WorldWideScience

Sample records for european biomass resource

  1. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  2. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, P D [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

    1995-12-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO{sub 2}, to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world`s present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  3. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO 2 , to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  4. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  5. Integrated resource management of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the use of biomass, with emphasis on peat, as an alternative energy source, from an integrated resource management perspective. Details are provided of the volume of the peat resource, economics of peat harvesting, and constraints to peat resource use, which mainly centre on its high water content. Use of waste heat to dry peat can increase the efficiency of peat burning for electric power generation, and new technologies such as gasification and turbo expanders may also find utilization. The burning or gasification of biomass will release no more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than other fuels, has less sulfur content than solid fuels. The removal of peat reduces methane emissions and allows use of produced carbon dioxide for horticulture and ash for fertilizer, and creates space that may be used for forestry or agricultural biomass growth. 38 refs

  6. Biomass Demand-Resources Value Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chun Hsion; Lam, Hon Loong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduce DRVT supply chain modelling approach to consider underutilised biomass. • Advantages of the novel DRVT biomass supply chain approach. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the improvement of the system. - Abstract: With the global awareness towards sustainability, biomass industry becomes one of the main focuses in the search of alternative renewable resources for energy and downstream product. However, the efficiency of the biomass management, especially in supply chain is still questionable. Even though many researches and integrations of supply chain network have been conducted, less has considered underutilised biomass. This leads to the ignorance of potential value in particular biomass species. A new Demand-Resources Value Targeting (DRVT) approach is introduced in this study to investigate the value of each biomass available in order to fully utilise the biomass in respective applications. With systematic biomass value classification, integration of supply chain based on biomass value from biomass resources-to-downstream product can be developed. DRVT model allows better understanding of biomass and their potential downstream application. A simple demonstration of DRVT approach is conducted based on biomass resources in Malaysia

  7. Biomass energy: progress in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [CPL Scientific Limited, Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    A brief overview of the progress in the use of biomass energy in the European Union is presented. Wood fuel, support for renewable energy research, liquid biofuel, wastes and residues, and non-food use of crops such as the production of fuels from lignocellulosic materials are examined. (UK)

  8. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  9. Green electricity externalities: Forest biomass in an Atlantic European Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solino, M.; Prada, A.; Vazquez, M.X.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are expected to represent a growing proportion of the primary energy sources for the production of electricity. Environmental and social reasons support this tendency. European and Spanish energy plans assign a role of primary importance to biomass in general and, especially, to forest biomass for the period up to 2010. This paper reviews, organises and quantifies the potentials and values of this renewable resource in the foremost Spanish Region in terms of silviculture. The non-market externalities (environmental, economic and social) are classified, and some of them are quantified to present a synthesis of the benefits of a partial substitution of fossil fuels by forest biomass for electricity generation. (author)

  10. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  11. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  12. Biomass a fast growing energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Biomass as an energy resource is as versatile as the biodiversity suggests. The global net primary production, NPP, describes the annual growth of biomass on land and in the seas. This paper focuses on biomass grown on land. A recent estimate for the NPP on land is 120 billion tons of dry matter. How much of this biomass are available for energy purposes? The potential contribution of wood fuel and energy plants from sustainable production is limited to some 5% of NPP, i.e. 6 Bt. One third of the potential is energy forests and energy plantations which at present are not economic. One third is used in rural areas as traditional fuel. The remaining third would be available for modern biomass energy conversion. Biomass is assigned an expanding role as a new resource in the world's energy balance. The EU has set a target of doubling the share of renewable energy sources by 2010. For biomass the target is even more ambitious. The challenge for biomass utilization lies in improving the technology for traditional usage and expanding the role into other areas like power production and transportation fuel. Various technologies for biomass utilization are available among those are combustion, gasification, and liquefaction. Researchers have a grand vision in which the chemical elements in the hydrocarbon molecules of biomass are separated and reformed to yield new tailored fuels and form the basis for a new world economy. The vision of a new energy system based on fresh and fossilized biomass to be engineered into an environmentally friendly and sustainable fuel is a conceivable technical reality. One reason for replacing exhaustible fossil fuels with biomass is to reduce carbon emissions. The most efficient carbon dioxide emission reduction comes from replacing brown coal in a steam-electric unit, due to the efficiency of the thermal cycle and the high carbon intensity of the coal. The smallest emission reduction comes from substituting natural gas. (BA)

  13. Electricity from biomass in the European Union - with or without biomass import

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, K.; Meibom, P.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    The European Union has set up indicative targets for its 15 Member States to supply 22.1% of their total electricity consumption using renewable energy resources by 2010. This paper compares two ways to achieve target compliance-either with import of biomass from countries outside the EU or without...... is that increased imports of low-cost biomass will significantly reduce the cost of target compliance, but would hamper the use of energy crops and further development of wind power within the EU. Despite this, increased importation of biomass can be the cost-reducing factor making the target realisable, which...... would justify promotion of such trade. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Biomass energy - Definitions, resources and transformation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damien, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is today considered as a new renewable energy source, and thus, has entered a regulatory framework aiming at encouraging its development for CO 2 pollution abatement. This book addresses the constraints, both natural and technological, of the exploitation of the biomass resource, and then the economical and regulatory aspects of this industry. This second edition provides a complement about the plants used and the new R and D progresses made in this domain. Content: 1 - Definitions and general considerations: natural organic products, regulatory and standardized definitions, energy aspects of biomass fuels; 2 - Resources: energy production dedicated crops, biomass by-products, biomass from wastes; 3 - Biomass to energy transformation processes: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, torrefaction, methanation, alcoholic fermentation, landfill biogas, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, trans-esterification, synthetic natural gas production, bio-hydrogen production; 4 - Biofuels: solid fuels, solid automotive biofuels, gaseous biofuels, liquid biofuels, comparative efficiency; 5 - Situation of biomass energy: regulations, impact on non-energy purpose biomass, advantages and drawbacks

  15. Sustainable Biomass Resource Development and Use | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Biomass Resource Development and Use Sustainable Biomass Resource Development and Use A sustainability analysis includes biomass resource use and impact assessment. This analysis examines how we can biomass resource development. They look at whether there is available land to support bioenergy. They also

  16. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    2000-02-01

    Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

  17. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  18. Increasing biomass resource availability through supply chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfle, Andrew; Gilbert, Paul; Thornley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Increased inclusion of biomass in energy strategies all over the world means that greater mobilisation of biomass resources will be required to meet demand. Strategies of many EU countries assume the future use of non-EU sourced biomass. An increasing number of studies call for the UK to consider alternative options, principally to better utilise indigenous resources. This research identifies the indigenous biomass resources that demonstrate the greatest promise for the UK bioenergy sector and evaluates the extent that different supply chain drivers influence resource availability. The analysis finds that the UK's resources with greatest primary bioenergy potential are household wastes (>115 TWh by 2050), energy crops (>100 TWh by 2050) and agricultural residues (>80 TWh by 2050). The availability of biomass waste resources was found to demonstrate great promise for the bioenergy sector, although are highly susceptible to influences, most notably by the focus of adopted waste management strategies. Biomass residue resources were found to be the resource category least susceptible to influence, with relatively high near-term availability that is forecast to increase – therefore representing a potentially robust resource for the bioenergy sector. The near-term availability of UK energy crops was found to be much less significant compared to other resource categories. Energy crops represent long-term potential for the bioenergy sector, although achieving higher limits of availability will be dependent on the successful management of key influencing drivers. The research highlights that the availability of indigenous resources is largely influenced by a few key drivers, this contradicting areas of consensus of current UK bioenergy policy. - Highlights: • As global biomass demand increases, focus is placed indigenous resources. • A Biomass Resource Model is applied to analyse UK biomass supply chain dynamics. • Biomass availability is best increased

  19. Allocation of biomass resources for minimising energy system greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Jack, Michael W.; Felby, Claus; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) energy policy has three targets: supply security, development of a competitive energy sector and environmental sustainability. The EU countries have issued so-called National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) for increased renewable energy generation. Biomass is stipulated to account for 56% of renewable energy generation by 2020, corresponding to an increase in bioenergy generation from 2.4 × 10 9  GJ in 2005 to 5.7 × 10 9  GJ in 2020. There is uncertainty about the amounts of biomass available in the EU, and import challenges policy targets on supply security and sustainability. We address issues about how, from a technical point of view, the EU may deploy its biomass resources to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy consumption. We investigate if deployment patterns depend on resource availability and technological development. In situations with adequate biomass availability the analysis suggests that liquid fuel production should be based on agricultural residues. Electricity production should be based on forest residues and other woody biomass and heat production on forest and agricultural residues. Improved conversion technologies implicitly relax the strain on biomass resources and improve supply security. - Highlights: • Optimal allocation of biomass to energy is analysed conceptually for the EU by 2020. • Allocation is influenced not only by GHG performance, also by resource availability. • Surplus biomass could be allocated to electricity generation to reduce GHG emissions

  20. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  1. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  2. TVA GIS-based biomass resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noon, C.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The focus of this paper is a computer-based system for estimating the costs of supplying wood fuel. The system is being developed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and is referred to as the Biomass Resource Assessment Version One (BRAVO) system. The main objective in developing the BRAVO system is to assist TVA in estimating the costs for supplying wood fuel to any one of its twelve coal-fired plants. The BRAVO system is developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and is designed to allow a user to perform {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} analyses related to the costs of wood fuel supply. Three types of wood fuel are considered in the BRAVO system: mill residues, logging residues and short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Each type of wood fuel has unique economic and supply characteristics. The input data for the system includes the specific locations, amount, and prices of the various types of wood fuel throughout the TVA region. The system input is completed by data on political boundaries, power plant locations, road networks and a model for estimating transportation costs as a function of distance. The result is a comprehensive system which includes information on all possible wood fuel supply joints, demand points and product movement costs. In addition, the BRAVO system has been designed to allow a user to perform sensitivity analysis on a variety of supply system parameters. This will enable TVA to thoroughly investigate the financial impacts of issues such as increased competition for wood fuel, environmental policies, fuel taxes, and regional economic cycles.

  3. TVA GIS-based biomass resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noon, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a computer-based system for estimating the costs of supplying wood fuel. The system is being developed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and is referred to as the Biomass Resource Assessment Version One (BRAVO) system. The main objective in developing the BRAVO system is to assist TVA in estimating the cost for supplying wood fuel to any one of its twelve coal-fired power plants. The BRAVO system is developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and is designed to allow a user to perform open-quotes what ifclose quotes analyses related to the costs of wood fuel supply. Three types of wood fuel are considered in the Bravo system: mill residues, logging residues and short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Each type of wood fuel has unique economic and supply characteristics. The input data for the system includes the specific locations, amounts, and prices of the various types of wood fuel throughout the TVA region. The system input is completed by data on political boundaries, power plant locations, road networks and a model for estimating transportation costs as a function of distance. The result is a comprehensive system which includes information on all possible wood fuel supply points, demand points and product movement costs. In additions, the BRAVO system has been designed to allow a user to perform sensitivity analysis on a variety of supply system parameters. This will enable TVA to thoroughly investigate the financial impacts of issues such as increased competition for wood fuel, environmental policies, fuel taxes, and regional economic cycles

  4. Biomass as electroenergetic resource in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin

    1996-01-01

    The main characteristics of the biomass as an energetic fuel are defined and analysed. The quantities of forest and waste biomass, in different regions of the Republic of Macedonia, which can be used as energy fuel, are determined, as well as community-generated solid waste. There are analysed the necessary steps which shall be done to ensure this energy potential to be used, with involving of needed mechanization. It is determined the participation of energy received by biomass in energy balance of the Republic of Macedonia. (author). 8 refs., 10 tabs., 4 ills

  5. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  6. Comparative assessment of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans in 12 EU countries. European Best Practice Report. Extended version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report is a key output of the EU project 'BAP Driver', an initiative of energy agencies from 8 European key bioenergy nations and the European Biomass Association (AEBIOM). The BAP Driver project aims at identifying ways for improvement of current national policy frameworks for bioenergy in Europe, and at leveraging the process of developing country-specific Biomass Action Plans (BAP). From a strategic perspective, the general approach of this report focuses on four stages, required for setting up national biomass strategies and action plans: Assessment of national biomass resources; Formulation of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans; Implementation of national bioenergy policies; Monitoring of national bioenergy markets and policies. Overall the analysis is split into three chapters corresponding to the following logical steps: Chapter B: Country analysis (12 individual country profiles); Chapter C: Benchmark analysis (comparative assessment of 12 countries); Chapter D: Best practice analysis (transnational conclusions across national boundaries)

  7. Comparative assessment of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans in 12 EU countries. European Best Practice Report. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report is a key output of the EU project 'BAP Driver', an initiative of energy agencies from 8 European key bioenergy nations and the European Biomass Association (AEBIOM). The BAP Driver project aims at identifying ways for improvement of current national policy frameworks for bioenergy in Europe, and at leveraging the process of developing country-specific Biomass Action Plans (BAP). From a strategic perspective, the general approach of this report focuses on four stages, required for setting up national biomass strategies and action plans: Assessment of national biomass resources; Formulation of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans; Implementation of national bioenergy policies; Monitoring of national bioenergy markets and policies. Overall the analysis is split into three chapters corresponding to the following logical steps: Chapter B: Country analysis (12 individual country profiles); Chapter C: Benchmark analysis (comparative assessment of 12 countries); Chapter D: Best practice analysis (transnational conclusions across national boundaries)

  8. Biomass, new markets ! How to mobilize the resource? Seminar proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The various papers of this seminar addressed the following questions: how to valorize the biomass potential to respond to challenges of greenhouse gas emission reduction? What are the conditions to mobilize biomass considering the existing concurrence between its different usages? How to use experiences of biomass mobilization to cope with the demand increase? How to consider the key factors of success all together? More particularly, the interveners addressed the different resources (agricultural by-products, forestry, and wood waste), actors, technical approaches, and economical and logistical aspects, the role of biomass in the commitments for the struggle against climate change, the issue of supply

  9. Forest biomass resources and utilization in China

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    environmental benefits may result from using forest biomass for energy rather than fossil fuels. ... nuclear energy. Therefore, one of the most urgent pro- blems the Chinese government faces is to build a safe, economic, clean and sustainable energy supply system, ... Forest bioenergy is the use of renewable forestry.

  10. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  11. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  12. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lin [Energy Research Institute of the State Planning Commission, Beijing (China)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author) 4 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  13. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dai

    1995-01-01

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author)

  14. European Community's program in marine resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoble, J.P.; Jarmache, E.

    1995-01-01

    The European Community launched already several research program in the different fields of social and industrial activities. The Fourth Framework Programme is divided into 4 main activities comporting a total of 18 programs. These programs are dealing with general topics as information and communication, industrial technologies, environment, life sciences and technologies, energy, transport and socioeconomic research. One line is devoted to marine sciences and technology, but offshore activities could also be included in the other topics as offshore oil and gas in energy, ship building and harbor in transport, aquaculture and fisheries in life sciences and technology, etc. In order to maintain a coherent approach toward offshore activities, the European maritime industries met intensively front 1991 to 1994 and recommended a series of proposal for Research and Development of marine resources. The methodology and content of these proposals is exposed

  15. AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higham, I.

    1997-01-01

    The AFB-NETT is an ALTENER funded project lead by ETSU. The project was started in 1995 with 11 partner nations. The initial aim was to bring together the whole biomass supply and use chain, not just within countries but across the Europe. At present more than 280 people take part in the network. The four objectives of the project are: detection and promotion of business opportunities; transfer of knowledge and experience; promotion of collaboration and co-ordination; and implementation of National and European Strategies. The effort in 1997 split into four main activities, 2 of which based on market sectors and two on improving the market conditions. The activities for 1997 were (the leader in parentheses): Co-combustion and gasification (Finland); Small scale and district heat (Austria); Financial incentives (the Netherlands); Wood fuel and emission standards (UK)

  16. AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, I. [ETSU, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The AFB-NETT is an ALTENER funded project lead by ETSU. The project was started in 1995 with 11 partner nations. The initial aim was to bring together the whole biomass supply and use chain, not just within countries but across the Europe. At present more than 280 people take part in the network. The four objectives of the project are: detection and promotion of business opportunities; transfer of knowledge and experience; promotion of collaboration and co-ordination; and implementation of National and European Strategies. The effort in 1997 split into four main activities, 2 of which based on market sectors and two on improving the market conditions. The activities for 1997 were (the leader in parentheses): Co-combustion and gasification (Finland); Small scale and district heat (Austria); Financial incentives (the Netherlands); Wood fuel and emission standards (UK)

  17. AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, I [ETSU, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The AFB-NETT is an ALTENER funded project lead by ETSU. The project was started in 1995 with 11 partner nations. The initial aim was to bring together the whole biomass supply and use chain, not just within countries but across the Europe. At present more than 280 people take part in the network. The four objectives of the project are: detection and promotion of business opportunities; transfer of knowledge and experience; promotion of collaboration and co-ordination; and implementation of National and European Strategies. The effort in 1997 split into four main activities, 2 of which based on market sectors and two on improving the market conditions. The activities for 1997 were (the leader in parentheses): Co-combustion and gasification (Finland); Small scale and district heat (Austria); Financial incentives (the Netherlands); Wood fuel and emission standards (UK)

  18. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  19. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Wood is an alterative fuel for electric power generation at coal-fired plants in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Short rotation wood energy crops (SRWC) could provide a source of this woody biomass. However, the economic and supply structures of SRWC markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region. expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields

  20. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The economic and supply structures of short rotation woody crop (SRWC) markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields.

  1. Development Strategies for Deployment of Biomass Resources in the Production of Biomass Power: November 6, 2001--February 28, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, J.

    2004-01-01

    The study analyzes strategies for deployment of biomass resources for biopower generation. It compares biomass supply databases and the projected biopower market penetration for several alternative incentive scenarios. It analyzes the availability of biomass to meet the projected market demands and recommends future research.

  2. Biomass Resource Assessment and Existing Biomass Use in the Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu States of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Natarajan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India is experiencing energy crisis and a widening gap between energy supply and demand. The country is, however, endowed with considerable, commercially and technically available renewable resources, from which surplus agro-biomass is of great importance and a relatively untapped resource. In the policy making process, knowledge of existing biomass use, degree of social reliance, and degree of biomass availability for energy production is unequivocal and pre-conditional. Field observations, documentation, and fill-in sheet tools were used to investigate the potential of biomass resources and the existing domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of biomass in selected Indian states. To do so, a team of field observers/supervisors visited three Indian states namely: Maharashtra (MH, Madhya Pradesh (MP, and Tamil Nadu (TN. Two districts from each state were selected to collect data regarding the use of biomass and the extent of biomass availability for energy production. In total, 471 farmers were interviewed, and approximately 75 farmers with various land holdings have been interviewed in each district. The existing uses of biomass have been documented in this survey study and the results show that the majority of biomass is used as fodder for domestic livestock followed by in-site ploughing, leaving trivial surplus quantities for other productive uses. Biomass for cooking appeared to be insignificant due to the availability and access to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG cylinders in the surveyed districts. Opportunities exist to utilize roadside-dumped biomass, in-site burnt biomass, and a share of biomass used for ploughing. The GIS-based maps show that biomass availability varies considerably across the Taluks of the surveyed districts, and is highly dependent on a number of enviromental and socio-cultural factors. Developing competitive bioenergy market and enhancing and promoting access to more LPG fuel connections seem an appropriate socio

  3. SSCM analyses of biomass resources in Randers, Norddjurs and Syddjurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    This project has been commissioned by ENERCOAST whose overall aim is to stimulate increased use and production of biomass, and create a market for bio energy in the North Sea region. The Enercoast project has been financed by the EU Interreg IVB with partners from Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden and Norway. The Danish project leader is AgroBusiness Park/ CBMI /Innovation Centre for Bioenergy and Environmental Technology. Central Region Denmark is co-financing 34% of the Danish portion of the project, while the municipalities of Norddjurs, Syddjurs and Randers are contributing to the project with their working hours. The Danish portion of this project focuses on three Danish municipalities, Randers, Norddjurs, and Syddjurs, and the possibilities to reach local energy and climate targets by increasing the use and production of biomass. The project is divided into 6 phases of which this report is part of the second and third phase which focus on analyses of various biomass resources on a local level including carrying out SSCM analyses of these resources. The aim of this report is to assess the sustainability of relevant bio energy supply chains related to the resource accessibility in the three municipalities with main focus on biogas, straw, wood residues and energy crops for combined heat and power production. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) is a concept that has many definitions and the methodologies used to approach this are numerous. In this report the SSCM analysis is used to answer the following question: What are the possibilities of increased use of biomass for energy production in the three municipalities, and what consequences are associated with the utilisation of each of the selected resources described through our case studies? For each of the resource case studies an overview of the supply chain is illustrated through a matrix. Each step of the supply chain from the primal material production in on end to heat and electricity

  4. Residual biomass resources for energy production. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, G.

    2010-06-01

    This report covers the whole problematic of energy production from biomass residues in France except the production of biofuels. It is made of two parts. The first one gives an overview of the availability of residual biomass resources, The concept of residue (or waste) is placed in its economic and regulatory context (the major part of the resource cannot be considered as waste without any further potential use). The conditions of availability of the resource for each market segment are identified. The second part describes the conditions for the use of 5 different conversion options of these residues into energy. The logistics constraints for the procurement of the fuel and the intermediate operations to prepare it are briefly summarised. The objective was the identification of key issues in all relevant aspects, without giving too much emphasis to one of them at the expense of another one in order to avoid duplicating the frequent cases of facilities that do not meet environmental and economic targets because the designers of the system have not paid enough attention to a parameter of the system. (author)

  5. Better use of European (regional) resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Palma, C.; Hardeman, F.; Miska, H.; Duranova, T.; Cabanekova, H.

    2003-01-01

    capabilities of one country. Similar problems even occur earlier: adequate interventions in the food chain are often based upon a fast mapping of the 'suspected' zones and an blocking products originating from these. Such fast mapping capacity is often based upon airborne or carbome measurements or a combination of both. However, there are large differences in experience, training, availability of equipment from country to country. Adequate, rapid and reliable determinations of radiation levels in critical food and feed stuffs are indeed a challenge for off site nuclear emergency response, and it is expected that the results of this work will show clear evidence that, there is a need for bi-multi lateral arrangements among European countries to share resources, methodologies and procedures for a rapid intervention after a nuclear accident. Fortunately, the norms or reference values issue is covered well for radiological contaminations via the European directives laying down maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination in foodstuffs and feeding stuffs in case of future accidents, provided the Commission confirms the values in short delay, and provided the values are accepted by all relevant stakeholders, also in non affected countries. In the past framework programs of the European Commission, a great deal of advancement and maturity has been reached in terms of decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. Many of these advances have been possible through the implementation of state-of-the-art internet technology. This paper will also elaborate on the shared use of decision support systems to dealing with nuclear emergency planning in a regional and certainly trans-boundary context. We are certain that, through regional arrangements, a better and sustainable use of these decision support systems will be guaranteed. (author)

  6. Assessment of equine waste as a biomass resource in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine operations may generate excessive quantities of biomass (manure and used bedding) that could either become a waste or a resource, especially when the biomass is developed as an alternative energy source. Using the generated biomass as a resource can involve a variety of approaches such as la...

  7. Biomass energy resource enhancement: the move to modern secondary energy forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, K; Overend, R P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Income growth and industrialization in developing countries is driving their economies towards the use of secondary energy forms that deliver high efficiency energy and environmentally more benignant-uses for biomass. Typical of these secondary energy forms are electricity, distributed gas systems and liquid fuels. This trend suggests that the hitherto separate pathways taken by biomass energy technology development in developing and industrialized countries will eventually share common elements. While in the United States and the European Union the majority of the bioenergy applications are in medium- and large-scale industrial uses of self-generated biomass residues, the characteristic use in developing countries is in rural cook-stoves. Increasing urbanization and investment in transportation infrastructure may allow increasing the operational scale in developing countries. One factor driving this trend is diminishing individual and household biomass resource demands as rural incomes increase and households ascend the energy ladder towards clean and efficient fuels and appliances. Scale increases and end-user separation from the biomass resource require that the biomass be converted at high efficiency into secondary energy forms that serve as energy carriers. In middle-income developing country economies such as Brazil, secondary energy transmission is increasingly in the form of gas and electricity in addition to liquid transportation fuels. Unfortunately, the biomass resource is finite, and in the face of competing food and fibre uses and land constraints, it is difficult to substantially increase the amount of biomass available. As a result, development must emphasize conversion efficiency and the applications of bioenergy. Moreover, as a consequence of economic growth, biomass resources are increasingly to be found in the secondary and tertiary waste streams of cities and industrial operations. If not used for energy production, this potential resource needs

  8. Biomass energy resource enhancement: the move to modern secondary energy forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, K.; Overend, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Income growth and industrialization in developing countries is driving their economies towards the use of secondary energy forms that deliver high efficiency energy and environmentally more benignant-uses for biomass. Typical of these secondary energy forms are electricity, distributed gas systems and liquid fuels. This trend suggests that the hitherto separate pathways taken by biomass energy technology development in developing and industrialized countries will eventually share common elements. While in the United States and the European Union the majority of the bioenergy applications are in medium- and large-scale industrial uses of self-generated biomass residues, the characteristic use in developing countries is in rural cook-stoves. Increasing urbanization and investment in transportation infrastructure may allow increasing the operational scale in developing countries. One factor driving this trend is diminishing individual and household biomass resource demands as rural incomes increase and households ascend the energy ladder towards clean and efficient fuels and appliances. Scale increases and end-user separation from the biomass resource require that the biomass be converted at high efficiency into secondary energy forms that serve as energy carriers. In middle-income developing country economies such as Brazil, secondary energy transmission is increasingly in the form of gas and electricity in addition to liquid transportation fuels. Unfortunately, the biomass resource is finite, and in the face of competing food and fibre uses and land constraints, it is difficult to substantially increase the amount of biomass available. As a result, development must emphasize conversion efficiency and the applications of bioenergy. Moreover, as a consequence of economic growth, biomass resources are increasingly to be found in the secondary and tertiary waste streams of cities and industrial operations. If not used for energy production, this potential resource needs

  9. Biomass Energy Systems and Resources in Tropical Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lugano (KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Tanzania has a characteristic developing economy, which is dependent on agricultural productivity. About 90% of the total primary energy consumption of the country is from biomass. Since the biomass is mostly consumed at the household level in form of wood fuel, it is marginally contributing to the commercial energy supply. However, the country has abundant energy resources from hydro, biomass, natural gas, coal, uranium, solar, wind and geothermal. Due to reasons that include the limited technological capacity, most of these resources have not received satisfactory harnessing. For instance: out of the estimated 4.7GW macro hydro potential only 561MW have been developed; and none of the 650MW geothermal potential is being harnessed. Furthermore, besides the huge potential of biomass (12 million tons of oil equivalent), natural gas (45 million cubic metres), coal (1,200 million tones), high solar insolation (4.5 - 6.5 kWh/m2), 1,424km of coastal strip, and availability of good wind regime (> 4 m/s wind speed), they are marginally contributing to the production of commercial energy. Ongoing exploration work also reveals that the country has an active system of petroleum and uranium. On the other hand, after commissioning the 229 km natural gas pipeline from SongoSongo Island to Dar es Salaam, there are efforts to ensure a wider application in electricity generation, households, automotive and industry. Due to existing environmental concerns, biomass resource is an attractive future energy for the world, Tanzania inclusive. This calls for putting in place sustainable energy technologies, like gasification, for their harnessing. The high temperature gasification (HTAG) of biomass is a candidate technology since it has shown to produce improved syngas quality in terms of gas heating value that has less tar. This work was therefore initiated in order to contribute to efforts on realizing a commercial application of biomass in Tanzania. Particularly, the work aimed at

  10. Sustainable and resource-conserving utilization of global land areas and biomass; Globale Landflaechen und Biomasse nachhaltig und ressourcenschonend nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jering, Almut; Klatt, Anne; Seven, Jan; Ehlers, Knut; Guenther, Jens; Ostermeier, Andreas; Moench, Lars

    2012-10-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the state of the art of biomass based land use as well as on existing and future global development trends. An ecologically compatible and socially equitable utilization of resources as well as priorities in the production and utilization of biomass are described in order to achieve their goals. Approaches to action, measures and policy recommendations are presented with respect to the development of a globally sustainable, resource-conserving utilization of land.

