WorldWideScience

Sample records for european communities studies

  1. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  2. The European Community context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following: energy resources and energy policy within the European Community; political aspects in the Member States; Community involvement in the transport of radioactive materials; responsibility for safety in relation to transport lies with the governments of the Member States, but the Community through its various organizations also has certain responsibilities, e.g. to ensure that transport regulations are harmonised, to carry out safeguards checks, to provide standards for health and safety of workers and the public, and to cooperate with Member States in developing guidelines for transport safety. (U.K.)

  3. European Community Can Reduce CO2 Emissions by Sixty Percent : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are

  4. Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Wilken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countriesThis article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands and four cities (Tallinn, Budapest, Amersfoort and Maastricht. The project included research and actions at the policy level, the organizational level and the practice level. At the policy level, the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006 and the European Disability Strategy (European Commission, 2010 were used to look at national and local policies, at the reality of the lives of those with disabilities and at the support that professional services offer with regard to participation and inclusion. The project generated a number of insights, recommendations and methods by which to improve the quality of service and increase the number of opportunities for community engagement. In this article, we present some of the lessons learned from the meta-analysis. Although the circumstances in each country are quite different with regard to policy, culture and service systems, it is remarkable that people with disabilities face many of the same problems.The study shows that in all three countries, access to services could be improved. Barriers include bureaucratic procedures and a lack of services. The research identified that in every country and city there are considerable barriers regarding equal participation in the field of housing, work and leisure activities. In addition to financial barriers, there are the barriers of stigma and self-stigmatization. Marginalization keeps people in an unequal position and hinders their recovery and participation. In all countries, professionals need to develop a stronger focus

  5. CRASH - Community Road Accident System Homepage : feasibility study on a European Road Safety Information System, financially supported by the European Commission.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. Poppe, F. Blokpoel, A. & Kars, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the result of a feasibility study, financially supported by the European Commission. The study investigated the possibilities for the development and maintenance of a European Road Safety Information System with relevant and internationally comparable information. Recommendations on

  6. European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of Western countries and teaching courses on the related subjects have longstanding and established tradition at MGIMO-University. The basis of this brilliant research and teaching tradition was laid down by such academicians as E.V. Tarle and V.G. Trukhanovsky, Professor L.I. Clove, Y. Borisov, F.I. Notovitch, G.L. Rozanov. Their work in 1940-1960's at the Department of World History at MGIMO-University progressed in following directions: France studies, German studies, American studies. The work resulted in a number of monographs and textbooks on modern history and foreign policy of the studied countries and regions. The aim of the publications was dictated by the goal of the Institute - to prepare the specialists in international affairs primarily for practical work. A close relationship with the Foreign Ministry was "binding advantage" sometimes limiting researchers in choosing periods and subjects for the study. At the same time the undisputed advantage and quality of regional studies at MGIMO were strengthened by the practical relevance of research, making it a vital and interesting not only for specialists but also for students and researchers from other research centers. Another characteristic of the tradition is the analysis of foreign policy and diplomacy in a close relationship with the socio-economic and political processes. Such an integrated approach to regional geography also formed largely under the influence of institutional profile designed to train highly skilled and versatile specialists in specific countries and regions with a good knowledge of their languages, history, economics, politics, law and culture. Therefore, scientific and educational-methodical work at MGIMO-University has always relied on a wealth of empirical data and has been focused on the analysis of real-world phenomena and processes, acute problems of foreign countries. Scientific research at MGIMO-University traditionally intertwined with

  7. Characterization of patients in the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS): postmenopausal women entering teriparatide treatment in a community setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajzbaum, Gerald; Jakob, Franz; Karras, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study...... deformities and 91.7% were pre-treated with bisphosphonates. HRQoL, evaluated by the health state value (HSV) (median: 0.59, Q1; Q3: 0.08; 0.71) and visual analogue scale (VAS) (median 50.0, Q1; Q3: 35.0; 69.0) status of the European quality of life questionnaire (EQ-5D) was poor. Extreme problems were...

  8. Intensification of agriculture, landscape composition and wild bee communities: A large scale study in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feon, Le V.; Schermann-Legionnet, A.; Delettre, Y.; Aviron, S.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Hendrickx, F.; Burel, F.

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of agricultural practices and landscape composition on bee communities were investigated in 14 sites located in four Western European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Standardized interviews with farmers assessed agricultural practices in terms of

  9. Pupil Exchange in the European Community Venice Colloquium (October 24-28, 1977). Collection Studies. Education Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    This publication contains the papers of the Venice Colloquium held in October, 1977 by educators from European countries to discuss the topic of visits and exchanges for pupils. There are seven chapters. Chapter one discusses the context and objectives of the colloquium. Chapter two describes pupil visits and exchanges in the European community.…

  10. Design study of a 1 MV, 4 A, D- test bed in european community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.; Hemsworth, R.; Jacquot, C.; Holmes, A.J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The design study of a 1 MV, 4 A, D - , > 30 seconds, test bed is being conducted by the EURATOM-CEA association (Cadarache) with support from the EURATOM-UKAEA association (Culham) and from FOM-Amsterdam. A proposal for the construction of this test bed at Cadarache will be made by the middle of next year. The options chosen for the beamline are derived from the conceptual design originally proposed one year ago by A.Holmes et al. for the ITER neutral beam systems: pure volume negative ion production, electrostatic multi-stage accelerator, vertically subdivided beamline, electrostatic deflection of the ions at the neutralizer exit, HV vacuum insulation with voltage grading screens. This design has been reviewed in detail and in particular three basic topics have been carefully examined: beam acceleration, gas flow and beam transmission. This review resulted in various changes with respect to the original design, the major change being the decision to put the ion source at high voltage. In parallel to this test bed design study, the conceptual study of a 1 MV, 15 A power supply and of its protection system is conducted by european industrial companies under the supervision of Cadarache

  11. Natural gas in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalim, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A report is presented on 'Natural Gas in the European Community'. Aspects discussed include the challenges facing the gas industry in the EC, the development of the European gas industry, the structure and role of European gas companies, the sources of European supply, gas contracts and the influences that operate on sales into end markets, electricity generation from natural gas, evolving markets for natural gas in the EC, life in the private sector using British Gas as a role model and country profiles for eleven European countries. (UK)

  12. Community support and participation among persons with diabilities. A study in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Frans Leenders; Marju Medar; Zsolt Bugarszki

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands) and four cities (Tallinn,

  13. Fusion research in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Centering around the European joint project Joint European Torus (JET), in the framework of which hot fusion plasmas are already brought close to thermonuclear ignition, the individual research centres in Europe have taken over different special tasks. In Germany research concentrates above all on the development of super-conductive magnets, the stage of plasma-physical fundamentals or the investigation of the interaction between the plasma boundary layer and the material of the vessel wall. On this basis the development stage following JET, the Next European Torus (NET), is planned, with its main aim being the production and maintenance of a thermonuclear burning plasma, i.e. a plasma which maintains its active state from the gain of energy of its own fusion reactions. In the framework of a contractually agreed cooperation between the European Community, Japan, the USSR and the USA, the establishment of an international study group (with seat in Garching) was decided upon, which is to develop the concept of an 'International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)' jointly supported by these countries. The results of the studies presented show that the differences in the design data of ITER and NET are negligible. (orig./DG) [de

  14. The European economic community and economic assosiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meijer

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available I am grateful to the Afrika-Seminaar of the Potchefstroom University for inviting me to give a talk on the European Economic Community and the Association of the Overseas Countries and Territories.

  15. Natural gas industry in European Community and european single market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoret, I.

    1992-01-01

    Common Market of natural gas is dominated by some companies. In several Member Countries, one company only manages the whole industry. European Economic Community thinks this type of structure induce hindrances to free circulation of natural gas in Europe. 10 refs

  16. The nuclear industries in the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the nuclear industries within the European Community. The strategic importance of nuclear energy is outlined, along with the economic benefits of nuclear power. The objectives of the Community's nuclear programme are described, and include nuclear requirements in Europe, uranium supplies and management of radioactive waste. (UK)

  17. Improving the well-being of elderly patients via community pharmacy-based provision of pharmaceutical care - A multicentre study in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsten, C; Bjorkman, [No Value; Caramona, M; Crealey, G; Frokjaer, B; Grundberger, E; Gustafsson, T; Henman, M; Herborg, H; Hughes, C; McElnay, J; Magner, M; van Mil, F; Schaeffer, M; Silva, S; Sondergaard, B; Sturgess, [No Value; Tromp, D; Vivero, L; Winterstein, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to measure the outcomes of a harmonised, structured pharmaceutical care programme provided to elderly patients: (greater than or equal to 65 years of age) by community pharmacists in a multicentre international study performed in 7 European countries. Design and setting:

  18. Do informal caregivers for elderly in the community use support measures? A qualitative study in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Evi; Anthierens, Sibyl; Farfan-Portet, Maria Isabel; Schmitz, Olivier; Macq, Jean; Bastiaens, Hilde; Dilles, Tinne; Remmen, Roy

    2016-07-16

    Informal caregivers are essential figures for maintaining frail elderly at home. Providing informal care can affect the informal caregivers' physical and psychological health and labour market participation capabilities. They need support to prevent caregiver burden. A variety of existing support measures can help the caregiver care for the elderly at home, but with some limitations. The objective of this review was to explore the experiences of informal caregivers caring for elderly in the community with the use of supportive policy measures in Belgium and compare these to the experiences in other European countries. An empirical qualitative case study research was conducted in five European countries (Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and Germany). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with informal caregivers and their dependent elderly. Interview data from the different cases were analysed. In particular data from Belgium was compared to data from the cases abroad. Formal services (e.g. home care) were reported to have the largest impact on allowing the caregiver to care for the dependent elderly at home. One of the key issues in Belgium is the lack of timely access to reliable information about formal and informal services in order to proactively support the informal caregiver. Compared to the other countries, informal caregivers in Belgium expressed more difficulties in accessing support measures and navigating through the health system. In the other countries information seemed to be given more timely when home care was provided via care packages. To support the informal caregiver, who is the key person to support the frail elderly, fragmentation of information regarding supportive policy measures is an important issue of concern.

  19. Towards a European Energy Community: A Policy Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, Sami; Hancher, Leigh; Van Der Woude, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The think tank Notre Europe published its report on the future of European energy policy in April 2010 entitled 'Towards a European Energy Community: A policy proposal'. Initiated by Jacques Delors, this report is the harvest of the work of the Task Force of high-level European experts established by Notre Europe to study the feasibility of a European Energy Community. The report was elaborated by Marc van der Woude and Leigh Hancher as co-chairs and Sami Andoura as Rapporteur. The report gives an overview and assessment of the policies developed at European level so far and examines whether the existing European energy policy is capable of pursuing its three key objectives of 'affordable access to energy'; 'sustainable development' of energy production, transport, and consumption; and 'security-of-supply' in a consistent and credible manner. Relying on the conclusions that the existing European energy policy is suboptimal, the report puts forward a policy proposal for a genuine 'European Energy Community'. It explains why and what type of action is required to develop such Energy Community, identifying both the substantial elements which it should ideally cover and the legal and institutional policy instruments at the EU's disposal for developing it. The report finally examines how this model could be best achieved and develops several recommendations to that effect

  20. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis showed widely differing radiographic techniques. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques poorly suited for paediatric radiology. Significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. This study emphasises the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology. (author)

  1. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.; Stein, E.; Kohn, M.; Kellner, M.; Schweighofer, K.; Cartagena, G.; Panzer, W.; Scheurer, C.; Wall, B.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis shows that radiographic techniques differed widely. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques which are poorly suited for paediatric radiology. A significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. The results of this study emphasize the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology

  2. Imagined Religious Communities and the “Culture of Bible-Readers”: Hinduism’s Challenge to European Religious Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Christopher Jason

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the challenges posed by modern conceptions of Hinduism - in particular Heinrich von Stietencron’s conception of a “collection of religions” and Romila Thapar’s application of Benedict Anderson’s theory of “imagined communities” to Hinduism-to the European style of religious studies, particularly at the undergraduate level.

  3. The European hadron therapy community touches base

    CERN Multimedia

    Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty

    2010-01-01

    The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet.   Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...

  4. Bio-fuels: European Communities fiscal initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrand, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the influence that European Communities fiscal policies have had in the past on the development of more environmentally compatible fuels such as unleaded gasoline. It then discusses which directions fiscal policy makers should take in order to create appropriate financial incentives encouraging the production and use of biomass derived fuels - methanol, ethanol and pure and transesterified vegetable oils. An assessment is made of the efficacy of a recent European Communities proposal which calls for the application of excise tax reductions on bio-fuels. Attention is given to the net effects due to reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide emissions characterizing bio-fuels and the increased use of fertilizers necessary to produce biomass fuels

  5. ACRYLAMIDE, FOOD AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES RECOMMENDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carrabs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure, often deceitful, to the acrylamide has determined notable apprehension in many consumers, so much that the Committee of the European Communities has financed the project HEATOX and has emanated the recommendation 2007/331. It is ascertained that proposed strategies have not brought to great changes in the food process chains, and neither in the traditional catering and housewife, for which more incisive measures are wished.

  6. The European community and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkhorst, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Since the inception of the EURATOM Treaty (1957) the use of nuclear power has made an enormous progress. The nuclear sector has become a very important component of the production of energy. Prisoner of its success further development of the use of nuclear energy is confronted with the challenge of ensuring its integration within the framework of modern environment protection concepts. The link between the radiation protection objective and the responsibilities of the State's Authorities in the control of the design and operation of nuclear industrial facilities has become evident. On the other hand, the evolution in the perception of the transfrontier character of the nuclear risk by the population and. the drive for the political integration of Europe have led the Community Member States to an increasing concentration between their nuclear policy-making organs and in particular between their Nuclear Safety Authorities It is quite natural that the Community institutions, the Council of Ministers and the Commission and more recently the European Parliament have become active hosts and catalysts of the concentration of the Member States on the nuclear safety objectives which are at the source of the protection of the population and of the environment. The joint efforts of the Member States and the Commission have led to a reinforcement of the process of harmonisation of safety requirements for nuclear installations at Community level. A parallel concentration effort has been done by Community Member States concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle, in particular radioactive waste management. The European Community meets the conditions to become a key driving force for nuclear safety progress beyond its region because of the advanced stage of nuclear safety in the Community which includes the flexibility and completeness of its fuel cycle and the long experience of Community institutions in the promotion of harmonisation of safety objectives, criteria and

  7. European Economic Community/the European energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-30

    European Economic Community/the European energy conference (a meeting of the energy ministers of the nine member countries), held at Brussels on 3/27/79, was a continuation of the EEC Council meeting held at Paris on 3/12-13/79. Proposals for measures to be taken by the member countries included support for exploration, especially geophysical prospecting for oil off the east coast of Greenland, at a cost of 3.5 million units of account (UC); modification of the regulations for crude oil distribution among the EEC member countries in case of a supply crisis; a second series of 36 energy-conservation demonstration projects, to cost 15,626,320 UC and be undertaken in 1979-83; and the UK proposal to call for bids on the first series of 17 projects, costing 5,779,000 UC and adopted in Dec. 1978, before discussing the second series. Six of the 36 projects are French; they involve heat pumps and hybrid nuclear-electric vehicles and space-heating systems. A report on the current status of coal projects was given, and problems with fast-breeder reactors were discussed.

  8. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero Angel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40% reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7. Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges.

  9. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Laso, Angel; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Otero, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40%) reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7). Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges. PMID:17678536

  10. European Community's program in marine resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoble, J.P.; Jarmache, E.

    1995-01-01

    The European Community launched already several research program in the different fields of social and industrial activities. The Fourth Framework Programme is divided into 4 main activities comporting a total of 18 programs. These programs are dealing with general topics as information and communication, industrial technologies, environment, life sciences and technologies, energy, transport and socioeconomic research. One line is devoted to marine sciences and technology, but offshore activities could also be included in the other topics as offshore oil and gas in energy, ship building and harbor in transport, aquaculture and fisheries in life sciences and technology, etc. In order to maintain a coherent approach toward offshore activities, the European maritime industries met intensively front 1991 to 1994 and recommended a series of proposal for Research and Development of marine resources. The methodology and content of these proposals is exposed

  11. Energy, the UK and the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1982-01-01

    The emphasis of effort in European energy policy should be placed on external relations rather than internal regulation. The divergence of the interests of the United States and Europe in energy policy will no longer allow Europe to depend on US initiative. The temporary relaxation of world oil markets has engendered unrealistic complacency. The European Community must develop its important role as a means whereby the member states can formulate common initiatives to press within international institutions. Strong presentation of interests externally has to be complemented by internal adaptation. The Community has at the moment few means of influencing the form and nature of energy investment. This paper proposes a fund of the order of Pound1 bn per annum to be used for the promotion of projects whose intrinsic benefits are not fully translated into commercial advantage and which need political stimulus. Such a Fund might be, but need not necessarily be, financed by a small levy on imported oil. The UK should present more aggressively the considerable benefits which accrue to the Community from UK resources. There is perhaps an opportunity to take a more extrovert view of the relationship between the UK and the continental gas transport systems. (author)

  12. The European Communities (Privileges of the Joint European Torus) Order 1978 (S.I. no. 1033)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order confers privileges on the Joint European Torus, as required by Decision 78/472/Euratom of 30 May 1978 of the Council of the European Communities and by the Exchange of Letters of 3 May 1978 between the Government of the United Kingdom and the European Atomic Energy Community [fr

  13. Cooperation in research in the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marka, Philippe.

    1977-01-01

    This work studies the legal instruments for cooperative research granted to Euratom under the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, and the conditions whereby concrete use was made of these instruments. This assessment of Euratom's efforts to launch a community nuclear industry is accompanied by an analysis of the respective roles of the bodies of the Community, the Council and the Commission, as well as of the circumstances which, according to the author, have led to a paralysis of this institution. (NEA) [fr

  14. Nuclear safety and the European Community: Broadening perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkhorst, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    The European Community's activities in harmonizing of regulations and practices in the field of nuclear safety are described. The issues of aid to Central and Eastern European countries as well as of public information, within this context, are discussed

  15. Social Phobia in an Italian region: do Italian studies show lower frequencies than community surveys conducted in other European countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime prevalence of Social Phobia (SP in European countries other than Italy has been estimated to range from 3.5% to 16.0%. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of SP in Sardinia (Italy in order to verify the evidence of a lower frequency of SP in Italy observed in previous studies (from 1.0% to 3.1%. Methods A randomised cross sample of 1040 subjects, living in Cagliari, in rural areas, and in a mining district in Sardinia were interviewed using a Simplified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDIS. Diagnoses were made according to the 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results Lifetime prevalence of SP was 2.2% (males: 1.5%, females: 2.8% whereas 6-month prevalence resulted in 1.5% (males: 0.9%, females: 2.1%. Mean age at onset was 16.2 ± 9.3 years. A statistically significant association was found with Depressive Episode, Dysthymia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Conclusions The study is consistent with findings reported in several previous studies of a lower prevalence of SP in Italy. Furthermore, the results confirm the fact that SP, due to its early onset, might constitute an ideal target for early treatment aimed at preventing both the accumulation of social disabilities and impairments caused by anxiety and avoidance behaviour, as well as the onset of more serious, associated complications in later stages of the illness.

  16. European Community in new international petroleum order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the chances that the European Community (EC) has of enhancing its position in the international petroleum order. Its identity should become stronger than it is in the current feeble state of Europe as a world presence for four reasons: greater convergence in the ideas and interests of the Member Countries; the bolstering of Community institutions; thanks to new treaties, more balanced petro-political relations; and the geographical advantage of being within reach of Russia's enormous hydrocarbon resources. In its producer-consumer relations, the EC has a certain amount of upfront legitimacy over the actions of the individual member countries, insofar as multilateral actions in this field are more efficient than are bilateral relations. The EC is acquiring a certain autonomy of action from the AIH. It is already helping to build up new relations through informal dialogue and free-trade agreements with the producing countries, and is helping Russia to emerge as a major competitor for the Gulf countries

  17. Commuting--a further stress factor for working people: evidence from the European Community. II. An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Pickup, L; Di Martino, V

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the main results of research promoted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, concerning the impact of commuting on the health and safety of workers. An empirical study, carried out among 1167 industrial Italian workers, shows that "commuters" (workers whose journey from home to work usually does not take less than 45 min in each direction) experienced a more stressed life-style than did "non commuters" (whose journey does not take more than 20 min). Commuting appears for many workers to be a necessity which is imposed by external factors, such as the housing market and job opportunities. Commuting is shown to interfere with patterns of everyday life by restricting free-time and reducing sleeping time. A majority of commuters use public transport mainly because of cost. Public transport commuters have problems due to more changes between modes, idle waiting times and delays leading to late arrival at work. Inside transport modes, commuters suffered discomfort as a result of overcrowding, microclimatic conditions, noise and vibrations. Commuters also reported higher psychological stress scores, more health complaints, essentially of psychosomatic nature, and greater absenteeism from work due to sickness. Commuting, in addition to shiftwork, further increases sleep problems, psychosomatic complaints and difficulties with family and social life. Women commuters were at a greater disadvantage than men, having more family difficulties, more travelling complaints and higher absenteeism.

  18. Risk assessment: A European Community perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, R [Industrial Medicine and Hygiene Unit Health and Safety Directorate, Directorate-General Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    1992-07-01

    The world is a risky place in which to live{exclamation_point} The world tolerates that 750,000 deaths occur on the roads each year. Society has not yet come to terms with the added burden that urbanisation brings to developing countries. Pollution from the use of fossil fuels creates incalculable loss to the world's environment and to the health of its inhabitants. The misuse of chemicals provokes suffering and deformity. In the European Community alone, over 21 million tonnes of toxic waste have to be treated each year. Of course, there are different types of risk: individual and societal. Individuals continue to travel by air in defiance of terrorists or faulty machinery. Whilst society urges caution in diet and nutrition, the individual is probably more worried about food additives that he is about eating too much or making a rigorous appraisal of the value of his die{exclamation_point}. As the conference progresses many people will die from the causes of malnutrition, from war or societal neglect while we, individually, will be more at risk from overeating. In other words, we perceive risks is in a multitude of ways. We tolerate these risks according to our perception of what we feel is acceptable without carrying out scientific assessment of the relative severity of those risks. If applied at a governmental level, this subjective tolerance can lead to unnecessary burdens or constraints that are disproportionate to the risk. Clearly, this is not acceptable for policy makers. We have just seen the closure of the UNCED World Conference on the Environment in Rio de Janeiro, where the absolute need for more effective cooperation in the protection of the environment and the world inhabitants was convincingly demonstrated. The European Communities already coordinate risk assessment with its twelve Member States in a large number of areas and is increasing its international cooperation. We have recognized that it is no longer possible to carry out effective risk

  19. Risk assessment: A European Community perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, R.

    1992-01-01

    The world is a risky place in which to live! The world tolerates that 750,000 deaths occur on the roads each year. Society has not yet come to terms with the added burden that urbanisation brings to developing countries. Pollution from the use of fossil fuels creates incalculable loss to the world's environment and to the health of its inhabitants. The misuse of chemicals provokes suffering and deformity. In the European Community alone, over 21 million tonnes of toxic waste have to be treated each year. Of course, there are different types of risk: individual and societal. Individuals continue to travel by air in defiance of terrorists or faulty machinery. Whilst society urges caution in diet and nutrition, the individual is probably more worried about food additives that he is about eating too much or making a rigorous appraisal of the value of his die!. As the conference progresses many people will die from the causes of malnutrition, from war or societal neglect while we, individually, will be more at risk from overeating. In other words, we perceive risks is in a multitude of ways. We tolerate these risks according to our perception of what we feel is acceptable without carrying out scientific assessment of the relative severity of those risks. If applied at a governmental level, this subjective tolerance can lead to unnecessary burdens or constraints that are disproportionate to the risk. Clearly, this is not acceptable for policy makers. We have just seen the closure of the UNCED World Conference on the Environment in Rio de Janeiro, where the absolute need for more effective cooperation in the protection of the environment and the world inhabitants was convincingly demonstrated. The European Communities already coordinate risk assessment with its twelve Member States in a large number of areas and is increasing its international cooperation. We have recognized that it is no longer possible to carry out effective risk assessment in one country alone or to

  20. The European energy community is now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, Sami; Buzek, Jerzy; Delors, Jacques; Vitorino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On the eve of the European Council on 22 May dealing with energy issues, the Jacques Delors Institute publishes a Tribune calling for the implementation of a positive agenda for the European energy policy and the definition of the concrete bases of a genuine European Energy

  1. The nuclear industry in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasterstaedt, N.

    1990-01-01

    In its reference program of 1984, the Commission presented the guidelines for the objectives in the field of nuclear electricity production within the Community. In addition, the effects have been investigated which concern the realization of these objectives for all persons involved in nuclear energy: local government, utility companies and industry. The question of nuclear energy is part of the general energy policy. Therefore, the reference program of 1984 was one of the elements which has been considered up to 1995 by the Council when defining the objectives for energy economy. The guidelines of the Commission in the reference program of 1984 are still valid today. It is important, however, to check the effects of the completion of the internal market on nuclear industry. Therefore, the Commission announced in its working program of 1989 that it will revise the reference nuclear program with regard to the prospects of the European internal market. The present document fulfills this obligation. The problems of the industry for the design and construction of nuclear power plants are treated intentionally. After the Commission for Economic and Social Affairs has given its statement, the commission will publish the document officially. (orig./UA) [de

  2. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbolotti, G.; Zampaglione, V.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Mazzone, G.; Nardi, C.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Violante, V.; Daenner, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Gierszewski, P.; Grattarola, M.; Rosatelli, F.; Secolo, F.; Zacchia, F.; Caira, M.; Sorabella, L.

    1993-01-01

    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  3. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G.

    1966-01-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [fr

  4. Nuclear research and development in the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Research programmes undertaken by the European Atomic Energy Community and the European Economic Community are discussed. These programmes are carried out both at the Communities own Joint Research Centres (at Ispra, Karlsruhe, Geel and Petten) and also, although centrally managed by the Commission, at research organizations in the Member States. Such research projects include radioactive waste management and storage, decommissioning of nuclear power stations and nuclear fusion. Culham Laboratory is not only the centre for the UKAEA's research into controlled thermonuclear fusion but is also host to the Joint European Torus Joint Undertaking. (U.K.)

  5. Nuclear power and growth in the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maigaard, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the form of a textbook the author reviews the European Communities energy policy since 1973. It is the authors conclusion that EEC has failed in creating an energy policy based on international cooperation. (BP)

  6. The supply of the European community countries with enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    A discussion is given of a survey regarding the supply of enriched uranium to the countries of the European Community. Costs of enriched uranium imports were not available but import values were calculated using world market prices. (R.L.)

  7. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  8. European Defence Community: origins of integration in the defence sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іван Васильович Яковюк

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency among non-historians to force «practioners» of the discipline to justify why the study of a particular episode of the past is so important and to articulate the lessons to be learned from the experience. The fate of international constitutions and treaties is particularly prone to demands of this kind. After all, «constitutional borrowing» has long been a common feature of international law and politics. This article will address one such Treaty from the past. But it does not aspire to preserving its historical integrity; rather to awaken interest in it in the first place.          The European Defence Community (EDC was an ambitious initiative in the first years of the 1950s. Leading European countries had different foreign policy agendas towards it. The EDC. could have been a crucial milestone on the long path towards European integration. European Defense Community (EDC, an abortive attempt by western European powers, with United States support, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by the formation of a supranational European army and, in the process, to subsume West German forces into a European force, avoiding the tendentious problem of West German rearmament. One can trace the U.S. influence from the very first stages of the EDC. negotiations. Even in the agreement of the EDC., the footprints of U.S. policies can be observed, bringing the NATO Alliance to the forefront. The EDC. is also interrelated with the Marshall Plan, which leads us to think that the EDC. was not solely a European dream as has been widely argued, but rather an instrument of U.S. foreign policy, which could be resorted to as and when needed.          Influenced by the Korean War, the French politician René Pleven evolved a plan that later was put forward by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman at a meeting of the Council of Europe in 1951. Though the weaker

  9. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1992-01-01

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by the AEA, BNFL and the CEC at Windermere and the sites of Windscale/Sellafield, where the former Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and the Windscale piles are currently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, results and conclusions on techniques and procedures currently applied in the dismantling of large scale nuclear installations in the European Community

  10. The European Community and crisis adaptation: The impact of the 1973 oil crisis on European integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahurin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates relationships that emerged between European Economic Community and Arab League nations during the period 1970-1978, with special attention to the period immediately following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74. The central argument is that European integration can be measured and understood from three different levels of analysis: not only the systems or supranational level (to which neofunctionalists and federalists have largely confined their investigations), but from the nation-state and the subnational levels also. This view is justified in the context of complex interdependencies in the work of Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane. From this perspective, nation-state and subnational-level data take on a new importance. This study collected data on the nature, level, and intensity of contracts between actors within each of these three levels. The study finds at all these levels strong evidence of increased collective and convergent activity which, in the context of complex interdependencies, points to a complex but clearly advancing process of European integration during the period under investigation

  11. The European Community and crisis adaptation: The impact of the 1973 oil crisis on European integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahurin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates relationships that emerged between European Economic Community and Arab League nations during the period 1970-1978, with special attention to the period immediately following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74. The central argument is that European integration can be measured and understood from three different levels of analysis: not only the systems or supranational level (to which neofunctionalists and federalists have largely confined their investigations), but from the nation-state and the subnational levels also. This view is justified in the context of complex interdependencies in the work of Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane. From this perspective, nation-state and subnational-level data take on a new importance. This study collected data on the nature, level, and intensity of contracts between actors within each of these three levels. The study finds at all these levels strong evidence of increased collective and convergent activity which, in the context of complex interdependencies, points to a complex but clearly advancing process of European integration during the period under investigation.

  12. The role of nuclear energy in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniatopoulos, C.S.; Gmelin, W.; Schenkel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the energy policy of the European Community is to achieve a secure supply of energy at reasonable cost and low environmental impact. This overall objective is embedded in the steps taken by the European Community towards the Single European Market. This subject will be addressed briefly, as well as the developments in Eastern Europe including the European Energy Charter. With regard to nuclear energy in the community, facts and issues related to electricity production, the front end and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and current environmental and safety issues will be presented. A common industrial strategy is required in the community including safety regulations, technical specifications and products for international markets. Concerning safeguards, the Commission is fully committed to the obligations from Chapter VII of the Treaty and to any relevant international agreements concluded by the Community. This is reflected in the close cooperation of the Commission with the IAEA and in the increase of resources, both in staff and budget, which the Commission has allocated to the Safeguards Directorate to cope with the increasing requirements, for example for bulk handling facilities. Based on a request from the European Parliament, the Commission has issued in 1989 a first report on the operation of Euratom Safeguards. The Commission services are currently preparing the second report of this type. Finally, some remarks with regard to the future of nuclear energy and challenges of safeguards in the Community will be made

  13. European Community initiatives and experience in scientific and technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven, G [Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    1990-05-01

    Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs.

  14. European Community initiatives and experience in scientific and technical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven, G.

    1990-05-01

    Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs

  15. Feasibility study on the formation of a databank of the arrangements within the European Community for transport accidents involving radioactive materials. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugues, J.S.; Shaw, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive materials are transported throughout the European Communities (EC) by road, rail, sea and air. In case of severe accident, which could lead to the release of radioactivity into the environment, it is essential that there are pre-arranged measures which can be put into effect to minimise radiation doses to persons in the vicinity and to enable the situation to be returned to a safe condition. An essential part of emergency arrangements is the setting up of an administrative structure to establish the responsibilities of the organisations involved and this study outlines the arrangements that have been set up in each EC country. The databank should be particularly useful following an accident close to a national border or in the event of an accident in one country which involves a shipment from another. The setting up of a databank might also assist in the development of the emergency arrangements in some countries. In conclusion: - the formation of a databank of emergency arrangements is feasible. - The databank could be operated more efficiently if it were held centrally on a computed-based system and made accessible through the telephone network. - The usefulness of the databank would be enhanced by the inclusion of information on non-radiological hazards

  16. A Legal Analysis of Safeguard Measures in the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the “Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China” and the “Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in thIn 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the "Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China" and the "Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in the European Community comply with the WTO Agreement on Safeguards. In conclusion, based on the analysis of safeguard measures in the European Community's legal system and their practice in actual cases, it apparent that the European Community is making a serious effort to comply with the standards of the WTO Safeguards Agreement. In certain respects, the European Community has a comparatively higher level of standards than the WTO. Nevertheless, there continue to be challenges to WTO

  17. THE EUROPEAN POSITION OF DUTCH PLANT COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.M. JANSSEN

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is analyzed for which plant communities (alliances the Netherlands has an international responsibility. Data has been brought together on the range and distribution of alliances in Europe, the area of plant communities in the Netherlands and surrounding countries and the occurrence of endemic associations in the Netherlands. The analysis resulted in a list of 34 out of 93 alliances in the Netherlands which are important from an international point of view.

  18. Commission of the European Communities review of fast reactor activities, March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balz, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1981-05-01

    The Commission of the European Communities continued its activities in the field of fast reactors development essentially in the frame of the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC) and by execution of a Reactor Programme at its Joint Research Center (JRC). The study was concerned with introducing fast reactors into European Community, elaboration of preliminary safety criteria and guidelines for typical fast reactor accidents; codes and standards; LMFBR safety, fuel, fuel cycle safety.

  19. Commission of the European Communities review of fast reactor activities, March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities continued its activities in the field of fast reactors development essentially in the frame of the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC) and by execution of a Reactor Programme at its Joint Research Center (JRC). The study was concerned with introducing fast reactors into European Community, elaboration of preliminary safety criteria and guidelines for typical fast reactor accidents; codes and standards; LMFBR safety, fuel, fuel cycle safety

  20. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing synergies: protocol for a prospective observational study to measure the Impact of a community-based program on prevention and mitigation of frailty (ICP – PMF) in community-dwelling older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, G.; Orfila, F.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Roller-Winsberger, R.; Illaria, M.; Musian, D.; Alvino, S.; O'Caoimh, R.; Cano, A.; Molloy, W.; Iaccarino, G.; Marazzi, M.C.; Inzerilli, M.C.; Madaro, O.; Paul, C.; Csonka, P.; Vince, A.C.; Menditto, E.; Maggio, M.; Scarcella, P.; Gilardi, F.; Lucaroni, F.; Abete, P.; Girardi, V.; Barra, R.; Palombi, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to describe the protocol of the study “Impact of a Community-based Program on Prevention and Mitigation of Frailty in community-dwelling older adults‿ developed in the framework of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. This proposal has been developed

  1. The European energy community, it is for now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, S.; Buzek, J.; Delors, J.; Vitorino, A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that the European Council (on 22. May) mentioned the stakes involved for a common European energy policy, and that France's president has juts made another call to set up a European energy community, it is time to properly identify the main challenges that have to be met for such a project. The energy transition, that requires a deep change in our ways of producing, transporting and using energy, could be the basis of this new common policy. This new policy may follow 3 axis: first achieving the integration of a common energy market that will simulate the competitiveness of the European energy operators, secondly the security of supply implies a diversification of energy sources that could be reached through a stronger European solidarity, and thirdly a better cooperation between states for coordinating the construction of new infrastructures

  2. About the affirmation of a community of European values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline GUIBET LAFAYE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the political and economical agreements, the European Union aims at becoming a moral community, shaped and unified by shared values. The treaty on the European Union has recently restated these values. Nevertheless in the national States as well as in the firontiers of the European Union, some disagreements are still with us about predominant values such as well-being, fireedom, the satisfaction of fundamental needs, and their interpretations. Although the promotion of cominon European values relies on political reasons, this quest is aporetical. On the opposite we underline the necessity to find and design constitutional arrangements that allow people to live together, within the frontiers of the European Union, with their moral disagreements, a far cry firom a moral consensus on values and absent shared coramon values.

  3. Soil invertebrate communities in stressed European ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butovsky, R.O. [All-Russian Research Institute for Nature Protection, Sadki-Znamenskoje (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Intensive landuse in Europe results in continual physical and chemical changes to land and soil. Soil invertebrates can be used for development of single- and multi-species test-systems for soil quality assessment under anthropogenous stress. The research was performed in 18 terrestrial ecosystems stressed by common anthropogenous impacts: recreation pressure, motorway or industrial pollution in Central Russia, Belgium and the Netherlands in 1983-2001. All three types of human stresses (recreation, motorway and industrial) induced similar changes of macroartropod and microarthropod communities. In stressed macroarthropod communities the decrease of abundance of non-specialized predators, chewing phytophagans, saprophagans and increase of abundance of rhyzophagans, sucking phytophagans and specialized predators was observed. All types of stresses increased or stabilized species diversity in macro- (in carabid beetles communities mainly increase of Harpalus and Amara species number, in weevils - Sitona species number etc.) and microarthropod (e.g. Mesostigmata mites species) communities. In stressed ecosystems sucking phytophagans have selective advantage as compared to chewing phytophagans, endoparasitoids as compared to ectoparasitoids, specialized predators as compared to non-specialized predators etc., meaning that the feeding strategy play an important regulatory role in the community. Saprophagans and phytophagans, consuming chemicals, e.g. heavy metals in large quantities, are in general highly sensitive groups. The most sensitive groups belonged to first and second order consumers. In putative trophic chains in roadside ecosystems, non-specialized zoophagans (predators) contained less copper and zinc, than specialized zoophagans and parasitoids. When compared to the peculiarities of distribution of pesticides (e.g. DDT) and radionuclides (Sr90 and Cs137) it happens that in terrestrial ecosystems heavy metals were primarily accumulated (1) in soil

  4. A prospective study on the variation in falling and fall risk among community-dwelling older citizens in 12 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franse, Carmen B; Rietjens, Judith Ac; Burdorf, Alex; van Grieken, Amy; Korfage, Ida J; van der Heide, Agnes; Mattace Raso, Francesco; van Beeck, Ed; Raat, Hein

    2017-06-30

    The rate of falling among older citizens appears to vary across different countries, but the underlying aspects causing this variation are unexplained. We aim to describe between-country variation in falling and explore whether intrinsic fall risk factors can explain possible variation. Prospective study on data from the cross-national Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Twelve European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland). Community-dwelling persons aged ≥65 years (n=18 596). Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, education level and living situation) and intrinsic fall risk factors (less than good self-rated health (SRH), mobility limitations, limitations with activities of daily living (ADL), dizziness, impaired vision, depression and impaired cognition) were assessed in a baseline interview. Falling was assessed 2 years later by asking whether the participant had fallen within the 6 months prior to the follow-up interview. There was significant between-country variation in the rate of falling (varying from 7.9% in Switzerland to 16.2% in the Czech Republic). The prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors varied twofold to fourfold between countries. Associations between factors age ≥80 years, less than good SRH, mobility limitations, ADL limitations, dizziness and depression, and falling were different between countries (pfalling largely persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic differences but strongly attenuated after adjusting for differences in intrinsic fall risk factors. There is considerable variation in the rate of falling between European countries, which can largely be explained by between-country variation in the prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors. There are also country-specific variations in the association between these intrinsic risk factors and falling. These findings emphasise the importance of addressing

  5. The Lisbon Treaty and the role of the European Parliament in the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2007, the European Council commissioned an intergovernmental conference to draft a 'treaty of reform' of the European Union. The wording of the treaty was signed by the heads of state and government of the member countries on December 13, 2007. The ongoing process of ratification in the 27 EU member countries is to be completed before the next elections to the European Parliament in June 2009. The treaty is now referred to as 'Lisbon Treaty'. The Lisbon Treaty (Treaty Amending the Treaty about the European Union and the Treaty Establishing the European Community) does not replace the European Treaties currently in force, but merely amends them. Also the 'Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)' is amended in this way. On the basis of the contributions about 'The German Presidency Program of the Council Working Group on Nuclear Issues - an Interim Report' (W. Sandtner and S. Thomas) and 'Euratom Treaty and Intergovernmental Conference' (S. Thomas), current links to the Euratom Treaty with potential amendments are presented and commented upon. (orig.)

