The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.
Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are
Full Text Available Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countriesThis article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands and four cities (Tallinn, Budapest, Amersfoort and Maastricht. The project included research and actions at the policy level, the organizational level and the practice level. At the policy level, the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006 and the European Disability Strategy (European Commission, 2010 were used to look at national and local policies, at the reality of the lives of those with disabilities and at the support that professional services offer with regard to participation and inclusion. The project generated a number of insights, recommendations and methods by which to improve the quality of service and increase the number of opportunities for community engagement. In this article, we present some of the lessons learned from the meta-analysis. Although the circumstances in each country are quite different with regard to policy, culture and service systems, it is remarkable that people with disabilities face many of the same problems.The study shows that in all three countries, access to services could be improved. Barriers include bureaucratic procedures and a lack of services. The research identified that in every country and city there are considerable barriers regarding equal participation in the field of housing, work and leisure activities. In addition to financial barriers, there are the barriers of stigma and self-stigmatization. Marginalization keeps people in an unequal position and hinders their recovery and participation. In all countries, professionals need to develop a stronger focus
V. O. Pechatnov
Full Text Available The study of Western countries and teaching courses on the related subjects have longstanding and established tradition at MGIMO-University. The basis of this brilliant research and teaching tradition was laid down by such academicians as E.V. Tarle and V.G. Trukhanovsky, Professor L.I. Clove, Y. Borisov, F.I. Notovitch, G.L. Rozanov. Their work in 1940-1960's at the Department of World History at MGIMO-University progressed in following directions: France studies, German studies, American studies. The work resulted in a number of monographs and textbooks on modern history and foreign policy of the studied countries and regions. The aim of the publications was dictated by the goal of the Institute - to prepare the specialists in international affairs primarily for practical work. A close relationship with the Foreign Ministry was "binding advantage" sometimes limiting researchers in choosing periods and subjects for the study. At the same time the undisputed advantage and quality of regional studies at MGIMO were strengthened by the practical relevance of research, making it a vital and interesting not only for specialists but also for students and researchers from other research centers. Another characteristic of the tradition is the analysis of foreign policy and diplomacy in a close relationship with the socio-economic and political processes. Such an integrated approach to regional geography also formed largely under the influence of institutional profile designed to train highly skilled and versatile specialists in specific countries and regions with a good knowledge of their languages, history, economics, politics, law and culture. Therefore, scientific and educational-methodical work at MGIMO-University has always relied on a wealth of empirical data and has been focused on the analysis of real-world phenomena and processes, acute problems of foreign countries. Scientific research at MGIMO-University traditionally intertwined with
Rajzbaum, Gerald; Jakob, Franz; Karras, Dimitrios
OBJECTIVE: The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study and ch.......CONCLUSIONS: The post-menopausal women prescribed teriparatide were severely osteoporotic, with a high fracture risk and poor HRQoL, despite previous therapy for osteoporosis. Moderate to severe back pain was very common. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-20......OBJECTIVE: The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study...... and characteristics of the patients at entry.METHODS: At entry, 1645 postmenopausal women with a diagnosis of osteoporosis and about to initiate teriparatide treatment were enrolled in eight European countries. Baseline data were collected on demographic characteristics, medical and osteoporosis history, disease...
Feon, Le V.; Schermann-Legionnet, A.; Delettre, Y.; Aviron, S.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Hendrickx, F.; Burel, F.
The impacts of agricultural practices and landscape composition on bee communities were investigated in 14 sites located in four Western European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Standardized interviews with farmers assessed agricultural practices in terms of
Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).
This publication contains the papers of the Venice Colloquium held in October, 1977 by educators from European countries to discuss the topic of visits and exchanges for pupils. There are seven chapters. Chapter one discusses the context and objectives of the colloquium. Chapter two describes pupil visits and exchanges in the European community.…
Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Frans Leenders; Marju Medar; Zsolt Bugarszki
This article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands) and four cities (Tallinn,
Centering around the European joint project Joint European Torus (JET), in the framework of which hot fusion plasmas are already brought close to thermonuclear ignition, the individual research centres in Europe have taken over different special tasks. In Germany research concentrates above all on the development of super-conductive magnets, the stage of plasma-physical fundamentals or the investigation of the interaction between the plasma boundary layer and the material of the vessel wall. On this basis the development stage following JET, the Next European Torus (NET), is planned, with its main aim being the production and maintenance of a thermonuclear burning plasma, i.e. a plasma which maintains its active state from the gain of energy of its own fusion reactions. In the framework of a contractually agreed cooperation between the European Community, Japan, the USSR and the USA, the establishment of an international study group (with seat in Garching) was decided upon, which is to develop the concept of an 'International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)' jointly supported by these countries. The results of the studies presented show that the differences in the design data of ITER and NET are negligible. (orig./DG) [de
Andoura, Sami; Hancher, Leigh; Van Der Woude, Marc
The think tank Notre Europe published its report on the future of European energy policy in April 2010 entitled 'Towards a European Energy Community: A policy proposal'. Initiated by Jacques Delors, this report is the harvest of the work of the Task Force of high-level European experts established by Notre Europe to study the feasibility of a European Energy Community. The report was elaborated by Marc van der Woude and Leigh Hancher as co-chairs and Sami Andoura as Rapporteur. The report gives an overview and assessment of the policies developed at European level so far and examines whether the existing European energy policy is capable of pursuing its three key objectives of 'affordable access to energy'; 'sustainable development' of energy production, transport, and consumption; and 'security-of-supply' in a consistent and credible manner. Relying on the conclusions that the existing European energy policy is suboptimal, the report puts forward a policy proposal for a genuine 'European Energy Community'. It explains why and what type of action is required to develop such Energy Community, identifying both the substantial elements which it should ideally cover and the legal and institutional policy instruments at the EU's disposal for developing it. The report finally examines how this model could be best achieved and develops several recommendations to that effect
Helton Christopher Jason
Full Text Available This paper will discuss the challenges posed by modern conceptions of Hinduism - in particular Heinrich von Stietencron’s conception of a “collection of religions” and Romila Thapar’s application of Benedict Anderson’s theory of “imagined communities” to Hinduism-to the European style of religious studies, particularly at the undergraduate level.
Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty
The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet. Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...
This paper first reviews the influence that European Communities fiscal policies have had in the past on the development of more environmentally compatible fuels such as unleaded gasoline. It then discusses which directions fiscal policy makers should take in order to create appropriate financial incentives encouraging the production and use of biomass derived fuels - methanol, ethanol and pure and transesterified vegetable oils. An assessment is made of the efficacy of a recent European Communities proposal which calls for the application of excise tax reductions on bio-fuels. Attention is given to the net effects due to reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide emissions characterizing bio-fuels and the increased use of fertilizers necessary to produce biomass fuels
Tovias, Alfred*Laird, Sam
Recent political changes in Eastern Europe will help to cement improving economic relations with the European Communities (EC). Hungary has little alternative but to seek to continue strengthing these ties. It faces important supply constraints and needs injections of fresh capital to help it gear up to seize market opportunities. In the past, Hungary has been somewhere near the bottom of the EC's pyramid of privileges as far as tariff and non-tariff barrier (NTB) treatment are concerned. Hun...
Full Text Available The exposure, often deceitful, to the acrylamide has determined notable apprehension in many consumers, so much that the Committee of the European Communities has financed the project HEATOX and has emanated the recommendation 2007/331. It is ascertained that proposed strategies have not brought to great changes in the food process chains, and neither in the traditional catering and housewife, for which more incisive measures are wished.
Full text: Since the inception of the EURATOM Treaty (1957) the use of nuclear power has made an enormous progress. The nuclear sector has become a very important component of the production of energy. Prisoner of its success further development of the use of nuclear energy is confronted with the challenge of ensuring its integration within the framework of modern environment protection concepts. The link between the radiation protection objective and the responsibilities of the State's Authorities in the control of the design and operation of nuclear industrial facilities has become evident. On the other hand, the evolution in the perception of the transfrontier character of the nuclear risk by the population and. the drive for the political integration of Europe have led the Community Member States to an increasing concentration between their nuclear policy-making organs and in particular between their Nuclear Safety Authorities It is quite natural that the Community institutions, the Council of Ministers and the Commission and more recently the European Parliament have become active hosts and catalysts of the concentration of the Member States on the nuclear safety objectives which are at the source of the protection of the population and of the environment. The joint efforts of the Member States and the Commission have led to a reinforcement of the process of harmonisation of safety requirements for nuclear installations at Community level. A parallel concentration effort has been done by Community Member States concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle, in particular radioactive waste management. The European Community meets the conditions to become a key driving force for nuclear safety progress beyond its region because of the advanced stage of nuclear safety in the Community which includes the flexibility and completeness of its fuel cycle and the long experience of Community institutions in the promotion of harmonisation of safety objectives, criteria and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40% reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7. Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges.
This paper reports on the topics that received special attention at the March 1993 European Community Wind Energy Conference in which 600 delegates from 30 countries participated. The Conference papers on wind turbine marketing evidenced the current boom underway in Europe which saw almost 400 MW of wind turbine power equipment installed in 1992. Rapid progress is being made in wind turbine technology and researchers are now aiming at the realization, in the short term, of single units capable of delivering 500 kW of electric power, and of large diameter rotor (50-55 m) 1.0-1.2 MW units in the long term. Technological innovation and increased production are also significantly reducing per-kW installed costs, and European banks are now showing increased interest in financing wind farm projects. A visit to Denmark's Vindeby 5 MW 11 unit off-shore wind farm highlighted the Conference activities
The emphasis of effort in European energy policy should be placed on external relations rather than internal regulation. The divergence of the interests of the United States and Europe in energy policy will no longer allow Europe to depend on US initiative. The temporary relaxation of world oil markets has engendered unrealistic complacency. The European Community must develop its important role as a means whereby the member states can formulate common initiatives to press within international institutions. Strong presentation of interests externally has to be complemented by internal adaptation. The Community has at the moment few means of influencing the form and nature of energy investment. This paper proposes a fund of the order of Pound1 bn per annum to be used for the promotion of projects whose intrinsic benefits are not fully translated into commercial advantage and which need political stimulus. Such a Fund might be, but need not necessarily be, financed by a small levy on imported oil. The UK should present more aggressively the considerable benefits which accrue to the Community from UK resources. There is perhaps an opportunity to take a more extrovert view of the relationship between the UK and the continental gas transport systems. (author)
Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.
The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.
This work studies the legal instruments for cooperative research granted to Euratom under the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, and the conditions whereby concrete use was made of these instruments. This assessment of Euratom's efforts to launch a community nuclear industry is accompanied by an analysis of the respective roles of the bodies of the Community, the Council and the Commission, as well as of the circumstances which, according to the author, have led to a paralysis of this institution. (NEA) [fr
The tasks of the European Social Fund, the European Economic Community's social policy instrument, were reviewed in l983 in the light of the worsening unemployment situation and the priority placed on employment and vocational training policies. (Author/SSH)
This paper examines the chances that the European Community (EC) has of enhancing its position in the international petroleum order. Its identity should become stronger than it is in the current feeble state of Europe as a world presence for four reasons: greater convergence in the ideas and interests of the Member Countries; the bolstering of Community institutions; thanks to new treaties, more balanced petro-political relations; and the geographical advantage of being within reach of Russia's enormous hydrocarbon resources. In its producer-consumer relations, the EC has a certain amount of upfront legitimacy over the actions of the individual member countries, insofar as multilateral actions in this field are more efficient than are bilateral relations. The EC is acquiring a certain autonomy of action from the AIH. It is already helping to build up new relations through informal dialogue and free-trade agreements with the producing countries, and is helping Russia to emerge as a major competitor for the Gulf countries
Costa, G; Pickup, L; Di Martino, V
This report summarizes the main results of research promoted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, concerning the impact of commuting on the health and safety of workers. An empirical study, carried out among 1167 industrial Italian workers, shows that "commuters" (workers whose journey from home to work usually does not take less than 45 min in each direction) experienced a more stressed life-style than did "non commuters" (whose journey does not take more than 20 min). Commuting appears for many workers to be a necessity which is imposed by external factors, such as the housing market and job opportunities. Commuting is shown to interfere with patterns of everyday life by restricting free-time and reducing sleeping time. A majority of commuters use public transport mainly because of cost. Public transport commuters have problems due to more changes between modes, idle waiting times and delays leading to late arrival at work. Inside transport modes, commuters suffered discomfort as a result of overcrowding, microclimatic conditions, noise and vibrations. Commuters also reported higher psychological stress scores, more health complaints, essentially of psychosomatic nature, and greater absenteeism from work due to sickness. Commuting, in addition to shiftwork, further increases sleep problems, psychosomatic complaints and difficulties with family and social life. Women commuters were at a greater disadvantage than men, having more family difficulties, more travelling complaints and higher absenteeism.
For a quarter of a century, the United States has been gradually losing market share in the European Community, which accounts for about one-fifth of world trade. The European Community consumes about one-fourth of United States exports, but this represents only about eight percent of its total imports. Three of the barriers contributing to…
The world is a risky place in which to live! The world tolerates that 750,000 deaths occur on the roads each year. Society has not yet come to terms with the added burden that urbanisation brings to developing countries. Pollution from the use of fossil fuels creates incalculable loss to the world's environment and to the health of its inhabitants. The misuse of chemicals provokes suffering and deformity. In the European Community alone, over 21 million tonnes of toxic waste have to be treated each year. Of course, there are different types of risk: individual and societal. Individuals continue to travel by air in defiance of terrorists or faulty machinery. Whilst society urges caution in diet and nutrition, the individual is probably more worried about food additives that he is about eating too much or making a rigorous appraisal of the value of his die!. As the conference progresses many people will die from the causes of malnutrition, from war or societal neglect while we, individually, will be more at risk from overeating. In other words, we perceive risks is in a multitude of ways. We tolerate these risks according to our perception of what we feel is acceptable without carrying out scientific assessment of the relative severity of those risks. If applied at a governmental level, this subjective tolerance can lead to unnecessary burdens or constraints that are disproportionate to the risk. Clearly, this is not acceptable for policy makers. We have just seen the closure of the UNCED World Conference on the Environment in Rio de Janeiro, where the absolute need for more effective cooperation in the protection of the environment and the world inhabitants was convincingly demonstrated. The European Communities already coordinate risk assessment with its twelve Member States in a large number of areas and is increasing its international cooperation. We have recognized that it is no longer possible to carry out effective risk assessment in one country alone or to
Andoura, Sami; Buzek, Jerzy; Delors, Jacques; Vitorino, Antonio
On the eve of the European Council on 22 May dealing with energy issues, the Jacques Delors Institute publishes a Tribune calling for the implementation of a positive agenda for the European energy policy and the definition of the concrete bases of a genuine European Energy
Simbolotti, G.; Zampaglione, V.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Mazzone, G.; Nardi, C.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Violante, V.; Daenner, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Gierszewski, P.; Grattarola, M.; Rosatelli, F.; Secolo, F.; Zacchia, F.; Caira, M.; Sorabella, L.
Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)
Beck, J.; Procopio, G.; Bajetta, E.; Keilholz, U.; Negrier, S.; Szczylik, C.; Bokemeyer, C.; Bracarda, S.; Richel, D. J.; Staehler, M.; Strauss, U. P.; Mersmann, S.; Burock, K.; Escudier, B.
The European Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (EU-ARCCS) expanded-access study provided sorafenib to advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in whom previous systemic therapy had failed. The study assessed the safety and use of sorafenib for the treatment of advanced RCC in a large
Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G.
In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [fr
A discussion is given of a survey regarding the supply of enriched uranium to the countries of the European Community. Costs of enriched uranium imports were not available but import values were calculated using world market prices. (R.L.)
Sillince, J. A. A.
Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…
Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by the AEA, BNFL and the CEC at Windermere and the sites of Windscale/Sellafield, where the former Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and the Windscale piles are currently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, results and conclusions on techniques and procedures currently applied in the dismantling of large scale nuclear installations in the European Community
This study investigates relationships that emerged between European Economic Community and Arab League nations during the period 1970-1978, with special attention to the period immediately following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74. The central argument is that European integration can be measured and understood from three different levels of analysis: not only the systems or supranational level (to which neofunctionalists and federalists have largely confined their investigations), but from the nation-state and the subnational levels also. This view is justified in the context of complex interdependencies in the work of Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane. From this perspective, nation-state and subnational-level data take on a new importance. This study collected data on the nature, level, and intensity of contracts between actors within each of these three levels. The study finds at all these levels strong evidence of increased collective and convergent activity which, in the context of complex interdependencies, points to a complex but clearly advancing process of European integration during the period under investigation
Maniatopoulos, C.S.; Gmelin, W.; Schenkel, R.
The overall objective of the energy policy of the European Community is to achieve a secure supply of energy at reasonable cost and low environmental impact. This overall objective is embedded in the steps taken by the European Community towards the Single European Market. This subject will be addressed briefly, as well as the developments in Eastern Europe including the European Energy Charter. With regard to nuclear energy in the community, facts and issues related to electricity production, the front end and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and current environmental and safety issues will be presented. A common industrial strategy is required in the community including safety regulations, technical specifications and products for international markets. Concerning safeguards, the Commission is fully committed to the obligations from Chapter VII of the Treaty and to any relevant international agreements concluded by the Community. This is reflected in the close cooperation of the Commission with the IAEA and in the increase of resources, both in staff and budget, which the Commission has allocated to the Safeguards Directorate to cope with the increasing requirements, for example for bulk handling facilities. Based on a request from the European Parliament, the Commission has issued in 1989 a first report on the operation of Euratom Safeguards. The Commission services are currently preparing the second report of this type. Finally, some remarks with regard to the future of nuclear energy and challenges of safeguards in the Community will be made
Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs
Wimo, Anders; Reed, Catherine C; Dodel, Richard; Belger, Mark; Jones, Roy W; Happich, Michael; Argimon, Josep M; Bruno, Giuseppe; Novick, Diego; Vellas, Bruno; Haro, Josep Maria
To address socioeconomic challenges associated with its increasing prevalence, data are needed on country-level resource use and costs associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). GERAS is an 18-month observational study being conducted in France, Germany, and the U.K. (with an 18-month extension in France and Germany), aimed at determining resource use and total costs associated with AD, stratified by AD severity at baseline. Resource use information and time spent on informal care by non-professional caregivers was obtained using the Resource Utilization in Dementia instrument. Total baseline societal costs were based on four cost components: patient health care costs, patient social care costs, caregiver health care costs, and caregiver informal care costs. Overall, 1,497 community-dwelling patients with AD were analyzed at baseline. Estimated mean monthly total societal costs per patient at baseline differed significantly between groups with mild, moderate, and moderately severe/severe AD (p caregiver health care costs increased with AD severity. Informal caregiver costs were the largest cost component accounting for about half to just over 60% of total societal costs, depending on country and AD severity group. In conclusion, GERAS study baseline results showed that country-specific costs increase with AD severity. Informal care costs formed the greatest proportion of total societal costs, increasing with AD severity independent of costing method. Longitudinal data will provide information on cost trends with disease progression.
Hugues, J.S.; Shaw, K.B.
Radioactive materials are transported throughout the European Communities (EC) by road, rail, sea and air. In case of severe accident, which could lead to the release of radioactivity into the environment, it is essential that there are pre-arranged measures which can be put into effect to minimise radiation doses to persons in the vicinity and to enable the situation to be returned to a safe condition. An essential part of emergency arrangements is the setting up of an administrative structure to establish the responsibilities of the organisations involved and this study outlines the arrangements that have been set up in each EC country. The databank should be particularly useful following an accident close to a national border or in the event of an accident in one country which involves a shipment from another. The setting up of a databank might also assist in the development of the emergency arrangements in some countries. In conclusion: - the formation of a databank of emergency arrangements is feasible. - The databank could be operated more efficiently if it were held centrally on a computed-based system and made accessible through the telephone network. - The usefulness of the databank would be enhanced by the inclusion of information on non-radiological hazards
Full Text Available In 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the “Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China” and the “Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in thIn 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the "Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China" and the "Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in the European Community comply with the WTO Agreement on Safeguards. In conclusion, based on the analysis of safeguard measures in the European Community's legal system and their practice in actual cases, it apparent that the European Community is making a serious effort to comply with the standards of the WTO Safeguards Agreement. In certain respects, the European Community has a comparatively higher level of standards than the WTO. Nevertheless, there continue to be challenges to WTO
Full Text Available In this paper it is analyzed for which plant communities (alliances the Netherlands has an international responsibility. Data has been brought together on the range and distribution of alliances in Europe, the area of plant communities in the Netherlands and surrounding countries and the occurrence of endemic associations in the Netherlands. The analysis resulted in a list of 34 out of 93 alliances in the Netherlands which are important from an international point of view.
Boenigk,Jens; Wodniok,Sabina; Bock,Christina; Beisser,Daniela; Hempel,Christopher; Grossmann,Lars; Lange,Anja; Jensen,Manfred
Protists influence ecosystems by modulating microbial population size, diversity, metabolic outputs and gene flow. In this study we used eukaryotic ribosomal amplicon diversity from 218 European freshwater lakes sampled in August 2012 to assess the effect of mountain ranges as biogeographic barriers on spatial patterns and microbial community structure in European freshwaters. The diversity of microbial communities as reflected by amplicon clusters suggested that the eukaryotic microbial inve...
Ryberg, Thomas; Niemczik, Christian; Brenstein, Elke
The paper will discuss theoretical, methodological and technical aspects of the community based Methopedia wiki (www.methopedia.eu), which has been developed as a part of the EU-funded collaborative research project “Community of Integrated Blended Learning in Europe” (COMBLE; www.......comble-project.eu). Methopedia is a wiki and social community aimed at facilitating knowledge transfer between trainers/educators from different institutions or countries through interactive peer-to-peer support, and sharing of learning practices. We describe how Methopedia has been developed though engaging practitioners...... source Wiki and Social Networking technologies. We describe the issues, functionalities and needs that have emerged from the workshops, such as metadata (taxonomy & tags), localised versions (multi-lingual) and the need for visual descriptions. Furthermore, we discuss the templates trainers/educators can...
Franse, Carmen B; Rietjens, Judith Ac; Burdorf, Alex; van Grieken, Amy; Korfage, Ida J; van der Heide, Agnes; Mattace Raso, Francesco; van Beeck, Ed; Raat, Hein
The rate of falling among older citizens appears to vary across different countries, but the underlying aspects causing this variation are unexplained. We aim to describe between-country variation in falling and explore whether intrinsic fall risk factors can explain possible variation. Prospective study on data from the cross-national Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Twelve European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland). Community-dwelling persons aged ≥65 years (n=18 596). Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, education level and living situation) and intrinsic fall risk factors (less than good self-rated health (SRH), mobility limitations, limitations with activities of daily living (ADL), dizziness, impaired vision, depression and impaired cognition) were assessed in a baseline interview. Falling was assessed 2 years later by asking whether the participant had fallen within the 6 months prior to the follow-up interview. There was significant between-country variation in the rate of falling (varying from 7.9% in Switzerland to 16.2% in the Czech Republic). The prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors varied twofold to fourfold between countries. Associations between factors age ≥80 years, less than good SRH, mobility limitations, ADL limitations, dizziness and depression, and falling were different between countries (pfalling largely persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic differences but strongly attenuated after adjusting for differences in intrinsic fall risk factors. There is considerable variation in the rate of falling between European countries, which can largely be explained by between-country variation in the prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors. There are also country-specific variations in the association between these intrinsic risk factors and falling. These findings emphasise the importance of addressing
The implications of energy problem for consumer countries are first expounded, and then EC's energy policy in wide context is explained. The policy has been understood as three inter-related and indivisible elements: the planning of the community's own market; relations with other energy consumers; and, relations with energy producers. Each element must complement and support the other. Descriptions are made over how each of these elements has developed over the last year and a half, how it is developing now, and how it responds to the energy problem. (Mori, K.)
This Order declares the Exchange of Letters dated 3 May 1978 between the Government of the United Kingdom and the European Atomic Energy Community regarding privileges to be granted to the Joint European Torus to be a Community Treaty as defined in section 1(2) of the European Communities Act 1972. The principal effect of declaring this Exchange of Letters to be a Community Treaty as so defined is to bring into play, in relation to the Exchange of Letters, the provisions of section 2 of the European Communities Act 1972 [fr
Research programs on light water reactor safety currently carried out in the European Community are presented. They cover: accident conditions (LOCA, ECCS, core meltdown, external influences, etc...), fault and accident prevention and means of mitigation, normal operation conditions, on and off site implications and equipment under severe accident conditions, and miscellaneous subjects
The paper discusses the energy priorities and options for the European Community. Reasons for the recent improvement in the efficiency of energy use are briefly discussed, as well as the outlook for 1990, priorities for the future, solid fuels. natural gas, electricity and nuclear energy. Energy policy considerations in the United Kingdom are also mentioned. (U.K.)
Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ
In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The
This book describes the 12 vocational education systems conducted by the members of the European Community. The 12 country chapters (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom) follow the same model and are organized into the following six sections: key facts,…
Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by Kernkraftwerke RWE Bayernwerk GmbH (KRB) and the CEC at Gundremmingen-Guenzburg (D), where the former KRB-A BWR is presently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, the results and conclusions on techniques and procedures presently applied in the dismantling of large-scale nuclear installations in the European Community. Besides the four pilot dismantling projects of the presently running third R and D programme (1989-93) of the European Community on decommissioning of nuclear installations (WAGR, BR-3 PWR, KRB-A BWR and AT-1 FBR fuel reprocessing), the organizers selected the presentation of topics on the following facilities which have a significant scale and/or representative features and are presently being dismantled: the Magnox reprocessing pilot plant at Sellafield, the HWGCR EL4 at Monts d'Arree, the operation of an on-site melting furnace for G2/G3 GCR dismantling waste at Marcoule, an EdF confinement conception of shut-down LWRs for deferred dismantling, and the technical aspects of the Greifswald WWER type NPPs decommissioning. This was completed by a presentation on the decommissioning of material testing reactors in the United Kingdom and by an overview on the conception and implementation of two EC databases on tools, costs and job doses. The seminar concluded with a guided visit of the KRB-A dismantling site. This meeting was attended by managers concerned by the decommissioning of nuclear installations within the European Community, either by practical dismantling work or by decision-making functions. Thereby, the organizers expect to have contributed to the achievement of decommissioning tasks under optimal conditions - with respect to safety and economics - by making available a complete and updated insight into on-going dismantling projects and by
Mineur, Frédéric; Arenas, Francisco; Assis, Jorge; Davies, Andrew J.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Fernandes, Francisco; Malta, Erik-jan; Thibaut, Thierry; Van Nguyen, Tu; Vaz-Pinto, Fátima; Vranken, Sofie; Serrão, Ester A.; De Clerck, Olivier
Seaweed assemblages represent the dominant autotrophic biomass in many coastal environments, playing a central structural and functional role in several ecosystems. In Europe, seaweed assemblages are highly diverse systems. The combined seaweed flora of different European regions hold around 1550 species (belonging to nearly 500 genera), with new species continuously uncovered, thanks to the emergence of molecular tools. In this manuscript we review the effects of global and local stressors on European seaweeds, their communities, and ecosystem functioning. Following a brief review on the present knowledge on European seaweed diversity and distribution, and the role of seaweed communities in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, we discuss the effects of biotic homogenization (invasive species) and global climate change (shifts in bioclimatic zones and ocean acidification) on the distribution of individual species and their effect on the structure and functioning of seaweed communities. The arrival of new introduced species (that already account for 5-10% of the European seaweeds) and the regional extirpation of native species resulting from oceans' climate change are creating new diversity scenarios with undetermined functional consequences. Anthropogenic local stressors create additional disruption often altering dramatically assemblage's structure. Hence, we discuss ecosystem level effects of such stressors like harvesting, trampling, habitat modification, overgrazing and eutrophication that impact coastal communities at local scales. Last, we conclude by highlighting significant knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to anticipate the combined effects of global and local stressors on seaweed communities. With physical and biological changes occurring at unexpected pace, marine phycologists should now integrate and join their research efforts to be able to contribute efficiently for the conservation and management of coastal systems.
Charrault, J.C.; Nordwall, J.H. de; Viseur, R.; Vivante, C.; Graziani, G.; Rinaldini, C.; Zanantoni, C.
In recent times a large number of studies have investigated the various policies which can be followed to satisfy a given electric energy demand. Installation policies concerning conventional stations and several types of nuclear stations have been analyzed from the point of view of consumptions, expenditures, investments etc. The exercise is usually repeated for several demand-growth curves. Sometimes an optimization of the power station installation policy based on minimizing consumption of a type of fuel or expenditures is made. In the study presented here a different attitude is taken, in the sense that it is assumed that the energy demand growth will be large enough to justify the growth of nuclear energy production; this will be limited by a number of technological constraints, namely: 1- The Uranium delivery rate. This rate (tons/year) is assumed to increase from 1985 by 10% per annum and to reach a saturation level after a given number of years. 2- Availability of reprocessing capacity. It is assumed to increase with a given doubling time after 1985. 3- Development of reprocessing technology, which is represented here by the out-of-pile time of the fuel. 4-Availability and technology of fast reactors, represented by the year of first installlation and by their physical characteristics. All the values defining the above-mentioned constraints are varied parametrically and their effects on the penetration of thermal and fast reactors and on the consequent consumptions and expenditures are assessed. A few considerations on the demand of conventional energy resulting from such constraints and from various hypotheses on the total demand are made, to show that a considerable production of conventional energy must be foreseen in the next few decades
Fraser, G.; Stanners, D.
Quarterly average values of radioactivity levels in airborne particulates, deposition, river water, drinking water and milk are reported for the twelve countries of the European Communities for the years 1984-1986. Since the Chernobyl reactor accident at the end of April 1986 greatly affected the radioactivity levels in the E.C., air data for the second quarter of 1986 are collected together in a separate section
Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton
Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.
Letters exchanged between the Charge d'affaires, mission of Canada to the European Communites and the Commissioner of the European Communities, concerning safeguards, levels of physical protection, and further intra-Community trade of nuclear materials exported from Canada to the European Community
Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P
The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in
Sanders, G T; Kelly, A M; Breuer, J; Kohse, K P; Mocarelli, P; Sachs, C
To ensure freedom of movement in the European Union, a limited number of professions is regulated by a so-called Sectorial Directive; all other disciplines, including clinical chemistry, fall under a General Directive. However, clinical chemists in the EU wish their specialty to be more specifically regulated; this means that common standards of education, training, experience and compliance with continuing professional developments must be guaranteed. Therefore, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) is about to implement the European Register for clinical chemists, and has composed a guide to this Register. The document describes the conditions for entry to specialty training, the minimum standards for registration (university education and postgraduate vocational training with a minimum total of eight years), the competencies of those qualifying for registration, and the operation of the register. Registration guarantees professional and managerial competencies; the title conferred is "European Clinical Chemist". EC4 recognises the existing national registers as far as they are based on the minimal requirements as indicated. An EC4 Register Commission (EC4RC) will maintain and control the European Register, supported by National Clinical Chemistry Registration Committees (NCCRC). An NCCRC controls the quality of the education in each country and assesses candidates. An individual (EU citizen or non-EU citizen trained in an EU country) applies privately for the European Register to EC4RC and, where applicable, the application is accompanied by a document from the NCCRC of the country of registration, stating that the applicant has the necessary qualifications. For EU citizens trained outside the EU the final decision is with EC4RC; non-EU citizens not trained in an EU country are not eligible for registration. Registration is renewed once every five years.
Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.
Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.
The purpose of this study is to attract expert communities’ intellectual resources to the process of developing a geoportal entitled "River Basins in European Russia". The results of a survey of experts (n=100) have shown that more than half of respondents had used a variety of geoportals’ data in their professional life. Data on digital relief models, streamflows and landscape maps are of greatest interest. In order to obtain a comprehensive social and ecological analysis of the territory, experts have expressed interest in placing data on population in the basins and its density, the volume of used natural resources, and recreational zones on the designed geoportal. In practical sense, our study can be viewed as a fruitful ground for the development of upward vertical communication (from citizens to the government) and partially horizontal communication among citizens via their engagement in the environmental decision-making process.
It has long been known that environment protection is largely a cross-sectional task. The provision of Article 130 r Section 2 Clause 2 of the EEC Treaty that states that environment protection forms an integral part of all the other polticial spheres of the Community is not only a plank in the platform of the Community but also a juridical innovation. Time will tell what concrete legal claims can be derived from this provision, particularly on the part of the European Court of Justice. The lectures relate amongst others to the following topics: Environment protection and competition politics, environment protection and energy poltics, environment protection and development aid politics. Eight of the lectures were abstracted individually. (orig./HSCH) [de
This article outlines the history of Denmark's accession to the European Community on 1 January 1973. Two large historical trends shaped the Danish road to EC-membership. On the one hand, the fight for survival that the Danish Nation-State had experienced from 1864-1945 produced a particular Danish......-membership from day one without seriously threatening Danish welfare legislation or Nordic co-operation. Confronted with significant internal opposition, the Social Democratic Party leadership proved instrumental in formulating the vision that not only held the party together, but also won the referendum on 2...
Project Marina was set up by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985 to look at the radiological impact of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic, in northern European marine waters. This paper is a summary of project Marina's work and its conclusions
Full Text Available We performed single-variant and gene-based association analyses of plasma amyloid-β (aβ concentrations using whole exome sequence from 1,414 African and European Americans. Our goal was to identify genes that influence plasma aβ42 concentrations and aβ42:aβ40 ratios in late middle age (mean = 59 years, old age (mean = 77 years, or change over time (mean = 18 years.Plasma aβ measures were linearly regressed onto age, gender, APOE ε4 carrier status, and time elapsed between visits (fold-changes only separately by race. Following inverse normal transformation of the residuals, seqMeta was used to conduct race-specific single-variant and gene-based association tests while adjusting for population structure. Linear regression models were fit on autosomal variants with minor allele frequencies (MAF≥1%. T5 burden and Sequence Kernel Association (SKAT gene-based tests assessed functional variants with MAF≤5%. Cross-race fixed effects meta-analyses were Bonferroni-corrected for the number of variants or genes tested.Seven genes were associated with aβ in late middle age or change over time; no associations were identified in old age. Single variants in KLKB1 (rs3733402; p = 4.33x10-10 and F12 (rs1801020; p = 3.89x10-8 were significantly associated with midlife aβ42 levels through cross-race meta-analysis; the KLKB1 variant replicated internally using 1,014 additional participants with exome chip. ITPRIP, PLIN2, and TSPAN18 were associated with the midlife aβ42:aβ40 ratio via the T5 test; TSPAN18 was significant via the cross-race meta-analysis, whereas ITPRIP and PLIN2 were European American-specific. NCOA1 and NT5C3B were associated with the midlife aβ42:aβ40 ratio and the fold-change in aβ42, respectively, via SKAT in African Americans. No associations replicated externally (N = 725.We discovered age-dependent genetic effects, established associations between vascular-related genes (KLKB1, F12, PLIN2 and midlife plasma aβ levels, and
Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco
The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318
Heemskerk, Eelke M; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco
The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.
Eelke M Heemskerk
Full Text Available The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.
Roč. 42, č. 5 (2006), s. 1009-1010 ISSN 0038-0288. [European Studies: between Globalisation and Regionalism. Šiauliai, 12.05.2006-03.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : conference * European identitiy * globalization Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006
Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei
The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum
The Commission of the European Communities has started in 1980 a programme for the design and construction of a series of photovoltaic pilot projects in the range of 30-300 kWp. Virtually all important industries and other development organisations in Europe working on photovoltaic cells and systems are involved in this programme. The different technologies which are being developed concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of an island, villages, recreation centres, water desalination and disinfection, powering of radio transmitters, emergency power plants, dairy farm, training school, cooling, water pumping, powering of a solar heated swimming pool and last but not least, hydrogen production.
The report contains two articles; the first one is titled: The Directives on Transit of Gas and Electricity - Considerations regarding the juridical limits of the realisation of the Internal Market in the Energy Sector. It has basic considerations regarding the competences of the EC-legal nature of primary and secondary Community law; it analyzes the network of competences, the legality of the Commission's Proposals concerning the Internal Energy Market and further on the possibilities of legal recourse for enterprises in the Federal Republic of Germany in case the proposal directives are adopted. The second article deals with legal problems of energy supply within the EC-especially under the aspect of British coal mining. It incluses considerations regarding a proposed European Energy Charter, recent developments in EC-law regarding electricity and natural gas, third country imports: dumping, and privatisation. (HSCH)
Ehringer, H.; Lecoq, J.P.
Research and test reactors which in the first years of the peaceful use of nuclear energy had to found the basis for building and operation of commercial nuclear power plants, having achieved their aim, have faded into the background of the report. They still play an important role, however, for the further development of today's power reactor generation and for the development of progressing reactor lines as well as for fuel and material irradiation, for isotope production and, last but not least, for research and training. At the moment, over 100 test reactors are being operated in the widest sense in the European Community. In the present survey, their purpose and charge are dealt with particular consideration to the more important materials test reactors and to the programme reactors. (orig./LH) [de
Nutt, David J; Kessler, Ronald C; Alonso, Jordi; Benbow, Alastair; Lecrubier, Yves; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Mechanic, David; Tylee, André
To provide an overview of the importance of the data generated by the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD), which found that prevalence and burden of mood and anxiety disorders were high and that care of individuals with mental disorders was suboptimal. Thus, ESEMeD data, based on 21,425 noninstitutionalized adults from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain who underwent computer-assisted personal interviews, confirmed previous findings from epidemiologic studies performed in other locations. In addition, how this large and unique dataset may be utilized for maximum benefit to patients is outlined. The co-chairmen David J. Nutt, M.D., Ph.D., and Ronald C. Kessler, Ph.D., invited 6 faculty members to participate: Jordi Alonso, M.D., Ph.D.; Alastair Benbow, M.B., M.R.C.P.I.; Yves Lecrubier, M.D.; Jean-Pierre Lépine, M.D.; David Mechanic, Ph.D.; and André Tylee, M.D. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles published in this supplement, which include ESEMeD data and data from pertinent scientific literature. The faculty met over a 2-day period: day 1 included discussion of the review articles, during which the chairmen identified issues for further debate; day 2 included discussion of key issues to arrive at a consensus view. The consensus view was drafted by the chairmen and approved by all attendees. ESEMeD provides a very important opportunity to improve knowledge on the epidemiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Despite a decade of educational initiatives, the diagnosis and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders remain suboptimal. Lack of awareness and stigma surrounding mental illness, variations in physicians' ability to diagnose and treat psychiatric conditions, and physician time pressures all contribute to the problem. Future education initiatives should include patients, primary care physicians, employers, and health policy influencers. Patients with mood and anxiety disorders may benefit
The size and nature of local community benefits from wind power projects in the UK is investigated. These are compared with the benefits in Denmark, Germany, Spain and Ireland where wind power has enjoyed significantly higher rates of development and benefits come within the framework of all wind power projects. Ten wind power projects in the UK are examined and the remaining projects are surveyed. Support mechanisms, public acceptance, planning systems, community involvement (jobs, local income, ownership) in the UK and the other four countries are analysed. Typical community benefits from wind power in the different countries are listed, and recommendations are given.