  11. Biomass for biorefining: Resources, allocation, utilization, and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of biomass in the development of renewable energy, the availability and allocation of biomass, its preparation for use in biorefineries, and the policies affecting biomass are discussed in this chapter. Bioenergy development will depend on maximizing the amount of biomass obtained fro...

  12. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  13. Overview of methods and tools for evaluating future woody biomass availability in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreiro, Susana; Schelhaas, Mart Jan; Kändler, Gerald; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Colin, Antoine; Bontemps, Jean Daniel; Alberdi, Iciar; Condés, Sonia; Dumitru, Marius; Ferezliev, Angel; Fischer, Christoph; Gasparini, Patrizia; Gschwantner, Thomas; Kindermann, Georg; Kjartansson, Bjarki; Kovácsevics, Pál; Kucera, Milos; Lundström, Anders; Marin, Gheorghe; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Packalen, Tuula; Redmond, John; Sacchelli, Sandro; Sims, Allan; Snorrason, Arnór; Stoyanov, Nickola; Thürig, Esther; Wikberg, Per Erik

    2016-01-01

    Key message: This analysis of the tools and methods currently in use for reporting woody biomass availability in 21 European countries has shown that most countries use, or are developing, National Forest Inventory-oriented models whereas the others use standwise forest inventory--oriented

  14. Development of a tool to model European biomass trade : Report for IEA Bioenergy Task 40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Resch, G.; Matzenberger, J.; Panzer, C.; Pelkmans, L.

    2011-01-01

    This report investigated the potential of future intra- and inter-European trade of solid biomass for bioenergy purposes taking country to country specific intermodal transport routes into account and matching supply and demand for energy crops, forestry products and residues and agricultural

  15. Biomass and abundance biases in European standard gillnet sampling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmejkal, Marek; Ricard, Daniel; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; Jůza, Tomáš; Herreras, A.M.; Encina, L.; Peterka, Jiří; Kubečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015), e0122437 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA ČR(CZ) GPP505/12/P647; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish sampling * gillnets * large meshes * mesh size selectivity * Improvement of European standard EN 14757 * bream (Abramis brama) Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  16. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Burnham, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels are currently used for approximately 9,800 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity, including about 6,100 MW of capacity fueled by wood/wood waste and about 2,200 MW of capacity fueled with municipal solid waste. Perspectives on the future availability of biomass fuels (including energy crops) are addressed, as well as projected levels of market penetration for biomass power. By the year 2010, there is a potential for 22,000 MW, to as much as 70,000 MW of biomass-powered electric generating capacity in the U.S. Given the range of benefits offered by biomass, including reduced sulfur emissions, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, rural revitalization impacts, and new incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the potential use of biomass for power production could significantly expand in the future

  17. The Forest Biomass Resource of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost; James O. Howard; Bert Mead; William H. McWilliams; W. Brad Smith; Dwane D. van Hooser; Eric H. Wharton

    1990-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomass statistics have been published for most states. However, the existing aggregate data are either limited or out of date. The most recent statistics on biomass were for 1980 (U.S. Department of Agriculture 1981). The development of such data continues to lag even though user interest is high. This study was initiated to provide current...

  18. Balanced Ecological Use of Biomass Resources in DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Christensen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    . The use of biomass for energy purposes may however conflict with the need to maintain soil quality of arable fields. The official Danish policies are supporting both an expansion of ecological farming and an expansion of the use of biomass in the energy supply system. This may give rise to conflicts...

  19. EMPReSS: European mouse phenotyping resource for standardized screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eain C J; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Lad, Heena V; Blake, Andrew; Weekes, Joseph; Hancock, John M

    2005-06-15

    Standardized phenotyping protocols are essential for the characterization of phenotypes so that results are comparable between different laboratories and phenotypic data can be related to ontological descriptions in an automated manner. We describe a web-based resource for the visualization, searching and downloading of standard operating procedures and other documents, the European Mouse Phenotyping Resource for Standardized Screens-EMPReSS. Direct access: http://www.empress.har.mrc.ac.uk e.green@har.mrc.ac.uk.

  20. Better use of European (regional) resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Palma, C.; Hardeman, F.; Miska, H.; Duranova, T.; Cabanekova, H.

    2004-01-01

    In case of accidental release of radioactivity and subsequent contamination of the food chain, many samples need to be collected and analysed, and this is far from being a simple issue. The determination of contamination levels requires accredited laboratories, approved and certified procedures and methods, transparency and above all prompt results, as stakeholders in general cannot afford waiting. Adequate decisions require fixed norms, stable in time, and accepted internationally. Moreover, an effective policy relies on traceability of products as well. There are huge requirements of harmonisation of procedures, traceability of data, database management, priority settings etc. Accredited laboratories tend to make use of reliable techniques but these have been optimised for low radiation levels and high accuracy for routine analyses, often in the framework of radiological surveillance of the territory, drinking waters or the food chain. It is obvious that such procedures, although very accurate and sensitive, are not suited for urgent decisions in crisis situations. Similarly, accredited analysis methodologies may start from large quantities of product in order to decrease limits of detection; however, this involves sometimes long times for drying or chemical treatment, introducing important delays. Furthermore, large quantities of samples would simply result in the saturation of the analytical capabilities of one country. Adequate actions and informed decisions during a nuclear accident will require an analytical infrastructure that individual countries do not have; hence there is a clear need to establish regional collaboration and co-operation. This paper includes an example of such collaborative work and mutual assistance, and also touches on how sharing tools for decision making, analytical resources, sample collection procedures and analysis would promote trust, reliability in the results, a common approach toward minimizing the effects of a radiological

  1. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuels potential in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duku, Moses Hensley [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Institute of Industrial Research, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. Box LG 576, Legon (Ghana); Gu, Sai [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hagan, Essel Ben [Institute of Industrial Research, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. Box LG 576, Legon (Ghana)

    2011-01-15

    Biomass is the major energy source in Ghana contributing about 64% of Ghana's primary energy supply. In this paper, an assessment of biomass resources and biofuels production potential in Ghana is given. The broad areas of energy crops, agricultural crop residues, forest products residues, urban wastes and animal wastes are included. Animal wastes are limited to those produced by domesticated livestock. Agricultural residues included those generated from sugarcane, maize, rice, cocoa, oil palm, coconut, sorghum and millet processing. The urban category is subdivided into municipal solid waste, food waste, sewage sludge or bio-solids and waste grease. The availability of these types of biomass, together with a brief description of possible biomass conversion routes, sustainability measures, and current research and development activities in Ghana is given. It is concluded that a large availability of biomass in Ghana gives a great potential for biofuels production from these biomass resources. (author)

  2. European Institutional and Organisational Tools for Maritime Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dragomir Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Seafarers need to continuously develop their career, at all stages of their professional life. This paper presents some tools of institutional and organisational career development. At insitutional level there are presented vocational education and training tools provided by the European Union institutions while at organisational level are exemplified some tools used by private crewing companies for maritime human resources assessment and development.

  3. Forest resource projection tools at the European level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Verkerk, P.J.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Packalen, Tuula; Sallnäs, O.; Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, J.; Forsell, Nicklas; Frank, S.; Gusti, Mykola; Havlik, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have developed their own systems for projecting forest resources and wood availability. Although studies using these tools are helpful for developing national policies, they do not provide a consistent assessment for larger regions such as the European Union or Europe as a whole.

  4. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, M.; Power, K.; Muhairwe, C.; Tellier, R.; Wang, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M

    2006-02-01

    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  6. Quantitative appraisal and potential analysis for primary biomass resources for energy utilization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanli, Yang; Peidong, Zhang; Yonghong, Zheng; Lisheng, Wang [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of science, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wenlong, Zhang; Yongsheng, Tian [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of science, Qingdao 266101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    As the largest agricultural country, China has abundant biomass resources, but the distribution is scattered and difficult to collect. It is essential to estimate the biomass resource and its potential for bioenergy utilization in China. In this study, the amount of main biomass resources for possible energy use and their energy utilization potential in China are analyzed based on statistical data. The results showed that the biomass resource for possible energy use amounted to 8.87 x 10{sup 8} tce in 2007 of which the crops straw is 1.42 x 10{sup 8} tce, the forest biomass is 2.85 x 10{sup 8} tce, the poultry and livestock manure is 4.40 x 10{sup 7} tce, the municipal solid waste is 1.35 x 10{sup 6} tce, and the organic waste water is 6.46 x 10{sup 6} tce. Through the information by thematic map, it is indicated that, except arctic-alpine areas and deserts, the biomass resource for possible energy use was presented a relatively average distribution in China, but large gap was existed in different regions in the concentration of biomass resources, with the characteristics of East dense and West sparse. It is indicated that the energy transformation efficiency of biomass compressing and shaping, biomass anaerobic fermentation and biomass gasification for heating have higher conversion efficiency. If all of the biomass resources for possible energy use are utilized by these three forms respectively, 7.66 x 10{sup 12} t of biomass briquettes fuel, 1.98 x 10{sup 12} m{sup 3} of low calorific value gas and 3.84 x 10{sup 11} m{sup 3} of biogas could be produced, 3.65 x 10{sup 8} t to 4.90 x 10{sup 8} t of coal consumption could be substituted, and 6.12 x 10{sup 8} t to 7.53 x 10{sup 8} t of CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced. With the enormous energy utilization potential of biomass resources and the prominent benefit of energy saving and emission reduction, it proves an effective way to adjust the energy consumption structure, to alleviate the energy crisis, to ensure

  7. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  8. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  9. Panorama 2010: Which biomass resources should be used to obtain a sustainable energy system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, D.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass is the leading renewable energy in the world today. Moreover, the introduction of biomass into energy systems presents certain advantages as far as reducing greenhouse gas emissions is concerned. However, its mobilization still presents many challenges relative to the competition between uses and the management of local natural resources (e.g. water, soil and biodiversity). Therefore, the technologies involved should be structured so that this resource can be developed to be truly sustainable. (author)

  10. Biomass exploitation for revitalizing rural areas: experiences and lessons drawn from three South European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, J.C.; Herrero, J. [Wood and Forest Service Center of Castilla y Leon (CESEFOR) Pol. Ind. Las Casas, Soria (Spain); Crema, L.; Bozzoli, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FKB), Trento (Italy); Karampinis, E.; Grammelis, P.; Margaritis, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Inst. for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Athens (Greece)

    2012-11-01

    Castilla y Leon (Spain), Trento (Italy) and Western Macedonia (Greece) are regions with a very high potential for forest and agricultural biomass production, but their biomass supply chains are not firmly established yet. In Castilla y Leon, a municipality from a forest area takes advantage of its large autochthonous stock of wood to arrange a complete chain of business, beginning with wood cutting and extraction, processing of raw biomass in local logistic centers to produce quality and traceable wood chips and pellets, distribution of the solid biofuels to consumers in a determined area and own use to generate energy and heat. In Trento, we analyse the exploitation of locally certified wood and residues pellets for public micro-cogeneration in a town, reaching a virtual closed cycle of use and recycling of resources. In a municipality from Western Macedonia, biomass residues from animal waste are being used to produce biogas to generate electric power to be sold and heat to dry wood biomass in a local pellet factory, revitalizing a land very conditioned by mining industry. These strategies maximize the number of jobs created and make optimum use of the local resources, providing them with high added value.

  11. A key review on emergy analysis and assessment of biomass resources for a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gaijing; Long Weiding

    2010-01-01

    The present study comprehensively reviews emergy analysis and performance evaluation of biomass energy. Biomass resources utilization technologies include (a) bioethanol production, (b) biomass for bio-oil, (c) biodiesel production, (d) straw as fuel in district heating plants, (e) electricity from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) incineration power plant, (f) electricity from waste landfill gas. Systems diagrams of biomass, which are to conduct a critical inventory of processes, storage, and flows that are important to the system under consideration and are therefore necessary to evaluate, for biomasses are given. Emergy indicators, such as percent renewable (PR), emergy yield ratio (EYR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI) are shown to evaluate the environmental load and local sustainability of the biomass energy. The emergy indicators show that bio-fuels from crop are not sustainable and waste management for fuels provides an emergy recovery even lower than mining fossil fuel.

  12. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  13. Fiscal 1998 research report. Research on energy conversion technology using biomass resources; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Biomass shigen wo genryo to suru energy henkan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study was made on construction of the new energy production system by thermochemical conversion or combination of thermochemical and biological conversions of agricultural, fishery and organic waste system biomass resources. This report first outlines types and characteristics of biomass over the world, proposes the classification method of biomass from the viewpoint of biomass energy use, and shows the introduction scenario of biomass energy. The energy potential is calculated of agricultural waste, forestry waste and animal waste as the most promising biomass energy resources, and the biomass energy potential of energy plantation is estimated. The present and future of biochemical energy conversion technologies are viewed. The present and future of thermochemical energy conversion technologies are also viewed. Through evaluation of every conversion technology, the difference in feature between each conversion technology was clarified, and the major issues for further R and D were showed. (NEDO)

  14. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  15. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  17. UK resource base assessment of organisations and capabilities in the biomass sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    British Biogen is the trade association for the UK's emerging biomass industry. It has been recognised that the biomass industry has considerable export potential due to its immense scale potential overseas, and there is an accompanying need for an export development strategy for the industry. The report contains a detailed analysis of a selection of UK companies and organisations, with regard to their export capabilities, thus providing an essential pre-requisite to developing the export strategy. The fundamental aim of the study is to assess the nature, scale and current capabilities of the UK biomass industry resource base and, in turn, to determine its potential to service export markets. (author)

  18. Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Malte; Barnes, Andrew D; Weigelt, Patrick; Ott, David; Rembold, Katja; Farajallah, Achmad; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    High biodiversity and biomass of soil communities are crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. Using a dataset of 780 macro-invertebrate consumer species across 32 sites in tropical lowland rain forest and agricultural systems on Sumatra, Indonesia, we investigated the effects of basal resource stoichiometry (C:X ratios of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S in local leaf litter), litter mass (basal resource quantity and habitat space), plant species richness (surrogate for litter habitat heterogeneity), and soil pH (acidity) on consumer species richness and biomass across different consumer groups (i.e. 3 feeding guilds and 10 selected taxonomic groups). In order to distinguish the most important predictors of consumer species richness and biomass, we applied a standardised model averaging approach investigating the effects of basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and soil pH on both consumer community characteristics. This standardised approach enabled us to identify differences and similarities in the magnitude and importance of such effects on consumer species richness and biomass. Across consumer groups, we found litter mass to be the most important predictor of both species richness and biomass. Resource stoichiometry had a more pronounced impact on consumer species richness than on their biomass. As expected, taxonomic groups differed in which resource and habitat parameters (basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and pH) were most important for modulating their community characteristics. The importance

  19. The national observatory of biomass resources. Assessment of available resources in France - Releases October 2012, December 2015, December 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bova, Fabien; Zegers, Jean-Pierre; Vieillefont, Valerie; Bertrand, Raphael; Gurtler, Jean-Luc; Allain, Eric; Bonnard, Philippe; Mhiri, Tarek

    2012-10-01

    The different releases propose sheets containing graphs, tables and data which present and discuss assessments of biomass resources at the national and regional levels for France. Resources are distinguished according to their origin: agriculture (energy-oriented crops, crop residues, crop wastes, farming effluents, hedge and alignments trimming), forestry (forests and poplar groves), agri-food industries (wheat, malt, meat, fishery, sugar beet, milk, distillery industries, and so on)

  20. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  1. European Wind Atlas and Wind Resource Research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    to estimate the actual wind climate at any specific site and height within this region. The Danish and European Wind Atlases are examples of how the wind atlas methodology can be employed to estimate the wind resource potential for a country or a sub-continent. Recently, the methodology has also been used...... - from wind measurements at prospective sites to wind tunnel simulations and advanced flow modelling. Among these approaches, the wind atlas methodology - developed at Ris0 National Laboratory over the last 25 years - has gained widespread recognition and is presently considered by many as the industry......-standard tool for wind resource assessment and siting of wind turbines. The PC-implementation of the methodology, the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), has been applied in more than 70 countries and territories world-wide. The wind atlas methodology is based on physical descriptions and models...

  2. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  3. Feasibility study : identifying economic opportunities for bugwood and other biomass resources in Alberta and BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    This feasibility study discussed energy technologies for biomass feedstocks including mill residues, roadside residues, and non-merchantable tree stands in Alberta and British Columbia (BC). The study demonstrated that the lack of mill residue resources means that targeted government support may be needed to help the energy industry to use more costly resources such as roadside residue or bugwood. Government policies are also needed to support the long-term availability of biomass supplies in order to lower the supply risks related to the use of biomass resources in the energy industry. Lower prices for power in both provinces make the use of biomass unfavourable for small-scale technologies under 10 MW. However, cogeneration projects using biomass showed higher returns when power conversion efficiency was low. Higher revenues were generated from heat sales displacing natural gas than from electricity sales at current tariffs. Large-scale biomass power plants were viable when lower-cost feedstocks were available. Bio-oils were suitable as supplements for heat generation in cogeneration processes. Pellet production was also viable using less expensive feedstocks.The co-firing of biomass at coal plants required little capital investment. The study demonstrated that Alberta's power production incentive of $60 per MWh was sufficient to improve the economics of small-scale projects. It was recommended that the program be continued and paid out over a period of 10 years. It was concluded that specific electricity tariffs and incentives are needed to accelerate regrowth and create a viable biomass industry for the future. 33 refs., 45 tabs., 17 figs

  4. The European Resource Centre for Alternatives in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boo, Jasmijn; Dewhurst, David; van der Valk, Jan

    2004-06-01

    The European Resource Centre for Alternatives in Higher Education (EURCA: http://www.eurca.org) is an exciting new project, which aims to enable teachers using animals in teaching to be more creative and innovative in their approach to teaching and learning, to foster high-quality training for science students, and to significantly reduce the number of animals used, often unnecessarily, in teaching. This will be achieved by: a) establishing a resource centre--a collection of mainly electronic alternatives, and taking this to relevant scientific meetings in Europe, where it would function as a drop-in advice centre for teachers; b) creating a network of academic teachers who actively use alternatives, to take responsibility for disseminating information about alternatives to other teachers in the European Union, to participate in the activity outlined above, and to share experiences and good practice; c) setting up an Internet website with an expansive, information-rich database (peer-reviews, demos, peer-evaluations, peer-recommendations, links to users, etc.) on selected "tried and tested" alternatives; and d) encouraging and promoting the findings of evaluative studies on the effectiveness of alternatives in higher education teaching and learning.

  5. Usage of Online European Union Information Resources 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joyce

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an explosion of online European Union information resources available to researchers. However, little research into how researchers are accessing and using these resources has been carried out.. The aim of the research which informs this report was to take the first step to begin to rectify this issue. An online survey was conducted, using University of Bristol’s BOS software to which 145 people replied. The survey found that researchers considered themselves proficient at using online services. Surprisingly only 46.4% used them every day though. The Europa website was the most used but also paradoxically the most criticised for problems with search, navigation and transparency. Journals were the next most popular type of resource. Other top services included search engines, news sites and email lists. Web 2.0 has yet to be taken up widely by our sample of researchers, with few individuals having or using blogs or social networking software. The report also highlights that while some researchers are happy with EU online services, many are concerned about poor navigation and the design of websites, bias of information and the increasing abundance of passwords necessary to access multiple information resources.

  6. Achieving resource sustainability and enhancing economic development through biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2005-01-01

    As the problems associated with sustaining and enhancing the world's forest and agricultural resources compete with the needs of a rapidly increasing and affluent population, the management of our land becomes a much more complex and important issue. One of the most important environmental features of wood and other woody-like fibers is that they are renewable and...

  7. Total costs and benefits of biomass in selected regions of the European Union - BioCosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A de; Costa, F B [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Inst. de Sistemas e Robotica; Bauen, A [London Univ. (United Kingdom). Div. of Life Sciences; and others

    1998-11-01

    In the BioCosts project, representative biomass-to-electricity and biomass-to-transport-service fuel cycles located at different sites within the European Union have been evaluated concerning their environmental and economic performance. Each case study was compared to a fossil-fuel fired reference case. The case studies examined comprise: utilisation of forestry residues in the Naessjoe circulating fluidized bed combustion plant, Sweden, versus the use of Polish coal in the same plant; utilisation of forestry residues and short-rotation coppice for industrial combined heat and power production in Mangualde, Portugal, versus the use of fuel oil in an engine generating heat and power; production of biogas from manure slurry for municipal combined heat and power generation at Hashoej, Denmark, versus the use of Danish natural gas in the same engine; gasification of woody biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant; production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in a similar engine; production of rape-seed oil methyl ester and its use for goods transport in Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in the same fleet of trucks; production of ethyl tertiary butyl ether from sugar beets and sweet sorghum for transport applications in France, versus the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether from fossil sources for the same purpose 130 refs, 25 figs, 42 tabs. Research funded in part by the European Commission in the JOULE III programme

  8. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  9. European Capitals of Culture: A “soft power” resource for the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sianos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using English-language newspaper articles retrieved from digital repositories, this paper examines the cultural asymmetrical encounter between Western and Eastern Europe after 1989. It argues that due to the rise of the Iron Curtain after 1948 and the post-war progress of the Western European integration project after 1950, the idea of “Europe” was confined to the West until 1989. After 1989, however, the Eastern European nations were free to “return to Europe”, and in order to do so they followed the “reference model” of the West. The paper takes the institution of the European Capital of Culture (ECOC as a case study and demonstrates how both Western and Eastern European cities used the ECOC title as a gateway to modernity, why it acquired an extra functionality in the East as a stage where they could showcase their “European” credentials, and how it gradually developed into one of the E.U.’s “soft power” resources.

  10. Biomass resources for energy in Ohio: The OH-MARKAL modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhakar

    The latest reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have indicated that human activities are directly responsible for a significant portion of global warming trends. In response to the growing concerns regarding climate change and efforts to create a sustainable energy future, biomass energy has come to the forefront as a clean and sustainable energy resource. Biomass energy resources are environmentally clean and carbon neutral with net-zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, since CO2 is absorbed or sequestered from the atmosphere during the plant growth. Hence, biomass energy mitigates greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions that would otherwise be added to the environment by conventional fossil fuels, such as coal. The use of biomass resources for energy is even more relevant in Ohio, as the power industry is heavily based on coal, providing about 90 percent of the state's total electricity while only 50 percent of electricity comes from coal at the national level. The burning of coal for electricity generation results in substantial GHG emissions and environmental pollution, which are responsible for global warming and acid rain. Ohio is currently one of the top emitters of GHG in the nation. This dissertation research examines the potential use of biomass resources by analyzing key economic, environmental, and policy issues related to the energy needs of Ohio over a long term future (2001-2030). Specifically, the study develops a dynamic linear programming model (OH-MARKAL) to evaluate biomass cofiring as an option in select coal power plants (both existing and new) to generate commercial electricity in Ohio. The OH-MARKAL model is based on the MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) framework. Using extensive data on the power industry and biomass resources of Ohio, the study has developed the first comprehensive power sector model for Ohio. Hence, the model can serve as an effective tool for Ohio's energy planning, since it evaluates economic and environmental

  11. Water resources management and European integration of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to the main elements important for understanding the obligations arising from the process of accession of the Republic of Serbia (RS to the European Union (EU as related to water resources management. The general framework is determined by the importance of water resources for contemporary international relations as well as the rules governing the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation. This paper provides an overview of the most important regulations of the RS and the EU in the field of water resources management, including its status in international treaties. Drawing upon the rules governing the harmonization process, the paper provides indicators of the achieved level of compliance of national legislation with key EU regulations in the field of water resources management. The provided analysis is based on the premise that the process of joining the EU is the main factor that determines the current position and policy of RS in the field of water resources management. In that context, management of water resources falls into the group of EU regulations which are, within the framework of Chapter 27, most difficult to transpose and apply in the internal legal system. Although the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation has been underway as regards a vast number of regulations, the process of reaching full compliance is likely to take a couple of years. Concurrently, it has been estimated that the full implementation of legislation harmonized with the EU legislation will take at least two decades, primarily due to the substantial financial resources to be invested in the development of water infrastructure. In terms of participation in the activities undertaken within the framework of international agreements in the field of water resources management and the state's membership in relevant international treaties, it is noted that in the last decade the RS has

  12. Strategies for achieving a sustainable, clean and cost-effective biomass resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass produced in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner, could realistically be used to supply 50,000 MW (5 Quads) of electric capacity by the year 2010 and probably twice that amount by the year 2030. During the past year, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have each been independently evaluating the potential for biomass to become a major renewable energy resource over the next four decades, able to offset some of the U.S. dependency on imported fossil fuels while also offering important environmental and economic benefits. This paper presents EPRI's conclusions, which are more conservative than those of DOE, and outlines possible strategies by which EPRI can advance acceptance of biomass as a preferred renewable resource

  13. An integrated environmental analysis of short rotation forests as a biomass resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stjernquist, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Short-rotation plantations are an environmental sound energy resource if: (1) the biomass production systems are not pressed to maximum production, (2) cultivation measures are taken to minimize nutrient leaching, (3) the short-rotation plantations are designed for visual adaptation to the landscape, and (4) directed silvicultural measures are taken to retain and improve important habitats and protect marginal forest areas. (author)

  14. Efficiency in the European agricultural sector: environment and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor; Madaleno, Mara; Macedo, Pedro; Robaina, Margarita; Marques, Carlos

    2018-04-22

    This article intends to compute agriculture technical efficiency scores of 27 European countries during the period 2005-2012, using both data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) with a generalized cross-entropy (GCE) approach, for comparison purposes. Afterwards, by using the scores as dependent variable, we apply quantile regressions using a set of possible influencing variables within the agricultural sector able to explain technical efficiency scores. Results allow us to conclude that although DEA and SFA are quite distinguishable methodologies, and despite attained results are different in terms of technical efficiency scores, both are able to identify analogously the worst and better countries. They also suggest that it is important to include resources productivity and subsidies in determining technical efficiency due to its positive and significant exerted influence.

