temperature; (2) at all sites the isotope signatures were not disturbed by LBM outbreaks, as shown, for example, by exceptionally high significant correlations between non-host spruce and host larch chronologies; (3) below-average July to August temperatures and LBM defoliation events have been coupled for more than three centuries. Dampening of Alps-wide LBM cyclicity since the 1980s and the coincidence of recently absent cool summers in the European Alps reinforce the assumption of a strong coherence between summer temperatures and LBM defoliation events. Our results demonstrate that stable isotopes in tree-ring cellulose of larch are an excellent climate proxy enabling the analysis of climate-driven changes of LBM cycles in the long term.

  2. Oxyfluorfen strongly affects Larix occidentalis but minimally affects Sagina procumbens in a bareroot nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jasmine L. Williams; Jeremy R. Pinto; Peng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate oxyfluorfen for control of birdseye pearlwort (Sagina procumbens L.) in a bareroot nursery crop of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings. Oxyfluorfen applied at rates up to 0.56 kg a.i./ha in a split-plot experiment with combinations and frequencies of pre- and postemergence sprays gave minimal control of birdseye pearlwort....

  3. Does larch arabinogalactan enhance immune function? A review of mechanistic and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Carine; Chappuis, Eric; Ripoll, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The common cold is a viral infection with important economic burdens in Western countries. The research and development of nutritional solutions to reduce the incidence and severity of colds today is a major focus of interest, and larch arabinogalactan seems to be a promising supportive agent. Arabinogalactan has been consumed by humans for thousands of years and is found in a variety of common vegetables as well as in medicinal herbs. The major commercial sources of this long, densely branched, high-molecular-weight polysaccharide are North American larch trees. The aim of this article is to review the immunomodulatory effects of larch arabinogalactan derived from Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis (North American Larix species) and more specifically its role in the resistance to common cold infections. In cell and animal models, larch arabinogalactan is capable of enhancing natural killer cells and macrophages as well as the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In humans a clinical study demonstrated that larch arabinogalactan increased the body's potential to defend against common cold infection. Larch arabinogalactan decreased the incidence of cold episodes by 23 %. Improvements of serum antigen-specific IgG and IgE response to Streptococcus pneumoniae and tetanus vaccination suggesting a B cell dependent mechanism have been reported in vaccination studies with larch arabinogalactan, while the absence of response following influenza vaccination suggests the involvement of a T cell dependent mechanism. These observations suggest a role for larch arabinogalactan in the improvement of cold infections, although the mode of action remains to be further explored. Different hypotheses can be envisaged as larch arabinogalactan can possibly act indirectly through microbiota-dependent mechanisms and/or have a direct effect on the immune system via the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

  4. Population structure of larch forests in the Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putenikhin, V.P.; Farukshina, G.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation). Botanical Garden Inst.

    1995-12-31

    The variability and population structure of larch (Larix sukaczewii Dyl.) naturally growing in the Urals was studied on the basis of biometric analysis of generative organs. The obtained results point to the existence of 11 phenotypically different local populations of Larix sukaczewii in the Urals. Four populations are identified in the South Urals: Marginal, central, high-mountainous, south-uralian and Bashkircis-uralian. Middle-uralian, Perm cis-uralian, central north-uralian and high-mountainous north-uralian populations are determined in the Middle and the North Urals. Three populations of Larix sukaczewii are identified in the Sub-Polar and the Polar Urals: Subpolar-uralian, Pechora-Thiman cisuralian and polar-uralian. 8 refs, 2 tabs

  5. Biology and behavior of a larch bud moth, Zeiraphera sp., in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner

    1980-01-01

    A possibly new species or subspecies of larch bud moth of the genus Zeiraphera, closely related to Z. improbana (Walker), was found associated with tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch, stands in interior Alaska. An outbreak occurred during 1975 and 1976 over an area of 240 000 ha (590,000 acres)....

  6. Performance of red pine and Japanese larch planted on anthracite coal-breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj

    1973-01-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis (Sieb. and Zucc.) Gord.) seedlings were planted on coal-breaker refuse with all combinations of two levels of lime, two levels of fertilizer, and four mulch treatments. The site was highly unfavorable as a medium for tree growth, and the 4-year results show...

  7. Ecological impacts and management strategies for western larch in the face of climate-change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 185,000 forest inventory and ecological plots from both USA and Canada were used to predict the contemporary distribution of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) from climate variables. The random forests algorithm, using an 8-variable model, produced an overall error rate of about 2.9 %, nearly all of which consisted of predicting presence at...

  8. Incidence of decay fungi in stumps of two thinned western larch stands in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Catherine A. Parks; Kenneth W. Seidel; Frances F. Lombard

    1987-01-01

    Incidence of decay fungi was measured in stumps from two thinned western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stands (9 and 15 years after thinning), one precommercially thinned and one commercially thinned, in northeastern Oregon. Ten species of decay fungi were positively identified from 180 stumps. Two root pathogenic species, ...

  9. Nursery cultural practices to achieve targets: A case study in western larch irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Robert F. Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Nursery cultural practices are used to help growers achieve pre-determined size and physiological targets for seedlings. In that regard, irrigation is used to accelerate or slow growth and as a trigger for changing growth phase. In a case study highlighting the effects of irrigation on seedling development, western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings were grown...

  10. Processing of larch oleoresin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delkova, K.K. Repyakh, S.M.; Rachinskii, A.V.; Gornostaeva, L.I.; Manakov, V.A.; Ivanov, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    Larch oleoresin was processed by conventional method involving distillation of turpentine by direct steam or CO/sub 2/ clarification with H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in slightly higher concentration than that used for pine oleoresin. Larch rosin has the following composition: resin acids 57.13, unsaponifiable matter 24.60, fatty acids, 9.24, and oxidized matter 8.68%. In general, larch rosin is slightly inferior to pine rosin, but still meets the basic requirements.

  11. Synthesis and New Observations on Needle Pathogens of Larch in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Jalkanen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Needle pathogens of larch (Larix spp. in the Nordic countries are under-studied. Their incidence in Finland tends to be low and local, and this may be a function of enemy release, since species of larch were introduced to the region. Here, the ecology and incidence of larch needle pathogens and the abiotic factors that also affect larch in northern Finland are reviewed. Field observations and related laboratory analyses during the past 35 years have mainly been obtained near the Kivalo Research Area within the Arctic Circle, Finnish Lapland. The relatively recent introduction of Hypodermella laricis is a primary focus. This pathogen is not only new to Nordic countries, but can cause severe outbreaks, defoliation and crown-thinning in the canopies of all ages of most planted larch species worldwide. Symptoms of H. laricis clearly differ from those of Mycosphaerella laricina; the latter has affected Larix sibirica at high latitudes for decades. The effects of Meria laricis, Lophodermium laricinum, various rust fungi, and wind and frost are also discussed.

  12. Rockfall and snow avalanche impacts leave different anatomical signatures in tree rings of juvenile Larix decidua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus; Hitz, Oliver M

    2008-11-01

    Rockfall and snow avalanche events often cause injury to European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) trees, giving rise to the formation of callus tissue and tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs). We analyzed and quantified anatomical reactions of juvenile trees injured before the start of the growing season by snow avalanches (15 trees, 324 cross sections) or rockfalls (18 trees, 270 cross sections). Traumatic resin ducts were observed in the growth ring formed following injury in 94.3% of the rockfall samples and 87.3% of the snow avalanche samples. Traumatic resin ducts were formed at the beginning of the new annual ring around wounds caused by rockfalls. In contrast, in trees injured by snow avalanches, TRDs were not formed until after the formation of several rows of early earlywood (EE) tracheids (mean +/- SD = 4.19 +/- 2.56 rows). The dimensions of the EE tracheids observed in the snow avalanche samples were greatly reduced in the tissues bordering the wound, with radial width reaching an average of only 50% and lumen cross-sectional area an average of only 46% of pre-event values. It is therefore possible to differentiate injuries due to past snow avalanches from injuries due to rockfall based on anatomical growth reactions in the tissues bordering scars.

  13. Effects of Burn Severity and Environmental Conditions on Post-Fire Regeneration in Siberian Larch Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Thuan Chu; Xulin Guo; Kazuo Takeda

    2017-01-01

    Post-fire forest regeneration is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic heterogeneity in the pre- and post-fire environments, including fire regimes, species characteristics, landforms, hydrology, regional climate, and soil properties. Assessing these drivers is key to understanding the long-term effects of fire disturbances on forest succession. We evaluated multiple factors influencing patterns of variability in a post-fire boreal Larch (Larix sibirica) forest in Siberia. A time-series o...

  14. Parental partners effects on progenies characteristics on hybridization within the Larix genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, J.; Frydl, J. [Forestry and Game Management Research Inst., Jiloviste (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    Larch progenies of maternal clone No. 52-4-11 (Larix decidua Mill.) combined with the series of paternal clones of the same species and further of the Larix leptolepis Gord. and L. gmelini (Rupr.) Ledeb. species were evaluated on three research plots with larch (Larix sp.). Growth in height and thickness as well as stem forming were monitored at the age of 11 and 22 years. There was found out a significant share of variance falling on the action of mother, hence the existence of extra-nuclear heredity can be anticipated, particularly in interspecific hybrids. Comparing with the control in interspecific hybrids mostly luxuriant growth is displayed. On one of the studied plots there was found out the assumed growth depression in the quantitative characters of progenies originated from self-pollination. Some results of the research can be used as an auxiliary criterion in the selection of progenies and trees within the progenies for the establishment of seed orchards to produce hybrid seed of F2 generation. 24 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Larch sawfly in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, L.

    1992-01-01

    Summary of the history of infestations in British Columbia of the larch sawfly, first introduced into the province in 1930. Information is based on the Forest Insect and Diseases Survey records and data and preliminary observations on the impact of defoliation on growth of western larch. The report describes biology; history of outbreaks in western larch and tamarack; sampling, population assessments, and predictions; damage appraisal; and controls, including parasites, predators, and weather.

  16. Variations of total protein content and protein synthesis during microsporogenesis in Larix europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława B. Chwirot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the total protein content and protein synthesis were analyzed in successive stages of microsporogenesis in Larix europaea L. Pure fractions of microsporocytes containing the cells in successive phases of meiosis and fractions of the anther wall cells were used to perform the assays. It was revealed, that the protein content and the intensity of protein synthesis undergo considerable changes in the course of meiosis. It was proved also, by means of electrophoretic separation of protein fractions, that no new proteins are synthesised during differentiation of microsporocytes of larch, and that the microsporogenesis process is related rather to disappearance of some protein fractions.

  17. Inhibition of melanin production by a combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Scholten, Jeffrey D

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to find botanicals containing polyphenolic compounds with the capacity to inhibit melanin biosynthesis, we identified a novel combination of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) extract, standardized to 80% taxifolin, and pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract, containing 20% punicalagins, that demonstrates a synergistic reduction of melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells. The combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts (1:1) produced a 2-fold reduction in melanin content compared to Siberian larch or pomegranate extracts alone with no corresponding effect on cell viability. Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts inhibited expression of melanocyte specific genes, tyrosinase (Tyr), microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf), and melanosome structural proteins (Pmel17 and Mart1) but did not inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity. These results suggest that the mechanism of inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts, alone and in combination, is through downregulation of melanocyte specific genes and not due to inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tree-ring growth patterns and climatic signals along a vertical transect of larch sites in the Simplon and Rhône Valleys (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Esper, Jan

    2017-04-01

    State-of-the-art millennial long temperature reconstructions from the European Alps integrate wood samples of Larix decidua Mill. from the Lötschental and Simplon regions in Switzerland (Büntgen et al., 2005; 2006). Some of the oldest samples that enable the extension of the time-series back into the first millennium AD are obtained from old buildings in Simplon Village, through the precise location of these samples and the elevation of sampling sites remain unknown. We here evaluate the growth characteristics of larch tree-ring width data along a vertical transect in the Simplon and Rhône valleys. 330 trees from nine sites in 985, 1100, 1400, 1575, 1710, 1712, 1900, 2020, and 2150 m asl have been sampled and analysed for their climate signals. The results indicate a stronger temperature signal in the tree-ring width with increasing elevation. The lower the sites the more a drought signal is imprinted in the ring width data. The intermediate site at 1400 m asl does not show any pronounced climate signal. A comparison of growth patterns of living-tree sites with samples from the historical buildings in Simplon Village (Riechelmann et al., 2013) indicates the construction timber to origin from intermediate to higher elevations. We therefore do not expect strong temperature signal from these timbers. References: Büntgen, U., Esper, J., Frank, D.C., Nicolussi, K., Schmidhalter, M., 2005. A 1052-year tree-ring proxy for Alpine summer temperatures. Climate Dynamics 25: 141-153. Büntgen, U., Frank, D.C., Nievergelt, D., Esper J., 2006. Summer temperature variations in the European Alps, A.D. 755-2004. Journal of Climate 19: 5606-5623. Riechelmann, D.F.C., Schmidhalter, M., Büntgen, U., Esper, J., 2013. Extending a high-elevation larch ring width chronology from the Simplon region in the Swiss Alps over the past millenium. TRACE 11:103-108.

  19. Effects of Burn Severity and Environmental Conditions on Post-Fire Regeneration in Siberian Larch Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire forest regeneration is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic heterogeneity in the pre- and post-fire environments, including fire regimes, species characteristics, landforms, hydrology, regional climate, and soil properties. Assessing these drivers is key to understanding the long-term effects of fire disturbances on forest succession. We evaluated multiple factors influencing patterns of variability in a post-fire boreal Larch (Larix sibirica forest in Siberia. A time-series of remote sensing images was analyzed to estimate post-fire recovery as a response variable across the burned area in 1996. Our results suggested that burn severity and water content were primary controllers of both Larch forest recruitment and green vegetation cover as defined by the forest recovery index (FRI and the fractional vegetation cover (FVC, respectively. We found a high rate of Larch forest recruitment in sites of moderate burn severity, while a more severe burn was the preferable condition for quick occupation by vegetation that included early seral communities of shrubs, grasses, conifers and broadleaf trees. Sites close to water and that received higher solar energy during the summer months showed a higher rate of both recovery types, defined by the FRI and FVC, dependent on burn severity. In addition to these factors, topographic variables and pre-fire condition were important predictors of post-fire forest patterns. These results have direct implications for the post-fire forest management in the Siberian boreal Larch region.

  20. Investigation of post-fire natural regeneration in forest plantations of Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua on the Northern slopes of Rila mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Molla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires alter both the vegetation and the soil properties, thus changing the conditions of their regeneration. Each year, forest fires impact significant areas within the lower forest zone, where the coniferous plantations, especially Scots pine plantations are deteriorated. The natural forest recovery processes in fire-affected areas are still insufficiently studied in Bulgaria. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of a natural post-fire regeneration of forest vegetation and the conditions, under which it was limited. The natural regeneration of coniferous plantations in the area of Dolna Banya (The Northern slopes of Rila Mt with dominant tree species of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. (Object 1 and European larch (Larix decidua Mill. (Object 2 was studied four years after fire and was found to depend on the slope aspect, the micro-relief and soil humidity. It was found that on the South-western slopes, the diversity of broadleaves tree species recovery (birch, oak, sallow, aspen was higher in comparison with the coniferous (Scotch pine ones. On the Eastern slope, the regeneration of coniferous prevailed over that of broadleaves. On the ridges, the regeneration was the lowest one, while on the foot of the slopes was higher.

  1. Water relations and photosynthetic performance in Larix sibirica growing in the forest-steppe ecotone of northern Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Bader, Martin; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Oyungerel, Shagjjav; Nyambayar, Suran; Runge, Michael; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Shoot water relations were studied in Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) trees growing at the borderline between taiga and steppe in northern Mongolia. Larix sibirica is the main tree species in these forests covering 80% of Mongolia's forested area. Minimum shoot water potentials (Psi(m)) close to the point of zero turgor (Psi(0)) repeatedly recorded throughout the growing season suggest that the water relations in L. sibirica were often critical. The Psi(m) varied in close relation to the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit, whereas Psi(0) was correlated with monthly precipitation. Young larch trees growing at the forest line to the steppe were more susceptible to drought than mature trees at the same sites. Furthermore, isolated trees growing on the steppe exhibited lower Psi(m) and recovered to a lower degree from drought overnight than the trees at the forest line. Indications of drought stress in L. sibirica were obtained in two study areas in Mongolia's forest-steppe ecotone: one in the mountain taiga of the western Khentey in northernmost Mongolia, the other in the forest-steppe at the southern distribution limit of L. sibirica on Mt. Bogd Uul, southern Khentey. Larix sibirica growing in riverine taiga with contact to the groundwater table was better water-supplied than the larch trees growing at the forest line to the steppe. Larch trees from the interior of light taiga forests on north-facing slopes, however, exhibited more critical water relations than the trees at the forest line. Frequent drought stress in mature trees and even more in young larch trees at the forest-steppe borderline suggests that L. sibirica does not have the potential to encroach on the steppe under the present climate, except in a sequence of exceptionally moist and cool years. A regression of the present borderline between forest and steppe is likely to occur, as average temperatures are increasing everywhere and precipitation is decreasing regionally in Mongolia's taiga forest

  2. Post-pollination prefertilization drops affect germination rates of heterospecific pollen in larch and Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Aderkas, Patrick; Nepi, Massimo; Rise, Marlies; Buffi, Federico; Guarnieri, Massimo; Coulter, Andrea; Gill, Karen; Lan, Patricia; Rzemieniak, Sarah; Pacini, Ettore

    2012-09-01

    Pollen of larch (Larix × marschlinsii) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was used in homospecific and heterospecific crosses. Germination of heterospecific pollen in ovulo was reduced in post-pollination prefertilization drops. This provides evidence of selection against foreign pollen by open-pollinated exposed ovules in these two sister taxa, which share the same type of pollination mechanism. Of the other prezygotic stages in pollen-ovule interactions, uptake of pollen by stigmatic hairs did not show any selection. Pollen tube penetration of the nucellus was similar for hetero- and homospecific pollen tubes, but heterospecific tubes only delivered gametes in one cross. To test for differences in the post-pollination prefertilization drops of each species, drops were gathered and analysed. Glucose and fructose were present in similar amounts in Douglas-fir and larch, while sucrose was found in larch only. Other carbohydrates such as xylose and melezitose were species-specific. In P. menziesii, sucrose is absent due to its conversion to glucose and fructose by apoplastic invertases. In contrast, Larix × marschlinsii drops have sucrose because they lack apoplastic invertases. The presence of invertase activity shows that the composition of gymnosperm post-pollination prefertilization drops is not static but dynamic. Drops of these two species also differed in their calcium concentrations.

  3. Stem and crown growth of Japanese larch and its hybrid F1grown in two soils and exposed to two free-air O3regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Eugenios; Vanderstock, Amelie; Kita, Kazuhito; Koike, Takayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) pollution and soil infertility may negatively affect boreal forests across the Northern Hemisphere. Impacts to economically and ecologically important larches (Larix sp., Pinacaeae) are particularly concerning. Using a free air O 3 enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the effect of 2-year elevated O 3 exposure (≈66 nmol mol -1 ) on Japanese larch (L. kaempferi) and its hybrid larch F 1 (L. gmelinii var. japonica × L. kaempferi) planted directly into either fertile brown forest soil (BF) or BF mixed with infertile volcanic ash soil (VA). Overall, photosynthetic pigmentation and the growth performance of the stem and crown were reduced in both taxa exposed to elevated O 3 . Furthermore, hybrid larch, in both O 3 treatments, performed better than Japanese larch. This finding contradicts findings of prior experiments with potential experimental artifacts of O 3 exposure facilities and root restrictions. Elevated O 3 also disproportionately inhibited stem diameter growth and caused an imbalance in chlorophylls a/b and chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios. Hybrid and Japanese larches grown in BF and VA had a significantly lower drop of stem diameter over the run of stem height (from base to top) when exposed to elevated O 3 , compared to ambient O 3 . This finding indicates altered stem shape under elevated O 3 . Among 11 response variables, there were no significant interactions between O 3 treatment and taxa. There was also no significant interaction of soil condition and taxa, suggesting that the two larches shared a similar response to O 3 and soil type. Understanding the performance of hybrid larch in relation to its parent species has ramifications for breeding success in a soil-degraded and O 3 -polluted environment.

  4. Larix decidua Bark as a Source of Phytoconstituents: An LC-MS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Baldan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Larix decidua bark is a waste of the timber industry and is widely diffused in Northern Italy. This material can be considered a good source of antioxidants and phytoconstituents with possible use in cosmetic or nutraceutical products. In this study, simple extraction of larch bark was performed using mixtures of ethanol/water. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition of larch bark extract was studied using LC-MSn methods and the main constituents were identified as flavonoids, spiro-polyphenols, and procyanidins. To confirm the identification by LC-MS semi-preparative HPLC was performed in order to isolate the main constituents and verify the structures by 1H-NMR. Antioxidant properties were studied using an in vitro approach combining DPPH assay and LC-MS in order to establish different roles of the various classes of phytochemicasl of the extract. DPPH activity of some of the isolated compounds was also assessed. The overall results indicate this waste material as a good source of antioxidant compounds, mainly procyanidins, whichresulted the most active constituents in the DPPH assay.

  5. Long-term precommercial thinning effects on Larix occidentalis (western larch) tree and stand characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Schaedel; Andrew J. Larson; David L. R. Affleck; R. Travis Belote; John M. Goodburn; David K. Wright; Elaine Kennedy. Sutherland

    2017-01-01

    Precommercial thinning (PCT) is used to increase tree size and shorten harvest rotation time. Short-term results from PCT studies often show a trade-off between individual-tree growth and net stand yield, while longer-term effects of PCT on tree growth and stand yield are less well documented. We used a 54-year-old PCT study to test long-term effects of forest density...

  6. Scientific Opinion on taxifolin-rich extract from Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    to non-alcoholic beverages, to yogurt and to chocolate confectionery. The Panel considers that the data on genotoxicity do not raise concern. In a subchronic rat study performed in accordance with OECD standards, the highest dose tested (i.e. 1,500 mg/kg bw) was considered to be the NOAEL. The margin...

  7. Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on ectomycorrhizae community structure in hybrid larch and its parents grown in volcanic ash soil: The role of phosphorous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Agathokleous, Evgenios; Qu, Laiye; Fujita, Saki; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamai, Yutaka; Mao, Qiaozhi; Koyama, Akihiro; Koike, Takayoshi

    2018-03-15

    With the rapid industrial development and modern agricultural practices, increasing nitrogen (N) deposition can cause nutrient imbalance in immature volcanic ash soil commonly found in Japan. Larch species, widely distributed in northeast Eurasia, are associated with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi which play a critical role in nutrient acquisition for their hosts. In this study, we investigated species richness and diversity of ECM fungi associated with a hybrid larch (F 1 ) and its parents, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii var. japonica) and Japanese larch (L. kaempferi), under simulated N deposition (0 and 100kgha -1 yr -1 ) with/without phosphorous (P) (0 and 50kgha -1 yr -1 ). Seedlings planted in immature volcanic ash with low nutrient availability were subjected to the N and P treatments for fifteen months. We found that response of ECM community structure to the increased nutrient availability depended on host genotypes. Nutrient addition significantly affected ECM structure in Japanese larch, but no such significant effect was found for Dahurian larch. Effects of the nutrient addition to ECM fungal community in F 1 were intermediate. F 1 was tolerant to high N loading, which was due to consistent, relatively high association with Suillus sp. and Hebeloma sp. F 1 showed heterosis in relative biomass, which was most apparent under high N treatments. This co-variation of ECM fungal community structure and F 1 biomass in response to N loading suggest that ECM community structure might play an important role in host growth. The present findings indicate effects of N deposition on ECM fungal community structure can depend on larch species, thus it is challenging to predict general trends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tracing fresh assimilates through Larix decidua exposed to elevated CO₂ and soil warming at the alpine treeline using compound-specific stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Kathrin; Rinne, Katja T; Hagedorn, Frank; Dawes, Melissa A; Saurer, Matthias; Hoch, Günter; Werner, Roland A; Buchmann, Nina; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2013-02-01

    How will carbon source-sink relations of 35-yr-old larch trees (Larix decidua) at the alpine treeline respond to changes in atmospheric CO(2) and climate? We evaluated the effects of previously elevated CO(2) concentrations (9 yr, 580 ppm, ended the previous season) and ongoing soil warming (4 yr, + 4°C). Larch branches were pulse labeled (50 at% (13)CO(2)) in July 2010 to trace fresh assimilates through tissues (buds, needles, bark and wood) and non-structural carbon compounds (NCC; starch, lipids, individual sugars) using compound-specific isotope analysis. Nine years of elevated CO(2) did not lead to increased NCC concentrations, nor did soil warming increase NCC transfer velocities. By contrast, we found slower transfer velocities and higher NCC concentrations than reported in the literature for lowland larch. As a result of low dilution with older carbon, sucrose and glucose showed the highest maximum (13)C labels, whereas labels were lower for starch, lipids and pinitol. Label residence times in needles were shorter for sucrose and starch (c. 2 d) than for glucose (c. 6 d). Although our treatments showed no persistent effect on larch carbon relations, low temperature at high altitudes clearly induced a limitation of sink activities (growth, respiration, root exudation), expressed in slower carbon transfer and higher NCC concentrations. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Formation and spread of callus tissue and tangential rows of resin ducts in Larix decidua and Picea abies following rockfall impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneuwly, Dominique M; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle

    2009-02-01

    After mechanical wounding, callus tissue and tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) are formed in many conifer species. This reaction can be used to date past events of geomorphic processes such as rockfall, debris flow and snow avalanches. However, only few points are known about the tangential spread or the timing of callus tissue and TRD formation after wounding. We analyzed 19 Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) and eight Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) trees that were severely damaged by rockfall activity, resulting in a total of 111 injuries. Callus tissue appeared sparsely on the cross sections and was detected on only 4.2% of the L. decidua samples and 3.6% of the P. abies samples. In contrast, TRDs were present on all cross sections following wounding and were visible on more than one-third (34% in L. decidua and 36.4% in P. abies) of the circumference where the cambium was not destroyed by the rockfall impact. We observe different reactions in the trees depending on the seasonal timing of wounding. The tangential spread of callus tissue and TRDs was more important if the injury occurred during the growth period than during the dormant season, with the difference between seasons being more pronounced for callus tissue formation than for TRD formation. We observed an intra-annual radial migration of TRDs with increasing tangential distance from the wound in 73.2% of the L. decidua samples and 96.6% of the P. abies samples. The persistence of TRD formation in the years following wounding showed that only L. decidua trees produced TRDs 2 years after wounding (10.5%), whereas P. abies trees produced TRDs 5 years after wounding (> 50%).

  10. Growth-climate relations of Larix decidua and Pinus cembra in an inner-alpine dry valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obojes, Nikolaus; Meurer, Armin; Tasser, Erich; Mayr, Stefan; Oberhuber, Walter; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    Due to climate change, increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation are expected for the southern part of the Alps. To estimate possible effects on growth conditions in mountain forests we investigated climate to tree growth relations along an elevation gradient in one of the driest regions in the Alps, the LTSER site Matsch/Mazia in South Tyrol, Italy. Besides Picea abies (27%), Larix decidua (42%) and Pinus cembra (25%) are the two most abundant tree species in the study area. While Pinus cembra is restricted to the sub-alpine zone, Larix decidua is ranging from the lowest parts of the study area up to the tree line, especially at lower elevations also due to reforestation efforts of heavily eroding pastures in the past 120 years and traditional silvopastural systems which promote Larch. The reaction of the two species to changing climatic conditions during the last 150 years were analyzed by relating tree ring width of Larix decidua from 8 sites at elevations from 1070 to 2430 m a.s.l. and of Pinus cembra from 5 sites ranging from 2030 to 2430 m a.s.l. at SE- and NW-exposed slopes to temperature and precipitation records from the nearby station at Marienberg (1310 m a.s.l.) dating back to 1860. Overall, basal area increment was highest at sites at about 2000 m a.s.l and decreased at higher and for Larch at lower sites. At lower elevations up to 1750 m a.s.l. growth rates of Larix decidua generally decreased during the last 15 years, especially during and after the 2003 heat wave, after increasing from the 1950s to the 1980s . On the contrary, at elevations of more than 2000 m a.s.l., growth of both Larch and Pinus cembra increased since the 1990s. Growth-climate correlations and extreme year analysis show a similar results: at low-elevation sites, growth was correlated positively to precipitation and reacted positively to wet and cold years and negatively to hot and dry years. On the other hand, growth was positively correlated to temperature at the

  11. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  12. Resin duct size and density as ecophysiological traits in fire scars of Pseudotsuga menziesii and Larix occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Sutherland, Elaine K; Smith, Kevin T; Falk, Donald A

    2014-10-01

    Resin ducts (RDs) are features present in most conifer species as defence structures against pests and pathogens; however, little is known about RD expression in trees following fire injury. This study investigates changes in RD size and density in fire scars of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western larch (Larix occidentalis) as a means to evaluate the ecophysiological significance of traumatic resinosis for tree defence and survival. Transverse and tangential microsections were prepared for light microscopy and image analysis in order to analyse axial and radial RDs, respectively. Epithelial cells of RDs and fusiform rays associated with radial RDs were also examined. RDs were compared between normal xylem and wound xylem at four different section heights along the fire-injured stem. Following fire injury, P. menziesii axial RDs narrowed by 38-43 % in the first year after injury, and the magnitude of this change increased with stem height. Larix occidentalis axial RDs widened by 46-50 % in the second year after injury. Radial RDs were of equivalent size in P. menziesii, but widened by 162-214 % in L. occidentalis. Fusiform rays were larger following fire injury, by 4-14 % in P. menziesii and by 23-38 % in L. occidentalis. Furthermore, axial RD density increased in both species due to the formation of tangential rows of traumatic RDs, especially in the first and second years after injury. However, radial RD density did not change significantly. These results highlight traumatic resinosis as a species-specific response. Pseudotsuga menziesii produce RDs of equivalent or reduced size, whereas L. occidentalis produce wider RDs in both the axial and radial duct system, thereby increasing resin biosynthesis and accumulation within the whole tree. Larix occidentalis thus appears to allocate more energy to defence than P. menziesii. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  13. Long-term development of nursing mixtures of Sitka spruce and larch species in an experiment in northern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: An experiment was established in 1966 to compare the growth and development of 50: 50 mixtures of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis with either Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi or tamarack (L. laricina with that found in pure plots of Sitka spruce. The site was one of moderate nitrogen availability where the presence of heather (Calluna vulgaris could be expected to limit the growth ofSitka spruce.Area of the study: North-east Scotland.Material and methods: There were different patterns of spruce growth in the pure plots and in the mixtures, with faster spruce growth in mixture in the years approaching and immediately following canopy closure (i.e. ages 15-25. Foliage analysis suggested that this was linked with improved nitrogen status of spruce trees in the mixed compared to the pure plots.Main results: At years 20 and 25 there were significant differences in height, diameter, and basal area between treatments, with the largest basal area being found in the Japanese larch/Sitka spruce mixtures, indicative of overyielding in the mixed plots. However, when the experiment was clearfelled at 41 years of age, all treatments had self-thinned to produce spruce dominated stands of similar height with only an occasional larch tree surviving in plots that were originally 50:50 mixtures.Research highlights: There were no differences between treatments in basal area, harvested volume or sawlog outturn after 41 years. These results can be interpreted as showing facilitation between the larch and the spruce during the establishment phase followed by competition for light once canopy closure had occurred.Keywords: Mixed stand dynamics; facilitation; nitrogen status; product outturn.