Full Text Available Abstract Complicated intra-abdominal infections are frequently associated with poor prognoses and high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. In order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community-acquired and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES, in collaboration with the Surgical Infections Society of Europe (SIS-E and other prominent European surgical societies, has designed the CIAO study. The CIAO study is a multicenter, observational study and will be carried out in various surgical departments throughout Europe. The study will include patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage for complicated IAI.
Full Text Available While sub-Saharan African migrants are the second largest group affected by HIV in Europe, sound HIV prevalence estimates based on representative samples of these heterogeneous communities are lacking. Such data are needed to inform prevention and public health policy.This community-based, cross-sectional study combined oral fluid HIV testing with an electronic behavioral survey. Adopting a two-stage time location sampling HIV prevalence estimates for a representative sample of adult sub-Saharan African migrants in Antwerp, Belgium were obtained. Sample proportions and estimated adjusted population proportions were calculated for all variables. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis explored factors independently associated with HIV infection.Between December 2013 and October 2014, 744 sub-Saharan African migrants were included (37% women. A substantial proportion was socially, legally and economically vulnerable: 21% were probably of undocumented status, 63% had financial problems in the last year and 9% lacked stable housing. Sexual networks were mostly African and crossed national borders, i.e. sexual encounters during travels within Europa and Africa. Concurrency is common, 34% of those in a stable relationship had a partner on the side in the last year. HIV prevalence was 5.9%(95%CI:3.4%-10.1% among women and 4.2% (95%CI:1.6%-10.6% among men. Although high lifetime HIV testing was reported at community level (73%, 65.2% (CI95%:32.4%-88.0% of sub-Saharan African migrants were possibly undiagnosed. Being 45 years or older, unprotected sex when travelling within Europe in the last year, high intentions to use condoms, being unaware of their last sexual partners' HIV status, recent HIV testing and not having encountered partner violence in the last year were independently associated with HIV infection in multivariable logical regression. In univariable analysis, HIV infection was additionally associated to unemployment
Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives
Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl; Manners, Ian James
Over the past two decades the educational practices within EU studies have been challenged by the lack of comprehensive texts on research strategy, design and method useful for study programmes. Since the ‘comparative turn’ of the 1990s, where we saw a shift towards applying theories, analytical ...
Marta Enciso Santocildes
Full Text Available The aim to achieve –in 2003– the single market also for the European cooperative societies was one of the major objectives of the EC Regulation concerning the status of the Societas Cooperativa Europeae (SCE. Seven years later there seems to be little practical experiences. This paper is focused in the analysis of experiences in the Basque Country, especially on Ethical Banking and the Project developed known as Fiare, which would be the first European scope credit cooperative. The study of this case has just emerged some questions about the real difficulties for extending this kind of European collaboration: some of them with legal basis but others probably with cultural basis.
Thi Thuy Hang NGUYEN
Full Text Available The relations between the United States and the European Community under the Nixon Administration (1969-1974 were considerably changing. Post-1945 cooperation and dependence increasingly gave way to economic competition and division in military and foreign policies. Yet, the United States and the European Community knew that they were strategically important to each other, thus they had to continue cooperation and coordination to defend and advance their economic and strategic interests. With a documentary research approach, this paper aims to examine how the United States and the European Community their partnership evolved between 1969 and 1974. It explores the ties that the Nixon Administration designed to bind the European Community and the European Community’s responses. It also puts forth that despite their efforts to continue cooperation; the relations between the United States and the European Community were on a downward course. It will be concluded that the United States and the European Community experienced a difficult time in their relations between 1969 and 1974, but both sides showed certain efforts to maintain the partnership.
Estimating fuel cycle externalities: Analytical methods and issues. Report number 2 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: A study by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities
This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC) 'on the externalities of fuel cycles.' Part I illustrates the use of the atmospheric dispersion and transformation modeling that this study recommends for airborne pollutants in the coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas fuel cycles. Part II of this volume contains a paper which reviews the scientific literature on ecological impacts associated with power plant discharges. Part III contains papers summarizing the relevant health effects literature. Part IV contains papers on methods of economic evaluation. Part V contains four papers on various issues related to the estimation of externalities and their use in public policy. The final part is Part VI, and it contains a paper which describes a system for summarizing analysts' assessments of the quality of the information that an analysis uses to estimate externalities. This system allows analysts to provide information, not only on their best estimates, but also on a range of estimates, on uncertainty, on the quality of the data, and on other factors that better reflect the full dimension of making estimates under uncertainty. The system has broad applicability beyond fuel cycle externalities, as well
Alyacoubi, Said; Abuowda, Yousef; Albarqouni, Loai; Böttcher, Bettina; Elessi, Khamis
Disease severity scores such as CURB-65 are often used to guide the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Early and adequate empirical antibiotic treatment reduces mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the severity assessment and management of patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia at the European Gaza Hospital in the Gaza Strip and to compare this to the best available evidence. Medical records of all patients admitted to the European Gaza Hospital with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia between Dec 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical practice was compared with recommendations for severity assessment and the management of community-acquired pneumonia, as reported in guidelines by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the American Thoracic Society. Ethical approval was obtained from the General Directorate of Human Resources. 141 patients were admitted to the European Gaza Hospital with community-acquired pneumonia during the study period. Records of 41 patients were missing or could not be retrieved. The mean age of patients was 55·9 years (SD 20·2). Blood urea and nitrogen concentrations were not documented for 48 (48%) patients, and respiratory rate was not documented for 73 (73%) patients. The CURB-65 score was determined only for 12 (12%) patients. Microbiological testing was done only for two (2%) patients. Although 18 different antibiotic regimens were used, 81 (81%) patients received a β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy, either given alone (49 [49%] patients) or with another antibiotic (32 [32%] patients), which is in line with the recommendations for patients admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia. 43 (43%) patients received anti-viral drugs, and 41 (41%) patients received corticosteroids. Clinicians were poorly adherent to current standards of care in severity assessment and management of community-acquired pneumonia
Hang Thi Thuy Nguyen
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the economic and political disputes between the United States and the European Community between 1969 and 1974. Utilising the documentary research approach, the paper will first explore the main economic disputes which were manifested in two rounds of the United States-European Community Consultation in 1970 and 1972. Then, it will investigate the divergence between the United States and the European Community in their policy stances on energy and the 1973 Arab-Israeli War which together constituted the major political disputes between the two sides. With these economic and political disputes, the years 1969-1974 witnessed a difficult phase of the United States-the European Community relations.
Rørtveit, Sverre; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Langeland, Nina; Rortveit, Guri
From around the year 2000, Northern Europe experienced a rise in impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fusidic acid. A single clone of S. aureus was found to be the bacterial pathogen involved in the impetigo outbreak in Norway, Sweden, the UK and Ireland, termed 'the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone' (EEFIC). We have followed the incidence of impetigo during the years 2001-2012 based on all patients in general practice in the island community of Austevoll, Western Norway. We previously reported a marked decline of impetigo incidence in Austevoll, from 0.0260 cases per person-year in 2002 to 0.0038 in 2009. This article explores indications of an end to the impetigo epidemic caused by the EEFIC clone. All four general practitioners (GPs) in the community (mean population = 4400) were asked to diagnose impetigo in a uniform way and to take bacterial specimens from all impetigo cases. Phenotypic characteristics of specimen bacteria were determined for the whole period and molecular analyses were performed on isolates in the period 2008-2012. We observed a further decline in incidence of impetigo in Austevoll in the study period. The proportion of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus isolates decreased during the period 2002-2012, with a mean of 80% in the epidemic years of 2002-2004, 55% in 2005-2009, and 6% in 2010-2012. In total, 44 S. aureus isolates from impetigo were subject to molecular analyses in the period 2008-2012, and 11 were found to be related to the EEFIC. All EEFIC isolates were found in 2008-2009, with no new isolates in 2010-2012. There is an apparent end to the impetigo epidemic related to the EEFIC in this population in Western Norway.
Tin, Adrienne; Köttgen, Anna; Folsom, Aaron R; Maruthur, Nisa M; Tajuddin, Salman M; Nalls, Mike A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B; Friedrich, Christopher A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Kao, Wen Hong Linda
Low serum magnesium levels have been associated with multiple chronic diseases. The regulation of serum magnesium homeostasis is not well understood. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of European ancestry (EA) populations identified nine loci for serum magnesium. No such study has been conducted in African-Americans, nor has there been an evaluation of the interaction of magnesium-associated SNPs with environmental factors. The goals of this study were to identify genetic loci associated with serum magnesium in an African-American (AA) population using both genome-wide and candidate region interrogation approaches and to evaluate gene-environment interaction for the magnesium-associated variants in both EA and AA populations. We conducted a GWAS of serum magnesium in 2737 AA participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and interrogated the regions of the nine published candidate loci in these results. Literature search identified the influence of progesterone on MUC1 expression and insulin on TRPM6 expression. The GWAS approach in African-American participants identified a locus near MUC1 as genome-wide significant (rs2974937, beta=-0.013, p=6.1x10(-9)). The candidate region interrogation approach identified two of the nine loci previously discovered in EA populations as containing SNPs that were significantly associated in African-American participants (SHROOM3 and TRPM6). The index variants at these three loci together explained 2.8 % of the variance in serum magnesium concentration in ARIC African-American participants. On the test of gene-environment interaction in ARIC EA participants, the index variant at MUC1 had 2.5 times stronger association in postmenopausal women with progestin use (beta=-0.028, p=7.3x10(-5)) than in those without any hormone use (beta=-0.011, p=7.0x10(-8), p for interaction 0.03). At TRPM6, the index variant had 1.6 times stronger association in those with lower fasting insulin levels (African
Dannerbeck, Francis J.
Describes the University of South Carolina's (Columbia) Contemporary European Studies program, which drew on current course offerings and existing financial resources to provide study about post-French Revolution European languages, cultures, politics, history, geography, and economics. Options exist at many other institutions to create broadly…
The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e. the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management
M.J.F. van der Wolf (Michiel)
textabstractThis paper provides first of all the introduction to this special issue on ‘Legal constraints on the indeterminate control of “dangerous” sex offenders in the community: A European comparative and human rights perspective’. The issue is the outcome of a study that aims at finding the way
Scott Nicholas Romaniuk
Full Text Available This book represents a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional exploration of Europe as an institutional and social conception. It systematically links understanding of the Europeanization of identities and public spheres with citizenship, nationalism, community and communication, EU (European Union enlargement, institution-building, and European democracy and politicization. As a hallmark of insightful and dynamic scholarship, Risse’s work draws inspiration from a variety of societal levels, including some of the most critical players in European political life today, and highly-praised and well-known political philosophers, and policymakers.
Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl
Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations...... of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods. The 20 chapters in this collection range from micro-level analyses of identities, single policy studies and European discourse, through meso-level analysis of agenda setting, bargaining, implementation and Europeanisation, to macro-level analyses....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...
Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.
The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem
Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Marks, G.W.
This article summarizes and extends the main lines of theorizing on public opinion on European integration. We test theories of economic calculus and communal identity in a multi-level analysis of Eurobarometer data. Both economic calculus and communal identity are influential, but the latter is
This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the Final Working Group 4 Report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is presented. The European Community has to import 80% or more of the uranium needed to fuel its nuclear power capacity. Nuclear fuel reprocessing together with recycle of the recovered uranium and plutonium has the potential to reduce the uranium needs of the Community some 20 to 25% during the near term period 1990-2000 and in the longer term (after 2000) with the gradual introduction of fast breeder reactors to decrease sharply the need to import uranium. This illustrates the high economic value assigned to fuel reprocessing within the European Community
Elise Nicoleta VÂLCU
Full Text Available The European Commission has proposed a new legal form for European companies and for the privateEuropean society, or “Societas Privata Europaea” (SPE. The advantages of this new legal form are a greaterflexibility and lower costs for small and medium enterprises who wish to pursue activities in other states of theEuropean Union than they are registered. According to the Regulation submitted to discussion, the specificity of theEuropean Private Society in terms of its legal form is that, on the one hand, it undertakes a number of features of jointstock companies, such as the method of formation of governing bodies (the two, dual and unitary systems beingaccepted, but are retained also specific elements to the limited liability companies, meaning the fact that shares maynot be offered for public trading. In terms of how social responsibility and contribution in proportion to the capital, thisfeature included in the Regulation is found in both legal forms. By this time the Community legislature has followed thenew legal form of company are not subject to mandatory capital requirements high so provided in this respect theamount of 1 euro, so that provides to the contrary is inconsistent w ith the rationale that has outlined the relevantCommunity legislation by a company widely permissive.Concluding, the article subject to comment retains those provisions of the new Community act defining thespecific new limited liability company establis hing the European elements while giving the European businessenvironment the interest for it.
Achterberg, Peter W; Kramers, Pieter G N; van Oers, Hans A M
On 20 June 2008, the EUPHIX website (www.euphix.org) was officially launched. EUPHIX aims to provide policy relevant health information, data and knowledge for policy makers, public health experts and educated lay people in the European Union (EU). The project was carried out by a partnership of European health reporting experts. The conceptual structure of EUPHIX resembles the one used for the ECHI-indicator framework, but adds health policies. EUPHIX includes texts (EUphacts) next to indicator data, as well as links to organizations, data and literature. Other contributions, called EUphocus, address broader agenda issues, such as mental health and health inequalities. Some EUphocus contributions contain summarized outcomes of EU projects. In this sense, EUPHIX has a European platform function as well. Behind the surface of the EUPHIX website lies a complex internet application, including databases, i.e. for indicator data, for internal and external web links and for references and definitions. This back-office contains a Content Management System that guides an editorial process allowing the differentiation of the roles of authors, reviewers and content editors. User oriented functionalities include different ways to interactively manipulate data for personal presentation needs. Some EUphacts are linked to the Health-EU Portal. EUPHIX is drawing increasing numbers of visitors and has the potential to become the nucleus of a health monitoring system for the EU. However, current financing practice puts serious limits to its sustainability. The conclusion is that the EUPHIX model launched in June 2008 is integrating data, information and knowledge into a new type of Health Information System. The EUPHIX model is proposed to be the future model for EU health reporting.
As a result of the growing interest in Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), some European institutes have established a shared cost project in the framework of the European Community. The overall objective of the project is to make an assessment of the possibilities of accelerator-driven hybrid reactor systems from the point of view of safe energy production, minimum waste production and transmutation capabilities
In the framework of the Reactor Safety Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, the JRC - Ispra Establishment has performed a feasibility study for an integrated European Reliability Data System, the aim of which is the collection and organization of information related to the operation of LWRs with regard to component and systems behaviour, abnormal occurrences, outages, etc. Component Event Data Bank (CEGB), Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank, Operating Unit Status Reports and the main activities carried out during the last two years are described. The most important achievements are briefly reported, such as: Reference Classification for Systems, Components and Failure Events, Informatic Structure of the Pilot Experiment of the CEDB, Information Retrieval System for Abnormal Occurrences Reports, Data Bank on Component Reliability Parameters, System on the Exchange of Operation Experience of LWRs, Statistical Data Treatment. Finally, the general conclusions of the feasibility study are summarized: the possibility and the usefulness for the creation of an integrated European Reliability Data System are outlined. (author)
This article is a comparative analysis of the European Values Study (EVS) and the European Social Survey (ESS) using five analytical dimensions: agents, ideas, methods, institutions and context. From the outset, both surveys were closely connected to national and European social science instituti......This article is a comparative analysis of the European Values Study (EVS) and the European Social Survey (ESS) using five analytical dimensions: agents, ideas, methods, institutions and context. From the outset, both surveys were closely connected to national and European social science...... from a diverse set of social institutions driven by political and ethical concerns about social change in the 1960s and 1970s. The EVS used its links to various social institutions to set up and run the survey, and its ethical and political concerns and connections to Catholic Church organisations...
While Member States retain direct tax sovereignity and determine the tax, its base, rate, taxable subjects discretionary, fundamental differencies occur, resulting in market fragmentation and big obstacles for effective functioning of Community internal market. These differencies and the gap between harmonization in direct taxes and other spheres stipulate the need of harmonization and pressure for the Member States. However, the sole harmonization base requires the Council to act unanimously...
Rullhusen, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Mondelaers, W.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.
Nuclear data needs for fast systems are highlighted and the following projects are described: Joint European research projects: MUSE Experiments for Sub-critical Neutronics Validation; High- and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data for ADS (HINDAS); and the Time-Of-Flight facility for Nuclear Data Measurements for ADS (n T OF N D A DS); European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS-NUDATRA); and CANDIDE; Programmes for transnational access to experimental facilities in Europe: European Facilities for Nuclear Data Measurements (EFNUDAT); Neutron Data Measurements at IRMM (NUDAME); European facility for innovative reactor and transmutation neutron data (EUFRAT) (P.A.)
Camplin, W C
The results are presented of a study to evaluate the collective dose commitment to the population of the European Community from effluents released by the nuclear industry within the EC in 1978. Airborne and liquid effluent discharge data have been taken from published sources, and computer modelling techniques have been used to predict the transfer of radioactivity through the environment to man. The collective dose commitments due to discharges from each nuclear installation have been evaluated and the comparative significance of individual radionuclides and their pathways to man have been considered. Airborne releases resulted in an estimated collective effective dose equivalent commitment of 95 man Sv, the major part of which is due to carbon-14 from both power stations and reprocessing plants. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from liquid effluents is estimated to be 408 man Sv, mostly due to caesium-137 and other radionuclides from the Sellafield (formerly Windscale) reprocessing plant...
The document reproduces the text of a Note Verbale dated 20 October 1988 from the Permanent Mission of Spain stating that the Government of Spain has also adopted the common policy declaration adopted on 20 November 1984 by the Ministries for Foreign Affairs of the then ten Members of the European Community (INFCIRC/322) concerning the transfers of nuclear material, equipment and technology between the Member States of the Community
on how a general history of European law should be written and in particular how to avoid the pitfalls that characterises mainstream research on European law. In the first part it is argued that the ‘constitutionalisation’ of European law was promoted by a broad coalition beyond the Court of Justice...... constituted by the Commission’s legal service, transnationally organised pro-European jurists and the European Parliament. When the Court of Justice in the two key judgments, Van Gend en Loos (1963) and Costa V. ENEL (1964), took the decisive steps to transform European law into a semi-federal legal order...... the emerging academic field of European law was deeply involved in legitimating the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice in the 1960s. In the second part of the article, the starting point is to place mainstream legal and political science studies of European law in a historical perspective in order...
The European diagnostic manufacturers Association (EDMA) is the association of the national associations in Europe which are representative of manufacturers and distributors of in vitro diagnostic products. The Association's primary objectives as set out in its statutes are: - to promote and encourage among its members ethical principles and practices voluntarily agreed upon - to study and deal with all matters of common interest, for example, in the fields of heald legislation, science, technology and research. - to contribute expertise to and co-operate with national European and international organisations, governmental and non-governmental, having aims and objects similar to those of the Association or whose activities affect the interests of the members of the Association. Founded in 1979, the Association has developed from its original seven national member associations within Europe to its present number of fourteen. Through its member associations, EDMA represents well over 80 p. cent of the companies involved in the manufacture and distribution of in vitro diagnostic products and more than 90 p. cent of the market for those products within the Community and within Europe generally [fr
Frader, Laura Levine
Despite having been overlooked in the standard histories of the UK and the European Community, gender politics and gender policies played a significant role in Britain's applications for membership in the EEC in the 1960s. Joining the European Community required that Britain comply with Article 119 on equal pay for equal work. A combination of domestic feminist and labour movement activism, the commitment of unions and parties, and the internationalization of formal commitments to women's rights constituted internal and external pressures for the passage of an Equal Pay Act in 1970. The article argues that the formal legislative commitment to gender pay equality, changing public attitudes towards women's employment, and European membership impacted further domestic social policy reform and slowly began to shift government attitudes towards gender equality.
Bouffaud, Marie Lara; Creamer, Rachel E.; Stone, Dote; Plassart, Pierre; Tuinen, van Diederik; Lemanceau, Philippe; Wipf, Daniel; Redecker, Dirk
Utilizing a European transect of 54 soil samples, comprising of grasslands, arable and forest sites, we analyzed community composition of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) using pyrosequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region. We found a significant influence of
Gorlach, Krzysztof; Lostak, Michal; Mooney, Patrick H.
This paper examines the usefulness of the new social movements (NSMs) paradigm in the changing context of East European post-communist societies and their agricultural systems and rural communities. Starting with statements formulated in Western sociology in the context of Western democratic societies about NSMs as a protest against modernity, the…
Full Text Available This paper will be looking into the teaching method developed by the Institute for European Studies in Brussels, combining an e-learning tool- the E-modules- with face-to-face training sessions and webinars. The main aim is to analyse the three different components of this “blended learning” pedagogical approach, as well as the way they complement each other and to address a few of the challenges that have emerged from the experience of working with them so far. The E-modules are an e-learning platform that has been designed with the purpose of offering a structured and interactive way of learning how the European Union functions. The face-to-face training component currently takes the form of three days in-house seminars, covering in an intensive manner the most important areas of the curriculum. The lectures are held by a mix of academics and practitioners, hereby ensuring a balanced approach, in which theory and practice come together to facilitate the learning experience. The third element of the “blended learning” method is placed in-between online and face-to-face learning: interactive seminars and debates are held online, giving the participants the chance to deepen their knowledge in certain fields of interest and to discuss the content of the course with specialists and among themselves. The mixture of delivery and interaction methods was chosen in order to accommodate a large variety of target groups, ranging from students to professionals working with EU-related issues, with different backgrounds and geographical origins. One of the main challenges is to use each medium for the functionalities it is best designed for and to ensure that the various pieces of the pedagogical puzzle fit together perfectly, while allowing the learners the flexibility that had initially directed them towards “blended learning” instead of a classical classroom approach.
Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J
Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57,870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available It is obvious that the migration wave from the Orient is a challenge for Europe and especially for the Catholic and Protestant countries. Its geopolitical, economic, social, cultural, theological and spiritual significance have hardly any competition in the old evolution of the world, the secularisation from the 17th century or the globalisation from the 21st century. From this perspective, it is necessary to study carefully the migration phenomenon in its assembly, trying to present an integrated and multi-criteria diagnosis, especially due to the fact that the migration phenomenon brings closer to each of us the huge and extremely difficult problem of Muslim radicalisation, together with its cohort of terrorist manifestations endangering the most important human right: the right to life. Our study is intentionally intended to evaluate and commensurate, using Orthodox theological criteria, the impact of the actual migration phenomenon, the life of the Muslim community – umma, related to the Christian community from the multicultural European society. We start from the opposed manner the two sides relate to society, understand freedom and the dialogue between religions.
This thesis is structured chronologically starting with the origins of a European environment policy. These origins can be found in the foundation treaty of the European Community but are not explicitly codified. The thesis shows that the emphasis on economics in the European Community turned from acceptance of an environment policy as a marginal phenomenon to valuation of environmental policies as a principle of its own. The focus is on the contents of the EC Trial. The normative structure on which the environmental policy is built on aims of making clear that not only political declarations without any codification are made, but that the environment is a field of community activity to be taken seriously. Special attention is given the aim of economic growth and its incompatibles environmental policies. Convergence can only be reached if EC Member States use their potential of cooperation and are ready to make their contribution. A special chapter deals with the competence of member states concerning environmental policies. As contracting partners to GATT, member states of the European Union represent a very large portion of world trade, we have to make sure environmental policy is given the right place it deserves in free world trade. A summary and final reflections are included in the last part of the thesis. (author)
Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.; Simon, R.
The fourth radioactive waste management program 1990-1994 is aimed at perfecting and demonstrating a system of management of radioactive waste, including unprocessed irradiated fuels where these are considered as waste, which will ensure, at the various stages, the best possible protection of man and the environment. In particular, research continues on the characterization and qualification of the various barriers, both engineered and natural (geological) considered in the multiple barrier disposal concept, and the findings are used to evaluate the long-term safety of this waste disposal concept. The program is implemented mainly through shared-cost research contracts with appropriate organizations, undertakings and companies - public or private - established in the European Community Member States. It is composed of two parts; Part A deals with waste management studies and associated research and development actions, whereas in Part B, the construction and operation of underground pilot and/or site validation facilities for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste open to Community joint activities are covered. (author)
The Mutual Recognition Procedure (MRP) and the Decentralised Procedure (DCP), which were first established in late 2005, can be regarded as the backbone for marketing authorisation of medicinal products in the European Community (EC) and the European Economic Area (EEA). Both procedures are compared and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. However, the focus is more related to current developments than the detailed comparison of both procedures. The role of the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMD(h)) and the decision making process in relation to the MRP and DCP is also discussed.
The radioactive waste management program started in the mid-1970s is being carried out by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) Joint Research Centre and by research bodies within the European community under CEC coordination and partial financing. The program deals with the management of the radioactive waste resulting from uranium-plutonium fuel cycle. During its first phase (1973-1979), various treatment and conditioning processes were investigated; high temperature incineration and acid digestion of alpha-bearing waste, immobilization of highly active waste in borosilicate glasses, inter alia, appeared promising. Geological disposal was recognized as a feasible option; transmutation of long-lived products did not appear to be an advantageous alternative to geological disposal, and the studies were discontinued. The second phase (1980-1984) of the program is a followup to the first. The needs of the European nuclear industry and of the national radioactive waste agencies or operators recently created are, however, taken into account. The continuity of the RandD effort is ensured by a ''Community plan of action on waste management,'' (1980-1992). A third phase, 1984-1989, should demonstrate the availability and validity of the waste management techniques and be convincing about their safety
Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G; da Silva, A M; Ricci, S; Binnie, C D; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; Segers, J P
With the introduction of Nintendo video-games on a large scale, reports of children having seizures while playing suggested a possible specific, provocative factor. Although 50% of the photosensitive patients are also sensitive to a 50-Hz television, nonphotosensitive patients with a history of video-game seizures were described as well. The question arises whether this is a mere coincidence, provoked by fatigue and stress, is related to the reaction to the television screen itself, or depends on the movement and color of the pictures of this specific game. A European study was performed in four countries and five sites. All patients were selected because of a history of television, video- or computer-game seizures, with a history of sun-light-, discotheque-, or black and white pattern-evoked seizures, or were already known to be sensitive to intermittent photic stimulation. A total of 387 patients were investigated; 220 (75%) were female and 214 (55%) of those were video- or computer-game seizure, were significantly more sensitive to pattern and to the 50-Hz television (chi square, p video- or computer game, 14% proved not to be photosensitive. Although no difference in age or use of medication was found, twice as many men were found in this nonphotosensitive group.
Bill authorizing the ratification of the protocol amending the Protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community
After an indication of the European Parliament composition, this text describes the transitional provisions adopted as the Lisbon Treaty did not come into effect before the European elections held in June 2009. The document also provides the protocol text signed by the Members States and which amended the protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The last part of the document discusses the administrative and legal consequences of this protocol. It also recalls the history of the negotiations and indicates the present status of signatures and ratifications
The economic development of the radiometric industries in the EEC and the USA since 1960 is studied on the basis of sales statistics. The study covers the supply and the use of radioisotopes, the application of radiometric techniques, the scope and the development of the foreign trade as well as the structure of the firms concerned. The future need for radiometric apparatus is estimated as regards radiation protection, laboratories, industry, nuclear power plants and medicine
Sips, H.W.; Bakker, L.; Muizelaar, J.; Velthuijsen, J.W.
The aim of the title study is to evaluate the environmental and economic consequences of additional energy conservation in five Western European countries: the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy. In the first part of the study the economic effects of a policy, in which additional energy conservation is realized only for the Netherlands, is calculated. In this report the results are presented. The calculated results of the economic effects of a coordinated energy conservation policy in the abovementioned countries will be published in a separate report. The effects of three policy variants will be evaluated: the non-financial policy variant, the shift of the financial burden variant, and the variant in which the levies are not compensated.The starting point for the first variant is an autonomous realization of the energy conservation. The basis of the second variant is that an equal amount of energy can be saved by means of a substantial energy levy. The profits of this levy can be used to reduce the financial burden of labour. For the economic calculations use has been made of the HERMES-model. Every member of the European Community has developed such a macro-economic model. In chapter two the different starting points for the calculations are outlined, with special attention to descriptions of the policy variants, the model-input and the basic projection. In chapter three the economic effects of the policy variants are presented and discussed. In chapter four the energy conservation and the environmental effects of the variants are dealt with. The most important conclusion of this study is that a considerable amount of energy can be saved, which will have positive effects on the economy and the environment. 8 figs., 20 tabs., 6 apps., 32 refs
In the European electricity supply industry, a change to competition-oriented national markets under development of a common European electricity market is observed for some years. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on obligations to the current power supply and on the trust prohibition in the European Community. The contribution under consideration consists of the following three chapters: (a) Discussion of fundamental questions regarding to cartel legal evaluation of obligations to power supply; (b) Conditions of the art. 81 sect. 1 EEC and application to obligations for power supply; (c) Exemption from the obligation to power supply according to art. 1 sect. 3 EEC. In particular, the regulation of the group exemption for vertical agreements of 22nd December, 1999, is considered.
This article analyses in a historical perspective the so-called acquis communautaire, i.e. the body of law, rules, including informal decisions/norms, taken by the European Community/European Union. In the first part of the article the early history of the concept from the establishment of the EC...... in 1958 to the early 1970s is analysed. The second part of the article analyses the impact of the acquis communautaire on the way the EC negotiated during the first successful enlargement negotiations from 1970 to 1972 with Denmark, Ireland, Norway and Britain. The article demonstrates empirically...... that even if national governments continued to play a leading role in European cooperation, the existence of a common body of law, rules and norms was difficult for single governments to set aside in their pursuance after of narrow national interest. This did not mean that laws could not be bent, or broken...
Egea, Javier; Fabregat, Isabel; Frapart, Yves M
The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) provides an ideal framework to establish multi-disciplinary research networks. COST Action BM1203 (EU-ROS) represents a consortium of researchers from different disciplines who are dedicated to providing new insights and tools for better u...
Krassas, G. E.; Segni, M.; Wiersinga, W. M.
Objective: Evaluation of the frequency of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and its management in children and adolescents up to 18 years old with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Study design: This was a questionnaire study (QS) among members of the European Thyroid Association and the European Society for
Bolinger, Mark A.
Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.
One of the founding treaties (the Euratom Treaty) of the European Community, to which the UK acceeded in 1973, foresaw an important role for nuclear energy in helping to develop economic prosperity and in facilitating collaboration with other countries. Nuclear energy already provides some 10% of all Community electricity but neither this contribution, nor that now forecast, is as great as was foreseen a few years ago. The causes of this shortfall are identified: they cover socio-economic, technical and political problems, and are exhibited, in varying degrees, in all nine Member States of the Community. It is suggested that, although some aspects of the matter are the inescapable responsibility of individual Member States, there are many features where a common Community position can be advantageous to all. (author)
The presentation of the situation concerning the various types of mass radiological screening within the countries of the European community is a brief description of the following: - the status of public regulations, - recommendations issued by medical authorities in various countries, - the actual practices of the medical profession, whether governed or not by the aforementioned regulations and official recommendations. Regulations, recommendations and/or systematic mass radiological screening practices concern mainly three diseases: - tuberculosis, - cancer of the breast, - congenital dislocation of the hip
The Commission of the European Communities is performing activities in the field of fast reactor on two lines: a) activities aiming to prepare the commercialization of fast reactors by coordination and collaboration between national programmes. b) the execution of an own programme in the Joint Research Centre at Ispra (Italy) and Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany) in the field of FBR safety and research on Pu-bearing fuel
Full Text Available The development of the fishery sector represents one of the European Union’s priorities due to the positive impact it has on food security and to its potential to ensure nutritious and quality food at an affordable price as compared to other animal-origin resources. The Community policy in the fishery sector focuses on reducing the Community market dependence on imports and on the sustainable development of business in this domain. Romania aligned with the Community policies and, therefore, important funds were allocated to the national fishery sector. The diversified natural resources, the possibility to use friendly technologies, the qualified staff, the tradition in the domain, and the existence of a number of niche markets all represent motivations for the development of the Romanian fishery sector. The present paper proposes an analysis of the Romanian fishery production and of the European financing effects on the specialized companies. Despite the fact that there have been important resources allocated to the sector and there is a slight positive evolution, the absorption of funds was difficult. The results of the investment may be observed after a long period of time, this is why Romania is still dependent on fishery product imports. Aquaculture represents the main segment towards which the European funds were directed, including in our country, thus providing the greatest part of the income and employment in the domain.
Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.
The present report, edited by a working group within the framework of the European Commission research programme on radioactive waste management and disposal, reviews the objectives, standards and criteria for radioactive waste disposal in the European Community with a view to identifying common features and differences in the regulatory frameworks of its Member States. Suggestions for possible harmonization are made. A few common general principles form the basis for legal and regulatory measures. These principles apply to and are discussed for the following: radiation protection (with the systems of dose limitation and control), ethical and sociological questions, environmental and natural resources protection, and nuclear safeguards. A description is given of the implementation of common principles, standards and requirements at Community level, in line with requirements laid down in the European Community Treaties, and in international conventions and recommendations. This is followed by a review of the implementation of basic criteria by national safety authorities. Regulatory measures and national policies, and the approaches used in devising criteria are discussed for both near-surface disposal of low-level waste, and for deep geological disposal of waste in continental geological formations. Finally, the roles and duties of the operators of radioactive waste facilities are reported. More detailed information on particular aspects is presented in the annexes
A physical review on ionizing radiations and a biological survey of their possible effects on exposed workers are followed by a study, first general and then analytical, of the various legislations set out to protect these workers in the European Community. In the light of this study a few comments are called for. In all member States the rules are particularly strict for everything to do with approval and homologation of plants and equipment, technical qualifications of users, safety measures, physical protection control, atmospheric checks and individual dosimetry. Reservations must be made as to the exact organization of controls and the interdependence between supervisory and user bodies, these points generally remaining rather vague. France more than the other member States has made an effort at precision which deserves credit but is disappointing in practice where medical supervision of exposed workers is concerned. This inadequacy of the medical examination is due mainly to the lack of any significant symptom betraying a biological overdose. The hematological examination is also disparaged for its lack of sensitivity and above all specificity [fr
Mihaela V. Cărăuşan
Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.
Gíslason, Davíð; Bjœrnsdóttir, Unnur Steina; Blœndal, Thornorsteinn; Gíslason, Thornórarinn
The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was the first project embarked on extensive study of geographical difference between countries with regards to asthma and atopy incidence in a young adult population. The same methodology and definitions were used at all study sites. The purpose of this article is to review the published results of the ECRHS with a special emphasis on the findings from the Icelandic population, and compare these results with those from the participants from the other nations and study sites. Compiled results from all study sites participating in the ECHRS hereto published were reviewed. The compiled data are derived from approximately 140.000 individuals aged 20-44 (birth-years 1946-71) from 22 nations and 48 study sites. The Icelandic population was chosen from the greater Reykjavik metropolitan area. Subjects responded to seven questions on respiratory symptoms, diagnosis of asthma and use of asthma medications. In the latter part of the investigation, 800 individuals were randomly selected from each study site. They were asked to respond to a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently spirometry, methacholine challange and skin prick testing to 11-12 common aeroallergens was performed. Additionally, allergen specific IgE and total IgE was measured. Somewhat fewer sites participated in this latter part: 17 nations and 37 study sites. The findings are presented from two angles: the compiled data from all study sites and the results from the Icelandic population; specifically comparing the Icelandic data with the participants from the other nations. The study showed a geographical difference in the incidence of asthma, bronchial hyper- responsiveness and other respiratory symptoms. In the first part of the study, an eight-fold difference in wheezing, six-fold difference in asthma, ten-fold difference in physician- diagnosed asthma and a four-fold difference in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was found between the study sites
M. G. Pachiadaki
Full Text Available During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan, we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641 belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562 were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.
Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.
During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan), we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641) belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562) were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.
Green, Dannielle Senga
Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The process of European integration is marked by a dynamic and often controversial balance between member state autonomy and supranational. decision making. Within the European Community (EC), enviromnental policy has in the past 25 years emerged as one of the major fields of activity. This
The Statistical Office of the European Communities has published preliminary figures for energy consumption in the Community (of the Nine) for the year 1980. These show a primary energy consumption for the EEC in 1980 of approx. 1344 mtce. That is 63 mtce or 4.5% less than in the previous year. Primary energy consumption in 1980 still bore comparison, to some extent, with the previous record figures for 1973, the last 'normal year' before the first crisis. The figures for all the Community countries show that the energy policy measures introduced in recent years are becoming more effective, particularly the attempts to restrict oil consumption. There is also the effect of oil prices, which again rose dramatically in 1979/80. Whether this decline in consumption will continue in the future will only become clear when the promised economic upturn arrives. (orig./UA) [de
Schaller, K.H.; Orlowski, S.