  15. Evaluation of the production potential of bio-oil from Vietnamese biomass resources by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Binh M.Q.; Duong, Long T.; Nguyen, Viet D.; Tran, Trong B.; Nguyen, My H.H.; Nguyen, Luong H.; Nguyen, Duc A.; Luu, Loc C.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural activities in Vietnam generate about 62 million tonnes of biomass (rice straw, rice husk, bagasse, corn cob, corn stover, etc.) annually. In this work, four different types of biomass from Vietnam, namely rice straw, rice husk, factory bagasse, and corn cob, have been studied as potential raw materials to produce bio-oil by fast pyrolysis technology. Test runs were conducted in a fluidized-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C and residence time less than 2 s. Size and moisture content of the feed were less than 2 mm and 2%, respectively. It was found that yields of bio-oil as a liquid product obtained from pyrolysis of these feedstocks were more than 50% and that obtained from the bagasse was the highest. Bio-oil quality from Vietnamese biomass resources satisfies ASTM D7544-12 standard for pyrolysis liquid biofuels. These results showed the potential of using biomass in Vietnam to produce bio-oil which could be directly used as a combustion fuel or upgraded into transportation fuels and chemicals. - Highlights: • Four types of Vietnamese biomass were firstly analyzed in detail. • Optimal conditions for fast pyrolysis reaction for Vietnamese biomass types. • Bio-oil product adapted to the standard specification for pyrolysis liquid biofuel

  16. Biomass resources assessment: Measuring family fuelwood consumption in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brian MacGarry, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two surveys are reported: one to test possible economic benefits to low-income urban households of using a charcoal stove for cooking, and the other covering both fuelwood collected and consumed over twelve months, in order to compare fuelwood consumption of households using a 'fuel-saving' mudstove with that of those using the more usual open hearth. The charcoal stove and charcoal as a fuel, although having desirable characteristics, do not offer an appreciable saving to current users of paraffin or most urban wood users. Consumption of paraffin was found to be 0.5 ± 0.21/household/day; of wood 7 ± 2kg/household/day and of charcoal 1.0 ± 0.4kg/household/day. Enquiries on woodfuel cost revealed that prices are influenced more by supply-side than demand-side factors, and that preferred fuel species constitute most (more than 61-91% depending on location) of the wood on sale in the streets of the suburbs surveyed. Rural users of both the mudstove and the open hearth consume about 7.5kg/household/day, although the mudstoves in question were five years old, and near the end of their useful life. Evidence of pressure on fuelwood resources and motivation towards using fuel-saving stoves appeared: only 61% of samples recorded were of preferred fuelwood species, and both collection and use patterns showed adaptations to less easily obtainable supplies. Measurements in both the rural and urban cases showed consumption per household is a more reliable basis for comparison than consumption per head. Simpler tests on recently built mud stoves are recommended and are currently being carried out. (author)

  17. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Residential use of firewood in Northern Sweden and its influence on forest biomass resources

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroos, Ola

    2011-01-01

    Firewood is society’s oldest source of household energy and is still extensively used around the world. However, little is known about firewood usage in technologically advanced countries with high energy consumption. Some key issues include quantities of firewood currently used and future trends, as well as the influence of this usage on available biomass resources. This study addresses those issues through a postal questionnaire to 1500 of the firewood using households in a region in Northe...

  19. Field biomass as energy resource for the future; Peltobiomassat tulevaisuuden energiaresurssina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahkala, K.; Loetjoenen, T. (eds.)

    2012-11-01

    Bioenergy can be derived from biomasses especially produced for bioenergy or from by-products, side streams and waste from wood processing industry, agriculture and forestry, or e.g. municipal waste. In the Nordic countries and Russia forests are a natural source of bioenergy. In many other European countries forests may be too scarce for bioenergy use. Therefore field biomasses form an interesting potential source for bioenergy. Production of field biomasses for non-food purposes has been criticized, especially as there is not enough food for everyone even at present, and in the future more food has to be produced as the world population increases. We studied the field biomass potential in different European countries with different scenarios for development. 'Good development' scenario includes improvements in plant breeding and food production and processing technologies, with increasing yields and decreasing waste of food products and raw materials. 'Bad development' scenario assumes stagnating yields and little improvement in technologies in the OECD countries, and only small improvements in former Soviet Union countries. The foci of the present research were the effects of development of food production, population growth and climate change on regional potential of field biomasses for bioenergy and sustainable use of crop residues and grasses for bioenergy. The field area that could be allocated to energy crops after growing enough food for the citizens of each country depends mostly on the diet. Growing food for vegetarian diet would occupy so little field area that every country under study could set aside at least half of their field area for bioenergy purposes already at present, if the 'good development' scenario was applied. With 'bad development' scenario some of the countries would be unable to set aside fields for bioenergy production even with vegetarian diet. With affluent diet there would be little field

  20. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Lauer, M.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness

  1. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness. (author)

  2. Uncertainty in the availability of natural resources: Fossil fuels, critical metals and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speirs, Jamie; McGlade, Christophe; Slade, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Energy policies are strongly influenced by resource availability and recoverability estimates. Yet these estimates are often highly uncertain, frequently incommensurable, and regularly contested. This paper explores how the uncertainties surrounding estimates of the availability of fossil fuels, biomass and critical metals are conceptualised and communicated. The contention is that a better understanding of the uncertainties surrounding resource estimates for both conventional and renewable energy resources can contribute to more effective policy decision making in the long term. Two complementary approaches for framing uncertainty are considered in detail: a descriptive typology of uncertainties and a framework that conceptualises uncertainty as alternative states of incomplete knowledge. Both have the potential to be useful analytical and communication tools. For the three resource types considered here we find that data limitations, inconsistent definitions and the use of incommensurable methodologies present a pervasive problem that impedes comparison. Many aspects of resource uncertainty are also not commonly captured in the conventional resource classification schemes. This highlights the need for considerable care when developing and comparing aggregate resource estimates and when using these to inform strategic energy policy decisions. - Highlights: • Resource estimates are highly uncertain, frequently incommensurable, and regularly contested. • Data limitations need to be overcome, and methodologies harmonised and improved. • Sustainability and socio-political uncertainties are frequently neglected. • Uncertainties are dynamic, but reducing uncertainties inevitably involves trade-offs.

  3. Academic partnership in NLS resource design: a European case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Pye

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the library work package of the European Unions Telematics for Teacher Training project, which links the Libraries and Education and Training sectors. Its two major deliverables, a user needs analysis report addressing networked learner support in European partner institutions and development of an online course for librarians, are discussed in terms of professional development opportunities for partnership between academic and information staff.

  4. Biomass as renewable energy resource in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The state with the wooden waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Semin; Smajevic, Izet

    2004-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina today fulfills its needs for primary energy mainly from fossil fuels. In spite of significant resources of all renewable sources of energy and despite evidently open possibility for their utilization, these resources (except for, partly, hydropower) hove practically not been used to date. Due to its climatic situation, Bosnia and Herzegovina is very rich in woodland. Thus the production, harvesting and processing of timber is one of the country's oldest economic activities, and also has nowadays major strategic importance for the country's economic development. The purpose of this paper is to point out the energy potential of wooden waste, as a component of still un sufficiently utilized biomass in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this paper, attention is primarily focused on results of research in the area of estimation of obviously significant energy potential of wooden waste produced in rather widespread wood and timber industry of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Preliminary research of this resource carried out to date showed that technical potential of biomass from timber waste is approx. 8,5 PJ. (Author)

  5. Food web architecture and basal resources interact to determine biomass and stoichiometric cascades along a benthic food web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D Guariento

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of predators and resources on primary producers has been a major focus of interest in ecology. Within this context, the trophic cascade concept especially concerning the pelagic zone of lakes has been the focus of the majority of these studies. However, littoral food webs could be especially interesting because base trophic levels may be strongly regulated by consumers and prone to be light limited. In this study, the availability of nutrients and light and the presence of an omnivorous fish (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus were manipulated in enclosures placed in a humic coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé - RJ to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of resource availability (nutrients and light and food web configuration on the biomass and stoichiometry of periphyton and benthic grazers. Our findings suggest that light and nutrients interact to determine periphyton biomass and stoichiometry, which propagates to the consumer level. We observed a positive effect of the availability of nutrients on periphytic biomass and grazers' biomass, as well as a reduction of periphytic C∶N∶P ratios and an increase of grazers' N and P content. Low light availability constrained the propagation of nutrient effects on periphyton biomass and induced higher periphytic C∶N∶P ratios. The effects of fish presence strongly interacted with resource availability. In general, a positive effect of fish presence was observed for the total biomass of periphyton and grazer's biomass, especially with high resource availability, but the opposite was found for periphytic autotrophic biomass. Fish also had a significant effect on periphyton stoichiometry, but no effect was observed on grazers' stoichiometric ratios. In summary, we observed that the indirect effect of fish predation on periphyton biomass might be dependent on multiple resources and periphyton nutrient stoichiometric variation can affect consumers' stoichiometry.

  6. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems. Biomass allocation model. Volume 1: Test and appendices A & B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, R. P.; Ahn, Y. K.; Chen, H. T.; Helm, R. W.; Nelson, E. T.; Shields, K. J.

    1981-08-01

    A biomass allocation model was developed to show the most profitable combination of biomass feedstocks, thermochemical conversion processes, and fuel products to serve the seasonal conditions in a regional market. This optimization model provides a tool for quickly calculating which of a large number of potential biomass missions is the most profitable mission. Other components of the system serve as a convenient storage and retrieval mechanism for biomass marketing and thermochemical conversion processing data. The system can be accessed through the use of a computer terminal, or it could be adapted to a microprocessor. A User's Manual for the system is included. Biomass derived fuels included in the data base are the following: medium Btu gas, low Btu gas, substitute natural gas, ammonia, methanol, electricity, gasoline, and fuel oil.

  7. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M.; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I.; Hernández, Félix J.; Hewitt, L.M.; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; Meent, van de Dik; Brink, van den Paul J.; Gils, van Jos; Wezel, van Annemarie P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Ohe, von der Peter C.; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for

  8. Expanding the biomass resource: sustainable oil production via fast pyrolysis of low input high diversity biomass and the potential integration of thermochemical and biological conversion routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, J; Donnison, I S; Patel, M; Bühle, L; Hodgson, E; Wachendorf, M; Bridgwater, A; Allison, G; Fraser, M D

    2016-09-01

    Waste biomass is generated during the conservation management of semi-natural habitats, and represents an unused resource and potential bioenergy feedstock that does not compete with food production. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterise a representative range of biomass generated during conservation management in Wales. Of the biomass types assessed, those dominated by rush ( Juncus effuses ) and bracken ( Pteridium aquilinum ) exhibited the highest and lowest volatile compositions respectively and were selected for bench scale conversion via fast pyrolysis. Each biomass type was ensiled and a sub-sample of silage was washed and pressed. Demineralization of conservation biomass through washing and pressing was associated with higher oil yields following fast pyrolysis. The oil yields were within the published range established for the dedicated energy crops miscanthus and willow. In order to examine the potential a multiple output energy system was developed with gross power production estimates following valorisation of the press fluid, char and oil. If used in multi fuel industrial burners the char and oil alone would displace 3.9 × 10 5  tonnes per year of No. 2 light oil using Welsh biomass from conservation management. Bioenergy and product development using these feedstocks could simultaneously support biodiversity management and displace fossil fuels, thereby reducing GHG emissions. Gross power generation predictions show good potential.

  9. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  10. Assessing impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.J.; Mavsar, R.; Giergiczny, M.; Lindner, M.; Edwards, D.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    To develop viable strategies for intensifying the use of forest biomass and for increasing forest protection, impacts on ecosystem services need to be assessed. We investigated the biophysical and economic impacts of increased forest biomass production and biodiversity protection on forest ecosystem

  11. A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand electricity generation system is dominated by hydro generation at approximately 60% of installed capacity between 2005 and 2007, augmented with approximately 32% fossil-fuelled generation, plus minor contributions from geothermal, wind and biomass resources. In order to explore the potential for a 100% renewable electricity generation system with substantially increased levels of wind penetration, fossil-fuelled electricity production was removed from an historic 3-year data set, and replaced by modelled electricity production from wind, geothermal and additional peaking options. Generation mixes comprising 53-60% hydro, 22-25% wind, 12-14% geothermal, 1% biomass and 0-12% additional peaking generation were found to be feasible on an energy and power basis, whilst maintaining net hydro storage. Wind capacity credits ranged from 47% to 105% depending upon the incorporation of demand management, and the manner of operation of the hydro system. Wind spillage was minimised, however, a degree of residual spillage was considered to be an inevitable part of incorporating non-dispatchable generation into a stand-alone grid system. Load shifting was shown to have considerable advantages over installation of new peaking plant. Application of the approach applied in this research to countries with different energy resource mixes is discussed, and options for further research are outlined.

  12. European Human Resources Observatory for the Nuclear Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flore, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Institute for Energy and Transport provides support to European Union policies and technology innovation to ensure sustainable, safe, secure and efficient energy production, distribution and use and to foster sustainable and efficient transport in Europe. Briefly outlined are the organization, bottom-up approach and top-down approach

  13. Solid domestic wastes as a renewable resource: European experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridland, V. S.; Livshits, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ways in which different types of solid domestic wastes, such as wastepaper, crushed glass, plastics and worn-out tires, can be efficiently included into the production, raw-material, and energy balances of the national economy are shown taking Germany and other European countries an example. Methods for recycling these solid domestic wastes and application fields of the obtained products are discussed.

  14. Biomass for energy or materials? A Western European MARKAL MATTER 1.0 model characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, D.J.; Gerlagh, T.; Bos, A.J.M.

    1998-12-01

    The structure and input data for the biomass module of the MATTER 1.0 model, a MARKAL energy and materials systems engineering model for Western Europe, is discussed. This model is used for development of energy and materials strategies for greenhouse gas emission reduction. Preliminary biomass results are presented in order to identify key processes and key parameters that deserve further analysis. The results show that the production of biomaterials is an attractive option for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Biomaterials can substitute materials which require a lot of energy for production or they can substitute fossil fuel feedstocks. Increased biomaterials production will result in increasing amounts of waste biomass which can be used for energy production. An increase of the use of biomass for the production of materials needs more attention in the forthcoming BRED analysis. 93 refs

  15. Sustainable synthesis gas from biomass. A bridge to a sustainable supply of energy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Uil, H.; Van Ree, R.; Van der Drift, A.; Boerrigter, H.

    2004-04-01

    Synthesis gas is currently primarily used in the (petro)chemical industry and for the production of liquid fuels. Smaller amounts are being used for electricity and synthetic natural gas (=SNG) production. Finite fossil resources, the dependence on political instable regimes and the Kyoto-protocol are drivers for the attention for renewable synthesis gas. In this report the market for, production of, use of and economy of renewable synthesis gas are analysed. Current synthesis gas use is limited to about 3% of the Dutch primary energy consumption; worldwide this is about 2%. Driven by the targets for renewable energy and the wide range of possible uses, the market for renewable synthesis gas has a large potential. When using synthesis gas for the production of SNG, electricity, liquid fuels and chemicals, the Dutch market for renewable synthesis gas can be 150 PJ in 2010, doubling about every decade to 1500 PJ in 2040. SNG and electricity, together about 80%. To reach these market volumes, import of biomass will be required due to the limited availability of local biomass resources in the Netherlands. The specifications for synthesis gas are dependent on the application. For (petro)chemical use and the production of liquid fuels high H2 and CO concentrations are required, for SNG and electricity production high CH4 concentrations are preferred. Due to the different specifications the names synthesis gas and product gas are used in this study. The name synthesis gas is claimed for a large number of gasification processes under development. But only for a number of processes this claim is justified. The gasification temperature determines the type of gas produced. At high temperatures, above 1300C, synthesis gas is produced, at low temperatures, 700-1000C, so-called product gas is being produced. Entrained-flow gasification is the only possibility for large-scale synthesis gas production in one step. For this process the particle size of the feed has to be small

  16. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, F.; Koskela, J.; Hubert, J.; Kraigher, H.; Longauer, R.; Olrik, D.C.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across

  17. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  18. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  19. Biomass energy utilisation - ecological and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamen Gramatikov

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is the world's fourth largest energy source today and it represents about 35% of the primary energy supply in developing countries. Biomass is a versatile source of energy in that it can produce electricity, heat, transport fuel and it can be stored. The problems (technical, economic, etc.) which have to be solved by treatment of biomass are discussed in this work. The average quantities of biomass resources of some European countries are presented and the structure, percentage of products and their calorific values are estimated. Keywords: Biomass Energy Potential, Ecological & Economic Aspects

  20. Discursive shifts in energy from biomass : a 30 year European overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkels, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to provide a long term overview of developments in energy from biomass in Western Europe by analyzing the discourse in RD&D and related policy. To this end, the discourse in Western Europe between 1980 and 2010 has been studied by the literature study of open literature and articles

  1. The development of biocommodities and the role of North West European ports in biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Annevelink, B.; Hoeven, van der D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass-derived commodities will compete with commodities derived from fossil fuels in 20 years' time. This perspective will explore the economic conditions that will govern the development of, and the trade in these biocommodities. Markets for biocommodities will open up new revenues for both the

  2. Biomass and bioenergy in the wider land-use context of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, B.R.; Keegan, D.; Elbersen, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    Demands from land are increasing within the EU. Targets set out under the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) are driving the production of energetic biomass for use within the energy sector and, at the same time, changing populations, diets, and societal preferences are leading to increased demands

  3. Spatial variability and controls over biomass stocks, carbon fluxes, and resource-use efficiencies across forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Martínez, Marcos; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan A.; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Campioli, Matteo; Sardans, Jordi; Estiarte, Marc; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Key message: Stand age, water availability, and the length of the warm period are the most influencing controls of forest structure, functioning, and efficiency. We aimed to discern the distribution and controls of plant biomass, carbon fluxes, and resource-use efficiencies of forest ecosystems

  4. Biomass, energy and economic and natural resource differentiation in rural southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.; Giriappa, S.

    1995-01-01

    The rural economy in India is as yet only partially monetized and continues to retain its semi-subsistence character, while at the same time undergoing the process of becoming more monetized and market-orientated. A large field study was conducted in rural Karnataka, a state in southern India, which uncovers the relations between the energy situations of the rural social classes and their access to labour, land, cash and physical assets. Of equal significance are regional variations in ecology, rainfall and irrigation. The study's principal focus is the rural household, but it also includes some analysis of the energy dimensions in agricultural activities and small-scale rural services. Eight villages were covered by the survey, one in each district, carefully selected to reflect the geographic, climatic, biomass-resource and socio-economic features of Karnataka. In each village an average of 55 households were studied in depth, making up a total of 450 households. Clear and marked differentiations are uncovered between the rural social classes in various aspects of energy production, purchase, sale and consumption, as well as in labour and cash inputs into the energy flows. It is found that traditional forms of biomass are still the dominant type of energy for all rural strata, and that only the rural middle class can be said to have begun the transition towards modern fuels, although its consumption of modern fuels is still negligibly small in absolute terms. The study reveals that the rural middle class faces no energy crisis, while the 'intermediate' class of the small peasantry is just about managing to make ends meet in energy terms. In contrast to this, the rural wage labour class continues to remain in a state of energy crisis. (author)

  5. Priority order in using biomass resources - Energy systems analyses of future scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    . This article compares the value of using biomass as a heat source and for electricity generation in a 100% renewable energy system context. The comparison is done by assuming an incremental decrease in the biomass available for the electricity and heat sector, respectively. The assumed scenarios......According to some future Danish energy scenarios, biomass will become one of the two main pillars of the future energy system accompanied by wind power. The biomass can be used for generating heat and electricity, and as a transportation fuel in a future energy system according to the scenarios...... for the decrease of biomass are made by use of an hourly energy system analysis model, EnergyPLAN. The results are shown in terms of system configuration, biomass fuel efficiency, system cost, and impacts on the export of electricity. It is concluded that the reduction of biomass in the heat sector is better than...

  6. Report on the EMBER Project--A European Multimedia Bioinformatics Educational Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Terri K.; Selimas, Ioannis; Buis, Rob; Altenburg, Ruud; Herzog, Robert; Ledent, Valerie; Ghita, Viorica; Fernandes, Pedro; Marques, Isabel; Brugman, Marc

    2005-01-01

    EMBER was a European project aiming to develop bioinformatics teaching materials on the Web and CD-ROM to help address the recognised skills shortage in bioinformatics. The project grew out of pilot work on the development of an interactive web-based bioinformatics tutorial and the desire to repackage that resource with the help of a professional…

  7. Environmental application for GIS: Assessing Iskandar Malaysia's (IM) sewage sludge for potential biomass resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, M. R.; Shaharuddin, N.; Abdullah Halim, K.

    2014-02-01

    The low carbon scenario could be achieved through the identification of major sectors contributing to the emission of high greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Sewage treatment plant (STP) was ranked as one of the major sectors that emits methane gas (CH4) during treatment processes, including sludge treatment. Sludge treatment is also capital extensive with high operational cost. Thus, sewage sludge has been accepted as a nuisance in STP. However, many has claimed that, sludge produced contain organic matter that has the potential for biomass resource. Thus, it would be such a Žwaste? if sludge are directly disposed of into the landfill without utilizing them at its full potential. In order to do so, it is vital to be able to determine the amount of sludge production. This research was implemented in Iskandar Malaysia regions in the state of Johor. By using GIS tool, the regions that produced the most sewage sludge can be determined, and can be group as critical area. Result shows that Nusajaya produces the most, compared to other regions, which indicated Nusajaya as a densely populated region.

  8. The French market of biomass. An analysis of barriers and levers of development of the wood-energy sector, main biomass resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at assessing the weight of wood-energy in the French energy mix when it represents 97 per cent of biomass consumed under the form of heat, at giving an overview of markets within which this energy is now valorised (housing heating, heat and cogeneration), at analysing the business model of biomass projects, at assessing mechanisms aimed at supporting this sector, and at assessing the potential of the French market as far as wood-energy is concerned. The report presents the operation principles and applications of biomass, analyses the share of wood-energy in the French energy mix and the objectives defined by the Grenelle de l'Environnement, presents the French forests as an abundant resource, comments wood-based heating of housing as an evolving market, presents and analyses the market of industrial and collective heat, and discusses the perspective of a multiplication by 4 by 2020 of cogeneration installed capacities

  9. International biomass. International markets of biomass-energy - Public synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardette, Yves-Marie; Dieckhoff, Lea; Lorne, Daphne; Postec, Gwenael; Cherisey, Hugues de; RANTIEN, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at analysing the present and future place of wood-energy in the European Union as the main renewable resource used to produce heat and electricity. This study comprised an analysis of European markets of solid biomass and of regulation, case studies on wood-energy producer markets (North America, Eastern Europe, Brazil and Africa), a study of preparation modes (shredding, granulation, roasting) and biomass transport. This study is based on bibliographical searches in national and European sources, and on field data collected by the various bodies involved in this study. This synthesis notably discusses the following issues: solid biomass is the main renewable resource for the EU and has many applications; European objectives for solid biomass by 2020 are very ambitious; markets are becoming international to face the EU's increasing demand; pellet production in North America is strongly increasing; in Europe, eastern European countries are the main exporters; Brazil has an export potential which is still to be confirmed; the African trade with Europe is still in its infancy. Finally, the development perspectives of roasted wood trade are discussed

  10. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Basics Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy" keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source. A

  11. C3 and C4 biomass allocation responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen: contrasting resource capture strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K.P.; Langley, J.A.; Cahoon, D.R.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Plants alter biomass allocation to optimize resource capture. Plant strategy for resource capture may have important implications in intertidal marshes, where soil nitrogen (N) levels and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are changing. We conducted a factorial manipulation of atmospheric CO2 (ambient and ambient + 340 ppm) and soil N (ambient and ambient + 25 g m-2 year-1) in an intertidal marsh composed of common North Atlantic C3 and C4 species. Estimation of C3 stem turnover was used to adjust aboveground C3 productivity, and fine root productivity was partitioned into C3-C4 functional groups by isotopic analysis. The results suggest that the plants follow resource capture theory. The C3 species increased aboveground productivity under the added N and elevated CO2 treatment (P 2 alone. C3 fine root production decreased with added N (P 2 (P = 0.0481). The C4 species increased growth under high N availability both above- and belowground, but that stimulation was diminished under elevated CO2. The results suggest that the marsh vegetation allocates biomass according to resource capture at the individual plant level rather than for optimal ecosystem viability in regards to biomass influence over the processes that maintain soil surface elevation in equilibrium with sea level.

  12. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  13. Human resource management in change – one reason: the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah HERLEMANN

    2007-01-01

    Times are moving fast, especially if political changes are coming up. Romania’s accession to the European Union is followed by several changes in the Human Resource Management; in Romania itself, but also in the other EU countries. Employees are moving beyond borders to work abroad and need to be caught and imbedded in the new working environment. Motivation is an important issue, but also other appeals for qualified staff to decide upon the move into a foreign European country. Further of im...

  14. Total Costs and Benefits of Biomass in Selected regions of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, A. de; Bauen, A.; Costa, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant;- production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel...... and power production in Mangualde, Portugal, versus the use of fuel oil in an engine generating heat and power;- production of biogas from animal slurry for municipal combined heat an power generation at Hashoej, Denmark, versus the use fo Danish natural gas in the same engine;- gasification of woody...... in a similar engine;- production of rape-seed oil methyl ester (RME) and its use for goods transport in Germay, versus the use of diesel fuel in the same fleet of trucks;- production of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) from sugar beets and sweet sorghum for transport applications in France, versus the use...

  15. The effect of vegetation height and biomass on the sediment budget of a European saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Ruth; Schuerch, Mark; Christie, Elizabeth K.; Möller, Iris; Spencer, Tom

    2018-03-01

    Sediment retention in saltmarshes is often attributed to the presence of vegetation, which enhances accretion by slowing water flow, reduces erosion by attenuating wave energy and increases surface stability through the presence of organic matter. Saltmarsh vegetation morphology varies considerably on a range of spatial and temporal scales, but the effect of different above ground morphologies on sediment retention is not well characterised. Understanding the biophysical interaction between the canopy and sediment trapping in situ is important for improving numerical shoreline models. In a novel field flume study, we measured the effect of vegetation height and biomass on sediment trapping using a mass balance approach. Suspended sediment profilers were placed at both openings of a field flume built across-shore on the seaward boundary of an intertidal saltmarsh in the Dengie Peninsula, UK. Sequential removal of plant material from within the flume resulted in incremental loss of vegetation height and biomass. The difference between the concentration of suspended sediment measured at each profiler was used to determine the sediment budget within the flume. Deposition of material on the plant/soil surfaces within the flume occurred during flood tides, while ebb flow resulted in erosion (to a lesser degree) from the flume area, with a positive sediment budget of on average 6.5 g m-2 tide-1 with no significant relationship between sediment trapping efficiency and canopy morphology. Deposition (and erosion) rates were positively correlated to maximum inundation depth. Our results suggest that during periods of calm conditions, changes to canopy morphology do not result in significant changes in sediment budgets in marshes.