  6. The European Community programmes in the sector of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantaras, K.; Ferrero, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    The wind technology market has known a considerable evolution over the last decade. From the early eighties - when there were only a few kilowatts of the research prototype wind turbines installed - the total installed capacity within the European Community has reached nowadays more than 765 MW in commercial machines. This expansion has been brought about with the aid of important R and D energy technology programmes run by national governments, and by the Commission of European Communities with its research, development, demonstration and market development programmes, such as the JOULE, demonstration and THERMIE programmes. This paper presents the activities of the Community demonstration and THERMIE programmes in the wind energy sector from 1983 to 1992. Reference is also made to the Community programmes JOULE II and ALTENER. (au)

  7. The European Community ITER Home Team Organization: January 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The European Community (EC) Fusion Programme embraces all work carried out in the field of thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement in the 12 Member States and in two extra-Community countries, Sweden and Switzerland (which are fully associated with this Programme). The long-term objective of the EC Fusion Programme is the joint creation of safe, environmentally sound prototype reactors. This Programme presents itself as a single body in its relation with other Fusion Programmes in the world

  8. Energy policy in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaak, F.

    1975-01-01

    The implications of energy problem for consumer countries are first expounded, and then EC's energy policy in wide context is explained. The policy has been understood as three inter-related and indivisible elements: the planning of the community's own market; relations with other energy consumers; and, relations with energy producers. Each element must complement and support the other. Descriptions are made over how each of these elements has developed over the last year and a half, how it is developing now, and how it responds to the energy problem. (Mori, K.)

  9. The European Communities (Definition of Treaties) (No.5) (Joint European Torus) Order 1978 (S.I. no.1032)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order declares the Exchange of Letters dated 3 May 1978 between the Government of the United Kingdom and the European Atomic Energy Community regarding privileges to be granted to the Joint European Torus to be a Community Treaty as defined in section 1(2) of the European Communities Act 1972. The principal effect of declaring this Exchange of Letters to be a Community Treaty as so defined is to bring into play, in relation to the Exchange of Letters, the provisions of section 2 of the European Communities Act 1972 [fr

  10. [European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Adults (ECRHS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, J; Richter, K; Frye, C; Meyer, I; Wölke, G; Wjst, M; Nowak, D; Magnussen, H; Wichmann, H E

    2002-05-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was the first study to assess the geographical variation in asthma, allergy, and allergic sensitization in adults using the same instruments and definitions. The database of the ECRHS includes information from approximately 140 000 individuals aged 20 - 44 years from 22 countries. The aim of this review is to summarize the results of the ECRHS and to present the specific contribution of the German centers in Hamburg and Erfurt. The prevalence ranged from 2.0 - 11.9 % for asthma, 9.5 - 40.9 % for allergic rhinitis, 4.0 - 32.0 % for wheeze, 3.4 - 27.9 % for bronchial hyperreactivity, and 16.2 - 44.5 % for allergic sensitisation against common aeroallergens. Although the prevalence of these atopic disorders were found to be consistently higher for the Hamburg center compared to the Erfurt center, strong regional differences in the prevalences were also found within several other European countries. Overall Europe, the lowest prevalences were seen in the Eastern and Middle European countries with the center Erfurt, followed by the Mediterranean region. The highest prevalences were reported for all English speaking centers. Strong geographic variation was reported for medication for asthma. Asthma seems to be undertreated in several countries. Environmental exposures and in particular indoor factors, and exposures at the workplace are playing a major role for asthma in adulthood. Furthermore, protective effects on atopy were found for exposures to pets (dogs) and a large number of siblings in early childhood. In conclusion, the ECRHS has shown that the prevalence of asthma varies widely. The fact that the geographical pattern is consistent with the distribution of atopy and bronchial responsiveness supports the conclusion that the geographical variations in the prevalence of asthma are true and likely due to environmental factors.

  11. European community light water reactor safety research projects. Experimental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Research programs on light water reactor safety currently carried out in the European Community are presented. They cover: accident conditions (LOCA, ECCS, core meltdown, external influences, etc...), fault and accident prevention and means of mitigation, normal operation conditions, on and off site implications and equipment under severe accident conditions, and miscellaneous subjects

  12. Nuclear fuel supply industry in the European Community belgatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Deals with the industrial activities involved in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in European Economic Community countries and essentially with operations pertaining to commercial light water reactors (LWR's). Various aspects of needs, investments, plant capacities, costs and prices, markets, financing methods, industrial structures, and employment are considered in detail

  13. Energy priorities and options for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audland, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the energy priorities and options for the European Community. Reasons for the recent improvement in the efficiency of energy use are briefly discussed, as well as the outlook for 1990, priorities for the future, solid fuels. natural gas, electricity and nuclear energy. Energy policy considerations in the United Kingdom are also mentioned. (U.K.)

  14. Present status of the European Community's Fusion Materials Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihoul, J.; Boutard, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Programme of the European Communities is largely focused on the next step in the European strategy towards fusion energy development, i.e. on NET, the Next European Torus. The main objectives and operating conditions of NET are therefore first briefly presented. A review is then given of the present status of our knowledge regarding the main metallic structural materials envisaged for the first wall/blanket and for the divertor plates. Attention is paid to the need for longer term research and development towards low activation structural materials to be used in a post-NET Demonstration Reactor. Finally, a survey is presented of the current European Fusion Technology Programme devoted to the various candidate structural and protection materials for fusion devices. (author)

  15. European Vocational Education Systems. A Guide to Vocational Education and Training in the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Helen

    This book describes the 12 vocational education systems conducted by the members of the European Community. The 12 country chapters (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom) follow the same model and are organized into the following six sections: key facts,…

  16. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1993-01-01

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by Kernkraftwerke RWE Bayernwerk GmbH (KRB) and the CEC at Gundremmingen-Guenzburg (D), where the former KRB-A BWR is presently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, the results and conclusions on techniques and procedures presently applied in the dismantling of large-scale nuclear installations in the European Community. Besides the four pilot dismantling projects of the presently running third R and D programme (1989-93) of the European Community on decommissioning of nuclear installations (WAGR, BR-3 PWR, KRB-A BWR and AT-1 FBR fuel reprocessing), the organizers selected the presentation of topics on the following facilities which have a significant scale and/or representative features and are presently being dismantled: the Magnox reprocessing pilot plant at Sellafield, the HWGCR EL4 at Monts d'Arree, the operation of an on-site melting furnace for G2/G3 GCR dismantling waste at Marcoule, an EdF confinement conception of shut-down LWRs for deferred dismantling, and the technical aspects of the Greifswald WWER type NPPs decommissioning. This was completed by a presentation on the decommissioning of material testing reactors in the United Kingdom and by an overview on the conception and implementation of two EC databases on tools, costs and job doses. The seminar concluded with a guided visit of the KRB-A dismantling site. This meeting was attended by managers concerned by the decommissioning of nuclear installations within the European Community, either by practical dismantling work or by decision-making functions. Thereby, the organizers expect to have contributed to the achievement of decommissioning tasks under optimal conditions - with respect to safety and economics - by making available a complete and updated insight into on-going dismantling projects and by

  17. The European Community care for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.; Nordwall, J.H. de; Viseur, R.; Vivante, C.; Graziani, G.; Rinaldini, C.; Zanantoni, C.

    1977-01-01

    In recent times a large number of studies have investigated the various policies which can be followed to satisfy a given electric energy demand. Installation policies concerning conventional stations and several types of nuclear stations have been analyzed from the point of view of consumptions, expenditures, investments etc. The exercise is usually repeated for several demand-growth curves. Sometimes an optimization of the power station installation policy based on minimizing consumption of a type of fuel or expenditures is made. In the study presented here a different attitude is taken, in the sense that it is assumed that the energy demand growth will be large enough to justify the growth of nuclear energy production; this will be limited by a number of technological constraints, namely: 1- The Uranium delivery rate. This rate (tons/year) is assumed to increase from 1985 by 10% per annum and to reach a saturation level after a given number of years. 2- Availability of reprocessing capacity. It is assumed to increase with a given doubling time after 1985. 3- Development of reprocessing technology, which is represented here by the out-of-pile time of the fuel. 4-Availability and technology of fast reactors, represented by the year of first installlation and by their physical characteristics. All the values defining the above-mentioned constraints are varied parametrically and their effects on the penetration of thermal and fast reactors and on the consequent consumptions and expenditures are assessed. A few considerations on the demand of conventional energy resulting from such constraints and from various hypotheses on the total demand are made, to show that a considerable production of conventional energy must be foreseen in the next few decades

  18. Development of molecular imaging in the European radiological community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Nicolas; Sardanelli, Francesco; Becker, Christoph D.; Walecki, Jerzy; Sebag, Guy; Lomas, David John; Krestin, Gabriel P.

    2009-01-01

    The recent and concomitant advances in molecular biology and imaging for diagnosis and therapy will place in vivo imaging techniques at the centre of their clinical transfer. Before that, a wide range of multidisciplinary preclinical research is already taking place. The involvement of radiologists in this new field of imaging sciences is therefore absolutely mandatory during these two phases of development. Achievement of such objectives requires the refinement of strategy within the European radiological community and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) will have to drive a number of actions to stimulate the younger generation of radiologists and to facilitate their access to knowledge. For that purpose, a molecular imaging (MI) subcommittee of the ESR Research Committee based on a group of involved radiologists will be constituted to develop contacts with other constitutive committees and associated societies to provide proposals to our community. (orig.)

  19. Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.; Christensen, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC...... partners is socio-cultural and geographical) proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries....

  20. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  1. Atomic energy: exchange of letters between Canada and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Letters exchanged between the Charge d'affaires, mission of Canada to the European Communites and the Commissioner of the European Communities, concerning safeguards, levels of physical protection, and further intra-Community trade of nuclear materials exported from Canada to the European Community

  2. Commission of the European Communities: Review of fast reactor activities performed during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1991-01-01

    In the field of fast reactors the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is conducting coordination and harmonization activities at the Brussels headquarters and performing research in its Joint Research Center. The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC) is performing coordination and harmonization activities taking account of the collaboration agreements within the European Fast Reactor (EFR) context. Since the EFR collaboration does not involve all Member States of the European Community the FRCC should establish a link between the EFR countries and other countries. The FRCC discussed R and D activities suitable for a concerted action in a community frame. The Committee also discussed actinide transmutation aspects in LMFBRs. The discussions were based on the results of a study sponsored by the CEC to assess the characteristics of a large core (3600 MWth) with variable actinide content (3-15%). The FRCC received regularly reports on results from current R and D programmes, especially from those related to EFR. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in

  4. The European community and its standardization efforts in medical informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheus, Rudy A.

    1992-07-01

    A summary of the CEN TC 251/4 ''Medical Imaging and Multi-Media'' activities will be given. CEN is the European standardization institute, TC 251 deals with medical informatics. Standardization is a condition for the wide scale use of health care and medical informatics and for the creation of a common market. In the last two years, three important categories-- namely, the Commission of the European Communities with their programs and the mandates, the medical informaticians through their European professional federation, and the national normalization institutes through the European committee--have shown to be aware of this problem and have taken actions. As a result, a number of AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine), CEC sponsored projects, the CEC mandates to CEN and EWOS, the EFMI working group on standardization, the technical committee of CEN, and the working groups and project teams of CEN and EWOS are working on the subject. On overview of the CEN TC 251/4 ''Medical Imaging and Multi-Media'' activities will be given, including their relation to other work.

  5. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BALZER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  6. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. SIPKOVA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  7. Engaging expert communities in development of content of Russia’s regional geoportals (case study: “River basins in European Russia” geoportal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to attract expert communities’ intellectual resources to the process of developing a geoportal entitled "River Basins in European Russia". The results of a survey of experts (n=100) have shown that more than half of respondents had used a variety of geoportals’ data in their professional life. Data on digital relief models, streamflows and landscape maps are of greatest interest. In order to obtain a comprehensive social and ecological analysis of the territory, experts have expressed interest in placing data on population in the basins and its density, the volume of used natural resources, and recreational zones on the designed geoportal. In practical sense, our study can be viewed as a fruitful ground for the development of upward vertical communication (from citizens to the government) and partially horizontal communication among citizens via their engagement in the environmental decision-making process.

  8. Event and Community Development: Planning Legacy for the 2008 European Capital of Culture, Liverpool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-De Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Event legacy has become a major topic of discussion in recent years. Especially, European Capital of Culture is emerging as a means of facilitating community development in Europe. Based on a case study of the 2008 European Capital of Culture Liverpool, this article aims to conceptualise the relationship between an event and its sustained effects on community development. Methodologically, adopting case study as approach, both primary and secondary were collected and analysed, including four times neighborhood surveys, official evaluation reports and academic publications. The study period is from 2007 to 2015 to monitor changes in an event’s impacts. The results reveal four dimensions of effects, including: cultural access and engagement, volunteering, governance and infrastructure, and sense of place. Overall, the study stresses the importance of integrating the event into a long-term development strategy of the city, through synergies between culture and urban regeneration and community renewal.

  9. Benchmark exercise of the European Community on common cause failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerre, P.

    1986-09-01

    This report summarizes experiences and results of the contractor's contribution to the 'Second Reliability Benchmark Exercise of the European Community on Common Cause Failure' (CCF-RBE). The choice of a method for the treatment of dependent failures in a given reliability analysis depends on the purpose and aim of this analysis as well as on quality and extent of the available data, which may also influence the necessary degree of detail of the analysis. When data are applied to a system with different degree of redundancy, two types of errors have to be avoided which lead to extremely pessimistic assessments. (orig.) With 20 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig [de

  10. Pig iron production in the countries of European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.; Cores, A.; Formoso, A.; Babich, A.

    1997-01-01

    The incessant increase of the competitivity of the metallurgical industry implies the necessity of the optimization of the resources and raw materials used. This affects in the same way the iron making in blast furnace and its principal fuel, metallurgical coke. It is from here the importance of the development of the techniques which facilitate improvements in the operation parameters in the blast furnace. This article is dedicated to the latest developments applicated on blast furnace process in the countries of European Community. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Environment protection and other political spheres of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been known that environment protection is largely a cross-sectional task. The provision of Article 130 r Section 2 Clause 2 of the EEC Treaty that states that environment protection forms an integral part of all the other polticial spheres of the Community is not only a plank in the platform of the Community but also a juridical innovation. Time will tell what concrete legal claims can be derived from this provision, particularly on the part of the European Court of Justice. The lectures relate amongst others to the following topics: Environment protection and competition politics, environment protection and energy poltics, environment protection and development aid politics. Eight of the lectures were abstracted individually. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Survey of nuclear safeguards in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmelin, W.

    1992-01-01

    The control of the peaceful use of nuclear energy comprises activities related to nuclear safety, to the protection of persons and of the environment, to physical protection of the nuclear materials against theft or terrorism and to nuclear safeguards. Nuclear safeguards means the set of measures performed by the IAEA in the context of non-proliferation safeguards and, in the framework of the Euratom Treaty, those measures enabling the European Commission to satisfy itself that the nuclear material is not diverted from its intended and declared uses (particularly to unlawful non-peaceful applications) and that the obligations arising from International Agreements are complied with. This contribution to the International Conference on Peaceful Application of Nuclear Energy at Liege briefly reviews the history of nuclear safeguards in Europe since the early 1960ies. It also notes the practical aspects for, constraints and impacts to the nuclear operators imposed on them by the European law such as inspections, accountancy, reporting and describes the trend of the future development of the safeguards operation. The paper finally addresses non-proliferation issues and, notably, the relations between the IAEA and Euratom which in an exemplary way resulted in effective international safeguards and high non-proliferation credentials of the European Community. (author)

  13. The Europeanization of Politics: Building a Terminology for European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Grubiša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of Europeanisation, one of the key concepts developed within the European Studies in the last ten years or so, since the adoption and entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty. The fi rst part of the article deals with various models of Europeanisation in a context extending beyond the conceptual framework of the European Union, within which the phenomenon of Europeanisation arises. Therefore, the author attempts to develop a typology of broader approaches to the identifi cation of the phenomenon and process of Europeanisation, which includes six conceptions thereof: the fi rst approach is a geographical-political one, where Europeanisation is seen as a change in outer borders of Europe, from the reduction of Europe to the countries of Western Europe and Central Europe, to the extension of the concept of Europe to marginal countries; the second approach links the concept of Europeanisation with the development of political institutions on the European level. The third defi nition identifi es Europeanisation as an export of various forms of political organisation, a process which proceeds from the experience of European colonisation to the diff usion of European values as a role model for other continents; the fourth model of Europeanisation is the identifi cation with the project of European unifi cation, i. e. the process of integration which ends up in a federal, unifi ed Europe; the fi fth subtype is the penetration of national systems of governance by the European model of multilevel governance, which becomes manifest in the adaptation, convergence and harmonisation of the political and legal systems of member nations. The author elaborates on this classic typology by adding the sixth approach, which he calls “retrospective Europeanisation”. It involves Europeanisation as identifi cation with traditional European values that existed before EC and EU, primarily with the preintegration traditional

  14. The radiological exposure of the population of the European Community from radioactivity in North European marine waters Project 'Marina'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Project Marina was set up by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985 to look at the radiological impact of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic, in northern European marine waters. This paper is a summary of project Marina's work and its conclusions

  15. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke M Heemskerk

    Full Text Available The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  16. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  17. The Community Structure of the European Network of Interlocking Directorates 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  18. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  19. Konference European Studies: between Globalisation and Regionalism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovková, Jitka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2006), s. 1009-1010 ISSN 0038-0288. [European Studies: between Globalisation and Regionalism. Šiauliai, 12.05.2006-03.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : conference * European identitiy * globalization Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  20. Legal problems of energy supply within the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The report contains two articles; the first one is titled: The Directives on Transit of Gas and Electricity - Considerations regarding the juridical limits of the realisation of the Internal Market in the Energy Sector. It has basic considerations regarding the competences of the EC-legal nature of primary and secondary Community law; it analyzes the network of competences, the legality of the Commission's Proposals concerning the Internal Energy Market and further on the possibilities of legal recourse for enterprises in the Federal Republic of Germany in case the proposal directives are adopted. The second article deals with legal problems of energy supply within the EC-especially under the aspect of British coal mining. It incluses considerations regarding a proposed European Energy Charter, recent developments in EC-law regarding electricity and natural gas, third country imports: dumping, and privatisation. (HSCH)

  1. Community Policy Initiatives. In search of European Union added value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, Rodriguez A.

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission's proposal, approved in early 2003, contains general requirements more of a political and juridical nature rather than a technical one, and is generally based on the IAEA's Safety Fundamentals and on the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel and on the safety of radioactive waste, already ratified by nearly all Member States of the European Union. In general terms, it can be said that the proposal aims at creating a common legal framework enabling the harmonization of policies and practices at Community level and, in particular, to motivate the decision-making processes in Member States with the objective to make real progress to implement permanent solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste. Generally speaking, it can be said that implementing permanent solutions for radioactive waste depends, not only on the availability of technical solutions and economical resources, but also to a great extent on socio-political factors, which requires the development of complex decision-making processes involving concerned stakeholders. These processes are country specific and very difficult to be extrapolated from one country to another, because they largely depend on historical and cultural aspects as well as on the countries' legal and administrative systems. Nevertheless, there exist common elements, which are critical for the development of these processes. On the one hand, there is the need for political willingness to initiate its development and, on the other hand, there are the rules of the game necessary to guide the process. These two elements should conform the objective and driving force of the Directive for the development of national programmes. This is the context in which the Directive can contribute with a positive effect in national programmes and provide real added value on existing international framework. The proposed Directive should provide beneficial effects in national programmes if it keeps to the intentions and

  2. The photovoltaic pilot projects of the European Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, W.

    The Commission of the European Communities has started in 1980 a programme for the design and construction of a series of photovoltaic pilot projects in the range of 30-300 kWp. Virtually all important industries and other development organisations in Europe working on photovoltaic cells and systems are involved in this programme. The different technologies which are being developed concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of an island, villages, recreation centres, water desalination and disinfection, powering of radio transmitters, emergency power plants, dairy farm, training school, cooling, water pumping, powering of a solar heated swimming pool and last but not least, hydrogen production.

  3. The regulatory framework for storage and disposal of radioactive waste in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burholt, G.D.; Martin, A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to collate information and to summarise the present situation with regard to the regulatory framework for the storage and disposal of radioactive waste in each of the member countries of the European Community together with several important countries outside the Community. (author)

  4. Consensus statement on the benefit to the community of ESEMeD (European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders) survey data on depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Kessler, Ronald C; Alonso, Jordi; Benbow, Alastair; Lecrubier, Yves; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Mechanic, David; Tylee, André

    2007-01-01

    To provide an overview of the importance of the data generated by the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD), which found that prevalence and burden of mood and anxiety disorders were high and that care of individuals with mental disorders was suboptimal. Thus, ESEMeD data, based on 21,425 noninstitutionalized adults from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain who underwent computer-assisted personal interviews, confirmed previous findings from epidemiologic studies performed in other locations. In addition, how this large and unique dataset may be utilized for maximum benefit to patients is outlined. The co-chairmen David J. Nutt, M.D., Ph.D., and Ronald C. Kessler, Ph.D., invited 6 faculty members to participate: Jordi Alonso, M.D., Ph.D.; Alastair Benbow, M.B., M.R.C.P.I.; Yves Lecrubier, M.D.; Jean-Pierre Lépine, M.D.; David Mechanic, Ph.D.; and André Tylee, M.D. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles published in this supplement, which include ESEMeD data and data from pertinent scientific literature. The faculty met over a 2-day period: day 1 included discussion of the review articles, during which the chairmen identified issues for further debate; day 2 included discussion of key issues to arrive at a consensus view. The consensus view was drafted by the chairmen and approved by all attendees. ESEMeD provides a very important opportunity to improve knowledge on the epidemiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Despite a decade of educational initiatives, the diagnosis and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders remain suboptimal. Lack of awareness and stigma surrounding mental illness, variations in physicians' ability to diagnose and treat psychiatric conditions, and physician time pressures all contribute to the problem. Future education initiatives should include patients, primary care physicians, employers, and health policy influencers. Patients with mood and anxiety disorders may benefit

  5. Harmonization of food irradiation in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vounakis, H.

    1992-01-01

    As irradiation is intended to prevent the deterioration of food or for its decontamination, its incorrect application could have health consequences. For this reason and in the absence of appropriate Community rules, the Commission programme on food law (COM (86) 603 final, Commission Communication on Food Law) envisaged a proposal for 1987. At that time six Member States permitted food irradiation to varying extents, two others were completing favourable appraisals while another two had no legislation. The commission proposal on food irradiation requires that only foodstuffs mentioned therein could be irradiated under the prescribed conditions and ensures their free movement while guaranteeing a high degree of protection to the consumer in terms of authorization of installations, control and labelling. The Directive on labelling was also modified to impose specific mention for irradiated foodstuffs. The labelling of irradiated ingredients, the products to be accepted for treatment at Community level, the national authorizations and their transfer to the EEC list, are the main issues actually under discussion in the Council. The European parliament was favourable to a proposal restricting the use of irradiation, to dry herbs and spices. (orig.) [de

  6. The ECHI project: health indicators for the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramers, Pieter G N

    2003-09-01

    Within the EU Health Monitoring Programme (HMP), the ECHI project has proposed a comprehensive list of 'European Community Health Indicators'. In the design of the indicator set, a set of explicit criteria was applied. These included: i) be comprehensive and coherent, i.e. cover all domains of the public health field; ii) take account of earlier work, especially that by WHO-Europe, OECD and Eurostat; and iii) cover the priority areas that Member States and Community health policies currently pursue. Flexibility is an important characteristic of the present proposal. In ECHI, this has been emphasized by the definition of 'user-windows'. These are subsets from the overall indicator list, each of which should reflect a specific user's requirement or interest. The proposed indicators are, in most cases, defined as generic indicators, i.e. their actual operational definitions have not yet been attempted. This work has been, and is being carried out to a large part by other projects financed under the HMP, which cover specific areas of public health or areas of data collection. Apart from indicators covered by regularly available data, indicators (or issues) have been proposed for which data are currently difficult to collect but which from a policy point of view would be needed. All this points to the fact that establishing an indicator list which is actually used by Member States is a continuously developing process. This process is now continued by the first strand of the new EU Public Health Action Programme.

  7. Community benefits from wind power: a study of UK practice and comparison with leading European countries. Report to the Renewables Advisory Board and the DTI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The size and nature of local community benefits from wind power projects in the UK is investigated. These are compared with the benefits in Denmark, Germany, Spain and Ireland where wind power has enjoyed significantly higher rates of development and benefits come within the framework of all wind power projects. Ten wind power projects in the UK are examined and the remaining projects are surveyed. Support mechanisms, public acceptance, planning systems, community involvement (jobs, local income, ownership) in the UK and the other four countries are analysed. Typical community benefits from wind power in the different countries are listed, and recommendations are given.

  8. Inventory of activation analysis facilities available in the European Community to Industrial users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.

    1975-01-01

    This inventory includes lists of activation equipment produced in the European Community, facilities available for industrial users and activation laboratories existing in the European companies. The aim of this inventory is to provide all information that may be useful, to companies interested in activation analysis, as well as to give an idea on existing routine applications and on the European market in facilities

  9. Measuring networks for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the European Community, - a pattern of diversity as varying as the peoples?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1991-01-01

    A new study entitled 'Monitoring of Environmental Radioactivity in the European Community', (RAES, 90), shows a survey of the methods currently applied in every country. The study compiles available quality assurance programs and makes suggestions for CEC initiatives. The study refers to the current practice of monitoring in European countries as 'enormous diversity of methods' in member countries. Further suggestions for standardization of the data measuring networks are put forward by a manufacturer of monitoring equipment. (orig./DG) [de

  10. Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections Observational European study (CIAO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartelli Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated intra-abdominal infections are frequently associated with poor prognoses and high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. In order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community-acquired and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES, in collaboration with the Surgical Infections Society of Europe (SIS-E and other prominent European surgical societies, has designed the CIAO study. The CIAO study is a multicenter, observational study and will be carried out in various surgical departments throughout Europe. The study will include patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage for complicated IAI.

  11. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  12. Training of nuclear power plant personnel in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misenta, R.; Matfield, R.S.; Volta, G.; Ancarani, A.; Lhoir, J.

    1981-01-01

    After the Three Mile Island accident the Commission of the European Communities undertook various actions in order to assess the status of the training of nuclear power plant personnel with particular attention to their training for incidents and accidents. This presentation attempts a review of the training situation in the six member states of the European Community together with some other European states, that are operating nuclear power plants. Schemes for the training of control room operators, shift leaders, major European training centres and simulator training will be described

  13. Crossroads in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades the educational practices within EU studies have been challenged by the lack of comprehensive texts on research strategy, design and method useful for study programmes. Since the ‘comparative turn’ of the 1990s, where we saw a shift towards applying theories, analytical......, at best, empirical examples derived from actual research projects in EU affairs. Yet, this otherwise pragmatic approach has become increasingly difficult. In this sense EU studies is at a crossroads of the meeting place between many disciplinary interests in Europe, as well as the point in time where...... frameworks and research methods known from the study of national political systems, EU studies programs have been faced with two choices when putting together curricula: either to downplay issues of research methodology in the curriculum, or to embark on the troublesome journey of putting together discrete...

  14. The United States and the European Community, 1969-1974: an uneasy partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thuy Hang NGUYEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relations between the United States and the European Community under the Nixon Administration (1969-1974 were considerably changing. Post-1945 cooperation and dependence increasingly gave way to economic competition and division in military and foreign policies. Yet, the United States and the European Community knew that they were strategically important to each other, thus they had to continue cooperation and coordination to defend and advance their economic and strategic interests. With a documentary research approach, this paper aims to examine how the United States and the European Community their partnership evolved between 1969 and 1974. It explores the ties that the Nixon Administration designed to bind the European Community and the European Community’s responses. It also puts forth that despite their efforts to continue cooperation; the relations between the United States and the European Community were on a downward course. It will be concluded that the United States and the European Community experienced a difficult time in their relations between 1969 and 1974, but both sides showed certain efforts to maintain the partnership.

  15. Estimating fuel cycle externalities: Analytical methods and issues. Report number 2 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: A study by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC) 'on the externalities of fuel cycles.' Part I illustrates the use of the atmospheric dispersion and transformation modeling that this study recommends for airborne pollutants in the coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas fuel cycles. Part II of this volume contains a paper which reviews the scientific literature on ecological impacts associated with power plant discharges. Part III contains papers summarizing the relevant health effects literature. Part IV contains papers on methods of economic evaluation. Part V contains four papers on various issues related to the estimation of externalities and their use in public policy. The final part is Part VI, and it contains a paper which describes a system for summarizing analysts' assessments of the quality of the information that an analysis uses to estimate externalities. This system allows analysts to provide information, not only on their best estimates, but also on a range of estimates, on uncertainty, on the quality of the data, and on other factors that better reflect the full dimension of making estimates under uncertainty. The system has broad applicability beyond fuel cycle externalities, as well.

  16. Estimating fuel cycle externalities: Analytical methods and issues. Report number 2 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: A study by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC) 'on the externalities of fuel cycles.' Part I illustrates the use of the atmospheric dispersion and transformation modeling that this study recommends for airborne pollutants in the coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas fuel cycles. Part II of this volume contains a paper which reviews the scientific literature on ecological impacts associated with power plant discharges. Part III contains papers summarizing the relevant health effects literature. Part IV contains papers on methods of economic evaluation. Part V contains four papers on various issues related to the estimation of externalities and their use in public policy. The final part is Part VI, and it contains a paper which describes a system for summarizing analysts' assessments of the quality of the information that an analysis uses to estimate externalities. This system allows analysts to provide information, not only on their best estimates, but also on a range of estimates, on uncertainty, on the quality of the data, and on other factors that better reflect the full dimension of making estimates under uncertainty. The system has broad applicability beyond fuel cycle externalities, as well

  17. Guidelines for radioprotection of the Council of the European Communities, dating from 1-1-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the guidelines for radiation protection of the european communities are treated. The guidelines refer to radiotherapy, radiodiagnostics and nuclear medicine. The guidelines are divided in eight articles and an appendix. (Auth.)

  18. Commission of the European Communities. Review of fast reactor activities - April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1984-01-01

    The frame in which the activities of the Commission of the European Communities in the field of fast breeders are executed was described at earlier meetings. The present review is therefore limited to a brief report on same highlights

  19. A requiem for the European coal and steel community (1952-2002)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Hospers, Gerrit J.

    2002-01-01

    In July 2002 the Treaty on the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) expired. The ECSC is now being dissolved, its assets are transferred into special research funds, and European coal and steel policy is integrated into mainstream EU industrial policy. The ECSC's main task was to integrate the

  20. The decline of the impetigo epidemic caused by the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone: an 11.5-year population-based incidence study from a community in Western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørtveit, Sverre; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Langeland, Nina; Rortveit, Guri

    2014-12-01

    From around the year 2000, Northern Europe experienced a rise in impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fusidic acid. A single clone of S. aureus was found to be the bacterial pathogen involved in the impetigo outbreak in Norway, Sweden, the UK and Ireland, termed 'the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone' (EEFIC). We have followed the incidence of impetigo during the years 2001-2012 based on all patients in general practice in the island community of Austevoll, Western Norway. We previously reported a marked decline of impetigo incidence in Austevoll, from 0.0260 cases per person-year in 2002 to 0.0038 in 2009. This article explores indications of an end to the impetigo epidemic caused by the EEFIC clone. All four general practitioners (GPs) in the community (mean population = 4400) were asked to diagnose impetigo in a uniform way and to take bacterial specimens from all impetigo cases. Phenotypic characteristics of specimen bacteria were determined for the whole period and molecular analyses were performed on isolates in the period 2008-2012. We observed a further decline in incidence of impetigo in Austevoll in the study period. The proportion of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus isolates decreased during the period 2002-2012, with a mean of 80% in the epidemic years of 2002-2004, 55% in 2005-2009, and 6% in 2010-2012. In total, 44 S. aureus isolates from impetigo were subject to molecular analyses in the period 2008-2012, and 11 were found to be related to the EEFIC. All EEFIC isolates were found in 2008-2009, with no new isolates in 2010-2012. There is an apparent end to the impetigo epidemic related to the EEFIC in this population in Western Norway.

  1. Risks, regulation responsibilities and costs in nuclear waste management: a preliminary survey in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e. the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management

  2. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities in the field of codes and standards for FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzaghi, A.

    1987-01-01

    A description of the organization set up by the Commission of European Communities to study problems, compare information within the member nations, and with other industrial nations for the preparation of guides and codes for the components of the LMFBR is given. Work performed and currently in progress is given on structural analysis, materials, and classification of components. (orig.)

  3. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  4. Evaluation of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire in European community pharmacies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phipps, D.L.; Bie, J. de; Herborg, H.; Guerreiro, M.; Eickhoff, C.; Fernandes-Llimos, F.; Bouvy, M.L.; Rossing, C.; Mueller, U.; Ashcroft, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the internal reliability, factor structure and construct validity of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire (PSCQ) when applied to a pan-European sample of community pharmacies. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Setting: Community pharmacies in Denmark,

  5. Diagrammatic representation of economic factors affecting the nuclear fuel cycle strategy within the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the Final Working Group 4 Report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is presented. The European Community has to import 80% or more of the uranium needed to fuel its nuclear power capacity. Nuclear fuel reprocessing together with recycle of the recovered uranium and plutonium has the potential to reduce the uranium needs of the Community some 20 to 25% during the near term period 1990-2000 and in the longer term (after 2000) with the gradual introduction of fast breeder reactors to decrease sharply the need to import uranium. This illustrates the high economic value assigned to fuel reprocessing within the European Community

  6. [G. Baglivi and scientific European community between rationalism and enlightenment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, A

    2000-01-01

    The Baglivi Correspondence, kept in the Waller Collection at the University Library of Uppsala, has been published in Italy for the first time in 1999. This Correspondence kept in Sweden provides new information about the scientific Italian culture between the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth. Moreover, it provides important knowledge on the diffusion the Baglivi's work in the scientific European context at that time.

  7. European studies on occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Frasch, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ESOREX project was initiated by the European Commission in 1997. The objectives of this European study are: to provide the European Commission and the national competent radiation protection authorities with reliable information on how personal radiation monitoring, reporting and recording of dosimetric results is organized in European countries; to collect reliable and directly comparable data on individual and collective radiation exposure in all occupational sectors where radiation workers are employed. The information about the monitoring of occupational radiation exposure, the levels of individual personal doses of workers in the different work sectors, the changes and trends of these doses over a period of several years and the international comparison of these data are useful information for many stakeholders. The survey consists of two parts. Part I surveys how radiation protection monitoring, recording and reporting is arranged within each of the 30 European countries. Part II collects doses from occupational exposure of classified workers in the participating countries. For each country, information is provided on the number of workers in defined work categories and how annual individual personal doses are distributed. The summary and the conclusions provide tentative recommendations for harmonizing modifications of some of the national monitoring, reporting and recording arrangements. In all ESOREX studies a beneficial, effective and extensive information base about thirty European states has been created. The studies resulted in country reports describing the legislative, administrative, organizational and technical aspects of the national dose monitoring and recording systems for occupationally radiation exposed workers. These reports are standardized, i.e. they have as far as possible an internationally comparable structure. The dose distributions of the radiation workers and the annual average and collective doses in the various work

  8. Impact of accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety - Share cost project of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the growing interest in Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), some European institutes have established a shared cost project in the framework of the European Community. The overall objective of the project is to make an assessment of the possibilities of accelerator-driven hybrid reactor systems from the point of view of safe energy production, minimum waste production and transmutation capabilities

  9. Correlation between asthma and climate in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Rolando; De Marco, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey, performed during 1991-1993, found a remarkable geographical variability in the prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms in individuals aged 20-44 yr. The highest values occurred in the English-speaking centers. In the present investigation, the ecological relationship between climate and symptom prevalence was evaluated in the 48 centers of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Meteorological variables were derived from the Global Historical Climatology Network and were averaged over an 11-yr period (i.e., 1980-1990). Respiratory symptom prevalence was directly related to temperature in the coldest month and was related inversely to the temperature in the hottest month. Warm winters and cool summers are features of oceanic climate found in most English-speaking centers of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (i.e., England, New Zealand, and Oregon). In conclusion, climate can account for significant geographic variability in respiratory symptom prevalence.

  10. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  11. The industrial radiography of defects inside the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeper, Burkhardt; Kaempf, B.

    1976-03-01

    The concept of the industrial radiography applied to defect invesigation is defined. The following topics are successively discussed: the development of the industrial 'defect radiography', apparatus and auxiliary equipments used in the field, the market, the constructors, trade currents in 'defect radiography' inside the Community and in the outer market; prognostics on future requirements in the fields

  12. Translational reprocessing of spent fuel elements in the light of European Community law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuing, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Objections are being raised against the current reprocessing of fuel elements from German nuclear power plants in France and Great Britain on the grounds that, measured by German protection requirements, it cannot be regarded as 'inncuous utilization' of radioactive waste material; this brings a momentous intervention of the German authorities against the operators of German nuclear power plants into consideration. Yet would not such a 'national solo attempt' conflict with European Community law?. This question is illuminated in its different aspects. First the issue is examined from the point of view of radiation protection law under the Euratom Treaty and of the aim of the EC to establish the single market. Subsequent focal points are an inquiry into compatibility with the freedom of merchandise traffic and commercial services as provided by European Community law. The outcome is that European Community law does not oppose the German authorities intervencing. Rather such self-discipline practised by member states for the benefit of the European environment is admissible so long as the other EC member states do not establish equally stringent standards on their own accord or European Community law itself does not provide protection on a high level. (orig.) [de

  13. Feasibility study for the European Reliability Data System (ERDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the Reactor Safety Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, the JRC - Ispra Establishment has performed a feasibility study for an integrated European Reliability Data System, the aim of which is the collection and organization of information related to the operation of LWRs with regard to component and systems behaviour, abnormal occurrences, outages, etc. Component Event Data Bank (CEGB), Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank, Operating Unit Status Reports and the main activities carried out during the last two years are described. The most important achievements are briefly reported, such as: Reference Classification for Systems, Components and Failure Events, Informatic Structure of the Pilot Experiment of the CEDB, Information Retrieval System for Abnormal Occurrences Reports, Data Bank on Component Reliability Parameters, System on the Exchange of Operation Experience of LWRs, Statistical Data Treatment. Finally, the general conclusions of the feasibility study are summarized: the possibility and the usefulness for the creation of an integrated European Reliability Data System are outlined. (author)

  14. Overview of decommissioning research and development activities in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.

    1982-01-01

    The European Community's research program on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants is managed by the Commission of the European Communities and carried out by national laboratories and private firms under cost-sharing contracts. Starting in 1980, about fifty research contracts covering a large variety of topics have been let so far. The paper outlines the content, progress and selected results of the seven projects composing the program. These projects concern the following subjects: maintaining disused plants in a safe condition; decontamination for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of waste materials; large waste containers; estimation of waste arisings; and plant design features facilitating decommissioning. 4 references

  15. The role and the results of the European Community's R and D work on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Girardi, F.

    1986-01-01

    The role and results of the European Community's research and development (R and D) work on radioactive waste management are described. The R and D work includes: radioactive waste conditioning, characterization and storage, materials science studies for the storage, geological media confinement studies, and radionuclide migration investigations. Financial management and the long term, and the socio-political aspects of waste management, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  16. European community direct taxation: the recent integration trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kalvytė, Vesta

    2011-01-01

    While Member States retain direct tax sovereignity and determine the tax, its base, rate, taxable subjects discretionary, fundamental differencies occur, resulting in market fragmentation and big obstacles for effective functioning of Community internal market. These differencies and the gap between harmonization in direct taxes and other spheres stipulate the need of harmonization and pressure for the Member States. However, the sole harmonization base requires the Council to act unanimously...

  17. Ninth general report on the activities of the European Communities in 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A requirement to publish this report is in accordance with Article 18 of the Treaty establishing a single Council and a single Commission of the European Communities. In his opening address to the European Parliament Feb. 10, 1976, Mr. Francois-Xavier Ortoli, President of the Commission, reviewed the achievements of the Community in 1975 and assessed its successes and failures prior to presenting its plans for 1976. Europe in the World, Building up an Integrated Economic Unit, and Improved Structural and Regional Balances and a Better Quality of Life are three memoranda annexed to the address by the President. The activities of the Communities in 1975 are summarized in five chapters. Abstracts were prepared for two activities dealing with energy: ''The Sectoral Policies: Common Energy Policy'' in one of the annexed memoranda and ''Community Policies, Section 14: Energy,'' in Chapter III. (MCW)

  18. Multi-scale analysis of the European airspace using network community detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Gurtner

    Full Text Available We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspace and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of several community detection algorithms, both with fixed and variable resolution, and also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace.