Radiation protection principles are the foundation for national and European Community legislation and recommendations in the field of management and disposal of radioactive waste. Directives set up at Community level, which are to be implemented in the national legislative framework of the Member States are summarized. Policies and strategies in radioactive waste management are of national competence, as well as ensuring safety of all steps of handling, storage and final disposal; recommendations at Community level are developed to assist national authorities and agencies in determining their strategy. Existing recommendations are described and a preview of recommendations under preparation is given. Legislation in this field is mainly aimed at radioactive waste arising from operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations; for radioactive waste produced outside the nuclear fuel cycle and for material with significant levels of naturally occurring radionuclides special situations exist, and harmonization of legislation and the development of common practices on the management of such wastes may be desirable
Joan Lluís Piñol
Full Text Available In disregarding the treatment that the European media offers the subject, the author sets out with the statement that the Principle of Subsidiarity is a procedural principle recently inserted in the logic of the attribution of competence and in the process of Community decision-making. Used as it is as a legal-political instrument,reinforcing the principle of democratic legitibility and closely connected to the principle of solidarity, the Principle of Subsidiarity favours the assumption of competence by the European Cornmunity as much as its decentralization.In order to understand the adoption of this principle in the Treaty on European Union, the author proceeds, in the first place, with a relatively abstract analysis about the ambiguous, multi-faceted and various interpretations that this principle has repeatedly received. Secondly, equal reference is made to the political debate concerning the inclusion or exclusion of the PS in the Community treaties, as to the specific meaning of the PS in the different Councils of Europe.The Edinburgh meeting deserves special treatment as the author considers it a model of analysis of Community decision-making in which the classic actors of the EC (its institutions and its member states have participated as well as other actors: organized political forces in the Europe of Twelve and, from 1986, the nationalparliaments of such countries. By way of a change, the author includes an analysis of the performance of those forces that existed before, but that were relatively poorly organized with respect to the theme of Community integration: the so-called regions, at individual level (lander, Catalonia or the Basque Country or organizationally in the CPLRE and the ARE and also looks at those actions taken by certain personalites such as Spinelli, Giscard dlEstaing or the very same Jacques Delors.
Jacquemot, S.; Amiranoff, F.; Baton, S. D.; Chanteloup, J. C.; Labaune, C.; Koenig, M.; Michel, D. T.; Perez, F.; Schlenvoigt, H. P.; Canaud, B.; Cherfils Clérouin, C.; Debras, G.; Depierreux, S.; Ebrardt, J.; Juraszek, D.; Lafitte, S.; Loiseau, P.; Miquel, J. L.; Philippe, F.; Rousseaux, C.; Blanchot, N.; Edwards, C. B.; Norreys, P.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.; Breil, J.; Feugeas, J. L.; Hallo, L.; Lafon, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Santos, J. J.; Schurtz, G.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Debayle, A.; Honrubia, J. J.; Temporal, M.; Batani, D.; Davies, J. R.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Badziak, J.; Klimo, O.
Demonstrating ignition and net energy gain in the near future on MJ-class laser facilities will be a major step towards determining the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), in Europe as in the United States. The current status of the French Laser MégaJoule (LMJ) programme, from the laser facility construction to the indirectly driven central ignition target design, is presented, as well as validating experimental campaigns, conducted, as part of this programme, on various laser facilities. However, the viability of the IFE approach strongly depends on our ability to address the salient questions related to efficiency of the target design and laser driver performances. In the overall framework of the European HiPER project, two alternative schemes both relying on decoupling target compression and fuel heating—fast ignition (FI) and shock ignition (SI)—are currently considered. After a brief presentation of the HiPER project's objectives, FI and SI target designs are discussed. Theoretical analysis and 2D simulations will help to understand the unresolved key issues of the two schemes. Finally, the on-going European experimental effort to demonstrate their viability on currently operated laser facilities is described.
Decressin, A.; Haytinck, B.; Orlowski, S.
The Commission of the European Communities recommended to stimulate the development of the nuclear energy, in order to ensure in the middle or long term, a diversification of the energy supply sources of the Community. According to such a policy, nuclear energy could cover nearly 80% of the Community needs in electrical power in the year 2000 - these being estimated at 50% of total energy needs of the Community - and correspond to 1,3 billion tep for that year alone. In the year 2000, the installed nuclear capacity in the Community (i.e. nearly 1000 GWe) would imply the consumption of roughly 150.000 metric tons of natural uranium and necessitate 90.000 tons of SWU in enrichment services, whatever ''average'' strategy is considered for the period 1980 - 2000. The choices between these various strategies made by public or industrial decision centers, will be the result of a complex assessment of many factors. In any case, the flow of nuclear material between countries will remain very important and a Community nuclear self sufficiency based on breeding is not conceivable before the time at which new energy sources could be brought in effective uses
Chondraki, P; Madianos, M; Papadimitriou, G N
Most research on the homeless is coming from the US, where the prevalence of mental disorders concerning this population was pointed out. The surveys for the homeless in European countries focus on the mental state and community care of the homeless very early, since the 1980's. Homelessness is gradually developing in these countries, while in the countries of North America the phenomenon is much older. The prevalence of mental disorders in European countries is higher in the homeless population, with rates of 58% -100% compared with the general population. In countries like Germany, Spain, Holland, France, Switzerland, where the phenomenon of homelessness has been studied, one of the most striking features was the high prevalence of substance abuse disorders, emotional disorders, while small percentages were reported for psychotic disorders. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was very high in Germany, perhaps because it is easily accessible and less expensive than in other countries. Limited use by homeless of relevant health services was also very common in this country. The same observation was also recorded in Spain, France and the Netherlands. High rates in these countries was reported for comorbidity, most often concerning the combination of substance abuse disorder and emotional disorders. Another interesting finding in the European countries is the high prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders and the low prevalence of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. The low prevalence of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder is in contrast with studies from North America according to some authors who compared their samples with samples of homeless people in Los Angeles. The level of abuse of illegal substances was also found high in countries such as England. In Spain affective disorders was reported to be very high among the homeless population. The homeless population faces many complex mental health problems compared with those of the
Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A
initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, outcome and exposure parameters at each time point. RESULTS: We identified and assessed 18 European birth cohorts on asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Six of these studies also focused on food allergies. The birth cohorts were mostly initiated in the 1990s with predominantly urban...
Feldmann, J.; Jamme, H.P.
The collapse of oil prices during the spring and the unstoppable fall of the dollar were the most powerful external factors to influence the European Community's energy sector in 1986. Also, there were the effects on energy policy that were triggered-off by Chernobyl; these continue, and their repercussions cannot be fully assessed yet. This paper reviews European trends in coal production, coal demand and power generation and outlines the external factors which influence it. The overall fossil fuel markets in the European Community are discussed and the prospects for the future are analysed. 6 references.
The Regulations provide that all those engaged in the use of ionizing radiation for medical (including dental) purposes must be competent in radiation protection and have appropriate training. They also specify that the exposure of a patient to ionizing radiation must be medically justified and the dose delivered must be as low as is reasonably achievable. The Regulations implement the provisions of the Directive of the Council of the European Communities No 84/466 Euratom of 3 September 1984 laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment [fr
The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) continued with a second research programme on the decommissioning of nuclear installations (1984-88), after having completed a first programme on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants (1979-83). The programme, which has about 70 research contracts with organisations or private firms in the member states, includes the development and testing of advanced techniques, such as decontamination and dismantling, and the consideration of the radioactive waste arising therefrom. Work is done at laboratory scale or in the context of large-scale decommissioning operations. The paper will give an overview on the technical content and on some selected results. (author)
On the basis of a forecast on nuclear power installation programmes and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing capacities in the European Community, an assessment has been made of the developmnt of the plutonium handling industry up to the year 1990. Data on plutonium recovered in the reprocessing plants, requirements for fuelling the fast-breeder reactors and the remaining stockpile have been evaluated. A possible strategy for recycling the plutonium surplus in light-water reactors has been developed and its effects as regards saving on requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services have been estimated
Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall
The purpose in this article is to evaluate the consistency between two measures of unemployment in a cross-country context. We use the European Community Household Panel to identify unemployment at an individual level based as well on the ILO criteria for being classified as unemployed...... measures differ and whether transition rates out of unemployment depend on which concept we use. Both questions are answered in the affirmative. The overall conclusion is that it is important, especially in some of the EU countries, to include both measures of unemployment as guidelines and indicators...
The Commission of the (Catholic) Bishops' Conferences of the European Community (COMECE) has issued an opinion on the ethics of synthetic biology (synbio). Examining synbio from religious and more general ethical perspectives, it examines synbio's potential pros and cons, as well as whether it is ethical in and of itself. Its conclusions mirror those of the ethical mainstream; namely, that synbio may present humanity with opportunities for both great advancement and great destruction. It suggests a prudent approach, and calls for regulation to be used to encourage positive outcomes while reducing the likelihood of negative ones.
The purpose of this Handbook is to make available to those interested in 'in-pile' irradiation experiments important data on Materials Testing Reactors in operation in the European Community. Only thermal reactors having a power output of more than 5 MW(th) are taken into consideration. In particular, detailed technical information is given on the experimental irradiation facilities of the reactors, their specialized irradiation devices (loops and instrumented capsules), and the associated hot cell facilities for post-irradiation examination of samples
European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed legislative instruments, Adopted legislative instruments, Non-legislative instruments, Other activities (meetings). International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: The Russian Federation to join the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; Participation by the regulatory authorities of India and the United Arab Emirates in the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); NEA International Workshop on Crisis Communication, 9-10 May 2012; International School of Nuclear Law: 2013; Next NEA International Nuclear Law Essentials Course
Louwrier, K.P.; Garnish, J.D.; Staroste, E.
DGXII of the Commission of the European Communities has supported research and development in the field of the geothermal energy since 1975, and has just begun the fifth, and probably final, four year program. The first program concentrated on the data collection in order to establish the geothermal potential of the Community. This work resulted in the drafting and publication of two Atlases, one dealing with sub-surface temperatures and one with geothermal resources. Three multidisciplinary studies were undertaken on three known geothermal reservoirs with different characteristics, in order to test the validity of various exploration methods. A major element in recent years has been Hot Dry Rock studies, which have evolved during the course of the various program s from laboratory experiments and work in shallow holes towards a European test site where an international team of scientists coordinates research teams from different Member States. Basic scientific support to exploitation of geothermal energy has been given by geochemistry. The present R and D program centers on HDR research and abatement of corrosion and scaling in geothermal systems. Besides the geothermal work the program also supports studies in deep reservoir geology
Lacobazzi, A.; Mario, F di [ENEA, (Italy); Hasenauer, U. [Fraunhofer IS, (Germany); Joergensen, B.H.; Bromand Noergaard, P. [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)
The Quick-start Programme of the European Union Initiative for Growth identifies the hydrogen economy as one of the key areas for investment in the medium term (2004-2015). In this context the HyCOM (Hydrogen Communities) programme has been initiated. The main goal of this programme is the creation of a limited number of strategically sited stand-alone hydrogen communities producing hydrogen from various primary sources (mostly renewables) and using it for heat and electricity production and as fuel for vehicles. This report looks at the establishment of such hydrogen communities, analysing the main technical, economic, social, and environmental aspects as well as financial and regulatory barriers associated with the creation and operation of hydrogen communities. It also proposes a number of concepts for Hydrogen Communities and criteria with which a Hydrogen Community should be evaluated. The study is not in any way intended to be prescriptive. (ln)
Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gony, Mireille; Carvajal, Alfonso; Macias, Diego; Conforti, Anita; D'incau, Paola; Heerdink, Rob; Van Der Stichele, Robert; Bergman, Ulf
Aim: To identify prescription drugs involved in falsified prescriptions in community pharmacies in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 2,105 community pharmacies in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden was carried out to collect all suspect prescription
Full Text Available Journal of Contemporary European Research User Username Password Remember me Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security teaching European studies The UACES Blog The Commission after the 2014 EP... Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Open Journal Systems Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2014 > Müllerleile European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox Andreas Müllerleile Abstract This article examines public engagement strategies for academics working in the field of European Studies. Should academics engage with the public? What are the most effective outreach strategies? And what are the implications for universities and departments? The article argues that engaging with the public should be considered an integral part for academics working on topics that relate to the European Union or European politics. The article has a theoretical and a practical dimension. The first part of the paper deals with the nature of public engagement, explaining why it is an important issue and how it differs from the mainstream understanding of public engagement. The practical part of the paper presents the idea of building an online presence through which academics can engage with the public debate both during periods of low issue salience and high issue salience. The final section includes a toolbox
Chavaudra, J.; Derreumaux, S.; Brider, A.
Based on the IAEA/WHO experience in mailed dosimetry, a Quality Assurance (QA) Network, sponsored by the EC committee ''Europe against Cancer'', has been set up in 1991 for all European centres. Besides a survey of radiotherapy infrastructure, the project includes three measurement steps: primarily, a check of beam output and quality in reference conditions with a mailed TLD-procedure, in a second step, the mailed verification of other beam data and dose calculation procedures with multipurpose phantom, and finally in vivo dosimetry at the individual patient levels with mailed dosimeters. The results concerning 162 beams from 85 centres are analysed (58 60 Co beams and 104 X-ray beams). 27 beams present minor deviations (3 to 6%) and 15 beams (4/58 60 Co beams and 11/104 X-ray beams) from 11 centres present major deviations (≥ 6%). The analysis shows that 17/27 minor deviations and all major deviations have been detected in centres which have not benefited from an external check during the last five years; in 14 out of 15 large deviations, the measured dose is smaller than the stated dose. In most centres with major deviation, the physicists did not have the necessary experience and did not calibrate regularly the beams. In 6 centres out of 11 there was no dosimeter or the dosimeter available has not been calibrated recently. In 3 centres, the physicist did not give any explanations. The conclusions concerning the second step (multipurpose phantom), outline the larger magnitude of the deviations for off axis points, oblique surface and the use of wedge filters. (author). 32 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs
Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.
History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…
Lytras, Theodore; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kromhout, Hans; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Antó, Josep M; Bentouhami, Hayat; Weyler, Joost; Heinrich, Joachim; Nowak, Dennis; Urrutia, Isabel; Martinez-Moratalla, Jesús; Gullón, José Antonio; Pereira-Vega, Antonio; Raherison-Semjen, Chantal; Pin, Isabelle; Demoly, Pascal; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Villani, Simona; Gislason, Thorarinn; Svanes, Cecilie; Holm, Mathias; Forsberg, Bertil; Norbäck, Dan; Mehta, Amar J; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Benke, Geza; Jogi, Rain; Torén, Kjell; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlünssen, Vivi; Olivieri, Mario; Blanc, Paul D; Vermeulen, Roel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Jarvis, Deborah; Zock, Jan-Paul
Occupational exposures have been associated with an increased risk of COPD. However, few studies have related objectively assessed occupational exposures to prospectively assessed incidence of COPD, using postbronchodilator lung function tests. Our objective was to examine the effect of occupational exposures on COPD incidence in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. General population samples aged 20-44 were randomly selected in 1991-1993 and followed up 20 years later (2010-2012). Spirometry was performed at baseline and at follow-up, with incident COPD defined using a lower limit of normal criterion for postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC. Only participants without COPD and without current asthma at baseline were included. Coded job histories during follow-up were linked to a Job-Exposure Matrix, generating occupational exposure estimates to 12 categories of agents. Their association with COPD incidence was examined in log-binomial models fitted in a Bayesian framework. 3343 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 89 of them had COPD at follow-up (1.4 cases/1000 person-years). Participants exposed to biological dust had a higher incidence of COPD compared with those unexposed (relative risk (RR) 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), as did those exposed to gases and fumes (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2) and pesticides (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). The combined population attributable fraction for these exposures was 21.0%. These results substantially strengthen the evidence base for occupational exposures as an important risk factor for COPD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Cronin-Hennessy, et al, Daniel
The 2013 Community Summer Study, known as Snowmass," brought together nearly 700 physicists to identify the critical research directions for the United States particle physics program. Commissioned by the American Physical Society, this meeting was the culmination of intense work over the past year by more than 1000 physicists that defined the most important questions for this field and identified the most promising opportunities to address them. This Snowmass study report is a key resource for setting priorities in particle physics.
The article gives a critical discussion of anthropological studies of EU identity construction from "above", "inbetween" and "below".......The article gives a critical discussion of anthropological studies of EU identity construction from "above", "inbetween" and "below"....
Stegger, Marc; Wirth, Thierry; Andersen, Paal S; Skov, Robert L; De Grassi, Anna; Simões, Patricia Martins; Tristan, Anne; Petersen, Andreas; Aziz, Maliha; Kiil, Kristoffer; Cirković, Ivana; Udo, Edet E; del Campo, Rosa; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Ahmad, Norazah; Tokajian, Sima; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Givskov, Michael; Driebe, Elizabeth E; Vigh, Henrik E; Shittu, Adebayo; Ramdani-Bougessa, Nadjia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Price, Lance B; Vandenesch, Francois; Larsen, Anders R; Laurent, Frederic
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was recognized in Europe and worldwide in the late 1990s. Within a decade, several genetically and geographically distinct CA-MRSA lineages carrying the small SCCmec type IV and V genetic elements and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) emerged around the world. In Europe, the predominant CA-MRSA strain belongs to clonal complex 80 (CC80) and is resistant to kanamycin/amikacin and fusidic acid. CC80 was first reported in 1993 but was relatively rare until the late 1990s. It has since been identified throughout North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, with recent sporadic reports in sub-Saharan Africa. While strongly associated with skin and soft tissue infections, it is rarely found among asymptomatic carriers. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) CC80 strains are extremely rare except in sub-Saharan Africa. In the current study, we applied whole-genome sequencing to a global collection of both MSSA and MRSA CC80 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the European epidemic CA-MRSA lineage is derived from a PVL-positive MSSA ancestor from sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the tree topology suggests a single acquisition of both the SCCmec element and a plasmid encoding the fusidic acid resistance determinant. Four canonical SNPs distinguish the derived CA-MRSA lineage and include a nonsynonymous mutation in accessory gene regulator C (agrC). These changes were associated with a star-like expansion into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa in the early 1990s, including multiple cases of cross-continent imports likely driven by human migrations. With increasing levels of CA-MRSA reported from most parts of the Western world, there is a great interest in understanding the origin and factors associated with the emergence of these epidemic lineages. To trace the origin, evolution, and dissemination pattern of the European CA-MRSA clone (CC80), we sequenced a global collection
Pérez Cañado, María Luisa
This article presents the outcomes of a European study on the main training needs which pre- and in-service teachers, teacher trainers, and coordinators consider they have in order to adapt to a bilingual education model. The macro-study has designed, validated and administered four sets of questionnaires to 706 informants across the whole of…
Research methods and designs from the social sciences and beyond can, and should, be applied in research directed at EU affairs. The purpose of this edited collection is twofold: (1) to provide a state-of-the-art examination of social science research methods in EU studies and (2) to provide inno...
De Korvin, G; Delarque, A
The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM.
These Regulations entered into force on 5 April 1991 and repeal the Factories Ionizing Radiations (Sealed Sources) Regulations, 1972 and the Factories Ionizing Radiations (Unsealed Sources) Regulations, 1972. They were made in implementation of the European Communities' Council Directive 80/836 Euratom of 15 July 1980, as amended by Council Directive 84/467 Euratom of 3 September 1984, laying down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. They also complement the Nuclear Energy (General Control of Fissile Fuels, Radioactive Substances and Irradiation Apparatus) Order, 1977 with regard to licensing requirements. They apply to the production, processing, handling, use, transport, storage, etc. of natural and artificial radioactive substances and to any other activity which involves a hazard arising from ionizing radiation. (NEA) [fr
Braga, Heitor de Oliveira; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda
With the present difficulties in the conservation of sardines in the North Atlantic, it is important to investigate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen about the biology and ecology of these fish. The ethnoecological data of European pilchard provided by local fishermen can be of importance for the management and conservation of this fishery resource. Thus, the present study recorded the ethnoecological knowledge of S. pilchardus in the traditional fishing community of Peniche, Portugal. This study was based on 87 semi-structured interviews conducted randomly from June to September 2016 in Peniche. The interview script contained two main points: Profile of fishermen and LEK on European pilchard. The ethnoecological data of sardines were compared with the scientific literature following an emic-etic approach. Data collected also were also analysed following the union model of the different individual competences and carefully explored to guarantee the objectivity of the study. The profile of the fishermen was investigated and measured. Respondents provided detailed informal data on the taxonomy, habitat, behaviour, migration, development, spawning and fat accumulation season of sardines that showed agreements with the biological data already published on the species. The main uses of sardines by fishermen, as well as beliefs and food taboos have also been mentioned by the local community. The generated ethnoecological data can be used to improve the management of this fishery resource through an adaptive framework among the actors involved, in addition to providing data that can be tested in further ecological studies. Therefore, this local knowledge may have the capacity to contribute to more effective conservation actions for sardines in Portugal.
Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sorensen, Tore
education. Among these projects, the Teaching European Active Citizenship (TEACh)-course was considered worth of a closer examination due to several reasons. Firstly, the course constitutes a follow-up of a Socrates research project which was co-financed by the European Commission within the same action...... scheme. The influence of prior research activity that was carried out at European level on the TEACh-course is evident in both the curriculum and the pedagogical approach applied. In this respect the course represents an example of dissemination of research results of EU co-financed projects as well....... The case study presented here is based on results from desk research and field work carried out over 9 months (autumn 2006-summer 2007). Data was collected by a combination of qualitative methods. The main source of information was participant observation at the TEACh course held in Milan (Italy...
Petrunik, Michael; Deutschmann, Linda
Continental European and Anglo-American jurisdictions differ with regard to criminal justice and community responses to sex offenders on an exclusion-inclusion spectrum ranging from community protection measures on one end to therapeutic programs in the middle and restorative justice measures on the other end. In the United States, populist pressure has resulted in a community protection approach exemplified by sex offender registration, community notification, and civil commitment of violent sexual predators. Although the United Kingdom and Canada have followed, albeit more cautiously, the American trend to adopt exclusionist community protection measures, these countries have significant community-based restorative justice initiatives, such as Circles of Support and Accountability. Although sex offender crises have recently occurred in continental Europe, a long-standing tradition of the medicalization of deviance, along with the existence of social structural buffers against the influence of victim-driven populist penal movements, has thus far limited the spread of formal community protection responses.
In this paper the most important European economic impact studies in sport of the past 20 years are shortly presented and analysed. Their methodologies are questioned and discussed. . Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia - (FCT)
Panayiotou, A.; Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; McMahon, L.; Vanlaar, G.; Pfeifer, M.; Rekalidou, G.; Bren, M.
This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the
This article provides a commentary on a set of five other articles reporting European and Canadian studies of loneliness among seniors. It places those works involving Canadian, Dutch, Finnish, and Welsh samples in the larger context of research on loneliness; offers reflections on the methods and findings reported in the articles; and addresses…
Beeckman, D.; Schoonhoven, L.; Fletcher, J.; Furtado, K.; Gunningberg, L.; Heyman, H.; Lindholm, C.; Paquay, L.; Verdu, J.; Defloor, T.
AIM: This paper is a report of a study of the inter-observer reliability of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel pressure ulcer classification system and of the differential diagnosis between moisture lesions and pressure ulcers. BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcer classification is a valuable tool to
Denman, A R; Groves-Kirkby, C J; Phillips, P S; Tornberg, R
Radon can be present in domestic properties at high enough levels to pose a health risk. Such levels can usually be reduced by simple means. Studies on a group of radon-remediated homes in Northamptonshire, a radon affected area, have estimated the health benefits and cost effectiveness from remediation and have shown that remediation can be justified. These assessments have been based on collective population-average risk coefficients. The advent of the European Community Radon Software (ECRS) permits the consideration of individual risk. In particular, it can take into account individual smoking habits, which significantly affect risk, as current scientific opinion is that risks from radon and smoking are multiplicative. This note indicates how the software can be used, and the usefulness of this approach. (note)
Garribba, M.; Chirtes, A.; Nauduzaite, M.
This article aims at explaining the evolution leading to the adoption of the recent Council Directive 2009/71/EURATOM establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations adopted with the consent of all 27 members states following the overwhelming support of the European Parliament, that creates for the first time, a binding legal framework that brings legal certainty to European Union citizens and reinforces the role and independence of national regulators. The paper is divided into three sections. The first section addresses the competence of the European Atomic energy Community to legislate in the area of nuclear safety. It focuses on the 2002 landmark ruling of the European Court of justice that confirmed this competence by recognizing the intrinsic link between radiation protection and nuclear safety. The second part describes the history of the Nuclear safety directive from the initial 2003 European Commission proposal to today 's text in force. The third part is dedicated to a description of the content of the Directive and its implications on the further development of nuclear safety in the European Union. (N.C.)
This Act takes into account Directive 89/618/Euratom of 27 November 1989 of the Council of the European Communities on informing the general public about health protection measures to be applied and steps to be taken in the event of a radiological emergency. (NEA)
Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.
Snijders, J.M.A.; Simonsen, B.; Olgaard, K.; Labots, H.; Hoof, J. van; Debevere, J.; Dempster, J.F.; Devereux, J.; Leistner, L.; Gehra, H.; Gledel, J.; Fournaud, J.
In seven member countries of the European Communities, three abattoirs were visited on three occasions in each of two surveys and at each visit ten beef carcasses were sampled, before chilling, at defined sites on the neck, brisket, forerib and medially on the round. In Survey I, samples were plated
Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.
Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...
Moar, José Maria Rivas; Alvarez-Campana, José Maria; Míguez, José Luis; González, Luis Maria Lopez; Ramos, D G
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are diseases of high prevalence. The extent to which our work is causing or aggravating them is still questioned because their causes are heterogeneous and usually combined in the same person, and can be attributed to any of them. The objective of this paper is to compare Spain with the rest of Europe concerning MSDs. The study is based on a comparison between Spanish and European data. The difficulty is that the lists of occupational diseases in the various States of the European Union (EU) are different, and therefore it is difficult to compare data.The study compares two types of data: the views of workers, and the official results of workplace accidents. In the first case, the results of the VII Spanish National Survey of Working Conditions were compared to the V European Working Conditions Survey. In the second case, we compare accident data, published by the Spanish Labour Authorities, to data provided by Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Communities). During the development of this study, we have proved the importance and significance of MSDs on the Spanish working population in relation to the European one.First, we have discovered a great difference between Spanish and European workers views about the relationship between work and heath.Then, we detected some more important ergonomics risk factors within the Spanish workforces' opinions. These are repetitive movements, tiring positions, and exposure to vibrations. However concerning heavy loads, lifting or moving people, the views of Spanish workers are more carefree than European ones.If we only consider the official results of workplace accidents and diseases, we find Spanish rates higher than the European average. The incidence of MSDs on the Spanish working population significantly exceeds European records in this matter. MSDs account for between 35-40% of Work Accidents and between 70-88% of Occupational Diseases in Spain so, we can see why Spain has one of
Morrey, M.; Brown, J.; Williams, J.A.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.; Hill, M.D.
Following the Chernobyl accident the Commission of the European Communities asked the National Radiological Protection Board to carry out a preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of the accident on the population of the European Community (EC). The aim of the study was to review information on the environmental contamination measured in member states of the EC; to make a preliminary assessment of individual and population doses for each country; to make an estimate of the resulting health impact and to indicate the effects of the various countermeasures taken by member states in terms of the reductions in both individual and population exposure which they produced. All of the main pathways by which people have been and will be exposed to radiation as a result of the accident were included in the assessment. The impact estimate is based on environmental measurements made during the month after the accident, and on calculations made using mathematical models of radionuclide transfer through the environment. The calculated effective doses to average individuals in EC countries from exposure over the next 50 years range from 0.3 μSv (in Portugal) to between about 300 and 500 μSv (in the FRG, Italy and Greece). The total collective effective dose to the population of EC countries, integrated over all time, is estimated to be about 80 000 man Sv. This may be compared to the collective effective dose from natural background radiation of about 500 000 man Sv every year. In some countries, the restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals; the reduction being up to about a factor of 2. The results presented in this paper should therefore be regarded as preliminary
Saetnan, Eli Rudinow; Kipling, Richard Philip
In order to maintain food security and sustainability of production under climate change, interdisciplinary and international collaboration in research is essential. In the EU, knowledge hubs are important funding instruments for the development of an interconnected European Research Area. Here, network analysis was used to assess whether the pilot knowledge hub MACSUR has affected interdisciplinary collaboration, using co-authorship of peer reviewed articles as a measure of collaboration. The broad community of all authors identified as active in the field of agriculture and climate change was increasingly well connected over the period studied. Between knowledge hub members, changes in network parameters suggest an increase in collaborative interaction beyond that expected due to network growth, and greater than that found in the broader community. Given that interdisciplinary networks often take several years to have an impact on research outputs, these changes within the relatively new MACSUR community provide evidence that the knowledge hub structure has been effective in stimulating collaboration. However, analysis showed that knowledge hub partners were initially well-connected, suggesting that the initiative may have gathered together researchers with particular resources or inclinations towards collaborative working. Long term, consistent funding and ongoing reflection to improve networking structures may be necessary to sustain the early positive signs from MACSUR, to extend its success to a wider community of researchers, or to repeat it in less connected fields of science. Tackling complex challenges such as climate change will require research structures that can effectively support and utilise the diversity of talents beyond the already well-connected core of scientists at major research institutes. But network research shows that this core, well-connected group are vital brokers in achieving wider integration.
Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet
This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....
Richter, Toralf; Hempfling, Gabriele
The study describes the current situation of the organic markets in 11 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK) and the main development paths of retail chains referring organic products. In special it should light up the role of the retail chains within the national organic markets. National case studies on the main retailing sellers of organic products point out the currently used marketing approaches and me...
Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette
Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.
Payne, Richard J; Belyakova, Olga; Mazei, Yuri
Testate amoebae are an abundant group of microorganisms which make a significant contribution to the diversity of protist life. Most of the world's potential habitats for testate amoebae have been barely studied and when such places are investigated they frequently reveal novel communities and species. Here we consider the testate amoeba communities associated with boreal forest epiphytes (mosses and lichens); an environment which we argue has been under-researched. We present a dataset of 165 samples from four regions of western Russia and analyse these data in relation to micro-habitat position and selected environmental data. The testate amoebae of epiphytes are abundant but dominated by ubiquitous species. We show that there are trends toward a lower species richness and test concentration with greater elevation on the trunk and in lichens compared to mosses. There are considerable differences in community composition between sampling regions. Of all measured environmental variables only moisture content showed a significant relationship with testate amoeba community structure. Our data highlight how little is known about testate amoeba communities of this habitat and call for greater research efforts, particularly in less-studied regions and biomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Vinck, W.; Maurer, H.A.
Most countries of the European Communities base their anti-seismic design parameters on specific US earthquake characteristics. There are, however, important discrepancies in the basic data reported on the two continents as well as in their design application. This was one of the topics under discussion within an European working group on methodologies, criteria and standards in nuclear safety. The contribution is based on an inventory of the applied national practices, the existing specifications, regulations, and guidelines applied in the design, the manufacture, and the safety assessment of structures, systems, and components to withstand potential earthquake consequences in the countries of the European Communities. In a comparison of these national specifications and guidelines the common points of agreement are identified and the divergences discussed with reference to the US practice. Special attention is given to the divergencies for definition and determination of the reference eathquakes. In European countries the definitions of the reference earthquakes are largely analogous to definitions in the US Federal Regulations but expressed in a different way. For European countries, threshold values are proposed to guarantee safety for nuclear power plants. (Auth.)
Kuhnt, G.; Hertling, T.; Schmotz, W.; Vetter, L.; Fraenzle, M.; Geissler, S.; Knabe, I.; Maass, R.; Struckmeyer, A.; Heinrich, U.
Based on an multivariate statistical evaluation of binary and metric data relating to the soil cover of the European Community five regionally representative reference soils (EURO-Soils) have been identified for chemicals testing in the EC. The soil material sampled at representative localities in Italy, Greece, Great Britain, France and Germany was treated and prepared according to OECD Test Guideline 106 and analysed in detail. The homogenised specimens were subject to an EC-wide ring test to evaluate the feasibility of the modified guideline and to validate the physical-chemical amenability of the reference soils for sorption tests. The results proved the validity of the soils selected for assessing the potential behaviour of new chemicals in soil on the basis of a comparative evaluation of the individual test results obtained. In the light of this parametric assessment potential test soils were subsequently identified in the individual EC Member States which correspond as far as possible to the above reference soils in terms of both taxonomy and sorption-relevant properties. (orig.). 164 refs., 30 tabs., 24 figs [de
The report presents the available data on radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents discharged by nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community from 1972 to 1976. Discharges are expressed both in absolute terms and relative to the net production of electricity from the fuel. On the basis of the discharges recorded for 1976 the resulting maximum exposure of members of the population is quantified and compared with the dose limits prescribed by Euratom radiological protection standards and with the exposure resulting from natural radioactivity. It is concluded that there is no case in which a discharge could have given rise to an exposure exceeding the relevant prescribed limit. Not only did the possible maximum exposures incurred by individuals leave an appreciable safety margin relative to that limit but, for the vast majority of installations, they were comparable with or were considerably lower than the geographical and temporal variations in exposures resulting from natural radioactivity. Where environmental levels have been detectable the measured results have of course been used but, with few exceptions, the levels have remained less than the very low limits of detection currently possible. In general, where theoretical models are used to evaluate exposure, they are designed to give conservative results and hence it is likely that the true exposures are even less than those calculated
Luykx, F.; Fraser, G.
The report covers operational nuclear power stations of capacity greater than 5C MWe and nucler fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community. Radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent discharges from these installations are given for the period 1976 to 1980, expressed both in absolute terms and normalized to net electricity production from the fuel. An assesssment is then made of exposure of members of the public consequent to the 1980 discharges. Where environmental contamination levels were detectable the results have been taken into account in the dose assessment; however, environmental contamination was in general below the limit of detection. In these circumstances the dose estimates rely entirely on theoretical models which frequently incorporate conservative assumptions; hence these estimates are likely to be greater than the doses actually received. The estimated exposures have then been compared with the dose limits set out in the Euratom Directive of 15th July, 1980. It is concluded that the exposure of members of the public always left an appreciable safety margin relative to the limits and indeed lay within the variations in exposure which result from natural background
In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).
Stather, J.W.; Clarke, R.H.
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published new Recommendations in ICRP Publication 60. These 1990 Recommendations provide a System of Radiological Protection that takes account of the most recent information on the effects on health of exposure to ionizing radiation and trends in the setting of safety standards. Within the European Community the Recommendations of ICRP are implemented through a Euratom Directive which is binding on Member States and which is at present being revised by the Article 31 Group and must eventually be ratified by the Council of Ministers. It is expected that the new Directive will broadly endorse the principles of protection given in the 1990 recommendations together with the dose limits for both workers and members of the public. There are likely to be some modifications to the 1990 Recommendations that are mainly related to their practical application. As it will be some time before the Directive is incorporated in national regulations a number of Member States have taken independent initiatives. The development of dose constraints for occupational, medical and public exposure is being seen by national organizations in many countries as a significant new approach to improving standards of radiation protection. (author)
Energy politics and environmental politics within the European Communities stand in an interdependent relationship that will increasingly manifest itself in the communal legal system, thus displacing the national legal systems of the EC member states. However, both these political fields bear numerous problems in the EC. The purpose of the paper is to delineate those concerning the sector of energy politics. It deals with the premises and the historical development of energy politics within the EC, the current energy-political position of the EC, the instruments provided by the communal laws for enforcing agreements and the ''Century Contract'' as an example showing the limits of these instruments. It appears that the ''Fourth Action Campaign for Environmental Protection'' of the EC merely addresses problematic issues instead of pointing out possible solutions. It thus becomes clear that in the near future the incorporation of ecopolitics into an EC energy policy will only make it more difficult to find a consensus. It is of existential importance that this task should be solved. (orig./HSCH) [de
Majcen, Spela [Euro-Mediterranean Univ. (EMUNI), Portoroz (Slovenia)
In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).
1977 marked the beginning of a new multiannual research programme for the European Commission's Joint research Centre. Regarding the exploitation of HFR (High Flux Reactor), the year was one of steady, on-schedule operation with high utilization, although this fell off slightly in the autumn due to overloading of our capsule project engineering team and manufacturing services. We are pleased to note that the HFR Users' Meeting, held in October, drew about 100 participants from Europe and America and demonstrated a lively interest in the Commission's materials testing reactor. Technical improvements to the plant are being examined as one means of maintaining or even increasing this interest in the 1980's. Following the wishes of the Council of Ministers, new Advisory Committees for Programme Management have been set up for all the Joint Research Centre's activities and those for HFR and High Temperature Materials Programmes have met at Petten. This latter Committee is entirely new to its task, the programme having been served until 1977 by a number of ad hoc meetings of national experts. The work of the Organic Chemistry Laboratory falls under the wings of the Community Reference Bureau Advisory Committee, who have met in Brussels and strongly encouraged the development of the activity
Bye, B. L.
The Group on Earth observation embarked on the next 10 year phase with an ambition to streamline and futher develop its achievements in building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars of engaging communities, delivering technological developments and advocating the use of GEOSS, in order to support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will present the new integrated approach to capacity building engaging the various actors involved in the entire value-chain from data providers to decision-makers. A presentation of the general approach together with concrete pilot cases will be included.In this work it will be shown how we integrate new technological development and societial change enabling GEO and GEOSS to adapt to the current environment. The result is important for better decision-making and better use of our limited resources to manage our planet.
Full Text Available The study proposes an examination of the development rights of juveniles in conflict with the law in terms of legal regulations adopted by the Council of Europe, the European Union and its Member States. Approaching the settlement of all matters relating to human rights, including the rights of the child, it searched the extent to provide a mechanism in respect of children's rights and how its rights are reflected both of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and Community and of national regulations of the Member States of the European Union. Declarative character of the Community provisions do not provide sufficient protection and uniformity toward juvenile rights in this matter, being treated differently in different countries depending on national and regional legal regime. Analysis of international treaties, customary, and national case law emphasized the need for prevention of juvenile delinquency and juvenile protection by merging rules at Community level in order to ensure a common, reasonable and sufficient protection for the juvenile in general and those found in conflict with law in particular.
The Case-Law of the Court of Justice of the European Communities Concerning the Law of the World Trade Organization and the Autonomy of the European Community in the Implementation of Its Common Commercial Policy
Miguel Ángel Cepillo Galvín
Full Text Available In the last years some authors have questioned the autonomy of the European Community when implementing its commercial policy, due to the amount of trade agreements signed by it and especially because of the commitments acquired in the WTO. There is no doubt that the compulsory fulfilment of these commitments is a conditioning factor with regard to the implementation of the Common Commercial Policy, but that doesn’t make the autonomy of the EU disappear in order to put its model of commercial policy into practice. In this respect, it’s necessary to underline the ample discretionary margin in the management of the commercial policy that the Court of Justice of the European Communities recognizes in favour of the EU institutions within the framework of its case-law related to the denial of the direct effect of the WTO agreements, as we analyze in this paper.