  16. Food resources and trophic relationships of brown, rainbow trout and european grayling in different habitats of Shypit river of the Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruzhylina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study food resources, feeding conditions and trophic relationships of the brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha fario, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, and European grayling (Thymallus thymallus in a Transcarpatioan river. Methodology. The material on the food resources and feeding of the brown trout, rainbow trout, and European grayling was collected in summer period of 2012 on the Shypit river. The study was performed on two different sites of the river: the first one was located on the middle pre-mountain reach of the river (upstream of the Hydroelectric power plant, the second one – on the mountain reach of the river (near tourist base on typical biotopes: I – with boulders and riffles with fast current; II – with medium size stones and low riffles with moderate current; III – with small stones, sand and slow current. The material was collected and processed according to standard and unified hydrological, ichthyological, and trophological methods. Findings. We studied the level of macrozoobenthos development and obtained data on feeding and trophic relationships among brown trout, rainbow trout, and European grayling on different biotopes on pre-mountain and mountain reaches of the Shypit river. The number of “soft” macrozoobenthos on different biotopes varied from 972 to 2576 ind./m2 with biomasses from 6.3 to 121.8 g/m2. Total diet overlap index (DOI between brown trout and rainbow trout on the biotope with boulders and fast current in the pre-mountain reach was 32.4% by number and 20.3% by biomass, while that on the mountain reach was 49.6% and 52.9%, respectively. On the biotope with medium size stones and moderate current, the diet overlap index between rainbow trout and European grayling in the pre-mountain reach was 19.0% by number and 27.9% by biomass. Originality. First study of the diet and tropic relationships of the brown trout, rainbow trout, and еuropean grayling on different reached of the Shypit river

  17. Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations Model of Total Aboveground Biomass in Forest Stands: Site-scale Test of Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, S.; Shi, Y.; Ni, X.; Simard, M.; Myneni, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Sparseness in in-situ observations has precluded the spatially explicit and accurate mapping of forest biomass. The need for large-scale maps has raised various approaches implementing conjugations between forest biomass and geospatial predictors such as climate, forest type, soil property, and topography. Despite the improved modeling techniques (e.g., machine learning and spatial statistics), a common limitation is that biophysical mechanisms governing tree growth are neglected in these black-box type models. The absence of a priori knowledge may lead to false interpretation of modeled results or unexplainable shifts in outputs due to the inconsistent training samples or study sites. Here, we present a gray-box approach combining known biophysical processes and geospatial predictors through parametric optimizations (inversion of reference measures). Total aboveground biomass in forest stands is estimated by incorporating the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Two main premises of this research are: (a) The Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations (ASRL) theory can provide a relationship between tree geometry and local resource availability constrained by environmental conditions; and (b) The zeroth order theory (size-frequency distribution) can expand individual tree allometry into total aboveground biomass at the forest stand level. In addition to the FIA estimates, two reference maps from the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD) and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) were produced to evaluate the model. This research focuses on a site-scale test of the biomass model to explore the robustness of predictors, and to potentially improve models using additional geospatial predictors such as climatic variables, vegetation indices, soil properties, and lidar-/radar-derived altimetry products (or existing forest canopy height maps). As results, the optimized ASRL estimates satisfactorily

  18. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zein, Imad; Brenner, Everton A

    2010-01-01

    Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes...

  19. The practice of career development in the international human resource management of the European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function very close to the training in the management of human resources is certainly the human resource development. Specifically, the employees acquire new knowledge, abilities and skills during the training process, but also gain new experiences through various business tasks during their working life, developing themselves both, in private life and in the professional sense. Human resource development is seen as the development of the expertise of people through organizational development and training of employees in order of improvement of the performances. In this paper authors explored the practice of carrier development in European countries. Research was based on data from international project, CRANET, in the period from 2008 to 2010. The authors presented data about the usage of techniques for evaluation of career development and investigated obtained results.

  20. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Venteris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. We summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. Our growth model is used to predict average biomass production for two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp., one fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412, and one freshwater strain (order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas, land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area, a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1. Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive strain, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 1.8 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank UFs are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations.

  1. Environmental Multiobjective Optimization of the Use of Biomass Resources for Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadenbo, Carl; Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    of the optimization model is exemplified by a case aimed at determining the environmentally optimal use of biomass in the Danish energy system in 2025. A multiobjective formulation based on fuzzy intervals for six environmental impact categories resulted in impact reductions of 13-43% compared to the baseline...... environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multiobjective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints. Besides satisfying annual final energy demand...

  2. Yeast derived from lignocellulosic biomass as a sustainable feed resource for use in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, Margareth; Skrede, Anders

    2017-02-01

    The global expansion in aquaculture production implies an emerging need of suitable and sustainable protein sources. Currently, the fish feed industry is dependent on high-quality protein sources of marine and plant origin. Yeast derived from processing of low-value and non-food lignocellulosic biomass is a potential sustainable source of protein in fish diets. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the hexose and pentose sugars of lignocellulosic substrates and supplementary nutrients can be converted into protein-rich yeast biomass by fermentation. Studies have shown that yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus have favourable amino acid composition and excellent properties as protein sources in diets for fish, including carnivorous species such as Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Suitable downstream processing of the biomass to disrupt cell walls is required to secure high nutrient digestibility. A number of studies have shown various immunological and health benefits from feeding fish low levels of yeast and yeast-derived cell wall fractions. This review summarises current literature on the potential of yeast from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative protein source for the aquaculture industry. It is concluded that further research and development within yeast production can be important to secure the future sustainability and economic viability of intensive aquaculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Distribution, utilization structure and potential of biomass resources in rural China: With special references of crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H [Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang, G M [Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Agronomy Department, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an 271018, Shandong Province (China); Zhuang, H Y [National Bio-Energy CO., LTD, No. 26B, Financial Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100032 (China); Shandong Academy of Sciences, No. 19, Keyuan Road, Ji' nan 250014, Shandong Province (China); Wang, K J [Agronomy Department, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an 271018, Shandong Province (China)

    2008-06-15

    As the largest developing country in the world, China is urgently in short of energy and natural resources. However, biological resources such as crop residues are burnt in the field, which cause serious environmental pollution. Still it is not clear how much storage and potential of these huge crop residues are in China. This paper firstly reported the distribution, utilization structure and potential of crop biomass and provided the tangible information of crop residues in rural China through careful collecting and recalculating data. From 1995 to 2005, China produces some 630 million tons of crop residues per year, 50% of which comes from east and central south of China. The amount of crop residues is 1.3 times of the total yield of crops, 2 times of the total fodder of grassland, which covers 41% of China's territory. Crop residues of corn, wheat and rice amounted to 239, 137 and 116 million tons, respectively, accounting for nearly 80% of the total crop residues. Unfortunately, the utilizing structure is seriously improper for such abundant biomass resources. Although 23% of the crop residues are used for forage, 4% for industry materials and 0.5% for biogas, the large parts are used with lower efficiency or wasted, with 37% being directly combusted by farmers, 15% lost during collection and the rest 20.5% discarded or directly burnt in the field. Reasonable adjustment of the utilizing pattern and popularization of the recycling agriculture are essential out-ways for residues, with the development of the forage industry being the breakthrough point. We suggested that utilizing the abandoned 20.5% of the total residues for forage and combining agriculture and stock raising can greatly improve the farm system and cut down fertilizer pollution. Through the development of forage industries, the use efficiency of crop residues could be largely enhanced. Commercializing and popularizing technologies of biomass gasification and liquefaction might be substitute

  4. Cross-Sectoral Resource Management: How Forest Management Alternatives Affect the Provision of Biomass and Other Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Frank

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated forest management is faced with the challenge that the contribution of forests to economic and ecological planning targets must be assessed in a socio-ecological system context. This paper introduces a way to model spatio-temporal dynamics of biomass production at a regional scale in order to derive land use strategies that enhance biomass provision and avoid trade-offs for other ecosystem services. The software platform GISCAME was employed to bridge the gap between local land management decisions and regional planning by linking growth and yield models with an integrative mesoscale modeling and assessment approach. The model region is located in Saxony, Germany. Five scenarios were simulated, which aimed at testing different alternatives for adapted land use in the context of climate change and increasing biomass demand. The results showed, for example, that forest conversion towards climate-change-adapted forest types had positive effects on ecological integrity and landscape aesthetics. In contrast, negative impacts on landscape aesthetics must be expected if agricultural sites were converted into short rotation coppices. Uncertainties with stem from assumptions regarding growth and yield models were discussed. Future developmental steps which consider, for example, accessibility of the resources were identified.

  5. A novel PSB-EDI system for high ammonia wastewater treatment, biomass production and nitrogen resource recovery: PSB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hangyao; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Guangming; Yan, Guokai; Lu, Haifeng; Sun, Liyan

    A novel process coupling photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) with electrodeionization (EDI) treatment was proposed to treat high ammonia wastewater and recover bio-resources and nitrogen. The first stage (PSB treatment) was used to degrade organic pollutants and accumulate biomass, while the second stage (EDI) was for nitrogen removal and recovery. The first stage was the focus in this study. The results showed that using PSB to transform organic pollutants in wastewater into biomass was practical. PSB could acclimatize to wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,300 mg/L and an ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentration of 288-4,600 mg/L. The suitable pH was 6.0-9.0, the average COD removal reached 80%, and the biomass increased by an average of 9.16 times. The wastewater COD removal was independent of the NH4(+)-N concentration. Moreover, the PSB functioned effectively when the inoculum size was only 10 mg/L. The PSB-treated wastewater was then further handled in an EDI system. More than 90% of the NH4(+)-N was removed from the wastewater and condensed in the concentrate, which could be used to produce nitrogen fertilizer. In the whole system, the average NH4(+)-N removal was 94%, and the average NH4(+)-N condensing ratio was 10.0.

  6. Zooplankton biomass and potential fishery resources of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    , Lakshadweep (Laccadive) and Andaman and Nicobar seas. Zooplankton biomass values ranged from 0.02 to 20.0 ml m sup(-3) (av. = 0.82 ml m sup(-3)); 0.01 to 5.3 ml m sup(-3) (av. = 0.22 ml m sup(-3)); 0.01 to 1.6 ml m sup(-3) (av. = 0.82 ml m sup(-3) and 0.2 to 0...

  7. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  8. Responses in chemical traits and biomass allocation of Arundo donax L. to deficit resources in the establishment year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pompeiano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large expansion in renewable energy production is underway with an increasing focus on sustainable second-generation biofuels. Fast growing rhizomatous perennial grasses are leading candidates for lignocellulosic feedstock thanks to their positive energy balance, and low ecological/agro-management demands. Biomass accumulation is favored by the efficient use of available resources. The aim of this study was to identify which accumulation processes were most affected in the establishment year of a giant reed (Arundo donax L. field crop grown under water and N deficiencies. The relative plasticity of growth of A. donax in response to various levels of resource availability was evaluated. A field scale experiment was carried out, and treatments were arranged as a randomized complete block, strip-plot design with irrigation treatments as the main plot factor and pre-planting N rate as the sub-plot factor. Biometric relationships between variables were assessed to understand how agro-management factors influence the above ground biomass of giant reed, as well as yield over time. Evidence is presented indicating that growth is strongly enhanced by water availability (+97% dry weight biomass. Changes in composition were not significant within or among fixed treatments, rather changes were observed over time. A high content of glucans and xylans were detected from early stage, and as the mobilization of minerals increased, lignin content significantly increased as well (from 12% to 36% w/w. These results suggest that an increase in the growth of A. donax in the establishment year is accomplished by a limited use of the water input

  9. A comparative study of six European databases of medically oriented Web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad García, Francisca; González Teruel, Aurora; Bayo Calduch, Patricia; de Ramón Frias, Rosa; Castillo Blasco, Lourdes

    2005-10-01

    The paper describes six European medically oriented databases of Web resources, pertaining to five quality-controlled subject gateways, and compares their performance. The characteristics, coverage, procedure for selecting Web resources, record structure, searching possibilities, and existence of user assistance were described for each database. Performance indicators for each database were obtained by means of searches carried out using the key words, "myocardial infarction." Most of the databases originated in the 1990s in an academic or library context and include all types of Web resources of an international nature. Five databases use Medical Subject Headings. The number of fields per record varies between three and nineteen. The language of the search interfaces is mostly English, and some of them allow searches in other languages. In some databases, the search can be extended to Pubmed. Organizing Medical Networked Information, Catalogue et Index des Sites Médicaux Francophones, and Diseases, Disorders and Related Topics produced the best results. The usefulness of these databases as quick reference resources is clear. In addition, their lack of content overlap means that, for the user, they complement each other. Their continued survival faces three challenges: the instability of the Internet, maintenance costs, and lack of use in spite of their potential usefulness.

  10. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  11. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, W.; Dulio, V.; Agerstrand, M.; Allan, I.; Altenburger, R.; Brinkmann, M.; Bunke, D.; Burgess, R.M.; Cousins, I.; Escher, B.I.; Hernandez, F.J.; Hewitt, L.M.; Hilscherova, K.; Hollender, J.; Hollert, H.; Kase, R.; Klauer, B.; Lindim, C.; Herraez, D.L.; Miege, C.; Munthe, J.; O'Toole, S.; Posthuma, L.; Rudel, H.; Schafer, R.B.; Sengl, M.; Smedes, F.; van de Meent, D.; van den Brink, P.J.; van Gils, J.; van Wezel, A.P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Vermeirssen, E.; von der Ohe, P.C.; Vrana, B.

    2017-01-01

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for

  12. Priority of domestic biomass resources for energy: Importance of national environmental targets in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Vadenbo, Carl; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    ) for electricity/heat is generally preferred, as long as coal/oil is still used within the energy system. Yet, to fulfill environmental targets for renewable energy in the transport sector, the diversion of a significant share of biogas (and/or other biofuels) from these more beneficial uses is necessary...... that utilizing the energy potential of manure and straw represents the primary opportunity for further global warming mitigation. For this purpose, co-digestion (for manure) and combustion with heat-and-power production (for straw) appear as the most promising technologies. The utilization of biomass (or biogas...

  13. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  14. Strain Selection, Biomass to Biofuel Conversion, and Resource Colocation have Strong Impacts on the Economic Performance of Algae Cultivation Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R., E-mail: erik.venteris@pnl.gov; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-16

    Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. We summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. Our growth model is used to predict average biomass production for two saline strains (Nannochloropsis salina and Arthrospira sp.), one fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412), and one freshwater strain (order Sphaeropleales). Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technologies. National-scale models of water, CO{sub 2} (as flue gas), land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL) to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area), a number sufficient to produce 136E + 9 L year{sup −1} of renewable diesel [36 billion gallons year{sup −1} (BGY)]. Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million year{sup −1} UF{sup −1}. Results based on the most productive strain, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to 4 million year{sup −1} UF{sup −1}, with 1.8 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low sites within 10 kms of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank UFs are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising

  15. Biomass Maps | Geospatial Data Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Maps Biomass Maps These maps illustrate the biomass resource in the United States by county . Biomass feedstock data are analyzed both statistically and graphically using a geographic information Data Science Team. Solid Biomass Resources Map of Total Biomass Resources in the United States Solid

  16. An assessment of UK bioenergy production, resource availability, biomass gasification and life cycle impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Energy use and the environment are inextricably linked and form a key role in concerns over sustainability. All methods of energy production involve resource uncertainties and environmental impacts. A clear example of this is the use of fossil fuels which present three main problems, being: finite resources; significant contribution to environmental pollution; and reliance on imports. Hence there is a clear need to reduce the use of fossil fuels for energy. Bioenergy has the potential to both...

  17. System of own resources in the formation of the European Union budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Boiar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article there has been made a structural and critical analysis of the basic component of the EU budget revenue – the system of own resources. In particular, there are considered the stages of formation, structure, legal and institutional mechanisms of this system. There were developed methodical approaches which are used by the European Commission for calculating the key parameters of the EU system of own resources, namely: the volume of payments to the EU budget, which the member states of the Community pay according to each of the existing categories of own resources; harmonized basis of value-added tax and gross national income of member states; the volume of compensations to particular member states, which have negative balanced trade in the EU budget (Great Britain, Sweden, Holland etc. Great attention is paid to reasoning strong and weak aspects of the working system. There are highlighted the possible ways of solving the current problems and singled out the most anticipated, according to the author’s opinion, reform directions of the EU revenue in the short and medium-term prospect.

  18. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Nogueira de Paiva Britto, A. L.

    2008-08-01

    The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  19. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barraqué

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  20. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard

    2014-09-16

    Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. In this contribution we summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. We present strain-specific growth model results from two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp.), a fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412), and a freshwater strain of the order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE) and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas), land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL) to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area), a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1, BGY). Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive species, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 2.0 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low rank sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on site rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank sites are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations. Keywords: algae

  1. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  2. Biomass goes to waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    Currently the two most suitable words to describe the biomass energy industry are waste and recycling. However, there are several ways of looking at this. The first is a literal one. This reflects the current changes which are taking place in waste treatment as a consequence of new environmental initiatives. These are predicted to intensify as and when new Community Directives come into force through national legislation within the European Union (EU). At the same time biomass, in the true sense, both goes to waste as crops are not used and generates waste in terms of resources as uneconomic ventures are funded for political reasons. The net result is a depleted industry, in some sectors, and one based on false hopes in others. At the same time there is also some clarity emerging in respect of end use, with most activities focussing on decentralised electricity generation and the formation of liquid transport fuels. (Author)

  3. A fuzzy multi-regional input–output optimization model for biomass production and trade under resource and footprint constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Raymond R.; Aviso, Kathleen B.; Barilea, Ivan U.; Culaba, Alvin B.; Cruz, Jose B.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in bioenergy in recent years has been stimulated by both energy security and climate change concerns. Fuels derived from agricultural crops offer the promise of reducing energy dependence for countries that have traditionally been dependent on imported energy. Nevertheless, it is evident that the potential for biomass production is heavily dependent on the availability of land and water resources. Furthermore, capacity expansion through land conversion is now known to incur a significant carbon debt that may offset any benefits in greenhouse gas reductions arising from the biofuel life cycle. Because of such constraints, there is increasing use of non-local biomass through regional trading. The main challenge in the analysis of such arrangements is that individual geographic regions have their own respective goals. This work presents a multi-region, fuzzy input–output optimization model that reflects production and consumption of bioenergy under land, water and carbon footprint constraints. To offset any local production deficits or surpluses, the model allows for trade to occur among different regions within a defined system; furthermore, importation of additional biofuel from external sources is also allowed. Two illustrative case studies are given to demonstrate the key features of the model.

  4. The regulation of diffuse pollution in the European Union: science, governance and water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing diffuse pollution is a perpetuating problem for environmental regulators. This paper will consider novel ways to regulate its impacts on the aquatic environment, with particular reference to rural landuse. It will look at the relationship between science, policy and law, and the contributions of integrated water resources management and governance at regional, national and river basin scales. Regulatory frameworks for water in the European Union will be explored, along with their implementation nationally in Scotland and at catchment scale in the Tweed river basin. It will conclude that regulation has a role to play, but that it is necessary to take a visionary holistic and integrated approach, nesting regulation within a governance framework that involves all stakeholders and takes full account of developing science and socio-economic drivers to meet environmental objectives.

  5. Biomass Feedstocks | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feedstocks Biomass Feedstocks Our mission is to enable the coordinated development of biomass generic biomass thermochemical conversion process (over a screened-back map of the United States) showing U.S. Biomass Resources, represented by photos of timber, corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar. All

  6. Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews the technical and economic characterization of biomass resources, biomass preparation, energy conversion technologies, power production systems, and complete integrated CHP systems.

  7. SCR in biomass and waste fuelled plants. Benchmarking of Swedish and European plants; SCR i biobraensle- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar. Erfarenheter fraan svenska och europeiska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Olsson, Henrik; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-11-15

    In this report the state-of-art of SCR technology in biomass and waste fired plants is investigated. The aim of the investigation is to answer the question why new Swedish biomass combustion and co-combustion plants often prefer SNCR technology, whilst European waste combustion plants often choose SCR technology. In the report positives and negatives of various types of SCR installations are discussed, high-dust versus tail-end, 'normal' SCR versus low-temperature SCR, etc. Experiences, e g catalyst lifetime, deactivation and maintenance requirement, are discussed. The investigation is based partly on literature, but mainly on interviews with plant owners and with suppliers of SCR installations. The interviewed suppliers are mentioned in the reference list and the interviewed plant owners are mentioned in appendix A and B. The experiences from the Swedish and European plants are quite similar. Tail-end SCR is often operated without serious problems in both biomass and waste fuelled plants. The catalyst lifetimes are as long or even longer than for coal fired plants with high-dust SCR. In waste incineration plants high-dust SCR causes big problems and these plants are almost always equipped with tail-end SCR. In co-combustion boilers, where coal and biomass is co-combusted, high-dust SCR is more common, especially if the boilers were originally coal fired. In plants with both SNCR and high-dust SCR, i.e. slip-SCR, the SCR installation is considered to be much less of a problem. Although the activity loss of the catalyst is as quick as in conventional high-dust SCR, the catalyst can be changed less often. This is due to the fact that installed slip-SCR catalysts often are as large as conventional SCR catalysts, although less NO{sub x} reduction is required after the initial SNCR step. Thus, the catalyst lifetime is prolonged.

  8. A critical review of algal biomass: A versatile platform of bio-based polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Algal biomass is an excellent renewable resource for the production of polymers and other products due to their higher growth rate, high photosynthetic efficiency, great potential for carbon dioxide fixation, low percentage of lignin and high amount of carbohydrates. Algae contain unique metabolites which are transformed into monomers suitable for development of novel polyesters. This review article mainly focuses on algal bio-refinery concept for polyester synthesis and on exploitation of algae-based biodegradable polyester blends and composites in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery system. Algae-derived hybrid polyester scaffolds are extensively used for bone, cartilage, cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration due to their biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. Microcapsules and microspheres of algae-derived polyesters have been used for controlled and continuous release of several pharmaceutical agents and macromolecules to produce humoral and cellular immunity with efficient intracellular delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioenergy in Australia: An improved approach for estimating spatial availability of biomass resources in the agricultural production zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, Alexander; Dunlop, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy production from crops and agricultural residues has a greenhouse gas mitigation potential. However, there is considerable debate about the size of this potential. This is partly due to difficulties in estimating the feedstock resource base accurately and with good spatial resolution. Here we provide two techniques for spatially estimating crop-based bioenergy feedstocks in Australia using regional agricultural statistics and national land use maps. The approach accommodates temporal variability by estimating ranges of feedstock availability and the shifting nature of zones of the highest spatial concentration of feedstocks. The techniques are applicable to biomass production from forestry, agricultural residues or oilseeds, all of which have been proposed as biofuel feedstocks. -- Highlights: → Dasymetric mapping appoach for producing spatial and temporal variation maps in feedstock production.→ Combines land use and crop statistics to produce regionally precise feedstock maps. → Feedstock concentrations and feedstock density maps enable identification of feedstock concentration spatially and comparison of yearly variation in production.

  10. The management of financial resources intended for radioactive waste and decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatar, F.; Dima, A.; Glodeanu, F.; Miller, B.; Mosmonea, R.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission has developed policies and made recommendations on how financial resources should be established and managed by Member States for the purpose of radioactive waste management. The manner in which these recommendations have been accepted, and are applied, varies between European countries. To some extent, this variation reflects the maturity of the nuclear programs in each country and whether or not nuclear facilities are largely state or privately owned and operated. This paper reviews the European Commission.s policy on financial resourcing for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and evaluates how financial resources are practically established and managed by Member States. The findings from the review are then used to benchmark the situation in Romania. (authors)

  11. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  12. THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SYSTEM OF HUMAN RESOURCES. PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS AND GOOD PRACTICES FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Călin BEȘLIU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that recruitment and selection activities are vital in ensuring the human resources flow in every private or public organization sector, the present paper seeks to elaborate a proposal aimed to modernize the recruiting and selection process within the Romanian public service based on best practices models implemented in other European states. From the perspective of providing adequate training skills and abilities needed by the qualified personnel, initial training is very poor. Practical training is not on the same level of quality with theoretical one and the current system of examinations in education units, based predominantly on theoretical assessment, do not motivate learners well enough in order to gain practical skills. Continuous training programs organized by the units do not always take into account the needs of the personnel or are not adapted to the job description, the category and level of specialization of the beneficiaries' functions and the degree of novelty and utility of most of the presented theoretical information is usually low. The costs of selecting one person for the public service are usually very high, including not only the cost of the initial recruiting, but also the long term cost, represented by the continuous training of the employee. Consequently, recruiting human resources is a basic part of both public and private systems.

  13. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  14. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  15. Potential stocks and increments of woody biomass in the European Union under different management and climate scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Georg E; Schörghuber, Stefan; Linkosalo, Tapio; Sanchez, Anabel; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert; Lexer, Manfred J

    2013-02-01

    Forests play an important role in the global carbon flow. They can store carbon and can also provide wood which can substitute other materials. In EU27 the standing biomass is steadily increasing. Increments and harvests seem to have reached a plateau between 2005 and 2010. One reason for reaching this plateau will be the circumstance that the forests are getting older. High ages have the advantage that they typical show high carbon concentration and the disadvantage that the increment rates are decreasing. It should be investigated how biomass stock, harvests and increments will develop under different climate scenarios and two management scenarios where one is forcing to store high biomass amounts in forests and the other tries to have high increment rates and much harvested wood. A management which is maximising standing biomass will raise the stem wood carbon stocks from 30 tC/ha to 50 tC/ha until 2100. A management which is maximising increments will lower the stock to 20 tC/ha until 2100. The estimates for the climate scenarios A1b, B1 and E1 are different but there is much more effect by the management target than by the climate scenario. By maximising increments the harvests are 0.4 tC/ha/year higher than in the management which maximises the standing biomass. The increments until 2040 are close together but around 2100 the increments when maximising standing biomass are approximately 50 % lower than those when maximising increments. Cold regions will benefit from the climate changes in the climate scenarios by showing higher increments. The results of this study suggest that forest management should maximise increments, not stocks to be more efficient in sense of climate change mitigation. This is true especially for regions which have already high carbon stocks in forests, what is the case in many regions in Europe. During the time span 2010-2100 the forests of EU27 will absorb additional 1750 million tC if they are managed to maximise increments compared

  16. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banse, M.

    2009-03-01

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

  17. The link between resource problems and interorganisational relationships : A quantitative study of Western European sport clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pamela Wicker; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos; Christoph Breuer

    2013-01-01

    According to the resource dependence theory, organisations draw upon interorganisational relationships to address the need for additional resources. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether sport clubs with serious resource problems regarding members, human resources (volunteers and

  18. Biomass Data | Geospatial Data Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Data Biomass Data These datasets detail the biomass resources available in the United Coverage File Last Updated Metadata Biomethane Zip 72.2 MB 10/30/2014 Biomethane.xml Solid Biomass Zip 69.5

  19. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  20. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  1. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture: A review and synthesis on function, ecosystem services and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Christen, Ben; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    In addition to their potential for biomass production, buffer strips on agricultural land have been shown to protect surface water quality by reducing erosion and nutrient leaching, and can play a key role in nature and flood protection, and the design of bioenergy landscapes resilient to climate changes, and the environmental pressures from intensive agriculture. Use of conservation buffers by farmers outside of designated schemes is very limited to date, but the increasing demand for bioene...