  14. Seasonal Variations in Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentrations and C:N:P Stoichiometry in the Leaves of Differently Aged Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations and stoichiometry of certain elements (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus are critical to the maintenance of plant functional and environmental adaptation during plant growth. We explore how the concentrations of C, N and P and the ratios of C:N, C:P, and N:P in the leaves of differently aged Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantations changed with growing season and stand age from 2012 to 2015 in the Qinling Mountains, China. The results showed that the element concentration and stoichiometric ratios in leaves were significantly affected by sampling month, stand age and sampling year; and multiple correlations with stand age were observed in different growing seasons. Compared to global element concentrations and stoichiometry in plants, the leaves of larch stands in the study region had higher C and P concentrations and C:N and C:P ratios but lower N concentrations and N:P ratios than global levels. The leaf N:P ratios of all of the larch stands were generally less than 14, suggesting that the growth of larch stands was limited by N in the study region. Our study facilitates the management and restoration of forest plantation and provides a valuable contribution to the global pool of leaf nutrition and stoichiometry data.

  15. Variability and ecology of Siberian larch species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaimov, A.P.; Milyutin, L.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Sukachev Inst. of Forest, Siberian Branch; Lesinski, J.A.; Martinsson, Owe [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    1998-12-31

    There are at least four larch taxons distinguished in Siberia that occupy almost 37 percent of the the Russian forests. The natural distribution of the taxons is clinal from the west to the east with L. sibirica Ledeb. in the west followed by L. x czekanowskii Szafer, L. gmelinii Rupr. and L. cajanderi Mayr. L. sibirica and L. x czekanowskii are phytocenosis builders only at the northern timberline and in the South-Siberian mountains whereas L. gmelinii and L. cajanderi are the main species over the vast territory within and beyond the permafrost zone of East Siberia. Due to large variety of growing conditions, the main features of the larch forests in terms of age structure and growth rates are also enormously variable. Thanks to specific life strategies with respect to seed dispersion patterns and very high adaptability to fires that often affect Siberian forests, these larch species regenerate very well being only seldom temporary replaced by Betula sp. forming secondary forest associations. Larch forests of different categories (protective and commercial) are exploited and regenerated in the same way as it is applied for Scots pine in Siberia. There is a growing interest in Siberian larch species among researchers and practitioners from abroad, mainly due to their fast growth and excellent wood properties. Some attempts of introducing Siberian larch species as commercial plantations have already been initiated in western countries. However, the knowledge of botanical, ecological and silvicultural features of Siberian larch species is rather poor outside of Russia. Because of its economic importance for Russian forestry the Siberian larch species have been comprehensively studied for many years and many papers as well as a number of monographs have been published, most of them in Russian. The large Russian expertise concerning regionalisation of seed sources, seed crop and quality, seed orchards, seedling production in nurseries and silvicultural practices in

  16. Unification of Larch and Z-Based Object Models to Support Algebraically-Based Design Refinement: The Larch Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    t’NIFI(ATION OF LARCH AND 7-13ASED OBJECT MODELS TO SUIPPORT ALGEBR \\I(’.LLY-IIASEI) DESIGN [EFINE •I E’NT: TIlE LARCH I[ERSPECTIVE FIIFSIS...feasibility of interface lan- guage generation by establishing an executable framework. This executable framework mapped LARCH into the SOFTWARE REFINERYTM... software engineering, specifications, 165 formal specification languages, application composition systems, 16. PRICE CODE Larch 17. SECURITY

  17. Contribution to the improvement of seed extraction in larch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, G. [Cemagref - Forest nurseries and Plant genetics division, Nogent-sur-Vernisson (France)

    1995-12-31

    Industrial techniques in a seed plant resulted in the extraction of a small percentage of seed potential (18% in hybrid larch and 40% in European larch). It was determined that the seeds remaining within the cones were as viable as the seeds extracted. Thus, the quantity of marketable seeds was directly proportional to the quantity of seeds extracted and an important gain in seed yield could be achieved by improving extraction techniques. Among the five techniques tested in a second experiment, the two cone grinding treatments, done in a hammer mill, were characterized by the best extraction rate (up to 80% of seed potential) but they resulted in a decrease in seed viability. However, cone grinding applied to large volume of cones produced highly viable seeds. The difference was attributed to the number of cones treated. With regard to other techniques, cone drying followed by cone threshing was more efficient when it was applied to cones previously cut in two or let outside for a couple of months. All these techniques gave better results when cones were collected in spring rather than in autumn whereas cone grinding efficiency did not depend on cone collection date. 8 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  18. Provenance trials of larch in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyutin, L.I. [V.N. Sukachev Inst. of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Some results of provenance trials of larch in Siberia are given. These provenance trials were established in the last thirty years by efforts of V.N. Sukaczev Inst. of Forest. Provenances and species of larch were tested in some field trials distributed over Siberia between Lat. N 52 deg and 66 deg, Long. E 88 deg and 113 deg: near Krasnoyarsk, in Republic Khakasia (an altitudes of 800 and 1200 metres), in the Lower Yenisei near Turukhansk, in the west and south regions of Krasnoyarsk territory, in the Upper Lena, near Chita. 2 refs

  19. Climate effects on inter- and intra-annual larch stemwood anomalies in the Mongolian forest-steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Leuschner, Hanns Hubert; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Climate response of tree-ring width and intra-annual wood anomalies were studied in stands of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) on Mt. Bogd Uul in the forest-steppe ecotone of Mongolia. Climate on Mt. Bogd Uul is characterized by an increase of the annual mean temperature by 1.5 K between 1965 and 2007, the lack of a long-term trend for annual precipitation and, with it, an increase in aridity. Tree-ring width increases with increasing June precipitation of the current year (June) and increasing late summer precipitation of the previous year. In >100-year old trees, also a negative correlation of tree-ring width with the July temperature of the year prior to tree-ring formation was found. Decreasing tree-ring width with increasing snowfall in December can be explained with the protection of the frost-sensitive eggs of gypsy moth by snow cover, which is a major herbivore of larch in Mongolia and causes reduction in the annual stem increment. The most significant change in wood anatomy was the decline of wide latewood, which is attributable to the increase of summer days with a mean temperature > 15 °C and drought periods in summer without precipitation. Increasing summer drought is also thought to have caused the repeated occurrence of missing rings since the 1960s, which were not observed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  20. Experimental and Statistical Evaluation of the Size Effect on the Bending Strength of Dimension Lumber of Northeast China Larch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the size effect on the bending strength (modulus of rupture—MOR of dimension lumber of Northeast China larch (Larix gmelinii; providing a basis for the further application in light wood frame construction. Experimental and statistical evaluations were conducted on the bending strength. A total of 2409 full-size dimension lumber samples were tested by static bending tests; which included three different sizes: 2 × 3; 2 × 4; and 2 × 6. Results indicate that the size has a significant effect on the MOR. Both the chi-square (χ2 and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S test results show that the lognormal distribution generally fits to the MOR better than to the normal distribution. Additionally; the effects of partial safety factor (γR and live-to-dead load ratio (ρ were studied by reliability analysis. Reliability analysis results indicate that the reliability index increases nonlinearly with the decrease of γR and the rise of ρ. Finally; the design value of bending strength and its adjusting factor of size effect of 2 × 3; 2 × 4; and 2 × 6 larch dimension lumber were obtained according to the Chinese National Standards’ requirements of the reliability index.

  1. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Action of larch bark in the regulation of cortisol induced stress in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Asquini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Larix decidua (LD dietary administration on gene expression patterns has been evaluated in sheep under ACTH challenge. Experimental protocol was approved by local laws and regulations. Eighteen sheep at maintenance were allotted to 3 groups: CTR (negative control, without ACTH, and supplementation, ACTH (positive control, with ACTH, and without supplementation, LD (ACTH and 50 g/head/day of LD. ACTH was injected for 3 subsequent days to ACTH and LD groups and blood was sampled before (T0 and after 3 (T3 and 51 (T51 hours from the first injection. RNA extracted samples were pooled together within group and time of sampling. A custom oligoarray was synthesized using 24,384 35 -40mer probes designed from 12,194 UniGenes (NCBI on a CombiMatrix 90K platform. Cy5 labelled samples were hybridized on the chip. Statistical analysis, performed with MeV software 4.1 (TIGR, allowed the identification of a set of genes which were up or down regulated as a consequence of ACTH treatment. Genes that resulted differentially expressed were annotated with HomoloGene system and data mining was performed with Babelomics v3.1 tool. Functional analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed genes belong to KEGG pathways involved in immune system response and signaling molecules and interaction. Larch administration was effective in counteracting the effect of ACTH injection on the inflammatory processes, restoring the physiological homeostasis.

  3. Site Index Curves for Young Hybrid Larch Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Johansson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Site index (SI curves for H20 (dominant height at 20 years total age were constructed for hybrid larch (Larix × eurolepis Henry growing in 26 stands on former farmland in southern and central Sweden (Latitude 56–60° N.. The mean total age of the stands was 23 ± 10 (range 17–49 years; the mean diameter at breast height (ob was 16 (7–34 cm; the mean height was 14 (8–29 m; and the stands had a mean density of 993 (266–2195 stems ha−1. A model derived by Cieszewski (2001 performed best for the data. The model explained 99% of the observed variation in height development. No apparent bias across the range of predicted site indices was found. SI was examined in relation to soil types. Multiple samples were available for three soil types: light clay, medium clay and till. There were no significant differences between these soil types with respect to the choice of SI curve.

  4. Homogenization-assisted cavitation hybrid rotation extraction and macroporous resin enrichment of dihydroquercetin from Larix gmelinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Wang, Yinhang; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-12-01

    Cavitation hybrid rotation, which was and is still looked upon as an unavoidable nuisance in the flow systems, for extraction processing intensification of active chemical compounds from natural products. In this study, a homogenization-assisted cavitation hybrid rotation extraction method was applied to extract dihydroquercetin (DHQ) from larch (Larix gmelinii) wood root. The extraction parameters were optimized in single factor experiments with the DHQ extraction yields as the response values. The optimum conditions were as follows: number of extractions, three; ethanol volume fraction for the extraction, 60%; liquid-solid ratio for homogenization, 10mL/g; homogenization time, 8min; liquid-solid ratio for cavitation extraction, 9mL/g, and cavitation extraction time, 35min. Under these conditions, the DHQ content in extract was 4.50±0.02mg/g, and the extraction efficiency was higher than those of traditional techniques. Cavitation can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by increasing the mass transfer rates and possible rupture of cell wall due to formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. After the extraction process, macroporous resin column chromatography was used to concentrate and purify the DHQ. Three resins were selected from fifteen macroporous resins for further investigation of their performance. Among these resins, AB-8 resin exhibited relatively better adsorption capacities and desorption ratios for DHQ. The ethanol volume fraction of the solutions for sample loading and desorption, and flow rates for loading and desorption were optimized for the macroporous resin column chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between root respiration rate and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuxia; McLaughlin, Neil B; Gu, Jiacun; Li, Xingpeng; Wang, Zhengquan

    2013-06-01

    Tree roots are highly heterogeneous in form and function. Previous studies revealed that fine root respiration was related to root morphology, tissue nitrogen (N) concentration and temperature, and varied with both soil depth and season. The underlying mechanisms governing the relationship between root respiration and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy along the root branch order have not been addressed. Here, we examined these relationships of the first- to fifth-order roots for near surface roots (0-10 cm) of 22-year-old larch (Larix gmelinii L.) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica L.) plantations. Root respiration rate at 18 °C was measured by gas phase O2 electrodes across the first five branching order roots (the distal roots numbered as first order) at three times of the year. Root parameters of root diameter, specific root length (SRL), tissue N concentration, total non-structural carbohydrates (starch and soluble sugar) concentration (TNC), cortical thickness and stele diameter were also measured concurrently. With increasing root order, root diameter, TNC and the ratio of root TNC to tissue N concentration increased, while the SRL, tissue N concentration and cortical proportion decreased. Root respiration rate also monotonically decreased with increasing root order in both species. Cortical tissue (including exodermis, cortical parenchyma and endodermis) was present in the first three order roots, and cross sections of the cortex for the first-order root accounted for 68% (larch) and 86% (ash) of the total cross section of the root. Root respiration was closely related to root traits such as diameter, SRL, tissue N concentration, root TNC : tissue N ratio and stele-to-root diameter proportion among the first five orders, which explained up to 81-94% of variation in the rate of root respiration for larch and up to 83-93% for ash. These results suggest that the systematic variations of root respiration rate within tree fine root system are possibly due to the

  6. Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of mRNA and miRNA in Somatic Embryos of Larix leptolepis Subjected to Hydrogen Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Han, Suying; Ding, Xiangming; Li, Xinmin; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Wanfeng; Xu, Haiyan; Li, Zhexin; Qi, Liwang

    2016-11-22

    Hydrogen is a therapeutic antioxidant that has been used extensively in clinical trials. It also acts as a bioactive molecule that can alleviate abiotic stress in plants. However, the biological effects of hydrogen in somatic embryos and the underlying molecular basis remain largely unknown. In this study, the morphological and physiological influence of exogenous H₂ treatment during somatic embryogenesis was characterized in Larix leptolepis Gordon. The results showed that exposure to hydrogen increased the proportions of active pro-embryogenic cells and normal somatic embryos. We sequenced mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) libraries to identify global transcriptome changes at different time points during H₂ treatment of larch pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs). A total of 45,393 mRNAs and 315 miRNAs were obtained. Among them, 4253 genes and 96 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the hydrogen-treated libraries compared with the control. Further, a large number of the differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs were related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cell cycle regulation. We also identified 4399 potential target genes for 285 of the miRNAs. The differential expression data and the mRNA-miRNA interaction network described here provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that determine the performance of PEMs exposed to H₂ during somatic embryogenesis.

  8. Homogeneous genetic structure and variation in tree architecture of Larix kaempferi along altitudinal gradients on Mt. Fuji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masao; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-03-01

    Variations in tree architecture and in the genetic structure of Larix kaempferi on Mt. Fuji were surveyed along altitudinal gradients using 11 nSSR loci. In total, 249 individuals from six populations along three trails at altitudes ranging from approximately 1,300 to 2,700 m were investigated. Gradual changes in tree architecture with increasing elevation, from erect trees to flag trees and krummholz mats, were observed in the high-altitude populations (> 2,000 m) on all trails. These findings suggest that tree architecture is correlated with the severe environmental conditions associated with increasing elevation, such as strong winds. In contrast to obvious variations in tree architecture, the genetic diversity of populations along the trails was almost uniform (H (E) = 0.717-0.762) across the altitudinal range. The results of the AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses, and the analysis for isolation by distance pattern, suggest homogeneous genetic structuring across all populations on Mt. Fuji, while the pairwise F (ST) showed barriers to gene flow between altitudinal populations that were demarcated as high- or low-altitude populations by Abies-Tsuga forest. Although the evergreen coniferous forests on the mountainside may hinder gene flow, this may be explained by the long-distance seed dispersal of the Japanese larch and/or a short population history resulting from eruptions or slush avalanches, although evergreen coniferous forests on the mountainside may hinder gene flow.

  9. Comparison of CO2 fluxes in a larch forest on permafrost and a pine forest on non-permafrost soils in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyryanov, V.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Nakai, Y.; Zyryanova, O.; Parfenova, E. I.; Matsuura, Y.; Vygodskaya, N.

    2013-12-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations of energy, water and carbon fluxes and associated climate variables in a middle taiga pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest on warm sandy soils and a northern taiga larch (Larix gmelini) forest on permafrost in Central Siberia were studied from eddy covariance measurements obtained during growing seasons of 1998-2000 and 2004-2008 (except 2006) respectively. Both naturally regenerated after fire forests grew in different environments and differed by their tree stand characteristics. The pure Gmelin larch stand was 105 yr old, stem density of living trees was about 5480 trees/ha, LAI was 0.6 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 0.0044 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 7.1 cm and mean tree height 6.8 m. The pure Scots pine stand was 215 yr old, stand structure was relatively homogenous with a stem density of 468 living trees/ha, LAI was 1.5 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 10.7 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 28 cm and mean tree height 23 m. The climatic and soil conditions of these ecosystems were very distinctive. The habitat of the larch forest was much colder and dryer than that of the pine forest: the growing season was 1 month shorter and growing-degree days 200°C less and winters were about one month longer and colder with January temperature -37°C versus -23°C; annual precipitation was 400 mm in the larch versus 650 mm in the pine forest and maximal snow pack was 40 cm vs 70 cm. The soils were Gelisols with permafrost table within the upper 1 m in the larch stand and Pergelic Cryochrept, alluvial sandy soil with no underlying permafrost. Average daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was significantly smaller in the larch ecosystem - (-3-6) μmol/m2s compared to that in the pine forest (-7-8) μmol/m2s, however daily maximal NEE was about the same. Seasonal NEE in the larch forest on continuous permafrost varied from -53 to -107 and in the pine forest on non-permafrost from -180 to

  10. Higher climate warming sensitivity of Siberian larch in small than large forest islands in the fragmented Mongolian forest steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansaritoreh, Elmira; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Ariunbaatar, Tumurbaatar; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Batsaikhan, Ganbaatar; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Yeruult, Yolk; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Tuya, Daramragchaa; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Forest fragmentation has been found to affect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in multiple ways. We asked whether forest size and isolation in fragmented woodlands influences the climate warming sensitivity of tree growth in the southern boreal forest of the Mongolian Larix sibirica forest steppe, a naturally fragmented woodland embedded in grassland, which is highly affected by warming, drought, and increasing anthropogenic forest destruction in recent time. We examined the influence of stand size and stand isolation on the growth performance of larch in forests of four different size classes located in a woodland-dominated forest-steppe area and small forest patches in a grassland-dominated area. We found increasing climate sensitivity and decreasing first-order autocorrelation of annual stemwood increment with decreasing stand size. Stemwood increment increased with previous year's June and August precipitation in the three smallest forest size classes, but not in the largest forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the tree growth dependence on summer rainfall was highest. Missing ring frequency has strongly increased since the 1970s in small, but not in large forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the increase was much greater than in the forest-dominated landscape. Forest regeneration decreased with decreasing stand size and was scarce or absent in the smallest forests. Our results suggest that the larch trees in small and isolated forest patches are far more susceptible to climate warming than in large continuous forests pointing to a grim future for the forests in this strongly warming region of the boreal forest that is also under high land use pressure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Brokenness / Transformation: Reflections on Academic Critiques of L'Arche

    OpenAIRE

    Madeline Burghardt

    2016-01-01

    L'Arche, an international federation of communities for adults with intellectual disabilities, has been critiqued by disability studies scholars throughout its fifty-year history due to its religiosity, its apparent lack of a rigorous stance on the need to address policy concerning people with disabilities, its philosophy concerning disability's meanings, and features of its language and discourse.  I address these concerns as someone who is both an academic and a long-term member of a L'Arch...

  12. Warm season precipitation signal in δ2H values of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high elevation larch trees in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F C; Greule, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Anhäuser, Tobias; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested stable hydrogen isotope ratios of wood lignin methoxyl groups (δ 2 H methoxyl values) as a palaeoclimate proxy in dendrochronology. This is a quite new method in the field of dendrochronology and the sample preparation is much simpler than the methods used before to measure δ 2 H values from wood. We measured δ 2 H methoxyl values in high elevation larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) from Simplon Valley (southern Switzerland). Thirty-seven larch trees were sampled and five individuals analysed for their δ 2 H methoxyl values at annual (1971-2009) and pentadal resolution (1746-2009). The δ 2 H methoxyl values were measured as CH 3 I released upon treatment of the dried wood samples with hydroiodic acid. 10-90 μL from the head-space were injected into the gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/HTC-IRMS) system. Testing the climate response of the δ 2 H methoxyl values, the annually resolved series show a positive correlation of r = 0.60 with June/July precipitation. The pentadally resolved δ 2 H methoxyl series do not show any significant correlation to climate parameters. Increased precipitation during June and July, which are on average warm and relatively dry months, results in higher δ 2 H values of the xylem water and, therefore, higher δ 2 H values in the lignin methoxyl groups. Therefore, we suggest that δ 2 H methoxyl values of high elevation larch trees might serve as a summer precipitation proxy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The relationship between needle sugar carbon isotope ratios and tree rings of larch in Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, K T; Saurer, M; Kirdyanov, A V; Loader, N J; Bryukhanova, M V; Werner, R A; Siegwolf, R T W

    2015-11-01

    Significant gaps still exist in our knowledge about post-photosynthetic leaf level and downstream metabolic processes and isotopic fractionations. This includes their impact on the isotopic climate signal stored in the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of leaf assimilates and tree rings. For the first time, we compared the seasonal δ(13)C variability of leaf sucrose with intra-annual, high-resolution δ(13)C signature of tree rings from larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.). The trees were growing at two sites in the continuous permafrost zone of Siberia with different growth conditions. Our results indicate very similar low-frequency intra-seasonal trends of the sucrose and tree ring δ(13)C records with little or no indication for the use of 'old' photosynthates formed during the previous year(s). The comparison of leaf sucrose δ(13)C values with that in other leaf sugars and in tree rings elucidates the cause for the reported (13)C-enrichment of sink organs compared with leaves. We observed that while the average δ(13)C of all needle sugars was 1.2‰ more negative than δ(13)C value of wood, the δ(13)C value of the transport sugar sucrose was on an average 1.0‰ more positive than that of wood. Our study shows a high potential of the combined use of compound-specific isotope analysis of sugars (leaf and phloem) with intra-annual tree ring δ(13)C measurements for deepening our understanding about the mechanisms controlling the isotope variability in tree rings under different environmental conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Phytomass of litter fall in postfire larch forests of Zeisky nature reserve (Upper Priamurie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bryanin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest litter is one of the major carbon flow and main source for long-term carbon accumulation in forest ecosystems. Wild fires is a frequent and powerful event destroys fluxes of matter and carbon accumulation. In the article the first data of stationary investigation of litter fall in flow and its organic matter content in larch forest (Larix gmelinii (Rupr. Rupr. are presented. The study is conducted on Tukuringra range in Upper Priamurie (Amur Oblast, Russia in the forest stand recovering after fire of 2003 year. Results shows that net annual inflow of forest above ground litter fall from all vegetation in burned forest is 2.8 times lower than in background forest. Grass litter fall and other tree debris (bark, seeds, cones, etc. are main sources for annual litter fall input in burned forest. Litter fall composition in the burned forest is significantly changed and high variation of mass of litter fall fractions is observed. Accumulation of carbon and nitrogen is higher in majority of litter fall fractions in burned forest as compared to control one. Annual carbon input from litter fall is 164 gm–2 in control forest and 76 gm–2 in burned forest, total amount of nitrogen derived by litter fall is 1.7 and 2.4 gm–2 for control and burned forest respectively. Our findings suggest that carbon accumulation processes in fire-prone boreal forests changed significantly. The research results can be used for modeling of carbon balance in taiga forest damaged by fire.

  15. Climatic interpretation of tree-ring methoxyl d2H time-series from a central alpine larch forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Greule, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2017-04-01

    We measured stable hydrogen isotope ratios of lignin methoxyl groups (d2HLM) in high elevation larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) from the Simplon Valley in southern Switzerland. Thirty-seven larch trees were sampled and five individuals analysed for their d2HLM values at annual (1971-2009) and pentadal resolution (1746-2009). Testing the climate response of the d2HLM series, the annually resolved series show a positive correlation of r = 0.60 with June/July precipitation and weaker but negative correlation with June/July temperature. In addition, a negative correlation with June-August d2H in precipitation of the nearby GNIP station in Locarno is observed. The pentadally resolved d2HLM series show no significant correlation to climate parameters. The positive correlation of the annually resolved data to summer precipitation is uncommon to d2H measurements from tree-rings (Feakins et al., 2013; Helle and Schleser, 2004; McCarroll and Loader, 2004; Mischel et al., 2015; White et al., 1994). However, we explain the positive association with warm season hydroclimate as follows: methoxyl groups of lignin are directly formed from tissues in the xylem water. More precipitation during June and July, which are on average relatively dry month, results in higher d2H values of the xylem water and therefore, higher d2H value in the lignin methoxyl groups. Therefore, we suggest that d2HLM values of high elevation larch trees might likely serve as a summer precipitation proxy. References: Feakins, S.J., Ellsworth, P.V., Sternberg, L.d.S.L., 2013. Lignin methoxyl hydrogen isotope rations in a coastal ecosystem. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 121: 54-66. Helle, G., Schleser, G.H., 2004. Interpreting Climate Proxies from Tree-rings. In: Fischer, H., Floeser, G., Kumke, T., Lohmann, G., Miller, H., Negendank, J.F.W., et al., editors. The Climate in Historical Times. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 129-148. McCarroll, D., Loader, N.J., 2004. Stable isotopes in tree rings. Quaternary

  16. Growth response of Larix hybrids between L. kaempferi and L. gmelinii var. japonica with altitudinal gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisanuki, Hiromitsu; Kurahashi, Akio; Takahashi, Yasuo [Tokyo Univ. Forest, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    To test the adaptability of Japanese larch, Dahurian larch and their hybrid to the environment in Hokkaido, these three materials were planted and surveyed of their survival and growth for 30 years at four elevation in central Hokkaido, northern Japan. Japanese larch showed low adaptation with high mortality affected by voles at every elevation. Dahurian larch has high vole resistance but showed high mortality caused by the infection of Armillaria root rot. Hybrid could persist through low to high elevation. Only hybrid showed enough growth at the highest elevation. Stress tolerance of hybrid was confirmed under high altitudinal condition. 12 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Wildfires Dynamics in Siberian Larch Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii I. Ponomarev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45°–73° N were studied based on NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data and field measurements for the period 1996–2015. In addition, fire return interval (FRI along the south-north transect was analyzed. Both the number of forest fires and the size of the burned area increased during recent decades (p < 0.05. Significant correlations were found between forest fires, burned areas and air temperature (r = 0.5 and drought index (The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI (r = −0.43. Within larch stands along the transect, wildfire frequency was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.91. Fire danger period length decreased linearly from south to north along the transect.  Fire return interval increased from 80 years at 62° N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle (66°33’ N, and to about 300 years near the northern limit of closed forest stands (about 71°+ N. That increase was negatively correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = −0.95.

  18. Trace element concentrations in needles and bark of Larix Sibirica within the Mo-W ore field (Buryat Republic, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Ivan; Kosheleva, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to assess the changes in the trace element (TE) composition of Larix Sibirica species growing in the impact area of Dzhida Mo-W plant in the Zakamensk city. The objectives of the study were: (1) to reveal the biogeochemical background features and changes in the TE composition of larch needles and bark in the mining region; (2) to determine patterns of spatial distribution of TE content in larch organs; (3) to assess the ecological state of larch plantation in different land-use zones of the city. A landscape-geochemical survey of the territory was carried out in summer of 2013. Total of 21 mixed (taken from 3-5 trees) samples of needles and bark were collected in undisturbed and different land-use areas. The bulk contents of TEs in dry plant samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry with induced coupled plasma. Sixteen priority pollutants were selected for thorough analysis, including elements of hazard classes I (Zn, As, Pb, Cd), II (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Sb), III (V, Sr, Ba, W), and some others (Sn, Bi). Concentrations of TEs (C_b) in background trees were compared with the global clarks (C_g) for annual increment of terrestrial vegetation (Dobrovol'skii 2003) via calculating the global enrichment EF_g=C_b/Cg and dispersion factors DF_g=C_g/C_b}. The concentrations of the elements in the urban samples Ci were grouped depending on the type of land use and compared with the background (C_b) via calculating the local enrichment EF_l=C_i/Cb and dispersion factors DF_l=C_b/C_i. The ecological state of the urban plants was diagnosed using three TE ratios. The Fe/Mn ratio represents photosynthetic activity with optimum value 1.5-2.5. The Pb/Mn ratio characterizes balance between technogenic and biophilic elements, its value for unpolluted terrestrial plants is 0.006. The Cu/Zn ratio determines the proportionality in the provision of enzyme synthesis with these metals, its optimum value is 0.27. TE composition of needles of background larch is

  19. Development of an Ionic Liquid-Based Microwave-Assisted Method for the Extraction and Determination of Taxifolin in Different Parts of Larix gmelinii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaizhi Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction method (ILMAE was successfully applied for the extraction of taxifolin from Larix gmelinii. Different kinds of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different kinds of cations and anions were studied and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was chosen as the optimal solvent for taxifolin extraction. The optimal conditions of ILMAE were determined by single factor experiments and Box-Behnken design as follows: [C4mim]Br concentration of 1.00 M, soaking time of 2 h, liquid-solid ratio of 15:1 mL/g, microwave irradiation power of 406 W, microwave irradiation time of 14 min. No degradation of taxifolin had been observed under the optimum conditions as evidenced from the stability studies performed with standard taxifolin. Compared with traditional solvent and methods, ILMAE provided higher extraction yield, lower energy and time consumption. The distribution of taxifolin in different parts of larch and the influences of age, orientation, and season on the accumulation of taxifolin were analyzed for the sufficient utilization of L. gmelinii.