Full Text Available The paper highlights the link between the European Capital of Culture (ECoC designation and the development of cultural tourism in Europe. Cultural tourism is the fastest growing segment of tourism in the world and is the desirable objective of new defined cultural policies in European cities. According to the European Commission (2012, it is estimated that cultural tourism accounts for around 40% of all European tourism. In general, the European Commission confirms the significant role of cultural tourism in the development of tourism in Europe and one of the most visible tools of this strategy is the designation of the ECoC. Cultural policy has also become an important tool of urban regeneration and in the rebranding of European cities. The case study of Košice ECoC 2013 presents part of the results from the Košice ECoC evaluation project. The Košice ECoC 2013 project was designed as a community led project which was targeted at increasing the cultural consumption of residents rather than the number of foreign cultural tourists. However, the biggest events such as White night attracted a lot of tourists from the wider region. More than 70 million EUR was dedicated to investments, which have significantly improved the culture infrastructure in Košice. The ECoC designation supported the local cultural buzz and led to new local production of modern culture, art and the creative industries. Other visible effects have already been seen in the advantages gained by the decentralization of the cultural infrastructure and events in the neighbourhoods. The involvement of people outside the city centre has avoided gentrification in the city. From this point of view the project Košice ECoC 2013 has had the prerequisite to sustainable cultural tourism in Košice
Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European
Full Text Available While the free movement of goods and the freedom of establishment for workers and enterprises are essential for achieving the objectives of economic integration set out in the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, they are not by themselves sufficient. The present article analyses the role of capital movements in the economic and financial integration of the European Community. The author first reviews the provisions of the Treaty that concern capital movements. The factors restricting the liberalisation of capital movements between Member States are then considered. Finally, the main points and the practical effect of the First Directive on the liberalisation of capital movements are analysed. The author concludes that while considerable progress has been made in some Member States, at the present stage there are areas in which further liberalisation is desirable and feasible without harmful effects for the countries involved.JEL: F15, F21, F32, F36
These Regulations implement Council Directive 90/641 EURATOM of 4 December, 1990 on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas. The Regulations provide for the radiation protection of workers liable to receive an exposure of high radiation levels while working away from their employers' premises. The Regulations also apply to workers who come from, or who go to work in, another Member State of the European Community
Guilmot, J.-F.; McGlue, D.; Valette, P.; Waeterloos, C.
This book represents the first output from the energy systems analysis and modelling research programme funded by the Commission of the European Communities. It provides detailed and consistent energy projections on a country basis and at the level of the EC as a whole using the same methodological approach and harmonized energy data. Results are presented for each country in terms of primary energy source and energy demand by sector.
Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on the presence of the electronic book on the book market, its trends and developments as well as point towards the difficulties faced by all professions related to it in the countries of the European Community.Methodology / approach: This paper analyzes the domestic and foreign literature and explores the websites of companies that operate with e-books in order to get an overview of the actual state of business operations in the states mentioned in the text.Results: The emergence of the first online bookstores in the United States in the 20th century paved the way for the electronic book to enter the online market. Today, the e-book is an integral part of publishing, book trade and library activities worldwide. Economic indicators testify to a constant growth of revenues from the sale of electronic books on the book market and technology in the U.S. and Europe. This paper provides an explanation of the term electronic book and indicates the interest of many countries for its acquisition and application in order to keep up with the technological demands of the market.Research restrictions: E-book trends and business operations related to them are constantly changing. In terms of librarianship, this is most visible in public libraries as both one of the customers and as later distributors of e-books to users. In their business, new models constantly emerge together with their combinations and approaches to offering these new media.The originality: The issue of business operations in relation to the e-book is interesting to young people, libraries, publishers, authors, booksellers, etc.Contribution: This paper provides an overview of the most recent situation on the e-book market and can serve as the basis of some future researches.
Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.
Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.
This is the 21st report on ambient radioactivity published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities. It was drawn up using the data collected by stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission under Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactivity of the air, deposition, surface water and milk during 1981 in the ten Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The results are presented under four main headings: artificial radioactivity in the air at ground level; artificial radioactivity in deposition; radioactivity of water; radioactivity of milk. The report also contains the list of sampling stations and laboratories, together with a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous and provide comparative values
The present document is the seventeenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitation and fallout, surface water and milk during 1977 in the nine Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The report also contains supplementary data on short-lived radioelements detected during the fourth quarter of 1977, the list of sampling stations and laboratories together With a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous reports and provide comparative values
Andreea Roxana TOMI
Full Text Available The current study presents a viewpoint on the EU fiscal policy contents, advocating the need for an in-depth understanding and acceleration of the 27 national fiscal system components and the creation of the EU Tax System that would enable the Single Market operation and the enforcement of the four fundamental liberties within the European Union. In the author’s opinion, the extant common fiscal policy elements are only marginal, while the actions aimed at an in-depth understanding of a broad fiscal policy are essential to the extent they point at both direct and indirect taxation aspects whose approximation is a priority.
Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.
Present is the role of formal education on natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection of textbooks at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, more than 160 textbooks from 36 European countries were examined in order to investigate how much their content (pages, text, figures) is related to natural-disasters topics, and to find out which types of hazards are presented more often. In the research it was also analyzed which disaster events are frequently used as an example.
Raises questions about the a European Union commissioned report titled "Les Europeens et les langues," which was prepared in accordance with the customary routine used for a series of report on European public opinion. Issues discussed include the omission of several languages, the use of Esperanto, the languages reportedly used by…
De Miguel-Etayo, P; Gracia-Marco, L; Ortega, F B; Intemann, T; Foraita, R; Lissner, L; Oja, L; Barba, G; Michels, N; Tornaritis, M; Molnár, D; Pitsiladis, Y; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A
A low fitness status during childhood and adolescence is associated with important health-related outcomes, such as increased future risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases, impaired skeletal health, reduced quality of life and poor mental health. Fitness reference values for adolescents from different countries have been published, but there is a scarcity of reference values for pre-pubertal children in Europe, using harmonised measures of fitness in the literature. The IDEFICS study offers a good opportunity to establish normative values of a large set of fitness components from eight European countries using common and well-standardised methods in a large sample of children. Therefore, the aim of this study is to report sex- and age-specific fitness reference standards in European children. Children (10,302) aged 6-10.9 years (50.7% girls) were examined. The test battery included: the flamingo balance test, back-saver sit-and-reach test (flexibility), handgrip strength test, standing long jump test (lower-limb explosive strength) and 40-m sprint test (speed). Moreover, cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 20-m shuttle run test. Percentile curves for the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentiles were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Our results show that boys performed better than girls in speed, lower- and upper-limb strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, and girls performed better in balance and flexibility. Older children performed better than younger children, except for cardiorespiratory fitness in boys and flexibility in girls. Our results provide for the first time sex- and age-specific physical fitness reference standards in European children aged 6-10.9 years.
The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.
Barrier, Elise; Manuel Braz Fernandes, Francisco; Bujan, Maya
Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise synchr...... development of the research infrastructure of photon science. Taking into account the present programme structure of HORIZON2020, the European Synchrotron User Organization (ESUO) sees considerable dangers for the continuation of this successful collaboration in the future....... synchrotron radiation experiments for addressing the Societal Challenges promoted in HORIZON2020. In addition, by TNA all European users directly take part in the development of the research infrastructure of facilities. The mutual interconnection of users and facilities is a strong prerequisite for future...
This agreement applies to nuclear material transferred from Australia to the Community for peaceful purposes. Provisions of the Agreement are complementary to the provisions of any bilateral agreements in force and shall, where appropriate, supersede the provisions of those agreements. The agreement entered into force on 15th January 1982
Mahboub Bassam H
Full Text Available Abstract Background No population study has explored the population distribution of adult asthma in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The objective is to estimate asthma prevalence in general population in UAE. Methods Using standard European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaires and tools, this is a cross-sectional assessment of a random sample of the population in established quotas of the seven Emirates in the UAE. We surveyed 1,220 participants, of which 63.2% were male, and 20.1% were UAE Nationals, with a mean (SD age of 32.9 (14.1 years. Results Prevalence of individual respiratory symptoms from the ECRHS screening questionnaire in all participants were generally ranging 8 - 10%, while participants 20-44 years presented lower prevalence in all symptoms (p Conclusion We conclude that asthma is common in the UAE, and gender differences are not observed in reported asthma symptoms in young adults. This being the first population based study exploring the prevalence of asthma and its determinants in the United Arab Emirates based on the ECRHS.
Scotti, Oona; Peruzza, Laura
The key questions we ask are: What is the best strategy to fill in the gap in knowledge and know-how in Europe when considering faults in seismic hazard assessments? Are field geologists providing the relevant information for seismic hazard assessment? Are seismic hazard analysts interpreting field data appropriately? Is the full range of uncertainties associated with the characterization of faults correctly understood and propagated in the computations? How can fault-modellers contribute to a better representation of the long-term behaviour of fault-networks in seismic hazard studies? Providing answers to these questions is fundamental, in order to reduce the consequences of future earthquakes and improve the reliability of seismic hazard assessments. An informal working group was thus created at a meeting in Paris in November 2014, partly financed by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, with the aim to motivate exchanges between field geologists, fault modellers and seismic hazard practitioners. A variety of approaches were presented at the meeting and a clear gap emerged between some field geologists, that are not necessarily familiar with probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methods and needs and practitioners that do not necessarily propagate the "full" uncertainty associated with the characterization of faults. The group thus decided to meet again a year later in Chieti (Italy), to share concepts and ideas through a specific exercise on a test case study. Some solutions emerged but many problems of seismic source characterizations with people working in the field as well as with people tackling models of interacting faults remained. Now, in Wien, we want to open the group and launch a call for the European community at large to contribute to the discussion. The 2016 EGU session Fault2SHA is motivated by such an urgency to increase the number of round tables on this topic and debate on the peculiarities of using faults in seismic hazard
Evaluation du systeme de traduction automatique SYSTRAN anglais-Francais, version 1978, de la Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Evaluation of the English-French SYSTRAN Machine Translation System, 19 version, of the Commission of European Communities).
Van Slype, Georges
Describes the French-English version of the SYSTRAN machine translation system, used by the Commission of European Communities, and an evaluation study which examined the quality, cost, and weaknesses of the system. The study concluded that this type of system is useful for "pretranslation" and "rough" translation only. (AM)
Vinck, W.; Maurer, H.A.
Most countries of the European Communities base their anti-seismic design parameters on specific US earthquake characteristics. There are, however, important discrepancies in the basic data reported on the two continents as well as in their design application. This was one of the topics under discussion within an European working group on methodologies, criteria and standards in nuclear safety. Unlike US practice, in some European countries the maximum earthquake that can be envisaged (corresponding to the Safe Shutdown Earthquake-SEE-in US practice) is defined by adding a margin of safety to the maximum probable earthquake (corresponding to the Operating Basis Earthquake-OBE-in US for which statistical data exist). - Differences exist also in the design parameters to be taken into account in the different European countries especially in the evaluation of the maximum acceleration and on the relationship of the acceleration vs. earthquake intensity. For design purposes, in US as well as in European countries, the assumption is made that seismic waves basically approximate a sustained simple harmonic motion. Under this assumption the Neumann correlation which gives the relationship between the modified Mercalli intensity, the wave period and the ground acceleration is applied. While in the US a whole spectrum of wave periods (from 0.33 to 6.0 sec) -in function of the type of foundation (soil, bed-rock) and the distance of the epicenter- are considered, the European countries base their investigations on shorter wave periods (approximately 0.3 sec). - Mention is made of the existing differences in the relationship of horizontal to vertical acceleration levels. These differences in the evaluation of the earthquake characteristics influence the design to protect the power plants against seismic effects especially as far as stress and strain limits for structures and components within the elastic range and in the excess of yield are concerned
This paper makes a brief comparison of the licensing processes for nuclear installations in European Community States, in particular concerning consultation of the public, the competent authorities and the period for the procedure in the countries considered. (NEA) [fr
constituted by the Commission’s legal service, transnationally organised pro-European jurists and the European Parliament. When the Court of Justice in the two key judgments, Van Gend en Loos (1963) and Costa V. ENEL (1964), took the decisive steps to transform European law into a semi-federal legal order...... on how a general history of European law should be written and in particular how to avoid the pitfalls that characterises mainstream research on European law. In the first part it is argued that the ‘constitutionalisation’ of European law was promoted by a broad coalition beyond the Court of Justice...... with direct effect and supremacy vis-à-vis national law, this coalition legitimised what had happened and contributed crucially to what would amount to a rather slow acceptance of the new ‘constitutional’ doctrines by national governments and courts. A key feature of these processes was the extent to which...
The report presents an inventory on quality assurance for the safety of packagings for radioactive materials transport in 4 countries of the European Community : France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom. For each country the study includes: the inventory of reference documents and elements of national regulations for quality assurance, organization of quality following at the national level, quality assurance applied to spent fuel casks is examined. A preparatory program was previously submitted to competent authorities and organisms responsible in radioactive materials transport. In conclusion different quality assurance systems are in use but main criteria are found in all systems
Spiess, John A.
This report discusses theories about and studies on the relationship between school districts and community power structures. It offers practical techniques for decisionmakers to use in dealing with such power structures. Various participants and influentials in the community power structure are identified and discussed. Two major power typologies…
Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.; Casagrande, C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Lotze, G.; Kroke, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lauria, C.; Bellegotti, M.; Ocké, M.C.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Agudo, A.; Larranaga, N.; Mattisson, I.; Andren, C.; Johansson, I.; Davey, G.; Welch, A.A.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Staveren, van W.A.; Saracci, R.; Riboli, E.
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer.
Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales
Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)
Full Text Available Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013. Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp, maturity index (MI, maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5, sigma maturity index (ΣMI, enrichment index (EI and structure index (SI decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013 as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014 were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.
These Regulations give effect to Directive 1999/2/EC (the framework Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation and Directive 1999/3/EC (the implementing Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the establishment of a Community list of foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. The effect of these Regulations is to lay down the general provisions for the treatment of foodstuffs with ionising radiation. Provisions concerning the approval and control of irradiation facilities and rules on labelling are also included. A positive list of foodstuffs authorised for treatment with ionising radiation and their maximum radiation doses are defined in the implementing Directive. These Regulations should be read together with the two Directives (author)
Aliberti, Stefano; Cilloniz, Catia; Chalmers, James D; Zanaboni, Anna Maria; Cosentini, Roberto; Tarsia, Paolo; Pesci, Alberto; Blasi, Francesco; Torres, Antoni
Probabilistic scores have been recently suggested to identify pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the study was to validate both Aliberti and Shorr scores in predicting MDR pneumonia, comparing them with healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP) classification. Two independent European cohorts of consecutive patients hospitalised with pneumonia were prospectively evaluated in Barcelona, Spain (BC) and Edinburgh, UK (EC). Data on admission and during hospitalisation were collected. The predictive value of the three scores was explored for correctly indicating the presence of MDR pneumonia via a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 1591 patients in the BC and 1883 patients in the EC were enrolled. The prevalence of patients with MDR pathogen among those with isolated bacteria was 7.6% in the BC and 3.3% in the EC. The most common MDR pathogen found in both cohorts was MRSA, followed by MDR P aeruginosa. A significantly higher prevalence of MDR bacteria was found among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The two probabilistic scores, and particularly the Aliberti one, showed an area under the ROC curve higher than the HCAP classification in predicting MDR pneumonia, especially in the ICU. Risk scores able to identify MDR pneumonia could help in developing strategies for antimicrobial stewardship.
Bousquet, P-J; Chinn, S; Janson, C; Kogevinas, M; Burney, P; Jarvis, D
Many studies have reported the prevalence of sensitization using skin prick tests. However, comparisons between studies and between regions are difficult because the number and the type of allergens tested vary widely. Using the European Community Health Respiratory Survey I data, the geographical variation of sensitization to environmental allergen as measured by skin tests was established. Adults aged 20-44 years, living in 35 centres in 15 developed countries, underwent skin tests for allergy to nine common aeroallergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, timothy grass, cat, Cladosporium herbarium, Alternaria alternata, birch, Olea europea, common ragweed and Parietaria judaica. The age-sex standardized prevalence of sensitization was determined and centres with high (95% confidence interval above and excluding study median) and low prevalence (95% confidence interval below and excluding study median) of sensitization to each allergen and to any of the nine allergens were identified. There was substantial geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to each of the nine allergens tested and in the prevalence of sensitization to any allergen (lowest 17.1%, median 36.8% and highest 54.8%). Sensitization to D. pteronyssinus, grass pollen and cat were usually the most prevalent (median between centre 21.7%, 16.9% and 8.8%, respectively). Timothy grass sensitization was higher than that for any other pollen species. As expected, geographical variations of sensitization to environmental allergen were observed across centres. These findings were compatible for those observed with serum-specific IgE. Skin tests can be used to assess the geographical distribution of allergens in a multicentric epidemiological survey.
Presas i Puig, Albert (ed.)
The report includes the following contributions: Comparative study of European Nuclear Energy Programs. From international cooperation to the failure of a national program: the Austrian case. The ''go-and-stop'' of the Italian civil nuclear programs, among improvisations, ambitions and conspiracy. Nuclear energy in Spain - a research agenda for economic historians. The Portuguese nuclear program: a peripheral experience under dictatorship (1945-1973). The nuclear energy programs in Switzerland. The rise and decline of an independent nuclear power industry in Sweden, 1945-1970. The German fast breeder program, a historical review. Fast reactors as future visions - the case of Sweden. Transnational flows of nuclear knowledge between the U.S. and the U.K. and continental Europe in the 1950/60s. The Carter administration and its non-proliferation policies: the road to INFCE.
Williams, Rohan B.H.; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Arumugam, Krithika
Studying the functional state of natural or engineered microbial communities presents substantial challenges due to both the complexities of field sampling, and, in the laboratory context, the inability of culture or reactor systems to maintain community composition ex situ over long periods. Here......, we use whole community shotgun transcriptomics—metatranscriptomics—performed on freshly sourced samples, in combination with short-term laboratory perturbations, to demonstrate recapitulation of the functional state of a natural community in a controlled setting. We illustrate this approach...... by studying nitrogen transformation in wastewater treatment using freshly sourced anoxic sludge, in combination with systematic oxygen perturbation that switches physiological state of the community from denitrification activity to nitrification activity. Sampling every 10 minutes we collected and analysed 20...
This inquiry began with two questions: How can the established predominately Pakeha/Caucasian (White European) Balint community in New Zealand more successfully engage both indigenous populations of both Maori and Pacifica origin into Balint work? And what is the existing Balint community doing to address the lack of Asian members of the Balint community in New Zealand, at a time when Asian health professionals are being recruited into the health sector at an increasingly high rate in comparison to White European entrants to the profession? These questions, and their preliminary answers presented here, invite the reader to reflect on both the challenges and opportunities in reaching out to groups different from our own. The author hopes readers may begin to see what can be done to allow new entrants to benefit from all that participation in Balint work offers while not losing sight of the uniqueness which each person can bring. It is hoped that sharing such questions and their subsequent explorations will help Balint leaders feel more confident in reaching out to a wider ethic and cultural mix within their local populations and encouraging them to enter the exciting world of the Balint group.
The European High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) project is one of a number of large-scale scientific infrastructure projects supported by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Part of this project involves the development of a target area for the exploration of inertial fusion ...
Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)
This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...
Langniss, Ole [German Aerospace Center, Stuttgart (Germany); Helby, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies
A large number of proven technical solutions exists for the use of renewable energies (RE). However, their dissemination is still too slow to meet the political goal of substituting 12 % of the primary energy demand in the European Union by the year 2010. Even renewable energy systems (RES) with economic potential are only partly exploited. There is a long literature concerning the barriers to RE use. In particular it has become clear that the availability of finance and the forms and conditions upon which it is lent have a major impact on RE deployment. An area of importance is the deficiency of appropriate ownership forms and properly adapted financing instruments in certain countries. Moreover, different regulations and institutional barriers in the European countries hinder the free flow of capital for RES within the European common market. On the other hand, solutions have been developed very successfully in individual countries. Differences in cultures and institutions have promoted growth of several approaches to RE investment. These differences can be understood as a European source of experience that constitutes a rich basis for transnational emulation. The research project FIRE analysed and compared the means of financing RES in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom to put forward best practise recommendations so that RE deployments will occur at a faster rate. Main tasks of this study were to analyse the means of financing RES in a number of countries; to provide an analysis of best practise; and to provide an analysis of the barriers to the implementation in the investigated countries. Different means of financing RES were analysed in relation to the country-specific environment. This included exogenous conditions such as tax aspects, legal restrictions and subsidies, as well as individually defined risk management strategies and collateral requirements. Eight in-depth-case studies were undertaken for
Seidell, J C; Cigolini, M; Charzewska, J; Ellsinger, B M; Di Biase, G; Björntorp, P; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Contaldo, F; Szostak, V; Scuro, L A
In the spring of 1986, the authors studied the relation between body mass index and anthropometric indicators of fat distribution to cardiovascular risk factors (serum lipids and blood pressure) in approximately 450 women aged 38 years randomly selected from population registers in five European
A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C) 2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO 2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs
The compilation comprises all legal instruments and proposals for legal instruments of the European Communities in the field of environmental protection which were incorporated in the EDP-aided compilation of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection, specialized field 'Juristic Environmental Issues'. It replaces the preceding compilation as of July 15, 1985, November 1, 1986, December 1, 1988 and March 1, 1991. The volume is subdivided into the sections: General information, regional development law, nature preservation law, law on water pollution control, refuse law, imission control law, atomic energy law, energy and mining law, law on dangerous materials and law on environmental health. (orig.) [de
This report presents an overview of the state of research in the field of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Member States of the European Communities. It covers the following steps of the fuel cycle: uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste management and, in addition, decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Research carried out both in the public and private sectors has been covered. However, information on the scope and volume of research carried out in the private sector is only in part available, as access to such information is difficult, in particular where it concerns activities which have a competitive commercial character
Tan Serhat Orkun
Full Text Available Smart grid is a power system consisting of many transmission and distribution systems subjected to an automation which are efficient, reliable and coordinated with each other. As a nature friendly technology, Smart grid come into prominence due to the increasing energy consumption and limited renewable energy sources around the world. In the near future, the use of renewable energy sources is not expected to grow rapidly; but the transmission and distribution systems will be enhanced by Smart grid technologies. Considering these significant benefits, the studies have been increased on Smart grid technologies to meet the energy requirement in each country. Herewith, the aim of this study is to analyse the scientific studies in developed European countries such as Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, France and Spain to find out the increment rate of the importance devoted to the Smart grid technologies in academicals manner. The scientific researches on Smart grid are achieved from the Web of Science database and the statistical analysis have been made by utilizing proper SQL queries in combination with Excel Power Pivot for these countries. The correlation between the scientific studies on smart grid and the virtual smart grid applications are also outlined for each selected country.
van den Bos, Maarten; Coll Ardanuy, Mariona; Sporleder, Caroline
It has been said that media is an important but mostly overlooked player in European integration history. Now, the mass digitisation of newspapers and the introduction of new digital techniques promise great potential to remedy this inattention. With the conjecture that people are drivers and
McGrath, Margaret; Moldes, Ines Viana; Fransen, Hetty; Hofstede-Wessels, Saskia; Lilienberg, Karin
To explore community-university partnerships in occupational therapy education in Europe. Educators from Europe were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed for the study. Eleven completed questionnaires were included. Descriptive statistics were generated from quantitative data while qualitative data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The majority of participants reported that community-university partnerships were part of the third year of undergraduate occupational therapy studies. Partners were from a broad range of sectors. The activities undertaken were typically focused on specific target groups within the community. Three main themes emerged from the qualitative analysis (i) instigating community-university partnerships, (ii) processes of creating and sustaining partnerships and (iii) perceived outcomes of community-university partnerships. This is the first study of community-university partnerships in Europe generating some useful findings. Clarification is needed regarding the use of the term community-university partnership. Educators are called upon to consider how partnerships are embedded into curricula and to address issues of sustainability. Healthcare education should prepare rehabilitation professionals to collaborate with diverse communities. Community--university collaborations appear to offer opportunities to support students to develop competences for future community orientated practice. Key issues to be considered include choice of pedagogical approach, issues of reciprocity and sustainability.
Intentional communities, Cooperatives de logement, Genossenschaften or Co-housing are types of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their own neighbourhoods. Cohousing residents are consciously committed to living as a community, and to
Penning, W.E.; Dudley, B.; Mjelde, M.; Hellsten, S.; Hanganu, J.; Kolada, A.; van den Berg, Marcel S.; Poikane, S.; Phillips, G.; Willby, N.; Ecke, F.
Defining the overall ecological status of lakes according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is to be partially based on the species composition of the aquatic macrophyte community. We tested three assessment methods to define the ecological status of the macrophyte community in response to a
Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L
Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=−0.08, 95% CI −0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=−0.75, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.33, p=4×10−4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990
Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.
Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μ g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.
Hardy, Liam; Heller, Shaun; Faltyn, Rowan; Stefanaki, Anna; Economidou, Romina; Savin, Irina; Hood, Leo; Conway, Christopher
The popular image of mining portrayed by media and by a majority of public opinion is a dominantly negative one. From worker's rights to environmental damages, disasters such as the Copiapó mine collapse (Chile), the acid mine drainage at Lousal (Portugal) and the Pb contamination of waters around the Tyndrum mines (Scotland) overshadow initiatives like the ICMM. Some companies receive little praise despite creating active community education and investment projects, while others simply build higher barbed wire fences and attempt to weather the protests, budgeting them into mine life assessments. This image problem, combined with the decentralised political segregation of Europe and the increased power of grass-roots protest initiatives (such as Antigold in Greece), has resulted in mining companies joining a long list of industries effected by the 'auto-protest' reaction in face of development, regardless of potential regional and national benefits, there is a pre-existing lack of trust in corporate and government powers to protect community interests. The poor management of existing licences is thus becoming a significant danger to future operations and the wider industry. Here we report on the Rosia Montana dispute (Romania) and the ongoing Skouries conflict (Greece). We then discuss how the European mining industry may need to significantly adapt its exploration and community engagement strategies to avoid future conflicts and, present a recent example of how effective suitably organised community engagement projects can be for local mining initiatives from Southern Portugal.
A review is given of the procedures for environmental monitoring in the 12 Member States of the European Community. Detailed information of sampling and measuring methods for radioactivity in air, deposition, water, milk and for ambient gamma dose rate are presented in tables and figures. Some sample results of environmental radioactivity monitoring indicate problems with intercomparability of data reported by different EC countries. A review is given of international and national programmes and proposals for Quality Assurance and Control. There is a large but rather uncoordinated activity in this field; only a few countries within the EC have a well structured and comprehensive approach to QA and regularly join international programmes. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are developed for environmental radioactivity monitoring. They include the definition of the accuracy and repeatability of the measurements, and the definition of recording and detection levels. The recording levels, are based on a de minimis annual dose of 0.005 mSv. Based on these DQO's, the current problems with intercomparability are put into perspective, and proposals for future integration of national data into an overall European picture made. There is a need to improve quality of environmental monitoring in order to arrive at a meaningful and transparent picture of the overall radiological situation in the EC. Proposals are made for CEC initiatives in the field of QA/QC. The three most important deal with: - reporting of national data in a European context, - intercomparisons of analytical techniques among the 12 EC countries, - organization of a European network for monitoring levels actually prevailing in the environment
Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Silman, Alan J; Finn, Joseph D; Pendleton, Neil; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Punab, Margus; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C W
Life expectancy is increasing in most developed countries, in part due to improved socioeconomic conditions and in part to advances in healthcare. It is widely acknowledged that the promotion of healthy ageing by delaying, minimizing or preventing disabilities or diseases is one of the most important public health objectives in this century. In contrast to the menopausal transition in females, we know relatively little about the contribution of androgens and anabolic hormones to the quality of ageing in men. The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) is a multicentre prospective cohort designed to examine the prevalence, incidence and geographical distribution of gender-specific and general symptoms of ageing in men, including their endocrine, genetic and psychosocial predictors. Men aged 40-79 years were recruited from eight European centres: Florence (Italy), Leuven (Belgium), Lodz (Poland), Malmö (Sweden), Manchester (UK), Santiago de Compostela (Spain), Szeged (Hungary) and Tartu (Estonia). Subjects were recruited from population registers and those who agreed to take part completed a detailed questionnaire including aspects of personal and medical history, lifestyle factors and sexual function. Objective measures of body size, cognition, vision, skeletal health and neuromuscular function were obtained. Blood and DNA specimens were collected for a range of biochemical and genetic analyses. After an average of 4 years, it is planned to resurvey the participants with similar assessments. A total of 3369 men with a mean age of 60 +/- 11 years were recruited. The mean centre response rate was 43%, and highest in those aged 50-59 years. Those who participated were marginally younger than those who were invited but declined to participate (60.0 vs. 61.1 years). Participants left education slightly later than a sample of non-participants, though there were no consistent differences in levels of general health, physical activity, or smoking. EMAS will provide new
The study reports on the development of global studies programs in community colleges. It offers a rationale for global studies through clarification of the widely contested phenomenon of globalization. By investigating key advances in global education over the past 15 years alongside current college initiatives, the research offers…
Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB
A second collaborative study on Salmonella serotyping was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) for Salmonella, with participation of the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella from 14 of the 15 Member States of the European Union. The objective of the study was to
Full Text Available forestry, South Africa The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small-scale Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Forest Conservation A case study Cori Ham ii The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small Scale Entrepreneurs... by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Ham, C. 2000. The importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation– A case study...
Full Text Available For several years, the European Union (EU has been increasing its international presence and moving into the role of a global security actor. To support the goal of greater crisis management capabilities, European security integration (ESI has been deepening. This article therefore examines an Ell operation - the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali - with the aim of gauging the success of the EU's efforts at ESI. To determine the success of EUTM Mali and thus of ESI, three propositions are examined: if EUTM Mali is a security operation showing successful security integration, there will be evidence of (i broad participation, (ii financial burden-sharing and (iii the successful incorporation of troops and equipment. The first and third propositions are supported whereas the second does not receive as much support. Overall, EUTM Mali shows considerable success and bodes well for further ESI.
Full Text Available The atmospheric deposition of gases and particulates from the Sahara Desert and European landmass is an important source of nutrients for the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we investigated how such atmospheric input might affect bacterial metabolic activities and community dynamics in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Thus a mesocosm simulation experiment was conducted using pure Saharan dust (SD and mixed aerosols (A, polluted and desert origin. The cell specific bacterial production (BP was stimulated soon after the addition of SD and A, with a higher degree of stimulation being observed in the activity of Alphaproteobacteria than in Gammaproteobacteria, and this lead to significant increases in community BP. Subsequently, a shift between these two dominating classes was observed (such that the proportion of Gammaproteobacteria increased while that of Alphaproteobacteria decreased, along with significant increases in bacterial abundance and chlorophyll a concentration. After a few days, although the abundance of bacteria was still significantly higher in the SD- or A-treated groups, differences in the active community composition between the treatment and control groups were reduced. The altered activity of the two dominating Proteobacteria classes observed, might reflect their different strategies in responding to external nutrient input: with Alphaproteobacteria being more responsive to the direct dust input, whereas Gammaproteobacteria seemed to benefit more from the increase in phytoplankton biomass. In addition, the input of A had a stronger immediate effect and longer lasting influence on changing the active bacterial community composition than did that of SD. Our findings show that episodic atmospheric deposition events might affect the microbial community with regards to their abundance, activity and composition over a short period of time, and thus regulate the function of the microbial community and carbon cycling
This report presents the results of Tidewater Community College's (Virginia) 1998 employer survey study, which provides useful insights into graduates' skills, professional behaviors, and overall job performance. Employer comments also provide valuable feedback relating to currency and comprehensiveness of the college's programs. The study found…
Kleiman, Lisa S.
The 2000 Tidewater Community College (TCC) Graduate Survey Study is a measure of student satisfaction with the college educational experience. The study gives demographic data pertaining to all 2000 graduates, as well as enrollment, attendance, employment, educational, and attitudinal data generated from survey respondents. Highlights of the…
Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)
This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...... from Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom. The Network's initial focus is on men's relations to home and work, social exclusion, violences, and health. Some of findings on the Network's second phase of work, namely the review...
MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Nichols, James; Royle, Andy; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Hines, James
Another type of multi-species studies, are those focused on community-level metrics such as species richness. In this chapter we detail how some of the single-species occupancy models described in earlier chapters have been applied, or extended, for use in such studies, while accounting for imperfect detection. We highlight how Bayesian methods using MCMC are particularly useful in such settings to easily calculate relevant community-level summaries based on presence/absence data. These modeling approaches can be used to assess richness at a single point in time, or to investigate changes in the species pool over time.
Laurens, Hannah; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain; Beltrami, Pablo; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Amata, Ermanno; Clarke, Ellen
The SWENET archive was initially developed as part of the ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project, starting in 2003. The Pilot Project supported the development of a network of prototype space weather services, many of which are still active and have been developed further in the intervening time. SWENET was established as the common access portal and data repository for these services, providing a series of analysis tools and added functionalities to both service developers and users. SWENET gives users access to a wealth of space weather data and products that cover ground, Ionospheric and spacecraft effects. The archive has stored information since 2003 and currently houses a large amount of data from ~20 different providers. As part of the initial SWENET development a set of preliminary metrics, or index quality statistics, were provided as an additional service via the SWENET web portal. The objective of this project is to review the database and revisit the existing metrics with a view to assessing the performance of a number of the original prototype services. Understanding the strengths and limitations of these forecasts ensures a reliable service to the end user. As an initial case study, we have selected two services which forecast geomagnetic indices and/or data for analysis, namely the BINCASTS and GIFINT (Dst forecast). We have assessed the corresponding data in the SWENET archive using a selection of metrics that are currently in use by the space weather and meteorology community. Appropriate metrics to each service have been used to compare the model performance to actual observations, helping to identify and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each model.
Weiss, Steven J; Rogers, Debby B; Maas, Frank; Ernst, Amy A; Nick, Todd G
The goals of this study were to (1) identify valid variables that correlate with emergency department (ED) crowding and (2) determine a model that could be used to accurately reflect the degree of ED crowding. A site sampling form was applied to convenience sampling of 13 community hospitals in California between April 6, 2011, and May 1, 2011. The outcome variable was average perception of crowding by the ED physician and charge nurse on a 100-mm visual analog scale. We focused on 20 candidate predictor variables that represented counts and times in the ED that were collected every 4 hours. A prediction model was developed using multivariable linear regression to determine the measures that predicted ED crowding. A parsimonious model was developed to allow for a clinical useful tool that that explained a significant amount of variability predicted by the full ED crowding model. A total of 2006 data sets were collected for each of the participating hospitals. A total of 1628 time entries for the hospitals were included in the study. Hospital EDs had censuses ranging from 18 000 to 98 000. Full evaluation was completed on 1489 data sets. Twenty variables were considered for the full model with 7 removed due to multicollinearity. The remaining 13 variables constituted the full model and explained 50.5% of the variability in the outcome variable. Five predictors were found to represent 92% of the variability represented by the full model. Five variables were highly correlated with community ED crowding and could be used to model the full set of all variables in explaining ED crowding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In reviewing the World energy situation the lecturer points out that there is trouble over oil supplies earlier than was expected and that large sections of the public and parliaments do not yet appreciate the implications of this on the rest of the energy policy, especially with reference to the nuclear option. Subjects considered include; oil market situation, public education, transfer of wealth, limitation of oil imports, Community energy policy, future Community policy, economics, nuclear policies and the effect of the Harrisburg accident. The ensuing discussion is reported. (UK)
Tan, King Hoen
textabstractThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of plastic surgery in the European Union (the former European Connnnnity). The idea is that this will lead to a better understanding of the specialty among laymen., colleagnes and healthcare officials. To this end, the historical development of the specialty and its present day problems, including the European Unification and border zone activities by other specialties, will be discussed. Whenever possible, links and counections with th...
The present document is the fifteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity and using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity in Member States. The results are compiled and extracted from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. It is the first document in which data from Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom which joined the European Community on 1 January 1973 are included in addition to data from Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The results presented in this report cover the years 1973 and 1974 for air deposition and surface water and the years 1972, 1973 and 1974 for milk
Charrault, J.C.; Orlowski, S.
Together with the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Court of Justice, the Commission is one of the institutions set up by the Treaties establishing the European Communities. Within this original institutional framework the Commission is at the same time custodian of the Treaties, executive organ of the Communities and initiator of common policies. With regard to nuclear fuel, the role of the Commission derives mainly from the Euratom Treaty and relates more especially to the supply and control of nuclear materials, together with the conditions governing ownership of special fissionable materials. Possessed of a broad institutional basis, the Commission also engages in promotional activity in various sectors associated with nuclear fuel in order, first, to ensure a supply for users and, second, to increase the technological capital and strengthen the industrial infrastructure within the European Community. (author)
László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael
Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eskes, Anne M; Maaskant, Jolanda M; Holloway, Samantha; van Dijk, Nynke; Alves, Paulo; Legemate, Dink A; Ubbink, Dirk T; Vermeulen, Hester
Health care professionals responsible for patients with complex wounds need a particular level of expertise and education to ensure optimum wound care. However, uniform education for those working as wound care nurses is lacking. We aimed to reach consensus among experts from six European countries
Eskes, Anne M.; Maaskant, Jolanda M.; Holloway, Samantha; van Dijk, Nynke; Alves, Paulo; Legemate, Dink A.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Vermeulen, Hester
Health care professionals responsible for patients with complex wounds need a particular level of expertise and education to ensure optimum wound care. However, uniform education for those working as wound care nurses is lacking. We aimed to reach consensus among experts from six European countries
Rodwell, J.S.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Gubbay, S.; Schaminee, J.H.J.
This report presents an achievable methodology for the Red List assessment of European habitats in terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms, outlines a process that will deliver such evaluations and gives an indication of resources needed. It shows how the EUNIS habitat classification can be
Galjaard, R.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; van Dam, K.
Universal processes related to the demographic transition to structural low fertility on the one hand, and economic geographic processes of concentration and urbanization on the other lead to regional population decline in most European countries. Due to this universal nature of the underlying
Orlowski, S.; Girardi, F.