  2. Environmental application for GIS: Assessing Iskandar Malaysia's (IM) sewage sludge for potential biomass resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M R; Shaharuddin, N; Halim, K Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The low carbon scenario could be achieved through the identification of major sectors contributing to the emission of high greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Sewage treatment plant (STP) was ranked as one of the major sectors that emits methane gas (CH 4 ) during treatment processes, including sludge treatment. Sludge treatment is also capital extensive with high operational cost. Thus, sewage sludge has been accepted as a nuisance in STP. However, many has claimed that, sludge produced contain organic matter that has the potential for biomass resource. Thus, it would be such a Žwaste? if sludge are directly disposed of into the landfill without utilizing them at its full potential. In order to do so, it is vital to be able to determine the amount of sludge production. This research was implemented in Iskandar Malaysia regions in the state of Johor. By using GIS tool, the regions that produced the most sewage sludge can be determined, and can be group as critical area. Result shows that Nusajaya produces the most, compared to other regions, which indicated Nusajaya as a densely populated region

  3. The Regional Biomass-Energy Agency (ERBE): an opportunity for the biomass-energy development in Wallonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, P.; Menu, J.F.; Belle, J.F. van; Schenkel, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, the European Commission (Directorate-General for Energy) and the Walloon government set up a biomass-energy agency (ERBE), to promote and build biomass-energy projects in Wallonia (Belgium). A survey of biomass-energy potential indicates that wood-energy seems to offer the best utilization opportunities. Forest and logging residues, sawmills' and joineries' off-cuts, pallets residues, etc. could be burnt in wood district heating units with a significant social benefit. Consequently, the ERBE Agency is trying to set up projects in this way in Austria (+/- 100 wood heating systems) or in Sweden. It serves to inform industries and municipalities about biomass-energy, to advise them in the building of biomass-energy projects, to identify their energy needs and their biomass resources, to carry out prefeasibility studies, to inform them about financing opportunities, and so on. (author)

  4. Progress on Optimizing Miscanthus Biomass Production for the European Bioeconomy: Results of the EU FP7 Project OPTIMISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M.; van der Linden, Gerard C.; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C.-L.; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S.; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M.; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; van der Weijde, Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: (1) demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; (2) characterization of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; (3) quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; (4) abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; (5) selections suitable for production on marginal land; (6) field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; (7) evaluation of harvesting methods; and (8) quantification of energy used in densification (pellet) technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas, and insulation

  5. Progress on optimizing miscanthus biomass production for the European bioeconomy: Results of the EU FP7 project OPTIMISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Lewandowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing fifteen diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: 1 demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; 2 characterisation of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; 3 quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; 4 abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; 5 selections suitable for production on marginal land; 6 field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; 7 evaluation of harvesting methods; and 8 quantification of energy used in densification (pellet technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas and

  6. Progress on Optimizing Miscanthus Biomass Production for the European Bioeconomy: Results of the EU FP7 Project OPTIMISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M; van der Linden, Gerard C; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C-L; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; van der Weijde, Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: (1) demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; (2) characterization of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; (3) quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; (4) abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; (5) selections suitable for production on marginal land; (6) field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; (7) evaluation of harvesting methods; and (8) quantification of energy used in densification (pellet) technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas, and insulation

  7. Macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass resources for energy and materials on a national level—A combined approach for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Banse, Martin; Dornburg, Veronika; Faaij, André

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is considered one of the most important options in the transition to a sustainable energy system with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increased security of enegry supply. In order to facilitate this transition with targeted policies and implementation strategies, it is of vital importance to understand the economic benefits, uncertainties and risks of this transition. This article presents a quantification of the economic impacts on value added, employment shares and the trade balance as well as required biomass and avoided primary energy and greenhouse gases related to large scale biomass deployment on a country level (the Netherlands) for different future scenarios to 2030. This is done by using the macro-economic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model LEITAP, capable of quantifying direct and indirect effects of a bio-based economy combined with a spread sheet tool to address underlying technological details. Although the combined approach has limitations, the results of the projections show that substitution of fossil energy carriers by biomass, could have positive economic effects, as well as reducing GHG emissions and fossil energy requirement. Key factors to achieve these targets are enhanced technological development and the import of sustainable biomass resources to the Netherlands. - Highlights: • We analyse large scale production of bioenergy and biochemicals in the Netherlands. • The scenarios include up to 30% substitution of fossil fuels by biomass in 2030. • Resulting in strong greenhouse gas savings and positive macro-economic effects. • Large amounts of imported biomass are required to meet the domestic demand. • This requires high rates of technological change and strict sustainability criteria

  8. Biomass energy in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in countries that produce

  9. Effects of water temperature on summer periphyton biomass in shallow lakes: a pan-European mesocosm experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdy, A.; Hilt, S.; Filiz, N.; Beklioglu, M.; Hejzlar, Josef; Özkundakci, D.; Papastergiadou, E.; Scharfenberger, U.; Šorf, Michal; Stefanidis, K.; Tuvikene, L.; Zingel, P.; Sondergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.; Adrian, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2015), s. 499-510 ISSN 1015-1621 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11059 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * eutrophication * epiphyton * grazing * top-down control Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.398, year: 2015

  10. Energetic conversion of European semi-natural grassland silages through the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass: energy yields and the fate of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgen, Frank; Bühle, Lutz; Donnison, Iain; Heinsoo, Katrin; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Twelve European habitat types were investigated to determine the influence of the IFBB technique (integrated generation of biogas and solid fuel from biomass) on the fate of organic compounds and energy yields of semi-natural grassland biomass. Concentration of organic compounds in silage and IFBB press cake (PC), mass flows within that system and methane yields of IFBB press fluids (PF) were determined. The gross energy yield of the IFBB technique was calculated in comparison to hay combustion (HC) and whole crop digestion (WCD). The IFBB treatment increased fibre and organic matter (OM) concentrations and lowered non-fibre carbohydrates and crude protein concentrations. The PF was highly digestible irrespective of habitat types, showing mean methane yields between 312.1 and 405.0 LN CH4 kg(-1) VS. Gross energy yields for the IFBB system (9.75-30.19MWh ha(-1)) were in the range of HC, outperformed WCD and were influenced by the habitat type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scarcity in a Sea of Plenty? Global Resource Scarcities and Policies in the European Union and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, A.G.; Slingerland, S.; Manders, A.J.G.; Lucas, P.L.; Hilderink, H.B.M.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2011-03-01

    Current high prices of food, oil and many other resources are indications of increasing scarcity. This scarcity, however, has little to do with stock depletion. Badly functioning markets and wrong policy reactions play a particularly important role. For most resources, global stocks will be sufficient to meet increasing demand, over the coming decades. However, these stocks are not equally distributed over the world; they tend to be located in a limited number of countries. This causes an increasing European dependency on imports, which, in turn, feeds the fear of a decrease in security of supply.

  12. European Energy Integration in East European Countries: Real Necessity to Assure Fair Market prices for Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin IGNATOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure energy, and therefore, economic stability of East European States (hereafter EES there should be undertaken visible steps towards deeper energetic integration of the region under the coordination of EU. In such a way there will be considerably strengthened the regional economic security through creating functional mechanisms of solving current and potential energy issues including diversification of supplies and fairer market prices. Moreover, it will be possible to develop and implement more effectively energy infrastructure projects. Deeper and more functional energy integration in EES will create favorable preconditions of fostering the states’ economic development. Also, there will be considerably reduced the macroeconomic risks which could possible occur as a result of the struggle of interests of importing and supplying countries. The current paper is intended to underline the most important weaknesses in terms of energy security of EES and exemplify how efficient these problems could be tackled by cumulating common countries’ efforts in the sector. Also, it highlights the shortcomings of EU energy policy in EES and how these affect the economic prospective of the countries. Finally, it is remarked that EES need a common energy market in order to strengthen their negotiation positions in relation with supplying countries.

  13. Elections to the European Parliament Through the Prism of Social Media as an Electoral Resource in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katkina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines social media as a relatively new tool of electoral and political activity aimed at creating a positive image of political parties and candidates to the European Parliament. In the modern world of politics it is becoming increasingly important due to such factors as the growing number of World Wide Web users, the decline in the traditional media popularity and the rapid spread of new media, as well as the transformation of the Internet space into the platform for active political interactions. The key role in realizing the task of forming political image belongs to political institutions (parties, state bodies, politicians and social activists, as well as population representatives. The analysis of the efforts of various political subjects in the social media roughly demonstrates three functions of this new phenomenon: social media as a turnout increase tool, as a tool of increasing the recognition of candidates and parties by population; as a tool of informing the population about political and electoral processes in society. Currently, the main obstacle for the strategic research in this area is the fact that social networking technologies are rapidly developing, that embarrasses in making long-term prediction on its use. In spite of the absence of recognized criteria giving the opportunity to evaluate political activity in social media, the key efficiency criteria and success factor is so called “permanent presence” of electoral activity subjects in the Internet.

  14. Resource use and costs of exenatide bid or insulin in clinical practice: the European CHOICE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiiskinen U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urpo Kiiskinen,1 Stephan Matthaei,2 Matthew Reaney,3 Chantal Mathieu,4 Claes-Göran Östenson,5 Thure Krarup,6 Michael Theodorakis,7,* Jacek Kiljanski,8 Carole Salaun-Martin,9 Hélène Sapin,9 Bruno Guerci10 1Eli Lilly, Helsinki, Finland; 2Quakenbrück Diabetes Center, Quakenbrück, Germany; 3Eli Lilly, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium; 5Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Endocrinology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece; 8Eli Lilly, Warsaw, Poland; 9Eli Lilly, Neuilly Cedex, France; 10Department of Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases, and Nutrition, Hôpital Brabois, Vandoeuvre-Lès-Nancy, France *Michael Theodorakis was affiliated with the institution shown above at the time of the study, but has since left this institution Purpose: CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy assessed patterns of exenatide bid and initial insulin therapy usage in clinical practice in six European countries and evaluated outcomes during the study. Methods: CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices. Results: A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed over the course of the study in both cohorts (P < 0.001 for both, but mean weight was reduced in the exenatide bid cohort (P < 0

  15. Nonconformity of policy ambitions with biomass potentials in regional bioenergy transition: A Dutch example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özcan, Evren; Arentsen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Numerous regional authorities within the European Union are committed to meet renewable energy targets in line with the EU-20-20-20 strategy. Energy from biomass occupies a pivotal position in the renewable energy strategy of many regions. Effective bioenergy policy often depends on an assessment of the regional resource potential for energy from biomass. Using the Dutch province of Overijssel as a case study, this study presents a biomass resource potential assessment, based on existing statistics and a resource-focused methodology, to determine the region's theoretical and technical potential. Additionally, a methodological framework is provided to translate the outcome of this biomass resource potential assessment into the policy domain, to allow the region's bioenergy policy ambition to be evaluated. The results indicate that Overijssel's potential bioenergy target is a share of 8.3%, which does not match with the desired policy target of 14%. It is therefore clear that it is unlikely that the province's bioenergy ambition will be met with the current supply of biomass, in the absence of additional policy measures. The outcome of the biomass resource potential assessment has therefore been used to deduce and recommend multiple policy measures. - Highlights: • Biomass resource potential assessment performed with Dutch province as case study. • Methodology presented to translate technical biomass potential into policy domain. • Nonconformity found between the province's policy ambition and biomass potential. • Five policy measures identified to cope with this nonconformity

  16. Amount, availability, and potential use of rice straw (agricultural residue) biomass as an energy resource in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Minowa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of agricultural residue in Japan as an energy resource, based on the amounts produced and availability. The main agricultural residues in Japan are rice straw and rice husk. Based on a scenario wherein these residues are collected as is the rice product, we evaluate the size, cost, and CO 2 emission for power generation. Rice residue has a production potential of 12 Mt-dry year -1 , and 1.7 kt of rice straw is collected for each storage location. As this is too small an amount even for the smallest scale of power plant available, 2-month operation per year is assumed. Assuming a steam boiler and turbine with an efficiency of 7%, power generation from rice straw biomass can supply 3.8 billion(kW)h of electricity per year, or 0.47% of the total electricity demand in Japan. The electricity generated from this source costs as much as 25 JPY (kW h) -1 (0.21 US$ (kW h) -1 , 1 US$=120 JPY), more than double the current price of electricity. With heat recovery at 80% efficiency, the simultaneous heat supplied via cogeneration reaches 10% of that supplied by heavy oil in Japan. Further cost incentives will be required if the rice residue utilization is to be introduced. It will also be important to develop effective technologies to achieve high efficiency even in small-scale processes. If Japanese technologies enable the effective use of agricultural residue abroad as a result of Japanese effort from the years after 2010, the resulting reduction of greenhouse gas emission can be counted under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol

  17. REFUEL. The harvest so far. Papers to the 15th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, May 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The REFUEL project is designed to encourage a greater market penetration of biofuels. To help achieve this goal, we will develop a biofuels road map, consistent with EU biofuel policies and supported by stakeholders involved in the biofuels field. Starting early 2006, the project involves seven renowned partners and will take 24 months to complete. Refuel is financed by the European Commission under the 'Intelligent Energy - Europe' programme. This report contains papers that were presented at the title conference

  18. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I; Hernández, Félix J; Hewitt, L Mark; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; van de Meent, Dik; van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Vethaak, A Dick; Vermeirssen, Etienne; von der Ohe, Peter C; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-15

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic "chemical status" assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  20. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  1. RESOURCES AND LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY IN MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łukiewska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Labour resources are an important factor in competitiveness of the sector. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial concentration of labour resources, performance advantages and cost-price advantages that are associated with the work factor in the food industry in the European Union in 2010–2012. The results indicate that the greatest concentration of labour resources exists in Germany, France, Italy and Poland. The biggest performance advantage was observed in the old EU countries, mainly in Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Denmark. Diff erences in labour productivity in the food industry, the new EU countries, in relation to the old member states, are getting smaller. The most signifi cant cost-price advantage was observed in Ireland and the Netherlands, and many of the new EU countries, which compensated for the lack of performance advantages of lower labour costs. These include Poland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary and Romania.

  2. Constructing a Strategic, National Resource: European Policies and the Up-Scaling of Water Services in the Algarve, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European “pleasure periphery” over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian’s entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented “hydraulic paradigm” in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion.

  3. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 1. Bottom-up Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Banse, M.

    2009-03-01

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in the main report. This report (part 1) presents scenarios for future biomass use for energy and materials, and analyses the consequences on energy supply, chemical productions, costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with a bottom-up approach. The bottom-up projections, as presented in this report, form the basis for modelling work using the top-down macro-economic model (LEITAP) to assess the economic impact of substituting fossil-based energy carriers with biomass in the Netherlands. The results of the macro-economic modelling work, and the linkage between the results of the bottom-up and top-down work, will be presented in the top-down economic part and synthesis report of this study

  4. The Potential Application of Qualitative Evaluation Methods in European Regional Development : Reflections on the Use of Performance Story Reporting in Australian Natural Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Vanclay F. The potential application of qualitative evaluation methods in European regional development: reflections on the use of Performance Story Reporting in Australian natural resource management, Regional Studies. This paper argues that qualitative evaluation methods potentially have a useful

  5. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Northwest European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the northwest European region at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, statistical mean, and mode are for oil (in billions of barrels): 9, 34, 20, and 15; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 92, 258, 167, and 162. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in two distinct geological plays located in the various subbasins of the region. Play I is associated with the distribution of mature source rocks of Late Jurassic age relative to four distinct trapping conditions. The play has been demonstrated productive mostly in the Viking and Central Grabens of the North Sea, where the shale has been buried to optimum depths for the generation of both oil and gas. To the north of 62 ? N. latitude up to the Barents Sea, source rocks become increasingly deeply buried and are interpreted to be dominantly gas prone; a narrow band of potentially oil-prone shales tracks most of the coast of Norway, but water depths in favorable localities commonly range from 600 to 1,200 feet. To the south of the Central Graben, the Jurassic source rocks are either immature or minimally productive because of a change in facies. Undrilled traps remain within the favorable source-rock area, and exploration will continue to challenge the boundaries of conventional wisdom, especially on the Norwegian side where little has .been reported on the geology of the adjoining Bergen High or Horda Basin, though, reportedly, the Jurassic source rocks are missing on the high and are immature in the southern part of the basin. Play II is associated with the distribution of a coal facies of Carboniferous age that is mature for the generation of gas and locally underlies favorable reservoir and sealing rocks. The play is limited largely by facies development to the present area of discovery and production but is limited as well to the southeast into onshore Netherlands and Germany by the unfavorable economics of an

  6. Electrifying biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnierczyk, D.

    2005-01-01

    British Columbia's (BC) energy plan was outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. BC Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada with a generating capacity of 11,000 MW, 90 per cent of which is hydro generation. Various independent power project (IPP) biomass technologies were outlined, including details of biogas, wood residue and municipal solid waste facilities. An outline of BC Hydro's overall supply mix was presented, along with details of the IPP supply mix. It was suggested that the cancellation of the Duke Point power project has driven growth in the renewable energy sector. A chart of potential energy contribution by resource type was presented, as well as unit energy cost ranges. Resources included small and large hydro; demand side management; resource smart natural gas; natural gas; coal; wind; geothermal; biomass; wave; and tidal. The acquisition process was reviewed. Details of calls for tenders were presented, and issues concerning bidder responsibility and self-selection were examined. It was observed that wood residue presents a firm source of electricity that is generally local, and has support from the public. In addition, permits for wood residue energy conversion are readily available. However, size limitations, fuel risks, and issues concerning site control may prove to be significant challenges. It was concluded that the success of biomass energy development will depend on adequate access and competitive pricing. tabs., figs

  7. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Macro-economics biobased synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Banse, M.

    2009-03-01

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in this report

  8. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. Chemical biorefinery perspectives : the valorisation of functionalised chemicals from biomass resources compared to the conventional fossil fuel production route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the impending problems related to fossil fuels (continued supply, price, and
    regional and global pollution) alternative feedstocks are gaining interest as possible solutions.
    Biomass, considered sustainable and renewable, is an option with the potential to replace a wide

  10. Forests: future fibre and fuel values : Woody biomass for energy and materials: resources, markets, carbon flows and sustainability impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913

    2014-01-01

    From energy outlooks, it becomes clear that global bioenergy consumption is expected to grow further; specifically the demand for wood for electricity and heating, together with agricultural biomass for liquid biofuels. The EU has an ambitious and integrated policy in order to address climate change

  11. Torrefaction of biomass for power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti

    In order to increase the share of biomass for sustainable energy production, it will be an advantage to utilize fuels as straw, wood and waste on large suspension fired boilers. On a European scale, currently large straw resources are available that are not fully utilized for energy production...... rates, relatively low superheater temperatures have to be applied, which in turn lower the power efficiency. The idea for this Ph.D. project is to develop a biomass pretreatment method that could provide the heating value of the fuel for the boiler, but in a way such that the fuel is easily pulverized.......D. thesis focus on the following subjects: 1) the development of experimental procedures for a novel laboratory scale reactor (simultaneous torrefaction and grinding) and a study on the torrefaction of straw and wood; 2) study the influence of biomass chemical properties such as ash content, ash composition...

  12. Compact and resource efficient cities? Synergies and trade-offs in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Große, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    city. Compact cities and compact urban development are thought to decrease energy and resource demand per capita and increase efficiency. At the same time trade-offs and potential rebound effects of increased resource efficiency question certain achievements of a dense urban structure. This paper...... alternative travel modes. Also the allocation of efficiency gains due to compact urban development has to be taken into account in order to avoid direct and indirect rebound effects....

  13. Future European gas supply in the resource triangle of the Former Soviet Union, the Middle East and Northern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remme, Uwe; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    A steady increase of natural gas demand can be observed in Europe over the last decades. Due to the European obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol, the trend toward natural gas is expected to continue in the future. The increased consumption is faced by comparably low indigenous gas resources within Europe, so that the dependency of Europe on gas imports from abroad will rise in the future. In addition to the existing supply sources Russia and Algeria, gas resources from the Middle East and the Caspian and the Central Asian regions may be supply options to cover Europe's gas demand in the future. Against this background, possible natural gas supply options as well as the transport infrastructure to and within Europe are discussed regarding their technical capacity and their costs. With the help of a cost-minimization model of the European gas supply system, the gas flows and the infrastructure capacity development up to the year 2030 are analyzed. In a sensitivity analysis, the impacts of demand variations on the choice of supply sources are studied. (author)

  14. Meeting the challenge of funding and allocating resources to mental health across Europe: developing the Mental Health Economics European Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaid, David; Knapp, Martin; Curran, Claire

    2006-01-01

    There is growing demand for economic analysis to support strategic decision-making for mental health but the availability of economic evidence, in particular on system performance remains limited. The Mental Health Economics European Network (MHEEN) was set up in 2002 with the broad objective of developing a base for mental health economics information and subsequent work in 17 countries. Data on financing, expenditure and costs, provision of services, workforce, employment and capacity for economic evaluation were collected through bespoke questionnaires developed iteratively by the Network. This was augmented by a literature review and analysis of international databases. Findings on financing alone suggest that in many European countries mental health appears to be neglected while mechanisms for resource allocation are rarely linked to objective measure of population mental health needs. Numerous economic barriers and potential solutions were identified. Economic incentives may be one way of promoting change, although there is no 'one size fits all solution. There are significant benefits and synergies to be gained from the continuing development of networks such as MHEEN. In particular the analysis can be used to inform developments in Central and Eastern Europe. For instance there is much that can be learnt on both how the balance of care between institutional and non-institutional care has changed and on the role played by economic incentives in ensuring that resources were used to develop alternative community-based systems.

  15. Analyzing the environmental and resource pressures from European energy activity: A comparative study of EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Álvarez, María Teresa; Moreno, Blanca; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development and environmental protection are key concepts in the European energy policy. The Europe 2020 Strategy establishes the necessity of reducing environmental pressure and resource consumption to increase sustainable development in the EU. In this context, the aim of this paper is to develop an Environmental and Resource Pressure Aggregated Index that considers these two dimensions. This index provides information about the achievement of the targets in the member states as well as the achieved effects of the environmental policies on energy policy and sustainable development. Therefore, it would help policy-makers to plan future policy actions. The results show that, among EU countries, Portugal, Latvia, Italy, Austria and France have low environmental and resource pressure. Recommendations are made for member states with the worst results (Estonia, Poland, Cyprus, Czech Republic and Luxembourg) in order to improve their actions in climate change and energy policy. - Highlights: • An aggregated index about environmental protection in energy policy is obtained. • It aggregates environmental and resource pressures dimensions. • Portugal, Latvia, Italy, Austria and France have the best results. • Reinforcing policies are necessary in Estonia, Poland, Cyprus and Czech Republic.

  16. Competition and Constraint : Economic Globalization and Human Resource Practices in 23 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ferry; Wittek, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Economic globalization is often considered to be one of the main causes of recent changes in the workplace and the way in which organizations manage their human resources. Nevertheless, an empirical study putting this claim to the test by relating the internationalization of the economy to the use

  17. Workshop: Towards an integrative European perspective on health human resources policy: how and why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Kuhlmann, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Across many countries, shortages and inefficient use of qualified healthcare staff – together with changes in the composition of the health professional workforce by age, gender and citizenship – have created an urgent call for health human resources policy, planning and management. In

  18. FY 2000 Report on survey results. Curtailment of the carbon dioxide emission by effective use of woody biomass system waste; 2000 nendo mokushitsu biomass kei haikibutsu no yuko riyo ni yoru nisanka tanso haishutsu no sakugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    It is estimated that the woody biomass resources in Japan total 42.70 million t/y on a dry basis (indigenous production: 20.00 million t/y), which corresponds to 18.00 million t/y as oil. This project studies effective utilization of low-quality biomass resources now discarded, e.g., thinning materials and demolition woods, by reference to biomass utilization pursued in European and North American countries. The study activities cover the 3 areas of woody biomass wastes, current status of biomass utilization technologies in the overseas countries, and feasibility of introduction of the utilization technologies, after investigating necessity of abatement of the green-effect gases, current status of energy demands and policies, and woody biomass. Utilization of biomass resources for low-temperature heat purposes, which is the central issue in Japan, is not well established both technologically and politically. Moreover, the biomass resources are not exposed to price competition. Based on these premises, a total of 6 scenarios are proposed to promote utilization of biomass resources, including power/heat co-generation at a wood processing center, and dual firing at existing coal-fired boilers. (NEDO)

  19. Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara

    2008-01-01

    promising wind farm sites and (ii) a site specific evaluation of wind climatology and vertical profiles of wind and atmospheric turbulence, in addition to an assessment of historical and possibly future changes due to climate non-stationarity. Phase (i) of the process can involve use of in situ observations......The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind......) of the project often still requires in situ observations (which may or may not be supplemented with ground-based remote sensing technologies) and application of tools to provide a climatological context for the resulting measurements. Current methodologies for undertaking these aspects of the resource assessment...

  20. Work in the classrooms with European perspective: materials and resources for autonomus learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela RAPOSO RIVAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key principles set forth in the bologna process is to focus teaching on students, by getting involved actively and independently in their learning process and in developing their skills. This requires the use of teaching and learning methods together with materials and resources to motivate and guide them. In this paper, we present three of them, from our experience in adapting the subject of «New Technologies Applied to education» to the ecTs system, which we have found useful for guiding and evaluating the learning process and promote the intended learning. These materials and resources are: «learning guides», the portfolio and the rubric.

  1. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  2. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing , M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. The general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion

  3. SOLID-DER. Reaching large-scale integration of Distributed Energy Resources in the enlarged European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Ten Donkelaar, M.

    2007-05-01

    The integration of DER (distributed energy resources) in the European electricity networks has become a key issue for energy producers, network operators, policy makers and the R and D community. In some countries it created already a number of challenges for the stability of the electricity supply system, thereby creating new barriers for further expansion of the share of DER in supply. On the other hand in many Member States there exists still a lack of awareness and understanding of the possible benefits and role of DER in the electricity system, while environmental goals and security of supply issues ask more and more for solutions that DER could provide in the future. The project SOLID-DER, a Coordination Action, will assess the barriers for further integration of DER, overcome both the lack of awareness of benefits of DER solutions and fragmentation in EU R and D results by consolidating all European DER research activities and report on its common findings. In particular awareness of DER solutions and benefits will be raised in the new Member States, thereby addressing their specific issues and barriers and incorporate them in the existing EU DER R and D community. The SOLID-DER Coordination Action will run from November 2005 to October 2008

  4. ANALYSIS ABSORPTION CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS UNDER THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA FLORESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the European Union is the economic progress. In the last 50 years, and especially beginning with the ‘80s, remarkable efforts have been made for removing the borders between the EU national economies and for creating a unique market where goods, persons, capital and services could move freely. Commercial interchanges between UE states have significantly grown and at the same time EU has become a global commercial force. EU’s goal is to become the most dynamic economy based on global recognition. This implies a significant investment in research, education and forming, which allows the population to have access to this new information. This research work displays diverse aspects concerning the Romania’s ability draw of irredeemable funds in period 2007 – 2013, focusing on human capital development activity. Today, the problem absorptions are no longer able to develop projects, that knowing a significant improvement but the stage of implementation and funding.

  5. Elections to the European Parliament through the prism of social media as an electoral resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the social media as a relatively new tool for electoral and political activities for creating a positive image of political parties and candidates (on the example of the European Parliament. The social media are becoming increasingly important in the nowadays world politics due to the growing number of the Internet users, the fall in the popularity of traditional media, and the fast spread of new media as well as the transformation of the Internet into the area for active political actions. The key role in the formation of the political image belongs to political institutions (parties, government agencies, certain politicians and public figures, as well as to representatives of the electorate, i.e. population. The analysis of the efforts of various political actors in the social media allows to identify their three basic functions: a tool to increase voter turnout; a tool to increase the popularity of candidates and parties; a tool to increase public awareness of the political and electoral processes in general. Currently the most serious obstacle for strategic studies of social networks is the tremendous pace of their technological development that complicates long-term predictions in the field. However, despite the lack of universally accepted criteria for assessing the efficiency of political activities in the social media, the author believes that the key success factor is the so-called “permanent presence” of electoral subjects in the Internet.