  20. Sudetic larch in Germany - Results of provenance and progeny research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisgerber, H. [Forest Centre for Management Planning, Research and Ecology, Hann Muenden (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    There are only a few older sources of Sudetic larch in Germany. They distinguish themselves by outstanding growth and low susceptibility to canker. This impression was confirmed by results of provenance research. The Sudetic larch tested in comparison with numerous other provenances proved to be fast-growing, site-tolerant, to a large extent insusceptible to canker, with straight but also slightly to moderately curved stems. The Sudetic provenances behave remarkably uniformly as regards these characteristics. In addition to provenance research investigations have been going on for a long time in Germany into individual differences within the Sudetic larch populations. A report is given on the results of progeny tests from free and controlled pollination, using the example of a seed orchard consisting of 54 clones. We point also to possibilities for improving stem quality by selection steps. The results of provenance and progeny research on Sudetic larch are in the meantime being put to use to a large extent in practical forestry. The forest administrations of various federal lands recommend the use of reproductive material of Sudetic origin and from seed orchards. 20 refs, 3 figs

  1. Brokenness / Transformation: Reflections on Academic Critiques of L'Arche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Burghardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available L'Arche, an international federation of communities for adults with intellectual disabilities, has been critiqued by disability studies scholars throughout its fifty-year history due to its religiosity, its apparent lack of a rigorous stance on the need to address policy concerning people with disabilities, its philosophy concerning disability's meanings, and features of its language and discourse.  I address these concerns as someone who is both an academic and a long-term member of a L'Arche community. While there is historically limited and uneasy interaction between these two communities, I suggest there is potential for mutual and worthwhile exchange from theoretical and practical perspectives.

  2. Genes Sufficient for Synthesizing Peptidoglycan are Retained in Gymnosperm Genomes, and MurE from Larix gmelinii can Rescue the Albino Phenotype of Arabidopsis MurE Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaofei; Li, Ningning; Kudo, Hiromi; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jinyu; Wang, Li; Zhang, Wenbo; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2017-03-01

    The endosymbiotic theory states that plastids are derived from a single cyanobacterial ancestor that possessed a cell wall. Peptidoglycan (PG), the main component of the bacteria cell wall, gradually degraded during plastid evolution. PG-synthesizing Mur genes have been found to be retained in the genomes of basal streptophyte plants, although many of them have been lost from the genomes of angiosperms. The enzyme encoded by bacterial MurE genes catalyzes the formation of the UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc) tripeptide in bacterial PG biosynthesis. Knockout of the MurE gene in the moss Physcomitrella patens resulted in defects of chloroplast division, whereas T-DNA-tagged mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana for MurE revealed inhibition of chloroplast development but not of plastid division, suggesting that AtMurE is functionally divergent from the bacterial and moss MurE proteins. Here, we could identify 10 homologs of bacterial Mur genes, including MurE, in the recently sequenced genomes of Picea abies and Pinus taeda, suggesting the retention of the plastid PG system in gymnosperms. To investigate the function of gymnosperm MurE, we isolated an ortholog of MurE from the larch, Larix gmelinii (LgMurE) and confirmed its presence as a single copy per genome, as well as its abundant expression in the leaves of larch seedlings. Analysis with a fusion protein combining green fluorescent protein and LgMurE suggested that it localizes in chloroplasts. Cross-species complementation assay with MurE mutants of A. thaliana and P. patens showed that the expression of LgMurE cDNA completely rescued the albefaction defects in A. thaliana but did not rescue the macrochloroplast phenotype in P. patens. The evolution of plastid PG and the mechanism behind the functional divergence of MurE genes are discussed in the context of information about plant genomes at different evolutionary stages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of

  3. The effect of slope exposition on the growth dynamics of Larix gmelinii in permafrost conditions of Central Siberia. I. Differences in tree radial dynamics growth in the north- and south-facing slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Benkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to revealing the distinctive characteristics of radial growth of larch trees (Larix gmelinii (Rupr. Rupr. growing in permafrost contrast conditions of the north and south facing slopes (Central Siberia, 64°19´23˝ N, 100°13´28˝ E. Even-aged larch stems regenerated after strong fire in 1899 in opposite north and south facing slopes of the hills situated on the banks of Kulingdakan stream were under study. Two sample sites at the middle part of the slopes were established. 23 model trees in the north facing slope and 13 ones in the south-facing slope were selected for dendrochronological analysis. From each tree, disks at 1.3 m height of the stems were taken. Tree ring widths were measured, comparative analysis of dynamics of radial growth in the slopes was made. In order to separate time intervals, characterized by distinctive climate impact on radial increment, sliding response functions were calculated and analyzed. Daily solar radiation for both sample sites was calculated. The results showed that solar radiation in the north-facing slope is 20 % less than that in south-facing slope. Solar radiation regime promotes intensive thickening of moss-lichen cover, so that its thickness to 2009 was nearly two times thicker than in south-facing slope. Both factors affected the worth thermal soil growth conditions in the north facing slope. The latter was responsible for narrower ring widths formation in the stems and governed higher sensitivity of the trees to air temperature in the periods of cambium reactivation, start and intensive growth.

  4. Terpenoid emissions from fully grown east Siberian Larix cajanderi trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajos, M. K.; Hakola, H.; Holst, T.; Nieminen, T.; Tarvainen, V.; Maximov, T.; Petäjä, T.; Arneth, A.; Rinne, J.

    2013-07-01

    While emissions of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), such as terpenoids, have been studied quite intensively in North American and Scandinavian boreal forests, the vast Siberian boreal forests have remained largely unexplored by experimental emission studies. In this study the shoot-scale terpenoid emission rates from two mature Larix cajanderi trees growing in their natural habitat in eastern Siberia were measured at the Spasskaya Pad flux measurement site (62°15´18.4" N, 129°37´07.9" E) located on the western bank of the Lena river. The measurements were conducted during three campaigns: 3-24 June, 8-26 July, and 14-30 August, in the summer of 2009. A dynamic flow-through enclosure technique was applied for adsorbent sampling, and the samples were analysed offline with a gas chromatograph. Between 29 and 45 samples were taken from each shoot during all three campaigns. Seven different monoterpenes, six different sesquiterpenes, linalool isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were identified. The monthly median value of the total terpenoid emissions varied between 0.006 and 10.6 μg gdw-1 h-1. The emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, which constituted between 61 and 92% of the total emissions. About half of the monoterpene emissions were comprised of Δ 3-carene; α- and β-pinene had significant emissions as well. Linalool emissions were also substantial, comprising 3-37% of the total emissions, especially in June. Sesquiterpenes accounted for less than 3% and isoprene less than 1% of the total emissions. Based on the measured emission rates, the relative atmospheric concentration of each compound was estimated. Monoterpenes were the species with the highest relative concentration, while linalool and sesquiterpenes had a notably smaller contribution to the estimated atmospheric concentration than to the emission rates. A temperature-dependent pool algorithm with a constant β (0.09 °C-1 for monoterpenes and 0.143 °C-1 for

  5. Terpenoid emissions from fully grown east Siberian Larix cajanderi trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Kajos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While emissions of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, such as terpenoids, have been studied quite intensively in North American and Scandinavian boreal forests, the vast Siberian boreal forests have remained largely unexplored by experimental emission studies. In this study the shoot-scale terpenoid emission rates from two mature Larix cajanderi trees growing in their natural habitat in eastern Siberia were measured at the Spasskaya Pad flux measurement site (62°15´18.4" N, 129°37´07.9" E located on the western bank of the Lena river. The measurements were conducted during three campaigns: 3–24 June, 8–26 July, and 14–30 August, in the summer of 2009. A dynamic flow-through enclosure technique was applied for adsorbent sampling, and the samples were analysed offline with a gas chromatograph. Between 29 and 45 samples were taken from each shoot during all three campaigns. Seven different monoterpenes, six different sesquiterpenes, linalool isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO were identified. The monthly median value of the total terpenoid emissions varied between 0.006 and 10.6 μg gdw−1 h−1. The emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, which constituted between 61 and 92% of the total emissions. About half of the monoterpene emissions were comprised of Δ 3-carene; α- and β-pinene had significant emissions as well. Linalool emissions were also substantial, comprising 3–37% of the total emissions, especially in June. Sesquiterpenes accounted for less than 3% and isoprene less than 1% of the total emissions. Based on the measured emission rates, the relative atmospheric concentration of each compound was estimated. Monoterpenes were the species with the highest relative concentration, while linalool and sesquiterpenes had a notably smaller contribution to the estimated atmospheric concentration than to the emission rates. A temperature-dependent pool algorithm with a constant β (0.09 °C−1 for monoterpenes

  6. Isolation and characterization of an Aux/IAA gene ( LaIAA2 ) from Larix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. To investigate the effects of auxin on gene expression during the rooting process of Larix cuttings, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed and ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of an Aux/IAA gene (LaIAA2) from Larix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    effects of auxin on gene expression during the rooting process of Larix cuttings, a subtractive cDNA ... includeing Arabidopsis thaliana, pea, Pisum sativum L., ... msg2/iaa19 (Tatematsu et al., 2004) and iaa28. (Rogg et al., 2001), have pleiotropic effects on plant growth. Some of the mutations suggest the potential roles.

  8. Distribution of Estimated Stand Age Across Siberian Larch Forests, 1989-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides mapped estimates of the stand age of young (less than 25 years old) larch forests across Siberia from 1989-2012 at 30-m resolution. The age...

  9. Transcriptional activity in diplotene larch microsporocytes, with emphasis on the diffuse stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kołowerzo-Lubnau

    Full Text Available Manuscript provides insights into the biology of long-lived plants, different from Arabidopsis, tomato or grass species that are widely studied. In the European larch the diplotene stage lasts approximately 5 months and it is possible to divide it into several substages and to observe each of them in details. The diplotene stage is a period of intensive microsporocyte growth associated with the synthesis and accumulation of different RNA and proteins. Larch microsporocytes display changes in chromatin morphology during this stage, alternating between 4 short stages of chromatin condensation (contraction and 5 longer diffusion (relaxation stages. The occurrence of a diplotene diffusion stage has been observed in many plant species. Interestingly, they have also been observed during spermiogenesis and oogenesis in animals. The aim of this study was to examine whether chromatin relaxation during the diplotene is accompanied by the synthesis and maturation of mRNA. The results reveal a correlation between the diffusion and chromatin decondensation, transcriptional activity. We also found decreasing amount of poly(A mRNA synthesis in the consecutive diffusion stages. During the early diffusion stages, mRNA is intensively synthesized. In the nuclei large amounts of RNA polymerase II, and high levels of snRNPs were observed. In the late diffusion stages, the synthesized mRNA is not directly subjected to translation but it is stored in the nucleus, and later transported to the cytoplasm and translated. In the last diffusion stage, the level of poly(A RNA is low, but that of splicing factors is still high. It appears that the mRNA synthesized in early stages is used during the diplotene stage and is not transmitted to dyad and tetrads. In contrast, splicing factors accumulate and are most likely transmitted to the dyad and tetrads, where they are used after the resumption of intense transcription. Similar meiotic process were observed during oogenesis in

  10. Dissimilar responses of larch stands in northern Siberia to increasing temperatures-a field and simulation based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Mareike; Kruse, Stefan; Epp, Laura S; Kolmogorov, Alexei; Nikolaev, Anatoly N; Heinrich, Ingo; Jeltsch, Florian; Pestryakova, Lyudmila A; Zibulski, Romy; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-09-01

    Arctic and alpine treelines worldwide differ in their reactions to climate change. A northward advance of or densification within the treeline ecotone will likely influence climate-vegetation feedback mechanisms. In our study, which was conducted in the Taimyr Depression in the North Siberian Lowlands, w present a combined field- and model-based approach helping us to better understand the population processes involved in the responses of the whole treeline ecotone, spanning from closed forest to single-tree tundra, to climate warming. Using information on stand structure, tree age, and seed quality and quantity from seven sites, we investigate effects of intra-specific competition and seed availability on the specific impact of recent climate warming on larch stands. Field data show that tree density is highest in the forest-tundra, and average tree size decreases from closed forest to single-tree tundra. Age-structure analyses indicate that the trees in the closed forest and forest-tundra have been present for at least ~240 yr. At all sites except the most southerly ones, past establishment is positively correlated with regional temperature increase. In the single-tree tundra, however, a change in growth form from krummholz to erect trees, beginning ~130 yr ago, rather than establishment date has been recorded. Seed mass decreases from south to north, while seed quantity increases. Simulations with LAVESI (Larix Vegetation Simulator) further suggest that relative density changes strongly in response to a warming signal in the forest-tundra while intra-specific competition limits densification in the closed forest and seed limitation hinders densification in the single-tree tundra. We find striking differences in strength and timing of responses to recent climate warming. While forest-tundra stands recently densified, recruitment is almost non-existent at the southern and northern end of the ecotone due to autecological processes. Palaeo-treelines may therefore

  11. Population Spatial Dynamics of Larix potaninii in Alpine Treeline Ecotone in the Eastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jia’nan Cui; Jihong Qin; Hui Sun

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we investigated the population dynamics of Larix potainii on the south- and north-facing slopes in the alpine treeline ecotone in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China, including...

  12. Life Cycle Analysis of Carbon Flow and Carbon Footprint of Harvested Wood Products of Larix principis-rupprechtii in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Lun; Moucheng Liu; Dan Zhang; Wenhua Li; Junguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Larix principis-rupprechtii is a native tree species in North China with a large distribution; and its harvested timbers can be used for producing wood products. This study focused on estimating and comparing carbon flows and carbon footprints of different harvested wood products (HWPs) from Larix principis-ruppechtii based on the life cycle analysis (from seedling cultivation to HWP final disposal). Based on our interviews and surveys, the system boundary in this study was divided into three...

  13. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE was successfully applied to the extraction of proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini bark. In this work, in order to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction process, a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction yield, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the ILMAE procedure for the proanthocyanidins was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the proanthocyanidins was obtained. Relative to other methods, the proposed approach provided higher extraction yield and lower energy consumption. The Larix gmelini bark samples before and after extraction were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ILMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  14. Dynamics of the larch taiga-permafrost coupled system in Siberia under climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ningning [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Yasunari, Tetsuzo [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ohta, Takeshi, E-mail: zhangningning@lasg.iap.ac.cn [Study Consortium for Earth-Life Interactive Systems (SELIS) of Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Larch taiga, also known as Siberian boreal forest, plays an important role in global and regional water-energy-carbon (WEC) cycles and in the climate system. Recent in situ observations have suggested that larch-dominated taiga and permafrost behave as a coupled eco-climate system across a broad boreal zone of Siberia. However, neither field-based observations nor modeling experiments have clarified the synthesized dynamics of this system. Here, using a new dynamic vegetation model coupled with a permafrost model, we reveal the processes of interaction between the taiga and permafrost. The model demonstrates that under the present climate conditions in eastern Siberia, larch trees maintain permafrost by controlling the seasonal thawing of permafrost, which in turn maintains the taiga by providing sufficient water to the larch trees. The experiment without permafrost processes showed that larch would decrease in biomass and be replaced by a dominance of pine and other species that suffer drier hydroclimatic conditions. In the coupled system, fire not only plays a destructive role in the forest, but also, in some cases, preserves larch domination in forests. Climate warming sensitivity experiments show that this coupled system cannot be maintained under warming of about 2 deg. C or more. Under such conditions, a forest with typical boreal tree species (dark conifer and deciduous species) would become dominant, decoupled from the permafrost processes. This study thus suggests that future global warming could drastically alter the larch-dominated taiga-permafrost coupled system in Siberia, with associated changes of WEC processes and feedback to climate.

  15. Biomass Production of 12-Year-Old Intensively Cultured Larix Eurolepis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry Zavitkovski; Terry Strong

    1984-01-01

    Between 9 and 12 years Larix eurolepis grew annually about 1.3 m in height and 0.6 cm in diameter. In plots with 0.8 to 1.5 m(2) of growing space, total woody biomass increased from 70.1 to 98.8 mt/ha, and the mean annual biomass increment from 7.8 to 8.2 mt/ha.

  16. Topography- and Species-Dependent Climatic Responses in Radial Growth of Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii in the Luyashan Mountains of North-Central China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wentao Zhang; Yuan Jiang; Mingchang Wang; Lingnan Zhang; Manyu Dong

    2015-01-01

      Dendroecological techniques were used to examine the relationships between topographic aspects, climate factors and radial growth of Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii in Luyashan Mountains...

  17. Growth dynamics variation of different larch provenances under the mountain conditions in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulej, M. [Univ. of Agriculture, Cracow (Poland). Section of Seed Production and Selection

    1995-12-31

    The results of 25-year investigations based on measurements and statistical analysis concerning the growth dynamics variation of larch provenances from the entire area of Poland are reported in this paper. This is the first larch provenance experiment in Poland under mountain conditions. The results obtained showed a significant variability among the provenances tested as regards the basic growth characters (height, d.b.h., growth index) at the age of 5, 8, 11, 15, 20 and 25 years. The larch from Klodzko and Proszkow turned out to be the best in respect of growth during the entire 25-years period. Decidedly bad were provenances from Marcule, Grojec, Rawa mazowiecka and Kroscienko. We cannot forecast the future growth of larch when trees are 5-years old since such prognosis may carry an error. However, on the basis of the results obtained it may be concluded that when trees are about 8 years old the stabilization of the position of individual provenances as regards growth takes place. The height growth curves for the individual provenances during the 25-years period (with exception of the provenance from Marcule) fall within the interval {+-} 0,5S from the compensated curve for the entire population studied. All larch provenances in the experiment had reached the height growth culmination. A greatest differentiation in respect of this character occurred in case of the provenances from Sudetes. 27 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Duff mound consumption and cambium injury for centuries-old western larch from prescribed burning in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Western larch is one of the most fire-adapted conifers in western North America. Its historical perpetuation depended upon regular fire disturbances, which creates open stand conditions and mineral seedbeds. A stand of 200- to 500-year-old larch in western Montana with deep duff mounds resulting from an unusually long 150-year fire-free period was mechanically thinned...

  19. Stand-level factors associated with resurging mortality from eastern larch beetle (Dendroctonus simplex LeConte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Fraser R. McKee; Jana S. Albers; Brian H. Aukema

    2016-01-01

    The current outbreak of eastern larch beetle (Dendroctonus simplex LeConte) in Minnesota, USA, ongoing since 2000, has been characterized with a severity and duration unprecedented in previous outbreaks within the state. This study investigates the relationship between tamarack mortality due to eastern larch beetle and extant stand and site...

  20. Factors promoting larch dominance in Eastern Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Wirth, C.; Mollicone, D.; von Lüpke, N.; Ziegler, W.; Achard, F.; Mund, M.; Prokushkin, A.; Scherbina, S.

    2012-01-01

    The relative roles of fire and climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of Central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of Eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1) on climate-driven performance only, (2) on fire only, or (3) on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in Central and Eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in the climate-driven performance of the observed species. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix. Of lesser influence were longitude, hydrology and active-layer thickness. Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yr between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yr since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20 %. Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20 % at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha-1 yr-1 independent of age class and species. Stand volumes reached about 130 t C ha-1 (equivalent to about 520 m3 ha-1). Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yr. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of heart wood. 60 % of old Larix and Picea and 30 % of Pinus sibirica trees were affected by stem rot. Implications for the future role of fire and of plant diseases are discussed.

  1. Larch sawfly, Pristiphora ericltsortii (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) and its parasitoids from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Richmond; Richard A. Werner; Arnold T. Drooz

    1995-01-01

    The larch sawfly and four parasitoids were reared in the laboratory from cocoons collected in Alaska for two consecutive years. Emergence of adult sawflies exceeded thirty percent each year. The number of parasitoids emerging was four times greater from the 1993 collection than from the subsequent year. Twelve Tritneptis klugii (Ratzeburg) emerged...

  2. Effects on eastern larch beetle of its natural attractant and synthetic pheromones in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Malcom M. Furniss; Thomas. Ward

    1981-01-01

    Traps baited with Seudenol + a-pinene caught 87 percent more eastern larch beetles, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, than did tamarack logs infested with females. Male beetles responded to the synthetic attractant in greater numbers than females. Male beetles were not attracted to frontalin, a principal attractant of the closely related Douglas-fir...

  3. Evapotranspiration from understory vegetation in an eastern Siberian boreal larch forest, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, S.; Ohta, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakai, T.; Kuwada, T.; Konovov, A.V.; Maximov, T.C.; van der Molen, M.K.; Dolman, A.J.; Tanaka, H.; Yabuki, H.

    2009-01-01

    We measured evapotranspiration in an eastern Siberian boreal forest, in which the understory was cowberry and the overstory was larch, during the entire growing seasons of 2005 and 2006. We compared evapotranspiration from the understory vegetation above the forest floor E

  4. Geographic variation, genetic structure, and conservation unit designation in the Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Steven Wagner; Mark P. Miller; Charles M. Crisafulli; Susan M. Haig

    2005-01-01

    The Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli Burns, 1954) is an endemic species in the Pacific northwestern United States facing threats related to habitat destruction. To facilitate development of conservation strategies, we used DNA sequences and RAPDs (random amplified polymorphic DNA) to examine differences among populations of this...

  5. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  6. Three centuries of insect outbreaks across the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David; Liebhold, Andrew; Johnson, Derek; Carrer, Marco; Urbinati, Carlo; Grabner, Michael; Nicolussi, Kurt; Levanic, Tom; Esper, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Knowledge of the persistence of regular larch budmoth outbreaks is limited in space and time. Although dendrochronological methods have been used to reconstruct insect outbreaks, their presence may be obscured by climatic influences. More than 5000 tree-ring series from 70 larch host and 73 spruce nonhost sites within the European Alps and Tatra Mountains were compiled. Site-specific assessment of growth-climate responses and the application of six larch budmoth detection methods considering host, nonhost and instrumental time-series revealed spatiotemporal patterns of insect defoliation across the Alpine arc. Annual maps of reconstructed defoliation showed historical persistence of cyclic outbreaks at the site level, recurring c. every 8-9 yr. Larch budmoth outbreaks occurred independently of rising temperatures from the Little Ice Age until recent warmth. Although no collapse in outbreak periodicity was recorded at the local scale, synchronized Alpine-wide defoliation has ceased during recent decades. Our study demonstrates the persistence of recurring insect outbreaks during AD 1700-2000 and emphasizes that a widely distributed tree-ring network and novel analysis methods can contribute towards an understanding of the changes in outbreak amplitude, synchrony and climate dependence.

  7. Isolation and identification of chitin in the black coral Parantipathes larix (Anthozoa: Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Kurek, Denis; Paasch, Silvia; Brunner, Eike; Born, René; Galli, Roberta; Stelling, Allison L; Sivkov, Viktor N; Petrova, Olga V; Vyalikh, Denis; Kummer, Kurt; Molodtsov, Serguei L; Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Until now, there is a lack of knowledge about the presence of chitin in numerous representatives of corals (Cnidaria). However, investigations concerning the chitin-based skeletal organization in different coral taxa are significant from biochemical, structural, developmental, ecological and evolutionary points of view. In this paper, we present a thorough screening for the presence of chitin within the skeletal formations of a poorly investigated Mediterranean black coral, Parantipathes larix (Esper, 1792), as a typical representative of the Schizopathidae family. Using a wide array variety of techniques ((13)C solid state NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, NEXAFS, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White Staining), we unambiguously show for the first time that chitin is an important component within the skeletal stalks as well as pinnules of this coral. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue culture of adult larch as a tool for breeding purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewald, D.; Kretzschmar, U. [Federal Research Centre of Forestry and Forest Products, Waldsieversdorf (Germany). Inst. for Forest Tree Biology

    1995-12-31

    Aimed at the identical reproduction of genotypes which are considered superior different methods were tested to establish and to propagate tissue cultures from old larch trees (L. decidua, L. kaempferi, L. sukaczewii, L. gmelinii, L. eurolepis). Serial subcultures without phytohormones (shoot tip propagation) led to the establishment of clone lines. After ten subcultures propagation velocity, shoot morphology and rooting behavior were similar to juvenile plant material. Serial subcultures which included a cytokinin induction led to the formation of adventitious shoot clusters (adventitious bud propagation). Adventitious shoots derived from male flowers of one L. kaempferi clone could be propagated via shoot tip propagation. Micrografting of meristems in vitro resulted in a regained rooting capacity of green cuttings from micrografts. Combining these in vitro techniques offers now the possibility to propagate selected mature larch trees for different breeding purposes. 23 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Mapping post-disturbance stand age distribution in Siberian larch forest based on a novel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Loboda, T. V.; Krylov, A.; Potapov, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Siberian larch forest, which accounts for nearly 20% of the global boreal forest biome, is unique, important, yet significantly understudied. These deciduous needleleaf forests with a single species dominance over a large continuous area are not found anywhere except the extreme continental zones of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Most of these forests are located in remote and sparsely populated areas and, therefore, little is known about spatial variability of their structure and dynamics. Wall-to-wall repeated observations of this area are available only since the 2000s. Previously, we developed methods for reconstruction of stand-age distribution from a sample of 1980-2000 disturbances in Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. However, availability of those images in Siberian larch forests is particularly limited. Built upon the hypothesis that the spectral characteristics of the disturbed forest in the region change with time consistently, this paper proposes a novel method utilizing the newly released Global Forest Change (GFC) 2000-2012 dataset. We exploit the data-rich era of annual forest disturbance samples identified between 2000 and 2012 in the Siberian larch forest by the GFC dataset to build a robust training set of spectral signatures from regrowing larch forests as they appear in Landsat imagery in 2012. The extracted statistics are ingested into a random forest, which predicts the approximate stand age for every forested pixel in the circa 2000 composite. After merging the estimated stand age distribution for 1989-2000 with the observed disturbance records for 2001-2012, a gap-free 30 m resolution 24-year long record of stand age distribution is obtained. A preliminary accuracy assessment against the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) burned area product suggested satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  10. Résilience de l'approvisionnement en eau de deux villes de l'arche ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résilience de l'approvisionnement en eau de deux villes de l'arche sèche du Panama. Ce projet augmentera la résilience au stress hydrique des villes de Chitré et de La Villa de los Santos, au Panama, face aux effets négatifs de la variabilité du climat et des changements climatiques. Risques liés au climat au Panama

  11. Synthesis of nickel-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes with controllable porous structure for gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin, E-mail: chemist@126.com, E-mail: liushouxin@126.com [Northeast Forestry University, College of Material Science and Engineering (China)

    2015-11-15

    Ni-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} into the liquefied larch using liquefied larch sawdust as precursors and F127 as the soft template. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The increase in Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} content can lead to the formation of disordered porous structure and shrinkage of carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation for N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} of 37.5, 19.8, and 55.5 m{sup 3} cm/m{sup 2} h kPa, which is larger than that of the pure carbon membranes, respectively. However, the poor ordered porous structure caused by adding large amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} can reduce the gas separation performance, which is attributed to the weaken of the molecular sieve function. The results indicate that the incorporation of few nanoparticles into larch-based carbon membranes can improve molecular sieve function.Graphical abstractNi-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} into the liquefied larch. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation and gas permseparation.

  12. Temperature-induced responses of xylem structure of Larix sibirica (Pinaceae) from the Russian Altay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonti, Patrick; Bryukhanova, Marina V; Myglan, Vladimir S; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Naumova, Oksana V; Vaganov, Eugene A

    2013-07-01

    Xylem structure determines the hydraulic and mechanical properties of a stem, and its plasticity is fundamental for maintaining tree performance under changing conditions. Unveiling the mechanism and the range of xylem adjustment is thus necessary to anticipate climate change impacts on vegetation. To understand the mechanistic process and the functional impact of xylem responses to warming in a cold-limited environment, we investigated the relationship between temperature and tracheid anatomy along a 312-yr tree-ring chronology of Larix sibirica trees from the Altay Mountains in Russia. Climate-growth analyses indicated that warming favors wider earlywood cell lumen, thicker latewood walls, denser maximum latewood, and wider rings. The temperature signal of the latewood was stronger (r > 0.7) and covered a longer and more stable period (from June to August) than that of earlywood and tree-ring width. Long-term analyses indicated a diverging trend between lumen and cell wall of early- and latewood. Xylem anatomy appears to respond to warming temperatures. A warmer early-growing season raises water conduction capacity by increasing the number and size of earlywood tracheids. The higher-performing earlywood tracheids promote more carbon fixation of the latewood cells by incrementing the rate of assimilation when summer conditions are favorable for growth. The diverging long-term variation of lumen and cell wall in earlywood vs. latewood suggests that xylem adjustments in latewood increase mechanical integrity and support increasing tree size under the ameliorated growing conditions.

  13. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Procyanidins Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Larix gmelinii Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction method has been developed for the effective extraction of procyanidins from Larix gmelinii bark. So as to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in ultrasonic-assisted extraction process, the effects caused by changes in the anion and the alkyl chain length of the cation on the extraction efficiency were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the characteristics of anions had remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of procyanidins, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim]Br aqueous solution was the best among the investigated ionic liquids. The optimum conditions for the extraction were as follows: [Bmim]Br concentration 1.25 M, soak time 3 h, solid-liquid ratio 1 : 10, ultrasonic power 150 W, and ultrasonic time 30 min. This work not only introduces a simple, green, and highly efficient sample preparation method for extraction of procyanidins from L. gmelinii bark, but also reveals the tremendous application potential of ionic liquids.

  14. Traumatic resin ducts in Larix decidua stems impacted by debris flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Schneuwly, Dominique M; Bourqui, Karin

    2008-02-01

    Following mechanical injury, stems of many conifers produce tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs), the distribution of which has been used to date geomorphic events. However, little is known about how far TRD formation extends tangentially and axially from the point of injury or what the time course of TRD appearance is. We analyzed 28 injuries in eight Larix decidua Mill. tree stems resulting from debris flows in October 2000 and November 2004. Injuries occurred outside the period of cambial activity, and TRD formation occurred in the first layers of the growth ring formed in the year following that of injury. The axial extent of TRD formation averaged 74 cm and was greater above the injury than below it. At the height of the wound center, TRDs extended horizontally to a mean of 18% of the stem circumference excluding that portion where the cambium had been destroyed. In subsequent growth rings, TRDs, if present, were confined mainly to the height of the center of injury. Both the vertical and horizontal extent of TRD formation was related to the injury size. Within growth rings, the position of TRD formation changed with increasing distance from the wound progressing from early earlywood to later portions of the growth ring.

  15. [Effects of compaction on diurnal variaaton of soil respiration in Larix gmellini plantation in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Na; Wang, Li-hai

    2010-12-01

    Taking the Larix gmellinii plantation in the experimental forest farm of Northeast Forestry University as test object, and by using Li-8100 automatic instrument, the daily CO2 emission rate of soil in summer under different degrees of man-made compaction was measured, with the regression models established. There were significant differences in the diurnal variation of soil respiration rate under different degrees of man-made compaction. In CK (no compaction), the maximum value of soil respiration appeared at 15:30-17:30, and the minimum value appeared at 03:30-05:30, which were obviously lagged behind those in compaction treatments. The maximum and minimum values of soil respiration rate in main roads appeared at 09:30-11:30 and 23:30-01:30, and those in branch roads appeared at 11:30 and 01:30-03:30, respectively. In all treatments, soil respiration rate had significant correlations with surface temperature, relative humidity, and the temperature at 10 cm soil depth, but the correlation with the soil moisture at 5 cm depth tended to be not significant when the compaction degree was increasing. Compaction altered surface soil physical structure, decreased surface soil CO2 release rate.