The titles of R and D programmes generally relate to a scientific discipline, a technology or a project: biotechnology, nuclear fission, etc. This is not so in the case of radioactive wastes, where R and D is focused on the management aspect. The role of R and D in general, and the contribution made by the Community programme in particular, are described and discussed with this in mind. Community R and D in the field of radioactive waste emerges as a powerful tool for establishing a broad consensus on delicate scientific questions such as the feasibility and long-term safety of the final storage of high activity wastes. Such a consensus is based on the many results obtained jointly by Community research teams over the last ten years. The implementation of three projects concerning experimental underground facilities in the context of the Community's new five-year (1985-1989) programme will provide the additional information that is needed before the large industrial disposal facilities of the future can be built
Pécuchet, Lauréne; Lindegren, Martin; Hidalgo, Manuel
The life history of a species is determined by trade-offs between growth, survival and reproduction to maximize fitness in a given environment. Following a theoretical model, we investigate whether the composition of marine fish communities can be understood in terms of a set of lifehistory strat...
Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico
In this article we argue that the regulation of Intellectual Property (IP) protection should go beyond the traditional regulatory models and follow a more flexible regulatory framework. Considering the range of industrial needs and developments, the article develops a differentiated Community IP
Haidvogl, Gertrud; Pont, Didier; Dolak, Horst; Hohensinner, Severin
Using historical sources from the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, we investigated the long-term evolution of the fish community in a mountainous river network and the influence of different human uses and management measures. Within the alpine Salzach catchment, historical presence was reconstructed for 26 fish species, abundance classes for 19 species. Due to channelization, flood protection and dam erections, the spatial distribution of fish species was reduced during the 20th century. Many rheophilic and eurytopic fish species historically inhabited river reaches along a wide longitudinal profile and were present in more upstream river reaches than nowadays. The decrease of species diversity in the headwater sections is a consequence of lost lateral connectivity. Strongest effects are reported for sensitive species requiring different habitat types during their life cycles (especially pike, nase, Danube salmon). One of the most important shifts from the historical fish community to the present one reflects the deliberate introduction of fish species for fisheries. Rainbow trout and brook trout, absent from the historical fish assemblage, today represent up to 29 % of the total number of fish occurrences. In contrast, log driving, one of the most common historical pressures in European mountainous rivers, did not show significant negative effects on the past fish ecological situation. This result strongly differs from the impacts of log driving and deforestation demonstrated for recent times, and could be related to the change in log driving practices during the 20th century and to the high societal value of fish before the industrialization period along with other historical pressures affecting fish in rivers without log driving. In general, our results can be valid for a large number of European mountainous rivers. They highlight the usefulness of such detailed historical studies for our understanding of the long-term evolution of fish communities and
The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in France is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 16 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and France had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force
This report presents Tidewater Community College's (TCC's) (Virginia) 1998 graduate survey study. Approximately half of the graduates attended another college or university prior to enrolling at TCC. A small portion enrolled directly from high school. Almost three-fourths of the graduates were working either full- or part-time while enrolled, and…
Following the Chernobyl reactor accident it was rapidly appreciated that, in addition to upgrading national radiological monitoring systems, action was required to facilitate international communication of the results obtained. The first such system was established by the Vienna Convention, drawn up under the auspices of the IAEA, which came into force in September, 1986. Subsequently the EC Council of Ministers decided in December, 1987, to set up a Community system which in many ways parallels that established by the Convention but differs significantly in certain aspects concerning its legal basis, initiation criteria, data provisions and communications requirements. The present paper describes the present status of the Community system and foreseeable future developments. It is a matter of policy that, to avoid unnecessary complications, this system should be, to the maximum extent practicable, fully compatible with that established by the Convention. Where appropriate, therefore, reference is also made to the latter system
Ultsch, Bernhard; Damm, Oliver; Beutels, Philippe; Bilcke, Joke; Brüggenjürgen, Bernd; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hanquet, Germaine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark; Knol, Mirjam; von Kries, Rüdiger; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Perleth, Matthias; Postma, Maarten; Salo, Heini; Siebert, Uwe; Wasem, Jürgen; Wichmann, Ole
Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses [health economic evaluations (HEEs)] of vaccines are routinely considered in decision making on immunization in various industrialized countries. While guidelines advocating more standardization of such HEEs (mainly for curative drugs) exist, several immunization-specific aspects (e.g. indirect effects or discounting approach) are still a subject of debate within the scientific community. The objective of this study was to develop a consensus framework for HEEs of vaccines to support the development of national guidelines in Europe. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify prevailing issues related to HEEs of vaccines. Furthermore, European experts in the field of health economics and immunization decision making were nominated and asked to select relevant aspects for discussion. Based on this, a workshop was held with these experts. Aspects on 'mathematical modelling', 'health economics' and 'decision making' were debated in group-work sessions (GWS) to formulate recommendations and/or--if applicable--to state 'pros' and 'contras'. A total of 13 different aspects were identified for modelling and HEE: model selection, time horizon of models, natural disease history, measures of vaccine-induced protection, duration of vaccine-induced protection, indirect effects apart from herd protection, target population, model calibration and validation, handling uncertainty, discounting, health-related quality of life, cost components, and perspectives. For decision making, there were four aspects regarding the purpose and the integration of HEEs of vaccines in decision making as well as the variation of parameters within uncertainty analyses and the reporting of results from HEEs. For each aspect, background information and an expert consensus were formulated. There was consensus that when HEEs are used to prioritize healthcare funding, this should be done in a consistent way across all interventions
Tsironi Evangelia E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital environment, but also, lately, in the community. This case report is, to our knowledge, the first detailed description of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST80 orbital cellulitis in a previously healthy neonate. Possible predisposing factors of microbial acquisition and treatment selection are also discussed. Case presentation A 28-day-old Caucasian boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of right orbital cellulitis. His symptoms included right eye proptosis, periocular edema and redness. Empirical therapy of intravenous daptomycin, rifampin and ceftriaxone was initiated. The culture of pus yielded a methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate and the molecular analysis revealed that it was a Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive ST80 strain. The combination antimicrobial therapy was continued for 42days and the infection was successfully controlled. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware that young infants, even without any predisposing condition, are susceptible to orbital cellulitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empirical therapy, according to the local epidemiology, should successfully address the infection, preventing ocular and systemic complications.
Common coding variants of the HNF1A gene are associated with multiple cardiovascular risk phenotypes in community-based samples of younger and older European-American adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study and The Cardiovascular Health Study.
Reiner, Alexander P; Gross, Myron D; Carlson, Christopher S; Bielinski, Suzette J; Lange, Leslie A; Fornage, Myriam; Jenny, Nancy S; Walston, Jeremy; Tracy, Russell P; Williams, O Dale; Jacobs, David R; Nickerson, Deborah A
The transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1 alpha regulates the activity of a number of genes involved in innate immunity, blood coagulation, lipid and glucose transport and metabolism, and cellular detoxification. Common polymorphisms of the HNF-1 alpha gene (HNF1A) were recently associated with plasma C-reactive protein and gamma-glutamyl transferase concentration in middle-aged to older European Americans (EA). We assessed whether common variants of HNF1A are associated with C-reactive protein, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and other atherosclerotic and metabolic risk factors, in the large, population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study of healthy young EA (n=2154) and African American (AA; n=2083) adults. The minor alleles of Ile27Leu (rs1169288) and Ser486Asn (rs2464196) were associated with 0.10 to 0.15 standard deviation units lower C-reactive protein and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels in EA. The same HNF1A coding variants were associated with higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, creatinine, and fibrinogen in EA. We replicated the associations between HNF1A coding variants and C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and renal function in a second population-based sample of EA adults 65 years and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study. The HNF1A Ser486Asn and/or Ile27Leu variants were also associated with increased risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults and with incident coronary heart disease in Cardiovascular Health Study. The Ile27Leu and Ser486Asn variants were 3-fold less common in AA than in EA. There was little evidence of association between HNF1A genotype and atherosclerosis-related phenotypes in AA. Common polymorphisms of HNF1A seem to influence multiple phenotypes related to cardiovascular risk in the general population of younger and older EA adults.
Florentina D. MATEI
Full Text Available In this paper we wish to highlight the main causes of regional disparities in Romania in terms of absorption of European funds through Measure 313: Encouragement of tourism activities. The post-accession of Romania shows a major deficiency in attracting funds from the European Union, this situation is generated, in particular, by the lack of a coherent long-term vision of the authorities, insufficient resources for co-financing projects, low administrative capacity at central and local level, lack of inter-institutional coordination, public-private partnerships failures and insufficient skilled human resources . We will analyze the number of projects approved and implemented in each region of Romania (2007-2013 to establish the real possibilities of expansion of rural tourism.
Vellas, B.; Hausner, L.; Frolich, L.; Cantet, C.; Gardette, V.; Reynish, E.; Gillette, S.; Guera-Morales, E.; Auriacombe, S.; Boada, M.; Bullock, R.; Byrne, J.; Camus, V.; Cherubini, A.; Eriksdotter-Jonhagen, M.; Frisoni, G. B.; Hasselbalch, S.; Jones, R.W.; Martinez-Lage, P.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Tsolaki, M.; Ousset, P.J.; Pasquier, F.; Ribera-Casado, J.M.; Rigaud, A.S.; Robert, P.; Rodriguez, G.; Salmon, E.; Salva, A.; Scheltens, P.; Schneider, A.; Sinclair, A.; Spiru, L.; Touchon, J.; Zekry, D.; Winblad, B.; Andrieu, S.
The clinical progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) was studied in European subjects under treatment with AChE inhibitors (AChE-I) in relation to geographical location over a 2-years period. One thousand three hundred and six subjects from 11 European countries were clustered into 3 regions (North,
K.H. Tan (King Hoen)
textabstractThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of plastic surgery in the European Union (the former European Connnnnity). The idea is that this will lead to a better understanding of the specialty among laymen., colleagnes and healthcare officials. To this end, the historical development
The present document is the sixteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. This is the second document which includes data from the enlarged community-viz. Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, plus Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom, who joined the Community on 1 January 1973. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitaton and fallout, surface water and milk during 1975 and 1976
While Community Directives provide the legal basis for the harmonization of national regulations (e.g. food quality, quality of plastics in contact with foodstuffs, etc.), their implementation sometimes requires measurements and analyses which are beyond the capabilities of many laboratories. The BCR Programme of the Commission of the European Communities has undertaken a series of actions in order to help with the implementation of Directive 90/128/EEC for plastics materials intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. The certification of the overall migration characteristics of a polyamide material in aqueous food simulants by total immersion is well advanced. This material will be available through the BCR Programme in 1993 and will allow the laboratories to check their correct application of the normalized method and will provide a basis for laboratory quality assurance. A project is in progress for the preparation of a reference material for the measurement of overall migration by total immersion in olive oil. The preparation of a bank of monomers in the positive list of the above Directive and a handbook of physical and spectroscopic data for these monomers has been supported. Projects are being prepared for supporting the development of methods for the analysis of more than thirty monomers with restrictions in the positive list of Directive 90/128/EEC.
Sushko, Sofia; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Ivashchenko, Kristina; Vasenev, Vyacheslav
Soil CO2 emission is mainly provided by soil microorganisms and plant roots respiration. Our study focuses on finding a relationship between soil CO2 emission of different ecosystems and soil microbial community functioning. Soil CO2 emission was monthly measured (LI-820) from May to October 2015 in the 5-th spatially distributed points of forest, meadow (steppe), arable (bare fallow), urban of subtaiga and forest-steppe vegetation subzones (Albeluvisol and Chernozems, Moscow and Kursk regions, respectively). Soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic, substrate-induced respiration method), basal respiration (BR), organic carbon content (Corg), pHw and soil C/N ratio were measured in soil samples (0-10 cm, litter excluded, n = 240). Specific respiration of soil microbial biomass (qCO2) was calculated as BR / Cmic. Soil CO2 emission of different ecosystems was ranged 0.2-87.4 and 1.1-87.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. It was reached on average 20.5, 33.5, 3.8, 28.4 and 15.0, 23.8, 3.7, 15.3 g CO2 m-2 d-1 for forest, meadow, arable, urban of subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. The high soil CO2 emission was found in grassland ecosystems, the low - in arable, however it was quite high in urban. Soil organic carbon content of different ecosystems was ranged 1.0-3.3% and 1.4-3.7%, pH was 4.7-7.6 and 6.1-8.2, C/N = 10.8-16.0 and 12.0-18.1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. Soil Cmic of different ecosystems was ranged 60-1294 and 178-2531 μg C g-1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. The Cmic of forest, meadow, arable, urban in subtaiga and forest-steppe was reached on average 331, 549, 110, 517 and 1525, 1430, 320, 482 μg C g-1, respectively. Soil BR of different ecosystems was ranged 0.14-2.23 and 0.15-2.80 μg C-CO2 g-1 h-1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. Moreover, the BR of forest, meadow, arable, urban in subtaiga and forest-steppe was on average 0.87, 0.92, 0.42, 0.47 and 1.20, 1.42, 0.33, 0.64 μg C
Liliana Heredia Rodríguez
Full Text Available This paper studies the policies designed to promote SMEs implemented in the Andean Community of Nations (ACN and the European Union (EU in the past few decades. Based on an analytical and comparative methodology, it is set out that, with regard to synchronous or sequential adoption hypotheses, public policies that support SMEs respond to an independent adoption model and are determined by their own historical and political context, according to the different arenas in which the economic integration process of both regions is found. The paper also highlights that in the ACN, in contrast to the EU, it is difficult to find abiding lines of action in the design of these public policies.
Twenty years after the creation of Euratom, the Treaty establishing it is analysed together with the procedures for setting up joint projects and research programmes. The projects and programmes and their results are described as are the changes in the outlook and objectives of Euratom as compared with its original concept. In view of developments in the nuclear field, from the economic, political and social angles, its legal basis has developed greater flexibility from the institutional point of view, thus enabling closer co-operation between the Member States and the Commission in the setting up of efficient and useful programmes for the Communities. (NEA) [fr
The collective dose commitment to the EC population from routine effluents released from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants within the Community in 1978 amounted to approximately 500 man Sv. The collective dose commitments associated with discharges from the nuclear power stations was approximately 50 man Sv, being almost entirely due to airborne carbon-14. The total collective dose commitment from the reprocessing plants was approximately 450 man Sv, about two-thirds of which was due to radiocaesium in the liquid effluent from Sellafield. (UK)
Mihaela Cristina Drăgoi
Full Text Available In a global setting where the requirements for development equally address the economic viability but also social and environmental sustainability, the healthy and efficient growth of rural communities poses substantial challenges. Our paper focuses on specific conditions and constraints that influence the progress of agritourism business initiatives as viable entrepreneurial solutions for self-sustainable rural communities in Romania. To assess the impact of economic, social and tourism-related factors on agritourism entrepreneurship for Romanian counties during 2010–2015 periods, we conducted several Ordinary Least Square regression models. The results emphasize that economic indicators like regional GDP and kilometers of national roads have a positive influence on the number of agritourism business units; also, a positive impact on agritourism entrepreneurship was identified for tourism-related factors like: number of employees and corresponding salaries in tourism, total tourists, share of tourism firms and their turnover in total firms and turnover of the region, as well as preference of tourists for agritourism. The conclusions highlight the direct link between resilient agritourism entrepreneurship and sustainable development of the region and open further research directions.
Keinan-Boker, L; Peeters, P H M; Mulligan, A A; Navarro, C; Slimani, N; Mattisson, I; Lundin, E; McTaggart, A; Allen, N E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Linseisen, J; Haftenberger, M; Lagiou, P; Kalapothaki, V; Evangelista, A; Frasca, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der Schouw, Y T; Engeset, D; Skeie, G; Tormo, M J; Ardanaz, E; Charrondière, U R; Riboli, E
The aim of this study was to describe the variation of soy product intake in 10 European countries by using a standardised reference dietary method. A subsidiary aim was to characterise the pattern of soy consumption among a sub-group of participants with a habitual health-conscious lifestyle (HHL), i.e. non-meat eaters who are fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A 24-hour dietary recall interview (24-HDR) was conducted among a sample (5-12%) of all cohorts in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Study participants totalled 35 955 after exclusion of subjects younger than 35 or older than 74 years of age. Soy products were subdivided into seven sub-groups by similarity. Distribution of consumption and crude and adjusted means of intake were computed per soy product group across countries. Intake of soy products was also investigated among participants with an HHL. In total, 195 men and 486 women reported consuming soy products in the 24-HDR interview. Although soy product intake was generally low across all countries, the highest intake level was observed in the UK, due to over-sampling of a large number of participants with an HHL. The most frequently consumed soy foods were dairy substitutes in the UK and France and beans and sprouts among mid-European countries. For both genders, the sub-group of soy dairy substitutes was consumed in the highest quantities (1.2 g day-1 for men; 1.9 g day-1 for women). Participants with an HHL differed substantially from others with regard to demographic, anthropometric and nutritional factors. They consumed higher quantities of almost all soy product groups. Consumption of soy products is low in centres in Western Europe. Soy dairy substitutes are most frequently consumed. Participants with an HHL form a distinct sub-group with higher consumptions of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals and soy products compared with the other participants.
Makkonen, Mari; Pätäri, Satu; Jantunen, Ari; Viljainen, Satu
Internal European electricity markets are a target set by the European Union (EU) and under development at present. This article presents the findings of a Delphi study focusing on the prospects of European electricity markets. The main aim is to report the obstacles that participants in the survey felt were the most critical ones affecting competition in the European electricity markets of the future. The respondents were European electricity market specialists, and the themes of the survey ranged from transmission networks and electricity trade to demand flexibility. One of the key findings was shared concern over the adequacy of transmission network capacity in Europe. It was considered that technical issues, such as existing transmission network bottlenecks, are most likely to form obstacles to creating common European electricity markets if new capacity is not built quickly enough. It was seen by the panellists that electricity trading arrangements, whilst important, are unlikely to form a barrier to the development of an internal electricity market. It was noted that electricity trading issues have recently been the subject of development work in the EU. - Highlights: ► The internal electricity market is a priority of the European Union. ► The Delphi method was used to study competition in the European electricity markets. ► The congested grid hampers the development of internal electricity markets in Europe. ► The significance of a transmission network will be emphasised in the future. ► Electricity trading arrangements are likely to be solved.
Kristiansen, T.; Rosellon, J.
We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)
Sander Johansen, K.; Holm Pedersen, L.; Moll Soerensen, E.
Independent regulatory authorities are widely recommended as part of the institutional design of liberalised energy markets - not least by the European Commission. This report describes and compares the regulatory authorities for energy in the EU. Arguments for regulatory independence are presented and discussed, and an index is developed to measure the degree of conformance to theories of regulatory independence. It is established that the main pattern of variation is that countries, which formerly had strong state-owned companies, have chosen to create regulatory authorities at state level with many institutional safeguards for independence. (au)
Stefler, D; Bhopal, R
European public health systems are converging, particularly in relation to communicable disease control. This process requires mutual learning through comparison; this was undertaken for Scotland (population 5.1 million) and Hungary (population 10.5 million). Using the official web- and paper-based publications, the practice of communicable disease control was compared between the two countries in three specific fields: seasonal influenza surveillance; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance; and the childhood vaccination system. The organization structure for communicable disease control was very similar, comprising of government, national, regional and sub-regional tiers in Hungary, and government, national and local (sub-regional) tiers in Scotland. The influenza surveillance system in both countries was mainly based on the 'fluspotter system'. In the 2005/6, 2006/7 and 2007/8 seasons, there was no exceptional influenza activity in either country. Although the data collection and surveillance system of HIV is similar, there was a massive difference in the number of reported cases. In 2007, the cumulative incidence of reported HIV cases was 14.74/100,000 in Hungary and 105.21/100,000 in Scotland. The routine childhood vaccination schedule is similar in the two countries. However, while the vaccine uptake rates were nearly 100% in Hungary, these rates were lower in Scotland. The numbers of reported pertussis (98 vs 48), mumps (2741 vs 16), rubella (146 vs 0) and measles (168 vs zero) cases were significantly higher in Scotland than in Hungary. There were no differences for polio and chickenpox. The economic difference between the two countries not reflected in the efficiency of communicable disease control and in communicable disease patterns. The historical, political and cultural differences seem more determinative in this comparison. Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davidheiser, James C.
Information is provided for German teachers on the main aspects of the European Community (EC), and on how to integrate the EC into the classroom. The history of the EC is outlined, and political and economic features are highlighted. (Author/VWL)
Full Text Available Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AA exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA for the African Americans enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS. We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods: Plasma specimens from 1,439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1,447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA.Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years, the median (interquartile range of PEA was 15.8 (9.3%. Body mass index (p = 0.04 and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001 modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03 among non-obese (n = 673 and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1,141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001, but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold effect was detected for non-obese participants.Conclusions: In a large African American population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin
Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.
in a large multi-centre European study. These studies showed that, despite certain inherent methodological and logistic constraints, a study design such as this one works relatively well in practice. The average response in the calibration study was 78.3% and ranged from 46.5% to 92.5%. The calibration......The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer...... a stratified random sample of 36 900 subjects from the entire EPIC cohort, using a software program (EPIC-SOFT) specifically designed to standardise the dietary measurements across study populations. This paper describes the design and populations of the calibration sub-studies set up in the EPIC centres...
The EC has been hoping to play an environmental leadership role in the global climate negotiations and has been proposing comparatively stringent climate targets for the OECD countries. But especially the United States and to some extent the international environmental community have criticized the EC for being unable to develop effective climate policies that will achieve its ambitious targets. This publication shows that the EC in general expects that it is relatively inexpensive to implement climate policy within the EC and that its climate policy strategy from the beginning has been heavily influenced by the notion of environmental leadership. The defensive positions taken by the United States and Japan in the global climate negotiations have made EC environmental leadership seem simultaneously economically, environmentally and politically beneficial, and political and environmental interests have pushed EC climate policy to go further than what it otherwise would have been. (author)
The opportunity of developing the mixed production of electricity and steam from nuclear power plants in the nine countries of the European Community is studied. Both public distribution and autonomous production are envisaged. An attempt is made to estimate the potentiel market for district heating and for chemical, agricultural and alimentary, textile, paper, car manufacture and wood industries. The reactors considered are LWR reactors of at least 1000MWth. Suggestions are given to overcome the difficulties and constraints that stand in the way of a nuclear solution [fr
Commandeur, J.; Mathijssen, R.; Elvik, R.; Janssen, W.; Kallberg, V.P.
The European Commission funded a project, designed to assess the effects of Daytime Running Lights (DRL) and possible strategies for implementing the mandatory use of DRL in the European Union. This study gives implementation scenarios for DRL in the EU, as well as further specific recommendations
Full Text Available Proceeding from the assumption that meanings and perceptions of social reality are generated by means of public language, or in other words, from the belief that the role of public language is more that of shaping the social reality, rather than description or detection of problems, the authors assume a reserved approach to contemporary discourses on the crises of the European Union. Such approach is explained by the vagueness and deprival of meaning of the term crises, as it is typically used in current political discourses. By pointing out to a loss of the semantic core of the term, caused by its inconsistent usage and longevity of the condition termed 'crisis', they also express doubts concerning its analytical operativeness. In the authors' opinion, this 'profaned' term has become a performative representation of simulation - sort of crisis, which has, either as a justification, necessity or a pretext, created numerous effects in recent years. The assumption that simulation - seen as the absence of the reality rather than its disguise (Jean Baudrillard - represents a leading principle of our age is examined through the concept of continued effect of literature and corroborated by the authors' interpretation of Robert Musil's novel 'Man Without Qualities', as a mythopoetic framework of the analysis and reflections of high art in the contemporary age. In the first part of the text, the authors point out to Musil's poetic anticipation of the direction taken by the European society, that is, the cultural climate and conditions favouring development of man without qualities. In the absence of these qualities and, especially, in preference given to Musil's category 'sense of possibility'over the 'sense of reality', the authors recognise the interpretative basis for the analysis of Community without qualities, as another name for the European Union. From that point of view, which, in addition to loss of specific qualities, also involves deprival of
Bučková, Mária; Puškárová, Andrea; Ženišová, Katarína; Kraková, Lucia; Piknová, Ľubica; Kuchta, Tomáš; Pangallo, Domenico
Culture-dependent and culture-independent strategies were applied to investigate the microbiota of autumn undamaged and damaged berries, winter berries and ice wine must samples of Grüner Veltliner (Veltlínske zelené) from Small Carpathian wine-producing region. One hundred twenty-six yeasts and 242 bacterial strains isolated from several microbiological media (YPD, PDA, R2A, GYC, MRS and MRS-T) were clustered by ITS-PCR and subsequent Qiaxcel electrophoresis. Representatives of each cluster were identified by sequencing. The extracellular hydrolytic properties and intracellular activities of esterase and β-glucosidase of isolates were assayed. The culture-independent approach permitted the analysis of extracted DNA and RNA coupling DGGE fingerprinting with construction of clone libraries (bacterial and fungal; DGGE-cloning). The combination of the two approaches provided comprehensive data that evidenced the presence of a complex microbiota in each analyzed sample. RNA and DNA analyses facilitated differentiation of living microorganisms from the entire microbiota. Diverse microbial communities colonized the autumn and winter berries. Generally, the combination of results obtained by the methods suggested that the must samples contained mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Metschnikowia spp., Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc spp. The strains exhibited interesting esterase and β-glucosidase properties, which are important for aroma formation in wine. Fermentation strategies utilising these microorganisms, could be attempted in the future in order to modulate the ice wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khan, Mishal S; Osei-Kofi, Anna; Omar, Abbas; Kirkbride, Hilary; Kessel, Anthony; Abbara, Aula; Heymann, David; Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman
Involuntary migration is a crucially important global challenge from an economic, social, and public health perspective. The number of displaced people reached an unprecedented level in 2015, at a total of 60 million worldwide, with more than 1 million crossing into Europe in the past year alone. Migrants and refugees are often perceived to carry a higher load of infectious diseases, despite no systematic association. We propose three important contributions that the global health community can make to help address infectious disease risks and global health inequalities worldwide, with a particular focus on the refugee crisis in Europe. First, policy decisions should be based on a sound evidence base regarding health risks and burdens to health systems, rather than prejudice or unfounded fears. Second, for incoming refugees, we must focus on building inclusive, cost-effective health services to promote collective health security. Finally, alongside protracted conflicts, widening of health and socioeconomic inequalities between high-income and lower-income countries should be acknowledged as major drivers for the global refugee crisis, and fully considered in planning long-term solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Risk assessment of tick-borne and zoonotic disease emergence necessitates sound knowledge of the particular microorganisms circulating within the communities of these major vectors. Assessment of pathogens carried by wild ticks must be performed without a priori, to allow for the detection of new or unexpected agents.We evaluated the potential of Next-Generation Sequencing techniques (NGS to produce an inventory of parasites carried by questing ticks. Sequences corresponding to parasites from two distinct genera were recovered in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Eastern France: Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. Four Babesia species were identified, three of which were zoonotic: B. divergens, Babesia sp. EU1 and B. microti; and one which infects cattle, B. major. This is the first time that these last two species have been identified in France. This approach also identified new sequences corresponding to as-yet unknown organisms similar to tropical Theileria species.Our findings demonstrate the capability of NGS to produce an inventory of live tick-borne parasites, which could potentially be transmitted by the ticks, and uncovers unexpected parasites in Western Europe.
Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria
Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p hydration level. PMID:27058557
Full Text Available Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males, 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L (p = 0.019. Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01. Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40% deviated from a normal hydration level.
Struelens, M.J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, J.; MacKenzie, F.M.; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Gould, I.
Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and
Frijns, J. [Watercycle Research Institute KWR, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Uijterlinde, C. [Foundation for Applied Water Research STOWA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)
This European report on best practices of energy efficiency in the water industry showcases 23 energy efficiency initiatives which were collected as case studies from European water utilities. The 25 case studies presented in this report will be submitted to UKWIR and Black and Veatch, for potential inclusion in the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) global compendium of best practice case studies. The aim of the GWRC-compendium is to identify the promising developments and future opportunities to help deliver incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations. But also more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies. The European report describes case studies from: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. Black and Veatch has gathered furthermore information on 47 cases from the UK. These are reported separately and are not included in this European overview.
Welch, A.A.; Lund, E.; Amiano, P.
was in the coastal areas of northern Europe (Denmark, Sweden and Norway) and in Germany. Consumption of fish products was greater in northern than in southern Europe, with white fish products predominating in centres in France, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands and Norway. Intake of roe and roe products was low......OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... study. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 subjects (13 031 men and 22 924 women), aged 35-74 years, selected from the main EPIC cohort. RESULTS: A six- to sevenfold variation in total fish consumption exists in women and men, between the lowest consumption in Germany and the highest in Spain. Overall, white...
Andreas, Sylke; Schulz, Holger; Volkert, Jana; Dehoust, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Suling, Anna; Ausín, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Crawford, Mike; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Strehle, Jens; Weber, Kerstin; Wegscheider, Karl; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Härter, Martin
Except for dementia and depression, little is known about common mental disorders in elderly people. To estimate current, 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in different European and associated countries using a standardised diagnostic interview adapted to measure the cognitive needs of elderly people. The MentDis_ICF65+ study is based on an age-stratified, random sample of 3142 older men and women (65-84 years) living in selected catchment community areas of participating countries. One in two individuals had experienced a mental disorder in their lifetime, one in three within the past year and nearly one in four currently had a mental disorder. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety disorders, followed by affective and substance-related disorders. Compared with previous studies we found substantially higher prevalence rates for most mental disorders. These findings underscore the need for improving diagnostic assessments adapted to the cognitive capacity of elderly people. There is a need to raise awareness of psychosocial problems in elderly people and to deliver high-quality mental health services to these individuals. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Full Text Available been made possible by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Cocks, M., Matsiliza, B & Fabricius, C. 2000. Private-Sector Community Forestry Partnerships in the Eastern... contracting in South Africa. This study of trends in outsourcing and contracting in the South African forest industry seeks to deepen understanding of the national context within which contracting is an increasing practice, and examines possible options...
Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; Catunda, Ricardo; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Saboga Nunes, Luís
Although self-rated wellbeing is an indicator of health status, it has been receiving little attention; its relationship with physical activity among adults remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing in European adults. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the European Social Survey round 6, 2012, comprising 40,600 European adults (18,418 men, 22,186 women) from 27 countries, with mean age 42.1±13.3. Meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Six dimensions of the self-rated wellbeing were assessed (evaluative wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functioning, vitality, community wellbeing, supportive wellbeing). Men and women who attained physical activity recommended levels had better evaluative wellbeing (men, p=0.009; women, pwellbeing (men, pwellbeing total score (men, pwellbeing in the 6 dimensions as well as the wellbeing total score (pwellbeing, and more frequent physical activity is linearly associated with better self-rated wellbeing in its 6 dimensions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Khodachenko, Maxim; Miller, Steven; Stoeckler, Robert; Topf, Florian
Computational modeling and observational data analysis are two major aspects of the modern scientific research. Both appear nowadays under extensive development and application. Many of the scientific goals of planetary space missions require robust models of planetary objects and environments as well as efficient data analysis algorithms, to predict conditions for mission planning and to interpret the experimental data. Europe has great strength in these areas, but it is insufficiently coordinated; individual groups, models, techniques and algorithms need to be coupled and integrated. Existing level of scientific cooperation and the technical capabilities for operative communication, allow considerable progress in the development of a distributed international Research Infrastructure (RI) which is based on the existing in Europe computational modelling and data analysis centers, providing the scientific community with dedicated services in the fields of their computational and data analysis expertise. These services will appear as a product of the collaborative communication and joint research efforts of the numerical and data analysis experts together with planetary scientists. The major goal of the EUROPLANET-RI / EMDAF is to make computational models and data analysis algorithms associated with particular national RIs and teams, as well as their outputs, more readily available to their potential user community and more tailored to scientific user requirements, without compromising front-line specialized research on model and data analysis algorithms development and software implementation. This objective will be met through four keys subdivisions/tasks of EMAF: 1) an Interactive Catalogue of Planetary Models; 2) a Distributed Planetary Modelling Laboratory; 3) a Distributed Data Analysis Laboratory, and 4) enabling Models and Routines for High Performance Computing Grids. Using the advantages of the coordinated operation and efficient communication between the
Marchal, A.; Swindell, G.E.
A group of experts convened by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels on 2 July 1980 to suggest possible actions in connection with the safe transport of radioactive materials, recommended, among other things, that the Commission should collect and distribute information on packaging test facilities in Member States. In response to that recommendation a letter of enquiry was sent informally, on behalf of the Commission, to the competent authorities of the Member States. The purpose of the enquiry is to assist in the effective implementation of the internationally accepted Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials through the dissemination of information on test facilities and on the terms and conditions under which the services of these facilities could be made available for the testing of packaging designed in other countries. As an aid to the presentation of the material in a harmonized format, it was suggested that the information provided should cover relevant topics. The information received by the Commission has been assembled for each installation according to this format
Richardson, Philip; Galson, Daniel
Attempts to site geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste - and associated public reactions - indicate that communicating safety and demonstrating safety are very different things. The three different approaches to stakeholder engagement undertaken in the context of the PAMINA, ARGONA and CIP projects have provided valuable insights into how risk communication processes and tools can be improved. The approaches used in these projects all involve the participation of interested stakeholders in identifying concerns and issues, which are then examined in a co-operative fashion between stakeholders and developers acting in partnership. Such approaches offer avenues for dialogue and confidence building where such channels were previously not well developed, Full results from the projects will be available in late 2009 for PAMINA and ARGONA and in early 2010 for CIP. The comments and interim insights outlined here will be developed further and incorporated in the overall project outputs, and help inform developing European policy in this area. It is already clear, however, that the approaches used in these projects offer great promise in helping to develop the trust in the institutions and organisations involved that is essential in gaining support and acceptance for the waste management activities now underway across Europe
The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee set up in 1974 the Working Group Codes and Standards, and organized its work into four main activities: Manufacturing standards, Structural analysis, Materials and Classification of components. The main purpose of materials activity is to compare and contrast existing national specifications and associated properties relevant to structural materials in fast reactors. Funds are available on a yearly basis for tasks to be carried out through Study Contracts. At present about four Study Contract Reports are prepared each year
Aspinwall, Mark D.; Schneider, Gerald
Recent research on European integration has largely profited from the institutionalist turn in political science. Theoretical progress has, however, been hampered by the diverse understandings of this new research tradition. This paper tries to tackle the conceptual diversity in a positive way. We first analyze the neo-institutionalist turn in political science and European studies and then move on to a detailed analysis and comparison of the three competing approaches sociological, histori...
Seidell, J C; Cigolini, M; Charzewska, J; Ellsinger, B M; Björntorp, P; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Szostak, W
We studied male/female differences in serum lipids in randomly selected 38-year-old men (n = 337) and women (n = 342) from various cities in The Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, and Poland. Overall, men had higher triglycerides and total cholesterol levels and lower HDL-levels compared to women (P less
The functioning of any thermal electric power plant (classic or nuclear) results in waste into the atmosphere of large quantities of heat at low temperature levels. The quantities of waste heat rejected by power plants are such that the size of the recovery operation (surface are of greenhouses or basins) is never limited by the waste heat flow. At present, there are 38 operations in service in the EEC nations using thermal waste from electric power plants, and 9 operations are in construction or projects that will soon materialize. The majority of these operations are today purely commercial and mainly concern: horticulture and market gardening in greenhouses, and freshwater aquaculture. The other applications are of much more doubtful profitability (building heating, agriculture), or remain for now still in the experimental stage (seawater aquaculture, waste heat irrigation, algae culture). The objective of this study is three-fold: to make an exhaustive inventory of all thermal waste recovery operations in service or in construction, and to make a detailed assessment; thanks to this inventory and by means of detailed case studies on the most representative operations, to realize a complete technical and economic analysis of these operations; and in view of the joint results of the assessment of operations and the technical and economic analysis, to extricate the technical and economic options to promote. Volume 2 contains 10 case studies.
Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...
Tim W. R. Möhlmann
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on mosquito species diversity in Europe often focus on a specific habitat, region or country. Moreover, different trap types are used for these sampling studies, making it difficult to compare and validate results across Europe. To facilitate comparisons of trapping sites and community analysis, the present study used two trap types for monitoring mosquito species diversity in three habitat types for three different countries in Europe. Methods Mosquitoes were trapped using Biogents Sentinel (BGS, and Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus (MMLP traps at a total of 27 locations in Sweden, the Netherlands and Italy, comprising farm, peri-urban and wetland habitats. From July 2014 to June 2015 all locations were sampled monthly, except for the winter months. Indices of species richness, evenness and diversity were calculated, and community analyses were carried out with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS techniques. Results A total of 11,745 female mosquitoes were trapped during 887 collections. More than 90% of the mosquitoes belonged to the genera Culex and Aedes, with Culex pipiens being the most abundant species. The highest mosquito diversity was found in Sweden. Within Sweden, species diversity was highest in wetland habitats, whereas in the Netherlands and Italy this was highest at farms. The NMDS analyses showed clear differences in mosquito communities among countries, but not among habitat types. The MMLP trapped a higher diversity of mosquito species than the BGS traps. Also, MMLP traps trapped higher numbers of mosquitoes, except for the genera Culex and Culiseta in Italy. Conclusions A core mosquito community could be identified for the three countries, with Culex pipiens as the most abundant species. Differences in mosquito species communities were more defined by the three countries included in the study than by the three habitat types. Differences in mosquito community composition across countries may have
The report lists the Commissions proposals for further action on its suggestion of mutual health assistance in the event of a nuclear accident. These include surveys and studies, further research on the medical treatment of radiation casualties and the methodology of epidemiological investigations, the promotion of contacts between experts and the attempt to assemble a handbook listing facilities and procedures for mutual assistance. The memorandum explains some of the points further under the headings, ministerial responsibility, legal and procedural issues and policy implications. The United Kingdom position is then stated. The UK government welcomes the proposals provided there is no duplication of work already covered by the IAEA Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. (U.K.)
Trygg, Louise; Karlsson, B.G.