  19. Mineral metabolism in European children living with a renal transplant: a European society for paediatric nephrology/european renal association-European dialysis and transplant association registry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; Busutti, Marco; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Jager, Kitty J.; Baiko, Sergey; Bakkaloğlu, Sevcan; Battelino, Nina; Gaydarova, Maria; Gianoglio, Bruno; Parvex, Paloma; Gomes, Clara; Heaf, James G.; Podracka, Ludmila; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Molchanova, Maria S.; Pankratenko, Tatiana E.; Papachristou, Fotios; Reusz, György; Sanahuja, Maria José; Shroff, Rukshana; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Data on mineral metabolism in pediatric renal transplant recipients largely arise from small single-center studies. In adult patients, abnormal mineral levels are related to a higher risk of graft failure. This study used data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal

  20. Collective dose to the European Community from nuclear industry effluents discharge in 1978

    CERN Document Server

    Camplin, W C

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to evaluate the collective dose commitment to the population of the European Community from effluents released by the nuclear industry within the EC in 1978. Airborne and liquid effluent discharge data have been taken from published sources, and computer modelling techniques have been used to predict the transfer of radioactivity through the environment to man. The collective dose commitments due to discharges from each nuclear installation have been evaluated and the comparative significance of individual radionuclides and their pathways to man have been considered. Airborne releases resulted in an estimated collective effective dose equivalent commitment of 95 man Sv, the major part of which is due to carbon-14 from both power stations and reprocessing plants. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from liquid effluents is estimated to be 408 man Sv, mostly due to caesium-137 and other radionuclides from the Sellafield (formerly Windscale) reprocessing plant...

  1. Communication received from the Resident Representative of Italy on behalf of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The document reproduces the text of a Note Verbale dated 20 October 1988 from the Permanent Mission of Spain stating that the Government of Spain has also adopted the common policy declaration adopted on 20 November 1984 by the Ministries for Foreign Affairs of the then ten Members of the European Community (INFCIRC/322) concerning the transfers of nuclear material, equipment and technology between the Member States of the Community

  2. European nuclear data studies for fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullhusen, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Mondelaers, W.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear data needs for fast systems are highlighted and the following projects are described: Joint European research projects: MUSE Experiments for Sub-critical Neutronics Validation; High- and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data for ADS (HINDAS); and the Time-Of-Flight facility for Nuclear Data Measurements for ADS (n T OF N D A DS); European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS-NUDATRA); and CANDIDE; Programmes for transnational access to experimental facilities in Europe: European Facilities for Nuclear Data Measurements (EFNUDAT); Neutron Data Measurements at IRMM (NUDAME); European facility for innovative reactor and transmutation neutron data (EUFRAT) (P.A.)

  3. Propositions for the harmonization of the market of in vitro diagnostic products within the european community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The European diagnostic manufacturers Association (EDMA) is the association of the national associations in Europe which are representative of manufacturers and distributors of in vitro diagnostic products. The Association's primary objectives as set out in its statutes are: - to promote and encourage among its members ethical principles and practices voluntarily agreed upon - to study and deal with all matters of common interest, for example, in the fields of heald legislation, science, technology and research. - to contribute expertise to and co-operate with national European and international organisations, governmental and non-governmental, having aims and objects similar to those of the Association or whose activities affect the interests of the members of the Association. Founded in 1979, the Association has developed from its original seven national member associations within Europe to its present number of fourteen. Through its member associations, EDMA represents well over 80 p. cent of the companies involved in the manufacture and distribution of in vitro diagnostic products and more than 90 p. cent of the market for those products within the Community and within Europe generally [fr

  4. International Institutions and Domestic Reform: Equal Pay and British Membership in the European Economic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frader, Laura Levine

    2018-03-01

    Despite having been overlooked in the standard histories of the UK and the European Community, gender politics and gender policies played a significant role in Britain's applications for membership in the EEC in the 1960s. Joining the European Community required that Britain comply with Article 119 on equal pay for equal work. A combination of domestic feminist and labour movement activism, the commitment of unions and parties, and the internationalization of formal commitments to women's rights constituted internal and external pressures for the passage of an Equal Pay Act in 1970. The article argues that the formal legislative commitment to gender pay equality, changing public attitudes towards women's employment, and European membership impacted further domestic social policy reform and slowly began to shift government attitudes towards gender equality.

  5. Radioactive waste management: outline of the research programme of the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresesti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The lines of activity, the main achievements and the perspectives of the research programme of the Commission of the European Communities on radioactive waste management, are presented. In particular an overall view of the activity on chemical separation and nuclear transmutation of actinides is given, as introduction to the various presentations of the JRC staff on specific aspects of this waste management strategy

  6. Commission of the European Communities - Review of fast reactor activities, March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1979-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities pursued its activities on the lines described earlier. Besides the execution of a research programme in its Joint Research Centre the Commission endeavoured to support the development and demonstration of fast reactors. Most of the latter activities were performed in the frame of the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee

  7. Assessment of the environmental impact of plutonium transport within the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Assessment is given of the environmental impact of plutonium transport within the European Community in the 1990's. This includes shipments of plutonium, raw materials, fresh and spent mixed oxide fuel assemblies and plutonium contaminated solid wastes. The consequences on general traffic, the radiation doses to transport workers and the general public and the heat release during transport are presented

  8. Computer tape library for collective dose assessments in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.; Kelly, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    A computer tape library has been established which can readily be applied to enable calculations to be made of the collective dose to the population of the European Community from radioactive effluent discharges within the EC. The background to the development of the tape library and details of its contents, method of application and availability are summarised in this note. (author)

  9. Building international collaborative capacity: contributions of community psychologists to a European network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Manuel; Paloma, Virginia; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Balcazar, Fabricio

    2009-09-01

    Europe is in the process of building a more participative, just, and inclusive European Union. The European Social Fund, which is an initiative developed to actively promote multinational partnerships that address pressing social issues, is a good example of the European transformation. This article describes the steps taken to develop and evaluate the activities of an international network promoting collaborative capacity among regional partners involved in the prevention of labor discrimination toward immigrants in three European countries-Spain, Belgium, and Italy. An international team of community psychologists proposed an empowering approach to assess the collaborative capacity of the network. This approach consisted of three steps: (1) establishing a collaborative relationship among partners, (2) building collaborative capacity, and (3) evaluating the collaborative capacity of the network. We conclude with lessons learned from the process and provide recommendations for addressing the challenges inherent in international collaboration processes.

  10. Warming shelf seas drive the subtropicalization of European pelagic fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57,870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. THE CONTEMPORARY MIGRATION PHENOMENON – THE (UN SOLVED PROBLEM OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian MANOLACHE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that the migration wave from the Orient is a challenge for Europe and especially for the Catholic and Protestant countries. Its geopolitical, economic, social, cultural, theological and spiritual significance have hardly any competition in the old evolution of the world, the secularisation from the 17th century or the globalisation from the 21st century. From this perspective, it is necessary to study carefully the migration phenomenon in its assembly, trying to present an integrated and multi-criteria diagnosis, especially due to the fact that the migration phenomenon brings closer to each of us the huge and extremely difficult problem of Muslim radicalisation, together with its cohort of terrorist manifestations endangering the most important human right: the right to life. Our study is intentionally intended to evaluate and commensurate, using Orthodox theological criteria, the impact of the actual migration phenomenon, the life of the Muslim community – umma, related to the Christian community from the multicultural European society. We start from the opposed manner the two sides relate to society, understand freedom and the dialogue between religions.

  12. Teaching European Studies: A Blended Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Christova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be looking into the teaching method developed by the Institute for European Studies in Brussels, combining an e-learning tool- the E-modules- with face-to-face training sessions and webinars. The main aim is to analyse the three different components of this “blended learning” pedagogical approach, as well as the way they complement each other and to address a few of the challenges that have emerged from the experience of working with them so far. The E-modules are an e-learning platform that has been designed with the purpose of offering a structured and interactive way of learning how the European Union functions. The face-to-face training component currently takes the form of three days in-house seminars, covering in an intensive manner the most important areas of the curriculum. The lectures are held by a mix of academics and practitioners, hereby ensuring a balanced approach, in which theory and practice come together to facilitate the learning experience. The third element of the “blended learning” method is placed in-between online and face-to-face learning: interactive seminars and debates are held online, giving the participants the chance to deepen their knowledge in certain fields of interest and to discuss the content of the course with specialists and among themselves. The mixture of delivery and interaction methods was chosen in order to accommodate a large variety of target groups, ranging from students to professionals working with EU-related issues, with different backgrounds and geographical origins. One of the main challenges is to use each medium for the functionalities it is best designed for and to ensure that the various pieces of the pedagogical puzzle fit together perfectly, while allowing the learners the flexibility that had initially directed them towards “blended learning” instead of a classical classroom approach.

  13. Situation and prospects of radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Orlowski, S.

    1990-01-01

    All Member States of the European Community with a nuclear power production programme are preparing for the disposal of radioactive waste produced in the nuclear fuel cycle and through the use of radionuclides in health care, research and industry. The situation of storage and planned, on-going - and already performed - disposal of radioactive waste in these States is first summarised. Suitable sites for disposal of radioactive waste of all categories exist in all Member States concerned. The general principles and international recommendations, and common principles, standards and requirements applicable to disposal in the European Community are then presented, followed by a description of existing disposal facilities and of those which are in an advanced planning stage, and the implementation of basic criteria by national authorities. Finally, policies and strategies for long-term storage and disposal for definitively shut-down nuclear installations, and contributions to research in this field in the ''Communities' Radioactive Waste Management Programme'' are discussed. (author)

  14. The evolution of the ecological policy and the environmental law of the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietinger, A.

    1998-08-01

    This thesis is structured chronologically starting with the origins of a European environment policy. These origins can be found in the foundation treaty of the European Community but are not explicitly codified. The thesis shows that the emphasis on economics in the European Community turned from acceptance of an environment policy as a marginal phenomenon to valuation of environmental policies as a principle of its own. The focus is on the contents of the EC Trial. The normative structure on which the environmental policy is built on aims of making clear that not only political declarations without any codification are made, but that the environment is a field of community activity to be taken seriously. Special attention is given the aim of economic growth and its incompatibles environmental policies. Convergence can only be reached if EC Member States use their potential of cooperation and are ready to make their contribution. A special chapter deals with the competence of member states concerning environmental policies. As contracting partners to GATT, member states of the European Union represent a very large portion of world trade, we have to make sure environmental policy is given the right place it deserves in free world trade. A summary and final reflections are included in the last part of the thesis. (author)

  15. The fourth radioactive waste management program of the Commission of the European Communities (1990-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.; Simon, R.

    1992-01-01

    The fourth radioactive waste management program 1990-1994 is aimed at perfecting and demonstrating a system of management of radioactive waste, including unprocessed irradiated fuels where these are considered as waste, which will ensure, at the various stages, the best possible protection of man and the environment. In particular, research continues on the characterization and qualification of the various barriers, both engineered and natural (geological) considered in the multiple barrier disposal concept, and the findings are used to evaluate the long-term safety of this waste disposal concept. The program is implemented mainly through shared-cost research contracts with appropriate organizations, undertakings and companies - public or private - established in the European Community Member States. It is composed of two parts; Part A deals with waste management studies and associated research and development actions, whereas in Part B, the construction and operation of underground pilot and/or site validation facilities for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste open to Community joint activities are covered. (author)

  16. The radioactive waste management program of The Commission of the European Communities: Past, present, and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive waste management program started in the mid-1970s is being carried out by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) Joint Research Centre and by research bodies within the European community under CEC coordination and partial financing. The program deals with the management of the radioactive waste resulting from uranium-plutonium fuel cycle. During its first phase (1973-1979), various treatment and conditioning processes were investigated; high temperature incineration and acid digestion of alpha-bearing waste, immobilization of highly active waste in borosilicate glasses, inter alia, appeared promising. Geological disposal was recognized as a feasible option; transmutation of long-lived products did not appear to be an advantageous alternative to geological disposal, and the studies were discontinued. The second phase (1980-1984) of the program is a followup to the first. The needs of the European nuclear industry and of the national radioactive waste agencies or operators recently created are, however, taken into account. The continuity of the RandD effort is ensured by a ''Community plan of action on waste management,'' (1980-1992). A third phase, 1984-1989, should demonstrate the availability and validity of the waste management techniques and be convincing about their safety

  17. The radiometric industries of the countries of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeper, Burkhardt

    1975-01-01

    The economic development of the radiometric industries in the EEC and the USA since 1960 is studied on the basis of sales statistics. The study covers the supply and the use of radioisotopes, the application of radiometric techniques, the scope and the development of the foreign trade as well as the structure of the firms concerned. The future need for radiometric apparatus is estimated as regards radiation protection, laboratories, industry, nuclear power plants and medicine

  18. Bill authorizing the ratification of the protocol amending the Protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After an indication of the European Parliament composition, this text describes the transitional provisions adopted as the Lisbon Treaty did not come into effect before the European elections held in June 2009. The document also provides the protocol text signed by the Members States and which amended the protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The last part of the document discusses the administrative and legal consequences of this protocol. It also recalls the history of the negotiations and indicates the present status of signatures and ratifications

  19. Macro-economic effects of additional energy conservation in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sips, H.W.; Bakker, L.; Muizelaar, J.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the title study is to evaluate the environmental and economic consequences of additional energy conservation in five Western European countries: the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy. In the first part of the study the economic effects of a policy, in which additional energy conservation is realized only for the Netherlands, is calculated. In this report the results are presented. The calculated results of the economic effects of a coordinated energy conservation policy in the abovementioned countries will be published in a separate report. The effects of three policy variants will be evaluated: the non-financial policy variant, the shift of the financial burden variant, and the variant in which the levies are not compensated.The starting point for the first variant is an autonomous realization of the energy conservation. The basis of the second variant is that an equal amount of energy can be saved by means of a substantial energy levy. The profits of this levy can be used to reduce the financial burden of labour. For the economic calculations use has been made of the HERMES-model. Every member of the European Community has developed such a macro-economic model. In chapter two the different starting points for the calculations are outlined, with special attention to descriptions of the policy variants, the model-input and the basic projection. In chapter three the economic effects of the policy variants are presented and discussed. In chapter four the energy conservation and the environmental effects of the variants are dealt with. The most important conclusion of this study is that a considerable amount of energy can be saved, which will have positive effects on the economy and the environment. 8 figs., 20 tabs., 6 apps., 32 refs

  20. Population screening for breast cancer in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waard, F. de

    1987-01-01

    Although our understanding of the causes of breast cancer is increasing, it is as yet not possible to recommend measures to decrease its occurrence. Therefore we have to resort to a substitute called secondary prevention which aims at preventing the occurrence of metastatic breast cancer and death by detecting the primary cancer in the breast at an earlier point in its natural history. The question whether this can be achieved can only be answered by scientific study. Such studies are being called: population-based screening programmes. Screening requires one or more tests by which one can partition a population in those who probably have a cancer and those who have not. Since an early breast cancer does not produce symptoms like pain the test has to be some sort of objective assessment. In the field of detecting breast cancer we have been greatly helped by the development of a radiologic technique called mammography. Mammography basically is not an easy technique since there is little contrast between structures in the breast compared with e.g. bone. The quality of mammograms, therefore, was not very high in the pioneering era during the nineteen-fifties and -sixties. This presentation discusses a move of a few doctors in New York city: a radiologist, a surgeon and epidemiologist, to design a scientific study which could answer the question whether mammography, added to a standard clinical examination of the breast would decrease mortality from breast cancer

  1. Video-game epilepsy: a European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G; da Silva, A M; Ricci, S; Binnie, C D; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; Segers, J P

    1999-01-01

    With the introduction of Nintendo video-games on a large scale, reports of children having seizures while playing suggested a possible specific, provocative factor. Although 50% of the photosensitive patients are also sensitive to a 50-Hz television, nonphotosensitive patients with a history of video-game seizures were described as well. The question arises whether this is a mere coincidence, provoked by fatigue and stress, is related to the reaction to the television screen itself, or depends on the movement and color of the pictures of this specific game. A European study was performed in four countries and five sites. All patients were selected because of a history of television, video- or computer-game seizures, with a history of sun-light-, discotheque-, or black and white pattern-evoked seizures, or were already known to be sensitive to intermittent photic stimulation. A total of 387 patients were investigated; 220 (75%) were female and 214 (55%) of those were video- or computer-game seizure, were significantly more sensitive to pattern and to the 50-Hz television (chi square, p video- or computer game, 14% proved not to be photosensitive. Although no difference in age or use of medication was found, twice as many men were found in this nonphotosensitive group.

  2. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  3. State Power and the Acquis Communautaire in the European Community of the early 1970s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses in a historical perspective the so-called acquis communautaire, i.e. the body of law, rules, including informal decisions/norms, taken by the European Community/European Union. In the first part of the article the early history of the concept from the establishment of the EC...... in 1958 to the early 1970s is analysed. The second part of the article analyses the impact of the acquis communautaire on the way the EC negotiated during the first successful enlargement negotiations from 1970 to 1972 with Denmark, Ireland, Norway and Britain. The article demonstrates empirically...... that even if national governments continued to play a leading role in European cooperation, the existence of a common body of law, rules and norms was difficult for single governments to set aside in their pursuance after of narrow national interest. This did not mean that laws could not be bent, or broken...

  4. Obligations to power supply and Antitrust Law of the European Community; Strombezugsverpflichtungen und EG-Kartellverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, Dirk

    2008-07-01

    In the European electricity supply industry, a change to competition-oriented national markets under development of a common European electricity market is observed for some years. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on obligations to the current power supply and on the trust prohibition in the European Community. The contribution under consideration consists of the following three chapters: (a) Discussion of fundamental questions regarding to cartel legal evaluation of obligations to power supply; (b) Conditions of the art. 81 sect. 1 EEC and application to obligations for power supply; (c) Exemption from the obligation to power supply according to art. 1 sect. 3 EEC. In particular, the regulation of the group exemption for vertical agreements of 22nd December, 1999, is considered.

  5. The on-line European Community urgent radiological information exchange (ECURIE) information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; Breitenbach, L.; De Vries, G.

    1998-01-01

    Immediately after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP, both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) set up a system to meet the requirements for early warning and exchange of information. The Environment Institute of the CEC JRC-Ispra provides technical assistance for the European community Urgent Radiological Information Exchange system (ECURIE). By this system, Member State contact points can exchange information in a coded format. In order to facilitate the use and to assure the data quality, a Coding-Decoding Software (CDS) was developed in collaboration with the I.A.E.A. A new version, called CoDecS, is under development. An ECURIE data bank is under construction, which will automatically recognize and store incoming ECURIE messages. Further on, query and reporting software will be developed. The background objectives and the conceptual basis for the structure of the on-line information system is described. (author)

  6. Nuclear power's vocation in the energy strategy of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.

    1979-01-01

    One of the founding treaties (the Euratom Treaty) of the European Community, to which the UK acceeded in 1973, foresaw an important role for nuclear energy in helping to develop economic prosperity and in facilitating collaboration with other countries. Nuclear energy already provides some 10% of all Community electricity but neither this contribution, nor that now forecast, is as great as was foreseen a few years ago. The causes of this shortfall are identified: they cover socio-economic, technical and political problems, and are exhibited, in varying degrees, in all nine Member States of the Community. It is suggested that, although some aspects of the matter are the inescapable responsibility of individual Member States, there are many features where a common Community position can be advantageous to all. (author)

  7. The European Community dimension to the problem of accidental radioactive releases to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, E.

    1989-01-01

    The European Community has to comply with the provisions of the Euratom Treaty, 1957. As well as providing the conditions necessary for the growth of nuclear industries it lays down the task to establish uniform Safety Standards to protect the health of workers and of the general public. This includes emergency planning in case of nuclear accidents. As a result the Community followed the guide, published in 1982 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, on the radiological protection criteria for controlling doses to the public in the event of accidental releases of radioactive materials. However when the Chernobyl accident occured the Community and International arrangements proved to be inadequate to respond to the consequent widespread contamination over Europe. Measures have been taken since then to improve the preparedness of the Community. They include better exchange of information, control of contaminated foodstuffs and better information to the public. (U.K.)

  8. Results of the European Community's beta intercomparison programme of individual dosemeters in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigard, T.; Sequin, H.; Chartier, J.L.; Christensen, P.; Francis, T.M.; Lembo, L.

    1988-01-01

    For over 20 years, the Commission of the European Communities, in collaboration with competent laboratories in the member states, has been conducting intercomparisons of individual dosemeters with the objective of improving technique for monitoring ionizing radiation and establishing a common basis for dose assessment within the Community. These programmes not only serve the participants with an opportunity to validate their calibration and measuring procedures but also help to create a forum in which to exchange information and discuss experience with other participants. The performance and results of such an intercomparison exercise conducted in 1986 are reported here

  9. EUROPEAN UNION DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE: A CASE STUDY OF THE EUROPEAN CITIZENS’ INITIATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei MORARU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant optimism surrounding the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI, its success between April 2012 and December 2015 has been limited. This paper aims to determine why the ECI has had limited success and how it can be improved. Using a case study methodology composed of semi-structured qualitative interviews with ECI organizers and document analysis, it identified two sets of causes through the lens of governance theory: (i legal, practical and logistical and (ii theoretical. While the former are more technical in nature and thus might be easier to solve, the latter reveal structural limitations, especially linked to the ECI’s priorities. The research reveals contradiction into how these objectives are interpreted by different actors and how the underlying power structure of the community method remains unchanged despite the narrative of innovation. I outline two alternative models to the ECI, the participative and deliberative initiative by drawing on David Held’s theoretical models of democracy. They outline improvements to the ECI by suggesting clearer priorities: citizen inclusion in the decision-making process or continent-wide public deliberation on EU issues.

  10. Commission of the European Communities - Activities in the field of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1977-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is performing activities in the field of fast reactor on two lines: a) activities aiming to prepare the commercialization of fast reactors by coordination and collaboration between national programmes. b) the execution of an own programme in the Joint Research Centre at Ispra (Italy) and Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany) in the field of FBR safety and research on Pu-bearing fuel

  11. Regulations and practices for systematic radiological screening within countries of the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.

    1987-01-01

    The presentation of the situation concerning the various types of mass radiological screening within the countries of the European community is a brief description of the following: - the status of public regulations, - recommendations issued by medical authorities in various countries, - the actual practices of the medical profession, whether governed or not by the aforementioned regulations and official recommendations. Regulations, recommendations and/or systematic mass radiological screening practices concern mainly three diseases: - tuberculosis, - cancer of the breast, - congenital dislocation of the hip

  12. The study of the European Union from outside: European integration studies in Norway and Iceland 1990-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Eliassen, Kjell; Marino, Marit Sjøvaag; Bergmann, Eirikur

    2012-01-01

    This is a working paper version of a paper written for SENT - The Network of European Studies. The aim of this chapter is to map the research on European integration carried out by Norwegian and Icelandic researchers and research institutions in the period 1990–2010. This study covers research of central aspects of the European Union itself: institutions, decision-making processes, policies, actors and the relationship to other countries, global and regional institutions and local and regiona...

  13. The Commission of European Communities project 'mirage' (migration of radionuclides in the geosphere)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1984-01-01

    The co-ordinated project 'MIRAGE' on Migration of Radionuclides in the Geosphere corresponds to the follow-up, from 1983 onwards, of the present activities of the laboratories of the Member States, up to the end of 1984, and of the Joint Research Centre at Ispra, up to the end of 1983. It is concentrated upon the study of the transfer of radioactivity from conditioned waste through the different barriers up to the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The MIRAGE project is performed in the framework of the Commission of European Communities (CEC) indirect action programme on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste, sub-programme Undergound Disposal, and of the CEC direct action programme on Safety of Nuclear Materials at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Establishment. The total financial commitment in this project is at present 6,384,000 ECU for 1983 and 1984 and the Commission participates financially in each study selected on a cost-sharing basis to a level of about 40% of the total cost. The costs of the studies performed at JRC-Ispra are not included in this amount. The number of organizations, firms and laboratories involved in this project comes to about 40

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROMANIAN FISHERY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the fishery sector represents one of the European Union’s priorities due to the positive impact it has on food security and to its potential to ensure nutritious and quality food at an affordable price as compared to other animal-origin resources. The Community policy in the fishery sector focuses on reducing the Community market dependence on imports and on the sustainable development of business in this domain. Romania aligned with the Community policies and, therefore, important funds were allocated to the national fishery sector. The diversified natural resources, the possibility to use friendly technologies, the qualified staff, the tradition in the domain, and the existence of a number of niche markets all represent motivations for the development of the Romanian fishery sector. The present paper proposes an analysis of the Romanian fishery production and of the European financing effects on the specialized companies. Despite the fact that there have been important resources allocated to the sector and there is a slight positive evolution, the absorption of funds was difficult. The results of the investment may be observed after a long period of time, this is why Romania is still dependent on fishery product imports. Aquaculture represents the main segment towards which the European funds were directed, including in our country, thus providing the greatest part of the income and employment in the domain.

  15. Objectives, standards and criteria for radioactive waste disposal in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    The present report, edited by a working group within the framework of the European Commission research programme on radioactive waste management and disposal, reviews the objectives, standards and criteria for radioactive waste disposal in the European Community with a view to identifying common features and differences in the regulatory frameworks of its Member States. Suggestions for possible harmonization are made. A few common general principles form the basis for legal and regulatory measures. These principles apply to and are discussed for the following: radiation protection (with the systems of dose limitation and control), ethical and sociological questions, environmental and natural resources protection, and nuclear safeguards. A description is given of the implementation of common principles, standards and requirements at Community level, in line with requirements laid down in the European Community Treaties, and in international conventions and recommendations. This is followed by a review of the implementation of basic criteria by national safety authorities. Regulatory measures and national policies, and the approaches used in devising criteria are discussed for both near-surface disposal of low-level waste, and for deep geological disposal of waste in continental geological formations. Finally, the roles and duties of the operators of radioactive waste facilities are reported. More detailed information on particular aspects is presented in the annexes

  16. European contribution to the study of ROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egea, Javier; Fabregat, Isabel; Frapart, Yves M

    2017-01-01

    The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) provides an ideal framework to establish multi-disciplinary research networks. COST Action BM1203 (EU-ROS) represents a consortium of researchers from different disciplines who are dedicated to providing new insights and tools for better u...

  17. Legislations set out to protect workers against ionizing radiations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivelet-Denais, M.-F.

    1975-01-01

    A physical review on ionizing radiations and a biological survey of their possible effects on exposed workers are followed by a study, first general and then analytical, of the various legislations set out to protect these workers in the European Community. In the light of this study a few comments are called for. In all member States the rules are particularly strict for everything to do with approval and homologation of plants and equipment, technical qualifications of users, safety measures, physical protection control, atmospheric checks and individual dosimetry. Reservations must be made as to the exact organization of controls and the interdependence between supervisory and user bodies, these points generally remaining rather vague. France more than the other member States has made an effort at precision which deserves credit but is disappointing in practice where medical supervision of exposed workers is concerned. This inadequacy of the medical examination is due mainly to the lack of any significant symptom betraying a biological overdose. The hematological examination is also disparaged for its lack of sensitivity and above all specificity [fr

  18. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  19. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The European Community's research and development activities on the management of radioactive waste from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is conducting an R and D programme on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The activities carried out within this framework that concern, in particular, management of the radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning are outlined. Characterization of the radioactivity inventory of nuclear power plants at the end of their useful life is of fundamental importance in this context. Research in this field comprises analyses of the trace elements in reactor materials which are relevant for the formation of long-lived radionuclides by neutron activation, as well as examinations of samples taken from activated and contaminated plant components. Most of the radioactive plant components are only surface contaminated. Highly efficient decontamination techniques are being developed with the objective of achieving conditions permitting unrestricted release of the material treated. Other activities concern the conditioning of steel and concrete waste for disposal, and the management of graphite waste from gas-cooled reactors. Large containers are being developed for transport and disposal of radioactive components. Finally, the methods of radiological evaluation and measurement are being studied which are required to decide whether material from the dismantling of nuclear power plants has to be disposed of as radioactive waste or not. (author)

  1. Environmental policy on the way to Brussels : the issue of acidicification between the Netherlands and the European community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The process of European integration is marked by a dynamic and often controversial balance between member state autonomy and supranational. decision making. Within the European Community (EC), enviromnental policy has in the past 25 years emerged as one of the major fields of activity. This

  2. European Community legislation and recommendations in the field of radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Orlowski, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection principles are the foundation for national and European Community legislation and recommendations in the field of management and disposal of radioactive waste. Directives set up at Community level, which are to be implemented in the national legislative framework of the Member States are summarized. Policies and strategies in radioactive waste management are of national competence, as well as ensuring safety of all steps of handling, storage and final disposal; recommendations at Community level are developed to assist national authorities and agencies in determining their strategy. Existing recommendations are described and a preview of recommendations under preparation is given. Legislation in this field is mainly aimed at radioactive waste arising from operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations; for radioactive waste produced outside the nuclear fuel cycle and for material with significant levels of naturally occurring radionuclides special situations exist, and harmonization of legislation and the development of common practices on the management of such wastes may be desirable

  3. Declining primary energy consumption in nine countries of the European Community in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabel, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Statistical Office of the European Communities has published preliminary figures for energy consumption in the Community (of the Nine) for the year 1980. These show a primary energy consumption for the EEC in 1980 of approx. 1344 mtce. That is 63 mtce or 4.5% less than in the previous year. Primary energy consumption in 1980 still bore comparison, to some extent, with the previous record figures for 1973, the last 'normal year' before the first crisis. The figures for all the Community countries show that the energy policy measures introduced in recent years are becoming more effective, particularly the attempts to restrict oil consumption. There is also the effect of oil prices, which again rose dramatically in 1979/80. Whether this decline in consumption will continue in the future will only become clear when the promised economic upturn arrives. (orig./UA) [de

  4. The process of adoption of the principle of subsidiarity in the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Lluís Piñol

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In disregarding the treatment that the European media offers the subject, the author sets out with the statement that the Principle of Subsidiarity is a procedural principle recently inserted in the logic of the attribution of competence and in the process of Community decision-making. Used as it is as a legal-political instrument,reinforcing the principle of democratic legitibility and closely connected to the principle of solidarity, the Principle of Subsidiarity favours the assumption of competence by the European Cornmunity as much as its decentralization.In order to understand the adoption of this principle in the Treaty on European Union, the author proceeds, in the first place, with a relatively abstract analysis about the ambiguous, multi-faceted and various interpretations that this principle has repeatedly received. Secondly, equal reference is made to the political debate concerning the inclusion or exclusion of the PS in the Community treaties, as to the specific meaning of the PS in the different Councils of Europe.The Edinburgh meeting deserves special treatment as the author considers it a model of analysis of Community decision-making in which the classic actors of the EC (its institutions and its member states have participated as well as other actors: organized political forces in the Europe of Twelve and, from 1986, the nationalparliaments of such countries. By way of a change, the author includes an analysis of the performance of those forces that existed before, but that were relatively poorly organized with respect to the theme of Community integration: the so-called regions, at individual level (lander, Catalonia or the Basque Country or organizationally in the CPLRE and the ARE and also looks at those actions taken by certain personalites such as Spinelli, Giscard dlEstaing or the very same Jacques Delors.

  5. The New European and/or EU Studies Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea; Dolghi, Dorin; Pantea, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In this part we will present turn by turn the evolution of the curriculum in four domains which are developing in the area of European and/or EU Studies: EU Intercultural Dialogue Studies, EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies, EU Communication and Information Studies, EU and Comparative Regionalism, from several points of view. First, we will take into consideration the perspective that each curriculum from the four domains has in the ensemble of European and/or EU Studies, t...

  6. Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy policy in SE Europe: SE European Energy Community Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlov, Andjelka

    2010-01-01

    Energy demand continues to increase in turn raising concerns about energy supply. In this paper, the author has tried to systematize the role of the energy sector in South Eastern (SE) Europe in the context of the European energy policy process. This should make the energy sector in SE Europe more visible and open to substantial activities and appropriate funding. This is important to assure its full alignment with the European energy policy process, and in so doing, make it less fragile. According to the SE European Energy Community Treaty, parties to the Treaty are obliged to implement reforms in the energy and environmental sector in accordance with the European Union's respective policy. This paper raises awareness of the environmental requirements that have been set, of renewable energy and its implementation, at the same time pointing out that the response in SE Europe has been at a low level. It is believed that this paper could draw attention to the existing problems and could contribute to the establishment of a common integrated energy market in SE Europe and the EU. (author)

  7. The programme and objectives of the Commission of the European Communities concerning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Cricchio, A.; Girardi, F.

    1984-01-01

    The radioactive waste management programme of the Commission of the European Communities offers a good opportunity for co-operation between Member States. The Commission's principal objectives are: (1) to implement a Community action plan adopted in 1980 for a twelve-year period; (2) to promote research and development; (3) to ensure that radioactive waste management is conducted in conformity with environmental concerns and radiation protection norms. Under the action plan the current situation and prospects for radioactive waste management in the Community were evaluated in 1981-82. Other activities under the plan relate to the promotion of Community co-operation in final disposal and to the institution of a mechanism for Community consultations on criteria for the acceptance of conditioned wastes. The promotion of research and development involves a high degree of co-operation and effort to optimize or select procedures and to establish pilot or demonstration facilities. A budget of US$ 20 million at present supports these activities. With regard to radiation protection, in 1982 the Commission issued a recommendation for an investigation, at Community level, into the impact on all the Member States of operations such as waste treatment, dumping at sea, burial in the ground and storage of radioactive wastes. These objectives suggest that the solutions now under consideration for the management of high-level and long-lived wastes will by the end of this century be introduced alongside those already adopted in practice for low- and medium-level wastes. (author)

  8. Possible development of nuclear energy in the European Community and consequences of different reactor strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decressin, A.; Haytinck, B.; Orlowski, S.

    1974-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities recommended to stimulate the development of the nuclear energy, in order to ensure in the middle or long term, a diversification of the energy supply sources of the Community. According to such a policy, nuclear energy could cover nearly 80% of the Community needs in electrical power in the year 2000 - these being estimated at 50% of total energy needs of the Community - and correspond to 1,3 billion tep for that year alone. In the year 2000, the installed nuclear capacity in the Community (i.e. nearly 1000 GWe) would imply the consumption of roughly 150.000 metric tons of natural uranium and necessitate 90.000 tons of SWU in enrichment services, whatever ''average'' strategy is considered for the period 1980 - 2000. The choices between these various strategies made by public or industrial decision centers, will be the result of a complex assessment of many factors. In any case, the flow of nuclear material between countries will remain very important and a Community nuclear self sufficiency based on breeding is not conceivable before the time at which new energy sources could be brought in effective uses

  9. The European Communities' research programme on management of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Cecille, L.

    1989-01-01

    In the European Communities' third R and D programme on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Wastes a large number of projects have been commissioned to develop treatment and conditioning processes for low and intermediate level wastes and to qualify the conditioned waste forms. The paper presents the main objectives of this research and summarizes some of the more important studies. In liquid waste treatment, the research includes processes to separate actinides by new extractive methods and application of selective inorganic ion exchangers as well as electrochemically controlled ion exchange processes and a series of purification methods involving membrane techniques. The most important issue of solid waste management in the programme is the treatment and conditioning of plutonium containing wastes, for which a strategic study had been commissioned to optimize the choice between different treatment and conditioning options. Processes being studied include two advanced decontamination techniques and a variety of conditioning methods for incinerator ash and fuel element hulls. Another task of the programme is devoted to the qualification of waste forms. This comprises the characterization of the most common low and intermediate level waste products with respect to leaching, waste form stability, radiation resistance and compatibility with the respective disposal environments. In the course of the programme, the development of methods for quality assurance and in particular quality control has become an important issue: the control of the nuclide inventory, of the chemical composition of the wastes and of the correct operation of treatment and conditioning processes is being investigated in special laboratories. (author). 21 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Handbook of materials testing reactors and ancillary hot laboratories in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to make available to those interested in 'in-pile' irradiation experiments important data on Materials Testing Reactors in operation in the European Community. Only thermal reactors having a power output of more than 5 MW(th) are taken into consideration. In particular, detailed technical information is given on the experimental irradiation facilities of the reactors, their specialized irradiation devices (loops and instrumented capsules), and the associated hot cell facilities for post-irradiation examination of samples

  11. Prospects for plutonium recycling in light-water reactors in the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of a forecast on nuclear power installation programmes and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing capacities in the European Community, an assessment has been made of the developmnt of the plutonium handling industry up to the year 1990. Data on plutonium recovered in the reprocessing plants, requirements for fuelling the fast-breeder reactors and the remaining stockpile have been evaluated. A possible strategy for recycling the plutonium surplus in light-water reactors has been developed and its effects as regards saving on requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services have been estimated

  12. Analytical determination of traced elements in concrete samples used in nuclear reactors of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, S.; Piccot, D.

    1984-01-01

    In reactor dismantling residual radioacting of concrete used, especially in biological shield can brought problems for treatment and disposal. Radioactivity of concrete from reactors can be forecasted if element content is known. Elements producing long life radionuclides are: chlorine, calcium nickel, cobalt, niobium, europium and samarium. Neutron activation analysis is used for determination of these elements whithout chemical separation for Ca, Co, Eu and Sm and with radiochemical separation for Cl, Ni and Nb. A lot of elements, less interesting are also determined by gamma spectrometry after irradiation. It was possible to determine 29 elements in 21 concrete samples from different European Community reactors

  13. S.I. No 189 of 1988, European Communities (Medical Ionizing Radiation) Regulations, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The Regulations provide that all those engaged in the use of ionizing radiation for medical (including dental) purposes must be competent in radiation protection and have appropriate training. They also specify that the exposure of a patient to ionizing radiation must be medically justified and the dose delivered must be as low as is reasonably achievable. The Regulations implement the provisions of the Directive of the Council of the European Communities No 84/466 Euratom of 3 September 1984 laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment [fr

  14. The European Community's research and development programme on the decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) continued with a second research programme on the decommissioning of nuclear installations (1984-88), after having completed a first programme on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants (1979-83). The programme, which has about 70 research contracts with organisations or private firms in the member states, includes the development and testing of advanced techniques, such as decontamination and dismantling, and the consideration of the radioactive waste arising therefrom. Work is done at laboratory scale or in the context of large-scale decommissioning operations. The paper will give an overview on the technical content and on some selected results. (author)

  15. Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community, International Atomic Energy Agency, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed legislative instruments, Adopted legislative instruments, Non-legislative instruments, Other activities (meetings). International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: The Russian Federation to join the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; Participation by the regulatory authorities of India and the United Arab Emirates in the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); NEA International Workshop on Crisis Communication, 9-10 May 2012; International School of Nuclear Law: 2013; Next NEA International Nuclear Law Essentials Course

  16. Hycom Pre - Feasibility study. Final report[Hydrogen communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacobazzi, A; Mario, F di [ENEA, (Italy); Hasenauer, U [Fraunhofer IS, (Germany); Joergensen, B H; Bromand Noergaard, P [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The Quick-start Programme of the European Union Initiative for Growth identifies the hydrogen economy as one of the key areas for investment in the medium term (2004-2015). In this context the HyCOM (Hydrogen Communities) programme has been initiated. The main goal of this programme is the creation of a limited number of strategically sited stand-alone hydrogen communities producing hydrogen from various primary sources (mostly renewables) and using it for heat and electricity production and as fuel for vehicles. This report looks at the establishment of such hydrogen communities, analysing the main technical, economic, social, and environmental aspects as well as financial and regulatory barriers associated with the creation and operation of hydrogen communities. It also proposes a number of concepts for Hydrogen Communities and criteria with which a Hydrogen Community should be evaluated. The study is not in any way intended to be prescriptive. (ln)

  17. The R and D program on geothermal energy of the commission of the European communities results and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louwrier, K.P.; Garnish, J.D.; Staroste, E.