  16. Post-fire stand structure impacts carbon storage within Siberian larch forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Mack, M. C.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.

    2015-12-01

    Increased fire severity within boreal forests of the Siberian Arctic has the potential to alter forest stand development thereby altering carbon (C) accumulation rates and storage during the post-fire successional interval. One potential change is increased stand density, which may result from fire consumption of the soil organic layer and changes to the seedbed that favor germination and establishment of larch trees during early succession. In this study, we evaluated above- and belowground C pools across 12 stands of varying tree density within a single 75-year old fire scar located near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, Russia. In each stand, we inventoried the size and density of larch trees and large shrubs (Salix and Betula spp.), and in combination with with allometric equations, estimated aboveground contribution to C pools. We quantified woody debris C pools using the line intercept method. We sampled belowground C pools in the soil organic layer + upper (0-10 cm) mineral soil and coarse roots (> 2 mm diameter) using sediment cores and 0.25 x 0.25-m trenches, respectively. We found that high density stands store ~ 20% more C (~7,500 g C m-2) than low density stands (~5,800 g C m-2). In high density stands, about 35% more C is stored aboveground within live larch trees (1650 g C m-2) compared to low density stands (940 g C m-2), and about 15% more C is stored in the soil organic layer and upper mineral soil. Coarse root C was 20% higher in high density stands (~475 g C m-2) compared to those with low density (~350 g C m-2). Less C was stored in large shrubs in high density stands, both in aboveground portions and coarse roots, but these amounts were relatively small (< 10% of total C pools). A fire-driven shift to denser larch stands could increase C storage, leading to a negative feedback to climate, but the combined effects of density on C dynamics, summer and winter albedo, and future fire regimes will interact to determine the magnitude of any vegetation

  17. Synthesis of nickel-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes with controllable porous structure for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin

    2015-11-01

    Ni-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO3)2 into the liquefied larch using liquefied larch sawdust as precursors and F127 as the soft template. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO3)2, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The increase in Ni(NO3)2 content can lead to the formation of disordered porous structure and shrinkage of carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation for N2, CO2, and O2 of 37.5, 19.8, and 55.5 m3 cm/m2 h kPa, which is larger than that of the pure carbon membranes, respectively. However, the poor ordered porous structure caused by adding large amount of Ni(NO3)2 can reduce the gas separation performance, which is attributed to the weaken of the molecular sieve function. The results indicate that the incorporation of few nanoparticles into larch-based carbon membranes can improve molecular sieve function.

  18. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina seedlings exposed to flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Polanco Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi K. Koch produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack

  19. Hydraulic properties and fine root mass of Larix sibirica along forest edge-interior gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenlemuge, Tselmeg; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hertel, Dietrich; Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2015-02-01

    At its southernmost distribution limit in Inner Asia, the boreal forest disintegrates into forest fragments on moist sites (e.g. north-facing slopes), which are embedded in grasslands. This landscape mosaic is characterized by a much higher forest edge-to-interior ratio than in closed boreal forests. Earlier work in the forest-steppe ecotone of Mongolia has shown that Larix sibirica trees at forest edges grow faster than in the forest interior, as the more xeric environment at the edge promotes self-thinning and edges are preferentially targeted by selective logging and livestock grazing. Lowered stand density reduces competition for water in these semi-arid forests, where productivity is usually limited by summer drought. We studied how branch and coarse root hydraulic architecture and xylem conductivity, fine root biomass and necromass, and fine root morphology of L. sibirica respond to sites differing in water availability. Studying forest edge-interior gradients in two regions of western Mongolia, we found a significant reduction of branch theoretical (Kp) and empirical conductivity (Ks) in the putatively more drought-affected forest interior in the Mongolian Altai (mean precipitation: 120 mm yr-1), while no branch xylem modification occurred in the moister Khangai Mountains (215 mm yr-1). Kp and Ks were several times larger in roots than in branches, but root hydraulics were not influenced by stand density or mean annual precipitation. Very low fine root biomass: necromass ratios at all sites, and in the forest interior in particular, suggest that L. sibirica seeks to maintain a relatively high root conductivity by producing large conduits, which results in high root mortality due to embolism during drought. Our results suggest that L. sibirica is adapted to the semi-arid climate at its southernmost distribution limit by considerable plasticity of the branch hydraulic system and a small but apparently dynamic fine root system.

  20. Variability in above- and belowground carbon stocks in a Siberian larch watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Elizabeth E.; Heard, Kathryn; Natali, Susan M.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Alexander, Heather D.; Berner, Logan T.; Kholodov, Alexander; Loranty, Michael M.; Schade, John D.; Spektor, Valentin; Zimov, Nikita

    2017-09-01

    Permafrost soils store between 1330 and 1580 Pg carbon (C), which is 3 times the amount of C in global vegetation, almost twice the amount of C in the atmosphere, and half of the global soil organic C pool. Despite the massive amount of C in permafrost, estimates of soil C storage in the high-latitude permafrost region are highly uncertain, primarily due to undersampling at all spatial scales; circumpolar soil C estimates lack sufficient continental spatial diversity, regional intensity, and replication at the field-site level. Siberian forests are particularly undersampled, yet the larch forests that dominate this region may store more than twice as much soil C as all other boreal forest types in the continuous permafrost zone combined. Here we present above- and belowground C stocks from 20 sites representing a gradient of stand age and structure in a larch watershed of the Kolyma River, near Chersky, Sakha Republic, Russia. We found that the majority of C stored in the top 1 m of the watershed was stored belowground (92 %), with 19 % in the top 10 cm of soil and 40 % in the top 30 cm. Carbon was more variable in surface soils (10 cm; coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.35 between stands) than in the top 30 cm (CV = 0.14) or soil profile to 1 m (CV = 0.20). Combined active-layer and deep frozen deposits (surface - 15 m) contained 205 kg C m-2 (yedoma, non-ice wedge) and 331 kg C m-2 (alas), which, even when accounting for landscape-level ice content, is an order of magnitude more C than that stored in the top meter of soil and 2 orders of magnitude more C than in aboveground biomass. Aboveground biomass was composed of primarily larch (53 %) but also included understory vegetation (30 %), woody debris (11 %) and snag (6 %) biomass. While aboveground biomass contained relatively little (8 %) of the C stocks in the watershed, aboveground processes were linked to thaw depth and belowground C storage. Thaw depth was negatively related to stand age, and soil C density

  1. Variability in above- and belowground carbon stocks in a Siberian larch watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Webb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost soils store between 1330 and 1580 Pg carbon (C, which is 3 times the amount of C in global vegetation, almost twice the amount of C in the atmosphere, and half of the global soil organic C pool. Despite the massive amount of C in permafrost, estimates of soil C storage in the high-latitude permafrost region are highly uncertain, primarily due to undersampling at all spatial scales; circumpolar soil C estimates lack sufficient continental spatial diversity, regional intensity, and replication at the field-site level. Siberian forests are particularly undersampled, yet the larch forests that dominate this region may store more than twice as much soil C as all other boreal forest types in the continuous permafrost zone combined. Here we present above- and belowground C stocks from 20 sites representing a gradient of stand age and structure in a larch watershed of the Kolyma River, near Chersky, Sakha Republic, Russia. We found that the majority of C stored in the top 1 m of the watershed was stored belowground (92 %, with 19 % in the top 10 cm of soil and 40 % in the top 30 cm. Carbon was more variable in surface soils (10 cm; coefficient of variation (CV  =  0.35 between stands than in the top 30 cm (CV  =  0.14 or soil profile to 1 m (CV  =  0.20. Combined active-layer and deep frozen deposits (surface – 15 m contained 205 kg C m−2 (yedoma, non-ice wedge and 331 kg C m−2 (alas, which, even when accounting for landscape-level ice content, is an order of magnitude more C than that stored in the top meter of soil and 2 orders of magnitude more C than in aboveground biomass. Aboveground biomass was composed of primarily larch (53 % but also included understory vegetation (30 %, woody debris (11 % and snag (6 % biomass. While aboveground biomass contained relatively little (8 % of the C stocks in the watershed, aboveground processes were linked to thaw depth and

  2. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE was successfully applied to the extraction of proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini bark. In this work, in order to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction process, a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction yield, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the ILMAE procedure for the proanthocyanidins was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the proanthocyanidins was obtained. Relative to other methods, the proposed approach provided higher extraction yield and lower energy consumption. The Larix gmelini bark samples before and after extraction were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ILMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  3. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyi Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G, building patch (B, mature patch (M and degenerate patch (D. To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1 Different species (or functional groups had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2 Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3 Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4 The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D′ and H′ were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale.

  4. Influence of the Siberian larch extract on the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateyuk Andrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions wood processing is one of the primary branches of production in Transbaikal region. In connection with big squares of logging the question of processing and utilizing waste products directly on the spot is particularly acute. We researched the activity of water extract from sawdust of Siberian larch "Ekstrapinus" on the power exchange and processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids against immobilized stress in experiment. The data provided in the article prove that the use of Ekstrapinus extract reduces the pathological violations arising under stress. So, Ekstrapinus extract restores energy potential of cages when modeling stress, restores energy potential of cells, normalizes balance in the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids – antioxidant protection" and supports the balance of tiol in an animal organism in the state of stress. Considering absence of toxicity in the recommended doses, it is possible to recommend their application under stress.

  5. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and growth of the hybrid larch F₁ under elevated CO₂ and O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Qu, Laiye; Mao, Qiaozhi; Watanabe, Makoto; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Koyama, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Korin; Tamai, Yutaka; Koike, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    We studied the colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi and species abundance of a hybrid larch (F1) under elevated CO₂ and O₃. Two-year-old seedlings were planted in an Open-Top-Chamber system with treatments: Control (O3 ectomycorrhiza (ECM) colonization and root biomass increased under elevated CO₂. Additionally, O₃ impaired ECM colonization and species richness, and reduced stem biomass. However, there was no clear inhibition of photosynthetic capacity by O₃. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Mo, and P in needles were reduced by O₃, while K and Mg in the roots increased. This might explain the distinct change in ECM colonization rate and diversity. No effects of combined fumigation were observed in any parameters except the P concentration in needles. The tolerance of F1 to O₃ might potentially be related to a shift in ECM community structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF SUBSTANCES WITH REDUCTION POTENTIAL AT LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA, PICEA ABIES (L. KARST. AND THUJA ORIENTALIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Anca Ieremia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica, Picea abies (L. Karst and Thuja orientalis L. The treatment was applied in one variant, germinated seeds in ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit in 3 concentrations.

  7. Individual Tree Crown Delineation from Airborne Laser Scanning for Diseased Larch Forest Stands

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    Chloe Barnes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning (ALS can be utilised to derive canopy height models (CHMs for individual tree crown (ITC delineation. In the case of forest areas subject to defoliation and dieback as a result of disease, increased irregularities across the canopy can add complications to the segmentation of ITCs. Research has yet to address this issue in order to suggest appropriate techniques to apply under conditions of forest stands that are infected by phytopathogens. This study aimed to find the best method of ITC delineation for larch canopies affected by defoliation as a result of a Phytophthora ramorum infection. Sample plots from two study sites in Wales, United Kingdom, were selected for ITC segmentation assessment across a range of infection levels and stand characteristics. The performance of two segmentation algorithms (marker-controlled watershed and region growing were tested for a series of CHMs generated by a standard normalised digital surface model and a pit-free algorithm, across a range of spatial resolutions (0.15 m, 0.25 m and 0.5 m. The results show that the application of a pit-free CHM generation method produced improved segmentation accuracies in moderately and heavily infected larch forest, compared to the standard CHM. The success of ITC delineations was also influenced by CHM resolution. Across all plots the CHMs with a 0.25 m pixel size performed consistently well. However, lower and higher CHM resolutions also provided improved delineation accuracies in plots dominated by larger and smaller canopies respectively. The selected segmentation method also influenced the success of ITC delineations, with the marker-controlled watershed algorithm generating significantly more accurate results than the region growing algorithm (p < 0.10. The results demonstrate that ITCs in forest stands infected with Phytophthora ramorum can be successfully delineated from ALS when a pit-free algorithm is applied to CHM generation.

  8. Life Cycle Analysis of Carbon Flow and Carbon Footprint of Harvested Wood Products of Larix principis-rupprechtii in China

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    Fei Lun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Larix principis-rupprechtii is a native tree species in North China with a large distribution; and its harvested timbers can be used for producing wood products. This study focused on estimating and comparing carbon flows and carbon footprints of different harvested wood products (HWPs from Larix principis-ruppechtii based on the life cycle analysis (from seedling cultivation to HWP final disposal. Based on our interviews and surveys, the system boundary in this study was divided into three processes: the forestry process, the manufacturing process, and the use and disposal process. By tracking carbon flows of HWPs along the entire life cycle, we found that, for one forest rotation period, a total of 26.81 tC/ha sequestered carbon was transferred into these HWPs, 66.2% of which were still stored in the HWP when the rotation period had ended; however, the HWP carbon storage decreased to 0.25 tC/ha (only 0.9% left in the 100th year after forest plantation. The manufacturing process contributed more than 90% of the total HWP carbon footprint, but it was still smaller than the HWP carbon storage. In terms of the carbon storage and the carbon footprint, construction products had the largest net positive carbon balance compared to furniture and panel products. In addition, HWP are known to have a positive impact on global carbon mitigation because they can store parts of the sequestered carbon for a certain period of time and they have a substitution effect on carbon mitigation. Furthermore, there still exist great opportunities for carbon mitigation from HWPs through the use of cleaner energy and increasing the utilization efficiency of wood fuel.

  9. Fire Effects on Microbial Enzyme Activities in Larch Forests of the Siberian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, S.; Alexander, H. D.; Bulygina, E. B.; Mann, P. J.; Natali, S.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic forest ecosystems are warming at an accelerated rate relative to lower latitudes, with global implications for C cycling within these regions. As climate continues to warm and dry, wildfire frequency and severity are predicted to increase, creating a positive feedback to climate warming. Increased fire activity will also influence the microenvironment experienced by soil microbes in disturbed soils. Because soil microbes regulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, it is important to understand microbial response to fires, particularly in the understudied larch forests in the Siberian Arctic. In this project, we created experimental burn plots in a mature larch forest in the Kolyma River watershed of Northeastern Siberia. Plots were burned at several treatments: control (no burn), low, moderate, and severe. After, 1 and 8 d post-fire, we measured soil organic layer depth, soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil moisture, and CO2 flux from the plots. Additionally, we leached soils and measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NH4, NO3, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Furthermore, we measured extracellular activity of four enzymes involved in soil C and nutrient cycling (leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and phenol oxidase). One day post-fire, LAP activity was similarly low in all treatments, but by 8 d post-fire, LAP activity was lower in burned plots compared to control plots, likely due to increased nitrogen content with increasing burn severity. Phosphatase activity decreased with burn severity 1 d post-fire, but after 8 d, moderate and severe burn plots exhibited increased phosphatase activity. Coupled with trends in LAP activity, this suggests a switch in nutrient limitation from N to phosphorus that is more pronounced with burn severity. β-glucosidase activity similarly decreased with burn

  10. Development and Characterization of Novel EST-SSRs from Larix gmelinii and Their Cross-Species Transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojun; Sun, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Di; Xiong, Min; Wang, Xian; Yang, Junming; Wei, Zunzheng

    2015-07-09

    A set of 899 L. gmelinii expression sequence tags (ESTs), available at the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI), was employed to address the feasibility on development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Larch species. Totally, 634 non-redundant unigenes including 145 contigs and 489 singletons were finally identified and mainly involved in biosynthetic, metabolic processes and response to stress according to BLASTX results, gene ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) maps. Approximately 11.7% (74) unigenes contained 90 candidate SSRs, which were mainly trinucleotides (29, 32.2%) and dinucleotides (26, 28.9%). A relatively high frequency of SSRs was respectively found in the Open Reading Frame (ORF, about 54.4%) and 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR, 31.2%), while a low frequency was observed in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR, about 14.4%). Of the 45 novel EST-SSRs markers, nine were found to be polymorphic at two L. gmelinii populations. The number of alleles per locus (Na) ranged from two to four, and the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values were 0.200-0.733 and 0.408-0.604, respectively. The inbreeding coefficients (FIS) for all loci were more than zero except Lg41. Most of these 9EST-SSR markers were transferable to its related species L. kaempferi, L. principis-rupprechtii and L. olgensis. These novel EST-SSRs will be useful for further research on comparative genomics, genetic resources conservation and molecular breeding in larch trees.

  11. Development and Characterization of Novel EST-SSRs from Larix gmelinii and Their Cross-Species Transferability

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    Guojun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of 899 L. gmelinii expression sequence tags (ESTs, available at the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI, was employed to address the feasibility on development of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Larch species. Totally, 634 non-redundant unigenes including 145 contigs and 489 singletons were finally identified and mainly involved in biosynthetic, metabolic processes and response to stress according to BLASTX results, gene ontology (GO categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG maps. Approximately 11.7% (74 unigenes contained 90 candidate SSRs, which were mainly trinucleotides (29, 32.2% and dinucleotides (26, 28.9%. A relatively high frequency of SSRs was respectively found in the Open Reading Frame (ORF, about 54.4% and 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR, 31.2%, while a low frequency was observed in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR, about 14.4%. Of the 45 novel EST-SSRs markers, nine were found to be polymorphic at two L. gmelinii populations. The number of alleles per locus (Na ranged from two to four, and the observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity values were 0.200–0.733 and 0.408–0.604, respectively. The inbreeding coefficients (FIS for all loci were more than zero except Lg41. Most of these 9EST-SSR markers were transferable to its related species L. kaempferi, L. principis-rupprechtii and L. olgensis. These novel EST-SSRs will be useful for further research on comparative genomics, genetic resources conservation and molecular breeding in larch trees.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences.

  13. Temporal and Spatial Wildfire Dynamics of Northern Siberia: Larch Forests and Insect Outbreak Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav; Antamoshkina, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45 - 73°N) were studied based on NOAA/AVHRR and Terra/MODIS data and field measurements for the period since 1996. In addition, fire return interval along the south-north transect was analyzed. Third, pest outbreak (Siberian silkmoth) impact on the wildfires was studied. Both, number of forest fires and burned area in Siberia increased during recent decades. Significant correlations were found between forest fires, burned areas and air temperature (r = 0.5) and drought index (SPEI) (r = -0.43). Within larch stands along the transect wildfire frequency was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.91). Fire danger period length decreased linearly from south to north along the transect. Fire return interval increased from 80 years at 62°N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle (66°33'N), and to about 300 years near the northern limit of closed forest stands ( 71+°N). That increase was negatively correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = -0.95). Siberian silkmoth outbreaks leads to an order of magnitude increase in burned area and fire frequency. Multiple fires turns former "dark needle conifer" taiga into grass and bush communities for decades.

  14. Climate-Induced Landslides within the Larch Dominant Permafrost Zone of Central Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I; Shushpanov, Alexandr S; Im, Sergei T; Ranson, Kenneth J

    2016-04-01

    Climate impact on landslide occurrence and spatial patterns were analyzed within the larch-dominant communities associated with continuous permafrost areas of Central Siberia. We used high resolution satellite imagery (i.e. QuickBird, WorldView) to identify landslide scars over an area of 62000 km2. Landslide occurrence was analyzed with respect to climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, drought index SPEI), and GRACE satellite derived equivalent of water thickness anomalies (EWTA). Landslides were found only on southward facing slopes, and the occurrence of landslides increased exponentially with increasing slope steepness. Lengths of landslides correlated positively with slope steepness. The observed upper elevation limit of landslides tended to coincide with the tree line. Observations revealed landslides occurrence was also found to be strongly correlated with August precipitation (r = 0.81) and drought index (r = 0.7), with June-July-August soil water anomalies (i.e., EWTA, r = 0.68-0.7), and number of thawing days (i.e., a number of days with tmax > 0°C; r = 0.67). A significant increase in the variance of soil water anomalies was observed, indicating that occurrence of landslides may increase even with a stable mean precipitation level. The key-findings of this study are (1) landslides occurrence increased within the permafrost zone of Central Siberia in the beginning of the 21st century; (2) the main cause of increased landslides occurrence are extremes in precipitation and soil water anomalies; and (3) landslides occurrence are strongly dependent on relief features such as southward facing steep slopes.

  15. Long-term measurement of terpenoid flux above a Larix kaempferi forest using a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Tani, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Ueyama, Masahito

    2014-02-01

    Terpenoids emitted from forests contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols and affect the carbon budgets of forest ecosystems. To investigate seasonal variation in terpenoid flux involved in the aerosol formation and carbon budget, we measured the terpenoid flux of a Larix kaempferi forest between May 2011 and May 2012 by using a relaxed eddy accumulation method. Isoprene was emitted from a fern plant species Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the forest floor and monoterpenes from the L. kaempferi. α-Pinene was the dominant compound, but seasonal variation of the monoterpene composition was observed. High isoprene and monoterpene fluxes were observed in July and August. The total monoterpene flux was dependent on temperature, but several unusual high positive fluxes were observed after rain fall events. We found a good correlation between total monoterpene flux and volumetric soil water content (r = 0.88), and used this correlation to estimate monoterpene flux after rain events and calculate annual terpenoid emissions. Annual carbon emission in the form of total monoterpenes plus isoprene was determined to be 0.93% of the net ecosystem exchange. If we do not consider the effect of rain fall, carbon emissions may be underestimated by about 50%. Our results suggest that moisture conditions in the forest soil is a key factor controlling the monoterpene emissions from the forest ecosystem.

  16. Diversity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Larix chinensis across the alpine treeline ecotone of Taibai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qisheng; Huang, Jian; Long, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-07-01

    Alpine treeline ecotones represent ecosystems that are vulnerable to climate change. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community, which has potential to stabilize alpine ecosystems. ECM communities associated with Larix chinensis were studied in four zones along a natural ecotone from a mixed forest stand over pure forest stands, the timberline, and eventually, the treeline (3050-3450 m) in Tabai Mountain, China. Sixty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of ECM fungi were identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer of ECM tips. The richness of ECM species increased with elevation. The soil C/N ratio was the most important factor explaining ECM species richness. The treeline zone harbored some unique ECM fungi whereas no unique genera were observed in the timberline and pure forest zone. Elevation and topography were equally important factors influencing ECM communities in the alpine region. We suggest that a higher diversity of the ECM fungal community associated with L. chinensis in the treeline zone could result from niche differentiation.

  17. Evaluation of efficiency of controlled pollination based parentage analysis in a Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii Mayr. seed orchard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Sun

    Full Text Available Controlled pollination (CP is an important tool for breeding programs to improve seed quality, as it rapidly generates desirable genotypes and maximizes genetic gains. However, few studies have evaluated the success rate of CP, especially in Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii Mayr. seed orchards. In this study, we estimated the rate of correct parentage in 257 CP progeny in an L. gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii seed orchard from ten candidate parents using 13 microsatellites. The parentage exclusion probabilities of all combined loci in the single parent and parent pair tests were > 0.99, which was sufficient to distinguish the relatedness of the sampled individuals. Comparing the maximum likelihood-based parentage analysis results with breeding records revealed that the percentages of correctly identified maternal and paternal parents were 22.6% and 35.0% at 95% CL, respectively, suggestive of parent mislabeling and pollen contamination in the CP population. We conducted a pedigree reconstruction by identifying the expected parents and assigned maternity, paternity, and parent pairs to 176 (68.5%, 199 (77.4%, and 132 (51.4% progeny, respectively. This study provides a reference for future selection of elite genotypes for commercial production. To increase the efficiency of CP, molecular markers should be used to correctly identify individuals in seed orchards before conducting CP.

  18. [Analysis of cyclic fluctuations in larch bud moth populations by means of discrete-time dynamic models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedorezov, L V

    2011-01-01

    Analysed are the data of larch bud moth (Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) fluctuations in Swiss Alps. The analysis applies simplest mathematical models of isolated population dynamics (in particular, Kostitzin model, Skellam model, the discrete logistic model, and some other ones), which include the minimal number of unknown parameters. The parameters have been estimated, for all the models in hand, by the least-squares method, to fit certain data from the Global Population Dynamics Database (N 1407 and N 6195), the sequences of the data deviations from the model trajectories being treated as well. The best approximations are shown to be achieved with Moran-Ricker model and the discrete logistic model. Statistical criteria (Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests) reveal that the hypotheses of normal distribution of residuals must be rejected for one of the time series (N 1407); some models demonstrate serial correlations in the sequence of residuals (according to Durbin-Watson test). This leads to the conclusion that periodic fluctuations in the larch bud moth population (N 1407) can hardly be explained by self-regulation mechanisms alone. For another time series (N 6195), the modified discrete logistic model has appeared to be acceptable as a mode of fluctuations.

  19. Post-fire transformation of the microbial complexes in soils of larch forests in the lower Angara River region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Tarasov, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    The postfire transformation of the functional activity of the microbial cenoses and the main soil properties under mixed larch forests were studied in the lower reaches of the Angara River. It was shown that the intensity of the postfire changes in the population density, biomass, and activity of the microorganisms in the dark podzolized brown forest soil depended on the degree of burning of the ground cover and the surface litter during the fire. The maximum effects of the fire on the microbial cenoses were observed in the litter and the upper 5-cm-thick layer of the dark-humus horizon in the areas of intense burning. The postfire restoration of the structural-functional activity of the microbial cenoses was determined by the degree of transformation of soil properties and by the postpyrogenic succession in the ground cover. The microbial complexes of the dark podzolized brown forest soils under mixed larch forests in the studied region restored their functional activity after the fires of different intensities quicker than the microbial cenoses of the sandy podzols in the pyrogenic lichen-green-moss pine forests of the same zone.

  20. A collaborative fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration stewardship project in a Montana mixed ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Slaughter; Laura Ward; Michael Hillis; Jim Chew; Rebecca McFarlan

    2004-01-01

    Forest Service managers and researchers designed and evaluated alternative disturbance-based fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration treatments in a greatly altered low-elevation ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface. Collaboratively planned improvement cutting and prescribed fire treatment alternatives were evaluated in simulations of...

  1. Reconciliation of top-down and bottom-up CO2 fluxes in Siberian larch forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kumiko; Patra, Prabir K.; Kotani, Ayumi; Mori, Junko; Belikov, Dmitry; Ichii, Kazuhito; Saeki, Tazu; Ohta, Takeshi; Saito, Kazuyuki; Ueyama, Masahito; Ito, Akihiko; Maksyutov, Shamil; Miyazaki, Shin; Burke, Eleanor J.; Ganshin, Alexander; Iijima, Yoshihiro; Ise, Takeshi; Machiya, Hirokazu; Maximov, Trofim C.; Niwa, Yosuke; O’ishi, Ryo’ta; Park, Hotaek; Sasai, Takahiro; Sato, Hisashi; Tei, Shunsuke; Zhuravlev, Ruslan; Machida, Toshinobu; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Aoki, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes by different methods vary largely at global, regional and local scales. The net CO2 fluxes by three bottom-up methods (tower observation (TWR), biogeochemical models (GTM), and a data-driven model (SVR)), and an ensemble of atmospheric inversions (top-down method, INV) are compared in Yakutsk, Siberia for 2004–2013. The region is characterized by highly homogeneous larch forest on a flat terrain. The ecosystem around Yakutsk shows a net sink of CO2 by all the methods (means during 2004–2007 were 10.9 g C m‑2 month‑1 by TWR, 4.28 g C m‑2 month‑1 by GTM, 5.62 g C m‑2 month‑1 and 0.863 g C m‑2 month‑1 by SVR at two different scales, and 4.89 g C m‑2 month‑1 by INV). Absorption in summer (June–August) was smaller by three bottom-up methods (ranged from 88.1 to 191.8 g C m‑2 month‑1) than the top-down method (223.6 g C m‑2 month‑1). Thus the peak-to-trough amplitude of the seasonal cycle is greater for the inverse models than bottom-up methods. The monthly-mean seasonal cycles agree among the four methods within the range of inter-model variations. The interannual variability estimated by an ensemble of inverse models and a site-scale data-driven model (the max-min range was 35.8 g C m‑2 month‑1and 34.2 g C m‑2 month‑1) is more similar to that of the tower observation (42.4 g C m‑2 month‑1) than those by the biogeochemical models and the large-scale data-driven model (9.5 g C m‑2 month‑1 and 1.45 g C m‑2 month‑1). The inverse models and tower observations captured a reduction in CO2 uptake after 2008 due to unusual waterlogging.

  2. Soil CO2 efflux of a larch forest in northern Japan

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    Y. Fujinuma

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We had continuously measured soil CO2 efflux (Rs in a larch forest in northern Japan at hourly intervals for the snow-free period in 2003 with an automated chamber system and partitioned Rs into heterotrophic respiration (Rh and autotrophic respiration (Rr by using the trench method. In addition, we applied the soil CO2 concentration gradients method to continuously measure soil CO2 profiles under snowpack in the snowy period and to partition Rs into topsoil (Oa and A horizons CO2 efflux (Ft with a depth of 0.13 m and sub-soil (C horizon CO2 efflux (Fc. We found that soil CO2 effluxes were strongly affected by the seasonal variation of soil temperature but weakly correlated with soil moisture, probably because the volumetric soil moisture (30–40% at 95% confidence interval was within a plateau region for root and microbial activities. The soil CO2 effluxes changed seasonally in parallel with soil temperature in topsoil with the peak in late summer. On the other hand, the contribution of Rr to Rs was the largest at about 50% in early summer, when canopy photosynthesis and plant growth were more active. The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of Rr peaked in June. Under snowpack, Rs was stable until mid-March and then gradually increased with snow melting. Rs summed up to 79 gC m−2 during the snowy season for 4 months. The annual Rs was determined at 934 gC m−2 y−1 in 2003, which accounted for 63% of ecosystem respiration. The annual contributions of Rh and Rs to Rs were 57% and 43%, respectively. Based on the gradient approach, Rs was partitioned vertically into litter (Oi and Oe horizons with a depth of 0.01–0.02 m, topsoil and sub-soil respirations with proportions of 6, 72 and 22%, respectively, on an annual basis. The vertical distribution of CO2 efflux was consistent with those of soil carbon and root biomass.