In 2004 Sweden will become part of a common European electricity market. This implies that the price of electricity in Swedish will adapt to a higher European electricity price due to the increase in cross-border trading. Swedish plant is characterized as more electricity-intensive than plant on the European continent, and this, in combination with a higher European electricity price will lead to a precarious scenario. This paper studies the energy use of 11 plants in the municipality of Oskarshamn in Sweden. The aim is to show how these plants can reduce their electricity use to adapt to a European level. We have found that the plants could reduce their use of electricity by 48% and their use of energy by 40%. In a European perspective, where coal-condensing power is assumed to be the marginal production that alters as the electricity demand changes, the decrease in the use of electricity in this study leads to a reduction in global emissions of carbon dioxide of 69,000 tonne a year. Electricity generated in Sweden emits very low emissions of carbon dioxide and have thus consequently very low external cost. The freed capacity in Sweden could therefore replace electricity generated with higher external cost and as a result lower the total external cost in Europe. The emissions from the saved electricity could also be valuable within the EU emissions trading scheme, if the emissions calculation is done assuming the marginal electricity is fossil fuel based
Tuğba Selanik Ay
Full Text Available Social Studies can be defined as “bonding process based on verification with social reality and dynamic information obtained as a result of this process”. In this context, it is essential to unify the Social Studies course with the real life and to benefit from the society in teaching-learning process in order to enable the learned information to be applied in the real life. In the Social Studies course, students should encounter with the real life itself. Thus, students can produce multidimensional alternative solutions for the cases they encounter and they can explain the best solution with justifications. Considering these arguments, it can be claimed that involving the subjects and studies related to the society and near environment in the Social Studies courses increases the effectiveness of Social Studies teaching. Local community studies, which are associated with the Social Studies program by means of a detailed and good plan, can draw students’ attention and thus permanent learning can occur. In this sense, teachers should benefit from the local community studies in the Social Studies course which reflects the real life.The aim of this study is to determine how local community studies will be applied in Social Studies course in the primary education schools. In line with this aim, the following research questions were addressed:1. How can the activities ofa. benefitting from institutions and organizations in local communitiesb. benefitting from people in local communitiesc. using Internet and library sourcesd. benefitting from special days and current eventswhich are carried out in the Social Studies course taught with local community studies, be arranged?2. Do the local community studies help the students determine the problems in their environments and find out the solutions for these problems?3. What are the students’ opinions about the Social Studies course taught with local community studies ?4. Does the Social Studies
Full Text Available Along a west-to-east axis spanning the Galicia Bank region (Iberian margin and the Mediterranean basin, a reduction in surface primary productivity and in seafloor flux of particulate organic carbon was mirrored in the in situ organic matter quantity and quality within the underlying deep-sea sediments at different water depths (1200, 1900 and 3000 m. Nematode standing stock (abundance and biomass and genus and trophic composition were investigated to evaluate downward benthic-pelagic coupling. The longitudinal decline in seafloor particulate organic carbon flux was reflected by a reduction in benthic phytopigment concentrations and nematode standing stock. An exception was the station sampled at the Galicia Bank seamount, where despite the maximal particulate organic carbon flux estimate, we observed reduced pigment levels and nematode standing stock. The strong hydrodynamic forcing at this station was believed to be the main cause of the local decoupling between pelagic and benthic processes. Besides a longitudinal cline in nematode standing stock, we noticed a west-to-east gradient in nematode genus and feeding type composition (owing to an increasing importance of predatory/scavenging nematodes with longitude governed by potential proxies for food availability (percentage of nitrogen, organic carbon, and total organic matter. Within-station variability in generic composition was elevated in sediments with lower phytopigment concentrations. Standing stock appeared to be regulated by sedimentation rates and benthic environmental variables, whereas genus composition covaried only with benthic environmental variables. The coupling between deep-sea nematode assemblages and surface water processes evidenced in the present study suggests that it is likely that climate change will affect the composition and function of deep-sea nematodes.
Hoffmann, Rasmus; Borsboom, Gerard; Saez, Marc; Mari Dell'Olmo, Marc; Burström, Bo; Corman, Diana; Costa, Claudia; Deboosere, Patrick; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Dzúrová, Dagmar; Gandarillas, Ana; Gotsens, Mercè; Kovács, Katalin; Mackenbach, Johan; Martikainen, Pekka; Maynou, Laia; Morrison, Joana; Palència, Laia; Pérez, Gloria; Pikhart, Hynek; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Santana, Paula; Saurina, Carme; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Borrell, Carme
Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants.
Guillamón-Suesta, Francisco; Renau Renau, Maria Luisa
Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) has emerged in European education as an effective method to enhance and reinforce students' competence in English and skills while covering traditional content areas. This paper presents a research study into CLIL in secondary education in the area of Castellón in the Valencian Community, Spain. Our…
Explanatory memorandum on European Community Document 6323/87: proposal for a Council decision on a Community system of rapid exchange of information in cases of abnormal levels of radioactivity or of a nuclear accident
The Council of the European Commnity proposes a system of rapid exchange of information in cases of abnormal radioactivity or a nuclear accident. In addition to the existing procedures of early notification drawn up by the International Atomic Energy Authority this proposes a further notification system between member states of the European Community. Under this there would be notification, not only of accidents with possible transboundary effects, but of any accident for which emergency measures are taken to protect the public. However, the United Kingdom would prefer the trigger of these procedures to be abnormally high radiation levels rather than the introduction of emergency measures. (U.K.)
Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan
The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v.4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from "nearby" FLUXNET sites at 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon-nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.
Orlowski, S.; Bresesti, M.
The CEC R and D action, started in 1973, is carried out within the framework of cost-sharing contracts with Community organizations and in the laboratories of the Joint Research Centre, Ispra. About 350 research workers from 30 organizations within the Community are taking part. The R and D activities cover processing, conditioning, characterization, intermediate storage and final disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in reactors and in fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants. In the Community, spent fuels are not considered as radioactive waste. About one half of the total effort has been devoted to the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in geological formations (granite, clay, salt) and to related studies. The sub-seabed disposal option is also being investigated with a more limited effort. The R and D activities on waste treatment cover low-level, alpha-bearing and gaseous wastes. An important activity has been developed on the characterization of vitrified HLW. A similar activity for the characterization of other types of conditioned wastes has been started. The R and D activity of the CEC is supported by the existence of a Community Plan of Action (1980-1992) which entrusts to the Commission a wider role in the development of waste management policies. The Plan assures in particular the continuity of the R and D work up to 1992. International co-operation is considered important; international symposia have been co-sponsored with the IAEA; co-operative agreements with non-Community countries are in force (such as with Canada) or in preparation (such as with the USA). (author)
Rousk, Johannes; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L
We investigated how the legacy of warming and summer drought affected microbial communities in five different replicated long-term (>10 years) field experiments across Europe (EU-FP7 INCREASE infrastructure). To focus explicitly on legacy effects (i.e., indirect rather than direct effects of the environmental factors), we measured microbial variables under the same moisture and temperature in a brief screening, and following a pre-incubation at stable conditions. Specifically, we investigated the size and composition of the soil microbial community (PLFA) alongside measurements of bacterial (leucine incorporation) and fungal (acetate in ergosterol incorporation) growth rates, previously shown to be highly responsive to changes in environmental factors, and microbial respiration. We found no legacy effects on the microbial community size, composition, growth rates, or basal respiration rates at the effect sizes used in our experimental setup (0.6 °C, about 30% precipitation reduction). Our findings support previous reports from single short-term ecosystem studies thereby providing a clear evidence base to allow long-term, broad-scale generalizations to be made. The implication of our study is that warming and summer drought will not result in legacy effects on the microbial community and their processes within the effect sizes here studied. While legacy effects on microbial processes during perturbation cycles, such as drying-rewetting, and on tolerance to drought and warming remain to be studied, our results suggest that any effects on overall ecosystem processes will be rather limited. Thus, the legacies of warming and drought should not be prioritized factors to consider when modeling contemporary rates of biogeochemical processes in soil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fernandez, Jose R., Comp.
This compilation of descriptions of courses offered at 62 community colleges is prefaced by a paper titled "What Are the Objectives of Chicano Studies?" by Manuel H. Guerra. All of the community colleges listed are located in California. (DB)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
Bakke Per S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory symptoms are common in the general population, and their presence is related to Health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective was to describe the association of respiratory symptoms with HRQoL in subjects with and without asthma or COPD and to investigate the role of atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, and lung function in HRQoL. Methods The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I and II provided data on HRQoL, lung function, respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, and BHR from 6009 subjects. Generic HRQoL was assessed through the physical component summary (PCS score and the mental component summary (MCS score of the SF-36. Factor analyses and linear regressions adjusted for age, gender, smoking, occupation, BMI, comorbidity, and study centre were conducted. Results Having breathlessness at rest in ECRHS II was associated with mean score (95% CI impairment in PCS of -8.05 (-11.18, -4.93. Impairment in MCS score in subjects waking up with chest tightness was -4.02 (-5.51, -2.52. The magnitude of HRQoL impairment associated with respiratory symptoms was similar for subjects with and without asthma/COPD. Adjustments for atopy, BHR, and lung function did not explain the association of respiratory symptoms and HRQoL in subjects without asthma and/or COPD. Conclusion Subjects with respiratory symptoms had poorer HRQoL; including subjects without a diagnosis of asthma or COPD. These findings suggest that respiratory symptoms in the absence of a medical diagnosis of asthma or COPD are by no means trivial, and that clarifying the nature and natural history of respiratory symptoms is a relevant challenge. Several community studies have estimated the prevalence of common respiratory symptoms like cough, dyspnoea, and wheeze in adults 123. Although the prevalence varies to a large degree between studies and geographical areas, respiratory symptoms are quite common. The prevalences of respiratory
Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Zavattero, E.; Dediol, E.; Uglešić, V.; Kovačič, Ž.; Vesnaver, A.; Konstantinović, V.S.; Petrović, M.; Stephens, J.; Kanzaria, A.; Bhatti, N.; Holmes, S.; Pechalova, P.F.; Bakardjiev, A.G.; Malanchuk, V.A.; Kopchak, A.V.; Galteland, P.; Mjøen, E.; Skjelbred, P.; Grimaud, F.; Fauvel, F.; Longis, J.; Corre, P.; Løes, S.; Lekven, N.; Laverick, S.; Gordon, P.; Tamme, T.; Akermann, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Kommers, S.C.; Meijer, B.; Forouzanfar, T.
Objective The aim of this study is to present and discuss the results of a European multicentre prospective study about pediatric maxillofacial trauma epidemiology during a year. Study Design The following data were recorded: gender, age, etiology, site of fracture, date of injury. Of the 3396
Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Zavattero, E.; Dediol, E.; Uglesic, V.; Kovacic, Z.; Vesnaver, A.; Konstantinovic, V.S.; Petrovic, M.; Stephens, J.; Kanzaria, A.; Bhatti, N.; Holmes, S.; Pechalova, P.F.; Bakardjiev, A.G.; Malanchuk, V.A.; Kopchak, A.V.; Galteland, P.; Mjoen, E.; Skjelbred, P.; Grimaud, F.; Fauvel, F.; Longis, J.; Corre, P.; Loes, S.; Lekven, N.; Laverick, S.; Gordon, P.; Tamme, T.; Akermann, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Kommers, S.C.; Meijer, B.; Forouzanfar, T.
Objective The aim of this study is to present and discuss the results of a European multicentre prospective study about pediatric maxillofacial trauma epidemiology during a year. Study Design The following data were recorded: gender, age, etiology, site of fracture, date of injury. Of the 3396
This study develops and applies an analytical framework for examining the determinants of carbon leakage and competitiveness. The study has a long-term perspective and focuses on the European steel industry. For the case study, a CGE model is used to develop feasible scenarios of the evolution of
Gelderblom, G.J.; Wilt, M.de; Cremers, G.; Rensma, A.R.
To gain understanding in the current status of Robotics in healthcare the European Commission issued a roadmap study into this domain. This paper reports on the main characteristics and results of this study. The study covered the wide domain of Healthcare and in this paper the domains relevant for
At the request of Enova (the 'Client'), Garrad Hassan and Partners Limited ('GH') has provided technical advice on capital cost expectations for wind farm developments. In summary, the work provides a survey of the present and future 5-year prognosis for costs and conditions facing developers and suppliers in the European wind power market. The report will be used as a benchmark to support tendering for future Norwegian projects. As such, it will also provide discussion of how project characteristics can influence project cost. Data Used in the Analysis GH has obtained data on the investment costs for 35 projects developed or in development in Europe. The projects represent to the extent possible the characteristics representative of potential Norwegian projects. The data used in this analysis are from actual projects in: France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Northern Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Wales. The turbine capacities represented in the data are typically 2 MW or above, except in one case where a mix of turbines sizes was used at the project. GH highlights that because of high demand for turbines, the main manufacturers have recently been offering to meet delivery schedules for new orders from late 2010. For new tenders it is likely that delivery time frames offered will now be for 2011 deliveries. As a result of the current 'Seller's Market', production capacity typically relates directly to the number of turbines sold in the year; therefore for 2007 the annual production capacity was approximately 22 GW. GH is aware that turbine suppliers across the market are working to increase their production capacity in order to ease the pressure on the market, however, there are bottlenecks through the supply chain at the sub component level. As a result, increases in production capacity will likely remain at a relatively steady state in the short term. Energy Assessment The energy assessment of a project is the area
As a policy instrument, voluntary agreements often fascinate policy-makers.This is fuelled by a number of assumed advantages, such as the opportunity for co-operation rather than confrontation, speed and flexibility and the cost-effectiveness. Some advantages might even be accentuated at the European level: Co-operation has added advantage at the European level where the culture of consensus decision is strong. Flexibility is extra attractive for policy makers dealing with an economy less homogeneous than the average national economy. Speed is certainly welcomed by policy-makers otherwise faced with the slow-winding European legislative process. Cost-effectiveness is eagerly sought by European policy makers facing tight administrative budgets and staff limits. This report examines lessons from the VAIE case studies that may be useful to policy makers engaged in the development of voluntary approaches at the European level. These case studies are about voluntary agreement schemes for industrial energy efficiency deployed in Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, and Sweden. For a summary of these case studies, please refer to the the VAIE final report. More detailed information is available in the VAIE national reports. It needs to be emphasised that the empirical base is very narrow. The 'lessons' presented can only be hypotheses, based on an inductive leap from a very narrow experience. The reader will need to check these hypotheses against her own broader experience and personal judgement. According to the principle of subsidiarity, voluntary agreements should be implemented at the European level only if that would have significant advantage over national action. Action at the European level, rather than the national level, would have these potential advantages: Being more consistent with the development of the single market; Allowing higher demands on energy efficiency without negative effect on competitiveness and employment; Stimulating company
Spiess, John A.
Reputational and pluralistic methods of community analysis differ; their findings, conclusions, and philosophies are frequently at variance. Reputationalists find an economically dominated power elite. They picture a community's power and influence structure as pyramidal -- the power elite forming a monolithic power pyramid. Thus, according to…
European aid control policy and environmental protection - an evaluation of the new Community guidelines; Die europaeische Beihilfenaufsicht im Umweltschutz - Darstellung und Kritik des neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmens
Ewringmann, D.; Thoene, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut; Fischer, H.G.
On 3 February 2001 the European Commission adopted the new Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection. These guidelines outline the methods and criteria used by the Commission when controlling environmental state aid according to Art. 87 and 88 of the EC-Treaty. The study analyses the development of the new guidelines and their potential effects on environmental protection and environmental policy in the Member States of the European Union. In essence, the guidelines display three harmful tendencies: - they hamper progressive and innovative environmental policy that improves on 'least common denominator'-Community standards; - they do not respect the limits of the Commissions's authority, and interfere with the Member States' exclusive authority to decide on strategies and instruments of their respective environmental policies, and they especially affect Member States' choices between different energy sources and the general structure of its energy supply; - finally, they do not improve the protection of air competition on the common market. Based on these findings, the report delineates perspectives for an aid control policy that protects fair competition, and that gives incentives for voluntary national and regional environmental protection, allows for the equal treatment of clean techniques, and provides a consistent framework for exemptions from ecological taxes and environmental levies at the same time. (orig.) [German] Die Europaeische Kommission hat mit Wirkung vom 3. Februar 2001 einen neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmen fuer staatliche Umweltschutzbeihilfen erlassen. Dieser skizziert die Verfahren und Kriterien, welche die Kommission in ihrer Ueberpruefung staatlicher Umweltschutzbeihilfen auf Vereinbarkeit mit dem gemeinsamen Markt nach Art. 87 u. 88 EGV nutzen will. Die vorliegende Untersuchung schildert die Entstehung des Beihilferahmens und analysiert dessen potenzielle Wirkungen auf den Umweltschutz und die
The study consist of a compilation of information on the relevant emergency response plans that are at present in existence in the ten countries of the European Community. Consideration is given to the development of proposals for facilitating co-operation between the emergency services in different countries, particularly with regard to accidents that might occur near national boundaries or in countries in which all the necessary resources might not be available. The particular items of interest covered in this study are: compilation of information on existing organizational emergency response arrangements within each Member State relating to accidents in the transport of radioactive materials by all modes, including road, rail, inland waterways, air and compilation of information on existing arrangements for receiving or providing assistance from or to other Member States. Identification of any avoidable incompatibilities on an international scale. Recommendations for improving the existing arrangements and for encouraging the development of adequate systems of mutual emergency notification, liaison and assistance as required by the circumstances, recommendations should be compatible with the broader framework of emergency response for all types of accidents developed within Member States and envisaged in the IAEA system for mutual emergency assistance
... a cross-cutting national study of community programs and policies and their relationship to... healthy nutrition, physical activity, and healthy weight of children), food service personnel, physical...
Security of supply is defined as the availability and reliability of energy supply at acceptable prices. By security of energy supply we mean a globally large supply of reliable, affordable, clean energy. By virtue of its nature security of supply in the energy sector primarily requires making provisions for the future through exploration, innovation, research, diversification and investments in technology. Energy politics takes place in a tension field defined by the goals of economic efficiency, sustainability and security of supply. In the past there have been repeated shifts within this triad of goals. The task for a rational energy policy is to reconciliate these goals in a meaningful way. European energy policy is understood to comprise all sovereign measures taken by the European Union in the energy sector, in particular measures that impact on the supply and demand for energy resources. Energy law serves, or should serve, to bring energy policy to realisation and therefore presupposes the existence of the latter. Energy policy means the figuration of an economy's energy sector in such a manner that the present and future demand of the economic region is covered.
von Rueden Ursula
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to compare three different sampling and questionnaire administration methods used in the international KIDSCREEN study in terms of participation, response rates, and external validity. Methods Children and adolescents aged 8–18 years were surveyed in 13 European countries using either telephone sampling and mail administration, random sampling of school listings followed by classroom or mail administration, or multistage random sampling of communities and households with self-administration of the survey materials at home. Cooperation, completion, and response rates were compared across countries and survey methods. Data on non-respondents was collected in 8 countries. The population fraction (PF, respondents in each sex-age, or educational level category, divided by the population in the same category from Eurostat census data and population fraction ratio (PFR, ratio of PF and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze differences by country between the KIDSCREEN samples and a reference Eurostat population. Results Response rates by country ranged from 18.9% to 91.2%. Response rates were highest in the school-based surveys (69.0%–91.2%. Sample proportions by age and gender were similar to the reference Eurostat population in most countries, although boys and adolescents were slightly underrepresented (PFR Conclusion School-based sampling achieved the highest overall response rates but also produced slightly more biased samples than the other methods. The results suggest that the samples were sufficiently representative to provide reference population values for the KIDSCREEN instrument.
Sofer, Tamar; Wong, Quenna; Hartwig, Fernando P; Taylor, Kent; Warren, Helen R; Evangelou, Evangelos; Cabrera, Claudia P; Levy, Daniel; Kramer, Holly; Lange, Leslie A; Horta, Bernardo L; Kerr, Kathleen F; Reiner, Alex P; Franceschini, Nora
Hypertension prevalence varies between ethnic groups, possibly due to differences in genetic, environmental, and cultural determinants. Hispanic/Latino Americans are a diverse and understudied population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood pressure (BP) traits in 12,278 participants from the Hispanics Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). In the discovery phase we identified eight previously unreported BP loci. In the replication stage, we tested these loci in the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study of admixed Southern Brazilians, the COGENT-BP study of African descent, women of European descent from the Women Health Initiative (WHI), and a sample of European descent from the UK Biobank. No loci met the Bonferroni-adjusted level of statistical significance (0.0024). Two loci had marginal evidence of replication: rs78701042 (NGF) with diastolic BP (P = 0.008 in the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study), and rs7315692 (SLC5A8) with systolic BP (P = 0.007 in European ancestry replication). We investigated whether previously reported loci associated with BP in studies of European, African, and Asian ancestry generalize to Hispanics/Latinos. Overall, 26% of the known associations in studies of individuals of European and Chinese ancestries generalized, while only a single association previously discovered in a people of African descent generalized.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality is on the agenda of European general practice (GP. European researchers have, in collaboration, developed tools to assess quality of GPs. In this feasibility study, we tested the European Practice Assessment (EPA in a one-off project in Belgium, where general practice has a low level of GP organisation. Methods A framework for feasibility analysis included describing the recruiting of participants, a brief telephone study survey among non-responders, organisational and logistic problems. Using field notes and focus groups, we studied the participants' opinions. Results In this study, only 36 of 1000 invited practices agreed to participate. Co-ordination, administrative work, practice visits and organisational problems required several days per practice. The researchers further encountered technical problems, for instance when entering the data and uploading to the web-based server. In subsequent qualitative analysis using two focus groups, most participant GPs expressed a positive feeling after the EPA procedure. In the short period of follow-up, only a few GPs reported improvements after the visit. The participant GPs suggested that follow-up and coaching would probably facilitate the implementation of changes. Conclusion This feasibility study shows that prior interest in EPA is low in the GP community. We encountered a number of logistic and organisational problems. It proved attractive to participants, but it can be augmented by coaching of participants in more than a one-off project to identify and achieve targets for quality improvement. In the absence of commitment of the government, a network of universities and one scientific organisation will offer EPA as a service to training practices.
Charrondiere, U.R.; Vignat, J.; Moller, A.; Ireland, J.; Becker, W.; Church, S.; Farran, A.; Holden, J.; Klemm, C.; Linardou, A.; Mueller, D.; Staveren, van W.A.
Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and
Bonfanti, Jonathan; Cortet, Jérôme; Hedde, Mickaël
In a climate change context, soil ecosystem services can be threatened, notably through impacts on soil fauna. Collembola can be therefore used for bioindication of soil mesofauna functionality. Here we aim (i) to link distribution of the collembolan communities with their functional traits...... adaptations to climate conditions at a large scale, (ii) to evaluate how trait patterns are impacted by an experimental climatic treatment. The VULCAN project was carried out from 2001-2004 at 6 European shrublands sites located in Wales, Denmark, Netherlands, Hungary, Spain and Sardinia. Each site received...... warming and drought treatments in addition to an ambient control. Collembola were sampled from plants, soil surface, and soil, and the communities were characterised and compared in terms of taxonomic diversity and trait composition. Most up-to-date trait database version of the BETSI project (France...
Tsitsika, A.; Janikian, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Tzavela, E.C.; Olafsson, K.; Wojcik, S.; Macarie, G.F.; Tzavara, C.
A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N= 13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8 – 0.7) of 14–17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of
Grøntved, Anders; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, Paul W
BackgroundIn this study, we examined the influence of genetic variation in NOS3 on resting blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Because the NOS3 gene expression is altered by physical activity (PA), we also tested for interaction between...
Bosch, M.P.C.; Ronan, P.; Quinton, N.; Harbinson, D.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den
Objectives - This presentation will compare preliminary results from the first two European studies being carried out on acupuncture and schizophrenia, one in the UK and one in Germany. Statistical comment will be made on comparable study outcomes and there will be discussion on the methodological
Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana; Bergström, Karin; Beurlet, Stéphanie; Briend-Marchal, Alexandra; Broens, Els M; Costa, Marta; Criel, Delphine; Damborg, Peter; van Dijk, Marloes A M; van Dongen, A.M.; Dorsch, Roswitha; Espada, Carmen Martin; Gerber, Bernhard; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Loncaric, Igor; Mion, Domenico; Misic, Dusan; Movilla, Rebeca; Overesch, Gudrun; Perreten, Vincent; Roura, Xavier; Steenbergen, Joachim; Timofte, Dorina; Wolf, Georg; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Schmitt, Sarah; Guardabassi, Luca; Pomba, Constança
BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern regarding the increase of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in companion animals. Yet, there are no studies comparing the resistance levels of these organisms in European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate geographical and temporal trends of
Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina
This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive
Kim, Hyun Jung
To understand how tensions caused by the multidisciplinary nature of executive coaching are perceived and overcome, this modified ethnographic study was conducted at an executive coaching program and leadership center at a prestigious European business school. This study is built on prolonged discussions on the role of psychology in executive…
Luo, Lili; Kennedy, Marie; Brancolini, Kristine; Stephens, Michael
This study examines the role of online communities in connecting and supporting librarian researchers, through the analysis of member activities in the online community for academic librarians that attended the 2014 Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL). The 2014 IRDL cohort members participated in the online community via Twitter…
Community forestry resources: a case study of selected woodlots in the Eastern Cape Province. Cori Ham, Francois Theron. Abstract. Community surveys were conducted through the use of participatory community meetings and a questionnaire in the Butterworth area of the Eastern Cape. The objectives of these surveys ...
Fommei, E. (Inst. of Clinical Physiology, C.N.R., Multicentre Study Central Office, Pisa (Italy)); Ghione, S. (Inst. of Clinical Physiology, C.N.R., Multicentre Study Central Office, Pisa (Italy)); Hilson, A.J.W. (Inst. of Clinical Physiology, C.N.R., Multicentre Study Central Office, Pisa (Italy)); Mezzasalma, L. (Inst. of Clinical Physiology, C.N.R., Multicentre Study Central Office, Pisa (Italy)); Oei, H.Y. (Inst. of Clinical Physiology, C.N.R., Multicentre Study Central Office, Pisa (Italy)); Piepsz, A. (Inst. of Clinical Physiology, C.N.R., Multicentre Study Central Office, Pisa (Italy)); Volterrani, D. (Inst. of Clinical Physiology, C.N.R., Multicentre Study Central Office, Pisa (Italy)); European Multicentre Study Group
The efficacy of renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m DTPA before and after captopril was evaluated in a multicentre study. All 380 hypertensive patients in the study underwent renal arteriography; 125 had renal arterial stenosis [>=]70%, and 54 had a technically successful intervention to correct the stenosis. The post-captopril study had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100% for predicting blood pressure response to intervention, if renal function was normal and a combination of quantitative parameters was applied. In the entire population renal artery stenosis [>=]70% was detected with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 93% if renal function was normal. In patients with abnormal renal function the performance of the test was worse, owing to a lower specificity which could be increased by using only time parameters. The performance of the test was optimal when the post-captopril findings were examined; no improvement was achieved by evaluation of the changes induced by captopril from the baseline. The test can thus be simplified by performing only a post-captopril study for routine use: a negative test would exclude a curable form of renovascular hypertension in right angle 80% and a positive test would predict it in right angle 90% of the patients selected for suspicion of the disease. Usefulness of the scintigraphic test for monitoring the clinical results of intervention is suggested by correlating post-intervention outcome with pre- and post-intervention scintigraphic results. (orig./MG)
Gustavsson, A; Jonsson, L; Rapp, T; Reynish, E; Ousset, P J; Andrieu, S; Cantet, C; Winblad, B; Vellas, B; Wimo, A
This study aimed to estimate the costs of formal and informal care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, to compare care costs across European countries and identify potential differences in cost patterns between countries and regions. The ICTUS study is a prospective, naturalistic observational study conducted in specialised memory clinics in 12 European countries. In total, 1385 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease were enrolled at baseline. All subjects had a reliable informant (primary caregiver) and informed consent was obtained from patients or their primary caregiver. Resource utilization data was captured with the RUD Lite (Resource Utilization in Dementia) instrument and caregiver burden with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Patient disease severity was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), Katz´ index (PADL), Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale and Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). The mean annual cost of care per patient was estimated to €7,820 (95% CI: €7,194-€8,446), whereof 54% were costs of informal care, 16% direct medical costs and 30% community care costs. There were substantial differences in total resource utilization and also in the balance between formal and informal care between Northern, Western and Southern Europe. PADL scores were strongly associated with formal care costs while IADL scores correlated strongly with informal care costs. Costs of Alzheimer's disease are high across European countries. Activities of daily living is an important determinant of care costs. Formal care service use is lower and informal care higher in Southern Europe compared to Western and Northern Europe. Differences in resource utilization patterns are important to consider in international studies of dementia care costs as well as in economic evaluations of new treatments for dementia.
Kafle, Shesh Kanta
Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning
The Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Radiation Protection Program support the majority of Research in the Field of Radiobiological Modeling. This field of science develops models based on scientifically sound principles to predict biological response (at the cellular, molecular, and animal level) to exposure to low level ionizing radiation. Biophysical models are an important tool for estimating response of ionizing radiation at low doses and dose rates. Generally speaking, the biophysical models can be classified into two groups: (1) mechanistic models and (2) phenomenological models. Mechanistic models are based on some assumptions about the physical, chemical, or biological mechanisms of action in association with radiobiological data whereas the phenomenological models are based solely on available experimental data on radiobiological effects with less emphasis on mechanisms of action. There are a number of these models which are being developed. Since model builders rely on radiobiological data available in the literature either to develop mechanistic or phenomenological models, it is essential that a critical evaluation of existing radiobiological data be made and data that is generally considered good and most appropriate for biophysical modeling be identified. A Workshop jointly sponsored by the DOE and the CEC was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee from June 23--25, 1988, to review the data available from physical and chemical, cellular and molecular and animal studies with ionizing radiation
Exchange of notes constituting an implementing arrangement, concerning international obligation exchanges, to the agreement between the Government of Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) concerning transfers of nuclear material of 21 September 1981
The implementing arrangement which entered into force on 8 September 1993, concerns the safeguard obligations attaching to nuclear material transferred or re transferred pursuant to the Agreement on Nuclear Transfers between Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community
Sobal, Jeffery; Nelson, Mary K
Commensality is eating with other people, and commensal eating patterns reflect the social relationships of individuals. This study examined usual meal partners in commensal units and frequency of eating with others in commensal circles among 663 adults responding to a mailed questionnaire in one community. Meal partner data revealed that most respondents ate alone at breakfast, alone or with co-workers at lunch, and with family members at dinner. Commensal frequency data revealed some eating at the homes of other family members, little eating at friends' homes, and almost no eating at neighbors' homes. Few demographic variations existed in commensal eating, except that unmarried individuals more often ate breakfast and dinner alone and more often ate with friends. These finding suggest that contemporary work-oriented society may lead people to eat alone during the day but share evening meals with family, and that people maintain commensal relationships primarily with family members rather than friends or neighbors. Peoples' social worlds appear to be focused on the nuclear family, and family members are also the people they usually eat with.
Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair
A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities
Negri, E.; Gallus, S. [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Milan (Italy); Boffetta, P. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); McLaughlin, J.K. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); La Vecchia, C. [Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry, University of Milan (Italy)
There are a limited number of papers on the long term effect of air pollution on morbidity and mortality in Europe, particularly with reference to small particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). Most information comes from US cohort studies, including the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II, the Harvard Six Cities Study, the Adventists' Health Study of Smog, and the Veterans' Cohort Mortality Study. Ambient levels of several relevant pollutants are more variable within Europe than in the USA, and are in several areas comparably high. Selected European cohort studies, including the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer and the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition study found some association between indicators of air pollution such as PM10 or NO2 and lung cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent and inadequate to address the health effects of exposure to PM2.5. In addition to the effect on mortality, there are open issues on the potential impact of air pollution on childhood asthma, allergy and airway disease. In consideration of the difficulties in estimating the prevalence of the conditions in various populations, these issues require additional focus. In order to provide an indication on possible further analyses of existing European datasets, and on future new studies, a critical review of existing literature (with a focus on European data) was performed. The project resulted in a detailed report (see Appendix 1) and in a paper published in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention.
Castrignanò, Erika; Yang, Zhugen; Bade, Richard
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context...... of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(−)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse...... with the other cities tested. An enrichment of MDMA with the R-(−)-enantiomer was observed in European wastewaters indicating MDMA consumption rather than disposal of unused drug. MDA's chiral signature indicated its enrichment with the S-(+)-enantiomer, which confirms its origin from MDMA metabolism in humans...
Full Text Available The results of the European elections 2014 in Spain were characterized by the outstanding rise of a new party, Podemos, which obtained five seats in the European Parliament, despite being founded few months before the elections. The present study analyzes both the content and the presence of emotions in Podemos’ discourse on Facebook during the European electoral campaign. In particular, the affective content of both the party’s discourse and the comments of its followers will be analyzed through a pragmatic linguistic approach applied to a corpus of 163 posts and 215 followers’ comments. Results show an insistence on positive emotions in the party’s discourse and a prevalence of negative emotions in the comments of the citizens.
This study examines how community development professionals obtain a sense of legitimacy in their work with local communities. In a comparative study derived from field research in Chelsea (USA), Amsterdam (The Netherlands ) and Doornkop (South Africa) the building blocks of their sense of
Gagliardi, Diana; Rondinone, Bruna M; Mirabile, Marco; Buresti, Giuliana; Ellwood, Peter; Hery, Michel; Paszkiewicz, Peter; Valenti, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio
Objectives This study, developed within the frame of the Partnership for European Research on Occupational Safety and Health joint research activities and based on the frame designed by the 2013 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) study, is the first example of using the points of view of European occupational safety and health (OSH) researchers. The objective is to identify priorities for OSH research that may contribute to the achievement of present and future sustainable growth objectives set by the European strategies. Methods The study was carried out using a modified Delphi method with a two-round survey. Each round involved a panel of about 110 researchers representing the network member institutes was selected according to specific criteria, including the ownership of research expertise in at least one of the four macroareas identified by the reference report developed by EU-OSHA in 2013. Results The study identified some innovative research topics (for example, ‘Emerging technological devices’ and ‘OSH consequences of markets integration’) and research priorities (ie, crowdsourcing, e-work, zero-hours contracts) that are not reflected in previous studies of this nature. The absence of any reference to violence and harassment at work among the researchers’ proposals is a major difference from previous similar studies, while topics related to gender issues and electromagnetic fields show a lower importance. Conclusions The innovative design of a research priorities identification process, which takes advantage of a large, representative and qualified panel of European researchers allowed the definition of a number of research priorities able to support the inclusion of innovative OSH research issues in the scope of the next European research agenda. PMID:28645965
Gagliardi, Diana; Rondinone, Bruna M; Mirabile, Marco; Buresti, Giuliana; Ellwood, Peter; Hery, Michel; Paszkiewicz, Peter; Valenti, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio
This study, developed within the frame of the Partnership for European Research on Occupational Safety and Health joint research activities and based on the frame designed by the 2013 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) study, is the first example of using the points of view of European occupational safety and health (OSH) researchers.The objective is to identify priorities for OSH research that may contribute to the achievement of present and future sustainable growth objectives set by the European strategies. The study was carried out using a modified Delphi method with a two-round survey. Each round involved a panel of about 110 researchers representing the network member institutes was selected according to specific criteria, including the ownership of research expertise in at least one of the four macroareas identified by the reference report developed by EU-OSHA in 2013. The study identified some innovative research topics (for example, 'Emerging technological devices' and 'OSH consequences of markets integration') and research priorities (ie, crowdsourcing, e-work, zero-hours contract s ) that are not reflected in previous studies of this nature.The absence of any reference to violence and harassment at work among the researchers' proposals is a major difference from previous similar studies, while topics related to gender issues and electromagnetic fields show a lower importance. The innovative design of a research priorities identification process, which takes advantage of a large, representative and qualified panel of European researchers allowed the definition of a number of research priorities able to support the inclusion of innovative OSH research issues in the scope of the next European research agenda. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Castrignanò, E.; Yang, Z.; Bade, R.; Baz-Lomba, J.A.; Castiglioni, S.; Causanilles, A.; Covaci, A.; Gracia-Lor, E.; Hernández, F.; Kinyua, J.; McCall, A.-K.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Ort, C.; Plósz, B.G.; Ramin, P.; Rousis, N.I.; Ryu, Y.; Thomas, K.V.; de Voogt, P.; Zuccato, E.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their
Gasco, C.; Meral, J.; Anton, M.P.; Gonzalez, A. M.
In this report the different objectives and results achieved through the participation of the Aquatic Radioecology Laboratory for CIEMAT in some European Projects from 1994 up to now are detailed. A Description of the studied ecosystems, the sampling campaigns performed, and the analytical methods developed are presented as well. Finally the main results and conclusions obtained are summarized. (Author)
Focusing on recent studies of European Union legislative decision-making, this research note evaluates the current literature that attempts to improve the explanatory power of bargaining models by integrating game-theoretic spatial models with micro-level data gained from expert interviews or from
Gorski, Mathias; Tin, Adrienne; Garnaas, Maija; McMahon, Gearoid M.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chalmers, John; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; Woodward, Marc; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Smith, Albert V.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Coresh, Josef; Li, Man; Freudenberger, Paul; Hofer, Edith; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; de Boer, Ian H.; Li, Guo; Siscovick, David S.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Corre, Tanguy; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Gupta, Jayanta; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Olden, Matthias; Yang, Qiong; de Andrade, Mariza; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Turner, Stephen T.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Barlassina, Cristina; Cusi, Daniele; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Grallert, Harald; Meisinger, Christa; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Kraemer, Bernhard K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Del Greco, M. Fabiola; Franke, Andre; Noethlings, Ute; Lieb, Wolfgang; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Harst, Pim; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Coassin, Stefan; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Kronenberg, Florian; Paulweber, Bernhard; Aumann, Nicole; Endlich, Karlhans; Pietzner, Mike; Voelker, Uwe; Rettig, Rainer; Chouraki, Vincent; Helmer, Catherine; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Metzger, Marie; Stengel, Benedicte; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Raitakari, Olli; Johnson, Andrew; Parsa, Afshin; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M.; Goessling, Wolfram; Kottgen, Anna; Kao, W. H. Linda; Fox, Caroline S.; Boeger, Carsten A.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple loci associated with cross-sectional eGFR, but a systematic genetic analysis of kidney function decline over time is missing. Here we conducted a GWAS meta-analysis among 63,558 participants of European descent, initially from 16
M. Gorski (Mathias); A. Tin (Adrienne); M. Garnaas (Maija); G.M. McMahon (Gearoid M.); A.Y. Chu (Audrey Y.); B. Tayo (Bamidele); C. Pattaro (Cristian); A. Teumer (Alexander); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); J. Chalmers (John); P. Hamet (Pavel); J. Tremblay (Johanne); M. Woodward (Mark); T. Aspelund (Thor); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris (Tamara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.V. Smith (Albert V.); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); J.R. O´Connell; A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Coresh (Josef); M. Li (Man); P. Freudenberger (Paul); E. Hofer (Edith); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); P. Mitchell (Paul); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); I.H. de Boer (Ian); G. Li (Guo); D.S. Siscovick (David); Z. Kutalik; T. Corre (Tanguy); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); J. Gupta (Jayanta); P.P. Kanetsky (Peter P.); S.J. Hwang; M. Olden (Matthias); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); M. de Andrade (Mariza); E.J. Atkinson (Elizabeth J.); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); S.T. Turner (Stephen); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); J. Ding (Jingzhong); Y. Liu; C. Barlassina (Christina); D. Cusi (Daniele); E. Salvi (Erika); J.A. Staessen (Jan); P.M. Ridker (Paul); H. Grallert (Harald); C. Meisinger (Christa); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); B.K. Krämer (Bernhard K.); H. Kramer (Holly); S.E. Rosas (Sylvia E.); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); H. Snieder (Harold); M. Fabiola Del Greco; A. Franke (Andre); U. Nöthlings (Ute); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); P. Van Der Harst (Pim); A. Dehghan (Abbas); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S. Sedaghat (Sanaz); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Coassin (Stefan); M. Haun (Margot); B. Kollerits (Barbara); F. Kronenberg (Florian); B. Paulweber (Bernhard); N. Aumann (Nicole); K. Endlich (Karlhans); M. Pietzner (Mike); U. Völker (Uwe); R. Rettig (Rainer); V. Chouraki (Vincent); C. Helmer (Catherine); J.-C. Lambert (Jean-Charles); M. Metzger (Marie); B. Stengel (Benedicte); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); O. Raitakari (Olli); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); A. Parsa (Afshin); M. Bochud (Murielle); I.M. Heid (Iris); W. Goessling (Wolfram); A. K̈ttgen (Anna); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); C.A. Böger (Carsten)
textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple loci associated with cross-sectional eGFR, but a systematic genetic analysis of kidney function decline over time is missing. Here we conducted a GWAS meta-analysis among 63,558 participants of European descent, initially
Bambra, C.; Pope, D.; Swami, V.; Stanistreet, D.; Roskam, A.; Kunst, A.; Scott-Samuel, A.