    1992-01-01

    DGXII of the Commission of the European Communities has supported research and development in the field of the geothermal energy since 1975, and has just begun the fifth, and probably final, four year program. The first program concentrated on the data collection in order to establish the geothermal potential of the Community. This work resulted in the drafting and publication of two Atlases, one dealing with sub-surface temperatures and one with geothermal resources. Three multidisciplinary studies were undertaken on three known geothermal reservoirs with different characteristics, in order to test the validity of various exploration methods. A major element in recent years has been Hot Dry Rock studies, which have evolved during the course of the various program s from laboratory experiments and work in shallow holes towards a European test site where an international team of scientists coordinates research teams from different Member States. Basic scientific support to exploitation of geothermal energy has been given by geochemistry. The present R and D program centers on HDR research and abatement of corrosion and scaling in geothermal systems. Besides the geothermal work the program also supports studies in deep reservoir geology

  18. Review of activities of the Commission of the European Communities relating to fast reactors in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is performing fast reactor activities in two areas: (1) co-ordination and harmonization and (2) research. Co-ordination and harmonization activities are essentially carried out in the frame of the Fast Reactor Co-ordinating Committee (FRCC). At present CEC is examining possible support schemes which include a contribution to R-D and/or to a EFR design effort. In line with the current CEC R-D activities a possible research support would be in the field of safety. Round robins on the determination of residual stress in cold worked materials and on the stress relaxation properties of austenitic stainless steels were accomplished. Studies were performed on high cycle fatigue of austenitic stainless and on stress rupture properties of 9-12 Cr steels. The work performed at the Ispra establishment is related to LMFBR safety, while the activities carried out at Karlsruhe concern essentially fast breeder fuels. Safety research at Ispra comprises essentially the investigation and analysis of severe accident phenomena under three main projects: FARO, EAC and PAHR in-pile. The short-term nitride irradiation experiments NILOC 1 and 2 were analysed in detail and compared with the previous short-term carbide irradiations CARLO and CARRO which had been performed under partly identical conditions as NILOC 2. In the context of an industrial project to transmute long-lived actinides in nuclear waste into short-lived fission products in a dedicated fast reactor, a study was launched to determine the thermodynamics and the metallurgical characteristics of alloys of uranium-plutonium-zirconium with various amounts of the minor actinides neptunium, americium, and curium. First experimental data on the specific heat of refractory metals and UO 2 at and above their melting temperatures were obtained with newly developed equipment using laser pulse heating and ultra fast multi-wavelength pyrometry. The results thus obtained will be input data

  19. Arisings of cladding wastes from nuclear fuel in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottone, G.

    1978-01-01

    An inquiry has been made in the member states on composition, activation and amounts of cladding wastes arising in the European Community until 1990 from the following reactor types: BWR, PWR, SGHWR, AGR and FBR. The elaborated results of this inquiry are given in this report. On the basis of forecasted reprocessing capacities the cumulative amount of cladding waste in the Community was estimated to reach in 1985 and 1990, respectively, about 2,100 and 7,300 metric tons. This waste will mainly consist of zircaloy and of smaller amounts of stainless steel and nickel alloy. Assuming that 0.5% of the spent fuel remains with the cladding, the contamination has been estimated for cooling times varying from 1 to 1000 years. In the first centuries activation is prevailing, but contamination determines the long-term radioactivity; consequently better decontamination, removing the alpha-bearing compounds, would be beneficial in reducing the long term hazard

  20. Edison Home Community Study Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  1. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in different lake habitats (the profundal, sublittoral, and littoral) in five regions of Europe (Alpine, Northern, Central...... local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective...... and our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems....

  2. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Proceedings of the seminar ''Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community'' organized by the Commission of the European Community in collaboration with the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, France, from 3 to 4 December 1985. Part I presents rapporteurs' papers which summarize the salient points concerning: the status of regulations and practices in the different countries, mass chest screening, mammography screening and infants' hip dysplasia screening. Part II presents all the technical papers contributed by the participants. The overall conclusions of the seminar pointed up the importance of assessing the effectiveness of screening or prevention practices more systematically. Although some aspects of the problems associated with radiological mass screening were only qualitatively addressed, the papers presented did explain why the use of certain medical practices must be justified. It is hoped that these proceedings will be useful to national experts and bodies in the planning of future public health programmes which, in the light of current practices, will have to take account of the medical, economic and social dimension of mass screening.

  3. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  4. Critical Studies on Men in Ten European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)

    2002-01-01

    This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...... of statistical sources on men's practices in the ten countries, are presented. This is the second of four articles reviewing critical studies on men in the ten countries through different methods and approaches....

  5. Supplying the six. [Supplies of nuclear fuels and ores to the European Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboussier, F

    1975-07-01

    Under the Euratom Treaty, the European Community must ensure that all users in the Community receive a regular and equitable supply of ores and nuclear fuels. Supply to users in the Community of ores, source materials, and special fissile materials is based on the principle of equal access of the users to the supply sources. To ensure such equal access, the Treaty prohibits all practices designed to secure a privileged position for certain users. In addition, an agency has been set up with two essential rights--that of an option on all ores, source materials, and special fissile materials produced in the territories of the Member States; and the exclusive right to conclude all contracts relating to the supply of ores, source materials, and special fissile materials coming from inside the Community or from outside. Dealings of the Agency with outside agencies, especially the former US AEC, are described. The uranium market and its economics and the availability of special fissile materials are summarized. (MCW)

  6. SNOWMASS (DPF Community Summer Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Hennessy, et al, Daniel

    2013-08-06

    The 2013 Community Summer Study, known as Snowmass," brought together nearly 700 physicists to identify the critical research directions for the United States particle physics program. Commissioned by the American Physical Society, this meeting was the culmination of intense work over the past year by more than 1000 physicists that defined the most important questions for this field and identified the most promising opportunities to address them. This Snowmass study report is a key resource for setting priorities in particle physics.

  7. European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müllerleile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Contemporary European Research User Username Password Remember me Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security teaching European studies The UACES Blog The Commission after the 2014 EP... Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Open Journal Systems Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2014 > Müllerleile European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox Andreas Müllerleile Abstract This article examines public engagement strategies for academics working in the field of European Studies. Should academics engage with the public? What are the most effective outreach strategies? And what are the implications for universities and departments? The article argues that engaging with the public should be considered an integral part for academics working on topics that relate to the European Union or European politics. The article has a theoretical and a practical dimension. The first part of the paper deals with the nature of public engagement, explaining why it is an important issue and how it differs from the mainstream understanding of public engagement. The practical part of the paper presents the idea of building an online presence through which academics can engage with the public debate both during periods of low issue salience and high issue salience. The final section includes a toolbox

  8. Quality assurance network: The European pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavaudra, J.; Derreumaux, S.; Brider, A.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the IAEA/WHO experience in mailed dosimetry, a Quality Assurance (QA) Network, sponsored by the EC committee ''Europe against Cancer'', has been set up in 1991 for all European centres. Besides a survey of radiotherapy infrastructure, the project includes three measurement steps: primarily, a check of beam output and quality in reference conditions with a mailed TLD-procedure, in a second step, the mailed verification of other beam data and dose calculation procedures with multipurpose phantom, and finally in vivo dosimetry at the individual patient levels with mailed dosimeters. The results concerning 162 beams from 85 centres are analysed (58 60 Co beams and 104 X-ray beams). 27 beams present minor deviations (3 to 6%) and 15 beams (4/58 60 Co beams and 11/104 X-ray beams) from 11 centres present major deviations (≥ 6%). The analysis shows that 17/27 minor deviations and all major deviations have been detected in centres which have not benefited from an external check during the last five years; in 14 out of 15 large deviations, the measured dose is smaller than the stated dose. In most centres with major deviation, the physicists did not have the necessary experience and did not calibrate regularly the beams. In 6 centres out of 11 there was no dosimeter or the dosimeter available has not been calibrated recently. In 3 centres, the physicist did not give any explanations. The conclusions concerning the second step (multipurpose phantom), outline the larger magnitude of the deviations for off axis points, oblique surface and the use of wedge filters. (author). 32 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Quality assurance network: The European pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavaudra, J; Derreumaux, S; Brider, A [Institut Gustave Roussa, Villejuif (France). Service de Physique; Dutreix, A; Schueren, E van der [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium)

    1996-08-01

    Based on the IAEA/WHO experience in mailed dosimetry, a Quality Assurance (QA) Network, sponsored by the EC committee ``Europe against Cancer``, has been set up in 1991 for all European centres. Besides a survey of radiotherapy infrastructure, the project includes three measurement steps: primarily, a check of beam output and quality in reference conditions with a mailed TLD-procedure, in a second step, the mailed verification of other beam data and dose calculation procedures with multipurpose phantom, and finally in vivo dosimetry at the individual patient levels with mailed dosimeters. The results concerning 162 beams from 85 centres are analysed (58 {sup 60}Co beams and 104 X-ray beams). 27 beams present minor deviations (3 to 6%) and 15 beams (4/58 {sup 60}Co beams and 11/104 X-ray beams) from 11 centres present major deviations ({>=} 6%). The analysis shows that 17/27 minor deviations and all major deviations have been detected in centres which have not benefited from an external check during the last five years; in 14 out of 15 large deviations, the measured dose is smaller than the stated dose. In most centres with major deviation, the physicists did not have the necessary experience and did not calibrate regularly the beams. In 6 centres out of 11 there was no dosimeter or the dosimeter available has not been calibrated recently. In 3 centres, the physicist did not give any explanations. The conclusions concerning the second step (multipurpose phantom), outline the larger magnitude of the deviations for off axis points, oblique surface and the use of wedge filters. (author). 32 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. European study of occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX -. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1997-11-01

    The ESOREX-Project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Its purpose is to survey in each of these countries 1. the administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, 2. the numbers of occupationally radiation exposed persons and dose distributions for the year 1995. The study shall describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the quantity structures. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyze the possibilities for a European harmonization. In order to achieve the co-operation of the European states the European Commission and the BfS organized an international introductory workshop in Luxembourg in May, 1997. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  11. The Role of the Two Sides of Industry in Initial and Continuing Training. Documentation of the Conference Organized by the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) in Collaboration with the Commission of the European Communities and the Economic and Social Committee of the EC (Brussels, Belgium, November 8-9, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This document reports the proceedings of a conference held in Brussels to take stock (on the basis of the studies conducted by the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training and the analyses carried out in this field in all the European Community member states) of the work undertaken in the last few years and to present…

  12. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, E.M.; Daolio, F.; Tomassini, M.

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise

  13. Maternal and infant health of Eastern Europeans in Bradford, UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jessica; Kliner, Merav; Brierley, Shirley; Stroud, Laura

    2014-09-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate maternal and infant health needs within Eastern European populations in Bradford. Evidence suggested that migrants from Eastern Europe had poor maternal and child health and increased rates of infant mortality. Health visitors, community midwives and specialist voluntary workers were involved. Eleven interviews took place. They were semi-structured and analysed using a thematic approach. A number of health needs were identified in Eastern European populations, including high rates of smoking and poor diet. Wider determinants of health such as poverty and poor housing were cited as commonplace for Eastern European migrants. There were numerous cultural barriers to health, such as discrimination, mobility, cultural practices regarding age at pregnancy, and disempowerment of women. Lastly, access to health services was identified as a significant issue and this was impacting on staff working with this population. This study demonstrated the complexity and interaction of health and social factors and their influence on utilisation of health services.

  14. European integration and the supervision of local and regional authorities
    Experiences in the Netherlands with requirements of European Community law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hessel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing European integration, local and regional authorities are having to deal with European law more and more intensively. As Member States (read: central government are responsible vis-à-vis the Community for the errors of local and regional authorities, the question arises within Member States whether the central government possesses sufficient supervisory instruments for complying with their obligations under Community law: they must ensure that the errors of local and regional authorities are rectified in time, and national law must provide for sufficient possibilities to do so. Although Community law is neutral towards the internal relations between the various tiers of government within the Member States, this responsibility of the central government may, as a result of European integration, lead to a need for more powerful supervisory instruments in relation to local and regional authorities. In the past five years there has been some debate on this subject within the Netherlands and after a long delay the Dutch cabinet in 2004 decided that the existing supervisory instruments in the decentralized unitary state of the Netherlands should be expanded. The legislation intended to realize this expansion is being prepared. This discussion and its results would seem of interest to other Member States of the Community facing similar problems.

  15. Origin and evolution of European community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegger, Marc; Wirth, Thierry; Andersen, Paal S; Skov, Robert L; De Grassi, Anna; Simões, Patricia Martins; Tristan, Anne; Petersen, Andreas; Aziz, Maliha; Kiil, Kristoffer; Cirković, Ivana; Udo, Edet E; del Campo, Rosa; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Ahmad, Norazah; Tokajian, Sima; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Givskov, Michael; Driebe, Elizabeth E; Vigh, Henrik E; Shittu, Adebayo; Ramdani-Bougessa, Nadjia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Price, Lance B; Vandenesch, Francois; Larsen, Anders R; Laurent, Frederic

    2014-08-26

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was recognized in Europe and worldwide in the late 1990s. Within a decade, several genetically and geographically distinct CA-MRSA lineages carrying the small SCCmec type IV and V genetic elements and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) emerged around the world. In Europe, the predominant CA-MRSA strain belongs to clonal complex 80 (CC80) and is resistant to kanamycin/amikacin and fusidic acid. CC80 was first reported in 1993 but was relatively rare until the late 1990s. It has since been identified throughout North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, with recent sporadic reports in sub-Saharan Africa. While strongly associated with skin and soft tissue infections, it is rarely found among asymptomatic carriers. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) CC80 strains are extremely rare except in sub-Saharan Africa. In the current study, we applied whole-genome sequencing to a global collection of both MSSA and MRSA CC80 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the European epidemic CA-MRSA lineage is derived from a PVL-positive MSSA ancestor from sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the tree topology suggests a single acquisition of both the SCCmec element and a plasmid encoding the fusidic acid resistance determinant. Four canonical SNPs distinguish the derived CA-MRSA lineage and include a nonsynonymous mutation in accessory gene regulator C (agrC). These changes were associated with a star-like expansion into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa in the early 1990s, including multiple cases of cross-continent imports likely driven by human migrations. With increasing levels of CA-MRSA reported from most parts of the Western world, there is a great interest in understanding the origin and factors associated with the emergence of these epidemic lineages. To trace the origin, evolution, and dissemination pattern of the European CA-MRSA clone (CC80), we sequenced a global collection

  16. Si no. 43 of 1991 - European Communities (ionizing radiation) regulations, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    These Regulations entered into force on 5 April 1991 and repeal the Factories Ionizing Radiations (Sealed Sources) Regulations, 1972 and the Factories Ionizing Radiations (Unsealed Sources) Regulations, 1972. They were made in implementation of the European Communities' Council Directive 80/836 Euratom of 15 July 1980, as amended by Council Directive 84/467 Euratom of 3 September 1984, laying down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. They also complement the Nuclear Energy (General Control of Fissile Fuels, Radioactive Substances and Irradiation Apparatus) Order, 1977 with regard to licensing requirements. They apply to the production, processing, handling, use, transport, storage, etc. of natural and artificial radioactive substances and to any other activity which involves a hazard arising from ionizing radiation. (NEA) [fr

  17. Multiple deprivation, income and poverty in Italy: an analysis based on European Community Household Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brasini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine both the diffusion and intensity of poverty in Italy by utilising two kinds of approach. The first is the usual one, which employs a threshold defined in terms of income in order to identify the poor families. The second, referring to the definition of functioning introduced by Sen, identifies the poor families on the basis of living conditions. The use of this specific approach allows us to take into account new aspects of the phenomenon that the income approach overcame. Our analyses refer to the results of the second wave of the European Community Household Panel, which was delivered in 1995. Regarding income poverty, a logistic discriminant analysis has been performed in order to detect the significantly connected variables, as for the living conditions approach. The latter approach is more effective in the detection of the family state of privation than the former.

  18. Differentiation, Leaders and Fairness. Negotiating Climate Commitments in the European Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringius, Lasse

    1997-12-31

    This report shows that it is possible to negotiate and reach asymmetrical environmental agreements that take into account significant national dissimilarities. It is argued that analytical models and intuitively appealing model-based quantitative indicators of national circumstances can establish premises for negotiations leading to differentiated environmental agreements. While they cannot take the place of political negotiations, they help identify a formula that defines the problem in a resolvable fashion and prevent the bargaining space from expanding uncontrollably. Scholars arguing that symmetrical environmental measures are widely used because they simplify negotiations and prevent countries from pursuing extremist positions, and that salient focal points are significant in negotiation, overlook this argument. In pre-Kyoto European Community climate policy, which this report empirically examines, high transaction costs and EC member states` ability to block economically hurtful agreements were not essential issues. 54 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. Directives and recommendations of the European Communities on health protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The CNEN has published a third edition, with comments, of the Directives and Recommendations of the European Communities on health protection against ionizing radiations, following their revision in 1976. This revision takes account of recent developments in the ICRP recommendations which serve as guidelines in the legislation of many countries for establishing general radiation protection principles as well as basic criteria and technical standards. The new Directive, while keeping to the basic principles established in 1959, introduces new methods for improved medical surveillance of workers; also, the previous difference between occupationally exposed workers and those occasionally exposed is eliminated. Finally, a new concept of critical groups is introduced as regards protection of the population, as a basis for its protection. (NEA) [fr

  20. Waste processing plant eco-auditing system for minimization of environmental risk: European Communities regulatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper delineates a system of process control and monitoring checks to be applied to municipal-industrial waste processing and disposal plants to ensure their energy efficient, environmentally safe and reliable operation. In line with European Communities environmental protection strategies, this eco-auditing system requires the preparation of environmental impacts statements on a regular basis during plant operation, as well as, prior to plant start-up. Continuous plant environmental compatibility evaluations are to ascertain: material and energy inputs and outputs; the composition and amounts of exhaust gases released into the atmosphere and the integrity of treatment liquids; control and monitoring instrumentation reliability. The implementation of the auditing system is to be carried out under the supervision of authorized auditing personnel. Waste processing and disposal plants are to make maximum use of energy and materials recovery processes so as to minimize energy consumption and risk to the environment

  1. 32nd European Study Group with Industry, Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ESGI (European Study Group with Industry) is Europe's leading workshop for interaction between mathematicians and industry. These workshops have taken place in Great Britain for a number of years, going back to 1968 when Prof. Alan Tayler initiated the so-called Oxford Study Group with Industry...

  2. European contribution to the study of ROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egea, Javier; Fabregat, Isabel; Frapart, Yves M

    2017-01-01

    of essential cellular processes. The fact that many diseases have been found to be associated with oxidative stress established the theory of oxidative stress as a trigger of diseases that can be corrected by antioxidant therapy. However, while experimental studies support this thesis, clinical studies still...... generate controversial results, due to complex pathophysiology of oxidative stress in humans. For future improvement of antioxidant therapy and better understanding of redox-associated disease progression detailed knowledge on the sources and targets of RONS formation and discrimination...

  3. The exclusion-inclusion spectrum in state and community response to sex offenders in Anglo-American and European jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunik, Michael; Deutschmann, Linda

    2008-10-01

    Continental European and Anglo-American jurisdictions differ with regard to criminal justice and community responses to sex offenders on an exclusion-inclusion spectrum ranging from community protection measures on one end to therapeutic programs in the middle and restorative justice measures on the other end. In the United States, populist pressure has resulted in a community protection approach exemplified by sex offender registration, community notification, and civil commitment of violent sexual predators. Although the United Kingdom and Canada have followed, albeit more cautiously, the American trend to adopt exclusionist community protection measures, these countries have significant community-based restorative justice initiatives, such as Circles of Support and Accountability. Although sex offender crises have recently occurred in continental Europe, a long-standing tradition of the medicalization of deviance, along with the existence of social structural buffers against the influence of victim-driven populist penal movements, has thus far limited the spread of formal community protection responses.

  4. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new...... agenda for research on Europe. The crisis gripping the EU in the 21st century is not just an economic crisis, it is a crisis of belief in the EU. Research on the EU is deeply implicated in this crisis, not least because of the questions it does not ask, but also because of the pereceived weakness...... of demonstrating the methods and evidence used. A new agenda for research on Europe needs to acknowledge these weaknesses of the past and move beyond dichotomies towards greater awareness and openesss of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods....

  5. Sickness Absence: a Pan-European Study

    OpenAIRE

    Livanos, Ilias; Zangelidis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    This study, using the EU-LFS, examines the determinants of sickness absence in 26 EU countries. The analysis highlights the importance of demographic and workplace characteristics and of institutional and societal conditions. Female workers aged 26-35 exhibit higher absenteeism, possibly reflecting the level of high household labour pressure. Increased job insecurity, captured by temporary contracts, and labour market uncertainty, reflected in higher unemployment rates, have a negative effect...

  6. The role of COST Actions in unifying the European ionospheric community in the transition between the two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolesi, Bruno; Cander, Ljiljana R.

    2018-05-01

    This paper consists of a review of the important contributions of four COST (European Co-operation in Science and Technology) Actions in the period 1991-2009 to terrestrial ionospheric research, with applications in modern communication and navigation systems. Within this context, new ionospheric studies were initiated, leading to the development of a number of models, algorithms for prediction, forecasting, and real-time specification, as well as numerical programs. These were successfully implemented in different collaborative projects within EU instruments, promoting co-operation between scientists and researchers across Europe. A further outcome was to bring together more than a hundred researchers from around 40 scientific institutions, agencies, and academia in about 25 countries worldwide. They collaborated with enthusiasm in research, as briefly described in this paper, forming a lively ionospheric community and presenting a strong intellectual response to the rapidly growing contemporary challenge of space weather research.

  7. TELEMAN - an European community research and development programme on robotics in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolley, B.; Robertson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The TELEMAN Programme is a five year cost-shared research programme covering remote handling in hazardous and disordered nuclear environments. It is supported within the current research and development of the European Communities. TELEMAN's strategic objective is to develop advanced teleoperators that respond to the needs of the nuclear industry. Its technical objective is to strengthen the scientific and engineering bases upon which the design of teleoperators for use throughout the nuclear industry rests. This will be done by providing new solutions to problems of manipulation, material transport and mobile surveillance in nuclear environments and by demonstrating their feasibility. Motivation for such a programme lies in the potential teleoperators have to improve the separation of workers from radioactive equipment. This technology will also enable plant operators and public authorities to deal more effectively with nuclear abnormal incidents and increase gains in productivity, mainly in the repair and maintenance area. Community support is justified by the cost of the reliability and autonomy required for the nuclear teleoperator, the need to rationalise R and D investment in an area of increasing industrial potential and a common interest in coherent responses to emergencies. (author)

  8. Act No 142-19 February 1992. Provisions for implementing Italy's obligations stemming from its membership in the European Community (Community law for 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Act takes into account Directive 89/618/Euratom of 27 November 1989 of the Council of the European Communities on informing the general public about health protection measures to be applied and steps to be taken in the event of a radiological emergency. (NEA)

  9. The directive establishing a community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations: the European Union approach to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garribba, M.; Chirtes, A.; Nauduzaite, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at explaining the evolution leading to the adoption of the recent Council Directive 2009/71/EURATOM establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations adopted with the consent of all 27 members states following the overwhelming support of the European Parliament, that creates for the first time, a binding legal framework that brings legal certainty to European Union citizens and reinforces the role and independence of national regulators. The paper is divided into three sections. The first section addresses the competence of the European Atomic energy Community to legislate in the area of nuclear safety. It focuses on the 2002 landmark ruling of the European Court of justice that confirmed this competence by recognizing the intrinsic link between radiation protection and nuclear safety. The second part describes the history of the Nuclear safety directive from the initial 2003 European Commission proposal to today 's text in force. The third part is dedicated to a description of the content of the Directive and its implications on the further development of nuclear safety in the European Union. (N.C.)

  10. Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes : Results of a European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayiotou, A.; Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; McMahon, L.; Vanlaar, G.; Pfeifer, M.; Rekalidou, G.; Bren, M.

    This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the

  11. Is an environmentally sustainable future for the European Community compatible with continued growth - carbon dioxide and the management of greed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slesser, M.

    1993-01-01

    The search for sustainability creates moral and economic dilemmas for politicians seeking to match public aspirations with environmental integrity. The paper explores a method for computing the longer term outcome of policies, considering the case of the European Community as a single economy and taking the specific problem of carbon dioxide

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN MOLDOVAN ENTERPRISES AS A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE OF INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia BUCIUSCAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  13. Development of social responsibility In moldovan enterprises as a strategic objective of integration in the european community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendrea Mariana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  14. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  15. [European community guidelines and standards in indoor air quality: what proposals for Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimo, Gaetano; D'Alessandro, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality is an issue on which to focus because of the increasing number of exposed population and in view of the strong public feeling on this issue. This paper reports the rules of EU and several European countries about indoor air quality, focusing on the initiatives performed in Italy to respond to WHO recommendations. Several EU countries have introduced in their legislation rules relating to indoor air quality. At the moment, in Italy, a reference rule has not been issued. For this reason, up to date main informations concerning some guidelines or reference values in indoor air, to be used for a first comparison, are those obtained by the scientific literature, or by the guidelines issued by other European countries or, for analogy, by other standard values such as limit or reference values regarding outdoor air. Even the EU, while reaffirming the priority of energy efficiency measures, recommends healthier indoor environments and the development of a specific European strategy on the issue of indoor air quality. The National Study Group on indoor pollution of the Italian National Health Institute (ISS), is working for the development of shared technical and scientific documents, in order to provide greater uniformity of actions at national level, waiting for a legal framework for indoor air quality, in the light of the indication already produced by the WHO.

  16. A preliminary assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the population of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Brown, J.; Williams, J.A.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.; Hill, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident the Commission of the European Communities asked the National Radiological Protection Board to carry out a preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of the accident on the population of the European Community (EC). The aim of the study was to review information on the environmental contamination measured in member states of the EC; to make a preliminary assessment of individual and population doses for each country; to make an estimate of the resulting health impact and to indicate the effects of the various countermeasures taken by member states in terms of the reductions in both individual and population exposure which they produced. All of the main pathways by which people have been and will be exposed to radiation as a result of the accident were included in the assessment. The impact estimate is based on environmental measurements made during the month after the accident, and on calculations made using mathematical models of radionuclide transfer through the environment. The calculated effective doses to average individuals in EC countries from exposure over the next 50 years range from 0.3 μSv (in Portugal) to between about 300 and 500 μSv (in the FRG, Italy and Greece). The total collective effective dose to the population of EC countries, integrated over all time, is estimated to be about 80 000 man Sv. This may be compared to the collective effective dose from natural background radiation of about 500 000 man Sv every year. In some countries, the restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals; the reduction being up to about a factor of 2. The results presented in this paper should therefore be regarded as preliminary

  17. Evaluating a European knowledge hub on climate change in agriculture: Are we building a better connected community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetnan, Eli Rudinow; Kipling, Richard Philip

    In order to maintain food security and sustainability of production under climate change, interdisciplinary and international collaboration in research is essential. In the EU, knowledge hubs are important funding instruments for the development of an interconnected European Research Area. Here, network analysis was used to assess whether the pilot knowledge hub MACSUR has affected interdisciplinary collaboration, using co-authorship of peer reviewed articles as a measure of collaboration. The broad community of all authors identified as active in the field of agriculture and climate change was increasingly well connected over the period studied. Between knowledge hub members, changes in network parameters suggest an increase in collaborative interaction beyond that expected due to network growth, and greater than that found in the broader community. Given that interdisciplinary networks often take several years to have an impact on research outputs, these changes within the relatively new MACSUR community provide evidence that the knowledge hub structure has been effective in stimulating collaboration. However, analysis showed that knowledge hub partners were initially well-connected, suggesting that the initiative may have gathered together researchers with particular resources or inclinations towards collaborative working. Long term, consistent funding and ongoing reflection to improve networking structures may be necessary to sustain the early positive signs from MACSUR, to extend its success to a wider community of researchers, or to repeat it in less connected fields of science. Tackling complex challenges such as climate change will require research structures that can effectively support and utilise the diversity of talents beyond the already well-connected core of scientists at major research institutes. But network research shows that this core, well-connected group are vital brokers in achieving wider integration.

  18. Technological research programmes in the European Communities: Spanish participation. Los programas de investigacion tecnologica en las Comunidades Europeas: participacion espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caride de Linan, C [OCICARBON, Madrid (Spain)

    1989-02-01

    Ocicarbon was founded and began its work in 1985, the year before Spain's accession to the European Community. In other Community member countries, there is a great tradition of technological research and much work has been required to coordinate research effort. For this reason, special attention has been given to close familiarisation with Community programmes for coal research in order to integrate Spanish research work and to achieve adequate representation on the appropriate committees with a view to obtaining technical and economic assistance in proportion to Spain's coal production capacity and financial input. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Control of trafficking of radioactive sources/substances on European Community eastern border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovjagina, Irina; Graveris, Visvaldis

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Taking into account Latvia geographical location, historical core stones (the dissolution of Soviet Union, join to European Community) and increasing of the international terrorism treats, control fissile and non-fissile radioactive material become one of high priorities. During past 2 years active work and practical exercise with representative from Ministry of Defense, Police, and Custom etc. on control of trafficking of such materials were performed and Operational Manual for Control on Radioactive Materials for Customs and Policy officers is issued. All land borders check points with Russian Federation and Byelorussian, all harbors and airports were equipped with a gamma/ neutrons or gamma control portals. To control unwanted material traffic within the country, as well as to ensure the recycled scrap metal is source-free use of monitoring portals and additional portable detectors in the past years strictly increased. Cases with alarm levels, when gamma dose rate exceeds more than 1.5 times the background level, are subject to reporting and analyzing by Radiation Safety Centre (RDC) experts (24 hours on duty). Consultative phone service for inhabitants is maintained; guidelines and working procedures within Authority and other Institutions involving were developed and implemented. As a result, in 2007 RDC has got 612 reports from the border. In 83% cases this was relevant to the trains, in 17%- to the trucks. Mostly enhanced activity was due to potassium compounds in fertilizers (85%), due to ceramics (4%), abrasives (2.5%), and refractory materials (3%). Controlling scrap metal there were revealed two sources in 2007 - one Sr-90 calibration source and other Cs-137 orphan source (origin unknown). The presence of radioactive sources in scrap in the past 3 years has been represented by Co-60, Cs-137 and Sr-90 sources, parts of statically electricity neutralizers, Ra-226. Several times NORM industries polluted materials were from scrap excluded

  20. Diversity and community ecology of forest epiphyte testate amoebae from European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard J; Belyakova, Olga; Mazei, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant group of microorganisms which make a significant contribution to the diversity of protist life. Most of the world's potential habitats for testate amoebae have been barely studied and when such places are investigated they frequently reveal novel communities and species. Here we consider the testate amoeba communities associated with boreal forest epiphytes (mosses and lichens); an environment which we argue has been under-researched. We present a dataset of 165 samples from four regions of western Russia and analyse these data in relation to micro-habitat position and selected environmental data. The testate amoebae of epiphytes are abundant but dominated by ubiquitous species. We show that there are trends toward a lower species richness and test concentration with greater elevation on the trunk and in lichens compared to mosses. There are considerable differences in community composition between sampling regions. Of all measured environmental variables only moisture content showed a significant relationship with testate amoeba community structure. Our data highlight how little is known about testate amoeba communities of this habitat and call for greater research efforts, particularly in less-studied regions and biomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Measures taken in the member countries of the European Communities for anti-seismic design compared to actual US practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Maurer, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Most countries of the European Communities base their anti-seismic design parameters on specific US earthquake characteristics. There are, however, important discrepancies in the basic data reported on the two continents as well as in their design application. This was one of the topics under discussion within an European working group on methodologies, criteria and standards in nuclear safety. The contribution is based on an inventory of the applied national practices, the existing specifications, regulations, and guidelines applied in the design, the manufacture, and the safety assessment of structures, systems, and components to withstand potential earthquake consequences in the countries of the European Communities. In a comparison of these national specifications and guidelines the common points of agreement are identified and the divergences discussed with reference to the US practice. Special attention is given to the divergencies for definition and determination of the reference eathquakes. In European countries the definitions of the reference earthquakes are largely analogous to definitions in the US Federal Regulations but expressed in a different way. For European countries, threshold values are proposed to guarantee safety for nuclear power plants. (Auth.)

  2. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  3. EC static high-temperature leach test. Summary report of an European Community interlaboratory round robin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, R.; Kirsch, J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory static high-temperature leach test conducted by the Commission of the European Communities in 1983 over a period of 9 months are compiled and statistically evaluated. A total of 12 laboratories - 10 from Member States of the EC and one from Finland and the USA - provided information concerning the test method and the analytical test results in the frame of a round robin test (RRT). All together these laboratories tested 366 waste from specimens of the borosilicate glass UK 209 containing simulated high-level radioactive waste. Leach tests were performed on the basis of the ''Document on the EC static high-temperature leach test method'' in autoclaves at leaching temperatures of 90 0 C, 110 0 C, 150 0 C, and 190 0 C over time periods of 3,7,14,28 and 56 days using dionized water as leachant. The resulting leachates were analysed for the elemental concentrations of Si,B,Sr,Nd and Cs by all laboratories and for the concentrations of the optional elements Na, Al,Ce,Mo,Cr,Fe,Li,Mg and Zn by some of the participating laboratories. Additionally, the F content of the blank leachates was analysed by all laboratories

  4. Evidence based policy making in the European Union. The role of the scientific community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majcen, Spela [Euro-Mediterranean Univ. (EMUNI), Portoroz (Slovenia)

    2017-03-15

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  5. Evidence based policy making in the European Union: the role of the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcen, Špela

    2017-03-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  6. Implementation of the 1990 Recommendations of ICRP in the countries of the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Clarke, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published new Recommendations in ICRP Publication 60. These 1990 Recommendations provide a System of Radiological Protection that takes account of the most recent information on the effects on health of exposure to ionizing radiation and trends in the setting of safety standards. Within the European Community the Recommendations of ICRP are implemented through a Euratom Directive which is binding on Member States and which is at present being revised by the Article 31 Group and must eventually be ratified by the Council of Ministers. It is expected that the new Directive will broadly endorse the principles of protection given in the 1990 recommendations together with the dose limits for both workers and members of the public. There are likely to be some modifications to the 1990 Recommendations that are mainly related to their practical application. As it will be some time before the Directive is incorporated in national regulations a number of Member States have taken independent initiatives. The development of dose constraints for occupational, medical and public exposure is being seen by national organizations in many countries as a significant new approach to improving standards of radiation protection. (author)

  7. The common market for energy - constraints imposed by the laws of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipsen, K.

    1992-01-01

    Energy politics and environmental politics within the European Communities stand in an interdependent relationship that will increasingly manifest itself in the communal legal system, thus displacing the national legal systems of the EC member states. However, both these political fields bear numerous problems in the EC. The purpose of the paper is to delineate those concerning the sector of energy politics. It deals with the premises and the historical development of energy politics within the EC, the current energy-political position of the EC, the instruments provided by the communal laws for enforcing agreements and the ''Century Contract'' as an example showing the limits of these instruments. It appears that the ''Fourth Action Campaign for Environmental Protection'' of the EC merely addresses problematic issues instead of pointing out possible solutions. It thus becomes clear that in the near future the incorporation of ecopolitics into an EC energy policy will only make it more difficult to find a consensus. It is of existential importance that this task should be solved. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Commission of the european communities. Joint research centre. Petten Establishment. Annual Report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977 marked the beginning of a new multiannual research programme for the European Commission's Joint research Centre. Regarding the exploitation of HFR (High Flux Reactor), the year was one of steady, on-schedule operation with high utilization, although this fell off slightly in the autumn due to overloading of our capsule project engineering team and manufacturing services. We are pleased to note that the HFR Users' Meeting, held in October, drew about 100 participants from Europe and America and demonstrated a lively interest in the Commission's materials testing reactor. Technical improvements to the plant are being examined as one means of maintaining or even increasing this interest in the 1980's. Following the wishes of the Council of Ministers, new Advisory Committees for Programme Management have been set up for all the Joint Research Centre's activities and those for HFR and High Temperature Materials Programmes have met at Petten. This latter Committee is entirely new to its task, the programme having been served until 1977 by a number of ad hoc meetings of national experts. The work of the Organic Chemistry Laboratory falls under the wings of the Community Reference Bureau Advisory Committee, who have met in Brussels and strongly encouraged the development of the activity

  9. Evidence based policy making in the European Union. The role of the scientific community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, Spela

    2017-01-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  10. Selection of reference soils for chemicals testing in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, G.; Hertling, T.; Schmotz, W.; Vetter, L.; Fraenzle, M.; Geissler, S.; Knabe, I.; Maass, R.; Struckmeyer, A.; Heinrich, U.

    1991-01-01

    Based on an multivariate statistical evaluation of binary and metric data relating to the soil cover of the European Community five regionally representative reference soils (EURO-Soils) have been identified for chemicals testing in the EC. The soil material sampled at representative localities in Italy, Greece, Great Britain, France and Germany was treated and prepared according to OECD Test Guideline 106 and analysed in detail. The homogenised specimens were subject to an EC-wide ring test to evaluate the feasibility of the modified guideline and to validate the physical-chemical amenability of the reference soils for sorption tests. The results proved the validity of the soils selected for assessing the potential behaviour of new chemicals in soil on the basis of a comparative evaluation of the individual test results obtained. In the light of this parametric assessment potential test soils were subsequently identified in the individual EC Member States which correspond as far as possible to the above reference soils in terms of both taxonomy and sorption-relevant properties. (orig.). 164 refs., 30 tabs., 24 figs [de

  11. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Fraser, G.

    1983-01-01

    The report covers operational nuclear power stations of capacity greater than 5C MWe and nucler fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community. Radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent discharges from these installations are given for the period 1976 to 1980, expressed both in absolute terms and normalized to net electricity production from the fuel. An assesssment is then made of exposure of members of the public consequent to the 1980 discharges. Where environmental contamination levels were detectable the results have been taken into account in the dose assessment; however, environmental contamination was in general below the limit of detection. In these circumstances the dose estimates rely entirely on theoretical models which frequently incorporate conservative assumptions; hence these estimates are likely to be greater than the doses actually received. The estimated exposures have then been compared with the dose limits set out in the Euratom Directive of 15th July, 1980. It is concluded that the exposure of members of the public always left an appreciable safety margin relative to the limits and indeed lay within the variations in exposure which result from natural background

  12. Next generation capacity building for the GEOSS community - an European approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Group on Earth observation embarked on the next 10 year phase with an ambition to streamline and futher develop its achievements in building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars of engaging communities, delivering technological developments and advocating the use of GEOSS, in order to support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will present the new integrated approach to capacity building engaging the various actors involved in the entire value-chain from data providers to decision-makers. A presentation of the general approach together with concrete pilot cases will be included.In this work it will be shown how we integrate new technological development and societial change enabling GEO and GEOSS to adapt to the current environment. The result is important for better decision-making and better use of our limited resources to manage our planet.

  13. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The report presents the available data on radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents discharged by nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community from 1972 to 1976. Discharges are expressed both in absolute terms and relative to the net production of electricity from the fuel. On the basis of the discharges recorded for 1976 the resulting maximum exposure of members of the population is quantified and compared with the dose limits prescribed by Euratom radiological protection standards and with the exposure resulting from natural radioactivity. It is concluded that there is no case in which a discharge could have given rise to an exposure exceeding the relevant prescribed limit. Not only did the possible maximum exposures incurred by individuals leave an appreciable safety margin relative to that limit but, for the vast majority of installations, they were comparable with or were considerably lower than the geographical and temporal variations in exposures resulting from natural radioactivity. Where environmental levels have been detectable the measured results have of course been used but, with few exceptions, the levels have remained less than the very low limits of detection currently possible. In general, where theoretical models are used to evaluate exposure, they are designed to give conservative results and hence it is likely that the true exposures are even less than those calculated

  14. REFLECTIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF MINOR'S RIGHTS IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: FROM THE NATIONAL REGULATIONS TO THE COMMUNITY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, BONCIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes an examination of the development rights of juveniles in conflict with the law in terms of legal regulations adopted by the Council of Europe, the European Union and its Member States. Approaching the settlement of all matters relating to human rights, including the rights of the child, it searched the extent to provide a mechanism in respect of children's rights and how its rights are reflected both of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and Community and of national regulations of the Member States of the European Union. Declarative character of the Community provisions do not provide sufficient protection and uniformity toward juvenile rights in this matter, being treated differently in different countries depending on national and regional legal regime. Analysis of international treaties, customary, and national case law emphasized the need for prevention of juvenile delinquency and juvenile protection by merging rules at Community level in order to ensure a common, reasonable and sufficient protection for the juvenile in general and those found in conflict with law in particular.

  15. Study Trade-Offs on Future European Expendable Launchers

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; van Foreest, Arnold; Philip, Peter; Jäger, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes latest results of recent activities in Germany in the technical assessment of future European launcher architecture. In a joint effort of DLR-SART with German launcher indus-try a next generation upper-medium class expendable TSTO and options for new liquid fuel upper stages for the small VEGA-launcher are addressed. The WOTAN study has investigated fully cryogenic launchers as well as those with a combination of solid and cryogenic stages, fulfilling a requirement of a...

  16. Thermal characterization of European ant communities along thermal gradients and its implications for community resilience to temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eArnan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists are increasingly concerned about how climate change will affect biodiversity yet have mostly addressed the issue at the species level. Here, we present a novel framework that accounts for the full range and complementarity of thermal responses present in a community; it may help reveal how biological communities will respond to climatic (i.e., thermal variability. First, we characterized the thermal niches of 147 ant species from 342 communities found along broad temperature gradients in western Europe. Within each community, species’ mean thermal breadth and the difference among species’ thermal optima (thermal complementarity were considered to define community thermal niche breadth—our proxy for community thermal resilience. The greater the range of thermal responses and their complementarity within a community, the greater the likelihood that the community could cope with novel conditions. Second, we used simulations to calculate how robust community thermal resilience was to random species extinctions. Community resilience was considered to be robust when random species extinctions largely failed to constrict initial community thermal breadth. Our results indicate that community thermal resilience was negatively and positively correlated with mean temperature and temperature seasonality, respectively. The pattern was reversed for robustness. While species richness did not directly affect community resilience to thermal variability, it did have a strong indirect effect because it determined community resilience robustness. Consequently, communities in warm, aseasonal regions are the most vulnerable to temperature variability, despite their greater number of species and resultant greater resilience robustness.