  3. [Complexity and its integrative effects of the time lags of environment factors affecting Larix gmelinii stem sap flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Sun, Wei; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Wang, Wen-Jie

    2011-12-01

    Based on the one-year (2005) observations with a frequency of half hour on the stem sap flow of Larix gmelinii plantation trees planted in 1969 and the related environmental factors air humidity (RH), air temperature (T(air)), photosynthetic components active radiation (PAR), soil temperature (T(soil)), and soil moisture (TDR), principal analysis (PCA) and correction analysis were made on the time lag effect of the stem flow in different seasons (26 days of each season) and in a year via dislocation analysis, with the complexity and its integrative effects of the time lags of environment factors affecting the stem sap flow approached. The results showed that in different seasons and for different environmental factors, the time lag effect varied obviously. In general, the time lag of PAR was 0.5-1 hour ahead of sap flow, that of T(air) and RH was 0-2 hours ahead of or behind the sap flow, and the time lags of T(soil) and TDR were much longer or sometimes undetectable. Because of the complexity of the time lags, no evident improvements were observed in the linear correlations (R2, slope, and intercept) when the time lags based on short-term (20 days) data were used to correct the time lags based on whole year data. However, obvious improvements were found in the standardized and non-standardized correlation coefficients in stepwise multiple regressions, i.e., the time lag corrections could improve the effects of RH, but decreased the effects of PAR, T(air), and T(soil). PCA could be used to simplify the complexity. The first and the second principal components could stand for over 75% information of all the environmental factors in different seasons and in whole year. The time lags of both the first and the second principal components were 1-1.5 hours in advance of the sap flow, except in winter (no time lag effect).

  4. [Parameter sensitivity of simulating net primary productivity of Larix olgensis forest based on BIOME-BGC model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-hong; Wang, Hai-yan; Lei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-01

    Model based on vegetation ecophysiological process contains many parameters, and reasonable parameter values will greatly improve simulation ability. Sensitivity analysis, as an important method to screen out the sensitive parameters, can comprehensively analyze how model parameters affect the simulation results. In this paper, we conducted parameter sensitivity analysis of BIOME-BGC model with a case study of simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of Larix olgensis forest in Wangqing, Jilin Province. First, with the contrastive analysis between field measurement data and the simulation results, we tested the BIOME-BGC model' s capability of simulating the NPP of L. olgensis forest. Then, Morris and EFAST sensitivity methods were used to screen the sensitive parameters that had strong influence on NPP. On this basis, we also quantitatively estimated the sensitivity of the screened parameters, and calculated the global, the first-order and the second-order sensitivity indices. The results showed that the BIOME-BGC model could well simulate the NPP of L. olgensis forest in the sample plot. The Morris sensitivity method provided a reliable parameter sensitivity analysis result under the condition of a relatively small sample size. The EFAST sensitivity method could quantitatively measure the impact of simulation result of a single parameter as well as the interaction between the parameters in BIOME-BGC model. The influential sensitive parameters for L. olgensis forest NPP were new stem carbon to new leaf carbon allocation and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio, the effect of their interaction was significantly greater than the other parameter' teraction effect.

  5. Localisation pattern of homogalacturonan and arabinogalactan proteins in developing ovules of the gymnosperm plant Larix decidua Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafińska, Katarzyna; Bednarska, Elżbieta

    2011-03-01

    We have identified and characterised the temporal and spatial distribution of the homogalacturonan (HG) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) epitopes that are recognised by the antibodies JIM5, JIM7, LM2, JIM4, JIM8 and JIM13 during ovule differentiation in Larix decidua Mill. The results obtained clearly show differences in the pattern of localisation of specific HG epitopes between generative and somatic cells of the ovule. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that the presence of low-esterified HG is characteristic only of the wall of megasporocyte and megaspores. In maturing female gametophytes, highly esterified HG was the main form present, and the central vacuole of free nuclear gametophytes was particularly rich in this category of HG. This pool will probably be used in cell wall building during cellularisation. The selective labelling obtained with AGP antibodies indicates that some AGPs can be used as markers for gametophytic and sporophytic cells differentiation. Our results demonstrated that the AGPs recognised by JIM4 may constitute molecules determining changes in ovule cell development programs. Just after the end of meiosis, the signal detected with JIM4 labelling appeared only in functional and degenerating megaspores. This suggests that the antigens bound by JIM4 are involved in the initiation of female gametogenesis in L. decidua. Moreover, the analysis of AGPs distribution showed that differentiation of the nucellus cells occurs in the very young ovule stage before megasporogenesis. Throughout the period of ovule development, the pattern of localisation of the studied AGPs was different both in tapetum cells surrounding the gametophyte and in nucellus cells. Changes in the distribution of AGPs were also observed in the nucellus of the mature ovule, and they could represent an indicator of tissue arrangement to interact with the growing pollen tube. The possible role of AGPs in fertilisation is also discussed.

  6. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Arabinogalactan and Dihydroquercetin Simultaneously from Larix gmelinii as a Pretreatment for Pulping and Papermaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Yang, Lei; Li, Wei; Yue, Jinquan; Li, Jian; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method using ethanol was applied for extracting arabinogalactan (AG) and dihydroquercetin (DHQ) simultaneously from larch wood, as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking. The extraction parameters were optimized by a Box-Behnken experimental design with the yields of AG and DHQ as the response values. Under optimum conditions (three extractions, each using 40% ethanol, for 50 min, 200 W ultrasound power and 1∶18 solid-liquid ratio), the yields of AG and DHQ were 183.4 and 36.76 mg/g, respectively. After UAE pretreated, the wood chips were used for Kraft pulping (KP) and high boiling solvent pulping (HBSP). The pulping yield after pretreatment was higher than that of untreated (the pulping yields of untreated HBSP and KP were 42.37% and 39.60%, and the pulping yields of HBSP and KP after UAE-pretreated were 44.23% and 41.50% respectively), as indicated by a lower kappa number (77.91 and 27.30 for untreated HBSP and KP; 77.01 and 26.83 for UAE-pretreated HBSP and KP). Furthermore, the characteristics of paper produced from pretreated wood chips were superior to those from the untreated chips: the basis weight was lower (85.67 and 82.48 g·cm−2 for paper from untreated KP and HBSP; 79.94 and 80.25 g·cm−2 for paper from UAE-pretreated KP and HBSP), and the tensile strengths, tearing strengths, bursting strengths, and folding strengths were higher than these of paper after UAE-pretreated, respectively. PMID:25460911

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of arabinogalactan and dihydroquercetin simultaneously from Larix gmelinii as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Yang, Lei; Li, Wei; Yue, Jinquan; Li, Jian; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method using ethanol was applied for extracting arabinogalactan (AG) and dihydroquercetin (DHQ) simultaneously from larch wood, as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking. The extraction parameters were optimized by a Box-Behnken experimental design with the yields of AG and DHQ as the response values. Under optimum conditions (three extractions, each using 40% ethanol, for 50 min, 200 W ultrasound power and 1∶18 solid-liquid ratio), the yields of AG and DHQ were 183.4 and 36.76 mg/g, respectively. After UAE pretreated, the wood chips were used for Kraft pulping (KP) and high boiling solvent pulping (HBSP). The pulping yield after pretreatment was higher than that of untreated (the pulping yields of untreated HBSP and KP were 42.37% and 39.60%, and the pulping yields of HBSP and KP after UAE-pretreated were 44.23% and 41.50% respectively), as indicated by a lower kappa number (77.91 and 27.30 for untreated HBSP and KP; 77.01 and 26.83 for UAE-pretreated HBSP and KP). Furthermore, the characteristics of paper produced from pretreated wood chips were superior to those from the untreated chips: the basis weight was lower (85.67 and 82.48 g·cm(-2) for paper from untreated KP and HBSP; 79.94 and 80.25 g·cm(-2) for paper from UAE-pretreated KP and HBSP), and the tensile strengths, tearing strengths, bursting strengths, and folding strengths were higher than these of paper after UAE-pretreated, respectively.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of arabinogalactan and dihydroquercetin simultaneously from Larix gmelinii as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Ma

    Full Text Available An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method using ethanol was applied for extracting arabinogalactan (AG and dihydroquercetin (DHQ simultaneously from larch wood, as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking. The extraction parameters were optimized by a Box-Behnken experimental design with the yields of AG and DHQ as the response values. Under optimum conditions (three extractions, each using 40% ethanol, for 50 min, 200 W ultrasound power and 1∶18 solid-liquid ratio, the yields of AG and DHQ were 183.4 and 36.76 mg/g, respectively. After UAE pretreated, the wood chips were used for Kraft pulping (KP and high boiling solvent pulping (HBSP. The pulping yield after pretreatment was higher than that of untreated (the pulping yields of untreated HBSP and KP were 42.37% and 39.60%, and the pulping yields of HBSP and KP after UAE-pretreated were 44.23% and 41.50% respectively, as indicated by a lower kappa number (77.91 and 27.30 for untreated HBSP and KP; 77.01 and 26.83 for UAE-pretreated HBSP and KP. Furthermore, the characteristics of paper produced from pretreated wood chips were superior to those from the untreated chips: the basis weight was lower (85.67 and 82.48 g·cm(-2 for paper from untreated KP and HBSP; 79.94 and 80.25 g·cm(-2 for paper from UAE-pretreated KP and HBSP, and the tensile strengths, tearing strengths, bursting strengths, and folding strengths were higher than these of paper after UAE-pretreated, respectively.

  9. Nutrients resorption and stoichiometry characteristics of different-aged plantations of Larix kaempferi in the Qinling Mountains, central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Chang

    Full Text Available Elucidating the stoichiometry and resorption patterns of multiple nutrients is of essential importance to holistically understanding plant nutrition and biogeochemical cycling. Although many studies on ecological stoichiometry have been carried out, surprisingly few of them were simultaneously done on the investigation of both nutrient resorption efficiency and stoichiometry for different-aged plantations of a perennial tree. Here, both green and senesced leaf samples were collected from four Larix kaempfer plantations aged of 8, 15, 22, and 32 years in the Qinling Mountains to examine nutrients resorption efficiency and stoichiometry characteristics. The results suggested that the nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Fe in both green and senesced leaves of L. kaempferi (a deciduous conifer tree did not show a regular change trends along the plantation ages in the Qinling Mountains. The concentrations of the most nutrients examined, except for Fe, in the green leaves were relatively lower than or close to the required physiological concentrations, suggesting a relative limitation of multiple nutrients exists in L. kaempferi for its above-ground biomass growth. The rank order of resorption efficiencies of four key nutrients (N, P, K, and Mg was K (80.89% > N (67.42% > P (65.34% > Mg (41.16%, whereas the nutrient Ca and Fe tended to accumulate in senesced leaves. Overall, the nutrient resorption efficiency of all examined elements did not exhibit a regular trend corresponding to the change of the plantation ages in L. kaempferi, but it was positively related to the nutrient concentrations in green leaves. The mean C:N and C:P ratios in the green and senesced leaves were significantly higher than those reported globally (on average. By contrast, the N:P ratio, at <14, was not only much lower than that reported for both China's flora and globally (on average, but it did suggest that the N nutrient limits growth of L. kaempferi in

  10. Nutrients resorption and stoichiometry characteristics of different-aged plantations of Larix kaempferi in the Qinling Mountains, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yajun; Li, Naiwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiaojing; Du, Fengfeng; Yao, Dongrui

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the stoichiometry and resorption patterns of multiple nutrients is of essential importance to holistically understanding plant nutrition and biogeochemical cycling. Although many studies on ecological stoichiometry have been carried out, surprisingly few of them were simultaneously done on the investigation of both nutrient resorption efficiency and stoichiometry for different-aged plantations of a perennial tree. Here, both green and senesced leaf samples were collected from four Larix kaempfer plantations aged of 8, 15, 22, and 32 years in the Qinling Mountains to examine nutrients resorption efficiency and stoichiometry characteristics. The results suggested that the nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Fe in both green and senesced leaves of L. kaempferi (a deciduous conifer tree) did not show a regular change trends along the plantation ages in the Qinling Mountains. The concentrations of the most nutrients examined, except for Fe, in the green leaves were relatively lower than or close to the required physiological concentrations, suggesting a relative limitation of multiple nutrients exists in L. kaempferi for its above-ground biomass growth. The rank order of resorption efficiencies of four key nutrients (N, P, K, and Mg) was K (80.89%) > N (67.42%) > P (65.34%) > Mg (41.16%), whereas the nutrient Ca and Fe tended to accumulate in senesced leaves. Overall, the nutrient resorption efficiency of all examined elements did not exhibit a regular trend corresponding to the change of the plantation ages in L. kaempferi, but it was positively related to the nutrient concentrations in green leaves. The mean C:N and C:P ratios in the green and senesced leaves were significantly higher than those reported globally (on average). By contrast, the N:P ratio, at <14, was not only much lower than that reported for both China's flora and globally (on average), but it did suggest that the N nutrient limits growth of L. kaempferi in these

  11. Factors promoting larch dominance in central Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics at the boundary of evergreen and deciduous conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-D. Schulze

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relative role of fire and of climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1 on climate-driven performance only, (2 on fire only, or (3 on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in central and eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in performance of the observed species along the transect. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix and of soil carbon. Of lesser influence were longitude as a proxy for climate, local hydrology and active-layer thickness. We can only partially explain fire return frequency, which is not only related to climate and land cover, but also to human behavior.

    Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yrs between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yrs since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20%.

    Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20% at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha−1 yr−1 independent of age class and species. Stand biomass reached about 130 t C ha−1(equivalent to about 520 m3 ha−1. Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yrs. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of

  12. Factors promoting larch dominance in central Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics at the boundary of evergreen and deciduous conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Wirth, C.; Mollicone, D.; von Lüpke, N.; Ziegler, W.; Achard, F.; Mund, M.; Prokushkin, A.; Scherbina, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relative role of fire and of climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1) on climate-driven performance only, (2) on fire only, or (3) on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in central and eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in performance of the observed species along the transect. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix and of soil carbon. Of lesser influence were longitude as a proxy for climate, local hydrology and active-layer thickness. We can only partially explain fire return frequency, which is not only related to climate and land cover, but also to human behavior. Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yrs between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yrs since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20%. Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20% at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha-1 yr-1 independent of age class and species. Stand biomass reached about 130 t C ha-1(equivalent to about 520 m3 ha-1). Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yrs. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of heart wood. 60% of old Larix and Picea and 30% of Pinus sibirica trees were affected by stem rot. Implications for the future role of fire and of plant diseases are

  13. Fire Effects on Microbial Dynamics and C, N, and P Cycling in Larch Forests of the Siberian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, S.; Alexander, H. D.; Mann, P. J.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic forest ecosystems are warming at an accelerated rate relative to lower latitudes, with global implications for C cycling within these regions. As climate continues to warm and dry, wildfire frequency and severity are predicted to increase, creating a positive feedback to climate warming. Because soil microbes regulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, it is important to understand microbial response to fires, particularly in the understudied larch forests in the Siberian Arctic. In this project, we created experimental burn plots in a mature larch forest in the Kolyma River watershed of Northeastern Siberia. Plots were burned at several treatments: control (no burn), low, moderate, and severe. After 1 day, 8 days and 1 year post-fire, we measured CO2 flux from the plots, and measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NH4, NO3, PO4, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from soil leachates. Furthermore, we measured extracellular activity of four enzymes involved in soil C and nutrient cycling (leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and phenol oxidase). Both 1 day and 8 days post-fire DOC, TDN, NH4, and PO4 all increased with burn severity, but by 1 year they were similar to control plots. The aromaticity and molecular weight of DOM decreased with fire severity. One day post-fire we observed a spike in phenol oxidase activity in the severe burns only, and a decline in β-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. By 8 days post-fire all enzyme activities were at the level of the control plots. 1 year post-fire LAP, β-glucosidase, and phosphatase all decreased with fire severity, parallel to a decrease in CO2 flux by fire severity. Ratios of enzymatic activity 1 year post-fire reflect a switch of resource allocation from P acquiring to N acquiring activities in more severe fires. Our results show an immediate microbial response to the short-term effects

  14. A multi-taxon approach reveals the effect of management intensity on biodiversity in Alpine larch grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Fontana, Veronika; Spitale, Daniel

    2014-07-15

    In the Alps, larch grasslands form one of the most pleasing aspects of the landscape. However, their effectiveness in contributing to biodiversity conservation may depend on the intensity of their management. We used a multi-taxon approach to evaluate the effects of the intensification of management practices and those of abandonment on the biodiversity of the main autotrophic organisms hosted in this habitat, including vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens. The study was carried out in the eastern part of South Tyrol, in the Italian Alps, where the diversity patterns of these three organismal groups were compared among intensively managed, extensively managed, and abandoned stands. The management intensity was found to strongly influence the biodiversity of the organisms, with a general pattern indicating the best conditions in extensively managed stands. Both abandonment and management intensification were detrimental to biodiversity through different mechanisms that led to species loss or to major shifts in species composition. However, the most negative effects were related to management intensification, mainly due to the high nitrogen supply, providing evidence for the increasing impact of eutrophication on Alpine environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Siberian Boreal Forest Aboveground Biomass and Fire Scar Maps, Russia, 1969-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides 30-meter resolution mapped estimates of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) aboveground biomass (AGB), circa 2007, and a map of burn perimeters...

  16. Simulating carbon and water cycles of larch forests in East Asia by the BIOME-BGC model with AsiaFlux data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ueyama

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Larch forests are widely distributed across many cool-temperate and boreal regions, and they are expected to play an important role in global carbon and water cycles. Model parameterizations for larch forests still contain large uncertainties owing to a lack of validation. In this study, a process-based terrestrial biosphere model, BIOME-BGC, was tested for larch forests at six AsiaFlux sites and used to identify important environmental factors that affect the carbon and water cycles at both temporal and spatial scales.

    The model simulation performed with the default deciduous conifer parameters produced results that had large differences from the observed net ecosystem exchange (NEE, gross primary productivity (GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE, and evapotranspiration (ET. Therefore, we adjusted several model parameters in order to reproduce the observed rates of carbon and water cycle processes. This model calibration, performed using the AsiaFlux data, substantially improved the model performance. The simulated annual GPP, RE, NEE, and ET from the calibrated model were highly consistent with observed values.

    The observed and simulated GPP and RE across the six sites were positively correlated with the annual mean air temperature and annual total precipitation. On the other hand, the simulated carbon budget was partly explained by the stand disturbance history in addition to the climate. The sensitivity study indicated that spring warming enhanced the carbon sink, whereas summer warming decreased it across the larch forests. The summer radiation was the most important factor that controlled the carbon fluxes in the temperate site, but the VPD and water conditions were the limiting factors in the boreal sites. One model parameter, the allocation ratio of carbon between belowground and aboveground, was site-specific, and it was negatively correlated with the annual climate of annual mean air temperature and total precipitation

  17. Biogeochemistry of stable Ca and radiogenic Sr isotopes in a larch-covered permafrost-dominated watershed of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagard, Marie-Laure; Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Chabaux, François; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jérôme; Stille, Peter; Labolle, François; Prokushkin, Anatoly S.

    2013-08-01

    Stable Ca and radiogenic Sr isotope compositions were measured in different compartments (stream water, soil solutions, rocks, soils and soil leachates and vegetation) of a small permafrost-dominated watershed in the Central Siberian Plateau. The Sr and Ca in the area are supplied by basalt weathering and atmospheric depositions, which significantly impact the Sr isotopic compositions. Only vegetation significantly fractionates the calcium isotopes within the watershed. These fractionations occur during Ca uptake by roots and along the transpiration stream within the larch trees and are hypothesised to be the result of chromatographic processes and Ca oxalate crystallisations during Ca circulation or storage within plant organs. Biomass degradation significantly influences the Ca isotopic compositions of soil solutions and soil leachates via the release of light Ca, and organic and organo-mineral colloids are thought to affect the Ca isotopic compositions of soil solutions by preferential scavenging of 40Ca. The imprint of organic matter degradation on the δ44/40Ca of soil solutions is much more significant for the warmer south-facing slope of the watershed than for the shallow and cold soil active layer of the north-facing slope. As a result, the available stock of biomass and the decomposition rates appear to be critical parameters that regulate the impact of vegetation on the soil-water system in permafrost areas. Finally, the obtained δ44/40Ca patterns contrast with those described for permafrost-free environments with a much lower δ44/40Ca fractionation factor between soils and plants, suggesting specific features of organic matter decomposition in permafrost environments. The biologically induced Ca isotopic fractionation observed at the soil profile scale is not pronounced at the scale of the streams and large rivers in which the δ44/40Ca signature may be controlled by the heterogeneity of lithological sources.

  18. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  19. Comparative toxicity of Acephate, Diflubenzuron, and Malathion to larvae of the Larch Casebearer, Coleophora laricella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) and adults of its parasites, Chrysocharis laricinellae1 and Dicladocerus nearcticus1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion Page; Roger B Ryan; Nancy Rappaport; Fred< sup> 3< /sup> Schmidt

    1982-01-01

    Fourth-instar larch casebearer, Coleophora laricella (Hübner), was significantly less susceptible to acephate and malathion than were adults of its parasites. Chrysocharis larcinellae(Ratz.) and Dicladocerus nearcticus Yoshimoto (P0.01) than the hosts to diflubenzuron. Malathion was equally...

  20. Intra-Annual Xylem Growth of Larix principis-rupprechtii at Its Upper and Lower Distribution Limits on the Luyashan Mountain in North-Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Altitude-related climatic factors, especially temperature, are important factors that affect tree growth in mountain forest ecosystems. The aims of this study were to estimate the intra-annual radial growth differences of Larix principis-rupprechtii (L. principis-rupprechtii between its upper and lower distribution limits, at 2740 and 2040 m a.s.l, respectively. Dynamics of xylem growth were observed by collecting microcore samples weekly during the 2011 growth season. The result indicated that different strategies were adopted at the two selected sites. Trees at the upper distribution limit adopted an “intensive strategy” with higher maximum growth rates (0.69 cell·day−1 within a shorter duration of 95 days, producing 21 new tracheids. By contrast, trees at the lower distribution limit exhibited an “extensive strategy” with lower maximum growth rates (0.53 cell·day−1 over a longer duration of 135 days, producing 50 tracheids. The soil temperature was probably the main factor limiting the onset of cambial activity for L. principis-rupprechtii, its daily mean thresholds for onset were 0 °C and 1.4 °C at the upper and lower distribution limits, respectively. These results indicate that L. principis-rupprechtii is able to adjust its xylem growth according to environmental conditions.

  1. Larix laricina, an Antidiabetic Alternative Treatment from the Cree of Northern Quebec Pharmacopoeia, Decreases Glycemia and Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Harbilas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Larix laricina K. Koch is a medicinal plant belonging to traditional pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (Eastern James Bay area of Canada. In vitro screening studies revealed that, like metformin and rosiglitazone, it increases glucose uptake and adipogenesis, activates AMPK, and uncouples mitochondrial function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antiobesity potential of L. laricina in diet-induced obese (DIO C57BL/6 mice. Mice were subjected for eight or sixteen weeks to a high fat diet (HFD or HFD to which L. laricina was incorporated at 125 and 250 mg/kg either at onset (prevention study or in the last 8 of the 16 weeks of administration of the HFD (treatment study. L. laricina effectively decreased glycemia levels, improved insulin resistance, and slightly decreased abdominal fat pad and body weights. This occurred in conjunction with increased energy expenditure as demonstrated by elevated skin temperature in the prevention study and improved mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis in the treatment protocol. L. laricina is thus a promising alternative and complementary therapeutic approach for the treatment and care of obesity and diabetes among the Cree.

  2. Effects of fire disturbance on soil respiration in the non-growing season in a Larix gmelinii forest in the Daxing'an Mountains, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongxin Hu

    Full Text Available In boreal forests, fire is an important part of the ecosystem that greatly influences soil respiration, which in turn affects the carbon balance. Wildfire can have a significant effect on soil respiration and it depends on the fire severity and environmental factors (soil temperature and snow water equivalent after fire disturbance. In this study, we quantified post-fire soil respiration during the non-growing season (from November to April in a Larix gmelinii forest in Daxing'an Mountains of China. Soil respiration was measured in the snow-covered and snow-free conditions with varying degrees of natural burn severity forests. We found that soil respiration decreases as burn severity increases. The estimated annual C efflux also decreased with increased burn severity. Soil respiration during the non-growing season approximately accounted for 4%-5% of the annual C efflux in all site types. Soil temperature (at 5 cm depth was the predominant determinant of non-growing season soil respiration change in this area. Soil temperature and snow water equivalent could explain 73%-79% of the soil respiration variability in winter snow-covering period (November to March. Mean spring freeze-thaw cycle (FTC period (April soil respiration contributed 63% of the non-growing season C efflux. Our finding is key for understanding and predicting the potential change in the response of boreal forest ecosystems to fire disturbance under future climate change.

  3. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  4. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  5. Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg−1·year−1 for SOM, 438.9 mg·g−1·year−1 for C:P, 5.3 mg·g−1·year−1 for C:K, and −3.23 mg·cm−3·year−1 for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0–80-cm soil profile (P: −4.10 mg·kg−1·year−1; pH: −0.0061 unit·year−1; C:N: 167.1 mg·g−1·year−1; K:P: 371.5 mg·g−1 year−1; N:K: −0.242 mg·g−1·year−1; EC: 0.169 μS·cm−1·year−1), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance. PMID:24772281

  6. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  7. Do centennial tree-ring and stable isotope trends of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. indicate increasing water shortage in the Siberian north?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Olga Vladimirovna; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Saurer, Matthias; Shashkin, Alexander V; Knorre, Anastasia A; Prokushkin, Anatoliy S; Vaganov, Eugene A; Kirdyanov, Alexander V

    2009-10-01

    Tree-ring width of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr., ratios of stable isotopes of C (delta(13)C) and O (delta(18)O) of whole wood and cellulose chronologies were obtained for the northern part of central Siberia (Tura, Russia) for the period 1864-2006. A strong decrease in the isotope ratios of O and C (after atmospheric delta(13)C corrections) and tree-ring width was observed for the period 1967-2005, while weather station data show a decrease in July precipitation, along with increasing July air temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Temperature at the end of May and the whole month of June mainly determines tree radial growth and marks the beginning of the vegetation period in this region. A positive correlation between tree-ring width and July precipitation was found for the calibration period 1929-2005. Positive significant correlations between C isotope chronologies and temperatures of June and July were found for whole wood and cellulose and negative relationships with July precipitation. These relationships are strengthened when the likely physiological response of trees to increased CO(2) is taken into account (by applying a recently developed delta(13)C correction). For the O isotope ratios, positive relationships with annual temperature, VPD of July and a negative correlation with annual precipitation were observed. The delta(18)O in tree rings may reflect annual rather than summer temperatures, due to the late melting of the winter snow and its contribution to the tree water supply in summer. We observed a clear change in the isotope and climate trends after the 1960s, resulting in a drastic change in the relationship between C and O isotope ratios from a negative to a positive correlation. According to isotope fractionation models, this indicates reduced stomatal conductance at a relatively constant photosynthetic rate, as a response of trees to water deficit for the last half century in this permafrost region.

  8. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  9. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  10. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O3) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics. Presently, ambient ground-level O3 concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO2 Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees. Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation. In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps. PMID:21379395

  11. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  12. Seasonal variations in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and C:N:P stoichiometry in different organs of a Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailiang; C Crabbe, M James; Xu, Fuli; Wang, Weiling; Ma, Lihui; Niu, Ruilong; Gao, Xing; Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Pei; Ma, Xin; Chen, Haikui

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how concentrations of elements and their stoichiometry change with plant growth and age is critical for predicting plant community responses to environmental change. We used long-term field experiments to explore how the leaf, stem and root carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentrations and their stoichiometry changed with growth and stand age in a L. principis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation from 2012-2015 in the Qinling Mountains, China. Our results showed that the C, N and P concentrations and stoichiometric ratios in different tissues of larch stands were affected by stand age, organ type and sampling month and displayed multiple correlations with increased stand age in different growing seasons. Generally, leaf C and N concentrations were greatest in the fast-growing season, but leaf P concentrations were greatest in the early growing season. However, no clear seasonal tendencies in the stem and root C, N and P concentrations were observed with growth. In contrast to N and P, few differences were found in organ-specific C concentrations. Leaf N:P was greatest in the fast-growing season, while C:N and C:P were greatest in the late-growing season. No clear variations were observed in stem and root C:N, C:P and N:P throughout the entire growing season, but leaf N:P was less than 14, suggesting that the growth of larch stands was limited by N in our study region. Compared to global plant element concentrations and stoichiometry, the leaves of larch stands had higher C, P, C:N and C:P but lower N and N:P, and the roots had greater P and C:N but lower N, C:P and N:P. Our study provides baseline information for describing the changes in nutritional elements with plant growth, which will facilitates plantation forest management and restoration, and makes a valuable contribution to the global data pool on leaf nutrition and stoichiometry.

  13. Mapping Spatial Distribution of Larch Plantations from Multi-Seasonal Landsat-8 OLI Imagery and Multi-Scale Textures Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about spatial distribution of plantation forests is critical for forest management, monitoring programs and functional assessment. This study demonstrates the potential of multi-seasonal (spring, summer, autumn and winter Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager imageries with random forests (RF modeling to map larch plantations (LP in a typical plantation forest landscape in North China. The spectral bands and two types of textures were applied for creating 675 input variables of RF. An accuracy of 92.7% for LP, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.834, was attained using the RF model. A RF-based importance assessment reveals that the spectral bands and bivariate textural features calculated by pseudo-cross variogram (PC strongly promoted forest class-separability, whereas the univariate textural features influenced weakly. A feature selection strategy eliminated 93% of variables, and then a subset of the 47 most essential variables was generated. In this subset, PC texture derived from summer and winter appeared the most frequently, suggesting that this variability in growing peak season and non-growing season can effectively enhance forest class-separability. A RF classifier applied to the subset led to 91.9% accuracy for LP, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.829. This study provides an insight into approaches for discriminating plantation forests with phenological behaviors.

  14. Secondary formation of oxalic acid and related organic species from biogenic sources in a larch forest at the northern slope of Mt. Fuji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Wada, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Tani, Akira

    2017-10-01

    To better understand the formation of water-soluble organic aerosols in the forest atmosphere, we measured low molecular weight (LMW) dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols from a Larix kaempferi forest located at the northern slope of Mt. Fuji, Japan, in summer 2012. Concentrations of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and WSOC showed maxima in daytime. Relative abundance of oxalic acid in LMW dicarboxylic acids was on average 52% and its average concentration was 214 ng m-3. We found that diurnal and temporal variations of oxalic acid are different from those of isoprene and α-pinene, whereas biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs) derived from isoprene and α-pinene showed similar variations with oxalic acid. The mass concentration ratios of oxalic acid/BSOAs were relatively constant, although a large variation in the concentrations of toluene that is an anthropogenic volatile organic compound was observed. These results suggest that formation of oxalic acid is associated with the oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene with O3 and other oxidants in the forest atmosphere. In addition, concentrations of UFAs were observed, for the first time, to decrease dramatically during daytime in the forest. Mass concentration ratios of azelaic acid to UFAs showed a positive correlation with O3, suggesting that UFAs are oxidized to yield azelaic acid, which may be further decomposed to oxalic acid in the forest atmosphere. We found that contributions of oxalic acid to WSOC are significantly high ranging from 3.7 to 9.7% (average 6.0%). This study demonstrates that forest ecosystem is an important source of oxalic acid and other dicarboxylic acids in the atmosphere.