BACKGROUND: This study is the first to examine the relationship between gender and self-assessed health (SAH), and the extent to which this varies by socioeconomic position in different European welfare state regimes (Liberal, Corporatist, Social Democratic, Southern). METHODS: The EUROTHINE
Rütten, A.; Lüschen, G.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der
OBJECTIVES: This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rutten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in
van Keimpema, Loes; Nevens, Frederik; Adam, Rene; Porte, Robert J.; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Becker, Thomas; Kirkegaard, Preben; Metselaar, Herold J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.
Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR)
van Keimpema, Loes; Nevens, Frederik; Adam, René
Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR...
Schuurman, B.W.; Bakker, E.; Eijkman, Q.A.M.
his article empirically assesses the applicability of structural-level hypotheses for involvement in terrorism within the context of European homegrown jihadism. It uses these hypotheses to study how structural factors influenced involvement in the Dutch “Hofstadgroup.” Structural factors enabled
Dr Edwin Bakker; Quirine Eijkman; Drs Bart Schuurman
This article empirically assesses the applicability of structural-level hypotheses for involvement in terrorism within the context of European homegrown jihadism. It uses these hypotheses to study how structural factors influenced involvement in the Dutch “Hofstadgroup.” Structural factors enabled
Skeie, G.; Braaten, T.; Hjartaker, A.; Lentjes, M.; Amiano, P.; Jakszyn, P.; Pala, V.; Palanca, A.; Niekerk, E. M.; Verhagen, H.; Avloniti, K.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Nimptsch, K.; Haubrock, J.; Walker, L.; Spencer, E. A.; Roswall, N.; Olsen, A.; Wallstrom, P.; Nilsson, S.; Casagrande, C.; Deharveng, G.; Hellstrom, V.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Joensen, A. M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Martinez, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Frasca, G.; Sacerdote, C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Linseisen, J.; Schienkiewitz, A.; Welch, A. A.; Manjer, J.; Ferrari, P.; Riboli, E.; Bingham, S.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Slimani, N.
Background: Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the
Jacobs, J. H.; Krop, E. J M; Borras-Santos, A.; Zock, J. P.; Taubel, M.; Hyvarinnen, A.; Pekkanen, J.; Doekes, G.; Heederik, D. J J
Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with
Full Text Available From its inception, the Erasmus student exchange programme has been promoted by the European Commission as a “civic experience” that instils or enhances a European consciousness among participants. Recent scholarship on European identity has made similar claims about the civic significance of foreign study, yet the empirical basis for these claims remains a subject of debate. This article unpacks the logic of the civic view of Erasmus and submits the individual assumptions to empirical investigation. Based on a survey of more than 2000 respondents from 25 EU countries, this study has the advantage of being both larger and more multinational in composition than the major previous studies. The data largely support the logic of the civic view of Erasmus, demonstrating the intercultural nature of the sojourn abroad, providing compelling evidence that the Erasmus experience contributes to attitudinal changes about Europe among participants, and highlighting significant differences between the Erasmus students and those who do not study abroad when it comes to levels of support for the EU and extent of identifying as European.
RIISE, T; GRONNING, M; FERNANDEZ, O; LAUER, K; MIDGARD, R; MINDERHOUD, JM; NYLAND, H; PALFFY, G; POSER, S; AARLI, JA
The effects of initial clinical variables on short-term prognosis are analyzed in a cross-sectional study of 574 multiple sclerosis patients from 7 centers in 5 European countries. Patients with a primary progressive course had a 2.3 higher mean disability score (EDSS) than the primary remittent
The article focuses on some findings of a comparative study carried out by a network of scholars and researchers who are active in the field of intercultural education in the European context in the main "old immigration countries" (United Kingdom, France and Germany), "new immigration countries" (Italy, Spain and Greece) and…
Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J
Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children's linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO), Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade) and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990) national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (-1.91, 95% CI: -1.97 to -1.85) was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (-1.55, 95% CI: -1.61 to -1.49) (Pdiseased European children.
Ruyters, H.G.J.C.M. Slop, M. & Wegman, F.C.M. (eds.)
This report describes the results of a study carried out for the European Union. The report uses the safety principle that: (i) proper road design is crucial to prevent human errors in traffic; and (ii) less human errors will result in less accidents. The study contains the following parts: (1)
James D. Chalmers
Full Text Available Bronchiectasis is one of the most neglected diseases in respiratory medicine. There are no approved therapies and few large-scale, representative epidemiological studies. The EMBARC (European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration registry is a prospective, pan-European observational study of patients with bronchiectasis. The inclusion criterion is a primary clinical diagnosis of bronchiectasis consisting of: 1 a clinical history consistent with bronchiectasis; and 2 computed tomography demonstrating bronchiectasis. Core exclusion criteria are: 1 bronchiectasis due to known cystic fibrosis; 2 age <18 years; and 3 patients who are unable or unwilling to provide informed consent. The study aims to enrol 1000 patients by April 2016 across at least 20 European countries, and 10 000 patients by March 2020. Patients will undergo a comprehensive baseline assessment and will be followed up annually for up to 5 years with the goal of providing high-quality longitudinal data on outcomes, treatment patterns and quality of life. Data from the registry will be available in the form of annual reports. and will be disseminated in conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. The European Bronchiectasis Registry aims to make a major contribution to understanding the natural history of the disease, as well as guiding evidence-based decision making and facilitating large randomised controlled trials.
Huttner, A; Cacace, M; d'Andrea, L; Skevaki, C; Otelea, D; Pugliese, F; Tacconelli, E
To explore the social, cultural, psychological and organizational factors associated with inequality in the workplace among clinical microbiologists (CM) and infectious disease (ID) specialists in European hospitals. We analysed data from 52 interviews and five focus groups involving 82 CM/ID specialists selected from university, research or community hospitals in five countries, one each in Northern, Western, Eastern, Southeastern and Southwestern Europe. The 80 hours of recordings were transcribed, and the anonymous database coding process was cross-checked iteratively by six researchers. Inequality affects all the institutions in all the countries we looked at, denying or reducing access to professional assets with intensity and form that vary largely according to the cultural and organizational context. Discrimination is generally not explicit and uses disrespectful microbehaviours that are hard to respond to when they occur. Inequality affected also loans, distribution of research funds and gender and country representation in boards and conference faculty. Parenthood has a major impact on women's careers, as women are still mainly responsible for family care. Responses to discrimination range from reactive to surrender strategies. Our study offers an effective model for diagnosing discriminatory behaviours in a medical professional setting. Knowledge of inequality's drivers could help national ID/CM societies in collaboration with major European stakeholders to further reduce such discrimination. The effect of discrimination on the quality of healthcare in Europe needs further exploration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ungar, Michael; Manuel, Susan; Mealey, Stephanie; Thomas, Golda; Campbell, Carolyn
A study of 35 nonprofessional helpers, identified as community "guides," focused on the contribution each made to helping marginalized individuals and families become a part of their communities. The lessons learned through these lay helpers can inform a postmodern social work practice that promotes the use of indigenous practice principles…
Frieling, M.A.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Stokman, F.N.
Many local councils aim to (re)connect citizens to public planning. This article presents the Collaborative Communities through Coproduction (3C) method as a way to establish cooperation between residents and professionals in improving neighborhood livabiliy. The authors describe common challenges
Frieling, Margreet A.; Lindenberg, Siegwart M.; Stokman, Frans N.
Many local councils aim to (re)connect citizens to public planning. This article presents the Collaborative Communities through Coproduction (3C) method as a way to establish cooperation between residents and professionals in improving neighborhood livabiliy. The authors describe common challenges
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%, Spanish (59.6% and British (61.4% samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%. In those drinking 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08% was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife.
Full Text Available European wine policy is a significant factor influencing winemakers in the European Union. This paper examines perception of this policy by winemakers and other persons working in Czech wine sector on the sample of respondents. Methodological triangulation consisting of non-structured interview and semantic differential was chosen. Field research was carried out, therefore the study uses primary data. Application of the methodology along with the method of evaluation of data creates an original approach which may be applied on several other research questions. General perception of European Wine Policy is complemented with its impact on competitiveness, practical running of vineyards and winery and on future development of winery. Data is statistically evaluated within categories of respondents. Special emphasis is placed on direct payments as a controversial factor of the policy. The policy is perceived as bureaucratic (“all respondents” x = 4.56, and among micro winemakers discriminating (x = 4.5, selfish (x = 4.5 and malfunctioning (x = 3.5. “Professional” winemakers perceive the impact on competitiveness in the Czech market as rather positive (x = 2.67. This study represents pilot research on perception of European Wine Policy by owners of wineries, viticulturists, micro winemakers, a sommelier and a representative of marketing-supporting institution, conducted in the Czech Republic. The author also outlines further direction of research, as the topic is not paid enough scientific attention.
Jonsson, B; Martinalbo, J; Pignatti, F
In the development of highly active anticancer drugs, the European situation may be viewed as paradoxical. Limited data may support marketing authorization, but may be insufficient for the health economic appraisal needed for reimbursement and market uptake. To achieve this, conventional confirmatory studies may be needed. For products of special interest, studies aimed at optimizing cost-effectiveness may be warranted. Efficient designs of studies to meet these objectives constitute challenges to all stakeholders. © 2017 ASCPT.
Cyrys, J.; Eeftens, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Heinrich, J.; Ampe, C.; Armengaud, A.; Beelen, R.; Bellander, T.; Beregszaszi, T.; Birk, M.; Cesaroni, G.; Cirach, M.; de Hoogh, K.; de Nazelle, A.; de Vocht, F.; Declercq, C.; Dėdelė, A.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Eriksen, K.; Galassi, C.; Grąulevičienė, R.; Grivas, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Gustafsson, A.H.; Hoffmann, B.; Iakovides, M.; Ineichen, A.; Krämer, U.; Lanki, T.; Lozano, P.; Madsen, C.; Meliefste, K.; Modig, L.; Mölter, A.; Mosler, G.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Nonnemacher, M.; Oldenwening, M.; Peters, A.; Pontet, S.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Quass, U.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Ranzi, A.; Sugiri, D.; Stephanou, E.G.; Taimisto, P.; Tsai, M-Y.; Vaskövi, É.; Villani, S.; Wang, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480279; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475
The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe. In
Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.
Starting with a forecast for the nuclear power generating capacity to be installed in the Member States of the European Communities before the end of this century, a prediction is made of the annual production of high-level alpha-active waste from reprocessing plants and the corresponding accumulation up to the year 2000. The isotopic composition of the alpha-active waste from individual reactor types was calculated and an estimation of the influence of recycling plutonium through light water reactors on the produced quantity of higher actinides is made
The compilation comprises all legal instruments and proposals for legal instruments of the European Communities in the field of environmental protection which were incorporated in the EDP-aided compilation of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection, specialized field 'Juristic Environmental Issues'. It replaces the preceding compilations. The volume is subdivided into the sections: General information, regional development law, nature preservation law, law on water pollution control, refuse law, imission control law, atomic energy law, energy and mining law, law on dangerous materials and law on environmental health. (orig.) [de
This book examines the European Community's program for nuclear waste management and storage. Topics considered include the characterization of conditioned low and medium activity waste forms, conditioning of high activity solid waste, treatment and conditioning processes for low and medium activity liquid waste, processing of alpha-contaminated waste, testing and evaluation of solidified high activity waste forms, immobilization and storage of gaseous waste, shallow land burial of solid low activity waste, storage and disposal in geological formations, and the performance and safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposed in geological formations
Boer, de W.F.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Wang, X.; Sun, M.; Oeveren, van H.; Leeuw, de J.; Barzen, J.; Prins, H.H.T.
We compared the European and eastern Chinese waterbird assemblages and checked whether the effects of human disturbance could be detected in the assemblages’ composition. For the different Chinese provinces, we expected to find a negative effect of economic development on the mean bird species mass
Sebastian Madalin MUNTEANU; Ioana TEODORESCU
Today European Union provides member countries funds for many types of business and in particular for the development of rural environment. In this sense, this paper draws the main steps of a feasibility study for accessing European funds to develop and run a microfarm respecting sustainable development principles imposed by European Union. The work theme is based on establishment poultry farms in order to achieve and to exploit the production of eggs, of meat consumption and poultry compost ...
Seidell, J C; Cigolini, M; Deslypere, J P; Charzewska, J; Ellsinger, B M; Cruz, A.
The authors studied 512 European men all born in 1950 from six different towns in the period October 1988 to May 1989. Anthropometric measurements were taken, including weight, height, and circumferences (waist, hip, thigh). Educational level, activity scores and information on smoking habits were
Cigolini, M; Seidell, J C; Charzewska, J; Ellsinger, B M; Dibiase, G; Björntorp, P; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Contaldo, F; Szostak, V; Scuro, L A
Samples of 38-year-old women were randomly selected from five European centers: Ede (The Netherlands), Warsaw (Poland), Gothenburg (Sweden), Verona (northern Italy), and Afragola (Naples-southern Italy). In total, 452 healthy women were studied. Anthropometric measurements were taken by one operator
Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio
The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.
Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen; Cannon, Mary; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Banzer, Raphaela; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cozman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kereszteny, Agnes; Bitenc, Ursa Mars; Nemes, Bogdan; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Tubiana, Alexandra; Värnik, Peeter; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta
Background Migration has been reported to be associated with higher prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal behaviour. Aims To examine the prevalence of emotional and behavioural difficulties, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among migrant adolescents and their non-migrant peers. Method A school-based survey was completed by 11 057 European adolescents as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study. Results A previous suicide attempt was reported by 386 (3.6%) adolescents. Compared with non-migrants, first-generation migrants had an elevated prevalence of suicide attempts (odds ratio (OR) 2.08; 95% CI 1.32–3.26; P=0.001 for European migrants and OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.06–3.27; P=0.031 for non-European migrants) and significantly higher levels of peer difficulties. Highest levels of conduct and hyperactivity problems were found among migrants of non-European origin. Conclusions Appropriate mental health services and school-based supports are required to meet the complex needs of migrant adolescents. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:29234521
Strauss, Warren J; Sroka, Christopher J; Frongillo, Edward A; Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Leifer, Eric S; Wu, Colin O; Patrick, Heather; Fishbein, Howard A; John, Lisa V
The Healthy Communities Study is designed to assess relationships between characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity and children's BMI, diet, and physical activity. The study involved a complex data collection protocol implemented over a 2-year period (2013-2015) across a diverse sample of 130 communities, defined as public high school catchment areas. The protocol involved baseline assessment within each community that included in-person or telephone interviews regarding community programs and policies and in-home collection of BMI, nutritional, and physical activity outcomes from a sample of up to 81 children enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grade in public schools. The protocol also involved medical record reviews to establish a longitudinal trajectory of BMI for an estimated 70% of participating children. Staged sampling was used to collect less detailed measures of physical activity and nutrition across the entire sample of children, with a subset assessed using more costly, burdensome, and detailed measures. Data from the Healthy Community Study will be analyzed using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models that account for the complex design and correct for measurement error and bias using a likelihood-based Markov-chain Monte Carlo methodology. This methods paper provides insights into the complex design features of the Healthy Communities Study and may serve as an example for future large-scale studies that assess the relationship between community-based programs and policies and health outcomes of community residents. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Rivkin, Goldie W.; Rivkin, Malcolm D.
The timing of resettlement on Bikini Atoll and the nature of a master plan to guide construction of a new community depend on four critical determinants which are not yet definitively known. The Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee (BARC) and its consultants have been addressing three of these: a. How long it will take to restore Bikini Island, which will be the main settlement area, to a habitable state. The methods under investigation by BARC for decontaminating the island might be considered as alternatives or, possibly in combination. They vary considerably, not only with respect to cost, but also with respect to important factors such as: - how long it will take to decontaminate the island (i.e. to reduce radiation to levels acceptable within Federal standards), - the necessity of removing existing vegetation and the time and effort needed to restore environment and vegetation to a state sufficient to support a new community at a reasonable standard of amenity, - requirements for repeated or continual application of decontamination procedures (and associated risks), and - implications for potential constraints on the lifestyle of the people who resettle on Bikini Island. b. Adequacy of water resources (groundwater and rainwater catchment potential) on Bikini and Eneu Islands to support both revegetation as necessary, and a new community. c. The likely state of the Bikini people (size of the population, location(s), living conditions, financial commitments, etc.) at the time their atoll is ready for resettlement. d. The judgment and wishes of the Bikini people regarding a community plan in light of all the foregoing factors, once they become known
Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS (Franke et al., 2010, for 1 association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2 for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3 eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. Results The rs5771069 (IL17REL SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02. No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7 and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10 or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7 in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs. Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001, rs12518307 (P = 0.007, and rs2395609 (TCP11 (P = 0
Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina
This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive data collection on structural characteristics, process quality, implemented curricula and pedagogical approaches in four ECEC centers in each of the seven countries that were considered examples of ‘g...
Zaqout, Mahmoud; Michels, Nathalie; Bammann, K; Ahrens, W; Sprengeler, O; Molnar, D; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Eiben, G; Konstabel, K; Russo, P; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Moreno, LA; De Henauw, Stefaan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexib...
Biddle, Julie K.
This report presents a case study of the World of Wonders Accelerated Learning Community School (WOW). A community school in Ohio is a new kind of public school-an independent public school that is nonsectarian and nondiscriminatory. The report presents three contexts for the study--historical, local and methodological--and highlights some of the…
Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Tatsioni, Athina; Pedersen, Natalia
To determine the occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal cancers in the 1993-2009 prospective European Collaborative Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD) Study Group cohort.......To determine the occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal cancers in the 1993-2009 prospective European Collaborative Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD) Study Group cohort....
Kyncl, J.; Paget, W.J.; Havlickova, M.; Kriz, B.
Respiratory virus activity is detected in Europe each winter, yet the precise timing and size of this activity is highly unpredictable. The impact of influenza infection and/or acute respiratory infection in European countries is continuously monitored through a variety of surveillance systems. All
Batáry, P.; Báldi, A.; Sárospataki, M.; Kohler, F.; Verhulst, J.; Knop, E.; Herzog, F.; Kleijn, D.
It is now widely accepted that agricultural intensification drives the decline of biodiversity and related ecosystem services like pollination. Conservation management, such as agri-environment schemes (AES), has been introduced to counteract these declines, but in Western European countries these
Burney, P.; Summers, C.; Chinn, S.; Hooper, R.; van Ree, R.; Lidholm, J.
Background: Reports of adverse reactions to foods are increasing, but there is limited information on the comparative prevalence of sensitization to food allergens using standardized methods. Methods: Sera from the 'random sample' of young adults seen during the second phase of the European
Pedroli, Bas; Pinto Correia, Teresa; Primdahl, Jørgen
This paper addresses current changes in the highly diverse European landscape, and the way these transitions are being treated in policy and landscape management in the fragmented, heterogeneous and dynamic context of today’s Europe. It appears that intersecting driving forces are increasing the
Macklai Nejma S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the many definitions of frailty, the frailty phenotype defined by Fried et al. is one of few constructs that has been repeatedly validated: first in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS and subsequently in other large cohorts in the North America. In Europe, the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE is a gold mine of individual, economic and health information that can provide insight into better understanding of frailty across diverse population settings. A recent adaptation of the original five CHS-frailty criteria was proposed to make use of SHARE data and measure frailty in the European population. To test the validity of the SHARE operationalized frailty phenotype, this study aims to evaluate its prospective association with adverse health outcomes. Methods Data are from 11,015 community-dwelling men and women aged 60+ participating in wave 1 and 2 of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe, a population-based survey. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the 2-year follow up effect of SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype on the incidence of disability (disability-free at baseline and on worsening disability and morbidity, adjusting for age, sex, income and baseline morbidity and disability. Results At 2-year follow up, frail individuals were at increased risk for: developing mobility (OR 3.07, 95% CI, 1.02-9.36, IADL (OR 5.52, 95% CI, 3.76-8.10 and BADL (OR 5.13, 95% CI, 3.53-7.44 disability; worsening mobility (OR 2.94, 95% CI, 2.19- 3.93 IADL (OR 4.43, 95% CI, 3.19-6.15 and BADL disability (OR 4.53, 95% CI, 3.14-6.54; and worsening morbidity (OR 1.77, 95% CI, 1.35-2.32. These associations were significant even among the prefrail, but with a lower magnitude of effect. Conclusions The SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype is significantly associated with all tested health outcomes independent of baseline morbidity and disability in community-dwelling men
Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari
Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children's linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO, Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990 national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (-1.91, 95% CI: -1.97 to -1.85 was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (-1.55, 95% CI: -1.61 to -1.49 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Differences between height-for-age charts may reflect true population differences, but are also strongly affected by the secular trend in height. The choice of reference charts substantially affects the clinical decision whether a child is considered short-for-age. Therefore, we advocate using recent national or European height-for-age charts derived from recent national data when monitoring growth
... address the need for a cross- cutting national study of community programs and policies and their... nutrition, physical activity, and healthy weight of children), food service personnel, physical education...
... HCS will address the need for a cross-cutting national study of community programs and policies and... to healthy nutrition, physical activity, and healthy weight of children), food service personnel...
Work and Learning in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises. A Comparative Study on the Relationship between Technological and Organisational Developments and Training Activities in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises in Four European Countries. Synthesis Report. CEDEFOP Panorama.
van den Tillaart, Harry; van den Berg, Sjaak; Warmerdam, John
Work and learning in microenterprises in the car repair industries of four European Community (EC) countries were examined through 21 case studies of firms with 10 or fewer employees (6 firms in Ireland and 5 each in Greece, the Netherlands, and Spain). Structured interviews were conducted with each firm's owner and 60 motor vehicle mechanics at…
Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED)
Dinis-Ribeiro, M.; Areia, M.; de Vries, A. C.; Marcos-Pinto, R.; Monteiro-Soares, M.; O'Connor, A.; Pereira, C.; Pimentel-Nunes, P.; Correia, R.; Ensari, A.; Dumonceau, J. M.; Machado, J. C.; Macedo, G.; Malfertheiner, P.; Matysiak-Budnik, T.; Megraud, F.; Miki, K.; O'Morain, C.; Peek, R. M.; Ponchon, T.; Ristimaki, A.; Rembacken, B.; Carneiro, F.; Kuipers, E. J.
Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods. PMID:22198778
Asmi, A.; Sorvari, S.; Kutsch, W. L.; Laj, P.
European long-term environmental research infrastructures (often referred as ESFRI RIs) are the core facilities for providing services for scientists in their quest for understanding and predicting the complex Earth system and its functioning that requires long-term efforts to identify environmental changes (trends, thresholds and resilience, interactions and feedbacks). Many of the research infrastructures originally have been developed to respond to the needs of their specific research communities, however, it is clear that strong collaboration among research infrastructures is needed to serve the trans-boundary research requires exploring scientific questions at the intersection of different scientific fields, conducting joint research projects and developing concepts, devices, and methods that can be used to integrate knowledge. European Environmental research infrastructures have already been successfully worked together for many years and have established a cluster - ENVRI cluster - for their collaborative work. ENVRI cluster act as a collaborative platform where the RIs can jointly agree on the common solutions for their operations, draft strategies and policies and share best practices and knowledge. Supporting project for the ENVRI cluster, ENVRIplus project, brings together 21 European research infrastructures and infrastructure networks to work on joint technical solutions, data interoperability, access management, training, strategies and dissemination efforts. ENVRI cluster act as one stop shop for multidisciplinary RI users, other collaborative initiatives, projects and programmes and coordinates and implement jointly agreed RI strategies.
Policies for energy and the environment in Europe were previously the preserve of national governments, but the Commission of the European Community has gained a role in both policy areas in the past few years. This was due to the 1987 Single European Act which, in effect, extends the writ of competition law throughout the energy and other previously excluded sectors, expresses the desire to reduce acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions, and reaffirms Europe's renewed concern for long-term oil and gas supply security after the Gulf War and the disintegration of the USSR. The Commission's proposals for the unified internal energy market were driven by concern for competition and free market forces, and seemed to exclude any scope for long-term policy considerations. This paper argues that the implementation of those proposals will be uneven and protracted, and that the Commission's more recent proposals for reducing CO 2 emissions and the European Energy Charter appear to mark positive steps towards a long-term strategy for a clean environment, energy efficiency, and oil and gas supply security. 27 refs., 4 tabs
Stephens, D. G.; Powell, C. A.
The noise effects programs objective is to develop aircraft noise criteria and noise reduction methods for achieving greater community and passenger acceptance of air transportation systems. The approach consists of laboratory tests to subjectively evaluate the properties of aircraft-generated noise that are responsible for causing annoyance and field surveys to study the broader problems of community and passenger acceptability. The program is organized into two major thrusts: community acceptance and passenger acceptance. The community acceptance includes subjective response studies of single and multiple aircraft overflights as well as longer term community noise exposure. Emphasis is on the development of units and indices which accurately quantify annoyance. The passenger acceptance program includes studies to determine acceptably levels of interior noise and vibration for speech intelligibility and comfort of crew and passengers. Selected results from several recent studies are presented to indicate the nature, scope, and methods of the research program.
Full Text Available The phenological study on the onset and duration of individual phenological phases of European larch (Larix decidua Mill. has been performed using sample trees growing in the research station of the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, MUAF Brno for altogether 15 years. This study involves also recording of meteorological data. In this region, the European larch is an introduced woody species and its share in the stand composition is approximately 8%. In European larch, the phenological stages have a markedly periodic character but they are also largely dependent on a complex of exogenous conditions, especially of climatic effects; this was corroborated also in studies on the phenology of other forest tree species growing in this region. Results of this phenological study demonstrated that the spring phenophases were influenced above all by air temperatures while the autumn ones were dependent, besides temperatures and precipitation, also on the duration of assimilation apparatus activities. The onset of breaking of needles occurred between Days 89 and the 110 of the calendar year. A full development of the assimilation area was reached between Days 125 and 150. The onset of individual phenophases was determined by threshold air temperatures, which were markedly different in individual forest trees. This requirement could be expressed at best by the sum of effective temperatures (i.e. air temperatures above 5 °C. In the analysed fifteen-year study period, the sum of effective temperatures for European larch ranged from 1 301.0 to 2 337.0 °C within the period delimited by dates of the flushing and 100-percent fall (abscission of needles.Results of a long-term phenologic monitoring of forest woody species may be used when evaluating the condition of forest stands from the viewpoint of expected global climatic changes.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to learn more about the physical activity habits of participants in a popular sporting event such as European Sports Day, which is held simultaneously in five European countries (Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Ireland, and Hungary, and to measure the influence of socio-demographic variables on these habits. This is a cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of 856 participants, stratified by gender, age, and nationality. We statistically analyzed five variables related to physical activity habits: frequency of physical activity practice, places of practice, motives of practice, perceived fitness level, and popular event attendance. Of the participants, 76.8% said they perform physical activity weekly. Fitness/health improvement (34.63% and entertainment/leisure (26.52% are the main reasons for the practice of physical activity. Age and nationality are differentiating factors on physical activity habits.
of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from the literature, it is shown that the concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor that are not met by most other international actors and that this curtails analysis of EU foreign policy......This book argues that theories of European foreign policy are performative: they create the objects they analyse.The book first outlines the performativity approach to the role of theories based on the work of Derrida. It then examines the performative role of Christopher Hill's concept....... It then demonstrates that the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap’ in different forms affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR....
Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan
The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)
Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology P.O. Box 7032 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)
The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)
Casteleyn, L; Dumez, B; Becker, K
data from 1844 mother-child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES).(1) Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate...... study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context....... A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next...
Lera, L; Albala, C; Sánchez, H; Angel, B; Hormazabal, M J; Márquez, C; Arroyo, P
Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of mass and skeletal muscle strength and has serious consequences on older people's health. The Chilean older population has a high life-expectancy, but the prevalence of functional dependence is also high. To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chilean older adults and its relationship with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional study. Community. 1,006 non-disabled, community-dwelling subjects aged 60 years or older living in Santiago. Anthropometric measurements, handgrip strength, physical performance tests, and dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) scan were performed. Sarcopenia was defined using the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Muscle mass was measured with DXA scan; skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and hand dynamometry were defined with cut-off points obtained for the Chilean population. For a 3m walking speed we used the cut-off point of the EWGSOP definition. Nutritional status and obesity were defined according to World Health Organization standards. Association between sarcopenia and age, gender, BMI and lean/fat mass ratio was estimated by logistic regression models. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 19.1% (95%CI: 16.8%-21.8%), similar in men and women. There was an increasing trend of sarcopenia by age group and a decreasing trend with nutritional status. After logistic regression, sarcopenia was positively associated with age (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.06-1.15) and falls (OR=1.83; 95%CI:1.07-3.15) and negatively associated with overweight (OR=0.31; 95%CI:0.16-0.59), obesity (OR=0.02; 95%CI:0.004-0.11), lean mass/fat mass ratio (OR=0.69; 95%CI:0.48-0.9997), knee height (OR=0.78; 95%CI:0.68-0.89) and calf circumference (OR=0.87; 95%CI:0.77-0.97). The total prevalence of sarcopenia was 19.1% increasing with age reaching 39.6% in people of 80 or more years of age. A negative association of sarcopenia with overweight, obesity and lean/fat mass ratio was
Full Text Available Intergovernmental collaboration in the area of big science has been an important resource for European science since the 1950s. Yet, as a policy area, it has traditionally been left outside of the political integration work of the European Community/Union. Despite this formal detachment, the political realities of the collaborations often draw upon and reflect the (geopolitical dynamics of Europe. This article reports on a study of two big projects in the making (the European Spallation Source and the European X-ray Free Electron Laser, and uses two historical cases for comparison (the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It highlights critical issues in establishing and operating collaborations, relates these to the broader context of European political integration, and discusses, on the basis of this, signs of continuity and change in this distinct area of European research policy.
Jaeggi, Adrian; Weigelt, Matthias; Flechtner, Frank; Guentner, Andreas; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Martinis, Sandro; Bruinsma, Sean; Flury, Jakob; Bourgogne, Stephane
A proposal for a European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) has been submitted in response to the Earth Observation Call EO-1-2014 of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. The EGSIEM project has recently started in January 2015. We present the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.
Qualification, training, licensing/authorization and retraining of operating personnel in nuclear power plants. Noteworthy topics identified by evaluation of the practices in countries of the European Communities
Kraut, A.; Pfeffer, W.
In the report EUR 10118 '' Qualification, training, licensing and retraining of operating shift personnel in nuclear power plants'' the current practice in the countries of the European Communities as well as the procedures and programmes applied in Sweden, Switzerland and the USA are outlined and evaluated. The intent was to derive fundamental and generally valid concepts concerning shift-staff training and other relevant aspects. Those items were identified that seemed to be noteworthy because they give some guidance on how to achieve and maintain the qualification of the shift staff of NPPs or how to improve the staffing of the control room. These noteworthy topics identified by evaluation of the practice in countries of the European Communities and also elsewhere are presented in the publication at hand. The report addresses the following topics: tasks of the shift personnel, nomenclature for different grades of the personnel; shift staffing and staffing of the control room; criteria for personnel selection when recruiting new shift staff; personnel qualification necessary for recruitment; training of shift personnel; retraining and preservation of qualification standards; training facilities, especially simulators; responsibility for training; licensing/authorization; retirement from shift work. Consideration of these more general aspects and concepts may lead to improvement in training. The job descriptions given in the Annex to the document are only intended to give a general understanding of the typical designations, tasks and responsibilities of shift staff
Owens, Graham John
The aim of this research project is to study corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting from organisations whose base country is in one of eleven countries in the proposed enlarged European Union (EU). Five of the countries awaiting formal entry to the EU, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and Slovenia, whilst the other six have been members for a number of years, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Ireland, Spain and Portugal. The paper investigates the reporting of...
Finklea, II, James; Kegel, Jakob
Background: Since the airline deregulation was completed in 1997, a new business model has emerged in the European civil aviation industry. It has caused a shift in the way people travel within Europe. The airlines operating under this new business model known as point-to-point, have created a new outlet for commercial passenger travel and raised concerns for established flag carriers. Problem: This study is of great importance due to the fact that people are traveling more frequently and wis...
Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.
This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthi...... and our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems....
Charrault, J.C.; Orlowski, S.
The present situation of the nuclear fuel industry and supply is said to be unsatisfactory in many parts of the world; as far as the European Community is concerned, the main facts or expectations are: - a global policy aiming at diversification of energy sources and, subsequently, at a rapidly increasing demand for nuclear fuel; - a large natural uranium dependency from foreign sources and possible supply problems in the late eighties if the discovery of new deposits is not increased and encouraged; enriched uranium needs already covered by contracts till the middle of the next decade, with an increasing participation of the two European industrial groupings Eurodif and Urenco; - a shortage of reprocessing capacities beginning the next decade due to some technical problems, but mainly due to the recently confirmed non-profit character of reprocessing for the years to come; - general safety and environmental problems linked with the closure of the fuel cycle, like an adequate management and disposal of the radioactive waste and a safe Plutonium industry; and - an increased international control on special fissile materials and strategic nuclear equipment. The Euratom treaty provides procedures and instruments to deal with a large part of these questions. The CEC role in promoting a continous and adequate development of the European nuclear fuel industry is presented and its different aspects analysed. Coordinated Research and Development efforts with convenient CEC budget allocations or within the Joint Research Center of the Commission, harmonization and setting of health normes and safety rules and international conventions, special loans or financial procedures to ease shortage of money for industrial high risk or low-return nuclear investments, promotion of industrial cooperation, the special role of the CEC supply Agency in the supply of fissile materials, and Euratom safeguards activities are reported. They form a comprehensive set of actions at the Community
Pascault, Noémie; Roux, Simon; Artigas, Joan; Pesce, Stéphane; Leloup, Julie; Tadonleke, Rémy D; Debroas, Didier; Bouchez, Agnès; Humbert, Jean-François
The pollution of lakes and rivers by pesticides is a growing problem worldwide. However, the impacts of these substances on microbial communities are still poorly understood, partly because next-generation sequencing (NGS) has rarely been used in an ecotoxicology context to study bacterial communities despite its interest for accessing rare taxa. Microcosm experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of tebuconazole (TBZ) on the structure and composition of bacterial communities from two types of freshwater ecosystem (lakes and rivers) with differing histories of pollutant contamination (pristine vs. previously exposed sites). Pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial diversity was higher in the river than in the lakes and in previously exposed sites than in pristine sites. Lakes and river stations shared very few OTUs, and differences at the phylum level were identified between these ecosystems (i.e. the relative importance of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria). Despite differences between these ecosystems and their contamination history, no significant effect of TBZ on bacterial community structure or composition was observed. Compared to functional parameters that displayed variable responses, we demonstrated that a combination of classical methods and NGS is necessary to investigate the ecotoxicological responses of microbial communities to pollutants. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haagsma, J A; Geenen, P L; Ethelberg, S; Fetsch, A; Hansdotter, F; Jansen, A; Korsgaard, H; O'Brien, S J; Scavia, G; Spitznagel, H; Stefanoff, P; Tam, C C; Havelaar, A H
By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the healthcare system in seven European Union member states in relation to pathogen characteristics that influence healthcare seeking. Data on healthcare usage were obtained by harmonized cross-sectional surveys. The degree of under-diagnosis and underreporting varied by pathogen and country. Overall, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach are adjusted for biases due to different surveillance systems and are therefore a better basis for international comparisons than reported data.
Haagsma, J. A.; Geenen, P. L.; Ethelberg, S.
By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the hea......By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data......, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach...
Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.
Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…
Cade, John A.; Heller, Henry B.