  17. Energy in Europe. Energy policies and developments in the European Communities. Energie in Europa. Energiepolitiken und Entwicklungen in der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The survey deals with a number of topical subjects such as the Chernobyl reactor accident and EURATOM, the petroleum demand of the European Communities in 1990 given constantly low oil prices, the prospects of the oil refineries, historical aspects of the European Communities' industrial development, the 1974 Washington Conference, forecasts 1986-1987, and industrial energy efficiency. Reference is made to the latest Community news and to innovative technologies.

  18. The Case-Law of the Court of Justice of the European Communities Concerning the Law of the World Trade Organization and the Autonomy of the European Community in the Implementation of Its Common Commercial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Cepillo Galvín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years some authors have questioned the autonomy of the European Community when implementing its commercial policy, due to the amount of trade agreements signed by it and especially because of the commitments acquired in the WTO. There is no doubt that the compulsory fulfilment of these commitments is a conditioning factor with regard to the implementation of the Common Commercial Policy, but that doesn’t make the autonomy of the EU disappear in order to put its model of commercial policy into practice. In this respect, it’s necessary to underline the ample discretionary margin in the management of the commercial policy that the Court of Justice of the European Communities recognizes in favour of the EU institutions within the framework of its case-law related to the denial of the direct effect of the WTO agreements, as we analyze in this paper.

  19. Estimating externalities of coal fuel cycles. Report No. 3 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: a study by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The report, one of a series of eight reports, is primarily about a methodology for estimating coal fuel cycle externalities. The study considered the stages of a typical coal fuel cycle and identified the more important ones: coal mining coal transportation, and electric power generation. Chapter headings are: introduction; alternative contexts for the study; prior studies of damages and benefits; methods development; organization, interpretation and use of results; reference technology and sites; priority impact-pathways for the coal fuel cycle; estimating the externalities of coal mining; estimating coal transportation externalities; estimating-the externalities of electric power generation; tabulation of numerical results; and fundings, conclusions, and recommendations. The study demonstrated the application of the damage function approach to estimating the externalities of coal fuel cycles. A number of analytical methods were applied within that framework to several impact-pathways. 580 refs., 40 figs., 130 tabs., 3 apps

  20. Reactor parameters for European economic, safety and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.; Cooke, P.I.H.; Spears, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter sets for five 1200 MW e tokamak reactors were developed for the European Study Group on the Environmental, Safety-related and Economic Potential of Fusion Power, showing today's perception of the range of reactors likely to be available as a result of the Commission's fusion programme. On the basis of the cost of generating electricity, relative to a fission reactor, a reference set was chosen and endorsed by the Group for further studies including that on the environmental impact of fusion power. Key physics and technology parameters for the reference reactor are compared with values used in the ITER design, and with those from American studies. (author)

  1. Statutory Instruments No 144 of 1994. European Communities (Protection of outside workers from ionising radiation) Regulations, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    These Regulations implement Council Directive 90/641 EURATOM of 4 December, 1990 on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas. The Regulations provide for the radiation protection of workers liable to receive an exposure of high radiation levels while working away from their employers' premises. The Regulations also apply to workers who come from, or who go to work in, another Member State of the European Community

  2. A RESEARCH OF E-BOOK MARKET TRENDS: NORTH AMERICA AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Zubac

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on the presence of the electronic book on the book market, its trends and developments as well as point towards the difficulties faced by all professions related to it in the countries of the European Community.Methodology / approach: This paper analyzes the domestic and foreign literature and explores the websites of companies that operate with e-books in order to get an overview of the actual state of business operations in the states mentioned in the text.Results: The emergence of the first online bookstores in the United States in the 20th century paved the way for the electronic book to enter the online market. Today, the e-book is an integral part of publishing, book trade and library activities worldwide. Economic indicators testify to a constant growth of revenues from the sale of electronic books on the book market and technology in the U.S. and Europe. This paper provides an explanation of the term electronic book and indicates the interest of many countries for its acquisition and application in order to keep up with the technological demands of the market.Research restrictions: E-book trends and business operations related to them are constantly changing. In terms of librarianship, this is most visible in public libraries as both one of the customers and as later distributors of e-books to users. In their business, new models constantly emerge together with their combinations and approaches to offering these new media.The originality: The issue of business operations in relation to the e-book is interesting to young people, libraries, publishers, authors, booksellers, etc.Contribution: This paper provides an overview of the most recent situation on the e-book market and can serve as the basis of some future researches.

  3. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  4. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The present document is the seventeenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitation and fallout, surface water and milk during 1977 in the nine Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The report also contains supplementary data on short-lived radioelements detected during the fourth quarter of 1977, the list of sampling stations and laboratories together With a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous reports and provide comparative values

  5. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk. 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the 21st report on ambient radioactivity published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities. It was drawn up using the data collected by stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission under Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactivity of the air, deposition, surface water and milk during 1981 in the ten Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The results are presented under four main headings: artificial radioactivity in the air at ground level; artificial radioactivity in deposition; radioactivity of water; radioactivity of milk. The report also contains the list of sampling stations and laboratories, together with a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous and provide comparative values

  6. EURATOM, origin and contents of Community European of the energy atomic; EURATOM, origen y contenidos de Comunidad Europea de la energia atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto Serrano, N.

    2015-07-01

    After the creation, in 1951, of the European Community of the Coal and steel (ECSC), the first step in a Europe together, Federal, Belgium Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands signed in March 1957, the treaties of Rome that established the foundations for the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Community Atomic Energy (CEEa or Euratom). We started with this a series of articles dedicated to pregnancy, the content and issued legislation of the Euratom Treaty, particularly in the areas that most affect the management of radioactive waste. (Author)

  7. 76 FR 59706 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... published in scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: Under the... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

  8. Wspolnoty Europejskie wobec problemow jezykowych (Addressing Language Problems in the European Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Raises questions about the a European Union commissioned report titled "Les Europeens et les langues," which was prepared in accordance with the customary routine used for a series of report on European public opinion. Issues discussed include the omission of several languages, the use of Esperanto, the languages reportedly used by…

  9. The benefit of the European User Community from transnational access to national radiation facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrier, Elise; Manuel Braz Fernandes, Francisco; Bujan, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise synchr...... development of the research infrastructure of photon science. Taking into account the present programme structure of HORIZON2020, the European Synchrotron User Organization (ESUO) sees considerable dangers for the continuation of this successful collaboration in the future....... synchrotron radiation experiments for addressing the Societal Challenges promoted in HORIZON2020. In addition, by TNA all European users directly take part in the development of the research infrastructure of facilities. The mutual interconnection of users and facilities is a strong prerequisite for future...

  10. EuGH: Innocuousness of the nuclear fuel tax according to the European community law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.

  11. Agreement between the Government of Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community concerning transfer of nuclear material from Australia to the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This agreement applies to nuclear material transferred from Australia to the Community for peaceful purposes. Provisions of the Agreement are complementary to the provisions of any bilateral agreements in force and shall, where appropriate, supersede the provisions of those agreements. The agreement entered into force on 15th January 1982

  12. In-Depth Study Of European Union Fiscal Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Roxana TOMI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a viewpoint on the EU fiscal policy contents, advocating the need for an in-depth understanding and acceleration of the 27 national fiscal system components and the creation of the EU Tax System that would enable the Single Market operation and the enforcement of the four fundamental liberties within the European Union. In the author’s opinion, the extant common fiscal policy elements are only marginal, while the actions aimed at an in-depth understanding of a broad fiscal policy are essential to the extent they point at both direct and indirect taxation aspects whose approximation is a priority.

  13. Physical fitness reference standards in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Gracia-Marco, L; Ortega, F B; Intemann, T; Foraita, R; Lissner, L; Oja, L; Barba, G; Michels, N; Tornaritis, M; Molnár, D; Pitsiladis, Y; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A

    2014-09-01

    A low fitness status during childhood and adolescence is associated with important health-related outcomes, such as increased future risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases, impaired skeletal health, reduced quality of life and poor mental health. Fitness reference values for adolescents from different countries have been published, but there is a scarcity of reference values for pre-pubertal children in Europe, using harmonised measures of fitness in the literature. The IDEFICS study offers a good opportunity to establish normative values of a large set of fitness components from eight European countries using common and well-standardised methods in a large sample of children. Therefore, the aim of this study is to report sex- and age-specific fitness reference standards in European children. Children (10,302) aged 6-10.9 years (50.7% girls) were examined. The test battery included: the flamingo balance test, back-saver sit-and-reach test (flexibility), handgrip strength test, standing long jump test (lower-limb explosive strength) and 40-m sprint test (speed). Moreover, cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 20-m shuttle run test. Percentile curves for the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentiles were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Our results show that boys performed better than girls in speed, lower- and upper-limb strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, and girls performed better in balance and flexibility. Older children performed better than younger children, except for cardiorespiratory fitness in boys and flexibility in girls. Our results provide for the first time sex- and age-specific physical fitness reference standards in European children aged 6-10.9 years.

  14. How to study the history of European law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    This paper has a double purpose. On the one hand, it offers a new history, based on recently discovered primary sources, of the driving forces behind the so-called ‘constitutionalisation’ of European law taking place in 1963-64. On the other hand, it uses the lessons of this new history to reflect...... on how a general history of European law should be written and in particular how to avoid the pitfalls that characterises mainstream research on European law. In the first part it is argued that the ‘constitutionalisation’ of European law was promoted by a broad coalition beyond the Court of Justice...... the ‘constitutionalisation’ of European law in the 1960s. This is in particular the case with the ‘integration-through-law’ paradigm that permeates most of the writing on European law even today. Concluding, it is argued that a general history of European law should avoid the adoption of mainstream conceptualisations...

  15. Measures taken in the member countries of the European Communities for anti-seismic design compared to actual US practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Maurer, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Most countries of the European Communities base their anti-seismic design parameters on specific US earthquake characteristics. There are, however, important discrepancies in the basic data reported on the two continents as well as in their design application. This was one of the topics under discussion within an European working group on methodologies, criteria and standards in nuclear safety. Unlike US practice, in some European countries the maximum earthquake that can be envisaged (corresponding to the Safe Shutdown Earthquake-SEE-in US practice) is defined by adding a margin of safety to the maximum probable earthquake (corresponding to the Operating Basis Earthquake-OBE-in US for which statistical data exist). - Differences exist also in the design parameters to be taken into account in the different European countries especially in the evaluation of the maximum acceleration and on the relationship of the acceleration vs. earthquake intensity. For design purposes, in US as well as in European countries, the assumption is made that seismic waves basically approximate a sustained simple harmonic motion. Under this assumption the Neumann correlation which gives the relationship between the modified Mercalli intensity, the wave period and the ground acceleration is applied. While in the US a whole spectrum of wave periods (from 0.33 to 6.0 sec) -in function of the type of foundation (soil, bed-rock) and the distance of the epicenter- are considered, the European countries base their investigations on shorter wave periods (approximately 0.3 sec). - Mention is made of the existing differences in the relationship of horizontal to vertical acceleration levels. These differences in the evaluation of the earthquake characteristics influence the design to protect the power plants against seismic effects especially as far as stress and strain limits for structures and components within the elastic range and in the excess of yield are concerned

  16. Vocational Guidance and Counselling for Young People and Adults in the European Community. Findings of a Conference (Berlin, West Germany, December 7-8, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heinz J., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This document reports on a conference centered around three topics: vocational guidance in the Member States of the European Community (EC), the "Europeanization" of vocational guidance, and approaches to cross-frontier vocational guidance. Among the recommendations of the conference participants are the following: the tasks of…

  17. 78 FR 13350 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... community-based initiatives; community characteristics (e.g., school environment); measurements of children... used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood obesity. Frequency of... Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) Summary: Under the...

  18. The Cases of the European Values Study and the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    institutions, had ties to the EU, and used survey techniques to address urgent contemporary political and social problems. Despite their similarities, the surveys represent two rather different constellations of social science knowledge production. The EVS emerged from a coalition of Catholic-oriented agents...... continued to play a significant role in its constellation. The ESS grew out of a scientific and technical aspiration among wellconnected and recognised Western European social scientists. It emphasised rigourous methods and drew on its founding agents’ close relations with European institutions...

  19. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  20. Analysis of maintenance and quality assurance measures for the different radioactive materials packagings in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warniez, P.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents an inventory on quality assurance for the safety of packagings for radioactive materials transport in 4 countries of the European Community : France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom. For each country the study includes: the inventory of reference documents and elements of national regulations for quality assurance, organization of quality following at the national level, quality assurance applied to spent fuel casks is examined. A preparatory program was previously submitted to competent authorities and organisms responsible in radioactive materials transport. In conclusion different quality assurance systems are in use but main criteria are found in all systems

  1. Windstorms as mediator of soil nematode community changes: Evidence from European spruce forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renčo M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013. Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp, maturity index (MI, maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5, sigma maturity index (ΣMI, enrichment index (EI and structure index (SI decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013 as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014 were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.

  2. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresta, M; Lacourly, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)

  3. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)

  4. European Communities (Foodstuffs treated with ionising radiation) Regulations, 2000. Statutory Instrument S.I. No. 297 of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These Regulations give effect to Directive 1999/2/EC (the framework Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation and Directive 1999/3/EC (the implementing Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the establishment of a Community list of foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. The effect of these Regulations is to lay down the general provisions for the treatment of foodstuffs with ionising radiation. Provisions concerning the approval and control of irradiation facilities and rules on labelling are also included. A positive list of foodstuffs authorised for treatment with ionising radiation and their maximum radiation doses are defined in the implementing Directive. These Regulations should be read together with the two Directives (author)

  5. Engaging indigenous Maori and inward migrating Asian professionals into a Pakeha (White European)-dominated Balint community in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    This inquiry began with two questions: How can the established predominately Pakeha/Caucasian (White European) Balint community in New Zealand more successfully engage both indigenous populations of both Maori and Pacifica origin into Balint work? And what is the existing Balint community doing to address the lack of Asian members of the Balint community in New Zealand, at a time when Asian health professionals are being recruited into the health sector at an increasingly high rate in comparison to White European entrants to the profession? These questions, and their preliminary answers presented here, invite the reader to reflect on both the challenges and opportunities in reaching out to groups different from our own. The author hopes readers may begin to see what can be done to allow new entrants to benefit from all that participation in Balint work offers while not losing sight of the uniqueness which each person can bring. It is hoped that sharing such questions and their subsequent explorations will help Balint leaders feel more confident in reaching out to a wider ethic and cultural mix within their local populations and encouraging them to enter the exciting world of the Balint group.

  6. Fourteenth general report on the activities of the European Communities in 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The general economic situation, Community achievements at home, enlargement of the Community, and the correlations of the Community and world events in 1980 are described. Activities of institutions connected with the Communities and financing Community activities in 1980 are also described. Other topics covered concerning the Community are: economic and monetary policy and internal market and industrial affairs, customs union, competition, financial institutions and taxation, employment and social policy, regional policies, environmental affairs, agriculture, fisheries, transport policy, energy, safety, research, and information markets. Considerations with countries (Greece, Spain, Portugal) which have applied or are being accepted as members are reviewed. Developments in the Community law are discussed. A section, The Year in Brief, is included. (MCW)

  7. A comparative study of European nuclear energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presas i Puig, Albert [ed.

    2011-07-01

    The report includes the following contributions: Comparative study of European Nuclear Energy Programs. From international cooperation to the failure of a national program: the Austrian case. The ''go-and-stop'' of the Italian civil nuclear programs, among improvisations, ambitions and conspiracy. Nuclear energy in Spain - a research agenda for economic historians. The Portuguese nuclear program: a peripheral experience under dictatorship (1945-1973). The nuclear energy programs in Switzerland. The rise and decline of an independent nuclear power industry in Sweden, 1945-1970. The German fast breeder program, a historical review. Fast reactors as future visions - the case of Sweden. Transnational flows of nuclear knowledge between the U.S. and the U.K. and continental Europe in the 1950/60s. The Carter administration and its non-proliferation policies: the road to INFCE.

  8. Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market. A general equilibrium analysis for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, H.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C) 2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO 2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  9. The nuclear fuel cycle: review on R and D policies in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of research in the field of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Member States of the European Communities. It covers the following steps of the fuel cycle: uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste management and, in addition, decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Research carried out both in the public and private sectors has been covered. However, information on the scope and volume of research carried out in the private sector is only in part available, as access to such information is difficult, in particular where it concerns activities which have a competitive commercial character

  10. Legal instruments and proposals for acts of the European Communities relating to the protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1992-01-01

    The compilation comprises all legal instruments and proposals for legal instruments of the European Communities in the field of environmental protection which were incorporated in the EDP-aided compilation of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection, specialized field 'Juristic Environmental Issues'. It replaces the preceding compilation as of July 15, 1985, November 1, 1986, December 1, 1988 and March 1, 1991. The volume is subdivided into the sections: General information, regional development law, nature preservation law, law on water pollution control, refuse law, imission control law, atomic energy law, energy and mining law, law on dangerous materials and law on environmental health. (orig.) [de

  11. Status of R and D in the field of nuclear airborne waste sponsored by the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, W.

    1985-01-01

    An overall review is given on the research activities that have been supported by the European Community for the last 8 years in the field of management of radioactive gaseous waste. The major subjects of concern are management possibilities for krypton-85, iodine-129, carbon-14 and tritium. After a short introduction to the kind and contents of this specific research activity, summary statements are given successively for each of the four radionuclides concerning the state of development not achieved within the scope of the joint program

  12. Ecotourism and community development: a case study of Olumirin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecotourism and community development: a case study of Olumirin Waterfall, ... of ecotourism to the community development of the host community and her environs. ... Tourist survey, staff survey, local business sector survey and community ...

  13. Lessons from a European study[Financing Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langniss, Ole [German Aerospace Center, Stuttgart (Germany); Helby, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    2000-10-01

    A large number of proven technical solutions exists for the use of renewable energies (RE). However, their dissemination is still too slow to meet the political goal of substituting 12 % of the primary energy demand in the European Union by the year 2010. Even renewable energy systems (RES) with economic potential are only partly exploited. There is a long literature concerning the barriers to RE use. In particular it has become clear that the availability of finance and the forms and conditions upon which it is lent have a major impact on RE deployment. An area of importance is the deficiency of appropriate ownership forms and properly adapted financing instruments in certain countries. Moreover, different regulations and institutional barriers in the European countries hinder the free flow of capital for RES within the European common market. On the other hand, solutions have been developed very successfully in individual countries. Differences in cultures and institutions have promoted growth of several approaches to RE investment. These differences can be understood as a European source of experience that constitutes a rich basis for transnational emulation. The research project FIRE analysed and compared the means of financing RES in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom to put forward best practise recommendations so that RE deployments will occur at a faster rate. Main tasks of this study were to analyse the means of financing RES in a number of countries; to provide an analysis of best practise; and to provide an analysis of the barriers to the implementation in the investigated countries. Different means of financing RES were analysed in relation to the country-specific environment. This included exogenous conditions such as tax aspects, legal restrictions and subsidies, as well as individually defined risk management strategies and collateral requirements. Eight in-depth-case studies were undertaken for

  14. Draft for a resolution of the Council of the European Communities on the continuation and implementation of a European Community policy and action programme on the environment (1987-1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-18

    With the agreement of the Governments of Member States to the amendments to the Treaty of Rome contained in the Single Act, the Community has given a new status and impetus to its environmental policy. The European Council has underlined that environmental protection can contribute to improved economic growth and job creation; and it has called, for the integration of environmental requirements into the economic, industrial, agricultural and social policies implemented by both the Community and its Member States. There is a wide and growing recognition that strict environmental standards are a necessity - not only in order to achieve an adequate degree of environmental protection and an improved quality of life, but also for economic reasons. As progress is made towards the completion of the Community's internal market by 1992, opportunities will grow in many areas and for many reasons - but only provided that high environmental standards are maintained. The Commission is convinced that better competitivity of Community industry on world markets in the future will depend heavily upon its ability to offer environmentally-friendly goods and services, achieving standards at least as high as its competitors and that an alliance between technological innovation and a commitment to high environmental standards can offer new opportunities through the development of new and growing markets for environmental protection technologies and techniques.

  15. DIVERSITY AND INTEGRATION OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY BUSINESS LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Filip GRZEGORCZYK

    2009-01-01

    In the future, European Union is to become a single economic zone. Achieving this goal requires creating good and unified legal grounds for business, which presently are lacking. This paper describes the main problems with conducting business across-borders, evaluates current EC business legislation and formulates some de lege ferenda ideas.

  16. The contribution of nitrogen deposition to the eutrophication signal in understorey plant communities of European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Vries, de W.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the composition of forest understorey vegetation both in space and time, using repeated data from the European wide monitoring program ICP-Forests, which focuses on normally managed forest. Our aim was to assess whether both spatial and

  17. Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-08-01

    The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Resolution concerning the preconditions of an effective energy policy with in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The resolution of the European Parliament of March 11sup(th), 1983 deals with all problems of energy policy. It will be transmitted to the Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany (Deutscher Bundestag) and to the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesregierung). (HSCH) [de

  19. Laboratories of Community : How Digital Humanities Can Further New European Integration History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Maarten; Coll Ardanuy, Mariona; Sporleder, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    It has been said that media is an important but mostly overlooked player in European integration history. Now, the mass digitisation of newspapers and the introduction of new digital techniques promise great potential to remedy this inattention. With the conjecture that people are drivers and

  20. The Lisbon Treaty and the role of the European Parliament in the European Atomic Energy Community; Der Vertrag von Lissabon (EUV) und die Rolle des Europaeischen Parlaments im Rahmen der Europaeischen Atomgemeinschaft (EURATOM / EAGV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [Staatskanzlei des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    In June 2007, the European Council commissioned an intergovernmental conference to draft a 'treaty of reform' of the European Union. The wording of the treaty was signed by the heads of state and government of the member countries on December 13, 2007. The ongoing process of ratification in the 27 EU member countries is to be completed before the next elections to the European Parliament in June 2009. The treaty is now referred to as 'Lisbon Treaty'. The Lisbon Treaty (Treaty Amending the Treaty about the European Union and the Treaty Establishing the European Community) does not replace the European Treaties currently in force, but merely amends them. Also the 'Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)' is amended in this way. On the basis of the contributions about 'The German Presidency Program of the Council Working Group on Nuclear Issues - an Interim Report' (W. Sandtner and S. Thomas) and 'Euratom Treaty and Intergovernmental Conference' (S. Thomas), current links to the Euratom Treaty with potential amendments are presented and commented upon. (orig.)

  1. Intentional communities : Methods for reviewing the rise of citizens’ housing initiatives in a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.

    2011-01-01

    Intentional communities, Cooperatives de logement, Genossenschaften or Co-housing are types of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their own neighbourhoods. Cohousing residents are consciously committed to living as a community, and to

  2. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=−0.08, 95% CI −0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=−0.75, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.33, p=4×10−4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990

  3. The Probation Service in the Context of European Integration. The Supervision of Convicts in the Community. Critical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the appliance of non-custodial penalties, completed by the necessity of respecting the measures of surveillance and/or certain obligations imposed by the court, is to ensure the re-socialization and reintegration into the community to which they belong. In this context, at the European Union’s level it was adopted 2008/947/JHA Framework Decision of the Council on 27 November 2008 regarding the appliance of mutual recognition principle in the case of judgments and probation decisions for supervising the probation measures and alternative sanctions. The most important criterion under which judicial decision can be transmitted to another Member State is referring to the convicted person residency, considering that adopting such a measure the chances of social reintegration of the sentenced person will increase, allowing them to preserve the family, linguistic, cultural links. The probation service has a critical role for community supervision of the measures and obligations imposed by the Romanian court to the sentenced person. This institution has a number of specific tasks even when the Romanian court sends the legal judgment accompanied by the certificate in another Member State, seeking its recognition and enforcement. These responsibilities relate in particular to the cooperation activity that needs to be carried out with similarauthority of the executing Member State, since it can always intervene the possibility of restoring the competence of executing the decision of the Romanian court. The critical observations relate to the legislative act both European and our internal law.

  4. The future of European mining: What should our mining industry learn from the Skouries and Rosia Montana community gold conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Heller, Shaun; Faltyn, Rowan; Stefanaki, Anna; Economidou, Romina; Savin, Irina; Hood, Leo; Conway, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The popular image of mining portrayed by media and by a majority of public opinion is a dominantly negative one. From worker's rights to environmental damages, disasters such as the Copiapó mine collapse (Chile), the acid mine drainage at Lousal (Portugal) and the Pb contamination of waters around the Tyndrum mines (Scotland) overshadow initiatives like the ICMM. Some companies receive little praise despite creating active community education and investment projects, while others simply build higher barbed wire fences and attempt to weather the protests, budgeting them into mine life assessments. This image problem, combined with the decentralised political segregation of Europe and the increased power of grass-roots protest initiatives (such as Antigold in Greece), has resulted in mining companies joining a long list of industries effected by the 'auto-protest' reaction in face of development, regardless of potential regional and national benefits, there is a pre-existing lack of trust in corporate and government powers to protect community interests. The poor management of existing licences is thus becoming a significant danger to future operations and the wider industry. Here we report on the Rosia Montana dispute (Romania) and the ongoing Skouries conflict (Greece). We then discuss how the European mining industry may need to significantly adapt its exploration and community engagement strategies to avoid future conflicts and, present a recent example of how effective suitably organised community engagement projects can be for local mining initiatives from Southern Portugal.

  5. Efficiency vs Effectiveness: a Benchmarking Study on European Healthcare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates a benchmarking study concerning the healthcare systems in 32 European countries as of 2011 and 2014. Particularly, this study proposes a two-dimensional approach (efficiency/effectiveness models to evaluate the performance of national healthcare systems. Data Envelopment Analysis has been adopted to compute two performance indices, measuring efficiency and effectiveness of these healthcare systems. The results of the study emphasize that the national healthcare systems achieve different efficiency and effectiveness levels. Their performance indices are uncorrelated and behave differently over time, suggesting that there might be no real trade-off between them. The healthcare systems’ efficiencies remain generally stable, while the effectiveness values significantly improved from 2011 to 2014. However, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness scores, the authors identified a group of countries with the lowest performing healthcare systems that includes Ukraine, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Lithuania, and Romania. These countries need to implement healthcare reforms aimed at reducing resource intensity and increasing the quality of medical services. The results also showed the benefits of the proposed approach, which can help policy makers to identify shortcomings in national healthcare systems and justify the need for their reform.

  6. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in the European Communities inventory of methods and development of data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, F.

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of the procedures for environmental monitoring in the 12 Member States of the European Community. Detailed information of sampling and measuring methods for radioactivity in air, deposition, water, milk and for ambient gamma dose rate are presented in tables and figures. Some sample results of environmental radioactivity monitoring indicate problems with intercomparability of data reported by different EC countries. A review is given of international and national programmes and proposals for Quality Assurance and Control. There is a large but rather uncoordinated activity in this field; only a few countries within the EC have a well structured and comprehensive approach to QA and regularly join international programmes. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are developed for environmental radioactivity monitoring. They include the definition of the accuracy and repeatability of the measurements, and the definition of recording and detection levels. The recording levels, are based on a de minimis annual dose of 0.005 mSv. Based on these DQO's, the current problems with intercomparability are put into perspective, and proposals for future integration of national data into an overall European picture made. There is a need to improve quality of environmental monitoring in order to arrive at a meaningful and transparent picture of the overall radiological situation in the EC. Proposals are made for CEC initiatives in the field of QA/QC. The three most important deal with: - reporting of national data in a European context, - intercomparisons of analytical techniques among the 12 EC countries, - organization of a European network for monitoring levels actually prevailing in the environment

  7. Case study: Teaching European Active Citizenship (TEACh)-course, EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sorensen, Tore

    2007-01-01

    Learning for democratic citizenship has been the object of several projects supported by the European Commission, under the Socrates / Grundtvig 1.1. Action. Nonetheless only very few had the specific aim of exploring the relations between learning for democratic citizenship and non-formal adult...... for different professionals in education. Thirdly, the course is to be considered on the edge of non-formal and formal learning activities, as it is organized accordingly to the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). Participants are awarded 3 ECTS points to be spent in a variety of learning and working...... contexts. Fourthly, the course has a point of reference in the political debate on active and democratic citizenship at European level. In particular, the course makes use of the conceptualization of competences for active and democratic citizenship developed by the European Union and the Council of Europe...

  8. Academic partnership in NLS resource design: a European case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Pye

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the library work package of the European Unions Telematics for Teacher Training project, which links the Libraries and Education and Training sectors. Its two major deliverables, a user needs analysis report addressing networked learner support in European partner institutions and development of an online course for librarians, are discussed in terms of professional development opportunities for partnership between academic and information staff.

  9. Importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation – A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ham, C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available forestry, South Africa The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small-scale Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Forest Conservation A case study Cori Ham ii The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small Scale Entrepreneurs... by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Ham, C. 2000. The importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation– A case study...

  10. European trauma guideline compliance assessment: the ETRAUSS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Sophie Rym; Gauss, Tobias; Pann, Jakob; Dünser, Martin; Leone, Marc; Duranteau, Jacques

    2015-12-08

    Haemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable death in trauma patients. The 2013 European trauma guidelines emphasise a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, protocol-based approach to trauma care. The aim of the present Europe-wide survey was to compare 2015 practice with the 2013 guidelines. A group of members of the Trauma and Emergency Medicine section of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine developed a 50-item questionnaire based upon the core recommendations of the 2013 guidelines, employing a multistep approach. The questionnaire covered five fields: care structure and organisation, haemodynamic resuscitation targets, fluid management, transfusion and coagulopathy, and haemorrhage control. The sampling used a two-step approach comprising initial purposive sampling of eminent trauma care providers in each European country, followed by snowball sampling of a maximum number of trauma care providers. A total of 296 responses were collected, 243 (81 %) from European countries. Those from outside the European Union were excluded from the analysis. Approximately three-fourths (74 %) of responders were working in a designated trauma centre. Blunt trauma predominated, accounting for more than 90 % of trauma cases. Considerable heterogeneity was observed in all five core aspects of trauma care, along with frequent deviations from the 2013 guidelines. Only 92 (38 %) of responders claimed to comply with the recommended systolic blood pressure target, and only 81 (33 %) responded that they complied with the target pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury. Crystalloid use was predominant (n = 209; 86 %), and vasopressor use was frequent (n = 171, 76 %) but remained controversial. Only 160 respondents (66 %) declared that they used tranexamic acid always or often. This is the first European trauma survey, to our knowledge. Heterogeneity is significant across centres with regard to the clinical protocols for trauma patients and as to locally

  11. Competencies of specialised wound care nurses: a European Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Anne M; Maaskant, Jolanda M; Holloway, Samantha; van Dijk, Nynke; Alves, Paulo; Legemate, Dink A; Ubbink, Dirk T; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-12-01

    Health care professionals responsible for patients with complex wounds need a particular level of expertise and education to ensure optimum wound care. However, uniform education for those working as wound care nurses is lacking. We aimed to reach consensus among experts from six European countries as to the competencies for specialised wound care nurses that meet international professional expectations and educational systems. Wound care experts including doctors, wound care nurses, lecturers, managers and head nurses were invited to contribute to an e-Delphi study. They completed online questionnaires based on the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists framework. Suggested competencies were rated on a 9-point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as an agreement of at least 75% for each competence. Response rates ranged from 62% (round 1) to 86% (rounds 2 and 3). The experts reached consensus on 77 (80%) competences. Most competencies chosen belonged to the domain 'scholar' (n = 19), whereas few addressed those associated with being a 'health advocate' (n = 7). Competencies related to professional knowledge and expertise, ethical integrity and patient commitment were considered most important. This consensus on core competencies for specialised wound care nurses may help achieve a more uniform definition and education for specialised wound care nurses. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. European electricity; prospective study for 2050 between dreams and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheu, P.

    2015-01-01

    A number of road-maps for the future of the European electricity have been elaborated according to various hypotheses: support more or less important to wind or solar energies, success or failure of carbon capture and storage technologies, more or less gain in energy efficiency. All the prospective studies show a power demand in Europe nearing 4000 TWh in 2030 and less than 5000 TWh in 2050. Another common point is the progressive electrification which means first the de-carbonising of power production means and then the transfer to electricity of uses like heating and transport. All the scenario give a share of at least 50% for renewable energies in 2030 and between 60% and 80% in 2050. The share of nuclear power in the energy mix ranges between 2.5% and 19% while today's nuclear share is over 25%. An alternative roadmap designed by Eurelectric and based on the minimization of costs gives a more important share to nuclear power. (A.C.)

  13. Occupancy in community-level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Nichols, James; Royle, Andy; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Hines, James

    2018-01-01

    Another type of multi-species studies, are those focused on community-level metrics such as species richness. In this chapter we detail how some of the single-species occupancy models described in earlier chapters have been applied, or extended, for use in such studies, while accounting for imperfect detection. We highlight how Bayesian methods using MCMC are particularly useful in such settings to easily calculate relevant community-level summaries based on presence/absence data. These modeling approaches can be used to assess richness at a single point in time, or to investigate changes in the species pool over time.

  14. European Community research on improving the governance of nuclear waste management and other risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.; Kelly, N.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given to broader socio-economic issues (eg, science and society, governance of risk, etc) within the European Commission's research programmes. This reflects the recognition of the importance of such issues for science policy and decision making with respect to nuclear and other technologies. This paper summarises those projects, supported by the Commission's Euratom research programme, which focus on socio-economic as opposed to narrower technical issues. These projects are concerned with risk governance in general, the governance of nuclear waste management and stakeholder involvement in the off-site management of accidents. (author)

  15. Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, A.A.; Lund, E.; Amiano, P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... of dietary intake using a computerised standardised 24-hour recall interview. Crude means, means and standard errors adjusted by age, season and day of the week were calculated, stratified by centre and gender. SETTING: Twenty-seven redefined centres in the 10 European countries participating in the EPIC...... study. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 subjects (13 031 men and 22 924 women), aged 35-74 years, selected from the main EPIC cohort. RESULTS: A six- to sevenfold variation in total fish consumption exists in women and men, between the lowest consumption in Germany and the highest in Spain. Overall, white...

  16. The world energy situation and the response of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing the World energy situation the lecturer points out that there is trouble over oil supplies earlier than was expected and that large sections of the public and parliaments do not yet appreciate the implications of this on the rest of the energy policy, especially with reference to the nuclear option. Subjects considered include; oil market situation, public education, transfer of wealth, limitation of oil imports, Community energy policy, future Community policy, economics, nuclear policies and the effect of the Harrisburg accident. The ensuing discussion is reported. (UK)

  17. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness. Proceedings of a seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Euratom Treaty it is the task of the Commission of the European Community to ensure the health protection of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionizing radiation. Dose limits and the principals of radiation protection were first laid down in a Council Directive of 1959, and have since been repeatedly adapted. The specific problems of radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment are the subject of a separate Council Directive of 3 September 1984. This directive specifies that 'all medical exposures must be medically justified and kept as low as reasonably achievable'. The concept of justification is particularly critical in the case of mass-screening activities. For some diseases with low prevalence the radiological detriment to the population resulting from radiological mass-screening procedures might be greater than the individual benefit of the diagnosis. In addition the costs of public health care are rising in all Member States of the European Community and the effectiveness of public health care programmes like mass-screening must be carefully examined. A technical workshop on practices and regulations in the field of radiological mass-screening within the Member States (Luxembourg, 4-5 December 1984) and a seminar on the same subject (Luxembourg, 3-4 December 1985) were therefore organized by the Commission of the European Communities in cooperation with the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique, CEA, and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire, CEPN (France). The workshop provided up-to-date information on effectiveness and cost of radiological mass-screening programmes in the Member States. The seminar provided the representatives of the national authorities responsible for radiation protection, public health and occupational medicine with an opportunity to discuss mass-screening practices with experts. This publication contains the papers presented at the

  18. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of European Community for air-deposition-water 1973-1974, milk 1972-1973-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The present document is the fifteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity and using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity in Member States. The results are compiled and extracted from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. It is the first document in which data from Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom which joined the European Community on 1 January 1973 are included in addition to data from Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The results presented in this report cover the years 1973 and 1974 for air deposition and surface water and the years 1972, 1973 and 1974 for milk

  19. The European Union Training Mission in Mali: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the European Union (EU has been increasing its international presence and moving into the role of a global security actor. To support the goal of greater crisis management capabilities, European security integration (ESI has been deepening. This article therefore examines an Ell operation - the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali - with the aim of gauging the success of the EU's efforts at ESI. To determine the success of EUTM Mali and thus of ESI, three propositions are examined: if EUTM Mali is a security operation showing successful security integration, there will be evidence of (i broad participation, (ii financial burden-sharing and (iii the successful incorporation of troops and equipment. The first and third propositions are supported whereas the second does not receive as much support. Overall, EUTM Mali shows considerable success and bodes well for further ESI.

  20. [The aims of German medical anthropology in countries of the European Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterly, J

    1992-07-01

    Medical Anthropology deals with the anthropological conditions of health, illness and health care in different societies and cultures, and has to be distinguished in that respect from Social and Industrial Medicine in German language countries which could be considered a kind of official and governmental medicine. While in North America Medical Anthropology has been established at nearly all universities and medical colleges during the last 25 years, corresponding activities in Germany and most other European countries have not reached university level up to now. After referring to general anthropology during the period of enlightenment and to philosophical and medical anthropology in the first half of our century, both to be considered forerunners of medical anthropology in german-speaking countries, an outline of medical anthropology in German-speaking countries, an outline of medical anthropology in the USA is given followed by a survey of questions and problems with which medical anthropology in German-speaking and other European countries has to cope, and would be confronted after the opening of the EC Market in 1993. The article concludes by briefly going into the circumstance of teaching medical anthropology in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  1. The role and results of the European Community's R and D work on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Girardi, F.

    1985-01-01

    The titles of R and D programmes generally relate to a scientific discipline, a technology or a project: biotechnology, nuclear fission, etc. This is not so in the case of radioactive wastes, where R and D is focused on the management aspect. The role of R and D in general, and the contribution made by the Community programme in particular, are described and discussed with this in mind. Community R and D in the field of radioactive waste emerges as a powerful tool for establishing a broad consensus on delicate scientific questions such as the feasibility and long-term safety of the final storage of high activity wastes. Such a consensus is based on the many results obtained jointly by Community research teams over the last ten years. The implementation of three projects concerning experimental underground facilities in the context of the Community's new five-year (1985-1989) programme will provide the additional information that is needed before the large industrial disposal facilities of the future can be built

  2. Energy markets in the European Community - short-term outlook 1985-86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, T

    1985-08-01

    The Community's consumption of primary energy is expected to increase by 2.6% in 1985 and 2.9% in 1986. The four main reasons for this are the expected increases in the Community's GDP (2.3% for both years), 3-4% growth rates of industrial production, weaker energy prices (led by lower oil prices) and cold weather in the early part of 1985. The base case forecast also assumes some ECU reevaluation against the dollar which, if correct will accelerate the fall in real energy prices. Following the ending of the United Kingdom mining strike in early 1985, coal consumption could be 3% higher this year than in 1984, but oil consumption is forecast to fall by 2-3% in 1985 but perhaps increase very slightly in 1986. Gas and electricity consumption should increase in both years and at similar rates, but the most telling factor in the period will be the increase in nuclear power. In 1986 nuclear should provide nearly 15% of the Community's energy needs, as against only 4% in 1980. The Community's net energy import dependence is expected to fall to 42% in 1986, as compared to 44% last year.

  3. From traits to life-history strategies: Deconstructing fish community composition across European seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécuchet, Lauréne; Lindegren, Martin; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The life history of a species is determined by trade-offs between growth, survival and reproduction to maximize fitness in a given environment. Following a theoretical model, we investigate whether the composition of marine fish communities can be understood in terms of a set of lifehistory...

  4. Ethnomethodology and the study of online communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the authors’ current research programs, this essay explores the basic dimensions of online communities and the concomitant need for scholars to rethink the assumptions that undergrid historic paradigms about the nature of social interaction, social bonding, and empirical experience (Cerulo, 1997. In so doing, we argue that online communities are far from the “imagined” or pseudo communities explicated by Calhoun (1991; that they are, in fact, “real” in the very way in which they reflect the changing nature of human relations and human interaction. Finally this paper discusses the epistemological and methodological implications of studying cyber communities. We will discuss how computer-mediated interaction, or telelogic communication, as it has been characterized by a number of theorists (Ogan, 1993; Ball-Rokeach & Reardon, 1988, can be analyzed to contribute to phenomenological or ethnographic understandings of what it means to be a member of a cyber-community. We suggest that one of the best approaches to taking such a phenomenological snapshot is through a multi-method triangulation, employing qualitative interviews and descriptive and inferential analyses of message content. We also will address limitations and restrictions for using the Internet to do ethnomethodology.