  6. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  7. The ecological-commerce (ECO-COM) zone concept for developing biomass energy from contaminated resources: A new demonstration zone for the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarn, D.W.; Iakoushev, A.; Grebenkov, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl Accident, about 17,000 km 2 of forested area in the Gomel Oblask of Belarus was contaminated with radioactive material. Remediation and productive utilization of these resources is proposed through the use of the forest biomass as a source of energy. The energy sector of Belarus requires rapid development of new sources of power generating capacity if projected needs are to be met. The current energy balance in the region of the Contaminated Territories shows a deficit of almost 600 MW which is currently being imported. The next five years will see a significant reduction of the energy production capacity of Belarus due to retirement of a large portion of existing facilities. The World Bank has stressed the importance of biomass energy development in Belarus to reduce reliance on imported sources of energy. This proposal addresses this need. A Non-Profit Corporation (NPC) is proposed to manage all identified resources in the contaminated territories in Belarus for use by a duty-free / tax-free Ecological - Commerce (ECO-COM) Zone. The ECO-COM Zone would produce energy, pulp, paper, and other products directly from radioactively contaminated materials. A board of internationally recognized specialists in radiological safety would insure that these products meet internationally acceptable safety norms. A primary benefit for Belarus would be the creation of significant electrical energy capacity as well as expanded pulp and paper production in addition to the removal of a large fraction of the total radioactive source-term from the contaminated land. A short list of projects is presented at the end of this report that meet basic infrastructural, economic, industrial, and energy savings activities permitting the rapid payback of investments. This list was compiled for ECO-COM and recommended by the Ministry of Energy Savings in the framework of the Energy Efficiency 2000 (EE 2000) Demonstration Zone program adopted for Belarus

  8. Renewable Resources and a Recycled Polymer as Raw Materials: Mats from Electrospinning of Lignocellulosic Biomass and PET Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Passos de Oliveira Santos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of materials has been growing uninterruptedly in recent decades. The aim of this strategy is to offer alternatives to the use of fossil fuel-based raw materials and to meet the demand for materials that are less detrimental to the environment after disposal. In this context, several studies have been carried out on the use of lignocellulosic biomass and its main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin as raw materials for polymeric materials. Lignocellulosic fibers have a high content of cellulose, but there has been a notable lack of investigations on application of the electrospinning technique for solutions prepared from raw lignocellulosic biomass, even though the presence of cellulose favors the alignment of the fiber chains during electrospinning. In this investigation, ultrathin (submicrometric and nanoscale aligned fibers were successfully prepared via electrospinning (room temperature of solutions prepared with different contents of lignocellulosic sisal fibers combined with recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA as solvent. The “macro” fibers were deconstructed by the action of TFA, resulting in solutions containing their constituents, i.e., cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, in addition to PET. The “macro” sisal fibers were reconstructed at the nanometer and submicrometric scale from these solutions. The SEM micrographs of the mats containing the components of sisal showed distinct fiber networks, likely due to differences in the solubility of these components in TFA and in their dielectric constants. The mechanical properties of the mats (dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA, and tensile properties were evaluated with the samples positioned both in the direction (dir of and in opposition (op to the alignment of the nano and ultrathin fibers, which can be considered a novelty in the analysis of this type of material

  9. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  10. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  11. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN CHARTER FOR RESEARCHERS AND THE CODE OF CONDUCT FOR RECRUITMENT OF RESEARCHERS IN THE SELECTION PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR ROMANIAN ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina GICA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the Human Resources Management became a very important area of activity, which brought relevant changes to the human resources approach in terms of place and role within the Romanian R&D entities. Also, HR proved its importance through the solutions offered for personnel allocation in order to achieve the entities’ objectives and, meanwhile, it supported the employees’ aspirations. At present, although promoted a series of regulations on the status of the researcher, both, national and European level, as the main human resource in the establishment of RDI, to the research staff are imposed in most cases the general rules of human resources management. Starting with the strengthening of the concept of European Research Area - ERA, the European Commission adopted the "European Charter for Researchers" and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers. These documents are addressed to researchers and to public and private sector employers. Also, are considered key elements of EU policy researchers, to make careers more attractive, being considered vital for economic growth strategy and increase the number of employees of RDI. Human resource development requires good knowledge and understanding of their particular role to the organization. Researchers, regardless of hierarchy or job name, are the key resource of RDI entities (universities, institutes, NGOs, SMEs that ensure their survival, development and competitive success. The evolution of knowledge-based companies needs to improve relations between knowledge and development. Knowledge is a necessary tool to meet economic needs and an important component of sustainable development at European level. European Research Area concept was launched at the Lisbon European Council meeting in March 2000, but true recognition began in 2007 with the launch of the European Commission's Green Paper on ERA. In 2008 the Council set in motion the Ljubljana process to improve

  13. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  14. Utilization and perceived problems of online medical resources and search tools among different groups of European physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, Marlene; Gschwandtner, Manfred; Stefanov, Veronika; Hanbury, Allan; Samwald, Matthias

    2013-06-26

    There is a large body of research suggesting that medical professionals have unmet information needs during their daily routines. To investigate which online resources and tools different groups of European physicians use to gather medical information and to identify barriers that prevent the successful retrieval of medical information from the Internet. A detailed Web-based questionnaire was sent out to approximately 15,000 physicians across Europe and disseminated through partner websites. 500 European physicians of different levels of academic qualification and medical specialization were included in the analysis. Self-reported frequency of use of different types of online resources, perceived importance of search tools, and perceived search barriers were measured. Comparisons were made across different levels of qualification (qualified physicians vs physicians in training, medical specialists without professorships vs medical professors) and specialization (general practitioners vs specialists). Most participants were Internet-savvy, came from Austria (43%, 190/440) and Switzerland (31%, 137/440), were above 50 years old (56%, 239/430), stated high levels of medical work experience, had regular patient contact and were employed in nonacademic health care settings (41%, 177/432). All groups reported frequent use of general search engines and cited "restricted accessibility to good quality information" as a dominant barrier to finding medical information on the Internet. Physicians in training reported the most frequent use of Wikipedia (56%, 31/55). Specialists were more likely than general practitioners to use medical research databases (68%, 185/274 vs 27%, 24/88; χ²₂=44.905, Presources on the Internet and frequent reliance on general search engines and social media among physicians require further attention. Possible solutions may be increased governmental support for the development and popularization of user-tailored medical search tools and open

  15. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  16. Assessment of Danish biomass resources for producing biofuels for the transport sector towards the year 2020; Opgoerelse af den danske biomasseressourcer til brug for fremstilling af biobraendstoffer til transportsektoren frem mod 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, S.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2008-11-15

    The agricultural sector will have an increasing role to play according to society needs for biobased products, including biofuels. However, it is necessary to point out national positions of strength in order to act proactive and gain the benefits for this growing marked. It is clear from this report that both agriculture and forestry, and connected industries, have great possibilities to deliver biomass resources without decreasing the current food production. From the calculations in this report, including several assumptions concerning convertibility and uncertainties about yield potentials comparing, the sector can provide up to 30 % of the existing fossil fuel consumption in the transportation sector using cereal straw. Approximately, 10 % if the wood resources are utilized and about 6 % using more waste based biomasses. Fish and slaughterhouse waste can cover up to about 9 % of the present diesel consumption. However, increased sale of bioresources for bioenergy purposes require that this resource is validated as a part of the whole farm or forestry system including political regulations like for instance the EU Natura 2000 directives. Different crops have additional functions/ effects like groundwater protection, biodiversity, soil fertility (including carbon sequestration) which needs to be included when validating such biomass crops. Furthermore, several biomass resources which are regarded as waste at present represent a much higher value, and needs to be addressed in such perspective. (author)

  17. Biomass and Solar Technologies Lauded | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 » Biomass and Solar Technologies Lauded News Release: Biomass and Solar Technologies Lauded July security and reduce our reliance on foreign sources of oil." The Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Biomass Cellulose to Sugars technology is expected to allow a wide range of biomass resources to be used to produce

  18. Energy biomass and environment. The French programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The main themes of the french program for energy from biomass are presented: agriculture and forest products (short rotation plantations, waste products, etc.), enhancement of the biomass production, mobilization of biomass resources, biomass processing technics (biofuels, combustion processes, biotechnologies); vulgarization for diffusion of technics from laboratories to industry or domestic sectors.

  19. Micro -algae biomass as an alternative resource for fishmeal and fish oil in the production of fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed

    evident that the continued exploitation of industrial fish as a resource fish feed will ultimately become both environmentally and economically unsustainable. Microalgae are at the base of the entire aquatic food chain and play a major role in the diet of aquatic animals such as fish. Microalgae’s main...... application for aquaculture are related to nutrition, being used as a sole fresh feed or an additive, e.g. source of pigment. Algae produce almost all nutritious compounds which are required for fish. The diverse biochemical composition of microalgae represents them as a promising candidate...... for the formulation of fish feed. The nutritional composition of microalgae depends on the species, environmental conditions and growth medium composition. Microalgae for use in aquaculture should be non-toxic and possess the essential nutritive constituents, in a reasonable price. Photosynthetic production of algae...

  20. Low correlation between household carbon monoxide and particulate matter concentrations from biomass-related pollution in three resource-poor settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Elizabeth M.; Wills, Beatriz; Naithani, Neha; Gilman, Robert H.; Tielsch, James M.; Chiang, Marilu; Khatry, Subarna; Breysse, Patrick N.; Menya, Diana; Apaka, Cosmas; Carter, E. Jane; Sherman, Charles B.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution from the burning of biomass fuels is recognized as the third greatest contributor to the global burden of disease. Incomplete combustion of biomass fuels releases a complex mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and other toxins into the household environment. Some investigators have used indoor CO concentrations as a reliable surrogate of indoor PM concentrations; however, the assumption that indoor CO concentration is a reasonable proxy of indoor PM concentration has been a subject of controversy. We sought to describe the relationship between indoor PM 2.5 and CO concentrations in 128 households across three resource-poor settings in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya. We simultaneously collected minute-to-minute PM 2.5 and CO concentrations within a meter of the open-fire stove for approximately 24 h using the EasyLog-USB-CO data logger (Lascar Electronics, Erie, PA) and the personal DataRAM-1000AN (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA), respectively. We also collected information regarding household construction characteristics, and cooking practices of the primary cook. Average 24 h indoor PM 2.5 and CO concentrations ranged between 615 and 1440 μg/m 3 , and between 9.1 and 35.1 ppm, respectively. Minute-to-minute indoor PM 2.5 concentrations were in a safe range (<25 μg/m 3 ) between 17% and 65% of the time, and exceeded 1000 μg/m 3 between 8% and 21% of the time, whereas indoor CO concentrations were in a safe range (<7 ppm) between 46% and 79% of the time and exceeded 50 ppm between 4%, and 20% of the time. Overall correlations between indoor PM 2.5 and CO concentrations were low to moderate (Spearman ρ between 0.59 and 0.83). There was also poor agreement and evidence of proportional bias between observed indoor PM 2.5 concentrations vs. those estimated based on indoor CO concentrations, with greater discordance at lower concentrations. Our analysis does not support the notion that indoor CO concentration is a

  1. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  2. Bridging gaps in bioenergy: Deploying system analysis to investigate potential biomass supply, demand and greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios from a national, European and global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998

    2014-01-01

    In transition towards a sustainable energy system with deep reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced consumption of fossil fuels, substitution of fossil energy carriers with biomass is considered one of the most important options. In the last decade, fossil energy and GHG mitigation

  3. Biomass for energy. Danish solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Information is given on a number of typical and recently established plants of all types and sizes, for converting the main Danish biomass resources (manures, straw and wood derived from agricultural activities and forestry)into energy. Danish biomass resources and energy and environmental policies are described. In Denmark there is a very wide range of technologies for converting biomass into energy, and these are clarified. In addition, performance data from a number of plants fuelled with biomass fuels are presented. The course of further developments within this field is suggested. The text is illustrated with a considerable number of coloured photographs and also with graphs and diagrams. (ARW)

  4. Conversion of biomass into energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonescu, S.; Garjoaba, M.; Antonescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    This study assists the identification of possible application and markets of the CHP-plants in the NAS states, and forms the first part of a detailed study on economical and ecological prospects of small scale and large heat pipe reformers in NAS. It is well known that the energy strategy of the European Union, foresees the increase of the participation of the renewable energy from the total of the energy resources of the European Union, up to 12% in 2010. This participation is of a great importance for the adequate reduction of green house effect gases. From the energy production point of view it is proven the fact that in 2010 the production of renewable energy will be: electricity - 675 tWh; heat - 80 Mtoe (930 TWh). From the above mentioned energy demand, the biomass will cover: electricity - 230 TWh-34,1%; heat - 75 Mtoe (93,8%)

  5. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  6. Biomass living energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  7. A comparative study of resource allocation in Pteridium in different Brazilian ecosystems and its relationship with European studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Silva Matos

    Full Text Available Pteridium is a cosmopolitan genus that acts as an invasive species in many parts of the world. Most research on this genus has occurred in Europe, and there is a lack of data on it from South America, in spite of causing considerable conservation problems. We compared the biomass allocation of P. esculentum subsp. arachnoideum in two ecosystems in Brazil - Atlantic forest and Brazilian savanna. We measured the biomass of fronds, rhizomes and above-ground litter. We also compared the density, length and biomass of fronds from this Brazilian study with similar data of P. esculentumsubsp. arachnoideum derived from Venezuela and P. aquilinum from Europe. P. esculentum subsp. arachnoideum showed a wide response range. We found a negative relationship between frond and necromass, indicating a negative feedback effect, while a positive relationship was observed between frond and rhizome biomass. The continental comparison of relationships showed that Pteridium responds in a different way in both Brazil and Europe, and that in Brazil fronds tend to be longer and heavier, presumably as a result of the continuous growing season in South America while is shortened in Europe by frost. The paper shows the ability of Pteridium to adapt to different ecosystems.

  8. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The primary energy production from solid biomass in the European Union reached 79.3 Mtoe in 2010 which implies a growth rate of 8% between 2009 and 2010. The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009-2010, demonstrates that the economic down-turn failed to weaken the member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector. Heat consumption rose sharply: the volume of heat sold by heating networks increased by 18% and reached 6.7 Mtoe and if we consider the total heat consumption (it means with and without recovery via heating networks) the figure is 66 Mtoe in 2010, which amounts to 10.1% growth. The growth of electricity production continued through 2010 (8.3% up on 2009) and rose to 67 TWh but at a slower pace than in 2009 (when it rose by 11.3% on 2008). The situation of the main producer countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany and France is reviewed. It appears that cogeneration unit manufacturers and biomass power plant constructors are the main beneficiaries of the current biomass energy sector boom. There is a trend to replace coal-fired plants that are either obsolete or near their end of life with biomass or multi-fuel plants. These opportunities will enable the industry to develop and further exploit new technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction which will enable biomass to be turned into bio-coal. (A.C.)

  9. Resource potential for renewable energy generation from co-firing of woody biomass with coal in the Northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have established measures of co-firing potential at varying spatial scales to assess opportunities for renewable energy generation from woody biomass. This study estimated physical availability, within ecological and public policy constraints, and associated harvesting and delivery costs of woody biomass for co-firing in selected power plants of the...

  10. Determination of suitability of natural Polish resources for production of ceramic proppants applied in gas exploration from European shale formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, Joanna; Mizera, Jaroslaw

    2017-04-01

    Poland is one of few European countries undertaking innovative research towards effective exploration of hydrocarbons form shale deposits. With regard for strict geological conditions, which occur during hydraulic fracturing, it is required to apply ceramic proppants enhancing extraction of shale gas. Ceramic proppants are granules (16/30 - 70/120 Mesh) classified as propping agents. These granules located in the newly created fissures (due to injected high pressure fluid) in the shale rock, act as a prop, what enables gas flow up the well. It occurs if the proppants can resist high stress of the closing fractures. Commonly applied proppants are quartz sands used only for shallow reservoirs and fissile shales (in the USA). Whereas, the ceramic granules are proper for extraction of gas on the high depths at hard geomechanical conditions (in Europe) to increase output even by 30 - 50%. In comparison to other propping materials, this kind of proppants predominate with mechanical strength, smoother surface, lower solubility in acids and also high stability in water. Such parameters can be available through proper raw materials selection to further proppants production. The Polish ceramic proppants are produced from natural resources as kaolin, bauxite and white clay mixed with water and binders. Afterwards, the slurries are subjected to granulation in a mechanical granulator and sintered at high temperatures (1200 - 1550°C). Taking into consideration presence of geomechanical barriers, that prevent fracture propagation beyond shale formations, it is crucial to determine quality of applied natural deposits. Next step is to optimize the proppants production and select the best kind of granules, what was the aim of this research. Utility of the raw materials was estimated on basis of their particle size distribution, bulk density, specific surface area (BET) and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry). Morphology and shape were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

  11. The biomass file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As biomass represents the main source of renewable energy to reach the 23 per cent objective in terms of energy consumption by 2020, a first article gives a synthetic overview of its definition, its origins, its possible uses, its share in the French energy mix, its role by 2020, strengths and weaknesses for its development, the growth potential of its market, and its implications in terms of employment. A second article outlines the assets of biomass, indicates the share of some crops in biomass energy production, and discusses the development of new resources and the possible energy valorisation of various by-products. Interviews about biomass market and development perspectives are proposed with representatives of institutions, energy industries and professional bodies concerned with biomass development and production. Other articles comments the slow development of biomass-based cogeneration, the coming into operation of a demonstration biomass roasting installation in Pau (France), the development potential of biogas in France, the project of bio natural gas vehicles in Lille, and the large development of biogas in Germany

  12. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  13. Biomass: France has not yet exploited all its opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruchitch, R.

    2010-01-01

    With France being the first European agricultural country and the second world exporter, the French chemical industry has set a 15 per cent objective for its renewable resources by 2017. This objective and the great opportunities of the French chemical industry are based on a notably diversified biomass and on active research programs. This article gives an overview of and discusses the variety of organic products or chemical molecules obtained from biomass (cereals, wood, colza...). It also evokes the competition which may occur between chemical industry and food production. Some innovative projects are briefly presented which are based on a better use of existing crops. A researcher member of the INRA gives an overview of research orientations in the field of vegetal chemistry. The case of bio-solvents is given as an example of application chemical products based on bio-resources

  14. Low correlation between household carbon monoxide and particulate matter concentrations from biomass-related pollution in three resource-poor settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, Elizabeth M.; Wills, Beatriz [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (United States); Naithani, Neha [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (United States); Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi, Kathmandu (Nepal); Gilman, Robert H. [Program in Global Disease Epidemiology and Control, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (United States); Tielsch, James M. [Department of Global Health, School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University, Washington DC (United States); Chiang, Marilu [Biomedical Research Unit, A.B. PRISMA, Lima (Peru); Khatry, Subarna [Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi, Kathmandu (Nepal); Breysse, Patrick N. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (United States); Menya, Diana [School of Public Health, Moi University, Eldoret (Kenya); AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare), Eldoret (Kenya); Apaka, Cosmas [AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare), Eldoret (Kenya); Carter, E. Jane; Sherman, Charles B. [AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare), Eldoret (Kenya); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, The Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence (United States); Miranda, J. Jaime [CRONICAS Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima (Peru); Checkley, William, E-mail: wcheckl1@jhmi.edu [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (United States); Program in Global Disease Epidemiology and Control, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (United States); CRONICAS Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    Household air pollution from the burning of biomass fuels is recognized as the third greatest contributor to the global burden of disease. Incomplete combustion of biomass fuels releases a complex mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and other toxins into the household environment. Some investigators have used indoor CO concentrations as a reliable surrogate of indoor PM concentrations; however, the assumption that indoor CO concentration is a reasonable proxy of indoor PM concentration has been a subject of controversy. We sought to describe the relationship between indoor PM{sub 2.5} and CO concentrations in 128 households across three resource-poor settings in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya. We simultaneously collected minute-to-minute PM{sub 2.5} and CO concentrations within a meter of the open-fire stove for approximately 24 h using the EasyLog-USB-CO data logger (Lascar Electronics, Erie, PA) and the personal DataRAM-1000AN (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA), respectively. We also collected information regarding household construction characteristics, and cooking practices of the primary cook. Average 24 h indoor PM{sub 2.5} and CO concentrations ranged between 615 and 1440 μg/m{sup 3}, and between 9.1 and 35.1 ppm, respectively. Minute-to-minute indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were in a safe range (<25 μg/m{sup 3}) between 17% and 65% of the time, and exceeded 1000 μg/m{sup 3} between 8% and 21% of the time, whereas indoor CO concentrations were in a safe range (<7 ppm) between 46% and 79% of the time and exceeded 50 ppm between 4%, and 20% of the time. Overall correlations between indoor PM{sub 2.5} and CO concentrations were low to moderate (Spearman ρ between 0.59 and 0.83). There was also poor agreement and evidence of proportional bias between observed indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations vs. those estimated based on indoor CO concentrations, with greater discordance at lower concentrations. Our analysis does not support the

  15. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  16. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  17. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  18. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The economic and financial crisis has not brought solid biomass energy growth to a standstill. Primary energy production in the European Union member states increased in 2008 by 2,3%, which represents a gain of 1,5% million tonnes of oil equivalent over 2007. This growth was particularly marked in electricity production which increased output by 10,8% over 2007, an additional 5,6 TWh. (A.L.B.)

  19. Biomass valorization. Information guide for administrations and state-owned establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Proposing some general information for administrations and state-owned establishments, this report first defines what biomass is. It discusses challenges and constraints related to its use, presents objectives and strategies which have been set at the international, European and French level, and how they have been introduced in various laws, plans and programmes in France. It presents regulatory arrangements, tax-related tools, and economic support tools which have been designed to promote and regulate the use of biomass in France. It discusses some prospective data and environmental impacts, presents the 'Biomass 2 bidding' (appel d'offres Biomasse 2), and presents various actors involved in surveying, assessment, research, development, and education. It indicates the regional actors and some information resources

  20. Cost structure of and competition for forest-based biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundmark, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Biomass has become a popular alternative to satisfy expanding energy demand and as a substitute for fossil fuels and phased-out nuclear energy in Europe. The European Union White Paper stipulates that the utilization of biomass shall increase to 1566 TWh by 2010. However it is often overlooked that the forest resources are already, to a large extent, used by the forest industries. When promoting biomass for energy generation the consequences for the forest industries also need to be considered. Sweden is an excellent case study, as there are vast quantities of forest resources, nuclear power is starting to be phased out, there are restrictions on expanding hydropower and the political desire exists to 'set an example' with respect to carbon dioxide emissions. This paper attempts to estimate and analyse the supply of two types of forest resource, namely, roundwood and harvesting residues derived from final harvesting and commercial thinnings. Two separate supply curves are estimated: one for roundwood and one for harvesting residues. The cost structure is based on an economic-engineering approach where the separate cost components are constructed from the lowest cost element into aggregates for labour, capital, materials and overhead costs for each forest resource. The results indicate an unutilized economic supply of 12 TWh of harvesting residues in Sweden. However, after these 12 TWh have been recovered it becomes more profitable to use roundwood for energy purposes than to continue extracting further amounts of harvesting residues

  1. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  2. Costs and resource utilization for diagnosis and treatment during the initial year in a European inflammatory bowel disease inception cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Vardi, Hillel; Pedersen, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    :: The EpiCom cohort is a prospective population-based inception cohort of unselected inflammatory bowel disease patients from 31 Western and Eastern European centers. Patients were followed every third month from diagnosis, and clinical data regarding treatment and investigations were collected. Costs were...

  3. Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; Warren B. Cohen; D. Lopes; J. Aranha

    2010-01-01

    Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two...

  4. Using European travellers as an early alert to detect emerging pathogens in countries with limited laboratory resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grais Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The volume, extent and speed of travel have dramatically increased in the past decades, providing the potential for an infectious disease to spread through the transportation network. By collecting information on the suspected place of infection, existing surveillance systems in industrialized countries may provide timely information for areas of the world without adequate surveillance currently in place. We present the results of a case study using reported cases of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (Sd1 in European travellers to detect "events" of Sd1, related to either epidemic cases or endemic cases in developing countries. Methods We identified papers from a Medline search for reported events of Sd1 from 1940 to 2002. We requested data on shigella infections reported to the responsible surveillance entities in 17 European countries. Reports of Sd1 from the published literature were then compared with Sd1 notified cases among European travellers from 1990 to 2002. Results Prior to a large epidemic in 1999–2000, no cases of Sd1 had been identified in West Africa. However, if travellers had been used as an early warning, Sd1 could have been identified in this region as earlier as 1992. Conclusion This project demonstrates that tracking diseases in European travellers could be used to detect emerging disease in developing countries. This approach should be further tested with a view to the continuous improvement of national health surveillance systems and existing European networks, and may play a significant role in aiding the international public health community to improve infectious disease control.

  5. Discrimination between acute and chronic decline of Central European forests using map algebra of the growth condition and forest biomass fuzzy sets: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samec, Pavel; Caha, Jan; Zapletal, Miloš; Tuček, Pavel; Cudlín, Pavel; Kučera, Miloš

    2017-12-01

    Forest decline is either caused by damage or else by vulnerability due to unfavourable growth conditions or due to unnatural silvicultural systems. Here, we assess forest decline in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) using fuzzy functions, fuzzy sets and fuzzy rating of ecosystem properties over a 1×1km grid. The model was divided into fuzzy functions of the abiotic predictors of growth conditions (F pred including temperature, precipitation, acid deposition, soil data and relative site insolation) and forest biomass receptors (F rec including remote sensing data, density and volume of aboveground biomass, and surface humus chemical data). Fuzzy functions were designed at the limits of unfavourable, undetermined or favourable effects on the forest ecosystem health status. Fuzzy sets were distinguished through similarity in a particular membership of the properties at the limits of the forest status margins. Fuzzy rating was obtained from the least difference of F pred -F rec . Unfavourable F pred within unfavourable F rec indicated chronic damage, favourable F pred within unfavourable F rec indicated acute damage, and unfavourable F pred within favourable F rec indicated vulnerability. The model in the 1×1km grid was validated through spatial intersection with a point field of uniform forest stands. Favourable status was characterised by soil base saturation (BS)>50%, BCC/Al>1, C org >1%, MgO>6g/kg, and nitrogen depositionforests had BS humus 46-60%, BCC/Al 9-20 and NDVI≈0.42. Chronic forest damage occurs in areas with low temperatures, high nitrogen deposition, and low soil BS and C org levels. In the Czech Republic, 10% of forests were considered non-damaged and 77% vulnerable, with damage considered acute in 7% of forests and chronic in 5%. The fuzzy model used suggests that improvement in forest health will depend on decreasing environmental load and restoration concordance between growth conditions and tree species composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  6. Outcome of UNIDO symposium on biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazemi, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the UNIDO symposium are presented. The symposium covered a variety of subjects, beginning with a comparison of biomass energy production and potential uses in different regions, specific country case studies about the present situation and trends in biomass energy utilisation. Technological aspects discussed included the production of biomass resources, their conversion into energy carriers and technology transfer to developing countries. An analysis of financial resources available and mechanisms for funding biomass projects were given. Environmental effects and some relatively successful biomass projects under development were described. (K.A.)

  7. International Human Resources Management of Japanese, American, and European Firms in Asia : The Roles of Headquarters and Subsidiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromichi Shibata; Andrew Doyle

    2006-01-01

    The main role of the headquarters international human resources departments/business units of seven Japanese firms we researched is to manage the Japanese expatriates at their subsidiaries in Asia; they have little involvement with the management of local employees. The headquarters international human resources departments/business units at five researched American firms tend to maintain strong company value/mission that drives use of their performance appraisal/promotion systems for employe...

  8. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  9. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  10. Life satisfaction in 6 European countries: the relationship to health, self-esteem, and social and financial resources among people (Aged 65-89) with reduced functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Christel; Fagerström, Cecilia; Balducci, Cristian; Burholt, Vanessa; Ferring, Dieter; Weber, Germain; Wenger, Clare; Holst, Göran; Hallberg, Ingalill R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how overall health, participation in physical activities, self-esteem, and social and financial resources are related to life satisfaction among people aged 65 and older with reduced activities of daily living (ADL) capacity in 6 European countries. A subsample of the European Study of Adults' Well-Being (ESAW), consisting of 2,195 people with reduced ADL capacity from Sweden, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Austria, and Italy, was included. The Older Americans' Resources Schedule (OARS), the Life Satisfaction Index Z, and the Self-Esteem Scale were used. In all national samples, overall health, self-esteem, and feeling worried, rather than ADL capacity, were significantly associated with life satisfaction. The findings indicate the importance of taking not only the reduction in functional capacity into account but also the individual's perception of health and self-esteem when outlining health care and nursing aimed at improving life satisfaction. The study thus suggests that personal rather than environmental factors are important for life satisfaction among people with reduced ADL capacity living in Europe.