This report presents findings and recommendations from a study conducted by the Maryland General Assembly examining options for increasing state formula aid and changing the distribution of aid to the state's 18 community colleges. Following a letter of transmittal providing background information on community college financing, the report…
Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Paluta, Lauren; Sterling, Karen; Anderson, Carol
Using mixed methods, this case study explored outcomes associated with the adoption and implementation of a community schools approach in four Title I schools using the Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement. Trends in school data demonstrate academic achievement improvements in three of the four schools. Absenteeism and the number…
The literature identifies three main types of peer associations: cliques, crowds, and dyadic friendships. When schools create learning communities, an additional type of peer association may emerge that is not based on interactions but instead is based on membership in a shared community. The aim of this study is to qualitatively explore the…
Woitha, Kathrin; Hasselaar, Jeroen; van Beek, Karen; Radbruch, Lukas; Jaspers, Birgit; Engels, Yvonne; Vissers, Kris
In Europe, volunteers have an important role in the delivery of palliative care. As part of the EU co-funded Europall project, 4 aspects of volunteering in palliative care were studied for 7 European countries (Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain). These included (1) involvement of volunteers in palliative care, (2) organization of palliative care volunteering, (3) legal regulations concerning volunteering, and (4) education and training of palliative care volunteering. A literature search combined with an interview study. Information from the scientific literature, and country-specific policy documents were obtained and completed, along with data of consecutive semi-structured interviews with experts in the field of palliative care in the participating countries. In all countries, volunteers appeared to be involved in palliative care, yet their involvement across health care settings differed per country. England, for example, has the highest number of volunteers whereas Spain has the lowest number. Volunteering is embedded in law and regulations in all participating countries except for England and the Netherlands. In all participating countries, training programs are available and volunteers are organized, both on a national and a regional level. This study provides a descriptive overview of volunteer work in palliative care in 7 European countries, with a focus on the organizational aspects. Further research should concentrate on the roles and responsibilities of volunteers in the care for the terminally ill in different European health systems. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Vries, H. de; Riet, J.P. van 't; Panday, S.; Reubsaet, A.
This study analyzed possibilities to access European adolescents for tobacco control activities in out-of-school settings as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs. Data on leisure time behaviors of secondary school students were gathered during three waves from six European Union countries
Sandsjö, L; Larsman, P; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R
There is a lack of consistent and comprehensive questionnaire forms for the studies of factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders at the European level. One of the results of the EU-funded project, neuromuscular assessment in the elderly worker (NEW), is a set of questionnaires...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Results Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5 positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy
Roques, Fabien; Perekhodtsev, Dmitri; Verhaeghe, Charles
The European Commission (EC) has launched a study in order to provide a complete and consistent view on the subsidies and external costs associated with different power generation technologies. Such study is expected to provide input for policy making in years to come. FTI CL Energy has been mandated by EDF to provide a critical review of the methodology developed in the EC study, and to identify potential gaps in coverage and/or contestable assumptions. The study provides a description of best practice to improve the methodology and surveys the literature to provide a range of estimates for critical assumptions on costs and subsidies
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to compare the self-regulatory systems of the journalistic profession in Austria, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, France and Poland. Based on the analysis of the different cases and situations in these seven countries, we offer a comparative analysis of the existence of: ethical codes, pro-consumers associations, print and audiovisual press councils, level of organization and unionism among journalists. The results reveal deficiencies in the European systems as well as progressions in the implementation of self-regulation tools in the journalistic profession, mainly in the field of print and audiovisual media. In most European countries under study, online newspapers lack self-regulatory tools, except for the regulation coming from their parent print or broadcast media companies.
Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J
Protozoa-associated methanogens (PAM) are considered one of the most active communities in the rumen methanogenesis. This experiment investigated whether methanogens are sequestrated within rumen protozoa, and structural differences between rumen free-living methanogens and PAM. Rumen protozoa were harvested from totally faunated sheep, and six protozoal fractions (plus free-living microorganisms) were generated by sequential filtration. Holotrich-monofaunated sheep were also used to investigate the holotrich-associated methanogens. Protozoal size determined the number of PAM as big protozoa had 1.7-3.3 times more methanogen DNA than smaller protozoa, but also more endosymbiotic bacteria (2.2- to 3.5-fold times). Thus, similar abundance of methanogens with respect to total bacteria were observed across all protozoal fractions and free-living microorganisms, suggesting that methanogens are not accumulated within rumen protozoa in a greater proportion to that observed in the rumen as a whole. All rumen methanogen communities had similar diversity (22.2 ± 3.4 TRFs). Free-living methanogens composed a conserved community (67% similarity within treatment) in the rumen with similar diversity but different structures than PAM (P methane mitigation strategies. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March
Heinemann Lothar AJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background The post marketing safety surveillance program for a drug containing a new chemical entity should assess both, the safety outcomes that relate specifically to the targeted population, as well as those that could potentially be related to special pharmacological characteristics of the drug. Active safety surveillance using valid epidemiological study designs has been proven to be a pertinent and reliable method to approach this endeavor. Methods/design The primary objective of the study is to compare incidence rates of serious adverse events in users of all types of newly prescribed oral HRT products. This active surveillance study will assess pertinent cardiovascular outcomes - in particular venous and arterial thromboembolism - and other serious adverse events (SAEs in new HRT users over a period of several years. One product under surveillance is Angeliq®, which contains the novel progestagen drospirenone (DRSP combined with estradiol. In addition, all other oral combined HRT products with a novel progestagen or estrogen that will be newly marketed during the study period will be studied. These new HRT products will be compared with established HRT products. The combined cohort will include at least 30,000 women recruited in several European countries. At least 90,000 years of observation are expected from the field work which started in early 2002 and will end around 2008. The participating women will complete a baseline survey using a self-administered questionnaire to describe the baseline risk. After 6 months, 12 months, and then on an annual basis, they will fill out a questionnaire in which they record complaints and events during the use of the prescribed HRTs. All adverse outcomes occurring during the observational period will be evaluated. Discussion A complete lifetime medical history, individually validated SAEs over time, and a low loss to follow-up rate are essential for a robust safety assessment. Therefore
van Bijnen, Evelien M E; den Heijer, Casper D J; Paget, W John; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Verheij, Robert A; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Pringle, Mike; Goossens, Herman; Schellevis, François G
Over 90% of all antibiotics in Europe are prescribed in primary care. It is important that antibiotics are prescribed that are likely to be effective; however, information about antibiotic resistance in the community is incomplete. The aim of our study is to investigate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in primary care in Europe by collecting and combining patterns of antibiotic resistance patterns and antibiotic prescription patterns in primary care. We will also evaluate the appropriateness of national antibiotic prescription guidelines in relation to resistance patterns. Antibiotic resistance will be studied in an opportunistic sample from the community in nine European countries. Resistance data will be collected by taking a nose swab of persons (N = 4,000 per country) visiting a primary care practice for a non-infectious disease. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae will be isolated and tested for resistance to a range of antibiotics in one central laboratory. Data on antibiotic prescriptions over the past 5 years will be extracted from the electronic medical records of General Practitioners (GPs). The results of the study will include the prevalence and resistance data of the two species and 5 years of antibiotic prescription data in nine European countries. The odds of receiving an effective antibiotic in each country will be calculated as a measure for the appropriateness of prescribing. Multilevel analysis will be used to assess the appropriateness of prescribing. Relevant treatment guidelines of the nine participating countries will be evaluated using a standardized instrument and related to the resistance patterns in that country. This study will provide valuable and unique data concerning resistance patterns and prescription behaviour in primary care in nine European countries. It will provide evidence-based recommendations for antibiotic treatment guidelines that take resistance patterns into account which will be useful for
Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the environmental status of European marine waters to be assessed using biodiversity as one out of 11 descriptors, but the complexity of marine biodiversity and its large span across latitudinal and salinity gradients have been a challenge to the scientific community aiming to produce approaches for integrating information from a broad range of indicators. The Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool (NEAT, developed for the integrated assessment of the status of marine waters, was applied to ten marine ecosystems to test its applicability and compare biodiversity assessments across the four European regional seas. We evaluate the assessment results as well as the assessment designs of the ten cases, and how the assessment design, particularly the choices made regarding the area and indicator selection, affected the results. The results show that only 2 out of the 10 case study areas show more than 50 % probability of being in good status in respect of biodiversity. No strong pattern among the ecosystem components across the case study areas could be detected, but marine mammals, birds, and benthic vegetation indicators tended to indicate poor status while zooplankton indicators indicated good status when included into the assessment. The analysis shows that the assessment design, including the selection of indicators, their target values, geographical resolution and habitats to be assessed, has potentially a high impact on the result, and the assessment structure needs to be understood in order to make an informed assessment. Moreover, recommendations are provided for the best practice of using NEAT for marine status assessments.
Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.
Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan
Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings. PMID:28561767
Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan
Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty-which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home-the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.
Roosma, Femke; Gelissen, John; van Oorschot, Wim
When evaluating the various aspects of the welfare state, people assess some aspects more positively than others. Following a multidimensional approach, this study systematically argues for a framework composed of seven dimensions of the welfare state, which are subject to the opinions of the public. Using confirmatory factor analyses, this conceptual framework of multidimensional welfare attitudes was tested on cross-national data from 22 countries participating in the 2008 European Social Survey. According to our empirical analysis, attitudes towards the welfare state are multidimensional; in general, people are very positive about the welfare state's goals and range, while simultaneously being critical of its efficiency, effectiveness and policy outcomes. We found that these dimensions relate to each other differently in different countries. Eastern/Southern Europeans combine a positive attitude towards the goals and role of government with a more critical attitude towards the welfare state's efficiency and policy outcomes. In contrast, Western/Northern Europeans' attitudes towards the various welfare state dimensions are based partly on a fundamentally positive or negative stance towards the welfare state.
Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Redondo Cornejo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez Pérez, María José; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W J; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio
The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study. 10 European countries. 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95]; P for trend coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.90]; P for trend coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; γ-glutamyltransferase; and, in women, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes. This relationship did not vary by country. European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers and International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards
Zoi Dorothea Pana
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucormycosis has emerged as a rare but frequently fatal invasive fungal disease. Current knowledge on paediatric mucormycosis is based on case reports and small series reported over several decades. Contemporary data on a large cohort of patients is lacking. Methods Two large international registries (Zygomyco.net and FungiScope™ were searched for mucormycosis cases in ≤19 year-old patients. Cases enrolled between 2005 and 2014 were extracted, and dual entries in the two databases merged. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management and final outcome were recorded and analysed with SPSS v.12. Results Sixty-three unique cases (44 proven and 19 probable were enrolled from 15 countries (54 in European and 9 in non-European countries. Median age was 13 years [Interquartile Range (IQR 7.7] with a slight predominance (54.1 % of females. Underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (46 %, other malignancies (6.3 %, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (15.9 %, solid organ transplantation, trauma/surgery and diabetes mellitus (4.8 % each and a variety of other diseases (7.9 %; in 9.5%, no underlying medical condition was found. Neutropenia was recorded in 46 % of the patients. The main sites of infection were lungs (19 %, skin and soft tissues (19 %, paranasal sinus/sino-orbital region (15.8 % and rhino-cerebral region (7.9 %. Disseminated infection was present in 38.1 %. Mucormycosis diagnosis was based on several combinations of methods; culture combined with histology was performed in 31 cases (49.2 %. Fungal isolates included Rhizopus spp. (39.7 %, Lichtheimia spp. (17.5 %, Mucor spp. (12.7 %, Cunninghamella bertholletiae (6.3 % and unspecified (23.8 %. Treatment comprised amphotericin B (AmB monotherapy in 31.7 % or AmB in combination with other antifungals in 47.7 % of the cases, while 14.3 % received no antifungals. Surgery alone was performed in 6.3 %, and combined
de van der Schueren, M A E; Wijnhoven, H A H; Kruizenga, H M; Visser, M
With the rapidly increasing number of malnourished older persons in the community, this review aims to summarize the effects of nutritional intervention studies for this target group. Based on 2 previous reviews (2009, 2011) an update of the literature was performed. Selected were higher quality studies which included malnourished community dwelling older adults who received dietetic counselling and/or oral nutritional supplements. Ten studies were included. Six studies showed (trends towards) weight gain. Meta-analysis showed a modest effect of the intervention on weight gain, standardized mean difference 0.210 kg (95% CI 0.03-0.40). Effects on other relevant functional and clinical outcomes were inconsistent. Studies were hampered by low sample sizes, low adherence to the interventions, and participants not meeting nutritional requirements. Currently, nutritional intervention studies for malnourished community dwelling older adults show limited effects, which may be caused by methodological shortcomings and participants not meeting treatment goals. High quality studies are eagerly awaited to be able to identify (sub)groups of older persons who are most likely to benefit from nutritional support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available European Years are a means of promoting European issues at a macro and micro-level. The objective of this paper is to provide the visual differences in the framing of the issue of volunteering at a European and national level. The approach focuses on a blending of two qualitative research methods in visual communication: ATLAS.ti (computer assisted/ aided qualitative data analysis software and social semiotics. The results of our analysis highlight two network views on volunteering promoted through videos, a salience of transactional processes in the implementation of volunteering at a European and national level, and a classification of various types of social practices specific to Romania. This study provides an insight into the way in which two different qualitative methods may be combined in order to provide a visual representation and interpretation to a European issue.
Corona, Giovanni; Lee, David M; Forti, Gianni; O'Connor, Daryl B; Maggi, Mario; O'Neill, Terence W; Pendleton, Neil; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Boonen, Steven; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E J; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C W
Limited information is available concerning the general and sexual health status of European men. To investigate the age-related changes in general and sexual health in middle-aged and older men from different countries of the European Union. This is a cross-sectional multicenter survey performed on a sample of 3,369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years old (mean 60 + or - 11 years). Subjects were randomly selected from eight European centers including centers from nontransitional (Florence [Italy], Leuven [Belgium], Malmö[Sweden], Manchester [United Kingdom], Santiago de Compostela [Spain]) and transitional countries (Lodz [Poland], Szeged [Hungary], Tartu [Estonia]). Different parameters were evaluated including the Beck's Depression Inventory for the quantification of depressive symptoms, the Short Form-36 Health Survey for the assessment of the quality of life (QoL), the International Prostate Symptom Score for the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms, and the European Male Ageing Study sexual function questionnaire for the study of sexual function. More than 50% of subjects reported the presence of one or more common morbidities. Overall, hypertension (29%), obesity (24%), and heart diseases (16%) were the most prevalent conditions. Around 30% of men reported erectile dysfunction (ED) and 6% reported severe orgasmic impairment, both of which were closely associated with age and concomitant morbidities. Only 38% of men reporting ED were concerned about it. Furthermore, concern about ED increased with age, peaking in the 50-59 years age band, but decreased thereafter. Men in transitional countries reported a higher prevalence of morbidities and impairment of sexual function as well as a lower QoL. Sexual health declined while concomitant morbidities increased in European men as a function of age. The burden of general and sexual health is higher in transitional countries, emphasizing the need to develop more effective strategies to promote healthy
The Chernobyl accident on 26th April 1986 reminded the world that the threat coming from nuclear power-plants is not fictitious. The societies of the neighbouring countries suffered a real shock caused not only by the accident itself, but also by the fact that information was restricted and hardly available. Even now, our knowledge about the scale and consequences of the accident is limited. After the accident many international organizations and institutions dealing with environment protection and others started to investigate different aspects of this case. As a result of this interest, many symposia and conferences have been organized. The aim has been not only to estimate the consequences of this single case, to investigate the level of environment protection or to elaborate the new, better methods of environment monitoring. Also moral, legal and psychological aspects of the situation are being investigated. The territory of Poland, lying close to the accident place, suffered its direct influence. Thus, not only government and scientific institutions deal with the subject, but there is also a growing interest of the society, which demands more and more reliable information about the Chernobyl accident effects. Many Central- and East-European countries are in similar situation. Following general interest of Chernobyl accident effects, the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (Poland) and the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana (Yugoslavia) organized on 17-19th September 1990 in Kazimierz on the Vistula (Poland) a joint international conference having the character of workshop. The conference was organized on the basis of already existing scientific collaboration of these institutions with the co-operation of the European Community (Brussels, Belgium) and International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna, Austria)
Full Text Available The analyses carried out both at the centre (Brussels and at the destination (member states (abuse of the principle that in public expenditure terms “spent money means well-spent money” and consider that absorption capacity equals economic performance (equated quite disputably with disparity reduction. The aggregate Keynesian perspective provides the main argument in favour of this interpretation: EU funds lead to GDP growth (economic growth. This vision overlooks the crucial importance of resource allocation micro-processes, private property and business activity. Therewith, the process of making European funds profitable and, consequently, the EU convergence feasible depends on the extent to which the absorption environment is structurally reformed. The “cohesion paradox,” which can be formulated like “least underdeveloped regions have relatively higher chances to attract European funds, while disparities compared to relatively less developed regions might even intensify”, can be broken only through multi-dimensional reform, immaterial to whether we speak about Romania, or Ireland, or Portugal, or Spain, or Greece.
Full Text Available Background: Elderly prefer to be in their own homes rather than being in hospital or residential homes. Communication between elderly and community nurses is essential in caring and mutual interaction andmodern technologies like MELCO provides the elderly the feeling of independence and safety.Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the social community model within the objectives of the MELCO project and its application within the community.Methodology: Three axes were taken in consideration: a ontology, b ecological theory and c social network and information systems analyses for the development of the social community model. Fourelderly women participated as a case study in piloting the mobile virtual system. The participants also responded to a short closed ended questionnaire.Results: The analysis of the questionnaire and the discussions with the participants showed that elders found the mobile system useful, easy to use and expressed the actual use of this would help them maintain active. Participants concern of social isolation or dependency on others seems to be trounced through the use of the mobile technology.Conclusions: MELCO social community model is a centric network that enables effective management and collaboration of social and health care teams around the elderly in the community. The teams arevirtual, dynamic and collaborative.
Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa
OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099
Shephard, Samuel; Rindorf, Anna; Dickey-Collas, Mark
Pelagic fish are key elements in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. We develop a suite of ecological indicators that track pelagic fish community state and evaluate state of specific objectives against Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria. Indicat...
Marty, F.; van Loosdrecht, M.; Muyzer, G.; Skovhus, T.L.; Caffrey, S.M.; Hubert, C.R.J.
The microbial communities associated with different corrosion deposit layers retrieved from a harbour steel structure affected by ALWC (Accelerated Low Water Corrosion) were determined by 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE analysis. Comparative analysis of populations associated with ALWC layers and NLWC (Normal Low
Riboli, E.; Hunt, K.J.; Slimani, N.
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is an ongoing multi-centre prospective cohort study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, with the potential for studying other diseases as well. The study currently includes 519 978 participa......The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is an ongoing multi-centre prospective cohort study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, with the potential for studying other diseases as well. The study currently includes 519 978...... was collected through a non-dietary questionnaire on lifestyle variables and through a dietary questionnaire addressing usual diet. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples taken, from which plasma, serum, red cells and buffy coat fractions were separated and aliquoted for long-term storage......, mostly in liquid nitrogen. To calibrate dietary measurements, a standardised, computer-assisted 24-hour dietary recall was implemented at each centre on stratified random samples of the participants, for a total of 36 900 subjects. EPIC represents the largest single resource available today world...
.... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...
When radioactive material is handled, treated, administered or stored, and spills or residues and contamination are foreseeable, there must be ways and means of distinguishing between a radioactive waste which needs no further registration and one needing appropriate control and regulation. This report examines the actual situation of exemption from regulatory control for unrestricted or conditional release for disposal of some radioactive waste produced outside the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly in hospitals, research and industry. Recently introduced dose-based and risk-based approaches to exemption are then summarized and their application to radioactive waste produced outside the nuclear fuel cycle is reviewed. It has been shown that current practices are generally safe, but that there is a clear need for harmonization among European Community Member States of exemption levels based on sound radiological protection criteria. 24 refs
This thesis argues that the nuclear safeguards system implemented by EURATOM in Western Europe has come to fruition as a result of a complex political process. This process has involved negotiations over the exact limits on safeguards interventions into the nuclear affairs of the European Community. There are two dimensions to these negotiations. On the one hand, they involve EURATOM and its member states over the necessary limits on safeguards intervention in member states' domestic nuclear affairs. On the other, there are negotiations between EURATOM and several actors outside the region, particularly the International Atomic Energy Agency. The thesis concludes by arguing that international safeguards organisations, of which EURATOM is a regional example, have made important contributions to arms control and international security. In the process, certain kinds of precedents and procedures which have potential for broader application have been established. (author)
Franse, Carmen B; Voorham, Antonius J J; van Staveren, Rob; Koppelaar, Elin; Martijn, Rens; Valía-Cotanda, Elisa; Alhambra-Borrás, Tamara; Rentoumis, Tasos; Bilajac, Lovorka; Marchesi, Vanja Vasiljev; Rukavina, Tomislav; Verma, Arpana; Williams, Greg; Clough, Gary; Garcés-Ferrer, Jorge; Mattace Raso, Francesco; Raat, Hein
Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living and quality of life. In the Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE) project, five European cities (Greater Manchester, United Kingdom; Pallini (in Greater Athens Area), Greece; Rijeka, Croatia; Rotterdam, the Netherlands; and Valencia, Spain) develop and implement a care template that integrates health and social care and includes a preventive approach. The UHCE project includes an effect and process evaluation. In a one-year pre-post controlled trial, in each city 250 participants aged 75+ years are recruited to receive the UHCE approach and are compared with 250 participants who receive 'care as usual'. Benefits of UHCE approach in terms of healthy life styles, fall risk, appropriate medication use, loneliness level and frailty, and in terms of level of independence and health-related quality of life and health care use are assessed. A multilevel modeling approach is used for the analyses. The process evaluation is used to provide insight into the reach of the target population, the extent to which elements of the UHCE approach are executed as planned and the satisfaction of the participants. The UHCE project will provide new insight into the feasibility and effectiveness of an integrated care approach for older persons in different European settings. ISRCTN registry number is ISRCTN52788952 . Date of registration is 13/03/2017.
Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Cornejo, Maria Luisa Redondo; Agudo, Antonio; Pérez, María José Sánchez; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline WJ; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio
Background How coffee consumption relates to mortality in diverse European populations, with variable coffee preparation methods and customs, is unclear. Objectives To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men and women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Ten European countries. Participants A total of 521,330 men and women enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Main outcome measure Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs) estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers sub-cohort (n=14,800). Results During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41,693 deaths occurred. Compared with non-consumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption experienced statistically significant lower all-cause mortality (Men: HR=0.88, 95%CI: 0.82–0.95; P-trendcoffee and circulatory disease mortality, (HR=0.78, 95%CI: 0.68–0.90; P-trendcoffee and ovarian cancer mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02–1.23 P-trend 0.001). In the EPIC-biomarkers sub-cohort, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and C-reactive protein. Limitation Reverse causality may have led to spurious findings; however, results did not differ following exclusion of participants who died within 8-years of baseline. The study is also limited by a single assessment of coffee drinking habits at baseline. Conclusions These results confirm prior findings on the reduced risk of mortality associated with coffee drinking but additionally show that this relationship does not vary by country where coffee preparation and drinking habits may differ. The study also reports novel inverse relationships between coffee drinking and digestive disease
Stummer, C.A.; Verheyden, G.; Putman, K.; Jenni, W.; Schupp, W.; Wit, L. De
PURPOSE: To develop prognostic models and equations for predicting participation at six months after stroke. METHODS: This European prospective cohort study recruited 532 consecutive patients from four rehabilitation centers. Participation was assessed at six months after stroke with the Sickness
Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip
ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…
Nielsen, T L; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J K; Jensen, B N
Fifty-nine human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected patients with a microscopically proven first episode of moderate to severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) were enrolled into a randomized European multicenter study. The effect of adjunctive corticosteroid (CS) therapy was assessed on (a......) survival to discharge, (b) need for mechanical ventilation, and (c) survival at day 90. CS was given within 24 h of standard therapy as intravenous methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. All patients received cotrimoxazole as standard treatment. Inclusion criteria were a PaO2 less than 9...
Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L
Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC...... and Parvimonas micra (formerly Peptostreptococcus micros), isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, metronidazole, vancomycin and linezolid. Twenty-one isolates (7%) were resistant to penicillin (n=13) and/or to clindamycin (n=12). Four isolates were resistant...... to both agents. The majority of resistant isolates were identified as F. magna and originated from blood, abscesses and soft tissue infections....
Full Text Available Event tourism is a very important branch of tourism, not only from the economic point of view, but also as the cultural and social development of a tourism destination. Organizing sporting events is considered, by the managers of tourism destinations, as an improvement strategy regarding the destination image, and as a competitive advantage. This article brings forward the features of event tourism concerning the marketing mix policies and the importance of events in the development of an area. The chosen study case is Brasov County area, which will host, in 201,3 the winter edition of the European Youth Olympic Festival.
Verloigne, Maïté; Loyen, Anne; Van Hecke, Linde; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Hendriksen, Ingrid; De Bourdheaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Donnelly, Alan; Ekelund, Ulf; Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Hidde P
A high amount of sedentary time has been proposed as a risk factor for various health outcomes in adults. While the evidence is less clear in children and adolescents, monitoring sedentary time is important to understand the prevalence rates and how this behaviour varies over time and by place. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of existing cross-European studies on sedentary time in children (0-12y) and adolescents (13-18y), to describe the variation in population levels of sedentary time, and to discuss the impact of assessment methods. Six literature databases were searched (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SportDiscus and OpenGrey), followed by backward- and forward tracking and searching authors' and experts' literature databases. Included articles were observational studies reporting on levels of sedentary time in the general population of children and/or adolescents in at least two European countries. Population levels were reported separately for children and adolescents. Data were reviewed, extracted and assessed by two researchers, with disagreements being resolved by a third researcher. The review protocol is published under registration number CRD42014013379 in the PROSPERO database. Forty-two eligible articles were identified, most were cross-sectional (n = 38). The number of included European countries per article ranged from 2 to 36. Levels of sedentary time were observed to be higher in East-European countries compared to the rest of Europe. There was a large variation in assessment methods and reported outcome variables. The majority of articles used a child-specific questionnaire (60%). Other methods included accelerometers, parental questionnaires or interviews and ecological momentary assessment tools. Television time was reported as outcome variable in 57% of included articles (ranging from a mean value of 1 h to 2.7 h in children and 1.3 h to 4.4 h in adolescents), total sedentary time in 24 % (ranging from a
Kozak, Marcin; Bornmann, Lutz; Leydesdorff, Loet
Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change international collaboration among researchers from the Eastern European countries? Trying to answer these questions, this study aims to shed light on international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The number of publications and normalized citation impact values are compared for these countries based on InCites (Thomson Reuters), from 1981 up to 2011. The international collaboration by researchers affiliated to institutions in Eastern European countries at the time points of 1990, 2000 and 2011 was studied with the help of Pajek and VOSviewer software, based on data from the Science Citation Index (Thomson Reuters). Our results show that the breakdown of the communist regime did not lead, on average, to a huge improvement in the publication performance of the Eastern European countries and that the increase in international co-authorship relations by the researchers affiliated to institutions in these countries was smaller than expected. Most of the Eastern European countries are still subject to changes and are still awaiting their boost in scientific development.
Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge
The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FENO is used as a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. FENO is increased in patients with asthma. The relationship between subjective asthma symptoms and airway inflammation is an important issue. We expected that the subjective asthma symptoms in women might be different from those in men. Therefore, we investigated the gender differences of asthma symptoms and FENO in a survey of asthma prevalence in university students. Methods The information about asthma symptoms was obtained from answers to the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaire, and FENO was measured by an offline method in 640 students who were informed of this study and consented to participate. Results The prevalence of asthma symptoms on the basis of data obtained from 584 students (266 men and 318 women, ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, was analyzed. Wheeze, chest tightness, an attack of shortness of breath, or an attack of cough within the last year was observed in 13.2% of 584 students. When 38.0 ppb was used as the cut-off value of FENO to make the diagnosis of asthma, the sensitivity was 86.8% and the specificity was 74.0%. FENO was ≥ 38.0 ppb in 32.7% of students. FENO was higher in men than in women. The prevalence of asthma symptoms estimated by considering FENO was 7.2%; the prevalence was greater in men (9.4% than women (5.3%. A FENO ≥ 38.0 ppb was common in students who reported wheeze, but not in students, especially women, who reported cough attacks. Conclusions The prevalence of asthma symptoms in university students age 18 to 24 years in Japan was estimated to be 7.2% on the basis of FENO levels as well as subjective symptoms. Gender differences were observed in both FENO levels and asthma symptoms reflecting the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Trial registration number UMIN000003244
Hasselhorn, H M; Tackenberg, P; Kuemmerling, Angelika
In many industrialised countries the number of workers with low health is expected to increase in the nursing profession. This will have implications for occupational health work in health care. The European NEXT-Study (www. next-study. net, funded by EU) investigates working conditions of nurses...... in ten European countries and provides the opportunity to evaluate the role of health with respect to age and the consideration of leaving nursing....
Ravn Sørensen, Anders
and community. I use this framework to discuss the possibilities and challenges to the European identity-construction of the ECB. I argue that central banks generally create national identity and outline national communities in four ways: (a) through the practice of designing and circulating banknotes and coins...... then use the ideas to reflect on whether or not the ECB might contribute to the construction of a European identity. I argue that the ECB may contribute to European identity through the circulation of euro banknotes and coins, and that the ECB’s anti-inflationary policies may promote European community...
Lillebø, Ana I; Somma, Francesca; Norén, Katja; Gonçalves, Jorge; Alves, M Fátima; Ballarini, Elisabetta; Bentes, Luis; Bielecka, Malgorzata; Chubarenko, Boris V; Heise, Susanne; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Klaoudatos, Dimitris; Lloret, Javier; Margonski, Piotr; Marín, Atucha; Matczak, Magdalena; Oen, Amy Mp; Palmieri, Maria G; Przedrzymirska, Joanna; Różyński, Grzegorz; Sousa, Ana I; Sousa, Lisa P; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Zaucha, Jacek
This article shares the experiences, observations, and discussions that occurred during the completing of an ecosystem services (ES) indicator framework to be used at European Union (EU) and Member States' level. The experience base was drawn from 3 European research projects and 14 associated case study sites that include 13 transitional-water bodies (specifically 8 coastal lagoons, 4 riverine estuaries, and 1 fjord) and 1 coastal-water ecosystem. The ES pertinent to each case study site were identified along with indicators of these ES and data sources that could be used for mapping. During the process, several questions and uncertainties arose, followed by discussion, leading to these main lessons learned: 1) ES identification: Some ES that do not seem important at the European scale emerge as relevant at regional or local scales; 2) ES indicators: When direct indicators are not available, proxies for indicators (indirect indicators) might be used, including combined data on monitoring requirements imposed by EU legislation and international agreements; 3) ES mapping: Boundaries and appropriate data spatial resolution must be established because ES can be mapped at different temporal and spatial scales. We also acknowledge that mapping and assessment of ES supports the dialogue between human well-being and ecological status. From an evidence-based marine planning-process point of view, mapping and assessment of marine ES are of paramount importance to sustainable use of marine natural capital and to halt the loss of marine biodiversity. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:726-734. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.
Wielenga, Joke M; Tume, Lyvonne N; Latour, Jos M; van den Hoogen, Agnes
This study aimed to identify and prioritise neonatal intensive care nursing research topics across Europe using an e-Delphi technique. An e-Delphi technique with three questionnaire rounds was performed. Qualitative responses of round one were analysed by content analysis and research statements were generated to be ranged on importance on a scale of 1-6 (not important to most important). Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in 17 European countries. NICU clinical nurses, managers, educators and researchers (n=75). None. A list of 43 research statements in eight domains. The six highest ranking statements (≥5.0 mean score) were related to prevention and reduction of pain (mean 5.49; SD 1.07), medication errors (mean 5.20; SD 1.13), end-of-life care (mean 5.05; SD 1.18), needs of parents and family (mean 5.04; SD 1.23), implementing evidence into nursing practice (mean 5.02; SD 1.03), and pain assessment (mean 5.02; SD 1.11). The research domains were prioritised and ranked: (1) pain and stress; (2) family centred care; (3) clinical nursing care practices; (4) quality and safety; (5) ethics; (6) respiratory and ventilation; (7) infection and inflammation; and (8) professional issues in neonatal intensive care nursing. The results of this study might support developing a nursing research strategy for the nursing section of the European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care. In addition, this may promote more European researcher collaboratives for neonatal nursing research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Förster, Katharina; MacKay, Morag; Vincenten, Joanne; Brand, Helmut
Injury to children in Europe, resulting in both death and disability, constitutes a significant burden on individuals, families and society. Inequalities between high and low-income countries are growing. The World Health Organisation Health 2020 strategy calls for inter-sectoral collaboration to address injury in Europe and advocates the whole of government and whole of society approaches to wicked problems. In this study we explore which sectors (e.g. health, transport, education) are relevant for four domains of child safety (intentional injury, water, road and home safety). We used the organigraph methodology, originally developed to demonstrate how organizations work, to describe the governance of child safety interventions. Members of the European Child Safety Alliance, working in the field of child safety in 24 European countries, drew organigraphs of evidence-based interventions. They included the different actors involved and the processes between them. We analyzed the organigraphs by counting the actors presented and categorizing them into sectors using a pre-defined analysis framework. We received 44 organigraphs from participants in 24 countries. Twenty-seven sectors were identified across the four domains. Nine of the 27 identified sectors were classified as 'core sectors' (education, health, home affairs, justice, media, recreation, research, social/welfare services and consumers). This study reveals the multi-sectoral nature of child safety in practice. It provides information for stakeholders working in child safety to help them implement inter-sectoral child safety interventions taking a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to health governance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Lewis, Kate Marie; Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Lioret, Sandrine; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iniguez, Carmen; Larranaga, Isabel; Harskamp-van Ginkel, Margreet W; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Klanova, Jana; Svancara, Jan; Barross, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjo, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek
Highly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3-8 across 10 European countries. Data on 47,099 children were obtained from prospective birth cohort studies across 10 European countries. We calculated cohort-specific prevalence difference in asthma outcomes using the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII). Results from all countries were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis procedures to obtain mean RII and SII scores at the European level. Final models were adjusted for child sex, smoking during pregnancy, parity, mother's age and ethnicity. The higher the score the greater the magnitude of relative (RII, reference 1) and absolute (SII, reference 0) inequity. The pooled RII estimate for asthma risk across all cohorts was 1.46 (95% CI 1.26, 1.71) and the pooled SII estimate was 1.90 (95% CI 0.26, 3.54). Of the countries examined, France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands had the highest prevalence's of childhood asthma and the largest inequity in asthma risk. Smaller inverse associations were noted for all other countries except Italy, which presented contradictory scores, but with small effect sizes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for SII scores. Overall, offspring of mothers with a low level of education had an increased relative and absolute risk of asthma compared to offspring of high-educated mothers.
Hvalič-Touzery, Simona; Skela-Savič, Brigita; Macrae, Rhoda; Jack-Waugh, Anna; Tolson, Debbie; Hellström, Amanda; de Abreu, Wilson; Pesjak, Katja
The World Health Organization has identified developing the knowledge and skills of healthcare professionals who are involved in dementia care as a priority. Most healthcare professionals lack the necessary knowledge, skills and understanding to provide high quality dementia care. While dementia education amongst most UK university health and social care programmes is inconsistent, we know little about the provision of dementia education in European universities. To examine the provision of accredited higher education on dementia in European countries, to illustrate that it is highly variable despite universities being the major provider of education for healthcare professionals internationally. An exploratory research design was used. The providers of higher education undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in the Czech Republic, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden. Higher Education Institutions who provide undergraduate and postgraduate education in the fields of nursing, medicine, psychology, social work, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and gerontology in six European countries. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Researchers in each country conducted an internet-based search using the websites of Higher Education Institutions to identify existing accredited dementia education. These searches revealed a lack of dementia education in undergraduate health and social care study programmes. Three of the six countries offered postgraduate study programmes on dementia. There was a significant variation amongst the countries in relation to the provision of dementia education at undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral levels. Dementia is a global challenge and educating and upskilling the workforce is a policy imperative. To deliver the best dementia care, investment in interprofessional evidence-based education is required if we are to respond effectively and compassionately to the needs of people living with dementia and their
Melville, Emilia; Christie, Ian; Burningham, Kate; Way, Celia; Hampshire, Phil
This study explores how energy might be conceptualised as a commons, a resource owned and managed by a community with a system of rules for production and consumption. It tests one aspect of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for successful management of common pool resources: that there should be community accountability for individual consumption behaviour. This is explored through interviews with participants in a community demand response (DR) trial in an urban neighbourhood in the UK. Domestic DR can make a contribution to balancing electricity supply and demand. This relies on smart meters, which raise vertical (individual to large organisation) privacy concerns. Community and local approaches could motivate greater levels of DR than price signals alone. We found that acting as part of a community is motivating, a conclusion which supports local and community based roll out of smart meters. Mutually supportive, voluntary, and anonymous sharing of information was welcomed. However, mutual monitoring was seen as an invasion of horizontal (peer to peer) privacy. We conclude that the research agenda, which asks whether local commons-based governance of electricity systems could provide social and environmental benefits, is worth pursuing further. This needs a shift in regulatory barriers and ‘governance-system neutral’ innovation funding. - Highlights: • Commons framings can offer a new perspective on community based demand response. • Community accountability of users raises concerns about horizontal (within community) privacy. • Horizontal privacy is important to individuals, and should be protected. • Supportive sharing of information is welcomed. • Energy policy should enable institutional innovation including local commons based approaches.
Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano
Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.
Community solar is a renewable energy practice that's been adopted by multiple U.S. states and is being considered by many more, including the state of Oregon. A recent senate bill in Oregon, called the "Clean Electricity and Coal Transition Plan", includes a provision that directs the Oregon Public Utility Commission to establish a community solar program for investor-owned utilities by late 2017. Thus, energy consumers in Portland will be offered participation in community solar projects in the near future. Community solar is a mechanism that allows ratepayers to experience both the costs and benefits of solar energy while also helping to offset the proportion of fossil-fuel generated electricity in utility grids, thus aiding climate change mitigation. For community solar to achieve market success in the residential sector of Portland, ratepayers of investor-owned utilities must socially accept this energy practice. The aim of this study was to forecast the potential social acceptance of community solar among Portland residents by measuring willingness to participate in these projects. Additionally, consumer characteristics, attitudes, awareness, and knowledge were captured to assess the influence of these factors on intent to enroll in community solar. The theory of planned behavior, as well as the social acceptance, diffusion of innovation, and dual-interest theories were frameworks used to inform the analysis of community solar adoption. These research objectives were addressed through a mixed-mode survey of Portland residents, using a stratified random sample of Portland neighborhoods to acquire a gradient of demographics. 330 questionnaires were completed, yielding a 34.2% response rate. Descriptive statistics, binomial logistic regression models, and mean willingness to pay were the analyses conducted to measure the influence of project factors and demographic characteristics on likelihood of community solar participation. Roughly 60% of respondents