  5. Children with Lesbian Parents: A Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Perry, Beth; Burston, Amanda; Murray, Clare; Mooney-Somers, Julid; Stevens, Madeleine; Golding, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Examined the quality of parent-child relationships and the socioemotional and gender development of a community sample of 7-year-olds with lesbian parents, with two-parent heterosexual parents, or with single heterosexual mothers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Found no significant differences between lesbian mothers and…

  6. Perturbation metatranscriptomics for studying complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Rohan B.H.; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Arumugam, Krithika

    Studying the functional state of natural or engineered microbial communities presents substantial challenges due to both the complexities of field sampling, and, in the laboratory context, the inability of culture or reactor systems to maintain community composition ex situ over long periods. Here...... correlation between orthologous genes (Pearson r=0.4). We also used these data to annotate uncharacterized genes in the Ca. nitrospira defluvii genome: finding clear evidence for several previously unrecognized denitrification related genes, using a combination of expression profiles and protein domain data...... are associated with the transition from anoxic to aerobic conditions, and are observable at a whole community level and 3) these data provide a means of identifying unannotated genes in reference genomes that are likely to be associated with specific functional processes. More broadly, our approach permits...

  7. Protocol Additional to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in France is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 16 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and France had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  8. Communication received from the resident representative of Italy on behalf of the European Community. A communication dated 28 June 1996 from the Permanent Mission of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 28 June 1996 and received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Sweden on 28 June 1996 informing about the adoption, by the Government of Sweden, of the common policy declaration adopted on 20 November 1984 by the ministers for foreign affairs of the then ten members of the European Community which was transmitted to the Director General by the Resident Representative of Italy on behalf of the Community on 22 march 1985 (INFCIRC/322). The declaration deals with transfer of nuclear material, equipment and technology between the Member States of the European Union

  9. Communication received from the resident representative of Italy on behalf of the European Community. A communication dated 17 June 1996 from the Permanent Mission of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 17 June 1996 and received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Austria on 19 June 1996 informing about the adoption, by the Government of Austria, of the common policy declaration adopted on 20 November 1984 by the ministers for foreign affairs of the then ten members of the European Community which was transmitted to the Director General by the Resident Representative of Italy on behalf of the Community on 22 march 1985 (INFCIRC/322). The declaration deals with transfer of nuclear material, equipment and technology between the Member States of the European Union

  10. The European community's programme of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants: objectives, scope and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.

    1984-01-01

    The European Community's research activities on the decommissioning of nuclear installations are aimed at developing effective techniques and procedures for ensuring the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards from nuclear installations that have been withdrawn from service. The first five-year (1979-1983) programme of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants has comprised seven R and D projects concerning the following areas: maintaining disused plants in safe condition; surface decontamination for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of the main waste materials arising in decommissioning, i.e. steel, concrete and graphite; large containers for decommissioning waste; arisings and characteristics of decommissioning waste; plant design features facilitating decommissioning. The research work was carried out by organizations and companies in the Member States under 51 research contracts, most of them cost-sharing. The Commission is now launching a new five-year (1984-1988) programme of research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. (author)

  11. Euratom experience in safeguarding reprocessing and thermal reactor mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities within the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The legal basis and instruments for the application of safeguards in the European Community are described. Euratom safeguards apply throughout the fuel cycle starting at the ore stage. Euratom has had experience in the application of safeguards to small and medium size reprocessing and MOX fabrication plants. In reprocessing plants accountancy, containment and surveillance methods are applied and the plant is divided into three material balance areas. Similar procedures are applied at fabrication plants. Euratom inspectors apply their main verification activities at strategic points but have the right of access at any time to all places which contain nuclear material. Under the Euratom-IAEA Agreements 'Joint Teams' of Euratom and IAEA inspectors will operate together to minimise the burden on operators and to avoid duplication of effort while enabling both organisations to achieve their safeguards objectives

  12. International co-operation in safety matters within the framework of the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Balz, W.; Essler, W.; Tolley, B.; Gabolde, J.

    1981-01-01

    European Community (EC) countries realize that their energy demand cannot be met without a nuclear component, which is almost a necessity owing to its major economic advantages. Two typical areas where the Commission has stimulated intense international co-operation are as follows: The first broad area deals with efforts towards a gradual harmonization of regulatory health and safety practices and requirements for reactors of an industrially developed type, more specifically (light) water-cooled reactors. The second area concerns joint research programmes and co-ordination activities in research on nuclear safety (LWRs and LMFBRs). These two broad areas are closely interconnected. Information is also given on the existing network of bilateral and multilateral arrangements for the exchange of information of interest to the EC. In conclusion, some problems are highlighted where improvements could be made or where it seems crucial that increased international co-operation and especially agreement should come about. (author)

  13. European wind power integration study. Periodic report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This periodic report no. 1 describes the work done in the Danish part of the European Wind Power Integration Study in the period until 1.4.1991. The R and D project was initiated January 1, 1989 upon prior establishment of registration equipment at 7 wind farms and at the Tjaereborg turbine. ELSAM and the meteorological service centre in Karup (VTC-Karup) have supplied data for the task. Wind Predictability, Potential and Benefits, Wind Farm - Grid Interface, Distribution System Strength, Wind Farm Cost and Operation, and Co-generation Wind Turbines/Other renewables were measured and modelled. The statistical distribution of the wind speed variations (changes in wind speed from one period of time to another) has been established with great certainty in the report. The wind speed variations follow a Weibull distribution, irrespective of the time intervals with which the data are considered. Duration curves and power distributions for the 7 wind farms have been estimated. Registration equipment for one-minute measurements was chosen in order to clarify the short-term variations in the wind power production. The possibility of working out production forecasts, to be applied in the daily load dispatching, were to be assessed for the total amount of wind power production in Jutland and Funen. The report has examined whether it would be possible to have only one wind measurement and then let it be `guiding` for the total wind farm production. Some simulations are to be carried out in the attempt to set up guidelines for the connection between the strength of distribution systems and the requirements which must be made to the wind farms which are to be places in the system. (EG)

  14. Job insecurity and health: a study of 16 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of melanoma in Eastern European migrants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrua, Chiara; Fava, Paolo; Brizio, Matteo; Savoia, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Cancer survival rates are lower in Eastern Europe. To describe, based on a single-centre database in northern Italy, clinical, histopathological, and prognostic features of melanoma in a migrant population from Eastern Europe. We retrospectively analysed data from 18,190 consecutive foreign patients who visited our institution, with 49 cases of melanoma from Eastern Europe. The control group was represented by 1,003 Italian melanoma patients diagnosed and followed at our centre during the same time period. Patients from Eastern Europe were mainly females with lower median age, without significant differences regarding primary melanoma site, relative to the control group. Diagnosis was made at the place of birth in 30.6% and in our centre for the remainder. Median Breslow thickness was greater (p = 0.0178), and aggressive histotypes (p = 0.0017) and ulcerated melanomas (p = 0.002) were significantly over-represented, particularly when diagnosed in the patients' native country. Disease was more advanced at diagnosis (p = 0.0001), regardless of the place of initial diagnosis (51% had a progressive disease within one year which rose to 80% if diagnosed before admission to our centre), and the percentage of patients who died within one year was significantly higher (p = 0.022), relative to the control group. Our study shows a poor prognosis for melanoma patients diagnosed in Eastern Europe. Moreover, for migrant populations moving from Eastern to Western European countries, financial difficulties, poor social integration, and language barriers, with consequent late access to healthcare facilities, may account for a worse prognosis.

  16. Competencies of specialised wound care nurses : a European Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Anne M; Maaskant, Jolanda M; Holloway, Samantha; van Dijk, Nynke; Alves, Paulo; Legemate, Dink A; Ubbink, Dirk T; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals responsible for patients with complex wounds need a particular level of expertise and education to ensure optimum wound care. However, uniform education for those working as wound care nurses is lacking. We aimed to reach consensus among experts from six European countries

  17. Red list assessment of European habitat types. A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodwell, J.S.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Gubbay, S.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an achievable methodology for the Red List assessment of European habitats in terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms, outlines a process that will deliver such evaluations and gives an indication of resources needed. It shows how the EUNIS habitat classification can be

  18. European inter-institutional impact study of MammaPrint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusumano, P. G.; Generali, D.; Ciruelos, E.; Manso, L.; Ghanem, I.; Lifrange, E.; Jerusalem, G.; Klaase, J.; de Snoo, F.; Stork-Sloots, L.; Dekker-Vroling, L.; Holzik, M. Lutke

    Aim: To measure the impact of MammaPrint on adjuvant treatment decisions and to analyze the agreement in treatment decisions between hospitals from 4 European countries for the same patient cohort. Methods: Breast cancer patients were prospectively enrolled and MammaPrint was assessed. Patients'

  19. Competencies of specialised wound care nurses: a European Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Anne M.; Maaskant, Jolanda M.; Holloway, Samantha; van Dijk, Nynke; Alves, Paulo; Legemate, Dink A.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals responsible for patients with complex wounds need a particular level of expertise and education to ensure optimum wound care. However, uniform education for those working as wound care nurses is lacking. We aimed to reach consensus among experts from six European countries

  20. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: In compliance... Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS). Type of...

  1. THE WAY TO HARMONY - EUROPEAN COMMUNITY IN THE CONTEXT OF MUSICAL ARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Kobylka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the article is to show particular kind of similarly between musical composition and the community, bound together by common values and tradition. Tradition that unites does not limit creative and innovative approach to the past, present and future. On the contrary, values give meaning to the searching process. Musical composition - as consisting of series of complementary elements - in perfect way reflects to the idea of "unity of diversity", - so crucial for building the community. History reveals how universal language music is and how important is the musical wealth of particular nations - as it constitutes specific inspiration for composers, originating from various areas of the world. Music serves also as a perfect communication tool and opens our minds for the beauty, variety and dynamics of constantly evolving and changing reality.

  2. Present status and future development of the European Community rapid information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, G.

    1990-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl reactor accident it was rapidly appreciated that, in addition to upgrading national radiological monitoring systems, action was required to facilitate international communication of the results obtained. The first such system was established by the Vienna Convention, drawn up under the auspices of the IAEA, which came into force in September, 1986. Subsequently the EC Council of Ministers decided in December, 1987, to set up a Community system which in many ways parallels that established by the Convention but differs significantly in certain aspects concerning its legal basis, initiation criteria, data provisions and communications requirements. The present paper describes the present status of the Community system and foreseeable future developments. It is a matter of policy that, to avoid unnecessary complications, this system should be, to the maximum extent practicable, fully compatible with that established by the Convention. Where appropriate, therefore, reference is also made to the latter system

  3. Energy. Application of solar energy in dwellings: A technical and economical analysis for the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    The technical possibilities and economical limitations of solar heating systems for the application in swimming pools, hot water preparation, space heating and air conditioning were investigated. This analysis was performed for dwellings with special consideration of the climatic differences in each community. The computer program, which was used for solar system calculations, and all mathematical models, for technical and economical analysis were elucidated. In the technical and economical analysis, the most suitable solar system sizes for each community was determined. Four types of solar collectors were investigated. The single glass selective collector proved to be the most cost effective collector in all the above applications, provided the the additional cost for the selective coating is not more than 20DM/cu. From the results of the analysis certain recommendations were derived, which can improve the rapid implementation of solar heating systems into the market.

  4. Methods for Health Economic Evaluation of Vaccines and Immunization Decision Frameworks: A Consensus Framework from a European Vaccine Economics Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Bernhard; Damm, Oliver; Beutels, Philippe; Bilcke, Joke; Brüggenjürgen, Bernd; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hanquet, Germaine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark; Knol, Mirjam; von Kries, Rüdiger; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Perleth, Matthias; Postma, Maarten; Salo, Heini; Siebert, Uwe; Wasem, Jürgen; Wichmann, Ole

    2016-03-01

    Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses [health economic evaluations (HEEs)] of vaccines are routinely considered in decision making on immunization in various industrialized countries. While guidelines advocating more standardization of such HEEs (mainly for curative drugs) exist, several immunization-specific aspects (e.g. indirect effects or discounting approach) are still a subject of debate within the scientific community. The objective of this study was to develop a consensus framework for HEEs of vaccines to support the development of national guidelines in Europe. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify prevailing issues related to HEEs of vaccines. Furthermore, European experts in the field of health economics and immunization decision making were nominated and asked to select relevant aspects for discussion. Based on this, a workshop was held with these experts. Aspects on 'mathematical modelling', 'health economics' and 'decision making' were debated in group-work sessions (GWS) to formulate recommendations and/or--if applicable--to state 'pros' and 'contras'. A total of 13 different aspects were identified for modelling and HEE: model selection, time horizon of models, natural disease history, measures of vaccine-induced protection, duration of vaccine-induced protection, indirect effects apart from herd protection, target population, model calibration and validation, handling uncertainty, discounting, health-related quality of life, cost components, and perspectives. For decision making, there were four aspects regarding the purpose and the integration of HEEs of vaccines in decision making as well as the variation of parameters within uncertainty analyses and the reporting of results from HEEs. For each aspect, background information and an expert consensus were formulated. There was consensus that when HEEs are used to prioritize healthcare funding, this should be done in a consistent way across all interventions

  5. European ST80 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital cellulitis in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsironi Evangelia E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital environment, but also, lately, in the community. This case report is, to our knowledge, the first detailed description of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST80 orbital cellulitis in a previously healthy neonate. Possible predisposing factors of microbial acquisition and treatment selection are also discussed. Case presentation A 28-day-old Caucasian boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of right orbital cellulitis. His symptoms included right eye proptosis, periocular edema and redness. Empirical therapy of intravenous daptomycin, rifampin and ceftriaxone was initiated. The culture of pus yielded a methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate and the molecular analysis revealed that it was a Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive ST80 strain. The combination antimicrobial therapy was continued for 42days and the infection was successfully controlled. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware that young infants, even without any predisposing condition, are susceptible to orbital cellulitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empirical therapy, according to the local epidemiology, should successfully address the infection, preventing ocular and systemic complications.

  6. The role of the Community Bureau of Reference in harmonizing compliance with the laws of the Commission of the European Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga, X

    1994-01-01

    While Community Directives provide the legal basis for the harmonization of national regulations (e.g. food quality, quality of plastics in contact with foodstuffs, etc.), their implementation sometimes requires measurements and analyses which are beyond the capabilities of many laboratories. The BCR Programme of the Commission of the European Communities has undertaken a series of actions in order to help with the implementation of Directive 90/128/EEC for plastics materials intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. The certification of the overall migration characteristics of a polyamide material in aqueous food simulants by total immersion is well advanced. This material will be available through the BCR Programme in 1993 and will allow the laboratories to check their correct application of the normalized method and will provide a basis for laboratory quality assurance. A project is in progress for the preparation of a reference material for the measurement of overall migration by total immersion in olive oil. The preparation of a bank of monomers in the positive list of the above Directive and a handbook of physical and spectroscopic data for these monomers has been supported. Projects are being prepared for supporting the development of methods for the analysis of more than thirty monomers with restrictions in the positive list of Directive 90/128/EEC.

  7. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the member states of the European Community for air, deposition, water, milk, 1975-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The present document is the sixteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. This is the second document which includes data from the enlarged community-viz. Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, plus Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom, who joined the Community on 1 January 1973. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitaton and fallout, surface water and milk during 1975 and 1976

  8. The evolution of public policies for the promotion of SMEs in the Andean Community of Nations and the European Union: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Heredia Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the policies designed to promote SMEs implemented in the Andean Community of Nations (ACN and the European Union (EU in the past few decades. Based on an analytical and comparative methodology, it is set out that, with regard to synchronous or sequential adoption hypotheses, public policies that support SMEs respond to an independent adoption model and are determined by their own historical and political context, according to the different arenas in which the economic integration process of both regions is found. The paper also highlights that in the ACN, in contrast to the EU, it is difficult to find abiding lines of action in the design of these public policies.

  9. STUDY ON EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSORPTION IN ROMANIA FOR MEASURE 313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina D. MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we wish to highlight the main causes of regional disparities in Romania in terms of absorption of European funds through Measure 313: Encouragement of tourism activities. The post-accession of Romania shows a major deficiency in attracting funds from the European Union, this situation is generated, in particular, by the lack of a coherent long-term vision of the authorities, insufficient resources for co-financing projects, low administrative capacity at central and local level, lack of inter-institutional coordination, public-private partnerships failures and insufficient skilled human resources . We will analyze the number of projects approved and implemented in each region of Romania (2007-2013 to establish the real possibilities of expansion of rural tourism.

  10. Evolution of the legal system of nuclear research in the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelle, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years after the creation of Euratom, the Treaty establishing it is analysed together with the procedures for setting up joint projects and research programmes. The projects and programmes and their results are described as are the changes in the outlook and objectives of Euratom as compared with its original concept. In view of developments in the nuclear field, from the economic, political and social angles, its legal basis has developed greater flexibility from the institutional point of view, thus enabling closer co-operation between the Member States and the Commission in the setting up of efficient and useful programmes for the Communities. (NEA) [fr

  11. The exposure of the EC (European Community) population from nuclear industry effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, M.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose commitment to the EC population from routine effluents released from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants within the Community in 1978 amounted to approximately 500 man Sv. The collective dose commitments associated with discharges from the nuclear power stations was approximately 50 man Sv, being almost entirely due to airborne carbon-14. The total collective dose commitment from the reprocessing plants was approximately 450 man Sv, about two-thirds of which was due to radiocaesium in the liquid effluent from Sellafield. (UK)

  12. The European strategy for fast reactor core static mechanics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.H.; Di Francesca, R.; Coors, D.; Steenberghe, T. van

    1987-01-01

    The strategy is designed to meet the needs of participating European countries by achieving the following objectives: To provide generic information and data on the static mechanics of all styles of core of interest, validate codes and optimise new designs. To endorse specific features of SPX2 and SNR2 designs. To provide the new facilities which are needed. To present the programme of work required and timescale. (orig./HP)

  13. Comparison of the Hungarian and Scottish communicable disease control systems: lessons for a convergent European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefler, D; Bhopal, R

    2010-03-01

    European public health systems are converging, particularly in relation to communicable disease control. This process requires mutual learning through comparison; this was undertaken for Scotland (population 5.1 million) and Hungary (population 10.5 million). Using the official web- and paper-based publications, the practice of communicable disease control was compared between the two countries in three specific fields: seasonal influenza surveillance; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance; and the childhood vaccination system. The organization structure for communicable disease control was very similar, comprising of government, national, regional and sub-regional tiers in Hungary, and government, national and local (sub-regional) tiers in Scotland. The influenza surveillance system in both countries was mainly based on the 'fluspotter system'. In the 2005/6, 2006/7 and 2007/8 seasons, there was no exceptional influenza activity in either country. Although the data collection and surveillance system of HIV is similar, there was a massive difference in the number of reported cases. In 2007, the cumulative incidence of reported HIV cases was 14.74/100,000 in Hungary and 105.21/100,000 in Scotland. The routine childhood vaccination schedule is similar in the two countries. However, while the vaccine uptake rates were nearly 100% in Hungary, these rates were lower in Scotland. The numbers of reported pertussis (98 vs 48), mumps (2741 vs 16), rubella (146 vs 0) and measles (168 vs zero) cases were significantly higher in Scotland than in Hungary. There were no differences for polio and chickenpox. The economic difference between the two countries not reflected in the efficiency of communicable disease control and in communicable disease patterns. The historical, political and cultural differences seem more determinative in this comparison. Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The European Community and climate protection. What's behind the ''empty rhetoric''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringius, Lasse

    1999-10-01

    The EC has been hoping to play an environmental leadership role in the global climate negotiations and has been proposing comparatively stringent climate targets for the OECD countries. But especially the United States and to some extent the international environmental community have criticized the EC for being unable to develop effective climate policies that will achieve its ambitious targets. This publication shows that the EC in general expects that it is relatively inexpensive to implement climate policy within the EC and that its climate policy strategy from the beginning has been heavily influenced by the notion of environmental leadership. The defensive positions taken by the United States and Japan in the global climate negotiations have made EC environmental leadership seem simultaneously economically, environmentally and politically beneficial, and political and environmental interests have pushed EC climate policy to go further than what it otherwise would have been. (author)

  15. Competition in the European electricity markets – outcomes of a Delphi study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkonen, Mari; Pätäri, Satu; Jantunen, Ari; Viljainen, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Internal European electricity markets are a target set by the European Union (EU) and under development at present. This article presents the findings of a Delphi study focusing on the prospects of European electricity markets. The main aim is to report the obstacles that participants in the survey felt were the most critical ones affecting competition in the European electricity markets of the future. The respondents were European electricity market specialists, and the themes of the survey ranged from transmission networks and electricity trade to demand flexibility. One of the key findings was shared concern over the adequacy of transmission network capacity in Europe. It was considered that technical issues, such as existing transmission network bottlenecks, are most likely to form obstacles to creating common European electricity markets if new capacity is not built quickly enough. It was seen by the panellists that electricity trading arrangements, whilst important, are unlikely to form a barrier to the development of an internal electricity market. It was noted that electricity trading issues have recently been the subject of development work in the EU. - Highlights: ► The internal electricity market is a priority of the European Union. ► The Delphi method was used to study competition in the European electricity markets. ► The congested grid hampers the development of internal electricity markets in Europe. ► The significance of a transmission network will be emphasised in the future. ► Electricity trading arrangements are likely to be solved.

  16. Independent regulatory authorities - a comparative study of European energy regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander Johansen, K.; Holm Pedersen, L.; Moll Soerensen, E.

    2004-04-01

    Independent regulatory authorities are widely recommended as part of the institutional design of liberalised energy markets - not least by the European Commission. This report describes and compares the regulatory authorities for energy in the EU. Arguments for regulatory independence are presented and discussed, and an index is developed to measure the degree of conformance to theories of regulatory independence. It is established that the main pattern of variation is that countries, which formerly had strong state-owned companies, have chosen to create regulatory authorities at state level with many institutional safeguards for independence. (au)

  17. Merchant electricity transmission expansion: A European case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, T. [RBS Sempra Commodities, 155 Bishopsgate, London EC2M3TZ (United Kingdom); Rosellon, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE), Division de Economia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca 3655, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Mohrenstrasse 58, 10117, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)

  18. Merchant electricity transmission expansion: A European case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, T.; Rosellon, J.

    2010-01-01

    We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)

  19. Study of the European market for industrial nuclear power plants for the mixed production of electricity and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The opportunity of developing the mixed production of electricity and steam from nuclear power plants in the nine countries of the European Community is studied. Both public distribution and autonomous production are envisaged. An attempt is made to estimate the potentiel market for district heating and for chemical, agricultural and alimentary, textile, paper, car manufacture and wood industries. The reactors considered are LWR reactors of at least 1000MWth. Suggestions are given to overcome the difficulties and constraints that stand in the way of a nuclear solution [fr

  20. Weight status of European preschool children and associations with family demographics and energy balance-related behaviours: a pooled analysis of six European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, M.M.; te Velde, S.J.; van Nassau, F.; Brug, J.; Grammatikaki, E.; Maes, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Verbestel, V.; Galcheva, S.; Iotova, V.; Koletzko, B.V.; von Kries, R.; Bayer, O.; Kulaga, Z.; Serra-Majem, L.; Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Manios, Y.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) gain insight in the prevalence of overweight indices in European preschoolers (4-7 years); (ii) identify energy balance-related behaviours associated with overweight/obesity; and (iii) identify children at risk for overweight/obesity. Secondary analyses of six European data

  1. Discourses of crises and the European Union as a community without qualities: A view from the literary history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the assumption that meanings and perceptions of social reality are generated by means of public language, or in other words, from the belief that the role of public language is more that of shaping the social reality, rather than description or detection of problems, the authors assume a reserved approach to contemporary discourses on the crises of the European Union. Such approach is explained by the vagueness and deprival of meaning of the term crises, as it is typically used in current political discourses. By pointing out to a loss of the semantic core of the term, caused by its inconsistent usage and longevity of the condition termed 'crisis', they also express doubts concerning its analytical operativeness. In the authors' opinion, this 'profaned' term has become a performative representation of simulation - sort of crisis, which has, either as a justification, necessity or a pretext, created numerous effects in recent years. The assumption that simulation - seen as the absence of the reality rather than its disguise (Jean Baudrillard - represents a leading principle of our age is examined through the concept of continued effect of literature and corroborated by the authors' interpretation of Robert Musil's novel 'Man Without Qualities', as a mythopoetic framework of the analysis and reflections of high art in the contemporary age. In the first part of the text, the authors point out to Musil's poetic anticipation of the direction taken by the European society, that is, the cultural climate and conditions favouring development of man without qualities. In the absence of these qualities and, especially, in preference given to Musil's category 'sense of possibility'over the 'sense of reality', the authors recognise the interpretative basis for the analysis of Community without qualities, as another name for the European Union. From that point of view, which, in addition to loss of specific qualities, also involves deprival of

  2. Pathogens, prejudice, and politics: the role of the global health community in the European refugee crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Osei-Kofi, Anna; Omar, Abbas; Kirkbride, Hilary; Kessel, Anthony; Abbara, Aula; Heymann, David; Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman

    2016-08-01

    Involuntary migration is a crucially important global challenge from an economic, social, and public health perspective. The number of displaced people reached an unprecedented level in 2015, at a total of 60 million worldwide, with more than 1 million crossing into Europe in the past year alone. Migrants and refugees are often perceived to carry a higher load of infectious diseases, despite no systematic association. We propose three important contributions that the global health community can make to help address infectious disease risks and global health inequalities worldwide, with a particular focus on the refugee crisis in Europe. First, policy decisions should be based on a sound evidence base regarding health risks and burdens to health systems, rather than prejudice or unfounded fears. Second, for incoming refugees, we must focus on building inclusive, cost-effective health services to promote collective health security. Finally, alongside protracted conflicts, widening of health and socioeconomic inequalities between high-income and lower-income countries should be acknowledged as major drivers for the global refugee crisis, and fully considered in planning long-term solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of parasitic communities within European ticks using next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bonnet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of tick-borne and zoonotic disease emergence necessitates sound knowledge of the particular microorganisms circulating within the communities of these major vectors. Assessment of pathogens carried by wild ticks must be performed without a priori, to allow for the detection of new or unexpected agents.We evaluated the potential of Next-Generation Sequencing techniques (NGS to produce an inventory of parasites carried by questing ticks. Sequences corresponding to parasites from two distinct genera were recovered in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Eastern France: Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. Four Babesia species were identified, three of which were zoonotic: B. divergens, Babesia sp. EU1 and B. microti; and one which infects cattle, B. major. This is the first time that these last two species have been identified in France. This approach also identified new sequences corresponding to as-yet unknown organisms similar to tropical Theileria species.Our findings demonstrate the capability of NGS to produce an inventory of live tick-borne parasites, which could potentially be transmitted by the ticks, and uncovers unexpected parasites in Western Europe.

  4. Novel insights into microbial community dynamics during the fermentation of Central European ice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučková, Mária; Puškárová, Andrea; Ženišová, Katarína; Kraková, Lucia; Piknová, Ľubica; Kuchta, Tomáš; Pangallo, Domenico

    2018-02-02

    Culture-dependent and culture-independent strategies were applied to investigate the microbiota of autumn undamaged and damaged berries, winter berries and ice wine must samples of Grüner Veltliner (Veltlínske zelené) from Small Carpathian wine-producing region. One hundred twenty-six yeasts and 242 bacterial strains isolated from several microbiological media (YPD, PDA, R2A, GYC, MRS and MRS-T) were clustered by ITS-PCR and subsequent Qiaxcel electrophoresis. Representatives of each cluster were identified by sequencing. The extracellular hydrolytic properties and intracellular activities of esterase and β-glucosidase of isolates were assayed. The culture-independent approach permitted the analysis of extracted DNA and RNA coupling DGGE fingerprinting with construction of clone libraries (bacterial and fungal; DGGE-cloning). The combination of the two approaches provided comprehensive data that evidenced the presence of a complex microbiota in each analyzed sample. RNA and DNA analyses facilitated differentiation of living microorganisms from the entire microbiota. Diverse microbial communities colonized the autumn and winter berries. Generally, the combination of results obtained by the methods suggested that the must samples contained mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Metschnikowia spp., Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc spp. The strains exhibited interesting esterase and β-glucosidase properties, which are important for aroma formation in wine. Fermentation strategies utilising these microorganisms, could be attempted in the future in order to modulate the ice wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer......, a calibration approach was developed. This approach involved an additional dietary assessment common across study populations to re-express individual dietary intakes according to the same reference scale. A single 24-hour diet recall was therefore collected, as the EPIC reference calibration method, from...... in a large multi-centre European study. These studies showed that, despite certain inherent methodological and logistic constraints, a study design such as this one works relatively well in practice. The average response in the calibration study was 78.3% and ranged from 46.5% to 92.5%. The calibration...

  6. Alumni careers : MA Comparative European Social Studies Zuyd University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert Riga

    2004-01-01

    In the preparation of the celebration of the 10th anniversary of the MA CESS all alumni were invited to participate in an alumni survey. The purpose of the survey was to thoroughly investigate the professional activities of MA CESS alumni and the way they build an alumni community. Another reason

  7. Short-term effects of forest disturbances on soil nematode communities in European mountain spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerevková, A; Renčo, M; Cagáň, L

    2013-09-01

    The nematode communities in spruce forests were compared with the short-term effects of forest damage, caused by windstorm, wildfire and management practices of forest soils. Soil samples were collected in June and October from 2006 to 2008 in four different sites: (1) forest unaffected by the wind (REF); (2) storm-felled forest with salvaged timber (EXT); (3) modified forest affected by timber salvage (wood removal) and forest fire (FIR); and (4) storm-felled forest where timber had been left unsalvaged (NEX). Nematode analysis showed that the dominant species in all four investigated sites were Acrobeloides nanus and Eudorylaimus silvaticus. An increase of A. nanus (35% of the total nematode abundance) in the first year in the FIR site led to the highest total abundance of nematodes compared with other sites, where nematode abundance reached the same level in the third year. In the FIR site bacterial feeders appeared to be the most representative trophic group, although in the second and third year, after disturbance, the abundance of this trophic group gradually decreased. In the NEX site, the number of nematode species, population densities and Maturity Index were similar to that recorded for the FIR site. In EXT and NEX sites, the other dominant species was the plant parasitic nematode Paratylenchus microdorus. Analyses of nematodes extracted from different forest soil samples showed that the highest number of species and diversity index for species (H'spp) were in the REF site. Differences between the nematode fauna in REF and other localities were clearly depicted by cluster analysis. The greatest Structure Index and Enrichment Index values were also in REF. In the EXT site, the number of nematode species, their abundance, H'spp and Maturity Index were not significantly different from those recorded in the reference site.

  8. Overview of 71 European community-based initiatives against childhood obesity starting between 2005 and 2011: general characteristics and reported effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemelmans, Wanda Jose Erika; Wijnhoven, Trudy Maria Arnoldina; Verschuuren, Marieke; Breda, João

    2014-07-28

    Community-based initiatives (CBIs) on childhood obesity are considered a good practice approach against childhood obesity. The European Commission called for an overview of CBIs implemented from 2005-2011. A survey was executed by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment of the Netherlands, in collaboration with the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the European CBIs, as identified in the survey, presenting their general characteristics, applied strategies (separately for actions targeting the environment and/or directly the children's behaviour) and the reported effects on weight indicators. Potentially eligible CBIs were identified by informants in 27 European Union countries, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland, and through desk research. School based approaches could be included if they complied with criteria related to being 'community-based'. In total, 278 potential eligible CBIs were identified and of these, 260 projects were approached. For 88 an electronic questionnaire was completed; of these 71 met all criteria. The included projects were reported by 15 countries. 66% of the 71 CBIs implemented actions in more than one setting or throughout the neighbourhood. Most frequently reported environmental actions were professional training (78%), actions for parents (70%), and changing the social (62%) and physical (52%) environment. Most frequently reported educational activities were group education (92%), general educational information (90%), and counselling sessions (58%). The vast majority (96%) implemented both environmental and individual strategies and about half of the CBIs reported a public-private partnership. Eight CBIs provided evidence supporting positive effects on weight indicators and/or overweight prevalence in a general population of children (aged 6 to 12 yrs), and one CBI did not support this. Two of those CBIs were also conducted

  9. FOREWORD: Workshop on Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas, sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, R.; De Angelis, U.; Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    1990-01-01

    cavities and their burn-out resulting in very strong turbulence. Remarkable agreement between the simulations and ionospheric modification experiments have been demonstrated. The articles presented also attempted to correlate the theories of parametric instabilities with experimental observations. The properties of plasma lenses used for focusing of high energy particle beams is also presented as part of the uses of the nonlinear plasmas. Self-organisation of plasmas resulting in coherent nonlinear structures and particle diffusion processes are reported. On the experimental side the nonlinear optics of plasmas as a new area of research has been reviewed. This is becoming an important area for research since it treats the plasma from the outset as a nonlinear medium. Experimental observations of phase conjugation of electromagnetic signals demonstrate once again the importance of the nonlinearities inherent in the interaction of large amplitude waves with plasmas. Finally the importance of turbulence in space plasmas is emphasized in a discussion of the auroral phenomenon, presenting the plasma physicists point of view on this topic. The workshop, attended by scientists from all over the world, stimulated a great deal of lively discussions about the theoretical foundations, experimental observations and interpretations together with computer simulation results on the physics of nonlinear plasma wave phenomena. The workshop was made possible by the kind support of Professors A Salam, L Bertocchi and M Hassan. We are grateful to them for giving us the opportunity to organize the workshop within the activities of the Spring College on Plasma Physics. Thanks are also due to the ICTP and the European Economic Community (EEC) for providing partial financial support. Finally, our most cordial thanks are extended to the invited speakers for coming to Trieste delivering excellent talks and enhancing the activity of the Spring College.

  10. European Train Control System: A Case Study in Formal Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, André; Quesel, Jan-David

    Complex physical systems have several degrees of freedom. They only work correctly when their control parameters obey corresponding constraints. Based on the informal specification of the European Train Control System (ETCS), we design a controller for its cooperation protocol. For its free parameters, we successively identify constraints that are required to ensure collision freedom. We formally prove the parameter constraints to be sharp by characterizing them equivalently in terms of reachability properties of the hybrid system dynamics. Using our deductive verification tool KeYmaera, we formally verify controllability, safety, liveness, and reactivity properties of the ETCS protocol that entail collision freedom. We prove that the ETCS protocol remains correct even in the presence of perturbation by disturbances in the dynamics. We verify that safety is preserved when a PI controlled speed supervision is used.

  11. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-04-06

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m² BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01). Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40%) deviated from a normal hydration level.

  12. Coffee drinking and mortality in 10 European countries : A multinational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Cornejo, Maria Luisa Redondo; Agudo, Antonio; Pérez, María José Sánchez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Uiterwaal, Cuno U.; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study.

  13. The EMBARC European bronchiectasis registry: Protocol for an international observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalmers, J.D. (James D.); S. Aliberti (Stefano); Polverino, E. (Eva); Vendrell, M. (Montserrat); Crichton, M. (Megan); Loebinger, M. (Michael); Dimakou, K. (Katerina); Clifton, I. (Ian); M. van der Eerden (Menno); G. Rohde (Gernot); Murris-Espin, M. (Marlene); Masefield, S. (Sarah); Gerada, E. (Eleanor); Shteinberg, M. (Michal); F.C. Ringshausen (Felix C.); Haworth, C. (Charles); W.G. Boersma (Wim); Rademacher, J. (Jessica); Hill, A.T. (Adam T.); Aksamit, T. (Timothy); O’Donnell, A. (Anne); Morgan, L. (Lucy); B. Milenkovic (Branislava); Tramma, L. (Leandro); Neves, J. (Joao); Menendez, R. (Rosario); Paggiaro, P. (Perluigi); Botnaru, V. (Victor); Skrgat, S. (Sabina); R. Wilson (Richard); Goeminne, P. (Pieter); De Soyza, A. (Anthony); T. Welte; Torres, A. (Antoni); S. Elborn (Stuart); Blasi, F. (Francesco)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBronchiectasis is one of the most neglected diseases in respiratory medicine. There are no approved therapies and few large-scale, representative epidemiological studies. The EMBARC (European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration) registry is a prospective,

  14. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC...

  15. Energy efficiency in the European water industry. A compendium of best practices and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, J. [Watercycle Research Institute KWR, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Uijterlinde, C. [Foundation for Applied Water Research STOWA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    This European report on best practices of energy efficiency in the water industry showcases 23 energy efficiency initiatives which were collected as case studies from European water utilities. The 25 case studies presented in this report will be submitted to UKWIR and Black and Veatch, for potential inclusion in the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) global compendium of best practice case studies. The aim of the GWRC-compendium is to identify the promising developments and future opportunities to help deliver incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations. But also more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies. The European report describes case studies from: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. Black and Veatch has gathered furthermore information on 47 cases from the UK. These are reported separately and are not included in this European overview.

  16. Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struelens, M.J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, J.; MacKenzie, F.M.; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Gould, I.

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and

  17. Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, A.A.; Lund, E.; Amiano, P.

    2002-01-01

    was in the coastal areas of northern Europe (Denmark, Sweden and Norway) and in Germany. Consumption of fish products was greater in northern than in southern Europe, with white fish products predominating in centres in France, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands and Norway. Intake of roe and roe products was low......OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... study. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 subjects (13 031 men and 22 924 women), aged 35-74 years, selected from the main EPIC cohort. RESULTS: A six- to sevenfold variation in total fish consumption exists in women and men, between the lowest consumption in Germany and the highest in Spain. Overall, white...

  18. Association of STAT4 with rheumatoid arthritis - A replication study in three European populations : a replication study in three European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orozco, Gisela; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Delgado-Vega, Angelica M.; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Benjamin; Gonzalez-Escribano, Maria F.; Petersson, Ingemar F.; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; Barrera, Pilar; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.; van Leeuwen, Miek A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta; Martin, Javier

    Objective. This study was undertaken to investigate the previously reported association of the STAT4 polymorphism rs7574865 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 3 different European populations from Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands, comprising a total of 2,072 patients and 2,474 controls. Methods.

  19. The effects of childbirth on women’s activity change and occupational mobility in Europe: Evidence from the European Community Household Panel.

    OpenAIRE

    Chzhen, Yekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses comparable longitudinal data from the European Community Household Panel from 1994 to 2001 to examine the effects of recent childbirth on the relative risks of switching to part-time, inactivity or unemployment for full-time women, as well as the effect of switching from full-time time to part-time work on the risk of occupational downgrading, in 13 European countries. Once important human capital and workplace characteristics are controlled for, full-time female workers who g...

  20. Analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle in European Community countries up to the year 2000 ESARDA point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiennon, G.; Carchon, R.; Cuypers, M.