  15. The conditions of forests in Italy. Results from the extensive surveys of Level I (1997-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussotti F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of forests in Italy. Results from the extensive surveys of Level I (1997-2010. Monitoring of tree crown defoliation is carried out in Italy since the ’80, and in 1996 a comprehensive program of quality assurance has been implemented. Currently the monitoring network includes about 260 permanent plots and 7000 sample trees. The most representative tree species are: Fagus sylvatica (European beech, Quercus pubescens (downy oak, Quercus cerris (Turkey oak, Quercus ilex (holm oah, Castanea sativa (chestnut, Ostrya carpinifolia (hop hornbeam, Picea abies (spruce, Larix decidua (larch, Pinus nigra (black pine e Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine. These species represent the 80% of the whole sample, but only European beech is evenly distributed in Italy. The most important trends at national level concern the critical sanitary conditions of Castanea sativa and Quercus pubescens, as well as the high defoliation levels of Pinus sylvestris. The importance of this program in the context of climate change studies is discussed.

  16. Contrasting development of declining and living larch-spruce stands after a disturbance event: A case study from the High Tatra Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šebeň Vladimír

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The decline of spruce stands caused by bark beetle outbreaks is a serious economic and ecological problem of forestry in Slovakia. In the preceding period, the decline affected mainly secondary spruce forests. Over the last decade, due to large bark-beetle outbreaks this problem has been observed also in natural spruce forests, even at high elevations. We dealt with this issue in a case study of short-term development of larch-spruce stands in the High Tatras (at a site called Štart. We compared the situation in the stand infested by bark beetles several years after the wind-throw in 2004 with the stand unaffected by bark beetles. We separately analysed the development of the mature (parent stands and the regeneration. The results indicated that forest decline caused by bark beetles significantly depended on the stand structure (mainly tree species composition, which affected the period of stand disintegration. Mortality of spruce trees slowed down biomass accumulation (and thus carbon sequestration in the forest ecosystem. In the new stand, pioneer tree species dominated (in the conditions of the High Tatras it is primarily rowan, although their share in the parent stand was negligible. The results showed different trends in the accumulation of below-ground and above-ground biomass in the declined and living stands. In the first years after the stand decline, rowan accumulated significantly more biomass than the main tree species, i.e. spruce. The reverse situation was under the surviving stand, where spruce trees accumulated more biomass than rowan. The different share of spruce and pioneer tree species, mainly rowan, affected the ratio between fixed (in woody parts of trees and rotating (in foliage carbon in the undergrowth. Forest die-back is a big source of carbon emissions from dead individuals, and the compensation of these losses in the form of carbon sequestration by future stands is a matter of several decades.

  17. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  18. Environmental factors controlling forest evapotranspiration and surface conductance on a multi-temporal scale in growing seasons of a Siberian larch forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Megumi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kotani, Ayumi; Maximov, Trofim

    2010-12-01

    SummaryThe water and energy fluxes in forests fluctuate on different temporal scales, reflecting the impact of environmental factors. We examined the temporal fluctuation of the turbulent fluxes, surface conductance ( Gs), and four environmental factors (photosynthetic photon flux density [ Q], vapour pressure deficit [ D], air temperature [ T], and volumetric soil water content [ θ]) in a Siberian larch forest, using wavelet power spectra. The responses of the latent heat flux ( λE) and Gs to the environmental factors were analysed using the wavelet scale-wise correlation coefficient (SWCC) on multiple temporal scales. The observation site is characterised by underlying permafrost and a relatively short growing season. Analysis was conducted from May to September in each of 8 years during 1998-2007. The relationships between Gs and the environmental factors were evaluated with restrictive functions of a Jarvis-type surface conductance model because Gs usually has non-linear relationships to ambient factors. According to the power spectra of each factor, the largest variation was seen on a diurnal timescale for λE, the sensible heat flux ( H), Gs, and Q, whereas D and T fluctuated from diurnal to inter-seasonal timescales, and θ varied significantly over periods longer than the inter-seasonal timescales. The SWCC indicated that λE and Gs respond differently to the same ambient factors due to their respective processes; namely, λE is affected by both atmospheric demand and land surface regulation, whereas Gs is affected only by the latter. λE correlated well with Q at all timescales, as well as with D and T on intra-seasonal to interannual scales and with θ on inter-seasonal to interannual timescales. The SWCC of Gs and Q showed two peaks, on diurnal and inter-seasonal to interannual timescales, reflecting the physiological processes of plants, and D affected Gs only on an intra-seasonal timescale, which is related to meteorological changes. T and

  19. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin from Larix gmelinii with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from Larix gmelinii wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The L. gmelinii wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  20. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  1. How much does climate change threaten European forest tree species distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Paź, Sonia; Frelich, Lee E; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2018-03-01

    Although numerous species distribution models have been developed, most were based on insufficient distribution data or used older climate change scenarios. We aimed to quantify changes in projected ranges and threat level by the years 2061-2080, for 12 European forest tree species under three climate change scenarios. We combined tree distribution data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, EUFORGEN, and forest inventories, and we developed species distribution models using MaxEnt and 19 bioclimatic variables. Models were developed for three climate change scenarios-optimistic (RCP2.6), moderate (RCP4.5), and pessimistic (RPC8.5)-using three General Circulation Models, for the period 2061-2080. Our study revealed different responses of tree species to projected climate change. The species may be divided into three groups: "winners"-mostly late-successional species: Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, and Quercus petraea; "losers"-mostly pioneer species: Betula pendula, Larix decidua, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris; and alien species-Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus rubra, and Robinia pseudoacacia, which may be also considered as "winners." Assuming limited migration, most of the species studied would face a significant decrease in suitable habitat area. The threat level was highest for species that currently have the northernmost distribution centers. Ecological consequences of the projected range contractions would be serious for both forest management and nature conservation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  3. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  4. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  5. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  6. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  7. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  8. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  9. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  10. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  11. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  12. Modeling species’ realized climatic niche space and predicting their response to global warming for several western forest species with small geographic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically based bioclimatic model of the presence-absence of species occupying small geographic distributions in western North America. The species assessed were subalpine larch (Larix lyallii), smooth Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica ssp. glabra...

  13. Bedrock type significantly affects individual tree mortality for various conifers in the inland Northwest, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Moore; David A Hamilton; Yu Xiao; John Byrne

    2004-01-01

    Individual tree mortality models for western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) were developed using data...

  14. Determining modulus of elasticity of ancient structural timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houjiang Zhang; Lei Zhu; Yanliang Sun; Xiping Wang; Haicheng Yan

    2011-01-01

    During maintenance of ancient timber architectures, it is important to determine mechanical properties of the wood component materials non-destructively and effectively, so that degraded members may be replaced or repaired to avoid structural failure. Experimental materials are four larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.) components, which were taken down from the...

  15. Cleaning to favor western white pine - its effects upon composition, growth, and potential values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    The management of western white pine (Pinus monticola) requires the production of a high proportion of valuable white pine crop trees in order to defray the costs of protection from blister rust. Current average selling prices of lumber give white pine about $50 per m.b.f. advantage over western larch (Larix occidentalis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), the...

  16. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  17. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  18. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  19. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  20. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  1. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  2. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  3. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  4. Timetabling on European Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  5. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  6. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  7. European DHC Research Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, Robin; Williams, Jonathan (Building Research Establishment, BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford (United Kingdom)); Werner, Sven (Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Euroheat and Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues

  8. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the high acetylene-reducing activity exhibited by the soil bacterial community from BC2 horizon in the permafrost zone of the East Siberian larch forest bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, S; Desyatkin, R V; Hashidoko, Y

    2014-04-01

    This study addressed a microbial composition of East Siberian larch forest bed soil and focused on major nitrogen-fixing bacterial consortia showing the highest capacity to induce acetylene reduction. The ability of a soil microbial consortium to effectively reduce acetylene was investigated using gellan gum medium. In parallel, each microbial component in the medium was analysed by a 16S rRNA gene-targeting denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), together with an attempt to isolate pure culture of the culturable eubacteria. Six strains of the isolated bacteria were characterized as diazotrophs, and Burkholderia xenovorans was found to be one of the major nitrogen fixer in the bacterial community cultured from the BC2 horizon soil microbiota. Co-culturing of either a diazotrophic Pseudomonas sp. with a nondiazotrophic Luteibacter sp. or a diazotrophic Luteibacter sp. with a nondiazotrophic bacterium B. xenovorans resulted in a marked elevation in acetylene reduction over that observed in the pure culture of each diazotroph. A promotion of acetylene reduction in mixed bacterial cultures, particularly when the cultures included Luteibacter, was clearly observed due to an increase in the bacterial cell population. Our study, which showed that some unculturable bacteria including anaerobic Clostridium sp. that can provide major contribution to nitrogen fixation, may provide key information useful in identifying the 'missing link' in the nitrogen cycle in the cryogenic soil ecosystem of boreal forests. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  10. Chemical composition of oleoresin from Larix gmelinii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardyshev, I.I.; Degtyarenko, A.S.; Pertsovskii, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    The yield of gum turpentine was 16.7% of which the dominant compound was alpha-pinene (76.4%). The rosin acid yield was 41.8% of which the dominant compounds were abietic acid (25.7%) and isopimaric acid (34.0%). (Refs. 7)

  11. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...... coming from new global streaming services. Comparing cases of historical, contemporary and crime drama from several countries, this study shows the importance of creative co-production and transnational mediated cultural encounters between national cultures of Europe....

  12. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    with the case of Sweden. Sweden is a good example because it has a high density of internet use, a politically active population as reflected in voter turnout and many politicians and political parties with a web presence. The main research questions of the paper are: Which actors are involved in the Swedish...... of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether...... or not non-Swedish Twitter users are participating in and/or affecting the Swedish Eurosceptic dialogue on social media....

  13. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  14. European Universe Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  15. The European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martinelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European identity is not only a scientifically interesting question, but also a politically important issue: in fact, sixty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome, the European Union finds itself for the first time facing risks that threaten its own existence. The European Union is a limited and incomplete project because Europe’s economic integration has not been accompanied by a genuine supranational political union and greater cultural integration. The deficit of democratic representation and cultural integration is due to the fact that the community process is based only on economic rationality and not on a feeling of common belonging. In the current situation in which the Union faces difficult challenges which threaten to undermine the future, it necessary to affirm the policy of interests with a policy of identity. In this essay, we will first concentrate on the concept of identity – that is on the nucleus of values and common institutions –; then we will discuss how the European identity has changed over time (also in relation to national identities and what are the mechanisms that may favour its taking root in the current situation. The European project of political unification needs to be re-emphasized, finding the way to a European collective identity, not contrasted with but alongside the different national identities, referring to loyalty and shared commitment to a whole collection of cultural values: fundamental human rights, civil liberties, democratic political institutions, rule of law, freedom of movement of people, goods and capital, social justice and non-violent resolution of conflicts.

  16. European Gas Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Iben; Bieber, Martin; Gandrup, Tobias; Lehmann, Tina; Weinberger, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The focal point of the project is, as it is implied in the title, European gas dependency, to be more specific; the dependency of Russian gas. We chose Russia, because the EU's import of gas is mainly supplied by Russia. We present background information and knowledge to describe why the case is of relevance and that a situation of dependency exists. We solely look at the dependency from the European Union's point of view, taking point of departure in the Green Paper. The Green Paper is a pap...

  17. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  18. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality...

  19. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....

  20. European Psychology Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA SCHÖN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.

  1. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  2. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  3. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    ’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...

  4. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  5. Becoming Pan-European?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Brüggemann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    be platforms of a transnational European discourse. Four ideal-types of transnational media can be distinguished: (1) national media with a transnational mission, (2) international media, (3) pan-regional media and (4) global media. Within this framework the article analyses transnational media in Europe...

  6. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  7. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  8. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  9. The Europeanness of European cinema: Identity, meaning, globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Gertjan

    2015-01-01

    According to its editors, the aim of The Europeanness of European cinema is ‘to revisit the issue of the significance of European cinema as a category in the wake of the recent acceleration in transnational filmmaking and globalization as a whole’ (p. 7). Taking the transnational prominence of European cinema as a starting point, the anthology’s introduction presents some brief reflections about what ‘Europeanness’ – the central, overarching concept for the various chapters – has meant histor...

  10. European core curriculum in neurorehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandrini, G.; Binder, H.; Homberg, V.; Saltuari, L.; Tarkka, I.; Smania, N.; Corradini, C.; Giustini, A.; Katterer, C.; Picari, L.; Diserens, K.; Koenig, E.; Geurts, A.C.; Anghelescu, A.; Opara, J.; Tonin, P.; Kwakkel, G.; Golyk, V.; Onose, G.; Perennou, D.; Picelli, A.

    2017-01-01

    To date, medical education lacks Europe-wide standards on neurorehabilitation. To address this, the European Federation of NeuroRehabilitation Societies (EFNR) here proposes a postgraduate neurorehabilitation training scheme. In particular, the European medical core curriculum in neurorehabilitation

  11. European and Integration Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soviet scientific school of pan-European integration studies began to emerge in the 1960s at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (Russian Academy of Science. Among the leading scientists who have developed methodological approaches of Soviet integration studies were M.M. Maximova, Y.A. Borko, Y. Shishkov, L.I. Capercaillie. Later, a new center for integration studies became the Institute of Europe, created in 1987. It was led by such renowned scientists as Academicians V.V. Zhurkin and N.P. Shmelev. In the 1980s the subject of the integration process in Europe attracted attention of experts from MGIMO. An important role in the development of school of integration research in the USSR was played by a MGIMO professor, head of the chair of history of international relations and foreign policy of the USSR V.B. Knyazhinskiy. His work contributed to the deliverance of the national scientific community from skepticism about the prospects for European integration. Ideas of V.B. Knyazhinsky are developed today in MGIMO by his followers A.V. Mal'gin and T.V. Ur'eva. In the mid-1990s, having retired from diplomatic service, professor Yu. Matveevskiy started to work at MGIMO. With a considerable practical experience in the field, he produced a series of monographs on the history of European integration. In his works, he analyses the development of integration processes in Western Europe from their inception to the present day, showing the gradual maturation of the necessary spiritual and material prerequisites for the start of integration and traces the various stages of the "integration". In the late 1990s, the growing demand from the domestic business and government for professionals who are capable of interacting with the European Union, has produced the necessary supply in the form of educational programs based on accumulated scientific knowledge. Setting up a discipline "European Integration" was a major step in the development

  12. The Shoah within European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the Epilogue of Postwar, titled: From the House ofthe Dead: An essay on Modern European memory, Tony Judt concludes that: ‘those who would become full Europeans in the dawn of the twenty-first century must first assume a new and far more oppressive heritage. Today the pertinent European reference

  13. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...... availability. Alone the biogas energy potential projected in the scenario representing low substrate availability corresponds to a doubling of the European biogas production in 2015. The results shows that sustainable alternatives to the use of maize are present in all the member states of the EU28...

  14. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  15. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  16. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...... European consensus, we find markedly lower levels of support for nudges in two nations: Hungary and Denmark. We are not, in general, able to connect support for nudges with distinct party affiliations....

  17. Pirating European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Science has gained a lot of attention not only within the academic community but also among policy-makers. Some international publishers have been active in moving towards open access publications and research data, but, overall, modest results have been achieved so far. In this context, the digital piracy engines emerge as vital actors in disseminating and determining the impact of research. This study examines the Sci-Hub downloads data in order to uncover patterns of piracy in European Studies research. We identify journals and the subjects of articles that have been pirated the most. We also study the geographical distribution of download requests. The analysis reveals that the readers are mostly interested in subjects reflecting the current major European challenges, specifically populism and the economic crisis. Both developing countries as well as the ‘old’ EU members are active in illegal downloads.

  18. Stature of early Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The ancestors of modern Europeans arrived in Europe at least 40,000 years before present. Pre-glacial maximum Upper Palaeolithic males (before 16,000 BC) were tall and slim (mean height 179 cm, estimated average body weight 67 kg), while the females were comparably small and robust (mean height 158 cm, estimated average body weight 54 kg). Late Upper Palaeolithic males (8000-6600 BC) were of medium stature and robusticity (mean height 166 cm, estimated average body weight 62 kg). Stature further decreased to below 165 cm with estimated average body weight of 64 kg in Neolithic males of the Linear Band Pottery Culture, and to 150 cm with estimated average body weight of 49 kg in Neolithic females. The body stature of European males remained within the range of 165 to 170 cm up to the end of the 19th century.

  19. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  20. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  1. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  2. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  3. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making.......Traditionally, the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) has mainly been considered the somewhat dull predecessor to the more famous Court of Justice of the European Communities, which in 1963-64 ‘constitutionalised’ the Treaties of Rome with the seminal judgments of Van...

  4. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  5. The European populist challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Stavrakakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Europe, the word ‘populism’ usually refers to right-wing populism or the populist extreme right. Is, however, the concept of ‘populism’ the proper theoreticopolitical instrument through which such identifications should be perceived, categorized and debated? What are the implications (direct and indirect of such a naming? And what are the risks for critical analysis and for democratic politics in the European context? The hypothesis explored in this essay is that sticking to a restrictive association between ‘populism’ and the extreme right poses certain dangers that have to be seriously taken into account, especially in times of crisis. For a start, it is often premised on a rather simplistic euro-centrism that reduces the broad conceptual spectrum covered by the category ‘populism’ in its global use to a very particular European experience and then essentializes the resulting association, over-extending its scope. In addition, the category ‘populism’ is aften used to describe political forces, identities and discourses in which the role of ‘the people’ is only secondary or peripheral, to the extent that it has to coincide with strongly hierarchical and elitist visions of society. What complicates things even further is that, within the context of the European (economic and political crisis, whoever questions/ resists the austerity agenda – especially on the left – is increasingly discredited and denounced as an irresponsible populist. Indeed, it is not by coincidence that doubts are increasingly voiced both in the theoretical and in the political literature regarding the rationale behind such a strong association between populism and the extreme right. A series of points will thus be raised that may help us develop a plausible theoretico-political strategy in the new emerging conditions from a discursive perspective.*

  6. European Network Against Racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    of discussions about intersectionality, the article investigates ENAR´s attention and ability to integrate questions of e.g. gender, sexuality or age in their policy input, given the potentially rigid compartmentalisation of discrimination strands within the European Commission´s system of civil society...... consultations. The article therefore overall aims to assess ENAR´s position as potentially hemmed in between 1) the Commission vs. member organisations’ expectations for its focus and modus operandi and 2) attention to intersectional discrimination vs. potential compartmentalisation within the Commission...

  7. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  8. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  9. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  10. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  11. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional......Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...

  12. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  13. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms o...

  14. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  15. Rectors of European universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Several rectors of European universities visited CERN recently while in Geneva for a conference on coordination between their institutions. The visit began with a welcome by Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of Collider Programmes,and continued with tours of CMS, ALICE and the LHC magnet assembly hall. Photos 01, 02: The visitors in the ALICE assembly hall: (left to right) Dr. Raymond Werlen, Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference of Rectors of Swiss Universities; visit guide Prof. Alain Blondel, Department of Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics, University of Geneva; Prof. Adriano Pimpão, Rector of the University of Algarve, President of the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities; Prof. Jean-Pierre Finance, Conference of University Presidents, France; Prof. Jean-Paul Lehners, Vice-President of the Centre Universitaire, Luxemburg.

  16. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  17. European project ISAWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jochen; Smietanski, Guillaume; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2001-08-01

    As air traffic is increasing, the probability of encountering 'surveillance' alerts during flight is also increasing. In order to ensure safety, new on board systems need to be developed to provide the crew with a better 'situation awareness' (SA) about its external environment and potential hazards. In addition, the means to manage the data generated by these new systems needs to be build up. Despite the tremendous amount of information, crew workload must not increase. This is where the ISAWARE project comes in with the Integrated Situation Awareness System (ISAS) concept. ISAWARE (Increasing Safety through collision Avoidance WARning intEgration) is a project partly funded by the European Community, executed by a well balanced composition of several European aerospace companies (airframers, a helicopter manufacturer, avionics suppliers, airlines), one research laboratory and one university. The overall objective of the ISAWARE project is to conduct research into the potential improvements to flight safety that can be achieved by providing the pilot with complete predictive situation awareness during all phases of the flight. The Integrated Situational Awareness System (ISAS) merges data from different safety systems concerning terrain, traffic, weather and other. The system ensures the alerts consistency, prioritises alerts and anticipates threats along a predicted trajectory earlier than current systems can provide. The second main axis of the research is the development of synthetic vision displays (PFD, ND and HUD) to enhance the Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The key focus of the project is the development of a ground-based demonstrator rig which is interfaced to a dynamic flight simulator. This rig is used for the evaluation of the ISAWARE concept by a representative range of active airline crews.

  18. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding

  19. Getting European universities into shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Most European universities lag behind the best universities in the Anglo-Saxon world. A key challenge is to raise resources per student in Europe to US levels. The Lisbon agenda demands fundamental reform of the European university system in order to enhance efficiency, yet avoid grade inflation, to

  20. European Industry, 1700-1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  1. Developments in European Civil Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, P.; Mańko, R.; Cortés, P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is structured as follows. In Section B we explore the legal basis for the creation of European civil procedures and Europeanization of procedural private law in general. In Section C we provide an overview of existing EU instruments on civil procedure, which we propose to divide into

  2. Third European Stroke Science Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dichgans, Martin; Planas, Anna M.; Biessels, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; van der Worp, Bart|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189855010; Sudlow, Cathie; Norrving, B.; Lees, Kennedy; Mattle, Heinrich P.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Eibsee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, November 19 to 21, 2015: The European Stroke Organization convened >120 stroke experts from 27 countries to discuss latest results and hot topics in clinical, translational, and basic stroke research. Since its inception in 2011, the European Stroke Science

  3. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  4. Adult Education and European Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negt, Oskar

    2008-01-01

    Europe is coming together. This is a historic project; for the first time in modern history, will and consciousness are used for bringing political, social and cultural unity to the European continent. In this process lifelong learning and hence adult education are gaining in importance. The European project takes place in an age characterised by…

  5. Ranking the European armed forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeres, R.J.M.; Bogers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of collectiveness aimed for in European defence policy raises issues such as burden sharing and relative performance measurement of the European Armed Forces (EAF). This paper compares EAF performance rates on three dimensions: input, throughput and output. In order to express

  6. The Ideology of European Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dona

    1979-01-01

    Describes the evolution of anthropology as a particular manifestation of western European culture. Examines the political implications of the discipline's roots in European intellectual, social, and emotional thought, and discusses the role of Black anthropologists in creating a new anthropology for the redefinition of African peoples. (Author/GC)

  7. The Europeanization of National Judiciaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Mayoral, Juan A.

    2018-01-01

    The article is underpinned by the idea that the national courts/judges are expected to act as decentralized European Union judges. However, the general knowledge concerning the impact of EU law on the functioning of national courts as EU judges and the process of Europeanization of national judic...

  8. Action Research in European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective.......The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective....

  9. Market forces in european soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates

  10. Market forces in european soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2002-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates

  11. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  12. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  13. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  14. European environmental stratifications and typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazeu, G.W,; Metzger, M.J.; Mücher, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    A range of new spatial datasets classifying the European environment has been constructed over the last few years. These datasets share the common objective of dividing European environmental gradients into convenient units, within which objects and variables of interest have relatively homogeneous...... characteristics. The stratifications and typologies can be used as a basis for up-scaling, for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, for the representative selection of sites for studies across the continent and for the provision of frameworks for modeling exercises and reporting at the European...... scale. This paper provides an overview of five recent European stratifications and typologies, constructed for contrasting objectives, and differing in spatial and thematic detail. These datasets are: the Environmental Stratification (EnS), the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP), the Spatial...

  15. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  16. The European XFEL Project

    CERN Document Server

    Trunk, U

    2008-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation photon source to be built in Hamburg. Electron bunches, accelerated to 17.5GeV by the XFEL linac, are distributed to three long SASE undulators. There photon pulses with full lateral coherence and wavelengths between 0.1nm and 4.9nm (12.4 keV and 0.8 keV) are generated for three beamlines. It will deliver around 1012photons within each 100 fs pulse, reaching a peak brilliance of 1033photonss−1mm−2mrad−2(0.1%BW)−1. Thus it will offer unprecedented possibilities in photon science research including nano-object imaging and studies (e.g. by coherent X-ray scattering) and ultra fast dynamic analysis of plasma and chemical reactions (e.g. by X-ray photo correlation spectroscopy). The detector requirements for such studies are extremely challenging: position sensitive area detectors have to provide a dynamic range of ≥ 104, with single-photon sensitivity, while withstanding radiation doses up to 1GGy (TID). Furthermore the detectors have to record data from tra...

  17. EUROPEAN HARMONIZATION OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS REGULATIONS?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cirstea Andreea; Baltariu Carmen-Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    ... No. 1606/2002 adopted by the European Parliament and European Council on the 19th of July 2002, which regulates the application of IAS/IFRS regarding the financial reporting of listed European companies...

  18. Experiencing European integration: transnational lives and European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, T.

    2015-01-01

    European integration has generated a wide array of economic, political, and social opportunities beyond the nation state. Scandinavians spending their retirement at the Mediterranean coast; Germans employing a Polish caretaker; international exchange students staying in Prague; Italian baristas

  19. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Baruch

    2007-06-01

    The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is the best social mechanism for dealing with morally offensive technologies.

  20. Old European Couples' Retirement Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Ranzani, Marco

    This study investigates old European couples' retirement choices in order to bridge the gap between the European and the American literature. The typical European family approaching retirement is a dual-earner family: the dataset used in this paper reveals that 78 percent of working males...... correlated with education, age, and health status, together with partner's employment status, partner's education and partner's health status. We also perform a sensitivity analysis in order to check whether the results on the correlation of health status are robust to two alternative measures of health...

  1. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  2. Public Accountability in the European Union: Is the European Parliament able to hold the European Council accountable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne van de Steeg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Council occupies a central role in European politics. Yet it is not officially accountable to any public or parliamentary body for the decisions it makes on behalf of European citizens. National parliaments are only entitled to exert control over their own Heads of Government or State. The European Parliament, as a supranational institution, is the only parliamentary body that regularly discusses European politics with the European Council as a collective, namely via the European Council Presidency. As such, it alone has the possibility to hold the Council accountable for the agreements made at European Summits. However, the European Parliament has limited rights to impose pressure on the European Council Presidency. Nonetheless, despite the lack of a formal accountability arrangement, the European Council Presidency is more forthcoming than could have been expected.

  3. Post Crisis European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop, Napoleon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is still evolving, at least from the point of view of some features making the entire process of its reversing very difficult - uncertainties, confusions and lack of investors` trust. More then that, every rim of the Atlantic Ocean has its own opinion as to the timing of the exit stimulus measures. There are prevailing risks taken into consideration when we talk about the next stage of the economic growth e.g. its sustainability on a log run or inflaming the inflation. It is for sure, that according to the core economic policies practiced either in USA or Europe, in Europe what count most is the danger of the inflation, if the right time of stopping the flood of the governmental funds to the real economy is not well chosen. The economic situation in Europe, as all over the world, in spite of some signs that the economy is on the right track ( South East Asia, USA or Germany, there are a lot of doubts as to the assurance that recession is over and there is no way for an immediate return. Notabilities in economics see that governmental intervention should be continued, just because the economic growth consigned by statistics is not convincing. Convictions, if they exist, are blended with a lot of obsessions which in my opinion are making up a serious agenda of the debates in Europe: budgetary deficit in excess, danger of the inflation, new regulation of the financial sector, credibility of the euro zone. Romania has to be involved in all these debates as it is passing through all the mentioned difficulties which need solutions within the frame of European standards, as a member of the EU.

  4. European Integration through Economic Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoiu Gheorghe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The thematic topicality of the main issues of European integration through convergence, in the context subsequent to financial-inspired global recession, is relevant through both the ever more extended international impact of the inertiality of a number of integration processes, and the specific developments of convergence in the Eurozone or the European Monetary Union (EMU. The regionally structured system of the European economy, approached aggregatively from the micro-economic to the macro-economic level, like the physical system or molecularly investigated system, from economic transactions, as a major milestone, to the complexity of the transactions tissue or flows, or activities, similar to biological systems, is permanently faced with various specific disturbing factors. The European Union (EU has historically evolved in an alternative manner, sometimes divergently or towards differentiation through separation, and sometimes convergently or coherently towards unity, fusion, integrity, evincing divergence or convergence trends, with the latter eventually becoming prevalent in the contemporary world.

  5. Renowned European Laboratory turns 50

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A European Laboratory that was the birthplace of the World Wide Web and home of Nobel prize-winning developments in the quest to understand the makeup of matter wished itself a happy 50th birtheday on Tuesday

  6. [French European military haemovigilance guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailliol, A; Clavier, B; Cap, A; Ausset, S

    2010-12-01

    European military transfusion services follow operational guidelines established by their respective national health systems and conform with European Union directives and NATO standards as applicable to member countries. Certain features are common to all of these standards, especially the pre-selection of volunteer, almost exclusively unpaid donors. NATO requirements are very close to European guidelines, with the exception that NATO permits the use of blood products collected in emergency conditions in theater when circumstances allow no better option. Blood product traceability exists for every country but is not always centralized or computerized. Serious adverse event reporting relies on national haemovigilance networks. Military considerations become important mainly in overseas operations, where the overall policy is to implement the relevant national, European or NATO guidelines with adjustments made for unique wartime circumstances and the risk/benefit ratio for the individual patient needing a transfusion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. European Integration and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul; Bakker, Liesbeth

    1990-01-01

    There appears to be considerable enthusiasm about the expected macroeconomic consequences of European integration. If we regard integration, however, in the light of the environment and environmental policy, concern seems more appropriate. Predicted growth in production levels will damage the

  8. Papillomatosis in a European bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literák, I; Tomita, Y; Ogawa, T; Shirasawa, H; Smíd, B; Novotny, L; Adamec, M

    2006-01-01

    Five European bison (Bison bonasus) from three European zoos were shipped to the Bukovské Vrchy Hills (Slovakia) in June 2004 and kept together in an acclimatization enclosure. The European bison were released into the wild in December 2004. At that time, papillomas were found at the medial canthus of the left eye of a 12-yr-old female bison. Cutaneous papillomatosis was confirmed histologically. Negative stain transmission electron microscopic examination revealed papillomavirus in the papillomas, and papillomavirus DNA also was detected using the polymerase chain reaction with FAP59 and FAP64 primers. The amplified 413 bp DNA sequence was identical to that of BAPV2 bovine papillomavirus. This paper is the first report of papillomatosis in European bison.