  11. Economics of power generation from imported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1998-02-01

    Attention is paid to the economics of import of biomass to the Netherlands, and subsequent utilisation for power generation, as a means to reduce dependence on (imported) fossil fuels and to reduce CO2 emission. Import of wood to the extent of 40 PJ or more from Baltic and South American states seems to be readily achievable. Import of biomass has various advantages, not only for the European Union (reduced CO2 emissions) but also for the countries of origin (employment creation). However, possible disadvantages or risks should be taken into account. With that in mind, import of biomass from Baltic states seems very interesting, although it should be noted that in some of those countries the alternative of fuel-switching to biomass seems to be more cost-effective than import of biomass from those countries. Given the expected increase in inland biomass consumption in the Baltic countries and the potential substantial future demand for biomass in other Western European countries it is expected that the biomass supply from Baltic countries will not be sufficient to fulfill the demand. An early focus on import from other countries seems advisable. Several power generation options are available with short to medium term potential and long term potential. The margin between costs of biomass-fuelled power and of coal fired power will be smaller, due to substantial improvements in power generating efficiency and reductions of investment costs of options for power generation from biomass, notably Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle. 18 refs

  12. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...... is an unexploited, not researched, not developed source of biomass and is at the same time an enormous resource by mass. It is therefore obvious to look into this vast biomass resource and by this report give some of the first suggestions of how this new and promising biomass resource can be exploited....

  13. The biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass comes mainly from forests and agriculture and is considered as a clean alternative energy that can be valorized as heat, power, bio-fuels and chemical products but its mass production is challenging in terms of adequate technology but also in terms of rethinking the use of lands. Forests can be managed to produce biomass but bio-fuels can also be generated from sea-weeds. Biomass appears very promising but on one hand we have to secure its supplying and assure its economical profitability and on another hand we have to assure a reasonable use of lands and a limited impact on the environment. The contribution of biomass to sustainable development depends on the balance between these 2 ends. (A.C.)

  14. Monitoring the bio-economy : Assessing local and global biomass flows, land-use change, carbon impacts and future land resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    As one of the common goals of developing the ‘bio-economy (BE)’ is to reduce GHG emissions from fossil feedstocks, it is crucial to monitor the associated carbon stock change from land-use change (CSC-LUC). This thesis addressed the key knowledge gaps related to (i) tracking the biomass flows for

  15. Analysis of the economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass resources for energy and materials in the Netherlands : macro-economics biobased synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Banse, M.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for

  16. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  17. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  18. Local and landscape-level floral resources explain effects of wildflower strips on wild bees across four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Bommarco, R.; Holzschuh, A.; Potts, S.G.; Riedinger, V.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Rundlöf, M.; Smith, H.G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Wickens, J.B.; Wickens, V.J.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    1.Growing evidence for declines in wild bees calls for the development and implementation of effective mitigation measures. Enhancing floral resources is a widely accepted measure for promoting bees in agricultural landscapes, but effectiveness varies considerably between landscapes and regions. We

  19. Sustainable River Basin Management under the European Water Framework Directive: an Effective Protection of Drinking-Water Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/099909189; Wuijts, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands drinking water is produced both from surface water and groundwater. Due to the shortage of space, resources are often found in combination with other activities, such as those pertaining to industry or agriculture, in the same neighbourhood. These combinations impose strong

  20. Local and landscape-level floral resources explain effects of wildflower strips on wild bees across four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Bommarco, R.; Holzschuh, A.; Potts, S.G.; Riedinger, V.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Rundlöf, M.; Smith, H.G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Wickens, J.B.; Wickens, V.J.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    1. Growing evidence for declines in wild bees calls for the development and implementation of effective mitigation measures. Enhancing floral resources is a widely accepted measure for promoting bees in agricultural landscapes, but effectiveness varies considerably between landscapes and regions. We

  1. Electricity from biomass in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beuge, M.J.J.; Sillevis Smit, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    In the past decade, the international community has ta-ken various measures towards achieving a more sustainable energy supply and a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, among which the conclusion of the Kyoto protocol. Both the European Union and The Netherlands regard the large scale use of biomass for the production of electricity as an important instrument towards achieving the aforementioned policy goals. In this regard the European Union introduced the Renewables Directive, the implementation of which in The Netherlands has recently been completed. In connection with the above, The Netherlands' Minister for Economic Affairs recently published the Biomass Action Plan, aimed at increasing - in the short term - energy production, in particular electricity production, from biomass. This article provides insight into the outlines of the legal framework that is relevant for the production of electricity from biomass in The Netherlands. Following a brief introduction to the relationship between bio energy and biomass, as well as a short introduction to the most important ways in which biomass contributes to the production of electricity in The Netherlands, the article sketches the contours of the European and Dutch policies and related legislation regarding the production of electricity from biomass. In particular, this article describes the Dutch legislation aimed at subsidising and thus promoting the production of electricity from biomass, as well as the requirements with which electricity production installations making use of biomass must comply for an environmental and/or waste perspective [nl

  2. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  3. Hygroscopic properties of Amazonian biomass burning and European background HULIS and investigation of their effects on surface tension with two models linking H-TDMA to CCNC data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Fors

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS have been identified as major contributors to the organic carbon in atmospheric aerosol. The term "HULIS" is used to describe the organic material found in aerosol particles that resembles the humic organic material in rivers and sea water and in soils. In this study, two sets of filter samples from atmospheric aerosols were collected at different sites. One set of samples was collected at the K-puszta rural site in Hungary, about 80 km SE of Budapest, and a second was collected at a site in Rondônia, Amazonia, Brazil, during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC biomass burning season experiment. HULIS were extracted from the samples and their hygroscopic properties were studied using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA at relative humidity (RH <100%, and a cloud condensation nucleus counter (CCNC at RH >100%. The H-TDMA measurements were carried out at a dry diameter of 100 nm and for RH ranging from 30 to 98%. At 90% RH the HULIS samples showed diameter growth factors between 1.04 and 1.07, reaching values of 1.4 at 98% RH. The cloud nucleating properties of the two sets of aerosol samples were analysed using two types of thermal static cloud condensation nucleus counters. Two different parameterization models were applied to investigate the potential effect of HULIS surface activity, both yielding similar results. For the K-puszta winter HULIS sample, the surface tension at the point of activation was estimated to be lowered by between 34% (47.7 mN/m and 31% (50.3 mN/m for dry sizes between 50 and 120 nm in comparison to pure water. A moderate lowering was also observed for the entire water soluble aerosol sample, including both organic and inorganic compounds, where the surface tension was decreased by between 2% (71.2 mN/m and 13% (63.3 mN/m.

  4. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The European (EU 25) wish to substitute solid biomass origin energy consumption (principally wood and wood waste, but also straw, crop harvest residues, vegetal and animal waste) for a part of that of fossil fuel origin (petrol, gas and coal) is beginning to pay off. 58,7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) of solid biomass was produced in 2005, i.e. a 3.1 Mtoe increase with respect to 2004. Production of primary energy coming from direct combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in incineration plants should also be added on to this figure. The 0,2 Mtoe increase in this production with respect to 2004 brings valorization of this type of waste up to 5,3 Mtoe in 2005. (author)

  5. Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Fischer, G.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for the assessment of biomass potentials was developed and applied to Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC). Biomass resources considered are agricultural residues, forestry residues, and wood from surplus forest and biomass from energy crops. Only land that is not needed for food and feed production is considered as available for the production of energy crops. Five scenarios were built to depict the influences of different factors on biomass potentials and costs. Scenarios, with a domination of current level of agricultural production or ecological production systems, show the smallest biomass potentials of 2-5.7 EJ for all CEEC. Highest potentials can reach up to 11.7 EJ (85% from energy crops, 12% from residues and 3% from surplus forest wood) when 44 million ha of agricultural land become available for energy crop production. This potential is, however, only realizable under high input production systems and most advanced production technology, best allocation of crop production over all CEEC and by choosing willow as energy crops. The production of lignocellulosic crops, and willow in particular, best combines high biomass production potentials and low biomass production costs. Production costs for willow biomass range from 1.6 to 8.0 EUR/GJ HHV in the scenario with the highest agricultural productivity and 1.0-4.5 EUR/GJ HHV in the scenario reflecting the current status of agricultural production. Generally the highest biomass production costs are experienced when ecological agriculture is prevailing and on land with lower quality. In most CEEC, the production potentials are larger than the current energy use in the more favourable scenarios. Bulk of the biomass potential can be produced at costs lower than 2 EUR/GJ. High potentials combined with the low cost levels gives CEEC major export opportunities. (author)

  6. Utilization of biomass in the U.S. for the production of ethanol fuel as a gasoline replacement. I - Terrestrial resource potential. II - Energy requirements, with emphasis on lignocellulosic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchak, J. D.; Pye, E. K.

    The paper assesses the biomass resource represented by starch derived from feed corn, surplus and distressed grain, and high-yield sugar crops planted on set-aside land in the U.S. It is determined that the quantity of ethanol produced may be sufficient to replace between 5 to 27% of present gasoline requirements. Utilization of novel cellulose conversion technology may in addition provide fermentable sugars from municipal, agricultural and forest wastes, and ultimately from highly productive silvicultural operations. The potential additional yield of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be well in excess of liquid fuel requirements of an enhanced-efficiency transport sector at present mileage demands. No conflict with food production would be entailed. A net-energy assessment is made for lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks' conversion to ethanol and an almost 10:1 energy yield/energy cost ratio determined. It is also found that novel cellulose pretreatment and enzymatic conversion methods still under development may significantly improve even that figure, and that both chemical-feedstocks and energy-yielding byproducts such as carbon dioxide, biogas and lignin make ethanol production potentially energy self-sufficient. A final high-efficiency production approach incorporates site-optimized, nonpolluting energy sources such as solar and geothermal.

  7. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model. Volume I. Biomass allocation model. Technical progress report for the period ending September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A biomass allocation model has been developed to show the most profitable combination of biomass feedstocks thermochemical conversion processes, and fuel products to serve the seasonal conditions in a regional market. This optimization model provides a tool for quickly calculating the most profitable biomass missions from a large number of potential biomass missions. Other components of the system serve as a convenient storage and retrieval mechanism for biomass marketing and thermochemical conversion processing data. The system can be accessed through the use of a computer terminal, or it could be adapted to a portable micro-processor. A User's Manual for the system has been included in Appendix A of the report. The validity of any biomass allocation solution provided by the allocation model is dependent on the accuracy of the data base. The initial data base was constructed from values obtained from the literature, and, consequently, as more current thermochemical conversion processing and manufacturing costs and efficiencies become available, the data base should be revised. Biomass derived fuels included in the data base are the following: medium Btu gas low Btu gas, substitute natural gas, ammonia, methanol, electricity, gasoline, and fuel oil. The market sectors served by the fuels include: residential, electric utility, chemical (industrial), and transportation. Regional/seasonal costs and availabilities and heating values for 61 woody and non-woody biomass species are included. The study has included four regions in the United States which were selected because there was both an availability of biomass and a commercial demand for the derived fuels: Region I: NY, WV, PA; Region II: GA, AL, MS; Region III: IN, IL, IA; and Region IV: OR, WA.

  8. Soap-stone in architecture of North European cities. A nomination as a candidate for a Global Heritage Stones Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Soap stone represents soft Proterozoic rock type from the deposit Nunnalahti situated on the western shore of the big Lake Pielinen in Eastern Finland. It consists of talc (40 - 50 %), magnesite MgCO3 (40 - 50 %), chlorite (5 - 8 %), dolomite, calcite, etc. The colour of the stone is very spectacular and varies from yellow and brownish-yellow to grey, greenish grey. The soft stone is a highly workable material for a sculptor's chisel. It was one of the most popular ornamental rocks used architecture of the Modern style in St Petersburg, Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and other North European cities lately in the XIX-th centuries. Examples are given and discussed. References: Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English).

  9. Biomass Supply and Trade Opportunities of Preprocessed Biomass for Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Junginger, M.; Klemm, M.; Schipfer, F.; Thrän, D.

    2016-01-01

    International trade of solid biomass is expected to increase significantly given the global distribution of biomass resources and anticipated expansion of bioenergy deployment in key global power markets. Given the unique characteristics of biomass, its long-distance trade requires optimized

  10. Winter School 2011 of the North Rhine Westphalia Research School "Fuel production based on renewable resources" associated with the Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass"

    CERN Document Server

    Pischinger, Stefan; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the results of the BrenaRo Winterschool 2011, held on November 21-22 in Aachen, Germany. The different chapters cover a number of aspects of the topic of energy generation, with a particular focus on energy generation from biomass. They presents new findings concerning engine development, process engineering, and biological and chemical conversion of biomass to fuels, and highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary approach, combining chemistry, biology and engineering research, to the use of renewable energy sources. All in all, this book provides readers with a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in renewable energy conversion, and gives an overview of the ongoing work in this field in Germany.

  11. Washington State biomass data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs

  12. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  13. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K; Keraenen, H [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  14. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  15. Increased electricity use for reducing pressures on natural resources and environment - the case of the European union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplani, A.

    1995-01-01

    The study, which is based on the energy scenario methodology, first developed the ''reference scenario'', based on a market-oriented approach, on changes in business, habits, policies and innovation following trends, on consolidated expectations about economic growth, quasi-stationary demography and energy service demand. Then, as the reference scenario proved not to satisfy even relaxed constraints for Sustainable Development, an ''alternative scenario'' was developed, still based on a market-oriented approach, but leaving ampler scope to innovation and more conducing to long-term investments, that leads to a decline of CO 2 emissions over the long term. Fostering the recourse to efficient end-use technologies (demand side) and prudent use of CO-2-free energies, both mainly based on electricity, are the two main instruments considered. A development path which, by 2020, is projected to involve 10% less energy, 5% more electricity, 20-25% less energy-related CO 2 emissions is identified and its implementation discussed in the framework of the European Union energy policy. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  17. Biomass gasification for production of 'green energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambre, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the differences between biomass gasification and biomass methanation, two ways of using biomass for decentralized production of energy. The stakes of biomass and biomass gasification for meeting the European and national energy goals and environmental targets are summarized. The gasification principle is described and in particular the FICFB optimized process from Repotec for the production of concentrated syngas. The four different ways of syngas valorization (combined heat and power (CHP), 'green methane' (SNG), 'green hydrogen' (gas shift) and liquid biofuels of 2. generation (Fisher-Tropsch)) are recalled and compared with each other. Finally, the economical and environmental key issues of the global chain are summarized with their technological and scientific key locks. The GAYA R and D project of Gaz de France Suez group, which aims at developing gasification and methanation demonstration plants through different programs with European partners, is briefly presented. (J.S.)

  18. Biomass living energy; Biomasse l'energie vivante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  19. Biomass Characterization | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization Biomass Characterization NREL provides high-quality analytical characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products, a critical step in optimizing biomass conversion clear, amber liquid Standard Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedures We maintain a library of

  20. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually high temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass between 2010 and 2011 contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing

  1. Bio energy: Production of Biomass; Produksjon av biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noreng, Katrina; Indergaard, Mentz; Liodden, Ole Joergen; Hohle, Erik Eid; Sandberg, Eiliv

    2001-07-01

    This is Chapter 2 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Biomass resources in Norway, (2) The foundation - photosynthesis, (3) Biomass from forestry, (4) Biomass from peat lands, (5) Biomass from agriculture and (6) Biomass from lakes and sea. The exposition largely describes the conditions in Norway, where the use of bio energy can be increased from 15 TWh to 35 TWh using available technology. At present, water-borne heating systems are not extensively used in Norway and 30% of the biomass that is cut in the forests remains there as waste. Using this waste for energy generation would not only contribute to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, but would often lead to improved forest rejuvenation. Use of a few per thousand of the Norwegian peat lands would produce 2 - 3 TWh. According to calculations, along the coast of Norway, there are at least 15 mill tonnes of kelp and sea tangle and these resources can be utilized in a sustainable way.

  2. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  3. How Technology Can Improve the Efficiency of Excavator-Based Cable Harvesting for Potential Biomass Extraction—A Woody Productivity Resource and Cost Analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ger Devlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cable logging systems were reviewed to compare the efficiency of potential biomass extraction from remote forest sites in Ireland based on productive machine hour (PMH and unit cost of operation (€/m3. Three operational scenarios (SC were analysed where SC I was a three man crew operation (choker setter, the carriage operator and unhooking chokers. SC II was a variation of this with a two man crew operation. SC III was operating radio controlled chokers there was a two man crew (choker setter and carriage operator. The study aims to assess how operations in Ireland perform against previous known cable studies to determine whether the cost of timber extraction on remote forest sites inaccessible for mechanised felling, has a future given the increased demand for wood fibre in Ireland, both from the sawmilling industries and the wood for energy sector. The volume per PMH was recorded at 17.97 for SC I, 15.09 for SC II and 20.58 m3 for SC III. The difference in productivity versus SC III remote controlled chokers is 5.49 m3/PMH for SC II crew and 2.61 m3/PMH for SC I. The decrease in total volume extracted from SCs I and II versus SC III was recorded at 15.69 m3 (15% and 32.97 m3 (36% product respectively. In value terms, the unit cost (€/m3 varied from 6.29 (SC I to 6.43 (SC II to 4.57 (SC III. When looking at the production unit costs of normal wood energy supply chains in Ireland, the figures are similar ranging from 3.17 €/m3 to 8.01 €/m3. The value of the end product of course will always determine which market the eventually goes to but given that cable log wood fibre has been unthinned and unmaintained then the biomass sector may be an ever increasing demand point in the search for increased woody biomass given that the unit costs can be competitive with other wood energy supply chains.

  4. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  5. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... of this study was to project and map the biomass and biogas energy potential from a selection of potentially sustainable agricultural residues, which have been documented to improve in biogas yields when co-digested in biogas production, for the EU28 in year 2030. The investigated types of residual biomasses...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...

  6. Effects of patient-reported non-severe hypoglycemia on healthcare resource use, work-time loss, and wellbeing in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in seven European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Weitgasser, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    the effects of self-reported non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHE) on use of healthcare resources and patient wellbeing. Methods: Patients with T1DM or insulin-treated T2DM diabetes from seven European countries were invited to complete four weekly questionnaires. Data were collected on patient demographics...

  7. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Biomass. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, H.; Tuerk, A.; Arasto, A.; Vehlow, J.; Kautto, N.; Sijm, J.; Hunder, M.; Brammer, J.

    2009-02-01

    Within its Energy and Climate Package, adopted by the European Parliament in December 2008, the European commission set a 10% minimum for the market share of renewables in the transport sector in 2020. To find the appropriate instruments to reach this target and the instrument mix with which biomass use in general could be best stimulated are the main questions of this project. An important instrument of the European Climate Policy is the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), which started operation in 2005. Previous work done within Bioenergy NoE showed that only a high share of auctioning of allowances and a high CO2 price provide necessary incentives for a higher biomass use. According to the Energy and Climate Package, all allowances will be auctioned in the energy sector from 2013 on, with exceptions for a few CEE countries. Based on work done within the project, a model has been developed to analyse at which CO2 price biomass becomes competitive in case of 100 per cent auctioning or at a lower level. The European Commission furthermore decided not to include the road transport sector into the EU-ETS until 2020. Whether the inclusion of the road transport sector in the EU-ETS, could help introducing biofuels, a separate trading scheme for biofuels should be set up, or biofuels should be addressed with other policy instruments, was another main question of this project. The first result shows that an integrated scheme would hardly have any effects on the use of liquid biofuels in the transportation sector, but might cause higher CO2 prices for the energy and industry sector. A separate trading scheme has been implemented in the UK in 2008, California is planning such as scheme in addition to include the road transport sector into the future ETS. Within this project the design of such as system has been elaborated based on the comparison of several policy instruments to increase the use of liquid biofuels in the transportation sector. Policy interaction

  8. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P.; McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S.; Biberacher, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  9. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (Germany). German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD); McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Biberacher, M. [Research Studios Austria AG (RSA), Salzburg (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  10. Carbon, energy and forest biomass: new opportunities and needs for forest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass provides a relevant fraction of world energy needs, not only in developing Countries. In Italy, several factors are presently contributing to a new interest for this resource, ranging from regulatory quotas for renewables to the increasing price of fossil fuel to the emergence of a European carbon stock exchange. This focus on renewable resources constitutes an important opportunity for the forest sector and for society by and large, but because of the potential dimensions of the emerging market it also requires new planning instruments, in order to avoid a sudden and widespread resumption of coppice management and a reduction of standing carbon stock in forest ecosystems, which would run contrary to the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. An example of the future demand for biomasses in Central Italy is presented, based on the possible use of fuelwood in new coal-fired power plants by the 'co-firing' technology.

  11. Energy from biomass and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides a review of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Energy Demonstration Programme in the sector of Energy from biomass and waste, and examines the current status of the energy technologies associated with the sector, in relation to projects supported under the Programme, those included under various national programmes and by reference to the published literature. Detailed overviews of five sub-categories represented in the Energy from biomass and waste sector are presented to illustrate their relative significance in terms of estimated energy potential, technological and economic status and the nature of future research, development and demonstration needs. Finally the potential role of the biomass and waste energy technologies in meeting the energy needs of the developing world is discussed. 33 refs; 2 figs; 11 tabs

  12. Health Resource Utilization Associated with Skeletal-Related Events in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: A European Subgroup Analysis from an Observational, Multinational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bahl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to increase the understanding of health resource utilization (HRU associated with skeletal-related events (SREs occurring in patients with bone metastases secondary to advanced prostate cancer. A total of 120 patients from Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom were enrolled in this observational study. They had bone metastases secondary to prostate cancer and had experienced at least one SRE in the 97 days before giving informed consent. HRU data were collected retrospectively for 97 days before enrolment and prospectively for up to 18–21 months. HRU, including the number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations, number of outpatient and emergency department visits and procedures, was independently attributed by investigators to an SRE. Of the 222 SREs included in this analysis, 26% were associated with inpatient stays and the mean duration per SRE was 21.4 days (standard deviation (SD 17.8 days. Overall, 174 SREs (78% required an outpatient visit and the mean number of visits per SRE was 4.6 (SD 4.6. All SREs are associated with substantial HRU. Preventing SREs in patients with advanced prostate cancer and bone metastases may help to reduce the burden to both patients and European healthcare systems.

  13. International Programme for Resource Use in Critical Care (IPOC)--a methodology and initial results of cost and provision in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, D; Sheppard, L; Mills, G H; Jacobs, P; Rapoport, J; Bourne, R S; Guidet, B; Csomos, A; Prien, T; Anderson, G; Edbrooke, D L

    2006-01-01

    A standardized top-down costing method is not currently available internationally. An internally validated method developed in the UK was modified for use in critical care in different countries. Costs could then be compared using the World Health Organization's Purchasing Power Parities (WHO PPPs). This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, multicentre study set in four European countries: France, UK, Germany and Hungary. A total of 329 adult intensive care units (ICUs) participated in the study. The costs are reported in international dollars ($) derived from the WHO PPP programme. The results show significant differences in resource use and costs of ICUs over the four countries. On the basis of the sum of the means for the major components, the average cost per patient day in UK hospitals was $1512, in French hospitals $934, in German hospitals $726 and in Hungarian hospitals $280. The reasons for such differences are poorly understood but warrant further investigation. This information will allow us to better adjust our measures of international ICU costs.

  14. Energetic nature on and around Veluwe. Biomass as a resource for a green economy; Energieke natuur op en rond de Veluwe. Biomassa als grondstof voor een groene economie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Soest, J.P. [Advies voor Duurzaamheid, Klarenbeek (Netherlands); Blom, M. [CE, Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    The possibility to produce more biomass from the nature reserve Veluwe in the mid-part of the Netherlands in combination with preserving the nature in this area has been elaborated. [Dutch] De mogelijkheid om meer biomassa voor energie op en rond de Veluwe te winnen zodanig dat de natuur er door wordt versterkt wordt is in dit rapport uitgewerkt. Daarmee kan biomassa een welkome bijdrage zijn aan behoud en ontwikkeling van de natuur. De actualiteit, bijvoorbeeld recente rapporten van de Rekenkamer en het Milieu- en Natuur Planbureau (MNP), wijst uit dat het natuurbeleid niet op schema ligt; nieuwe 'motoren' achter natuurontwikkeling zijn dringend gewenst. Ook uit oogpunt van transitie naar een duurzame energiehuishouding is 'Energieke natuur' van belang. In veel energiescenario's groeit het aandeel van biomassa, maar er zijn grote zorgen dat deze ontwikkeling ten koste gaat van natuur, biodiversiteit en voedselproductie. Het hier beschreven concept laat zien dat biomassa, mits goed georganiseerd, een positieve bijdrage kan leveren.

  15. Viewls - Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios. Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. (and others)

    2006-01-15

    The EU has set ambitious targets to increase the use of Renewable Energy Sources from which a large part has to come from biomass To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed which requires large areas of land in the EU. This article discusses a methodology and results for a regional biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Accession countries (CEEC). The biomass potential assessment is implemented for a defined set of scenarios. The scenarios are based on the main drivers in Europe relevant for agriculture and land use change, i.e. World Trade Negotiations or Common Agricultural Policy. The methodology for the biomass potential assessment is based on land use changes over time. A certain amount of land is needed to meet the required production for food (derived from agricultural crops and livestock) and wood products. The surplus available land can possibly be used for biomass production. Results of the biomass potential assessment are available on a Nuts-3 region level in the CEEC for different scenarios. As the concept of large-scale biomass production is only feasible when production is profitable for the stakeholders involved, price and cost-relations are included in the assessment. Final deliverable are cost-supply curves from different sources (energy crops, residues) and scenarios for the CEEC. (au)

  16. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production

  17. A review on biomass as a fuel for boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Abelaziz, E.A.; Demirbas, A.; Hossain, M.S.; Mekhilef, S. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-06-15

    Currently, fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas represent the prime energy sources in the world. However, it is anticipated that these sources of energy will deplete within the next 40-50 years. Moreover, the expected environmental damages such as the global warming, acid rain and urban smog due to the production of emissions from these sources have tempted the world to try to reduce carbon emissions by 80% and shift towards utilizing a variety of renewable energy resources (RES) which are less environmentally harmful such as solar, wind, biomass etc. in a sustainable way. Biomass is one of the earliest sources of energy with very specific properties. In this review, several aspects which are associated with burning biomass in boilers have been investigated such as composition of biomass, estimating the higher heating value of biomass, comparison between biomass and other fuels, combustion of biomass, co-firing of biomass and coal, impacts of biomass, economic and social analysis of biomass, transportation of biomass, densification of biomass, problems of biomass and future of biomass. It has been found that utilizing biomass in boilers offers many economical, social and environmental benefits such as financial net saving, conservation of fossil fuel resources, job opportunities creation and CO{sub 2} and NO emissions reduction. However, care should be taken to other environmental impacts of biomass such as land and water resources, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and deforestation. Fouling, marketing, low heating value, storage and collections and handling are all associated problems when burning biomass in boilers. The future of biomass in boilers depends upon the development of the markets for fossil fuels and on policy decisions regarding the biomass market.

  18. Biomass energy in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J M [Biomass Users` Network, Regional Office for Central America and the Caribbean, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  19. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  20. Opportunities for Small Biomass Power Systems. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D. D.; Pinapati, V. S.

    2000-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide information to key stakeholders and the general public about biomass resource potential for power generation. Ten types of biomass were identified and evaluated. The quantities available for power generation were estimated separately for five U.S. regions and Canada. A method entitled ''competitive resource profile'' was used to rank resources based on economics, utilization, and environmental impact. The results of the analysis may be used to set priorities for utilization of biomass in each U.S. region. A review of current biomass conversion technologies was accomplished, linking technologies to resources.