    1988-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for electricity production has substantially increased during the past years, and present day projections indicate a further increase for the next decade. The presently available safeguards technology satisfies the actual needs but the projected evolution of the nuclear fuel cycle is expected to pose new technical challenges. Experience has taught that much time elapses between the development of safeguard techniques and the routine field application. Therefore it appears reasonable to consider long term trends of RandD activities in the light of the described fuel cycle evolution. ESARDA has made a first step in this direction by making a fuel cycle analysis up to the year 2000, which should provide the orientation for RandD in the future. In May 1988, the seven ESARDA working groups met at Karlsruhe to address this theme and to analyse the safeguards relevant features of the future fuel cycle within the European Community (EC) countries and how they influence the further development of presently available techniques in the field of measurements, containment and surveillance (C/S), data evaluation, etc. The preliminary results of this meeting are presented in the paper

  1. Catalogue of facilities in Member States of the European Community for testing the packaging of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, A.; Swindell, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    A group of experts convened by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels on 2 July 1980 to suggest possible actions in connection with the safe transport of radioactive materials, recommended, among other things, that the Commission should collect and distribute information on packaging test facilities in Member States. In response to that recommendation a letter of enquiry was sent informally, on behalf of the Commission, to the competent authorities of the Member States. The purpose of the enquiry is to assist in the effective implementation of the internationally accepted Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials through the dissemination of information on test facilities and on the terms and conditions under which the services of these facilities could be made available for the testing of packaging designed in other countries. As an aid to the presentation of the material in a harmonized format, it was suggested that the information provided should cover relevant topics. The information received by the Commission has been assembled for each installation according to this format

  2. Community analysis of the abundance and diversity of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in three European countries at different latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlmann, Tim W R; Wennergren, Uno; Tälle, Malin; Favia, Guido; Damiani, Claudia; Bracchetti, Luca; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2018-03-27

    The outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in Europe have increased efforts to understand the ecology of Culicoides biting midges and their role in pathogen transmission. However, most studies have focused on a specific habitat, region, or country. To facilitate wider comparisons, and to obtain a better understanding of the spread of disease through Europe, the present study focused on monitoring biting midge species diversity in three different habitat types and three countries across Europe. Biting midges were trapped using Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute light traps at a total of 27 locations in Sweden, the Netherlands and Italy, comprising farm, peri-urban and wetland habitats. From July 2014 to June 2015 all locations were sampled monthly, except for during the winter months. Trapped midges were counted and identified morphologically. Indices on species richness, evenness and diversity were calculated. Community compositions were analysed using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) techniques. A total of 50,085 female midges were trapped during 442 collection nights. More than 88% of these belonged to the Obsoletus group. The highest midge diversity was found in Sweden, while species richness was highest in the Netherlands, and most specimens were trapped in Italy. For habitats within countries, diversity of the trapped midges was lowest for farms in all countries. Differences in biting midge species communities were more distinct across the three countries than the three habitat types. A core midge community could be identified, in which the Obsoletus group was the most abundant. Variations in vector communities across countries imply different patterns of disease spread throughout Europe. How specific species and their associated communities affect disease risk is still unclear. Our results emphasize the importance of midge diversity data at community level, how this differs across large geographic range within Europe, and its implications

  3. Overview of European Community (Activity 3) work on materials properties of fast reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee set up in 1974 the Working Group Codes and Standards, and organized its work into four main activities: Manufacturing standards, Structural analysis, Materials and Classification of components. The main purpose of materials activity is to compare and contrast existing national specifications and associated properties relevant to structural materials in fast reactors. Funds are available on a yearly basis for tasks to be carried out through Study Contracts. At present about four Study Contract Reports are prepared each year

  4. Investigating Prospective Social Studies Teachers? Perceptions of European Union through Metaphor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate metaphors developed by social studies teacher candidates about the European Union. 185 second, third and fourth year social studies teacher candidates participated in the study. This study was designed as a phenomenological study and mataphor analysis was conducted. At the end of the study, the students…

  5. Alumni careers : MA Comparative European Social Studies Zuyd University

    OpenAIRE

    Riga, Albert

    2004-01-01

    In the preparation of the celebration of the 10th anniversary of the MA CESS all alumni were invited to participate in an alumni survey. The purpose of the survey was to thoroughly investigate the professional activities of MA CESS alumni and the way they build an alumni community. Another reason for starting the project is that it may play a part in maintaining and enhancing a mutually beneficial relationship between MA CESS and its alumni. All over Europe there are graduates working in the ...

  6. Climate-induced signatures in the zooplankton communities: a meta-analysis at a European scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Cotrim Marques

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have revealed the impacts of the climate variability in the dynamic of zooplankton in different estuarine ecosystems, imposing a need for more and continued global studies. Presently, there is a growing appreciation in international collaborations to compare and contrast estuarine ecosystem response to climate variability across geographical gradients, including long-term changes in zooplankton. We performed a meta-analysis comprising field data from 7 location (Mondego estuary-Portugal, Seine estuary- France, Sheldt estuary- Belgium, Kiel fjord - Germany, Gulf of Riga- Latvia, Gulf of Bothnia – Sweden and Finland Archipelagos. The use of climatic modes (e.g. NAO, ENSO has proven useful in investigating links between climatic variations and ecological patterns. Therefore, the main focus will be to test the influence of the NAO on abundance of organisms, key species, local environment and whether these relationships are generally positive, whether they are sensitive to methodological differences among studies, between taxonomic group and key species. The knowledge gained will contribute to quantitatively evaluate the multi-scale structure of climate and marine environment and to identify a set of environmental indicators to assess the estuarine ecosystem state and risks for ecological shifts.

  7. How to communicate safety? Some reflections from European project studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Philip; Galson, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Attempts to site geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste - and associated public reactions - indicate that communicating safety and demonstrating safety are very different things. The three different approaches to stakeholder engagement undertaken in the context of the PAMINA, ARGONA and CIP projects have provided valuable insights into how risk communication processes and tools can be improved. The approaches used in these projects all involve the participation of interested stakeholders in identifying concerns and issues, which are then examined in a co-operative fashion between stakeholders and developers acting in partnership. Such approaches offer avenues for dialogue and confidence building where such channels were previously not well developed, Full results from the projects will be available in late 2009 for PAMINA and ARGONA and in early 2010 for CIP. The comments and interim insights outlined here will be developed further and incorporated in the overall project outputs, and help inform developing European policy in this area. It is already clear, however, that the approaches used in these projects offer great promise in helping to develop the trust in the institutions and organisations involved that is essential in gaining support and acceptance for the waste management activities now underway across Europe

  8. Patient engagement with research: European population register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKevitt, Christopher; Fudge, Nina; Crichton, Siobhan; Bejot, Yannick; Daubail, Benoît; Di Carlo, Antonio; Fearon, Patricia; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter; Sheldenkar, Anita; Newbound, Sophie; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-12-01

    Lay involvement in implementation of research evidence into practice may include using research findings to guide individual care, as well as involvement in research processes and policy development. Little is known about the conditions required for such involvement. To assess stroke survivors' research awareness, use of research evidence in their own care and readiness to be involved in research processes. Cross sectional survey of stroke survivors participating in population-based stroke registers in six European centres. The response rate was 74% (481/647). Reasons for participation in register research included responding to clinician request (56%) and to 'give something back' (19%); however, 20% were unaware that they were participating in a stroke register. Research awareness was generally low: 57% did not know the purpose of the register they had been recruited to; 73% reported not having received results from the register they took part in; 60% did not know about any research on stroke care. Few participants (7.6%) used research evidence during their consultations with a doctor. The 34% of participants who were interested in being involved in research were younger, more highly educated and already research aware. Across Europe, stroke survivors already participating in research appear ill informed about stroke research. Researchers, healthcare professionals and patient associations need to improve how research results are communicated to patient populations and research participants, and to raise awareness of the relationship between research evidence and increased quality of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sustaining International Partnerships: The European Master of Science Program In Occupational Therapy: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions...... comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize...

  10. Explanatory memorandum on European Community Document -mutual medical assistance in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report lists the Commissions proposals for further action on its suggestion of mutual health assistance in the event of a nuclear accident. These include surveys and studies, further research on the medical treatment of radiation casualties and the methodology of epidemiological investigations, the promotion of contacts between experts and the attempt to assemble a handbook listing facilities and procedures for mutual assistance. The memorandum explains some of the points further under the headings, ministerial responsibility, legal and procedural issues and policy implications. The United Kingdom position is then stated. The UK government welcomes the proposals provided there is no duplication of work already covered by the IAEA Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. (U.K.)

  11. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  12. Benthic-pelagic coupling: effects on nematode communities along southern European continental margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Pape

    Full Text Available Along a west-to-east axis spanning the Galicia Bank region (Iberian margin and the Mediterranean basin, a reduction in surface primary productivity and in seafloor flux of particulate organic carbon was mirrored in the in situ organic matter quantity and quality within the underlying deep-sea sediments at different water depths (1200, 1900 and 3000 m. Nematode standing stock (abundance and biomass and genus and trophic composition were investigated to evaluate downward benthic-pelagic coupling. The longitudinal decline in seafloor particulate organic carbon flux was reflected by a reduction in benthic phytopigment concentrations and nematode standing stock. An exception was the station sampled at the Galicia Bank seamount, where despite the maximal particulate organic carbon flux estimate, we observed reduced pigment levels and nematode standing stock. The strong hydrodynamic forcing at this station was believed to be the main cause of the local decoupling between pelagic and benthic processes. Besides a longitudinal cline in nematode standing stock, we noticed a west-to-east gradient in nematode genus and feeding type composition (owing to an increasing importance of predatory/scavenging nematodes with longitude governed by potential proxies for food availability (percentage of nitrogen, organic carbon, and total organic matter. Within-station variability in generic composition was elevated in sediments with lower phytopigment concentrations. Standing stock appeared to be regulated by sedimentation rates and benthic environmental variables, whereas genus composition covaried only with benthic environmental variables. The coupling between deep-sea nematode assemblages and surface water processes evidenced in the present study suggests that it is likely that climate change will affect the composition and function of deep-sea nematodes.

  13. Sarcopenia and falls in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan: Defining sarcopenia according to criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Junko

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the association between sarcopenia (using the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People) and fall in the past year among community-dwelling Japanese elderly. Subjects were 1110 community-dwelling Japanese aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance in a baseline study. "Sarcopenia" was characterized by low muscle mass and low muscle strength or low physical performance. "Presarcopenia" was characterized only by low muscle mass. Subjects who did not have any of these deficiencies were classified as "normal." We then administered a questionnaire assessing age, sex, household status, chronic illness, lifestyle-related habits, and fall. This study showed the prevalence of fall was 16.9% and 21.3% in men and women, respectively, while that of sarcopenia was 13.4% and 14.9% in men and women, respectively. In men and women, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher among those who had fallen. A logistic regression analysis using age, body fat, current drinker status, and physical inactivity for men, and age, body fat, smoking, and diabetes for women as covariate variables revealed that sarcopenia was significantly associated with a history of fall. The odds ratio for fall in the sarcopenia group relative to the normal group was 4.42 (95%CI 2.08-9.39) in men and 2.34 (95%CI 1.39-3.94) in women. This study revealed sarcopenia to be associated with falling in elderly Japanese. Sarcopenia prevention interventions may help prevent falls among elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ONTOLOGY MAPPING IN THE RESILIENCE STUDY: THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE FOR EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu-Tudor SALANŢIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontology mapping in resilience surveillance on organization level can found utilization in analysis of association between idiosyncrasies and structure adaptability. Starting from the data regarding the economic trends for European Union members from 2014 to 2016 the aim of the research is to analyse the European Union resilience through interpretation of the link between members behaviour and structure convergence. The members positioned in European Union was analysed after organization clusterization of the twenty-eight state members. Two different structures are included into analysis for the studied periods: a structure which incorporates just the state members, and other which also take into account the eurozone blue-chips. In order to analyse the members’ relation in structure a gravity model has been developed, the obtained results for each state members pair are contained in a skew matrix. The values are interpreted through a knowledge-base to highlight the European Union resilience degree.

  15. Industrial DSM in a deregulated European electricity market - a case study of 11 plants in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trygg, Louise; Karlsson, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 Sweden will become part of a common European electricity market. This implies that the price of electricity in Swedish will adapt to a higher European electricity price due to the increase in cross-border trading. Swedish plant is characterized as more electricity-intensive than plant on the European continent, and this, in combination with a higher European electricity price will lead to a precarious scenario. This paper studies the energy use of 11 plants in the municipality of Oskarshamn in Sweden. The aim is to show how these plants can reduce their electricity use to adapt to a European level. We have found that the plants could reduce their use of electricity by 48% and their use of energy by 40%. In a European perspective, where coal-condensing power is assumed to be the marginal production that alters as the electricity demand changes, the decrease in the use of electricity in this study leads to a reduction in global emissions of carbon dioxide of 69,000 tonne a year. Electricity generated in Sweden emits very low emissions of carbon dioxide and have thus consequently very low external cost. The freed capacity in Sweden could therefore replace electricity generated with higher external cost and as a result lower the total external cost in Europe. The emissions from the saved electricity could also be valuable within the EU emissions trading scheme, if the emissions calculation is done assuming the marginal electricity is fossil fuel based

  16. Explanatory memorandum on European Community Document 6323/87: proposal for a Council decision on a Community system of rapid exchange of information in cases of abnormal levels of radioactivity or of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Council of the European Commnity proposes a system of rapid exchange of information in cases of abnormal radioactivity or a nuclear accident. In addition to the existing procedures of early notification drawn up by the International Atomic Energy Authority this proposes a further notification system between member states of the European Community. Under this there would be notification, not only of accidents with possible transboundary effects, but of any accident for which emergency measures are taken to protect the public. However, the United Kingdom would prefer the trigger of these procedures to be abnormally high radiation levels rather than the introduction of emergency measures. (U.K.)

  17. Research and development action of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Bresesti, M.

    1983-01-01

    The CEC R and D action, started in 1973, is carried out within the framework of cost-sharing contracts with Community organizations and in the laboratories of the Joint Research Centre, Ispra. About 350 research workers from 30 organizations within the Community are taking part. The R and D activities cover processing, conditioning, characterization, intermediate storage and final disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in reactors and in fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants. In the Community, spent fuels are not considered as radioactive waste. About one half of the total effort has been devoted to the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in geological formations (granite, clay, salt) and to related studies. The sub-seabed disposal option is also being investigated with a more limited effort. The R and D activities on waste treatment cover low-level, alpha-bearing and gaseous wastes. An important activity has been developed on the characterization of vitrified HLW. A similar activity for the characterization of other types of conditioned wastes has been started. The R and D activity of the CEC is supported by the existence of a Community Plan of Action (1980-1992) which entrusts to the Commission a wider role in the development of waste management policies. The Plan assures in particular the continuity of the R and D work up to 1992. International co-operation is considered important; international symposia have been co-sponsored with the IAEA; co-operative agreements with non-Community countries are in force (such as with Canada) or in preparation (such as with the USA). (author)

  18. Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2017-03-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v.4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from "nearby" FLUXNET sites at 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon-nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.

  19. Prevalence of frailty in middle-aged and older community-dwelling Europeans living in 10 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte; Cuénoud, Patrick; Spagnoli, Jacques; Junod, Julien

    2009-06-01

    Frailty is an indicator of health status in old age. Its frequency has been described mainly for North America; comparable data from other countries are lacking. Here we report on the prevalence of frailty in 10 European countries included in a population-based survey. Cross-sectional analysis of 18,227 randomly selected community-dwelling individuals 50 years of age and older, enrolled in the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) in 2004. Complete data for assessing a frailty phenotype (exhaustion, shrinking, weakness, slowness, and low physical activity) were available for 16,584 participants. Prevalences of frailty and prefrailty were estimated for individuals 50-64 years and 65 years of age and older from each country. The latter group was analyzed further after excluding disabled individuals. We estimated country effects in this subset using multivariate logistic regression models, controlling first for age, gender, and then demographics and education. The proportion of frailty (three to five criteria) or prefrailty (one to two criteria) was higher in southern than in northern Europe. International differences in the prevalences of frailty and prefrailty for 65 years and older group persisted after excluding the disabled. Demographic characteristics did not account for international differences; however, education was associated with frailty. Controlling for education, age and gender diminished the effects of residing in Italy and Spain. A higher prevalence of frailty in southern countries is consistent with previous findings of a north-south gradient for other health indicators in SHARE. Our data suggest that socioeconomic factors like education contribute to these differences in frailty and prefrailty.

  20. Qualification, training, licensing/authorization and retraining of operating personnel in nuclear power plants. Some requirements and practices commonly shared in the European Community Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pele, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    At the end of the fifties a treaty was signed instituting between six countries of the European Community for Atomic Energy, or in brief, Euratom. This treaty, in addition to the Common Market Treaty and the Coal and Steel one, constitutes the legal frame of the European Community which, at present, comprises 12 Member States. A commission, the so-called Commission of the European Communities (or in brief CEC) has to implement the provisions laid down in the treaties. Qualification, training, licensing and re-training of operating personnel have been the subjects of an in-depth exchange of views and information in the frame of the work conducted by the Commission. The evaluation of the regulations and practices in countries of the EC and some other countries having a large nuclear energy program, has led to the identification of some generally valid concepts. This synthesis, made with the assistance of a consultant, is now published under the form of an EUR report (EUR 10981). The main topics addressed within this report are the following: shift staffing and staffing of the control room, personnel selection, qualifications necessary for recruitment, training and retraining, and licensing/authorization

  1. Leadership and Community Participation: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alison A.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature on systemic change and community participation. Explores leadership styles of principals in four community-minded middle schools. Administrators should be aware of their individual leadership styles and their effects on others' behavior. Principals wishing to foster empowerment in schools should move toward a…

  2. Assessment of heterogeneity between European Populations: a Baltic and Danish replication case-control study of SNPs from a recent European ulcerative colitis genome wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita

    2011-01-01

    the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively). No SNP reached genome-wide significance in the combined analyses of all the panels. Conclusions......Background: Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome...... wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods...

  3. Mutual emergency assistance in the event of accident during transport of radioactive materials within the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The study consist of a compilation of information on the relevant emergency response plans that are at present in existence in the ten countries of the European Community. Consideration is given to the development of proposals for facilitating co-operation between the emergency services in different countries, particularly with regard to accidents that might occur near national boundaries or in countries in which all the necessary resources might not be available. The particular items of interest covered in this study are: compilation of information on existing organizational emergency response arrangements within each Member State relating to accidents in the transport of radioactive materials by all modes, including road, rail, inland waterways, air and compilation of information on existing arrangements for receiving or providing assistance from or to other Member States. Identification of any avoidable incompatibilities on an international scale. Recommendations for improving the existing arrangements and for encouraging the development of adequate systems of mutual emergency notification, liaison and assistance as required by the circumstances, recommendations should be compatible with the broader framework of emergency response for all types of accidents developed within Member States and envisaged in the IAEA system for mutual emergency assistance

  4. European aid control policy and environmental protection - an evaluation of the new Community guidelines; Die europaeische Beihilfenaufsicht im Umweltschutz - Darstellung und Kritik des neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewringmann, D.; Thoene, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut; Fischer, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    On 3 February 2001 the European Commission adopted the new Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection. These guidelines outline the methods and criteria used by the Commission when controlling environmental state aid according to Art. 87 and 88 of the EC-Treaty. The study analyses the development of the new guidelines and their potential effects on environmental protection and environmental policy in the Member States of the European Union. In essence, the guidelines display three harmful tendencies: - they hamper progressive and innovative environmental policy that improves on 'least common denominator'-Community standards; - they do not respect the limits of the Commissions's authority, and interfere with the Member States' exclusive authority to decide on strategies and instruments of their respective environmental policies, and they especially affect Member States' choices between different energy sources and the general structure of its energy supply; - finally, they do not improve the protection of air competition on the common market. Based on these findings, the report delineates perspectives for an aid control policy that protects fair competition, and that gives incentives for voluntary national and regional environmental protection, allows for the equal treatment of clean techniques, and provides a consistent framework for exemptions from ecological taxes and environmental levies at the same time. (orig.) [German] Die Europaeische Kommission hat mit Wirkung vom 3. Februar 2001 einen neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmen fuer staatliche Umweltschutzbeihilfen erlassen. Dieser skizziert die Verfahren und Kriterien, welche die Kommission in ihrer Ueberpruefung staatlicher Umweltschutzbeihilfen auf Vereinbarkeit mit dem gemeinsamen Markt nach Art. 87 u. 88 EGV nutzen will. Die vorliegende Untersuchung schildert die Entstehung des Beihilferahmens und analysiert dessen potenzielle Wirkungen auf den Umweltschutz und die

  5. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  6. Security of energy supply under the laws of the European Union / European Community; Energieversorgungssicherheit im Recht der Europaeischen Union, Europaeischen Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Security of supply is defined as the availability and reliability of energy supply at acceptable prices. By security of energy supply we mean a globally large supply of reliable, affordable, clean energy. By virtue of its nature security of supply in the energy sector primarily requires making provisions for the future through exploration, innovation, research, diversification and investments in technology. Energy politics takes place in a tension field defined by the goals of economic efficiency, sustainability and security of supply. In the past there have been repeated shifts within this triad of goals. The task for a rational energy policy is to reconciliate these goals in a meaningful way. European energy policy is understood to comprise all sovereign measures taken by the European Union in the energy sector, in particular measures that impact on the supply and demand for energy resources. Energy law serves, or should serve, to bring energy policy to realisation and therefore presupposes the existence of the latter. Energy policy means the figuration of an economy's energy sector in such a manner that the present and future demand of the economic region is covered.

  7. Rehabilitation robotics in robotics for healthcare ; a roadmap study for the European Commission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, G.J.; Wilt, M.de; Cremers, G.; Rensma, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    To gain understanding in the current status of Robotics in healthcare the European Commission issued a roadmap study into this domain. This paper reports on the main characteristics and results of this study. The study covered the wide domain of Healthcare and in this paper the domains relevant for

  8. The impact of ERP on supply chain management: exploratory findings from a European Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.; Bogerd, P.; Yücesan, E.; Wassenhove, van L.N.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents results from a Delphi study on the future impact of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems on supply chain management (SCM). The Delphi study was conducted with 23 Dutch supply chain executives of European multi-nationals. Findings from this exploratory study were

  9. International competitiveness and leakage: A case study of the European steel industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, O.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops and applies an analytical framework for examining the determinants of carbon leakage and competitiveness. The study has a long-term perspective and focuses on the European steel industry. For the case study, a CGE model is used to develop feasible scenarios of the evolution of

  10. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. European relevance of case study results. Reflections on transferability to voluntary agreement schemes at the European level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, Peter

    2000-04-01

    As a policy instrument, voluntary agreements often fascinate policy-makers.This is fuelled by a number of assumed advantages, such as the opportunity for co-operation rather than confrontation, speed and flexibility and the cost-effectiveness. Some advantages might even be accentuated at the European level: Co-operation has added advantage at the European level where the culture of consensus decision is strong. Flexibility is extra attractive for policy makers dealing with an economy less homogeneous than the average national economy. Speed is certainly welcomed by policy-makers otherwise faced with the slow-winding European legislative process. Cost-effectiveness is eagerly sought by European policy makers facing tight administrative budgets and staff limits. This report examines lessons from the VAIE case studies that may be useful to policy makers engaged in the development of voluntary approaches at the European level. These case studies are about voluntary agreement schemes for industrial energy efficiency deployed in Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, and Sweden. For a summary of these case studies, please refer to the the VAIE final report. More detailed information is available in the VAIE national reports. It needs to be emphasised that the empirical base is very narrow. The 'lessons' presented can only be hypotheses, based on an inductive leap from a very narrow experience. The reader will need to check these hypotheses against her own broader experience and personal judgement. According to the principle of subsidiarity, voluntary agreements should be implemented at the European level only if that would have significant advantage over national action. Action at the European level, rather than the national level, would have these potential advantages: Being more consistent with the development of the single market; Allowing higher demands on energy efficiency without negative effect on competitiveness and employment; Stimulating company

  11. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  12. Succession Planning for Community Colleges: A Study of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply best practices for succession planning to community colleges. Succession planning is relevant to management practices in community colleges because there is a surge in retirements in higher education from the "baby boomer" generation. Community colleges need to implement a succession plan to ensure…

  13. Developing Online Communities for Librarian Researchers: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lili; Kennedy, Marie; Brancolini, Kristine; Stephens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of online communities in connecting and supporting librarian researchers, through the analysis of member activities in the online community for academic librarians that attended the 2014 Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL). The 2014 IRDL cohort members participated in the online community via Twitter…

  14. European Wind Farm Project Costs History and Projections 2008 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-10-15

    At the request of Enova (the 'Client'), Garrad Hassan and Partners Limited ('GH') has provided technical advice on capital cost expectations for wind farm developments. In summary, the work provides a survey of the present and future 5-year prognosis for costs and conditions facing developers and suppliers in the European wind power market. The report will be used as a benchmark to support tendering for future Norwegian projects. As such, it will also provide discussion of how project characteristics can influence project cost. Data Used in the Analysis GH has obtained data on the investment costs for 35 projects developed or in development in Europe. The projects represent to the extent possible the characteristics representative of potential Norwegian projects. The data used in this analysis are from actual projects in: France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Northern Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Wales. The turbine capacities represented in the data are typically 2 MW or above, except in one case where a mix of turbines sizes was used at the project. GH highlights that because of high demand for turbines, the main manufacturers have recently been offering to meet delivery schedules for new orders from late 2010. For new tenders it is likely that delivery time frames offered will now be for 2011 deliveries. As a result of the current 'Seller's Market', production capacity typically relates directly to the number of turbines sold in the year; therefore for 2007 the annual production capacity was approximately 22 GW. GH is aware that turbine suppliers across the market are working to increase their production capacity in order to ease the pressure on the market, however, there are bottlenecks through the supply chain at the sub component level. As a result, increases in production capacity will likely remain at a relatively steady state in the short term. Energy Assessment The energy assessment of a project is the area

  15. Measuring disaster-resilient communities: a case study of coastal communities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Shesh Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning

  16. Methods and representativeness of a European survey in children and adolescents: the KIDSCREEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Rueden Ursula

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to compare three different sampling and questionnaire administration methods used in the international KIDSCREEN study in terms of participation, response rates, and external validity. Methods Children and adolescents aged 8–18 years were surveyed in 13 European countries using either telephone sampling and mail administration, random sampling of school listings followed by classroom or mail administration, or multistage random sampling of communities and households with self-administration of the survey materials at home. Cooperation, completion, and response rates were compared across countries and survey methods. Data on non-respondents was collected in 8 countries. The population fraction (PF, respondents in each sex-age, or educational level category, divided by the population in the same category from Eurostat census data and population fraction ratio (PFR, ratio of PF and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze differences by country between the KIDSCREEN samples and a reference Eurostat population. Results Response rates by country ranged from 18.9% to 91.2%. Response rates were highest in the school-based surveys (69.0%–91.2%. Sample proportions by age and gender were similar to the reference Eurostat population in most countries, although boys and adolescents were slightly underrepresented (PFR Conclusion School-based sampling achieved the highest overall response rates but also produced slightly more biased samples than the other methods. The results suggest that the samples were sufficiently representative to provide reference population values for the KIDSCREEN instrument.

  17. Can we import quality tools? a feasibility study of European practice assessment in a country with less organised general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestiaux Dominique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality is on the agenda of European general practice (GP. European researchers have, in collaboration, developed tools to assess quality of GPs. In this feasibility study, we tested the European Practice Assessment (EPA in a one-off project in Belgium, where general practice has a low level of GP organisation. Methods A framework for feasibility analysis included describing the recruiting of participants, a brief telephone study survey among non-responders, organisational and logistic problems. Using field notes and focus groups, we studied the participants' opinions. Results In this study, only 36 of 1000 invited practices agreed to participate. Co-ordination, administrative work, practice visits and organisational problems required several days per practice. The researchers further encountered technical problems, for instance when entering the data and uploading to the web-based server. In subsequent qualitative analysis using two focus groups, most participant GPs expressed a positive feeling after the EPA procedure. In the short period of follow-up, only a few GPs reported improvements after the visit. The participant GPs suggested that follow-up and coaching would probably facilitate the implementation of changes. Conclusion This feasibility study shows that prior interest in EPA is low in the GP community. We encountered a number of logistic and organisational problems. It proved attractive to participants, but it can be augmented by coaching of participants in more than a one-off project to identify and achieve targets for quality improvement. In the absence of commitment of the government, a network of universities and one scientific organisation will offer EPA as a service to training practices.

  18. Energy supply in the member countries of the European Communities - opportunities and risks for the German EVU and their jobs. Energieversorgung in den Mitgliedsstaaten der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft - Chancen und Risiken fuer die bundesdeutschen EVU und deren Arbeitsplaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, W

    1990-05-01

    The Single European Market will also have an effect on the cable-carried and non-cable-carried energy industry. Fears and hopes accompany its development. Fears that because of the unequal starting-positions of the countries in the end through political efforts competitive advantages could arise for certain countries which could work to the detriment in particular of employees in the Federal Republic's energy industry. Hopes that the Single Market will in the long term contribute to parity of living-standards in the countries of the EC and will make possible increased prosperity through improved and extended trade. The study aims to take stock of the energy situation in the European Community, to weigh up the economic advantages and disadvantages of a single market for energy and to explain the effects of the single market on the situation of the cable-carried energy industry in the Federal Republic and its employees. (orig.).

  19. DOE/CEC [Department of Energy/Commission of the European Communities] workshop on critical evaluation of radiobiological data to biophysical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Radiation Protection Program support the majority of Research in the Field of Radiobiological Modeling. This field of science develops models based on scientifically sound principles to predict biological response (at the cellular, molecular, and animal level) to exposure to low level ionizing radiation. Biophysical models are an important tool for estimating response of ionizing radiation at low doses and dose rates. Generally speaking, the biophysical models can be classified into two groups: (1) mechanistic models and (2) phenomenological models. Mechanistic models are based on some assumptions about the physical, chemical, or biological mechanisms of action in association with radiobiological data whereas the phenomenological models are based solely on available experimental data on radiobiological effects with less emphasis on mechanisms of action. There are a number of these models which are being developed. Since model builders rely on radiobiological data available in the literature either to develop mechanistic or phenomenological models, it is essential that a critical evaluation of existing radiobiological data be made and data that is generally considered good and most appropriate for biophysical modeling be identified. A Workshop jointly sponsored by the DOE and the CEC was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee from June 23--25, 1988, to review the data available from physical and chemical, cellular and molecular and animal studies with ionizing radiation

  20. ANTI-DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT : A case study of a clubhouse community

    OpenAIRE

    Louko, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Louko, Tiina. Anti-discriminatory practice and community development - A case study of a clubhouse community. Järvenpää, Spring 2011, 54 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South Järvenpää. Degree Programme in Social Services. Bachelor´s Degree in Social Services. This study was conducted in the context of Eastern Helsinki Clubhouse, which is a community for mental health rehabilitees. The purpose of the research was to describe the clubhouse community from the aspects o...

  1. Study review : The European Nutrient Database (ENDB) for Nutritional Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrondiere, U.R.; Vignat, J.; Moller, A.; Ireland, J.; Becker, W.; Church, S.; Farran, A.; Holden, J.; Klemm, C.; Linardou, A.; Mueller, D.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and

  2. Exchange of notes constituting an implementing arrangement, concerning international obligation exchanges, to the agreement between the Government of Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) concerning transfers of nuclear material of 21 September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The implementing arrangement which entered into force on 8 September 1993, concerns the safeguard obligations attaching to nuclear material transferred or re transferred pursuant to the Agreement on Nuclear Transfers between Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community

  3. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  4. NOS3 Variants, Physical Activity, and Blood Pressure in the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIn this study, we examined the influence of genetic variation in NOS3 on resting blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Because the NOS3 gene expression is altered by physical activity (PA), we also tested for interaction between...

  5. P03-34 - First European studies on acupuncture and schizophrenia: first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Ronan, P.; Quinton, N.; Harbinson, D.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objectives - This presentation will compare preliminary results from the first two European studies being carried out on acupuncture and schizophrenia, one in the UK and one in Germany. Statistical comment will be made on comparable study outcomes and there will be discussion on the methodological

  6. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana; Bergström, Karin; Beurlet, Stéphanie; Briend-Marchal, Alexandra; Broens, Els M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Costa, Marta; Criel, Delphine; Damborg, Peter; van Dijk, Marloes A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413392058; van Dongen, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/097672637; Dorsch, Roswitha; Espada, Carmen Martin; Gerber, Bernhard; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Loncaric, Igor; Mion, Domenico; Misic, Dusan; Movilla, Rebeca; Overesch, Gudrun; Perreten, Vincent; Roura, Xavier; Steenbergen, Joachim; Timofte, Dorina; Wolf, Georg; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Schmitt, Sarah; Guardabassi, Luca; Pomba, Constança

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern regarding the increase of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in companion animals. Yet, there are no studies comparing the resistance levels of these organisms in European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate geographical and temporal trends of

  7. Do firm characteristics influence mutual fund performance? An empirical study for European mutual funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Wingens, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of fund management firm characteristics on mutual fund performance. Using a sample of European domiciled open-end equity funds for the period 1998-2008, this study finds that the funds of private companies have performed better than the funds of public

  8. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  9. The European Research Elite: A Cross-National Study of Highly Productive Academics in 11 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…

  10. The European Respiratory Society study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) : recruitment methods and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lofdahl, CG; Postma, DS; Laitinen, LA; Ohlsson, SV; Pauwels, RA; Pride, NB

    The European Respiratory Society's study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) is a multicentre study performed initially in 12 countries to assess the effect of 3 years' treatment with inhaled corticosteroids on lung function decline in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary

  11. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    , recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  12. Captopril radionuclide test in renovascular hypertension: a European multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fommei, E.; Ghione, S.; Hilson, A.J.W.; Mezzasalma, L.; Oei, H.Y.; Piepsz, A.; Volterrani, D.

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m DTPA before and after captopril was evaluated in a multicentre study. All 380 hypertensive patients in the study underwent renal arteriography; 125 had renal arterial stenosis ≥70%, and 54 had a technically successful intervention to correct the stenosis. The post-captopril study had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100% for predicting blood pressure response to intervention, if renal function was normal and a combination of quantitative parameters was applied. In the entire population renal artery stenosis ≥70% was detected with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 93% if renal function was normal. In patients with abnormal renal function the performance of the test was worse, owing to a lower specificity which could be increased by using only time parameters. The performance of the test was optimal when the post-captopril findings were examined; no improvement was achieved by evaluation of the changes induced by captopril from the baseline. The test can thus be simplified by performing only a post-captopril study for routine use: a negative test would exclude a curable form of renovascular hypertension in right angle 80% and a positive test would predict it in right angle 90% of the patients selected for suspicion of the disease. Usefulness of the scintigraphic test for monitoring the clinical results of intervention is suggested by correlating post-intervention outcome with pre- and post-intervention scintigraphic results. (orig./MG)

  13. Proceedings of the European Meeting on Positron Studies of Defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The meeting dealt with both theoretical and experimental aspects of positron studies of defects using conventional and novel positron techniques. The subjects are indicated in the following headings: (1) theory of positrons in imperfect solids, (2) vacancies in metals and alloys, (3) dislocation and deformation effects, (4) amorphous alloys and fine-grained materials, (5) phase transitions, (6) precipitation phenomena, (7) gas impurity-defect interaction and irradiation effects, (8) defects in elemental semiconductors, (9) defects in compound semiconductors, (10) slow positron studies of defects, (11) defects in oxides and halides, (12) defects in molecular solids, and (13) advances in experimental techniques and data treatment. Althogether 141 contributions (invited plenary lectures, short lectures, and posters) are presented as titles with abstracts. Most of them are in INIS scope and are processed individually for the database

  14. The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Wieland

    2014-12-02

    The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  16. A comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on particulate matter exposure and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, E.; Gallus, S. [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Milan (Italy); Boffetta, P. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); McLaughlin, J.K. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); La Vecchia, C. [Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry, University of Milan (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    There are a limited number of papers on the long term effect of air pollution on morbidity and mortality in Europe, particularly with reference to small particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). Most information comes from US cohort studies, including the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II, the Harvard Six Cities Study, the Adventists' Health Study of Smog, and the Veterans' Cohort Mortality Study. Ambient levels of several relevant pollutants are more variable within Europe than in the USA, and are in several areas comparably high. Selected European cohort studies, including the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer and the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition study found some association between indicators of air pollution such as PM10 or NO2 and lung cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent and inadequate to address the health effects of exposure to PM2.5. In addition to the effect on mortality, there are open issues on the potential impact of air pollution on childhood asthma, allergy and airway disease. In consideration of the difficulties in estimating the prevalence of the conditions in various populations, these issues require additional focus. In order to provide an indication on possible further analyses of existing European datasets, and on future new studies, a critical review of existing literature (with a focus on European data) was performed. The project resulted in a detailed report (see Appendix 1) and in a paper published in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention.

  17. Enantiomeric profiling of chiral illicit drugs in a pan-European study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrignanò, Erika; Yang, Zhugen; Bade, Richard

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context....... High loads of racemic methamphetamine were detected in Oslo (EF = 0.49 ± 0.02). This is in contrast to other European cities where S-(+)-methamphetamine was the predominant enantiomer. This indicates different methods of methamphetamine synthesis and/or trafficking routes in Oslo, compared...... with the other cities tested. An enrichment of MDMA with the R-(−)-enantiomer was observed in European wastewaters indicating MDMA consumption rather than disposal of unused drug. MDA's chiral signature indicated its enrichment with the S-(+)-enantiomer, which confirms its origin from MDMA metabolism in humans...

  18. Utilization of European Funds in the Public Administration. Study case - Galati County Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Panaitescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to reveal some aspects regarding European funds‟ utilization, starting with the comprehension of EU philosophy regarding cohesion policy and emphasizing the important role played by Structural and Cohesion Funds for public administration, especially in times of economic downturn when the financial resources are difficult to access. Prior Work: this work continues prior research carried out for the “European Programs and Projects Management” MA thesis. Approach: The main methods employed for capturing the research evidence consists in management strategies analysis in the public administration, especially in studying the capacity of absorption of European funds in the case Galati County Council. The main results of this paper show that the risks of absorption capacity decrease of EU funds are linked to a number of factors, such as financial problems, poor information, lack of managerial experience, etc.

  19. A Study of Community Guides: Lessons for Professionals Practicing with and in Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Manuel, Susan; Mealey, Stephanie; Thomas, Golda; Campbell, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    A study of 35 nonprofessional helpers, identified as community "guides," focused on the contribution each made to helping marginalized individuals and families become a part of their communities. The lessons learned through these lay helpers can inform a postmodern social work practice that promotes the use of indigenous practice principles…

  20. The perspective of European researchers of national occupational safety and health institutes for contributing to a European research agenda: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Diana; Rondinone, Bruna M; Mirabile, Marco; Buresti, Giuliana; Ellwood, Peter; Hery, Michel; Paszkiewicz, Peter; Valenti, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2017-06-23

    This study, developed within the frame of the Partnership for European Research on Occupational Safety and Health joint research activities and based on the frame designed by the 2013 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) study, is the first example of using the points of view of European occupational safety and health (OSH) researchers.The objective is to identify priorities for OSH research that may contribute to the achievement of present and future sustainable growth objectives set by the European strategies. The study was carried out using a modified Delphi method with a two-round survey. Each round involved a panel of about 110 researchers representing the network member institutes was selected according to specific criteria, including the ownership of research expertise in at least one of the four macroareas identified by the reference report developed by EU-OSHA in 2013. The study identified some innovative research topics (for example, 'Emerging technological devices' and 'OSH consequences of markets integration') and research priorities (ie, crowdsourcing, e-work, zero-hours contract s ) that are not reflected in previous studies of this nature.The absence of any reference to violence and harassment at work among the researchers' proposals is a major difference from previous similar studies, while topics related to gender issues and electromagnetic fields show a lower importance. The innovative design of a research priorities identification process, which takes advantage of a large, representative and qualified panel of European researchers allowed the definition of a number of research priorities able to support the inclusion of innovative OSH research issues in the scope of the next European research agenda. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The perspective of European researchers of national occupational safety and health institutes for contributing to a European research agenda: a modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Diana; Rondinone, Bruna M; Mirabile, Marco; Buresti, Giuliana; Ellwood, Peter; Hery, Michel; Paszkiewicz, Peter; Valenti, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study, developed within the frame of the Partnership for European Research on Occupational Safety and Health joint research activities and based on the frame designed by the 2013 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) study, is the first example of using the points of view of European occupational safety and health (OSH) researchers. The objective is to identify priorities for OSH research that may contribute to the achievement of present and future sustainable growth objectives set by the European strategies. Methods The study was carried out using a modified Delphi method with a two-round survey. Each round involved a panel of about 110 researchers representing the network member institutes was selected according to specific criteria, including the ownership of research expertise in at least one of the four macroareas identified by the reference report developed by EU-OSHA in 2013. Results The study identified some innovative research topics (for example, ‘Emerging technological devices’ and ‘OSH consequences of markets integration’) and research priorities (ie, crowdsourcing, e-work, zero-hours contracts) that are not reflected in previous studies of this nature. The absence of any reference to violence and harassment at work among the researchers’ proposals is a major difference from previous similar studies, while topics related to gender issues and electromagnetic fields show a lower importance. Conclusions The innovative design of a research priorities identification process, which takes advantage of a large, representative and qualified panel of European researchers allowed the definition of a number of research priorities able to support the inclusion of innovative OSH research issues in the scope of the next European research agenda. PMID:28645965

  2. A Study of Work Engagement among Community College Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gemmy S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how community college instructors perceive their level of work engagement. Businesses have studied work engagement, but the empirical literature on work engagement of community college instructors has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent the type of faculty member (full-time instructor versus…

  3. Participation of CIEMAT in studies of radioecology in european marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Meral, J.; Anton, M.P.; Gonzalez, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the different objectives and results achieved through the participation of the Aquatic Radioecology Laboratory for CIEMAT in some European Projects from 1994 up to now are detailed. A Description of the studied ecosystems, the sampling campaigns performed, and the analytical methods developed are presented as well. Finally the main results and conclusions obtained are summarized. (Author)

  4. Interviews on end-of-life care with older people: reflections on six european studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pleschberger, S.; Seymour, J.E.; Payne, S.; Deschepper, R.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Rurup, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research provides important insights into the experiences and perspectives of older people on end-of-life issues, but such research is methodologically and ethically complex. We offer a set of reflections from six end-of-life care studies conducted with older people in four European

  5. EARLY PROGNOSTIC FACTORS FOR DISABILITY IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS, A EUROPEAN MULTICENTER STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIISE, T; GRONNING, M; FERNANDEZ, O; LAUER, K; MIDGARD, R; MINDERHOUD, JM; NYLAND, H; PALFFY, G; POSER, S; AARLI, JA

    The effects of initial clinical variables on short-term prognosis are analyzed in a cross-sectional study of 574 multiple sclerosis patients from 7 centers in 5 European countries. Patients with a primary progressive course had a 2.3 higher mean disability score (EDSS) than the primary remittent

  6. Enantiomeric profiling of chiral illicit drugs in a pan-European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrignanò, E.; Yang, Z.; Bade, R.; Baz-Lomba, J.A.; Castiglioni, S.; Causanilles, A.; Covaci, A.; Gracia-Lor, E.; Hernández, F.; Kinyua, J.; McCall, A.-K.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Ort, C.; Plósz, B.G.; Ramin, P.; Rousis, N.I.; Ryu, Y.; Thomas, K.V.; de Voogt, P.; Zuccato, E.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their

  7. Student mobility and European identity: Erasmus study as a civic experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Mitchell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From its inception, the Erasmus student exchange programme has been promoted by the European Commission as a “civic experience” that instils or enhances a European consciousness among participants. Recent scholarship on European identity has made similar claims about the civic significance of foreign study, yet the empirical basis for these claims remains a subject of debate. This article unpacks the logic of the civic view of Erasmus and submits the individual assumptions to empirical investigation. Based on a survey of more than 2000 respondents from 25 EU countries, this study has the advantage of being both larger and more multinational in composition than the major previous studies. The data largely support the logic of the civic view of Erasmus, demonstrating the intercultural nature of the sojourn abroad, providing compelling evidence that the Erasmus experience contributes to attitudinal changes about Europe among participants, and highlighting significant differences between the Erasmus students and those who do not study abroad when it comes to levels of support for the EU and extent of identifying as European.