  9. European strategies for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The most recent developments of strategies and policies in the mental health field in Europe are related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health signed by all the Ministers of Health of all Member States in the European Region (2005). The Action Plan proposes ways and means of developing comprehensive mental health policies, listing 12 areas in which challenges are indicated and detailed actions are required. Afterwards the Green Paper on Mental Health has been launched by the European Commission for the definition of an European strategy. The more precise European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being has been presented in 2008. Many other international bodies (OECD, Council of Europe, etc.) have actively worked to stress the mental health issue. All are clearly referring to the Italian model, started 30 years ago.

  10. European Hospitality Without a Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Rosello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How do European governments conceptualize what they call "hospitality" when they draft immigration laws and when they allow the concepts of asylum, of illegal immigrants, to change according to a constantly evolving political context? What consequences…

  11. Proton Football European Championship 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:

  12. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  13. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  14. Long-Term Survival of Saplings during the Transformation to Continuous Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Mackintosh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Glentress Trial Area is an extensive research area in southern Scotland of 117 ha where a long-term trial of the transformation of even-aged plantations to continuous cover has been in progress since 1952. During the assessment of permanent sample plots in 1990 information on the species and spatial position of saplings (trees taller than 1.3 m with a diameter at breast height of < 7 cm was recorded. This provided a unique opportunity to investigate the long-term survival of saplings during the transformation process when the Trial Area was reassessed in 2009. The main finding was that 37% of saplings survived the 19-year period and the majority developed into trees (≥7 cm diameter at breast height. There was considerable variation between species, the lowest survival of saplings was European larch (Larix decidua Mill. (13% and the highest European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. (55%; however differences between species were not significant. There were, however, significant differences between the six management areas with three with high sapling survival (55% to 61% but others much lower (27% to 32%. If this result is confirmed by other studies, covering a broader range of sites, management guidance that assumes 90% survival will need to be revised.

  15. NEW EUROPEAN PIPELINE PROJECT EASTRING

    OpenAIRE

    Karch, Lukáš; Varga, Augustín

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the idea of a new European gas pipeline project called Eastring promoted by company Eustream. Eustream is the Slovak gas transmission system operator and has been one of the key players in European gas transmission from Russia to Europe in the last decades. Previous Russian-Ukrainian crisis resulted in reviewing gas flow directions from Russia to Europe in order to enhance the security of gas supplies to Europe. Russia plans to stop gas transmission to Europe via Ukraine...

  16. A European Open Science Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    EIROforum IT working group; CERN IT Department

    2015-01-01

    This document outlines the position of EIROforum on a European Open Science Cloud. It explores the essential characteristics of a European Open Science Cloud if it is to address the big data needs of the latest generation of Research Infrastructures. The high‐level architecture and key services as well as the role of standards is described. A governance and financial model together with the roles of the stakeholders, including commercial service providers and downstream business sectors, that...

  17. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  18. Architecture of European plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, J-P A; Banic, A; Molea, G; Mazzola, R; Poëll, J G

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-256.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training, examination, quality assurance and relations with the European Commission and Parliament all are aspects covered by the organisations to be discussed.

  19. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor powe...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  20. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  1. Iglesia de L'Arche, en Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanstra, P.

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an ample circulation zone inside the church, leading to various parts of it, of which the presbitry constitutes a single space, at the same level as the rest of the church. Between the church and the common hall there is a moveable partition, which enables this hall to be utilised separately or jointly with the church. The external shape of the building reflects its inner arrangement.Desde una amplia área de circulación creada en el interior, se accede a los diversos locales y a la iglesia, en la que el presbiterio forma un espacio único al mismo nivel que el resto de la iglesia; entre ésta y la sala comunitaria existe una compartimentación móvil, que permite utilizarlas separadamente, o bien unirlas. La «forma exterior» del edificio refleja la composición interior.

  2. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  3. The globalization and Europeanization of mortgage markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Do globalization and Europeanization lead to the deterritorialization of European mortgage markets? Neither economic globalization nor EU policies have resulted in one European mortgage market. The various European mortgage markets are still quite different from one another in many respects. In most

  4. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  5. Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit

    CERN Document Server

    European Gender Summit, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit to the European Parliament and the Council, the European Commission, the Council of Europe, EU Member and Associate States, Science Institutions. Developing Systematic Implementation Strategy to Advance EU Policy on Gender Equality in Science, as part of HORIZON 2020, European Research Area and Innovation Union.

  6. Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law.......Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law....

  7. INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa FLOREA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We live nowadays a posteriori establishment through institutional treaties and a well-built jurisprudence that set up some of the general treaties. The structure of the European Union as well as the particular nature of the community legal order led to the establishment of some general principles, such as the principle of the institutional balance, the principle of solidarity between member states, the principle of primacy, the principle of the immediate and direct effect of the European law. It is certain that the legal order of the community law has its basis in the legal order of the International public law from which it has continuously delineated. The European communities, as subjects of the International public law are obliged to comply with the general International law, its fundamental principles and its bases, leading to some obligations capable to produce effects in the community legal order. The Court Of Justice of the European Union established as principles applicable in the European law the principles of the International public law, especially when it was called to assert regarding the International relationships of the Community as well as those of the 28 member states, confirming in the matter of the applicability of the treaties, the pacta sunt servanda rule, the principle of the good faith, the legitimate faith or the rebus sic standibus exception, all of them belonging to the custom International law.

  8. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  9. Response to the European Commission's consultation on the future of European company law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böckli, P.; Davies, P.; Ferran, E.; Ferrarini, G.; Garrido, J.; Hopt, K.; Pietrancosta, A.; Pistor, K.; Skog, R.; Soltysinski, S.; Winter, J.; Wymeersch, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the views of the European Company Law Experts (ECLE) on the future of European company law. The paper accompanies the responses of the European Company Law Experts to the European Commission’s Consultation on the future of European Company Law of spring 2012. In the first part of

  10. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    . The paper focuses exclusively on the national policy processes that are involved with managing European Union (EU) issues. More specifically, this paper discusses two aspects of multi-level governance. First is the important role of private interests in the coordination of decision making at the national...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems.......This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts...

  11. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  12. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  13. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form......; II" cover the core rules of contract: formation, authority of agents, validity, interpretation, contents, performance, non-performance and remedies. The articles previously published in Part I (1995) are included in a revised and re-ordered form. Throughout Europe there is great interest...

  14. What Is Medieval European Literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The editors of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures explain the scope and purpose of the new journal by mapping out the significance and possible meanings of the three key terms of the subtitle: ‘literature,’ ‘medieval,’ ‘Europe.’ The specific theme of Issue 1 is introduced: ‘Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation.’ With respect to this theme, theoretical problems concerning teleology and the present possibilities for literary historical narratives are raised. Finally the editors state the journal’s commitment to a scholarly forum which is non-profit and open-access. The bibliography refers to key critical reading which shapes the journal’s approach to medieval European literatures.

  15. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding......What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  16. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    . On the basis of that discussion, Eurostat launched another public consultation named; ‘Towards implementing European Public Sector Accounting Standards for EU member states-Public consultation on future EPSAS governance principles and structures’. This paper seeks to provide an in-depth understanding......Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renaming...... of the negotiations and interactions that took place prior to, during and after the issuance of the public consultation on the ‘Suitability of IPSAS’. The focus of this paper is therefore on a systematic analysis of the construction of regional-transnational governance of public sector accounting, using the EPSAS...

  17. European courts and old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Graham P

    2013-09-01

    There are two major European Courts, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The ECJ deals with legal matters, mainly involving the interpretation of EU law and ensuring that the law is applied evenly across all 27 EU member states. The ECHR aims to make certain that civil and political rights of citizens in the 46 member states of the Council of Europe are observed. Most cases involving older citizens are about social policy (such as pension arrangements, equality, age discrimination and mandatory retirement). There have been few cases dealing with patients' rights, long-term care or housing. Referrals of selected cases involving old people should be considered if their rights are not being protected. In this Commentary, there is an account of how these Courts have evolved, together with guidance on whom to refer, to which Court, and when and how referrals should be made.

  18. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  19. 1. European Hydrogen Energy Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This conference is the first of a series of EHA (European Hydrogen Association) conferences that will take place every two years in Europe with the collaboration of the national European Hydrogen Associations. EHEC 2003 takes place within the context of the debates on long term energy strategies organized by the international authorities and the governments of many countries. Under the patronage of the European Commission and the French government, the conference will aim at providing a comprehensive picture of the research work and demonstrations on hydrogen and fuel cells that the currently being carried out all over the globe. EHEC 2003 will provide an opportunity to define the role that hydrogen will have in tomorrow's energy landscape and, in particular, the benefits with regard to: 1)sustainable development of energy 2)control of climate change 3)development of renewable energy 4)increase demand for ground transport. (O.M.)

  20. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  1. Humanities in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the publication strategies of researchers in the humanities, including their choices of language, publication type and co-authorship. Based on data from Denmark, we compare the publication profile of the humanities with the other major fields of science in 2012 an...... conjuncture of the European Union’s internationalization policies in the 1990s and 2000s and a change in the international scientific hierarchy during the 20th century has contributed to the universalization of English in the Danish (and European) scientific field....

  2. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Materlik, G.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, X-ray synchrotron radiation became a powerful tool for studies of condensed matter, and in view of that a proposal for the construction of a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) was elaborated in some detail by the European Synchrotron Radiation Project. The heart...... by a great flexibility and a small emittance (7×10−9 rad m) leading to a very high brilliance (1019 photons/(s mm2 mrad2) in a relative bandwidth of 0.1% in case of a 1 Å undulator). The overview, as seen from the users point of view, gives a brief account of the storage ring, emitted radiation...

  3. European Union a New Babylon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  4. Passionate patriotism or European enslavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Mihajlo P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study A passionate patriotism or European enslavement, from the eminent professor Petar Anđelković, represents another attempt by this author to analyze the Serbian society in the context of its development. This book is a logical continuation of his essay published in 2013, Serbian Society-without past, what is our present?, and represents a symbiosis of texts that the author has already published and in which he addresses the very relevant questions of Serbia's relations with the new world order and with the inevitable role of the European Union, as an existential challenge to the very existence of the Serbian society.

  5. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...

  6. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology

  7. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : a consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology

  8. Scientific education and European citizenship. Suggestions and results from the European project SEDEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceriani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts seemingly distant from each other, scientific education and European citizenship, have been the basis for "SEDEC - Science Education for the Development of European Citizenship", a European project funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates/Comenius programme, aiming at producing training material addressed to European teachers. Started in autumn 2005, the project will end in 2008 with an in-service training course for European teachers and educators.

  9. Scientific education and European citizenship. Suggestions and results from the European project SEDEC (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceriani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts seemingly distant from each other, scientific education and European citizenship, have been the basis for "SEDEC - Science Education for the Development of European Citizenship", a European project funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates/Comenius programme, aiming at producing training material addressed to European teachers. Started in autumn 2005, the project will end in 2008 with an in-service training course for European teachers and educators.

  10. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; van Terwisga, S.; Verburg, T.; Burghouwt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are

  11. 5th European Rheology Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Global sustainable development of the world economy requires better understanding and utilization of natural recourses. In this endeavor rheology has an indispensable role. The Rheology Conferences are therefore always an important event for science and technology. The Fifth European Rheology Conference, held from September 6 to 11 in the Portoro-z, Slovenia, will be the first AlI-European rheology meeting after the formal constitution of the European Society ofRheology. As such it will be a special historical event. At this meeting the European Society of Rheology will introduce the Weissenberg Medal, to be bestowed every four years to an individual for hislhers contribution to the field of Rheology. The recipient ofthe first award will be professor G. Marrucci ofthe Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Italy. Two mini Symposia will be part of the Conference. The first, on Industrial Rheology, will commemorate the late professor G. Astarita. The second will honor the eightieth birthday of professor N.W. Tschoeg...

  12. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  13. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non...

  14. A European Social Simulation Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, S

    This is a proposal to form a European Social Simulation Association (ESSA). ESSA is intended to coordinate with similar organisations in North America, Latin America and Australasia and other regions to organise an international federation to support the development of social simulation research,

  15. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  16. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...

  17. Biotechnology and the European public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaskell, George; Allum, Nick; Bauer, Martin; Durant, John; Allansdottir, Agnes; Bonfadelli, Heinz; Boy, Daniel; de Cheveigne, Suzanne; Fjaestad, Bjorn; Gutteling, Jan M.; Hampel, Juergen; Jelsoe, Erling; Correia Jesuino, Jorge; Kohring, Matthias; Kronberger, Nicole; Midden, Cees; Hviid Nielsen, Torben; Przestalski, Andrzej; Rusanen, Timo; Sakellaris, George; Torgersen, Helge; Twardowski, Tomasz; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    The latest European sample survey of public perceptions of biotechnology reveals widespread opposition to genetically modified (GM) food in much of Europe, but public attitudes to medical and environmental applications remain positive. Data from the fourth Eurobarometer survey carried out in

  18. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets

  19. Virtual Models of European Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sanya Gertsen

    2003-01-01

    The study provides a detailed report on the current and possible future use of ICT by European universities for educational and organisational purposes. The report presents: • A general description of the current situation regarding the use of ICT in EU universities in both the educational...

  20. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  1. Architecture of European Plastic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,

  2. Scholarships for European vet students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Jordon; Takacs, Daniella

    2017-02-25

    Every year, students from European vet schools can apply for $5000 scholarships, which aim to 'enhance the academic experience of students'. Among last year's recipients were Jordon Egan, from the Royal Veterinary College, and Daniella Takács, from the University of Veterinary Medicine in Budapest. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Impacts of European livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, M.A.; Vries, De Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering

  4. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  5. Early contamination of European flounder (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, M.; Martinho, F.; Vernisseau, A.; Marchand, P.; Le Bizec, B.; van der Veer, H.W.; Cabral, H.N.; Ramos, F.; Pardal, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Contamination levels and profiles of 7 polychlorinated-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were investigated in juvenile European flounder (Platichthys flesus) captured in different nursery areas in the northeastern Atlantic coast

  6. Governance and European Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutay, Acar

    This book provides a critical analysis of the European Union’s approach to ‘governance’, focusing on the way in which civil society is incorporated within the EU decision-making process and arguing that it is not conducive to the democratisation of EU governance.\

  7. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  8. Obesogenic Diets in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intemann, Timm; Hebestreit, Antje; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Poor nutrition is a major contributor to the overall burden of disease. Worldwide, nutrition-related diseases have become a major health concern, reportedly causing a loss of over 56 million years of healthy life for European citizens in the year 2000. Childhood obesity is one of th...

  9. Drugs in society: European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountain, J.; Korf, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This unique overview of the variation in the ways recreational and other drugs are used across Europe includes critical reflections on current drug policy. Contributions from a wide range of professionals and academics in different countries offer a truly international perspective on the European

  10. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of

  11. The European NEO Coordination Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.

    An operational approach to NEO (Near-Earth Object) hazard monitoring has been developed at European level within the framework of the Space Situational Awareness Program (SSA) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through federating European assets and profiting of the expertise developed in European Universities and Research Centers, it has been possible to start the deployment of the so-called SSA NEO Segment. This initiative aims to provide a significant contribution to the worldwide effort to the discovery, follow-up and characterization of the near-Earth object population. A major achievement has been the inauguration in May 2013 of the ESA NEO Coordination Centre located at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy). The goal of the NEOCC Precursor Service operations is twofold: to make available updated information on the NEO population and the associated hazard and to contribute to optimize the NEO observational efforts. This is done by maintaining and improving a Web Portal publicly available at http://neo.ssa.esa.int and by performing follow-up observations through a network of collaborating telescopes and facilities. An overview of the SSA-NEO System and a summary of the first two years of NEOCC operations is presented.

  12. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  13. The European Approach to Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the character of European (Union’s) privacy law and policy in the field of online media and electronic communications. Contrary to current understanding, this field of law is more fragmented and ill-developed than is often assumed, in particular by those discussing

  14. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  15. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merela, M. [University of Ljubljana, BF, Dep. of Wood Science and Technology, Rozna dolina VIII/34, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si; Vavpetic, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, M.; Vogel-Mikus, K. [University of Ljubljana, BF, Dep. of Biology, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sersa, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Policnik, H. [ERICo Velenje, Ecological Research and Industrial Co-operation, Koroska 58, SI-3320 Velenje (Slovenia); Pokorny, B. [ERICo Velenje, Ecological Research and Industrial Co-operation, Koroska 58, SI-3320 Velenje (Slovenia); Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Levanic, T. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Oven, P. [University of Ljubljana, BF, Dep. of Wood Science and Technology, Rozna dolina VIII/34, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-06-15

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 {mu}m thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  16. Adaptation of Forest Management Regimes in Southern Sweden to Increased Risks Associated with Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Subramanian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the growth rates of most tree species in Sweden is expected to increase in the near future as a result of climate change, increased risks of damage by storms and various pests and pathogens, notably root rot and bark beetles, may also occur. Thus, forest management practices such as changes to thinning regimes, reductions in rotation lengths, and switching to other species (native or exotic may represent adaptive management strategies to increase the resistance and resilience of Swedish forests to climate change. Clearly, thorough analyses examining the effects of anticipated climatic changes on damage levels, and the potentially relieving effects of possible management adaptations are needed before implementing such changes. In this study, damage caused by storms, root rot and bark beetles (single and in various combinations under selected climate and management scenarios were simulated in Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst stands. The results indicate that reductions in thinning intensity and rotation lengths could improve both volume production and profitability in southern Sweden. In addition, cultivation of rapidly growing species, such as hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz. and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx., could be as profitable as Norway spruce cultivation, or even more profitable. However, slow-growing species, such as Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth, Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. indicated low economic output in terms of Land Expectation Value.

  17. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  18. THE EUROPEAN LOCATION FRAMEWORK – FROM NATIONAL TO EUROPEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Pauknerova, E.; P. Sidlichovsky; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, toge...

  19. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  20. TOWARDS A POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ŞTEFAN DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available David McCrone pointed that the odds for the emergence of a European identity were quite feeble ten years ago. He claimed that surfacing a European identity needed at least three conditions, namely a pivotal nation to organize the European culture around its particular culture, a well-defined otherness, and a clear-cut political model. I argue that among the three conditions deemed necessary for the emergence of a European identity by McCrone, only the last one, that is, the political model of the European Union, still needs to be clarified. The other two have already been fulfilled. Nowadays, Germany seems to be the pivotal nation around which the European Union revolves politically and economically, whilst clear-cut Internal and External Significant Others of the European Union have already been forged. The article is a a foray into the political mechanisms of creating the Internal and External Significant Others of the European Union

  1. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  2. The Citizen, the Culture and European Union

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marine Imberechts

    2009-01-01

    From the beginning of its work (1988), the European Centre of Culture tried to attract theattention of the European institutions on the urgent need to bring in the greatest number of citizens asense of belonging to a new space...

  3. European labs fight back against cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1997-01-01

    Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.

  4. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  5. Globalized Trade, Logistics and Intermodality: European Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henstra, D.; Ruijgrok, C.J.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes megatrends that are shaping international trade, logistics organization and (multi)modal transport in Europe. It focuses on impacts on the European context, both from the peculiarities arising from the European unification process and the European transport policies but

  6. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  7. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  8. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common

  9. Conditions for spatial segregation: some European perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; de Winter, M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates some theses on the theme of spatial segregation in Europe. Spatial segregation as an important issue on the political agendas of European nations; Two views of segregation in Europe; Strategies of European nations to deal with segregation; Segregation in European cities

  10. Flexibilization of labour in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, O.; van der Pijl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Labour market flexibilization has been at the heart of the ‘extended relaunch’ of European integration (the completion of the Single Market and the introduction of the euro in 2002) from the start in the 1980s. Yet the parallel Europeanization of labour market policies, via the European Employment

  11. European Conference „Meetbike“. Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd-Axel AHRENS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The information is devoted European Conference „Meetbike“ 3-4 April2008 in Dresden, Germany. Stronger networking of European bicycle-friendly cities and better cooperation of bike use and public transport has been considered. Results of the European Conference „MeetBike“ are presented.

  12. The Political History of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli....... It was shortlisted for the European Book Prize 2011...

  13. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  14. MAPPING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Avadanei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the main tendencies influencing European capitalmarkets development. In order to point out their implications, we structured our study onfour chapters. The first one illustrates the consolidation of stock exchanges at the Europeanlevel; the seconds presents some considerations about the deregulation/re-regulation of EUcapital markets; the third section highlights the globalization implications on their evolutionand the fourth one indicates the effects of financial innovation. The progressive integrationof European capital markets over the past decade contributed to the lowering of capital costas a result of increased risk diversification opportunities and reduced transaction costs dueto the specialization of financial system provisions. Moreover, the expansion of thesemarkets improved firms financing decisions, leading to an increased share of non-bankfunding sources.

  15. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent......, Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...

  16. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, C.; Stoeckli, S. J.; Haerle, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Optimum management of the N0 neck is unresolved in oral cancer. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) can reliably detect microscopic lymph node metastasis. The object of this study was to establish whether the technique was both reliable in staging the N0 neck and a safe oncological procedure...... in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB...... was undertaken with an average of 3.2 nodes removed per patient. Patients were excluded if the sentinel node (SN) could not be identified. A positive SN led to a neck dissection within 3 weeks. Analysis was performed at 3-year follow-up. Results: An SN was found in 99.5% of cases. Positive SNs were found in 23...

  17. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...... years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize...... the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden...

  18. European global navigation satellite launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    The European Space Agency launched its first Galileo satellite on 28 December 2005.When fully deployed, the Galileo system will provide a European global navigation alternative to the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (Glonass).The Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites (27 operational plus three active spare satellites) that are scheduled to be launched and fully operational by the end of 2008.The system will provide real-time positioning within one meter of accuracy and be fully inter-operable with the U.S. and Russian systems. However, unlike GPS and Glonass, Galileo will be under civilian rather than military control.

  19. European Research in Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, C.Guedes; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Incecik, A.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is presented of the results obtained in Europe by a network with a large number of research groups in the field of Marine Structures during a period of 6 years. The European Union has funded a project aimed at improving the collaboration among European research groups specialized...... in marine structures, which has led, among other results to a number of benchmark studies organized in 6 main topical areas, namely, Methods and Tools for Loads and Load Effects, Methods and Tools for Strength Assessment, Experimental Analysis of Structures, Materials and Fabrication of Structures, Methods...... and Tools for Structural Design and Optimization and Structural Reliability, Safety and Environmental Protection. This paper presents an overview of various studies performed, which helps identifying the level of consistency and robustness of different numeric tools used in this field....

  20. European Strategy for Astroparticle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevas, Stavros

    2010-02-01

    Astroparticle Physics emerged worldwide, in the last 20 years, from a field of charismatic pioneers transgressing disciplinary frontiers using risky and innovative detection techniques to a full blown global science activity involving many hundreds of researchers and hundred million or billion dollar scale projects. I will report on the recent effort to develop a strategic vision, roadmap and action plan for this field in Europe, performed under the auspices of ApPEC (Astroparticle Physics European Coordination) and in the context of the European Union program ASPERA. I will describe the many links that tie the proposed large observatories to the corresponding US and more generally worldwide infrastructures, as well as the efforts for a global coordination in progress. )

  1. Integrating the European Securities Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    The cross-border securities settlement in Europe is still said to be highly inefficient. One main reason can be seen in technical barriers between the different domestic settlement systems. Beside efforts to implement industry-specific communication standards an integration of the different settlement systems is necessary. The CSD-link model, the hub and spokes model, and the European CSD model aim to integrate European securities settlement. They have in common that they address the problem of interlinkage of national Central Securities Depositories and differ essentially in the way of achieving integration. These models are evaluated from a macro-economic perspective considering transaction costs, risks, and the integration of the cross-border securities settlement process.

  2. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  3. The European Network of Uropathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Berney, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    In pathology there is a need to rapidly disseminate professional information to the appropriate target groups. This is a surprisingly difficult task on an international level. Therefore, the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP) was recently organized by the Uropathology Working Group of the Eu...... conducted. Here we report on the methods used to organize this novel information network. We think that ENUP could serve as a model for other fields of pathology and other geographic regions....

  4. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    relationships between Turkey, the United States, the Kurds, and Europe. As a source often critical of Turkey and the United States ( Noam Chomsky ...2008, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/080220Altheaupdate10. pdf . 129 Ibid. 130 Ibid. 131 Ibid. 132 The Council of the European Union...Factsheet, “EU Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUPM),” March 2006, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/Factsheet_060312. pdf . 48

  5. The European Digital Kitchen Project

    OpenAIRE

    Seedhouse, Paul; Preston, Anne; Olivier, Patrick; Dan, Jackson; Philip, Heslop; Madeline, Balaam; Rafiev, Ashur; Kipling, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the European Digital Kitchen, an EU-funded language learning project which promotes learning of languages, cultures and cuisines in digital interactive kitchens. The project involves taking a normal kitchen and specifically adapting it for language learning using the next generation of digital technology, namely activity recognition and sensor technology. We intend that learners will be able to learn aspects of the language whilst performing a meaningful real-world tas...

  6. European Missile Defense and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Russian of meeting between then Prime Minister Putin and defence experts in Sarov, Russia , February 24, 2012. 64. Viktor Yesin and Yevgeniy Savostyanov... Putin Letter to Obama to Address Missile Defense, Security,” RIA-Novosti, May 15, 2013, available from en.rian.ru/ russia /20130515/181170446.html...UNITED STATES · ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barrac , ’A STR KNG T H ..,... WI SDOM EUROPEAN MISSILE DEFENSE AND RUSSIA Keir Giles with

  7. [European perspectives of health telematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienhoff, O; Verhey, J

    2005-06-01

    The European perspectives of the present German developments in the field of health telematics are discussed critically. It is pointed out that technical projects have been financed with considerable means in the EU, however with out having any lasting effect on the value of health telematics in the health systems of Europe. A decisive cause is that the "health" topic was not codified in the Roman contracts. The international, global market is a crucial factor for international development and thus also for the orientation of the German projects and their economical and political success. The USA plays a dominant role on the global market. Caused by different reasons a corresponding market potential in the EU cannot be expected in the foreseeable future. With regard to the new options provided by telematics, it is therefore recommended that the national health services be reorganized, thus increasing quality and efficiency. With regard to progressively individualized medical care, the subject of "health" should afterwards be included in the European contracts. In the long run, an adjustment of the systems and uniform use of telematics could be achieved. Till then the coordination between the national governments in the area of health politics is seen as the most effective means for European integration.

  8. The accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Callewaert, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Provided for under the Treaty of Lisbon, the accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights is destined to be a landmark in European legal history because it will finally make it possible for individuals and undertakings to apply to the European Court of Human Rights for review of the acts of European Union institutions, which unquestionably play an increasingly important role in our daily lives. After nearly three years of negotiations, a draft agreement on Europe...

  9. Through Thick and Thin: ‘European Identification’ for a Justified and Legitimate European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Anna C. Davidson

    2008-01-01

    Debates on the viability of European integration often rest on the need for some form of common European identity. This article looks at European integration through the framework of normative political theory to explore what form of European identity is needed for the EU to be considered both justified – having a good or just reason for existence, and legitimate – having consent from its citizens. It critiques arguments for a purely justified EU, which rule out the need for a common European...

  10. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  11. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsselt, René J T; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in the field of gerontology in the European Nordic countries is elaborated. Third, two postgraduate Gerontology and Geriatrics programs offered by the European Centre of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Malta are presented. In 1995, the Centre was designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for healthy aging. To provide a context for these initiatives, a short overview is presented of developments in the European Higher Education Area, and the current state and recent developments in gerontology training in Europe is elaborated. The article concludes with discussion of the feasibility and sustainability of European internationalization efforts in education and training in gerontology.

  12. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  13. Letter to European Science Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Département de Linguistique AppliquéeEt de Didactique des languesDirecteur : Claude Springerhttp://dladl.u-strasbg.fr Dr. Rüdiger KleinEUROCORES Programme CoordinatorEuropean Science Foundation1, quai Lezay MarnésiaBP 90015F-67080 Strasbourg Cedex Strasbourg, le 22 mai 2006 Dear colleague, The Editorial Board of the journal ALSIC (Apprentissage des langues et système d’information et de communication which comprises 45 people from universities in 9 different countries was astonished to note...

  14. European perspectives of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The new European wind atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    European Wind Atlas” aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions; standing on three legs: A data bank from a series of intensive measuring campaigns; a thorough examination and redesign of the model chain from global, mesoscale to microscale models and creation of the wind atlas...... database. Although the project participants will come from the 27 member states it is envisioned that the project will be opened for global participation through test benches for model development and sharing of data – climatologically as well as experimental. Experiences from national wind atlases...... will be utilized, such as the Indian, the South African, the Finnish, the German, the Canadian atlases and others....

  16. popscience - European Researchers Night 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeanneret, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Vendredi 26 septembre 2014, le CERN célèbrera la Nuit européenne des chercheurs à Genève et à St-Genis-Pouilly. Le thème de l’édition 2014 est inspiré d’Andy Warhol : « Pop science is for everyone ». On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”.

  17. The early European lithium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, M

    1999-12-01

    Cade's discovery of lithium's antimanic effect soon became known in Europe and was confirmed by a Danish controlled trial. The same investigators discovered a prophylactic action of lithium against both manic and depressive recurrences, which was confirmed by a Swiss-Czech-Danish cooperative trial. The evidence of these studies was met with skepticism based on methodological speculations, but a Danish randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of discontinuation design established the prophylactic action of lithium, as did a number of European controlled trials of start design and discontinuation design. The review ends with personal memories of John Cade.

  18. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless......This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  19. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address......Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...

  20. European ecological networks and greenways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ib; Jongman, Rob H.G.; Kulvik, Mart

    2004-01-01

    In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been...... renewed. Within the framework of nature conservation, the notion of an ecological network has become increasingly important. Throughout Europe, regional and national approaches are in different phases of development, which are all based on recent landscape ecological principles. Ecological networks....... This complex interaction between cultural and natural features results in quite different ways for the elaboration of ecological networks and greenways....