  8. Improving the explanatory power of bargaining models - New evidence from European Union studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selck, TJ

    Focusing on recent studies of European Union legislative decision-making, this research note evaluates the current literature that attempts to improve the explanatory power of bargaining models by integrating game-theoretic spatial models with micro-level data gained from expert interviews or from

  9. Endotoxin levels in settled airborne dust in European schools : The HITEA school study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J. H.; Krop, E. J M; Borras-Santos, A.; Zock, J. P.; Taubel, M.; Hyvarinnen, A.; Pekkanen, J.; Doekes, G.; Heederik, D. J J

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with

  10. Excellent survival after liver transplantation for isolated polycystic liver disease : an European Liver Transplant Registry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keimpema, Loes; Nevens, Frederik; Adam, Rene; Porte, Robert J.; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Becker, Thomas; Kirkegaard, Preben; Metselaar, Herold J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR)

  11. Final study summary and policy recommendations: participatory citizenship in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Bryony; Kerr, David

    2012-01-01

    The findings from the Participatory Citizenship in the European Union study suggest a number of key recommendations concerning policies, practices and effective approaches towards overcoming barriers to Participatory Citizenship in Europe. These keyrecommendations are summarised below and are explained in more detail in this report

  12. Multicenter European Prevalence Study of Neurocognitive Impairment and Associated Factors in HIV Positive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddow, Lewis J; Laverick, Rosanna; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in 448 HIV positive patients attending five European outpatient clinics to determine prevalence of and factors associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) using computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests. NCI was defined as a normalized Z scor...

  13. Mother's education and offspring asthma risk in 10 European cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, Kate Marie; Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Lioret, Sandrine; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iniguez, Carmen; Larranaga, Isabel; Harskamp-van Ginkel, Margreet W.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Klanova, Jana; Svancara, Jan; Barross, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjo, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Highly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3-8 across 10 European

  14. Association of STAT4 with rheumatoid arthritis: a replication study in three European populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orozco, G.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Delgado-Vega, A.M.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Balsa, A.; Pascual-Salcedo, D.; Fernandez-Gutierrez, B.; Gonzalez-Escribano, M.F.; Petersson, I.F.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Barrera, P.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Leeuwen, M.A. van; Wijmenga, C.; Koeleman, B.P.; Alarcon-Riquelme, M.E.; Martin, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the previously reported association of the STAT4 polymorphism rs7574865 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 3 different European populations from Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands, comprising a total of 2,072 patients and 2,474 controls. METHODS:

  15. A Case Study in Organizing for Livable and Sustainable Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Marx

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citizens in the U.S. are making organized efforts to demand a new approach to planning urban communities, one that results in more sustainable and livable communities. The profession of social work in the U.S. once had a primary role in organizing urban residents to advocate for healthier environments in their neighborhoods. Yet, recent research documents the diminishing emphasis on community organization as an intervention method in social work. This paper offers a descriptive case study of a successful community organizing effort to promote a more livable city in Portland, Maine (USA. Data was collected by the authors using in-depth personal interviews; archival records (census data, architect models; documents (e-mails, newspaper clippings as well as direct observation of the impacted community and development site. Implications for social work practitioners and educators involved in community organization promoting healthy communities are presented.

  16. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  17. Safety effects of road design standards : a study commissioned by the European Commission DG VII of the situation in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyters, H.G.J.C.M. Slop, M. & Wegman, F.C.M. (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study carried out for the European Union. The report uses the safety principle that: (i) proper road design is crucial to prevent human errors in traffic; and (ii) less human errors will result in less accidents. The study contains the following parts: (1)

  18. The prevalence of self-reported underuse of medications due to cost for the elderly: results from seven European urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankuniene, Aurima; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Avery, Mark; Lindert, Jutta; Mikalauskiene, Rita; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Savickas, Arūnas; Radziunas, Raimondas; Soares, Joaquim J F

    2015-09-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported underuse of medications due to procurement costs amongst older persons from seven European urban communities. The data were collected in a cross-sectional study ("ABUEL, Elder abuse: A multinational prevalence survey") in 2009. Randomly selected people aged 60-84 years (n = 4,467) from seven urban communities: Stuttgart (Germany), Athens (Greece), Ancona (Italy), Kaunas (Lithuania), Porto (Portugal), Granada (Spain) and Stockholm (Sweden) were interviewed. Response rate - 45.2%. Ethical permission was received in each country. The results indicate that 3.6% (n = 162) of the respondents self-reported refraining from buying prescribed medications due to cost. The highest prevalence of this problem was identified in Lithuania (15.7%, n = 99) and Portugal (4.3%, n = 28). Other countries reported lower percentages of refraining from buying medications (Germany - 2.0%, Italy - 1.6%, Sweden - 1.0%, Greece - 0.6%, Spain - 0.3%). Females refrained more often from buying medications than males (2.6% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of this refraining tended to increase with economic hardship. These differences between countries can be only partly described by the financing of health-care systems. In spite of the presence of cost reimbursement mechanisms, patients need to make co-payments (or in some cases to pay the full price) for prescribed medications. This indicates that the purchasing power of people in 10.1186/s12913-015-1089-4 the particular country can play a major role and be related with the economic situation in the country. Lithuania, which has reported the highest refrain rates, had the lowest gross domestic product (at the time of conducting this study) of all participating countries in the study. Refraining from buying the prescribed medications due to cost is a problem for women and men in respect to ageing people in Europe. Prevalence varies by country, sex, and

  19. The EMBARC European Bronchiectasis Registry: protocol for an international observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Chalmers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis is one of the most neglected diseases in respiratory medicine. There are no approved therapies and few large-scale, representative epidemiological studies. The EMBARC (European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration registry is a prospective, pan-European observational study of patients with bronchiectasis. The inclusion criterion is a primary clinical diagnosis of bronchiectasis consisting of: 1 a clinical history consistent with bronchiectasis; and 2 computed tomography demonstrating bronchiectasis. Core exclusion criteria are: 1 bronchiectasis due to known cystic fibrosis; 2 age <18 years; and 3 patients who are unable or unwilling to provide informed consent. The study aims to enrol 1000 patients by April 2016 across at least 20 European countries, and 10 000 patients by March 2020. Patients will undergo a comprehensive baseline assessment and will be followed up annually for up to 5 years with the goal of providing high-quality longitudinal data on outcomes, treatment patterns and quality of life. Data from the registry will be available in the form of annual reports. and will be disseminated in conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. The European Bronchiectasis Registry aims to make a major contribution to understanding the natural history of the disease, as well as guiding evidence-based decision making and facilitating large randomised controlled trials.

  20. Changes in prevalence of obesity and high waist circumference over four years across European regions: the European male ageing study (EMAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities. This prospective observational cohort survey was performed between 2003 and 2005 at baseline and followed up between 2008 and 2010 of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years. Main outcome measures in the present paper included waist circumference, body mass index and mid-upper arm muscle area. Baseline prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , respectively, were 39.0, 29.5 % in North-East European cities, 32.4, 21.9 % in Mediterranean cities, and 30.0, 20.1 % in North-West European cities. After median 4.3 years, men living in cities from transitional countries had mean gains in waist circumference (1.1 cm) and body mass index (0.2 kg/m 2 ), which were greater than men in cities from non-transitional countries (P = 0.005). North-East European cities had greater gains in waist circumference (1.5 cm) than in Mediterranean cities (P developing waist circumference ≥ 102 cm, compared with men from Mediterranean cities, were 2.3 (1.5-3.5) in North-East European cities and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) in North-West European cities, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) in men living in cities from transitional, compared with cities from non-transitional countries. These regional differences in increased prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm were more pronounced in men aged 60-79 years than in those aged 40-59 years. Overall there was an increase in the prevalence of obesity (body

  1. Smoking reduces fecundity: a European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity. The European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolumar, F; Olsen, J; Boldsen, J

    1996-03-15

    Several studies published within the past 10 years indicate that smoking reduces fecundity, but not all studies have found this effect, and smoking cessation is not used routinely in infertility treatment in Europe. The present study was designed to examine male and female smoking at the start of a couple's waiting time to a planned pregnancy. Two types of samples were used: population-based samples of women aged 25-44 years who were randomly selected in different countries from census registers and electoral rolls, in which the unit of analysis was the couple; and pregnancy-based samples of pregnant women (at least 20 weeks' pregnant) who were consecutively recruited during prenatal care visits, in which the unit of analysis was a pregnancy. More than 4,000 couples were included in each sample, and 10 different regions in Europe took part in data collection. The data were collected between August 1991 and February 1993 by personal interview in all population-based samples and in all but three regions of the pregnancy sample, where self-administered questionnaires were used. The results based on the population sample showed a remarkably coherent association between female smoking and subfecundity in each individual country and in all countries together, both with the first pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.1, at the upper level of exposure) and during the most recent waiting time to pregnancy (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1). Results based on the pregnancy sample were similar (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3). No significant association was found with male smoking (in the population sample, OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1 (first pregnancy) and OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.3 (most recent waiting time); in the pregnancy sample, OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1). The fecundity distribution among smokers appeared to be shifted toward longer waiting times without a change in the shape of the distribution. Women who have difficulty conceiving should try to stop smoking

  2. Inequality dynamics in the workplace among microbiologists and infectious disease specialists: a qualitative study in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttner, A; Cacace, M; d'Andrea, L; Skevaki, C; Otelea, D; Pugliese, F; Tacconelli, E

    2017-05-01

    To explore the social, cultural, psychological and organizational factors associated with inequality in the workplace among clinical microbiologists (CM) and infectious disease (ID) specialists in European hospitals. We analysed data from 52 interviews and five focus groups involving 82 CM/ID specialists selected from university, research or community hospitals in five countries, one each in Northern, Western, Eastern, Southeastern and Southwestern Europe. The 80 hours of recordings were transcribed, and the anonymous database coding process was cross-checked iteratively by six researchers. Inequality affects all the institutions in all the countries we looked at, denying or reducing access to professional assets with intensity and form that vary largely according to the cultural and organizational context. Discrimination is generally not explicit and uses disrespectful microbehaviours that are hard to respond to when they occur. Inequality affected also loans, distribution of research funds and gender and country representation in boards and conference faculty. Parenthood has a major impact on women's careers, as women are still mainly responsible for family care. Responses to discrimination range from reactive to surrender strategies. Our study offers an effective model for diagnosing discriminatory behaviours in a medical professional setting. Knowledge of inequality's drivers could help national ID/CM societies in collaboration with major European stakeholders to further reduce such discrimination. The effect of discrimination on the quality of healthcare in Europe needs further exploration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Legal instruments and proposals for acts of the European Communities relating to the protection of the environment. As of May 12, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1993-01-01

    The compilation comprises all legal instruments and proposals for legal instruments of the European Communities in the field of environmental protection which were incorporated in the EDP-aided compilation of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection, specialized field 'Juristic Environmental Issues'. It replaces the preceding compilations. The volume is subdivided into the sections: General information, regional development law, nature preservation law, law on water pollution control, refuse law, imission control law, atomic energy law, energy and mining law, law on dangerous materials and law on environmental health. (orig.) [de

  4. Status report on research programmes of the Commission of European Communities related to risk evaluation of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.

    1977-01-01

    The programmes of the Commission of European Communities related to risk evaluation of geological disposal of radioactive waste are presented. The Joint Research Centre carries out theoretical modelling activities and a few selected experimental activities which are related to model development and verification. A set of contractual research activities, coordinated by the General Directorate of Research, Scientific Affairs and Education and set up primarily to encourage development of optimised waste management strategies will provide the many additional experimental data which are necessary for a realistic evaluation of long term hazard to man and the environment

  5. Prediction for the high-level alpha-active waste to be generated by nuclear power stations in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.

    1977-04-01

    Starting with a forecast for the nuclear power generating capacity to be installed in the Member States of the European Communities before the end of this century, a prediction is made of the annual production of high-level alpha-active waste from reprocessing plants and the corresponding accumulation up to the year 2000. The isotopic composition of the alpha-active waste from individual reactor types was calculated and an estimation of the influence of recycling plutonium through light water reactors on the produced quantity of higher actinides is made

  6. Research and development on radioactive waste management and storage: Third annual progress report (1982) of the European Community programme 1980-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the European Community's program for nuclear waste management and storage. Topics considered include the characterization of conditioned low and medium activity waste forms, conditioning of high activity solid waste, treatment and conditioning processes for low and medium activity liquid waste, processing of alpha-contaminated waste, testing and evaluation of solidified high activity waste forms, immobilization and storage of gaseous waste, shallow land burial of solid low activity waste, storage and disposal in geological formations, and the performance and safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposed in geological formations

  7. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagsma, J. A.; Geenen, P. L.; Ethelberg, S.

    2013-01-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the hea......By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data...

  8. Indirect effects in community ecology: Their definition, study and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y

    1991-07-01

    The diversity of indirect interactions that can occur within communities is large. Recent research on indirect interactions is scattered in the literature under numerous labels. The definition of indirect effects is an important aspect of their study, and clarifies some of the subtle differences among indirect effects found in natural communities. Choosing which species to study, how to manipulate species and for what duration, which attributes to measure and, finally, which analytical techniques to use are all problems facing the community ecologist. Ultimately, we are striving for the best means of determining the relative importance of direct and indirect effects in structuring communities. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Preliminary socioeconomic and community planning studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Goldie W; Rivkin, Malcolm D [Rivkin Associates, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The timing of resettlement on Bikini Atoll and the nature of a master plan to guide construction of a new community depend on four critical determinants which are not yet definitively known. The Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee (BARC) and its consultants have been addressing three of these: a. How long it will take to restore Bikini Island, which will be the main settlement area, to a habitable state. The methods under investigation by BARC for decontaminating the island might be considered as alternatives or, possibly in combination. They vary considerably, not only with respect to cost, but also with respect to important factors such as: - how long it will take to decontaminate the island (i.e. to reduce radiation to levels acceptable within Federal standards), - the necessity of removing existing vegetation and the time and effort needed to restore environment and vegetation to a state sufficient to support a new community at a reasonable standard of amenity, - requirements for repeated or continual application of decontamination procedures (and associated risks), and - implications for potential constraints on the lifestyle of the people who resettle on Bikini Island. b. Adequacy of water resources (groundwater and rainwater catchment potential) on Bikini and Eneu Islands to support both revegetation as necessary, and a new community. c. The likely state of the Bikini people (size of the population, location(s), living conditions, financial commitments, etc.) at the time their atoll is ready for resettlement. d. The judgment and wishes of the Bikini people regarding a community plan in light of all the foregoing factors, once they become known.

  10. Preliminary socioeconomic and community planning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivkin, Goldie W.; Rivkin, Malcolm D.

    1986-01-01

    The timing of resettlement on Bikini Atoll and the nature of a master plan to guide construction of a new community depend on four critical determinants which are not yet definitively known. The Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee (BARC) and its consultants have been addressing three of these: a. How long it will take to restore Bikini Island, which will be the main settlement area, to a habitable state. The methods under investigation by BARC for decontaminating the island might be considered as alternatives or, possibly in combination. They vary considerably, not only with respect to cost, but also with respect to important factors such as: - how long it will take to decontaminate the island (i.e. to reduce radiation to levels acceptable within Federal standards), - the necessity of removing existing vegetation and the time and effort needed to restore environment and vegetation to a state sufficient to support a new community at a reasonable standard of amenity, - requirements for repeated or continual application of decontamination procedures (and associated risks), and - implications for potential constraints on the lifestyle of the people who resettle on Bikini Island. b. Adequacy of water resources (groundwater and rainwater catchment potential) on Bikini and Eneu Islands to support both revegetation as necessary, and a new community. c. The likely state of the Bikini people (size of the population, location(s), living conditions, financial commitments, etc.) at the time their atoll is ready for resettlement. d. The judgment and wishes of the Bikini people regarding a community plan in light of all the foregoing factors, once they become known

  11. European wine policy and perceptions of Moravian winemakers: a pilot study in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koráb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European wine policy is a significant factor influencing winemakers in the European Union. This paper examines perception of this policy by winemakers and other persons working in Czech wine sector on the sample of respondents. Methodological triangulation consisting of non-structured interview and semantic differential was chosen. Field research was carried out, therefore the study uses primary data. Application of the methodology along with the method of evaluation of data creates an original approach which may be applied on several other research questions. General perception of European Wine Policy is complemented with its impact on competitiveness, practical running of vineyards and winery and on future development of winery. Data is statistically evaluated within categories of respondents. Special emphasis is placed on direct payments as a controversial factor of the policy. The policy is perceived as bureaucratic (“all respondents” x = 4.56, and among micro winemakers discriminating (x = 4.5, selfish (x = 4.5 and malfunctioning (x = 3.5. “Professional” winemakers perceive the impact on competitiveness in the Czech market as rather positive (x = 2.67. This study represents pilot research on perception of European Wine Policy by owners of wineries, viticulturists, micro winemakers, a sommelier and a representative of marketing-supporting institution, conducted in the Czech Republic. The author also outlines further direction of research, as the topic is not paid enough scientific attention.

  12. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Karen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%, Spanish (59.6% and British (61.4% samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%. In those drinking 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08% was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife.

  13. The World of Wonder Accelerated Learning Community: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Julie K.

    This report presents a case study of the World of Wonders Accelerated Learning Community School (WOW). A community school in Ohio is a new kind of public school-an independent public school that is nonsectarian and nondiscriminatory. The report presents three contexts for the study--historical, local and methodological--and highlights some of the…

  14. European Medicines Agency Perspective on Oncology Study Design for Marketing Authorization and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Martinalbo, J; Pignatti, F

    2017-05-01

    In the development of highly active anticancer drugs, the European situation may be viewed as paradoxical. Limited data may support marketing authorization, but may be insufficient for the health economic appraisal needed for reimbursement and market uptake. To achieve this, conventional confirmatory studies may be needed. For products of special interest, studies aimed at optimizing cost-effectiveness may be warranted. Efficient designs of studies to meet these objectives constitute challenges to all stakeholders. © 2017 ASCPT.

  15. Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyrys, J.; Eeftens, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Heinrich, J.; Ampe, C.; Armengaud, A.; Beelen, R.; Bellander, T.; Beregszaszi, T.; Birk, M.; Cesaroni, G.; Cirach, M.; de Hoogh, K.; de Nazelle, A.; de Vocht, F.; Declercq, C.; Dėdelė, A.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Eriksen, K.; Galassi, C.; Grąulevičienė, R.; Grivas, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Gustafsson, A.H.; Hoffmann, B.; Iakovides, M.; Ineichen, A.; Krämer, U.; Lanki, T.; Lozano, P.; Madsen, C.; Meliefste, K.; Modig, L.; Mölter, A.; Mosler, G.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Nonnemacher, M.; Oldenwening, M.; Peters, A.; Pontet, S.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Quass, U.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Ranzi, A.; Sugiri, D.; Stephanou, E.G.; Taimisto, P.; Tsai, M-Y.; Vaskövi, É.; Villani, S.; Wang, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480279; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2012-01-01

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe. In

  16. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari

    2016-01-01

    Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated...

  17. Prevalence and distribution of sensitization to foods in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: a EuroPrevall analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burney, P.; Summers, C.; Chinn, S.; Hooper, R.; van Ree, R.; Lidholm, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reports of adverse reactions to foods are increasing, but there is limited information on the comparative prevalence of sensitization to food allergens using standardized methods. Methods: Sera from the 'random sample' of young adults seen during the second phase of the European

  18. Harmonisation of the acute respiratory infection reporting system in the Czech Republic with the European community networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyncl, J.; Paget, W.J.; Havlickova, M.; Kriz, B.

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory virus activity is detected in Europe each winter, yet the precise timing and size of this activity is highly unpredictable. The impact of influenza infection and/or acute respiratory infection in European countries is continuously monitored through a variety of surveillance systems. All

  19. Prospective association of the SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype with adverse health outcomes: evidence from 60+ community-dwelling Europeans living in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklai, Nejma S; Spagnoli, Jacques; Junod, Julien; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2013-01-03

    Among the many definitions of frailty, the frailty phenotype defined by Fried et al. is one of few constructs that has been repeatedly validated: first in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and subsequently in other large cohorts in the North America. In Europe, the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) is a gold mine of individual, economic and health information that can provide insight into better understanding of frailty across diverse population settings. A recent adaptation of the original five CHS-frailty criteria was proposed to make use of SHARE data and measure frailty in the European population. To test the validity of the SHARE operationalized frailty phenotype, this study aims to evaluate its prospective association with adverse health outcomes. Data are from 11,015 community-dwelling men and women aged 60+ participating in wave 1 and 2 of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe, a population-based survey. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the 2-year follow up effect of SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype on the incidence of disability (disability-free at baseline) and on worsening disability and morbidity, adjusting for age, sex, income and baseline morbidity and disability. At 2-year follow up, frail individuals were at increased risk for: developing mobility (OR 3.07, 95% CI, 1.02-9.36), IADL (OR 5.52, 95% CI, 3.76-8.10) and BADL (OR 5.13, 95% CI, 3.53-7.44) disability; worsening mobility (OR 2.94, 95% CI, 2.19- 3.93) IADL (OR 4.43, 95% CI, 3.19-6.15) and BADL disability (OR 4.53, 95% CI, 3.14-6.54); and worsening morbidity (OR 1.77, 95% CI, 1.35-2.32). These associations were significant even among the prefrail, but with a lower magnitude of effect. The SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype is significantly associated with all tested health outcomes independent of baseline morbidity and disability in community-dwelling men and women aged 60 and older living in Europe. The

  20. Prospective association of the SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype with adverse health outcomes: evidence from 60+ community-dwelling Europeans living in 11 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macklai Nejma S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the many definitions of frailty, the frailty phenotype defined by Fried et al. is one of few constructs that has been repeatedly validated: first in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS and subsequently in other large cohorts in the North America. In Europe, the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE is a gold mine of individual, economic and health information that can provide insight into better understanding of frailty across diverse population settings. A recent adaptation of the original five CHS-frailty criteria was proposed to make use of SHARE data and measure frailty in the European population. To test the validity of the SHARE operationalized frailty phenotype, this study aims to evaluate its prospective association with adverse health outcomes. Methods Data are from 11,015 community-dwelling men and women aged 60+ participating in wave 1 and 2 of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe, a population-based survey. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the 2-year follow up effect of SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype on the incidence of disability (disability-free at baseline and on worsening disability and morbidity, adjusting for age, sex, income and baseline morbidity and disability. Results At 2-year follow up, frail individuals were at increased risk for: developing mobility (OR 3.07, 95% CI, 1.02-9.36, IADL (OR 5.52, 95% CI, 3.76-8.10 and BADL (OR 5.13, 95% CI, 3.53-7.44 disability; worsening mobility (OR 2.94, 95% CI, 2.19- 3.93 IADL (OR 4.43, 95% CI, 3.19-6.15 and BADL disability (OR 4.53, 95% CI, 3.14-6.54; and worsening morbidity (OR 1.77, 95% CI, 1.35-2.32. These associations were significant even among the prefrail, but with a lower magnitude of effect. Conclusions The SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype is significantly associated with all tested health outcomes independent of baseline morbidity and disability in community-dwelling men

  1. FINANCIAL STATEMENT UTILIZATION DURING DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN SMEs: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EUROPEAN AND TURKISH MANAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    İbicioğlu, Hasan; Kocabıyık, Turan; Dalğar, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines financial information requirement for decision making in small and medium sized enterprises. 131 SME managers’ responses were collected from Turkey and 8 different European countries. According to both Turkish and European managers, financial statements are mostly important to foresee the probable liquidity and financial crisis. And they find experience more important than financial statement data. A comparative analysis of Turkish and European SME managers is stated. Smal...

  2. FEASIBILITY STUDY ON SETTING UP AND RUNNING A POULTRY MICRO-FARM RESPECTING THE EUROPEAN STRATEGY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Madalin MUNTEANU; Ioana TEODORESCU

    2013-01-01

    Today European Union provides member countries funds for many types of business and in particular for the development of rural environment. In this sense, this paper draws the main steps of a feasibility study for accessing European funds to develop and run a microfarm respecting sustainable development principles imposed by European Union. The work theme is based on establishment poultry farms in order to achieve and to exploit the production of eggs, of meat consumption and poultry compost ...

  3. Body fat distribution in relation to physical activity and smoking habits in 38-year-old European men. The European Fat Distribution Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Cigolini, M; Deslypere, J P; Charzewska, J; Ellsinger, B M; Cruz, A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors studied 512 European men all born in 1950 from six different towns in the period October 1988 to May 1989. Anthropometric measurements were taken, including weight, height, and circumferences (waist, hip, thigh). Educational level, activity scores and information on smoking habits were

  4. Variation in population levels of physical activity in European adults according to cross-European studies: a systematic literature review within DEDIPAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A.; Hecke, L. van; Verloigne, M.; Hendriksen, I.; Lakerveld, J.; Steene-Johannessen, J.; Vuillemin, A.; Koster, A.; Donnelly, A.; Ekelund, U.; Deforche, B.; Bourdeaudhuij, I. de; Brug, J.; Ploeg, H.P. van der

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a well-known public health risk that should be monitored at the population level. Physical activity levels are often surveyed across Europe. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of all existing cross-European studies that assess physical

  5. Variation in population levels of physical activity in European adults according to cross-European studies: a systematic literature review within DEDIPAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A.; Van Hecke, L.; Verloigne, M.; Hendriksen, I.; Lakerveld, J.; Steene-Johannessen, J.; Vuillemin, A.; Koster, A.; Donnelly, A.; Ekelund, U.; Deforche, B.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Brug, J.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a well-known public health risk that should be monitored at the population level. Physical activity levels are often surveyed across Europe. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of all existing cross-European studies that assess physical

  6. Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffaille, P.; Feunteun, E.; Lefeuvre, J.-C.

    2000-10-01

    At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt marshes) of Mont Saint-Michel Bay. These and other comparable shallow marine coastal waters, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has been paid to the value of tidal salt marshes for fishes. Between March 1996 and April 1999, 120 tides were sampled in a tidal creek. A total of 31 species were caught. This community was largely dominated by mullets ( Liza ramada represent 87% of the total biomass) and sand gobies ( Pomatoschistus minutus and P. lozanoi represent 82% of the total numbers). These species and also Gasterosteus aculeatus , Syngnathus rostellatus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Mugil spp., Liza aurata and Sprattus sprattus were the most frequent species (>50% of monthly frequency of occurrence). In Europe, salt marshes and their creeks are flooded only during high spring tides. So, fishes only invade this environment during short immersion periods, and no species can be considered as marsh resident. But, the salt marsh was colonized by fish every time the tide reached the creek, and during the short time of flood, dominant fishes fed actively and exploited the high productivity. Nevertheless, this study shows that there is little interannual variation in the fish community and there are three ' seasons ' in the fish fauna of the marsh. Marine straggler and marine estuarine dependent species colonize marshes between spring (recruitment period in the bay) and autumn before returning into deeper adjacent waters. Estuarine fishes are present all year round with maximum abundances in the end of summer. The presence of fishes confirms that this kind of wetland plays an important trophic and nursery role for these species. Differences in densities and stages distribution of these species into Mont Saint-Michel systems (tidal mudflats, estuaries and tidal salt marshes) can reduce the trophic

  7. Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.

  8. Standardised surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in European acute care hospitals: a pilot study, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, Sofie M; Kinross, Pete; Gastmeier, Petra; Behnke, Michael; Kola, Axel; Delmée, Michel; Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Mentula, Silja; Barbut, Frédéric; Hajdu, Agnes; Ingebretsen, André; Pituch, Hanna; Macovei, Ioana S; Jovanović, Milica; Wiuff, Camilla; Schmid, Daniela; Olsen, Katharina Ep; Wilcox, Mark H; Suetens, Carl; Kuijper, Ed J

    2016-07-21

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains poorly controlled in many European countries, of which several have not yet implemented national CDI surveillance. In 2013, experts from the European CDI Surveillance Network project and from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control developed a protocol with three options of CDI surveillance for acute care hospitals: a 'minimal' option (aggregated hospital data), a 'light' option (including patient data for CDI cases) and an 'enhanced' option (including microbiological data on the first 10 CDI episodes per hospital). A total of 37 hospitals in 14 European countries tested these options for a three-month period (between 13 May and 1 November 2013). All 37 hospitals successfully completed the minimal surveillance option (for 1,152 patients). Clinical data were submitted for 94% (1,078/1,152) of the patients in the light option; information on CDI origin and outcome was complete for 94% (1,016/1,078) and 98% (294/300) of the patients in the light and enhanced options, respectively. The workload of the options was 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0 person-days per 10,000 hospital discharges, respectively. Enhanced surveillance was tested and was successful in 32 of the hospitals, showing that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 was predominant (30% (79/267)). This study showed that standardised multicountry surveillance, with the option of integrating clinical and molecular data, is a feasible strategy for monitoring CDI in Europe. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  9. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer risk in a European prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairat, Manon; Fournier, Agnès; Murphy, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown a protective effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on breast cancer development. However, results from epidemiological cohort studies are less consistent. Our objective was to assess the association between NSAID use and breast cancer risk within...... effect modification of MHT use on the association between use of NSAIDs and breast cancer risk which deserves in-depth investigation in studies with accurate data on both NSAID and MHT use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....... the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Self-reported information on NSAID use at baseline has been collected in five EPIC countries. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard...

  10. Assessment of heterogeneity between European Populations: a Baltic and Danish replication case-control study of SNPs from a recent European ulcerative colitis genome wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Kupcinskas, Limas; Jacobsen, Bent A; Krarup, Henrik B; Vogel, Ulla; Jonaitis, Laimas; Denapiene, Goda; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre

    2011-10-13

    Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10) or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs.Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively).No SNP reached genome

  11. Assessment of heterogeneity between European Populations: a Baltic and Danish replication case-control study of SNPs from a recent European ulcerative colitis genome wide association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonaitis Laimas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS (Franke et al., 2010, for 1 association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2 for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3 eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. Results The rs5771069 (IL17REL SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02. No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7 and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10 or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7 in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs. Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001, rs12518307 (P = 0.007, and rs2395609 (TCP11 (P = 0

  12. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive data collection on structural characteristics, process quality, implemented curricula and pedagogical approaches in four ECEC centers in each of the seven countries that were considered examples of ‘g...

  13. Epidemiological studies on glyphosate - No new findings for the European risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of epidemiological studies on the health effects of glyphosate is currently being discussed in the media. In this context, BfR evaluated a so-called expert opinion on epidemiological studies prepared by non-government organisations and concludes that no new findings are being reported for the joint European assessment of the active substance glyphosate. The accusations brought forth in the so-called expert opinion of scientific deception by the assessment authorities are c...

  14. Envri Cluster - a Community-Driven Platform of European Environmental Researcher Infrastructures for Providing Common E-Solutions for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, A.; Sorvari, S.; Kutsch, W. L.; Laj, P.

    2017-12-01

    European long-term environmental research infrastructures (often referred as ESFRI RIs) are the core facilities for providing services for scientists in their quest for understanding and predicting the complex Earth system and its functioning that requires long-term efforts to identify environmental changes (trends, thresholds and resilience, interactions and feedbacks). Many of the research infrastructures originally have been developed to respond to the needs of their specific research communities, however, it is clear that strong collaboration among research infrastructures is needed to serve the trans-boundary research requires exploring scientific questions at the intersection of different scientific fields, conducting joint research projects and developing concepts, devices, and methods that can be used to integrate knowledge. European Environmental research infrastructures have already been successfully worked together for many years and have established a cluster - ENVRI cluster - for their collaborative work. ENVRI cluster act as a collaborative platform where the RIs can jointly agree on the common solutions for their operations, draft strategies and policies and share best practices and knowledge. Supporting project for the ENVRI cluster, ENVRIplus project, brings together 21 European research infrastructures and infrastructure networks to work on joint technical solutions, data interoperability, access management, training, strategies and dissemination efforts. ENVRI cluster act as one stop shop for multidisciplinary RI users, other collaborative initiatives, projects and programmes and coordinates and implement jointly agreed RI strategies.

  15. Energy policy in the European Community: conflicts between the objectives of the unified single market, supply security and a clean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Policies for energy and the environment in Europe were previously the preserve of national governments, but the Commission of the European Community has gained a role in both policy areas in the past few years. This was due to the 1987 Single European Act which, in effect, extends the writ of competition law throughout the energy and other previously excluded sectors, expresses the desire to reduce acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions, and reaffirms Europe's renewed concern for long-term oil and gas supply security after the Gulf War and the disintegration of the USSR. The Commission's proposals for the unified internal energy market were driven by concern for competition and free market forces, and seemed to exclude any scope for long-term policy considerations. This paper argues that the implementation of those proposals will be uneven and protracted, and that the Commission's more recent proposals for reducing CO 2 emissions and the European Energy Charter appear to mark positive steps towards a long-term strategy for a clean environment, energy efficiency, and oil and gas supply security. 27 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Communication in Local Community (Koprivnica case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Pavlek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is about an article which, based on the research of the local media in Koprivnica, aims to question the current theoretical attitutes to the role of the media nowadays, changes in communication, ways of connecting politics and journalism, censorship and self-censorship, bigger involvement of citizens in informing themselves via social networks, as well as other aspects of the media influence on the public. The local media in Koprivnica, among others, published articles about the biggest political and economic scandals in Croatia. At the same time, local media is significantly intertwined with local politics. How much and how are these things related? The number of local journalists with a degree in journalism is not satisfactory. How does the local community cope with it? What has changed three years after the research of three local media in Koprivnica finished? Can the local community i.e. the experience of the local media draw attention to illogical, unacceptable and illegal anomalies that create a negative perception of journalism in Croatia as well as the rest of the world nowadays?

  17. European wind integration study (EWIS). Towards a successful integration of large scale wind power into European electricity grids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, W.

    2010-03-15

    Large capacities of wind generators have already been installed and are operating in Germany (26GW) and Spain (16GW). Installations which are as significant in terms of proportion to system size are also established in Denmark (3.3GW), the All Island Power System of Ireland and Northern Ireland (1.5GW), and Portugal (3.4GW). Many other countries expect significant growth in wind generation such that the total currently installed capacity in Europe of 68GW is expected to at least double by 2015. Yet further increases can be expected in order to achieve Europe's 2020 targets for renewable energy. The scale of this development poses big challenges for wind generation developers in terms of obtaining suitable sites, delivering large construction projects, and financing the associated investments from their operations. Such developments also impact the networks and it was to address the immediate transmission related challenges that the European Wind Integration Study (EWIS) was initiated by Transmission System Operators (TSOs) with the objective of ensuring the most effective integration of large scale wind generation into Europe's transmission networks and electricity system. The challenges anticipated and addressed include: 1) How to efficiently accommodate wind generation when markets and transmission access arrangements have evolved for the needs of traditional controllable generation. 2) How to ensure supplies remain secure as wind varies (establishing the required backup/reserves for low wind days and wind forecast errors as well as managing network congestion in windy conditions). 3) How to maintain the quality and reliability of supplies given the new generation characteristics. 4) How to achieve efficient network costs by suitable design and operation of network connections, the deeper infrastructure including offshore connections, and crossborder interconnections. EWIS has focused on the immediate network related challenges by analysing detailed

  18. Act No. 146 of 22 February 1994 laying down provisions for implementing the obligations stemming from Italy's membership in the European Communities - Community Law for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Act enables the Italian Government to adopt Decrees aimed at fulfilling Italy's obligations as a European Union Member State. The Directives on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionizing radiation and on the supervision and control of shipment of radioactive waste between Member States within 12 months of the adoption of this Act. The time-limit has therefore been fixed for March 1995. (NEA)

  19. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Chilean Elders According to an Adapted Version of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera, L; Albala, C; Sánchez, H; Angel, B; Hormazabal, M J; Márquez, C; Arroyo, P

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of mass and skeletal muscle strength and has serious consequences on older people's health. The Chilean older population has a high life-expectancy, but the prevalence of functional dependence is also high. To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chilean older adults and its relationship with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional study. Community. 1,006 non-disabled, community-dwelling subjects aged 60 years or older living in Santiago. Anthropometric measurements, handgrip strength, physical performance tests, and dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) scan were performed. Sarcopenia was defined using the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Muscle mass was measured with DXA scan; skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and hand dynamometry were defined with cut-off points obtained for the Chilean population. For a 3m walking speed we used the cut-off point of the EWGSOP definition. Nutritional status and obesity were defined according to World Health Organization standards. Association between sarcopenia and age, gender, BMI and lean/fat mass ratio was estimated by logistic regression models. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 19.1% (95%CI: 16.8%-21.8%), similar in men and women. There was an increasing trend of sarcopenia by age group and a decreasing trend with nutritional status. After logistic regression, sarcopenia was positively associated with age (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.06-1.15) and falls (OR=1.83; 95%CI:1.07-3.15) and negatively associated with overweight (OR=0.31; 95%CI:0.16-0.59), obesity (OR=0.02; 95%CI:0.004-0.11), lean mass/fat mass ratio (OR=0.69; 95%CI:0.48-0.9997), knee height (OR=0.78; 95%CI:0.68-0.89) and calf circumference (OR=0.87; 95%CI:0.77-0.97). The total prevalence of sarcopenia was 19.1% increasing with age reaching 39.6% in people of 80 or more years of age. A negative association of sarcopenia with overweight, obesity and lean/fat mass ratio was

  20. Qualification, training, licensing/authorization and retraining of operating personnel in nuclear power plants. Noteworthy topics identified by evaluation of the practices in countries of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.; Pfeffer, W.

    1987-01-01

    In the report EUR 10118 '' Qualification, training, licensing and retraining of operating shift personnel in nuclear power plants'' the current practice in the countries of the European Communities as well as the procedures and programmes applied in Sweden, Switzerland and the USA are outlined and evaluated. The intent was to derive fundamental and generally valid concepts concerning shift-staff training and other relevant aspects. Those items were identified that seemed to be noteworthy because they give some guidance on how to achieve and maintain the qualification of the shift staff of NPPs or how to improve the staffing of the control room. These noteworthy topics identified by evaluation of the practice in countries of the European Communities and also elsewhere are presented in the publication at hand. The report addresses the following topics: tasks of the shift personnel, nomenclature for different grades of the personnel; shift staffing and staffing of the control room; criteria for personnel selection when recruiting new shift staff; personnel qualification necessary for recruitment; training of shift personnel; retraining and preservation of qualification standards; training facilities, especially simulators; responsibility for training; licensing/authorization; retirement from shift work. Consideration of these more general aspects and concepts may lead to improvement in training. The job descriptions given in the Annex to the document are only intended to give a general understanding of the typical designations, tasks and responsibilities of shift staff