  1. An important day for European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Today is an important day for the future of European science. It is the day on which CERN’s relationship with the European Union reaches maturity. Ever since the early 1950s, CERN and the European project have grown together. CERN was a child of the European movement: the first discussions at Denis de Rougemont’s European Cultural Conference in Lausanne in 1949 led directly to the foundation of CERN in 1954. More recently, the European Union has become an Observer at the CERN Council, links between CERN and the EU have strengthened as Europe has pursued the goal of creating a European Research Area, and CERN has benefited from European support for projects as varied as Grid computing and future accelerator R&D, not forgetting, of course, the numerous Marie Curie fellows whose careers have received a boost thanks to European funds. Today, that collaboration goes one step further with the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the European C...

  2. The European-American exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F

    1993-01-01

    The European-American exchange of infectious diseases was responsible for the demographic havoc of the native population in the New World after 1492. Prior to this date medical writers describe the presence in Spain of viral diseases like influenza, parotitis, smallpox, measles, poliomyelitis, and rabies; there were also rickettsiasis, diphtheria, salmonellosis, plague, tubercolosis, leprosy, malaria, scabies and tinea. In America, before European arrivals, there were no records of human viral diseases, though there were records of rickettsiasis, treponematosis--pinta, yaws and syphilis--leihsmaniasis, amibiasis and perhaps leprosy. With the discovery of America in 1492, Columbus's sailors were contaminated by yaws and spread this disease into Europe. In 1493 influenza, as a zoonosis, was introduced into Santo Domingo and was responsible for the annihilation of the natives of the Antilles in less than a quarter of a century; in 1518 smallpox was also introduced in Santo Domingo and then to the American continent by negro slaves: by the same means measles were introduced in 1531. The previous existence or introduction of other infectious diseases in America is also discussed.

  3. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C. [CEPN, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Croft, J. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Pfeffer, W. [GRS, Koeln (Germany); Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-03-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe.

  4. Citizenship Education Development: European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Suslov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the European experience of the citizenship education developmentan important aspect of internal policy in the most countries. The education in question is considered to be the democratic citizenship training aimed at developing the loyal attitude to different value priorities in society, social responsibility, active citizenship position, awareness of democratic rights, capability of using and protecting them.The author looks at the transformation of citizenship education concept in the last three decades from the civics education (i.e. history, political science, law, etc. to the democratic citizen education. The paper analyzes differ- ent approaches to citizenship education in several European countries including the post-soviet ones. It is emphasized that both in western and eastern Europe a lot of effort is made for spreading and supporting the education in question. The author recommends considering the foreign experience of integrating the democratic citizenship education into the state academic curricula at the primary, secondary and higher school levels. 

  5. European Integration and Labour Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julda Kielyte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies how European integration might affect the migration of workers in the enlarged EU. Unlike the reduced-form migration models, we base our empirical analysis on the theory of economic geography à la Krugman (1991, which provides an alternative modelling of migration pull and push factors. Parameters of the theoretical model are estimated econometrically using historical migration data. Our empirical findings suggest that European integration would trigger selective migration between the countries in the enlarged EU. In the Baltics, Lithuania would gain about 7.25% of the total work force. In the Visegrád Four, the share of the mobile labour force would increase the most in Hungary, 8.35%, compared to the pre-integration state. Our predictions for the East-West migration are moderate and lower than those of reduced-form models: between 5.44% (from the Baltics and 3.61% (from the Visegrád Four would emigrate to the EU North. Because migrants not only follow market potential, but also shape the region’s market potential, the long-run agglomeration forces are sufficiently weak to make a swift emergence of a core-periphery pattern in the enlarged EU very unlikely.

  6. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Europeanization and social movement mobilization during the European sovereign debt crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses Europeanization of social movements in the context of the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Europeanization occurs when movements collaborate, or make horizontal communicative linkages with movements in other countries, contest authorities beyond the state, frame issues...... as European and claim a European identity. The article presents a theoretical framework and research design for measuring the degree of social movement Europeanization followed by results of a pilot study on mobilization in Spain and Greece during 2011. While many contentious action events studied only...

  8. The European Public on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarta, Ancuta-Gabriela

    This study explorers the European public on social media by discussing the case of communicative interactions taking place on the official Facebook page of the European Parliament. Based on the theoretical framework conceptualizing the public and the public sphere on social network sites, the study...... examines the European social media public from two perspectives. The first is a top-down, institutional perspective of European Parliament, based on a case-study approach to the way this European institution constructs and addresses the public through its social media communication. The second is a bottom......-up perspective of the public of social media users, informed by a content analysis of Facebook comments and a discourse analysis of live chat interactions with Members of the European Parliament. Results confirm a discursive potential of the Facebook public of users. In the case of the Facebook comment threads...

  9. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PRIORITY - THE SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ignat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At the level of European Union, starting from the necessity of insurance economic growth, social community law gradually developed, benefitting by sinuous construction, extremely complex, beingcontinuously transformed. Familiarization with the model of social community law prescribed by European Union represents not only a forward step in the process of harmonization with community law, but also an alignment in settlement of European Union, which finally establishes the modernization of the whole domestic law system.

  10. Is there a European medical sociology?

    OpenAIRE

    Henckes, Nicolas; Baszanger, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Is there a European sociology of health, illness and medicine – or, in short, a European medical sociology? While the answer to this question would certainly have been negative just a few years ago, this chapter argues that over the last thirty years a series of new analyses have emerged in the field which have laid the groundwork for a medical sociology at the European level. These examine how health issues are increasingly framed as consumer goods, public issues and ...

  11. European Union Financial Crisis: a Marxist Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Farneubun, Petrus K.

    2016-01-01

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national government and economic policies. Responding to the crisis, numerous attemps have been proposed to accelerate the recovery, but the crisis still hit Eurozone and brought serious consequences politically and...

  12. Book Review: Diversity in European Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Machková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The case book “Diversity in European Marketing” is the result of the scientific cooperation of the CEMS Marketing Faculty Group. Prestigious Central European Universities - Corvinius University of Budapest and University of Economic, Prague - are members of CEMS - the Global Alliance in Management Education of 26 leading business schools and 70 multinational companies. Four authors from these two Universities share in this book their experience of Central European Marketing specifics.

  13. The European Boidiversity Observation Network - EBONE

    OpenAIRE

    Halada, L.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Gerard, F; Whittaker, L.; R. G. H. Bunce; Bauch, B.; Schmeller, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    EBONE (European Biodiversity Observation Network) is a project developing a system of biodiversity observation at regional, national and European levels as a contribution to European reporting on biodiversity. The project focuses on GEO (Group of Earth Observations) task BI 07-01 to unify many of the disparate biodiversity observation systems and creates a platform to integrate biodiversity data with other types of information. The system will make use of existing networks of site observation...

  14. Theory and reform in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssochoou, Dimitris N.; Tsinisizelis, Michael J.; Stavridis, Stelios; Ifantis, Kostas

    2003-01-01

    This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a rich spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing. The book examines constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links ...

  15. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  16. The spatialization of the european project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper argues the need for more critical analysis of the ?spatialisation of the European Project? than has been the case in much previous academic work on the European Union`s spatial policy so far. The focus is on the EU, and the way that this huge institutional and territorial setting...... is organised, driven and imagined according to a particular hegemonic spatiality which gives shape to the political, economic, social and territorial dimensions of the European project....

  17. Developments in international/European health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2009-03-01

    International (European) organizations have impact on health law. The most recent developments are: a revision of the world Medical's Association Declaration of Helsinki, a proposal for a Directive (European Commission) on standards of quality and safety of human organs intended for transplantation, accompanied by a ten point action plan; a proposal (European Commission) for a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border health care; a proposal (European commission) for a Directive on information to the general public on medicinal products subject to medical prescription.

  18. European Identity between Ethnic and Civic Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European identity is not a reality, but a necessity for a stabile future of the European political construction. The democratic deficit problem results from the fact that the European project was conceived as a top-down type of action. Its legitimization is however a bottom-up process. For this reason, the institutional project needs to be supported by an ideological project for a European identity. There are two ways, two different patterns for the second charge: the ethnic-cultural identity or the civic identity. Each has his advantages, but also disadvantages. This paper analyzes the results of one sociological research among young Romanian students.

  19. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  20. European Union Climate Change Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewiner, C.

    2007-08-15

    In March 2007, the European Union Ministers asked Member States to commit to energy consumption and Greenhouse Gases (GHG), mainly CO2 emissions, reductions of 20%, as well as a portion of 20% of renewable energies in their energy production. The horizon of this 'three times 20% objective' is 2020. The underlying assumption is of course an improved security of energy (and electricity) supplies as well as a growing European economy with sustained tertiary and industrial employment. These objectives were articulated to respond to the present Climate Change issues by avoiding an increase of our Planet's temperature beyond 2 to 3 degrees. In the US, the current government has recognized that CO2 is an issue and has begun to take action, issuing a number of executive orders to reduce emissions. This follows a ruling by the US Supreme Court on CO2. It may be that what is happening in Europe will be a model that the US will follow. These different objectives are interlinked and each European country is in a different situation. Moreover, 2020 is a relatively short time horizon compared to the lead time for construction of large plants such as nuclear plants. It is also a short time frame for the industrialization, at reasonable costs, of carbon sequestration equipment, for the renovation of a significant portion of the existing buildings and houses, and for the switch of the present car fleet to electrical cars. More than 20% of the cars bought in 2007 will still be on the road in 2020. More than 80% of the refrigerators bought in 2007 will still be in operation in 2020, and less than 1/3 of the industrial and utility infrastructures in place today will be renewed by 2020. It is even shorter at the Research and Development time scale to find and industrialize new energy savings devices or low energy consumption and low carbon emitting equipment. One important question is also the net cost linked to these objectives that has not been evaluated today. The

  1. Training of European urology residents in laparoscopy: results of a pan-European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furriel, Frederico T. G.; Laguna, Maria P.; Figueiredo, Arnaldo J. C.; Nunes, Pedro T. C.; Rassweiler, Jens J.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the participation of European urology residents in urological laparoscopy, their training patterns and facilities available in European Urology Departments. A survey, consisting of 23 questions concerning laparoscopic training, was published online as well as distributed on paper, during

  2. THE CONSOLIDATION OF EU GOVERNANCE: THE EUROPEAN SEMESTER AND THE EVALUATION OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION DEEPENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae TODERAS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Once it was introduced as an instrument for deepening European integration, the legitimacy, opportunity and utility of European Semester were repeatedly questioned from the perspective of its contribution to the institutionalization of European governance. Also, there is a strong and direct link between the further deepening of the European Union’s political and economic integration on the one hand, and the development of a culture of evaluating policies and programs on the other. Taking these aspects into account, the following questions arise: does the European Commission have, in its position as manager of the European Semester, a real capacity of evaluating all aspects regarding the deepening of European integration? Can the European Semester be a means for diffusing evaluation practice at the level of Member States? This is why, in this paper, we propose to give answers to these questions.

  3. European perspectives on security research

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Europe’s networked societies of today are shaped by a growing interconnection in almost all areas of life. The complexity of our infrastructures and the concurrent accessibility to means of destruction by terrorist groups and individual perpetrators call for innovative security solutions. However, such evolving innovations inevitably raise fundamental questions of concern in our societies. How do we balance the imperatives of securing our citizens and infrastructures on the one hand, and of protecting of our sacredly held civil liberties on the other? The topical network ‘Safety and Security’ of acatech – the German Academy of Science and Engineering – invited experts from the science academies of various European countries to share their perspectives on security research and the aspect of safety during a two-day workshop hosted by the Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut in March 2010. This publication is a compilation of contributions made during the workshop.

  4. Reindustrialization Process in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the economic growth and empolyment in EU European institutions have launches ambitious initiatives for a reindustrialization process based on new technologies and green energies. The aim is to increase the share of processing industry in GDP from 15.1% in 2013 to 20% in 2020 according to the objectives of Europe 2020 Strategy and also with those of other EU strategies and common policies. The focus will be laid on innovation and research activites, on supporting/financing SMEs and their internationalization, on the integration of EU firms into global value chains, on developing green energies, bio and key enabling technologies, on smart networks and on free trade and sustainable development.

  5. The European perspective for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangler, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    LSST is a next generation telescope that will produce an unprecedented data flow. The project goal is to deliver data products such as images and catalogs thus enabling scientific analysis for a wide community of users. As a large scale survey, LSST data will be complementary with other facilities in a wide range of scientific domains, including data from ESA or ESO. European countries have invested in LSST since 2007, in the construction of the camera as well as in the computing effort. This latter will be instrumental in designing the next step: how to distribute LSST data to Europe. Astroinformatics challenges for LSST indeed includes not only the analysis of LSST big data, but also the practical efficiency of the data access.

  6. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen and Liefferink's edited volume takes a different approach to comparative environmental policy studies. It looks at how domestic environmental policies and activities In six specific countries (Sweden, Austria, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway) have affected environme......Andersen and Liefferink's edited volume takes a different approach to comparative environmental policy studies. It looks at how domestic environmental policies and activities In six specific countries (Sweden, Austria, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway) have affected...... environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...

  7. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    a normal atlas. Produced by leading soil scientists from Europe and other parts of the world under the auspice of the International Year of Biodiversity 2010, this unique document presents an interpretation of an often neglected biome that surrounds and affects us all. The European Atlas of Soil...... world. The first part of the book provides an overview of the below ground environment, soil biota in general, the ecosystem functions that soil organism perform, the important value it has for human activities and relevance for global biogeochemical cycles. The second part is an 'Encyclopedia of Soil...... Biodiversity is an essential reference to the many and varied aspects of soil. The overall goal of this work is to convey the fundamental necessity to safeguard soil biodiversity in order to guarantee life on this planet....

  8. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  9. European Conference on Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias; Data Science, Learning by Latent Structures, and Knowledge Discovery; ECDA 2013

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises papers dedicated to data science and the extraction of knowledge from many types of data: structural, quantitative, or statistical approaches for the analysis of data; advances in classification, clustering, and pattern recognition methods; strategies for modeling complex data and mining large data sets; applications of advanced methods in specific domains of practice. The contributions offer interesting applications to various disciplines such as psychology, biology, medical and health sciences; economics, marketing, banking, and finance; engineering; geography and geology;  archeology, sociology, educational sciences, linguistics, and musicology; library science. The book contains the selected and peer-reviewed papers presented during the European Conference on Data Analysis (ECDA 2013) which was jointly held by the German Classification Society (GfKl) and the French-speaking Classification Society (SFC) in July 2013 at the University of Luxembourg.

  10. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  11. When Culture Hampers European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Petersen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with Denmark’s skeptical attitude towards the EU cooperation. From a hermeneutical-institutional approach the aim of this article is to analyze why Denmark has been rejecting several initiatives from the EU. It illustrates how different democratic understandings hamper European...... integration. Based on Ronald Dworkin’s theoretical framework the article discusses two different perceptions on democracy: majoritarian democracy and constitutional democracy. It is shown when and why EU’s member states prefer to handle EU-related judicial disputes without involving supranational institutions....... In addition, the article provides tentative comparisons to Britain and the Nordic countries since they show similar attitudes to supranational institutions. The article concludes that Denmark’s majoritarian democracy provides political cultures incompatible with the EU’s constitutional democracy and this can...

  12. Kant's Theory of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      Abstract:Immanuel Kant developed a rather wide range of concepts to describe the process of an "ever broader union" of European states. Kant's theory posed a dilemma with two aspects. On the one hand republican states were free, and on the other they were obliged to follow rules of a union...... of states, for instance regulations of non-intervention. Debates have focused this dilemma as if it was a real contradiction. The argument in the present paper is that there is no such contradiction. To the contrary, in his philosophy of reflective judgement, Kant describes the compelling duty......, but to let it cooperate with other states rather than to isolate it. Kant observes a guarantee that such a form of integration could emerge and succeed, because the military powers of Europe had to develop complexities of separated powers in their organisation of states. Underneath the unity of isolated...

  13. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  14. [AIDS prevention in European prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, G; Harding, T W

    1995-01-01

    Informations on HIV/AIDS in prisons which include 32 prison-systems in 17 European countries have been collected. The principle of equivalence of preventive measures and health care between prisons and the outside community, prison authorities should strive to prevent HIV transmission in prisons. There have been major developments in effective prevention programmes in the community, there has been less progress within the prison-systems. Information on AIDS is provided to prisoners in almost all prison-systems. While condom distribution is practiced in a growing number of systems, no prison systems have adopted syringes/needle distribution or exchange during incarceration. A few system have accepted distribution of a disinfectant (diluted bleach) with instruction on cleaning injection materials. Despite clear recommendations made by international bodies in 1987/88, it must be concluded that discrimination and segregation (restriction from access to workshops, specially work in kitchens) remain widespread in 1992.

  15. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  16. Impressions of European Integration : A comparative analysis of the impact of EU news in European newspapers on European audiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Lam, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the coverage of the EU in the European press affects the knowledge and attitude towards the EU of the average European newspaper reader. This outcome is the more relevant now that the EU is steadily growing in size and impact, but conversely is confronted with a general

  17. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  18. Nutritional risk of European elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, C; Oliveira, B; Afonso, C; Lumbers, M; Raats, M; de Almeida, M D V

    2013-11-01

    The elderly constitute a population group with a high prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases and high risk of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated to nutritional risk in free-living European elderly. The sample included 644 European citizens, free living in the community, aged 65 years or more. The sample was quota controlled for age groups (65-74, ≥75 years), gender (male/female) and living circumstances (living alone/with others). Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with nutritional risk. Several variables regarding socio-demographic characteristics, food choice, health status and the satisfaction with food-related life were included in the analysis. According to the recoded score of the 'Determine your nutritional health' (NSI checklist), 53% of the elderly were at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk was more likely to occur in elderly who considered that it was more important to choose foods 'easy to chew'; with lower average number of fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake episodes and lower score for general health. It was also found in non-married participants; those that did not identify changes in their appetite; and those that felt changes in health status. In this sample, the lowest nutritional risk was found for body mass index (BMI) around 18.5 kg/m(2). Country of residence, gender and age were not found to have a significant effect on nutritional risk. Attention should be drawn to the living circumstances, changes in appetite or health, the general heath perception, F&V intake, choice of foods easy to chew and having a low or high BMI.

  19. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  20. National And European Law: Problem Of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to one of the main problems for all integration communities –problem of implementation of the integration law norms in the national legal system of member states. Author, on the example of certain member states of the European Union considers mechanism of the European Union law action in it's member states. In the article constitutional norms of the number of member states which set a ratio of the national and European laws are analyzed. According to the principle of competence giving, member states voluntary transfer part of the competence to the European Union. Competences which are transferred to the member states are the competences of the European Union. In the course of research author investigates opinions of scientists and analyze regulations. Author pays separate attention to the question of the European Union creation. For example, author notes that consideration by the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe of the question of compliance of the Treaty to the Constitution of Germany became neither more nor less a most important milestone on the way of Treaty on the European Union ratification by Germany. In the decision on this matter Court defined a number of reference points for the purpose of possible excise if the European integration elimination out of those limits which are set for the government of Germany by its Constitution. The decision of the Constitutional Court of Germany though meant approval of the Treaty on the European Union in the political sense, it was nevertheless unambiguously directed against broad interpretation and federalist vision of the European integration. It is obvious that states, on the basis of constitutional norms may leave contracts that are burdensome for them. It concerns not only international treaties, but also Treaties of the European Union.

  1. The european hematology association roadmap for european hematology research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Engert (Andreas); C.L. Balduini (Carlo); A. Brand (Anneke); B. Coiffier (Bertrand); C. Cordonnier (Charlotte); H. Döhner (Hartmut); De Wit, T.D. (Thom Duyvené); Eichinger, S. (Sabine); W.E. Fibbe (Willem); Green, T. (Tony); De Haas, F. (Fleur); A. Iolascon (Achille); T. Jaffredo (Thierry); F. Rodeghiero (Francesco); G. Salles (Gilles); J.J. Schuringa (Jan Jacob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European

  2. EERA and Its European Conferences on Educational Research: A Patchwork of Research on European Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, Edwin; Hofbauer, Susann

    2014-01-01

    The process of Europeanisation is closely linked to the process of an emerging European Educational Research Area and an education research identity. The European Conferences on Educational Research (ECER), European Educational Research Association (EERA) and its networks are involved in new directions and strands of educational research in…

  3. A European legal method? On European private law and scientific method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between European private law and scientific method. It argues that a European legal method is a good idea. Not primarily because it will make European private law scholarship look more scientific, but because a debate on the method of a normative science

  4. Metadata-catalogue of European spatial datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, J.P.M.; Kooistra, L.

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate a more effective accessibility of European spatial datasets, an assessment was carried out by the GeoDesk of the WUR to identify and describe key datasets that will be relevant for research carried out within WUR and MNP. The outline of the Metadata catalogue European spatial

  5. The Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    express for the EU and fellow Europeans, and the passion with which supporters of the EU argue for greater integration and enlargement are today central to understanding European integration. Being mindful of Europe - reflecting on the ways in which psychology and politics are deeply implicated in under...

  6. European labour law legislation 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    This publication brings together the most important European and international regulation in the area of labour law. It includes regulations from, among others, the European Union, the Council of Europe and the International Labour Organisation. The selected regulations are decisive to some extent

  7. Profile and competences for the European dentist.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Holbrook, W.P.; Delap, E.; Martinez, C.; Walmsley, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the profile and competences for the European Dentist as approved by the General Assembly of the Association for Dental Education in Europe at its annual meeting held in Cardiff in September 2004. A task-force drafted the document, which was then sent to all European Dental

  8. European Industrial Doctorates: Marie Curie Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    European industrial doctorates are joint doctoral training projects funded by the European Union (EU) and open to all research fields. The project brings together an academic participant (university, research institution, etc.) and a company. They have to be established in two different EU Member States or associated countries. Associated partners…

  9. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the

  10. Is there a European way of war?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennesson, P.; Breuer, F.; de Franco, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Europe is the region of the world where the network of security institutions is the densest. Yet, these institutions did not erase differences about conceptions of force employment among European countries and between European countries and the United States. Why have concepts of military power a...

  11. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  12. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  13. European Values Study 1981-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, A.R.C.M.; Halman, L.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The European Values Study is a large-scale, cross-national, and longitudinal survey research program on basic human values providing insight into the ideas, beliefs, preferences, attitudes, values and opinions of citizens all over Europe. It is a unique research project on how Europeans think about

  14. ESMN / European Solar Physics Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    I briefly present the European Solar Magnetometry Network as a contemporary example of solar physics collaboration across European borders,and I place it in larger-scale context by discussing the past and future of Europe-wide solar physics organization.Solar physics from space is inherently

  15. Changing European Governance, Changing Research and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    This chapter examines two fundamental dimensions of the changing European governance, namely the coordination of national policies and the changes in membership (accession of Central and Eastern European Countries in the mid-2000, and of Brexit in late 2010s). In particular this chapter looks...

  16. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the…

  17. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii.

  18. European Frontiers in RF GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, F.E. van; Hek, P. de

    2015-01-01

    In this overview paper, a summary of the European academic and industrial status on RF GaN is given. The roles of EDA and ESA are highlighted, and examples of on-going research activities are presented. A set of HPAs over frequency, representative of today's European status, is discussed. © 2015

  19. Learning Environment Perceptions of European University Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Wierstra, R.F.A.; Linden, J.L. van der; Lodewijks, H.G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a study of the experiences of 610 Dutch students and 241 European students who studied at least three months abroad within the framework of an international exchange program. The Dutch students went to a university in another European country and the foreign students went to a

  20. A European Vision for Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Sue; Tuckett, Alan; Boucher, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) is the UK national coordinator for the European Agenda for Adult Learning, with the challenge of creating a coherent message across the four countries to inform European cooperation on adult learning. To start the debate, the journal staff asked Sue Waddington, Alan Tuckett, and Fiona…

  1. Insights into the European Years’ Communication Toolboxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia-Mihaela Cmeciu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1983 the European syntagm “unity in diversity” has been implemented in the European Years’ communication campaigns. Dependent on subsidiarity and decentralization, European Years focus on a specific issue which constitutes the subject of a year-long awareness campaign. Beyond the involvement of Europe’s citizens through their local, regional and national authorities in the implementation of the European Years’ policies, there is a unity at the level of the visual communication of the EU by two important image-building elements: EY logos and communication toolboxes. The European Years’ communication toolboxes can be considered signs of inclusion since every organization is expected to customize the templates in the official campaign design of the European Year. The analysis will focus on the image-building elements of three European Years (2010, 2011, 2012. Having social semiotics as the qualitative research method and the analytical framework based on the distinction between design resources and representational resources, I will analyze the double layers of the high intensity point of inclusion: (1 the European Years’ branding process; (2 the visual deontic modality within the visual guidelines of the EY communication toolbox.

  2. European Sustainable Construction Regulation : Homogeneity and Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, J.; Van Bueren, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the negative impact of the construction industry and the built environment on the ecological environment, the European Commission (EC) aims to harmonise and improve sustainable construction regulatory frameworks in Member States of the European Union. This paper discusses the topics of

  3. Training Issues for the European Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, B.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the results of an investigation carried out for the European Commission. Aims to identify themes and issues in the field of continuing training in the European automotive industry. A large number of interviews were carried out in all the major car manufacturing countries of

  4. Political values in a European museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Marijn; Huistra, Pieter; Wirt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The last decades have seen the rise of a European politic of cultural identity. One of the most recent initiatives in this respect, dating from 2007, is the House of European History that is due to open its doors in 2015. In this article, we investigate the recent history of the House, in particular

  5. Transnational Lives in European Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in European education began, and how…

  6. The European Insurance Industry: A PEST Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The insurance industry plays an important role for European economic stability and the threats and opportunities it faces should be carefully determined. In this paper we highlight the main challenges by using a Political, Economic, Social and Technological (PEST analysis. This work applies conventional actuarial thought on this area by focusing strictly on the European sector.

  7. Five political ideas of European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the possible implications of leading contemporary theories of political philosophy for some of the main questions that the political institutions of the European Union will have to decide on concerning the future of European contract law. Thus, it explores what a utilitarian,

  8. The Politics of European Human Rights Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agha, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 200-215 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30299S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Court of Justice of the European Union * European Court of Human Rights * religious symbols Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  9. Brexit and the problem of European disintegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosamond, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The Brexit referendum provokes speculation about the likelihood of European disintegration. This article discusses how scholarship might deal with the issue of disintegration and argues that it should be thought of as an indeterminate process rather than an identifiable outcome. Within the EU...... within which European integration has been embedded historically....

  10. ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Pazderníková, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the reasons and beginnings of creation of European energy policy, the role of environment in this policy and different kinds of energy sources with special focus on the renewable ones. The hot topic of liberalization of European energy policy is also discussed. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  11. A comparative approach to European Union citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.N.J. Goudappel (Flora)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAfter a short description of the theoretical and philosophical background of the notions of citizenship and nationality, the contents of European Union citizenship will be described. This notion of European Citizenship will then be compared to the notions of citizenship and nationality

  12. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  13. Quality of Power Supply in European View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Hradilek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with comparisons of situation in quality of power supply regulation in some of European countries, which are interested in CEER (Council of European Energy Regulators. Especially we focused our analysis on reliability indices, relationship between supplier and consumer and electric power supply aftereffects. There are discussed differences in each countries and comparison with situation in Czech Republic.

  14. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  15. Fire, fuel composition and resilience threshold in subalpine ecosystem.

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    Olivier Blarquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the effects of global changes on high altitude ecosystems requires an understanding of the long-term relationships between biota and forcing factors to identify resilience thresholds. Fire is a crucial forcing factor: both fuel build-up from land-abandonment in European mountains, and more droughts linked to global warming are likely to increase fire risks. METHODS: To assess the vegetation response to fire on a millennium time-scale, we analyzed evidence of stand-to-local vegetation dynamics derived from sedimentary plant macroremains from two subalpine lakes. Paleobotanical reconstructions at high temporal resolution, together with a fire frequency reconstruction inferred from sedimentary charcoal, were analyzed by Superposed Epoch Analysis to model plant behavior before, during and after fire events. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that fuel build-up from arolla pine (Pinus cembra always precedes fires, which is immediately followed by a rapid increase of birch (Betula sp., then by ericaceous species after 25-75 years, and by herbs after 50-100 years. European larch (Larix decidua, which is the natural co-dominant species of subalpine forests with Pinus cembra, is not sensitive to fire, while the abundance of Pinus cembra is altered within a 150-year period after fires. A long-term trend in vegetation dynamics is apparent, wherein species that abound later in succession are the functional drivers, loading the environment with fuel for fires. This system can only be functional if fires are mainly driven by external factors (e.g. climate, with the mean interval between fires being longer than the minimum time required to reach the late successional stage, here 150 years. CONCLUSION: Current global warming conditions which increase drought occurrences, combined with the abandonment of land in European mountain areas, creates ideal ecological conditions for the ignition and the spread of fire. A fire return interval of less

  16. Regional Economic Integration: The European Model

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    Pierre Jacquet

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional initiatives have flourished since the end of the Cold War. Given the degree of integration it has achieved, the European Union is often cited as a model of regional integration. This article argues that European integration has been the product of very specific historical conditions, implying that the politics and dynamics of regional integration in Europe may not be appropriate for and replicable in other regions. It also discusses European monetary union (EMU and argues that integration within EMU is still incomplete in particular because economic policies are not sufficiently coordinated. Finally, it discusses the contribution of regional integration to global governance and suggests that the "European model" can be a source of inspiration for the rest of the world not as much as a process to emulate as for the lessons that can be learned from the dynamics and experience of European integration about some important issues in managing economic interdependence.

  17. A more coherent European wide legal language

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    Viola Heutger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to elaborate on the interaction between law and language. The use of the different (legal languages of the European Union Member States is one of the most practical and most difficult problems in the process of European integration. The linguistic matters are directly contacting all legal issues. In February 2003 the Commission launched an Action Plan on a more coherent European Contract Law. With this Action Plan a sector specific approach of legal and linguistic harmonization will start. On of the official aims will be the preparation of a common frame of reference, providing a pan-European terminology and rules. This contribution will reflect the need of a better and more coherent legal language use on a European Union level and describe a more concept-based approach of linguistic legal integration.

  18. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  19. CFC legislation in the European Union

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    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  20. Consensus document on European brain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Luca, Monica; Baker, Mary; Corradetti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    will increase exponentially in the years to come due to ageing of the European population, it is necessary to act now in order to curb this increase and possibly reverse the trend. Thus, establishing a strong European platform supporting basic and clinical research in neuroscience is needed to confront...... the economic and social challenge posed by management of brain diseases in European countries. To setup a platform for discussion, EBC published in 2006 a Consensus Document on European Brain Research, describing needs and achievements of research in Europe and presenting proposals for future research programs....... Since 2006, European research in neuroscience has advanced tremendously. The present document represents an update elaborated to reflect changes in research priorities and advances in brain research that have taken place since 2006. The same approach and format have been used here as in the previous...