  1. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  2. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    Solid biomass consumption, primarily wood energy, is still largely governed by heating requirements which are climate-dependent. The main factor for the European rebound in solid biomass consumption as primary energy during the winter of 2015 is that it was not as mild across the continent as the previous winter. Leaving aside climatic variations, the use of solid biomass for producing heat or electricity has tended to increase in the European Union, spurred on by European support policies. A new consumption record of 93.8 Mtoe was posted in 2015... a rise of 3.8 Mtoe over 2014

  3. Transporter engineering in biomass utilization by yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Daisuke; Kuriya, Yuki; Hirono-Hara, Yoko; Ishii, Jun; Araki, Michihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-11-01

    Biomass resources are attractive carbon sources for bioproduction because of their sustainability. Many studies have been performed using biomass resources to produce sugars as carbon sources for cell factories. Expression of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes in cell factories is an important approach for constructing biomass-utilizing bioprocesses because external addition of these enzymes is expensive. In particular, yeasts have been extensively engineered to be cell factories that directly utilize biomass because of their manageable responses to many genetic engineering tools, such as gene expression, deletion and editing. Biomass utilizing bioprocesses have also been developed using these genetic engineering tools to construct metabolic pathways. However, sugar input and product output from these cells are critical factors for improving bioproduction along with biomass utilization and metabolic pathways. Transporters are key components for efficient input and output activities. In this review, we focus on transporter engineering in yeast to enhance bioproduction from biomass resources. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  5. Biomass equations for selected drought-tolerant eucalypts in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the water-scarce environment of South Africa, drought-tolerant eucalypt species have the potential to contribute to the timber and biomass resource. Biomass functions are a necessary prerequisite to predict yield and carbon sequestration. In this study preliminary biomass models for Eucalyptus cladocalyx, ...

  6. Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupak Moeller, Inge

    2005-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, and political action plans at European and national levels exist for an increased use. The use of forest biomass for energy can imply different economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages for the society, the energy sector and forestry. For the achievement of an increased and sustainable use of forest biomass for energy, the EU 5th Framework project WOOD-EN-MAN aimed at synthesising current knowledge and creating new knowledge within the field

  7. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  8. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to the plethora of chemicals used in modern society is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Due to the significant differences between biomass resources and the current feedstock, crude oil, new technologies need to be developed encompassing all steps...... in the value chain, from pretreatment to purification. Heterogeneous catalysis is at the heart of the petrochemical refinery and will likely play an equally important role in the future biomass-based chemical industry. Three potentially important routes to chemicals from biomass are highlighted in this chapter....... The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source of biomass...

  9. A cross-sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP regarding seasonal influenza vaccination among European travellers to resource-limited destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szucs Thomas D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in travellers. By performing two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys during winter 2009 and winter 2010 among European travellers to resource-limited destinations, we aimed to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP regarding seasonal influenza vaccination. Methods Questionnaires were distributed in the waiting room to the visitors of the University of Zurich Centre for Travel' Health (CTH in January and February 2009 and January 2010 prior to travel health counselling (CTH09 and CTH10. Questions included demographic data, travel-related characteristics and KAP regarding influenza vaccination. Data were analysed by using SPSS® version 14.0 for Windows. Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square test and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Predictors for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination were determined by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results With a response rate of 96.6%, 906 individuals were enrolled and 868 (92.5% provided complete data. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage was 13.7% (n = 119. Only 43 (14.2% participants were vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1, mostly having received both vaccines simultaneously, the seasonal and pandemic one. Job-related purposes (44, 37%, age > 64 yrs (25, 21% and recommendations of the family physician (27, 22.7% were the most often reported reasons for being vaccinated. In the multiple logistic regression analyses of the pooled data increasing age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04, a business trip (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.17 - 0.92 and seasonal influenza vaccination in the previous winter seasons (OR = 12.91, 95% CI 8.09 - 20.58 were independent predictors for seasonal influenza vaccination in 2009 or 2010. Influenza vaccination recommended by the family doctor (327, 37.7%, travel to regions with known high risk of influenza (305, 35.1%, and influenza

  10. International and domestic uses of solid biofuels under different renewable energy support scenarios in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Resch, Gustav; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A GIS based intermodal biomass transport model was developed for the European Union. • It was linked to the renewable energy model Green-X updated with biomass trade. • Scenarios of renewable energy deployment in the EU27 to 2020 were assessed. • Domestic biomass resources will remain the largest source of bioenergy (over 90%). • But increasing amounts of solid biomass will be traded (up to 506 PJ in 2020). - Abstract: This article describes the development of a geographic information systems (GIS) based biomass transport analysis tool BIT-UU used in combination with the European renewable energy model Green-X. BIT-UU calculates cost and GHG emissions from lowest cost routes, using intermodal transport (by road, rail, inland waterways and sea) between origins of supply and demand destinations. With the developed biomass trade module in Green-X, the role of bioenergy can be evaluated in the larger context of renewable energy deployment. The modeling framework takes into account the current and future energy policies at EU and country levels, competition with alternative sources of renewable energy (e.g. photovoltaic, wind) and sectors (electricity, heat, transport fuels) as well as competition between EU member states for the same biomass resources. Scenario projections to 2020 are used to demonstrate the developed modeling framework. According to these scenarios, biomass from domestic supply remains the most important source of bioenergy (91–93% in 2020). However, the role of traded solid biomass will become increasingly important. With a business as usual scenario, assuming continuation of current renewable energy policies to 2020, the binding renewable energy targets will not be achieved, but trade of solid biomass will still increase up to 451 PJ in 2020. In the scenario that meets the conditions to achieve the 20% renewable energy target in 2020, traded solid biomass is projected to increase to 440 PJ if sustainability criteria are

  11. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  12. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  13. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  14. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  15. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  16. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  17. Sustainable Development Strategies of Biomass Energy in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Z.; Huang, B. R.

    2017-10-01

    The development of biomass energy industry can effectively improve the rural environment and alleviate the shortage of living energy in rural areas, especially in mountain areas. In order to make clear the current situation of biomass energy industry development in Beijing, this paper analyzed the status of biomass resources and biomass energy utilization and discussed the factors hindering the development of biomass energy industry in Beijing. Based on the analysis, suggestions for promoting sustainable development of Biomass Energy Industry in Beijing are put forward.

  18. Techno-economic Assessment of Biomass Pellets for Power Generation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, P.; Chaturvedi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass pellet production has increased considerably in recent years, mainly due to the demand created by policies and bioenergy-use targets in the European Union (EU). Global biomass pellet production was 24.1 million tonne (Mt) in 2014. In this study, a preliminary attempt has been made to assess the techno-economic feasibility of biomass pellets for electricity generation in India produced from biomass surplus available from agriculture and forestry/wasteland. Biomass surplus availability ...

  19. The importance of the wood biomass in environment protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spîrchez, Cosmin; Lunguleasa, Aurel; Croitoru, Cǎtǎlin

    2017-12-01

    Biomass is a natural vegetal component. As a form of storing energy is chemical form sun, biomass is one of the most popular and universal resource on Earth. Today biomass fuel can be used for various purposes from room heating to produce electricity and fuel for cars. Biomass is presented in various form for energy, including biodegradable fraction of products, remains and waste from agricultural, forestry and industrial wood processing residues from factories paste stationery and paper, remnants of industrial.

  20. Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization during Pretreatment and Bioconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Yunqiao [ORNL; Meng, Xianzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been introduced as a promising resource for alternative fuels and chemicals because of its abundance and complement for petroleum resources. Biomass is a complex biopolymer and its compositional and structural characteristics largely vary depending on its species as well as growth environments. Because of complexity and variety of biomass, understanding its physicochemical characteristics is a key for effective biomass utilization. Characterization of biomass does not only provide critical information of biomass during pretreatment and bioconversion, but also give valuable insights on how to utilize the biomass. For better understanding biomass characteristics, good grasp and proper selection of analytical methods are necessary. This chapter introduces existing analytical approaches that are widely employed for biomass characterization during biomass pretreatment and conversion process. Diverse analytical methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for biomass characterization are reviewed. In addition, biomass accessibility methods by analyzing surface properties of biomass are also summarized in this chapter.

  1. Decentralized biomass combustion: State of the art and future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obernberger, I.

    1998-01-01

    The present amount of biomass used for heat, and to a smaller extent electricity production, is already considerable in several European countries but the potential unused in Europe is even higher. Combustion is the most mature conversion technology utilized for biomass. The systems addressed in

  2. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  3. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  4. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  5. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. Selection of a particular biomass for energy requirements is influenced by its availability, source and transportation cost, competing uses and prevalent fossil fuel prices. Utilization of biomass is a very attractive energy resource, particularly for developing countries since biomass uses local feedstocks and labor. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to provide much of its energy requirement. More efficient use of biomass in producing energy, both electrical and thermal, may allow Turkey to reduce petroleum imports, thus affecting its balance of payments dramatically. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries in the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being one of the major resources in Turkey. Biomass waste materials can be used in Turkey to provide centralized, medium- and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production. Turkey's first biomass power project is under development in Adana province, at an installed capacity of 45 MW. Two others, at a total capacity of 30 MW, are at the feasibility study stage in Mersin and Tarsus provinces. Electricity production from biomass has been found to be a promising method in the nearest future in Turkey

  6. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  7. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  8. The biomass energy market in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, it was estimated that the Finnish biomass market was in excess of 235 million dollars. The development of renewable energy, with special emphasis on biomass, was supported by the development of an energy strategy by the government of Finland. The installed capacity of biomass in Finland in 2002 was 1400 megawatt electrical (MWe). Extensive use of combined heat and power (CHP) is made in Finland, and district heating (DH) systems using biomass are gaining in popularity. Wood-based biomass technologies, retrofits to fluidized bed combustion, and wood procurement technologies were identified as the best opportunities for Canadian companies interested in operating in Finland. A country with high standards, Finland seems to look favorably on new innovative solutions. Joint ventures with Finnish companies might be an excellent way for Canadian companies to gain a foothold in Finland and expand into the European Union, the Nordic countries, the Baltic, Russia and the Central and Eastern European markets. It was further noted that Finland is one of the leading exporters of biomass technology in the world. The document provided quick facts, examined opportunities, and looked at key players. 19 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Availability of Biomass for Energy Purposes in Nordic and Baltic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Lars; Andreassen, Kjell; Bergh, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    in a European perspective where 38 % of the land area is forest (EU-27). Although some forest areas are protected, 75–92 % of the area can still be used for wood production. Further, substantial agriculture land areas may also be available for production of biomass for energy. Coniferous species dominate......, leading to the conclusion that some of the difference may be used for energy purposes in the near future. The current potential for forest fuel resources was estimated to 230–410 TWh yr-1 (830–1,480 PJ yr-1) for the countries included and forest fuels will thus be of utmost importance for the future...... for specific regions. Wood is extensively used for energy purposes and the forests hold a large potential for increasing the production of renewable energy. The potential may be further increased in the future with increased fertilization, extended breeding for enhanced biomass production, larger cultivation...

  10. Forest biomass and Armington elasticities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundmark, Robert; Shahrammehr, Shima

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide estimated Armington elasticities for selected European countries and for three forest biomass commodities of main interest in many energy models: roundwood, chips and particles and wood residues. The Armington elasticity is based on the assumption that a specific forest biomass commodity is differentiated by its origin. The statistically significant estimated Armington elasticities range from 0.52 for roundwood in Hungary to approximately 4.53 for roundwood in Estonia. On average, the statistically significant Armington elasticity for chips and particles over all countries is 1.7 and for wood residues and roundwood 1.3 and 1.5, respectively. These elasticities can provide benchmark values for simulation models trying to assess trade patterns of forest biomass commodities and energy policy effects for European countries or for the EU as a whole.

  11. Sustainability of biomass in a bio-based economy. A quick-scan analysis of the biomass demand of a bio-based economy in 2030 compared to the sustainable supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, J.; Olivier, J.; Notenboom, J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The conversion of a fossil fuel-based economy into a bio-based economy will probably be restricted in the European Union (EU) by the limited supply of ecologically sustainable biomass. It appears realistic that, for the EU, the sustainable biomass supply will be enough to meet about 10% of the final energy and feedstock consumption in 2030. Under optimistic assumptions, this supply might increase to 20%. EU Member States, in their Renewable Energy Action Plans for 2020, already aim to apply an amount of biomass that already approaches this 10%. Therefore, from a sustainability perspective, there is an urgent need to guarantee ecologically sustainable biomass production. In considering sustainable biomass production, land use is the most critical issue, especially the indirect land-use impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity. The use of waste resources and agricultural and forestry residues, that does not involve additional land use, therefore, would be a sustainable option. Technically, it is possible to use these types of resources for most applications in a bio-based economy. However, it seems unlikely that, by 2030, waste and residue resources will contribute more than three to four per cent to the final energy and feedstock consumption in Europe. Moreover, many waste and residue resources currently already have useful applications; for instance, as feed or soil improvers. These are the main findings of a quick-scan analysis carried out by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and CE Delft on the sustainability of a bio-based economy. Three priorities can be distinguished in the transition to an ecologically sustainable bio-based economy that aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels: (1) develop new technologies, procedures and infrastructure to collect or to produce more biomass without using directly or indirectly valuable natural land; (2) develop technologies to produce hydrocarbons from types of biomass that have potentially

  12. "Climate change impact on water resources - a challenge for IWRM". BRAHMATWINN - Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to enhance capacity and implement adaptive management approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosch, A.; Pechstädt, J.; Müller Schmied, H.; Flügel, W.-A.

    2009-04-01

    BRAHMATWINN addresses climate change impact of the hydrology of two macro-scale river basins having headwaters in alpine mountain massifs. The project will elaborate on the consequential vulnerability of present IWRM and river basin management that have been persistent in these basins during the past decades and will develop tested approaches and technologies for adaptive IWRM and resilience. The overall objective of BRAHMATWINN is to enhance and improve capacity to carry out a harmonized integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach as addressed by the European Water Initiative (EWI) in headwater river systems of alpine mountain massifs in respect to impacts from likely climate change, and to transfer professional IWRM expertise, approaches and tools based on case studies carried out in twinning European and Asian river basins, the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) and the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB). Sustainable IWRM in river basins of such kind face common problems: (i) floods e.g. during spring melt or heavy storms and droughts during summer; (ii) competing water demands for agriculture, hydropower, rural, urban and industrial development, and the environment; (iii) pollution from point as well as diffuse sources; and (iv) socio-economic and legal issues related to water allocation. Besides those common topics both basins also differ in other issues requiring the adaptation of the IWRM tools; these are for example climate conditions, the density of monitoring network, political framework and trans-boundary conflicts. An IWRM has to consider all water-related issues like the securing of water supply for the population in sufficient quantity and quality, the protection of the ecological function of water bodies and it has to consider the probability of natural hazards like floods and droughts. Furthermore the resource water should be threatened in a way that the needs of future generations can be satisfied. Sustainable development is one of the

  13. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trossero, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world's primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  14. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trossero, M A [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world`s primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  15. Methanol from biomass: A technoeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Biomass-derived methanol offers significant potential as an alternative transportation fuel. Methanol is cleaner burning and has a lower flame temperature than gasoline. These characteristics can result in lower carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions when methanol is used as a fuel. Methanol produced from biomass offers potential advantages over that from other sources. When produced from biomass which is subsequently regrown, methanol does not contribute net emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. The introduction of alternative fuels will likely be driven by a number of political and economic decisions. The ability of biomass to compete with other resources will be determined in part by the economics of the production systems. In this paper, recent technoeconomic analyses of biomass-methanol systems are presented. The results are compared with methanol production from coal and natural gas

  16. Experts’ Perceptions of the Effects of Forest Biomass Harvesting on Sustainability in the Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Grilli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In the EU political agenda, the use of forest biomass for energy has grown rapidly and significantly, in order to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions and reduce the energy dependence on fossil fuels of European member countries. The target of the EU climate and energy package is to raise the share of renewable energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% in 2020 (Directive 2009/28/EC. With regards to biomass energy, the supply of forest wood biomass is expected to rise by 45% (reference period: 2006-2020, in response to increasing demand for renewable sources. The increase of forest biomass supply could have both positive and negative effects on several forest ecosystem services (ESs and local development. These effects should be assessed in a proper manner and taken into account when formulating management strategies. The aim of the paper is to assess the environmental, economic and social sustainability of forest biomass harvesting for energy, using the Figure of Merit (FoM approach. Materials and Methods: Sustainability was assessed through a set of four indicators: two focused on experts’ opinions regarding the effects of forest biomass harvesting and the other two focused on the cost-benefit analysis (potential energy obtained and costs for wood chips. The research was developed through four case studies located in the Alpine Region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered face-to-face to 32 selected experts. The perceived effects of forest biomass harvesting for energy on ESs and local development were evaluated by experts using a 5-point Likert scale (from “quite negative effect” to “quite positive effect”. Results: All experts agree that forest biomass harvesting has a positive effect on forest products provision and local economic development (employment of local workforce, local entrepreneurship and market diversification, while the effects on other ESs are controversial (e

  17. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, C J; Schmidt, D D; Olson, E S; Leroux, K M; Wocken, C A; Aulich, T A; WIlliams, K D

    2008-07-28

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with

  18. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  19. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program (GLRBEP) was initiated September, 1983, with a grant from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program provides resources to public and private organizations in the Great Lakes region to increase the utilization and production of biomass fuels. The objectives of the GLRBEP are to: (1) improve the capabilities and effectiveness of biomass energy programs in the state energy offices; (2) assess the availability of biomass resources for energy in light of other competing needs and uses; (3) encourage private sector investments in biomass energy technologies; (4) transfer the results of government-sponsored biomass research and development to the private sector; (5) eliminate or reduce barriers to private sector use of biomass fuels and technology; (6) prevent or substantially mitigate adverse environmental impacts of biomass energy use. The Program Director is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the GLRBEP and for implementing program mandates. A 40 member Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) sets priorities and recommends projects. The governor of each state in the region appoints a member to the Steering Council, which acts on recommendations of the TAC and sets basic program guidelines. The GLRBEP is divided into three separate operational elements. The State Grants component provides funds and direction to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized. The Subcontractor component involves the issuance of solicitations to undertake projects that address regional needs, identified by the Technical Advisory Committee. The Technology Transfer component includes the development of nontechnical biomass energy publications and reports by Council staff and contractors, and the dissemination of information at conferences, workshops and other events

  20. Viewls - Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC[Central and Eastern European Countries; Western European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-05-13

    The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)

  1. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Final Report, December 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-10-01

    Final subcontractor report giving an overview of the biomass power generation technologies used in China. Report covers resources, technologies, foreign technologies and resources for comparison purposes, biomass potential in China, and finally government policies in China that support/hinder development of the using biomass in China for power generation.

  2. A biomass energy flow chart for Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senelwa, K.A.; Hall, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    Terrestrial (above ground) biomass production and its utilization in Kenya was analyzed for the 1980s. Total biomass energy production was estimated at 2574 x 10 6 GJ per year, most of which (86.7%) is produced on land classified as agricultural. Of the total production, agriculture and forrestry operations resulted in the harvesting of 1138 x 10 6 GJ (44.2% of total production), half of which (602 x 10 6 GJ) was harvested for use as fuel. Only 80 x 10 6 GJ was harvested for food and 63 x 10 6 GJ for industrial (agricultural and forestry) plus other miscellaneous purposes. About 85% of Kenya's energy is from biomass, with a per capita consumption of 18.6 GJ (0.44 toe, tonne oil equivalent) compared to less than 0.1 toe of commercial energy. Use of the biomass resource was found to be extensive involving bulk harvesting but with low utilization efficiencies; as a result the overall losses were quite high. Only 534 x 10 6 GJ (46.9% of harvested biomass) was useful energy. 480 x 10 6 GJ was left unused, as residues and dung, all which was either burnt or left to decompose in the fields. 124 x 10 6 GJ was lost during charcoal manufacture. Intensified use of the harvested biomass at higher efficiencies in order to minimize wastes would decrease the stress on the biomass resource base. (Author)

  3. Public beliefs that may affect biomass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Tennessee River chip mill controversy involves the expansion of the pulp and paper industry rather than the biomass energy industry; however, the concerns expressed by environmentalists are likely to be the same for biomass projects that propose use of privately-owned land. It may be incorrect to assume that private landowners will have more flexibility in forest management techniques than public agencies. In fact, when faced with a potentially large new demand source for wood, environmentalists will try to stop the project while pushing for stringent regulation of harvesting. This paper describes and analyzes beliefs about forest management (related to biomass energy) taken from the 1,200 letters and 200 public hearing statements received by TVA on the chip mill environmental impact statement. The chip mill controversy suggests that there is a potential for strong coalitions to form to stop new biomass demand sources. As much as possible, the biomass industry will need to anticipate and address land management issues. New concepts such as landscape ecology and ecosystem management should be considered. Even so, increased use of non-dedicated biomass resources will require more public acceptance of the concept that ecosystems and their biomass resources can tolerate increased levels of management

  4. Biofuels for fuel cells: renewable energy from biomass fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Westermann, P.; Haberbauer, M.; Moreno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This book has been produced under the auspices of the Network ‘Biomass Fermentation Towards Usage in Fuel Cells’. The Network comprises nine partners from eight European countries and is funded by the European Science Foundation. This volume includes a chapter, from each of the member institutions,

  5. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO 2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO 2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO 2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO 2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these

  6. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  7. The biomass like renewable energy in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Peces, J.

    1993-01-01

    The energetic contribution of biomass in EC and world figures represents a 14% of the whole demand. For developing countries this figure goes up to 35% and can be a source of employment for manpower decreasing in other sectors. At European level the CEC are promoting research areas through JOULE and LEBEN programs. Current European policy with big subsidies for intensive agricultural production has penalized forest and biomass production. Reforestation and biomass energetics crops are going to be a new strategy with 20 million Ha of agricultural soil transformed and between 10 and 20 million ha of marginal soil transformed. Biomass will be promoted keeping in mind environmental benefits like compost production for soil conditioning. A review of the different biomass sources and treatment techniques (bioconversion, thermal conversion and biodigestion), as well as environmental aspects are given

  8. Pyrolysis of biomass for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, Marius; David, Elena; Bucura, Felicia; Sisu, Claudia; Niculescu, Violeta

    2006-01-01

    Biomass processing is a new technology within the area of renewable energies. Current energy supplies in the world are dominated by fossil fuels (some 80% of the total use of over 400 EJ per year). Nevertheless, about 10-15% of this demand is covered by biomass resources, making biomass by far the most important renewable energy source used to date. On average, in the industrialized countries biomass contributes some 9-13% to the total energy supplies, but in developing countries the proportion is as high as a fifth to one third. In quite a number of countries biomass covers even over 50 to 90% of the total energy demand. Classic application of biomass combustion is heat production for domestic applications. A key issue for bio-energy is that its use should be modernized to fit into a sustainable development path. Especially promising are the production of electricity via advanced conversion concepts (i.e. gasification and state-of-the-art combustion and co-firing) and modern biomass derived fuels like methanol, hydrogen and ethanol from ligno-cellulosic biomass, which can reach competitive cost levels within 1-2 decades (partly depending on price developments with petroleum). (authors)

  9. The Work-Family Interface of Service Sector Workers : A Comparison of Work Resources and Professional Status across Five European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beham, Barbara; Drobnic, Sonja; Praeg, Patrick

    The present paper examines cross-national differences in the utilisation of work-family resources at the organisational level and the relationships between these resources and work-to-home interference (WHI) and satisfaction with work-family balance (SWFB) among professional and non-professional

  10. Ionic Liquids in Biomass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Suzie Su Yin; Macfarlane, Douglas R.

    Ionic liquids have been studied for their special solvent properties in a wide range of processes, including reactions involving carbohydrates such as cellulose and glucose. Biomass is a widely available and renewable resource that is likely to become an economically viable source of starting materials for chemical and fuel production, especially with the price of petroleum set to increase as supplies are diminished. Biopolymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin may be converted to useful products, either by direct functionalisation of the polymers or depolymerisation to monomers, followed by microbial or chemical conversion to useful chemicals. Major barriers to the effective conversion of biomass currently include the high crystallinity of cellulose, high reactivity of carbohydrates and lignin, insolubility of cellulose in conventional solvents, as well as heterogeneity in the native lignocellulosic materials and in lignin itself. This combination of factors often results in highly heterogeneous depolymerisation products, which make efficient separation difficult. Thus the extraction, depolymerisation and conversion of biopolymers will require novel reaction systems in order to be both economically attractive and environmentally benign. The solubility of biopolymers in ionic liquids is a major advantage of their use, allowing homogeneous reaction conditions, and this has stimulated a growing research effort in this field. This review examines current research involving the use of ionic liquids in biomass reactions, with perspectives on how it relates to green chemistry, economic viability, and conventional biomass processes.

  11. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  12. Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Torben; Forsberg, Bertil; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blomberg, Anders; Bølling, Anette; Boman, Christoffer; Bønløkke, Jakob; Brauer, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Kelly, Frank; Künzli, Nino; Lundbäck, Bo; Moshammer, Hanns; Noonan, Curtis; Pagels, Joachim; Sallsten, Gerd; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-12-01

    Climate change policies have stimulated a shift towards renewable energy sources such as biomass. The economic crisis of 2008 has also increased the practice of household biomass burning as it is often cheaper than using oil, gas or electricity for heating. As a result, household biomass combustion is becoming an important source of air pollutants in the European Union.This position paper discusses the contribution of biomass combustion to pollution levels in Europe, and the emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of biomass combustion products.Epidemiological studies in the developed world have documented associations between indoor and outdoor exposure to biomass combustion products and a range of adverse health effects. A conservative estimate of the current contribution of biomass smoke to premature mortality in Europe amounts to at least 40 000 deaths per year.We conclude that emissions from current biomass combustion products negatively affect respiratory and, possibly, cardiovascular health in Europe. Biomass combustion emissions, in contrast to emissions from most other sources of air pollution, are increasing. More needs to be done to further document the health effects of biomass combustion in Europe, and to reduce emissions of harmful biomass combustion products to protect public health. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  13. Energetic use of renewable fuels. Logistics of energy carrier supply, technologies of usage, boundary conditions for economically efficient use of biomass. Proceedings; Energetische Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe - Logistik der Energietraegerbereitstellung, Technologien der Energietraegernutzung, Rahmenbedinungen fuer den wirtschaftlichen Einsatz von Biomasse. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 14th international conference 'Energetical use of renewable fuels' at Freiberg (Federal Republic of Germany) at 11th and 12th September, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) State of the legislation procedure for the revision of the Renewable Energy Resources Act and Renewable Energy Resources Heat Act (Bernhard Dreher); (b) Power generation from biomass - A task of investigation? (Martin Kaltschmitt); (c) A physical-chemical online analysis of fine dust emissions from wood furnaces (Michael Sattler, Christian Gaegauf, Nicolas Meyer, Maaren Heringa); (d) Actual state of standardization of biogenic solid fuels (Andreas Neff, Frank Baur); (e) Combined heat and power coupling with thermal gasification of biomass - State of the art and actual developments (Juergen Karl); (f) Wood power generation in the practice - Possibilities and potentials (Michael Hoeffling); (g) Biological natural gas - An analysis and evaluation (Alexander Vogel, Stephan Ramesohl); (h) Digestion of biomass ensures a high yield of biogas (Thilo Lehmann, Christina Dornack); (i) Market for wood pellets in the Federal Republic of Germany - State of the art, development, perspectives (Martin Bentele); (j) Report on the expert opinion ''Utilization of biomass for power generation'' of the Scientific Advisory Council agrarian policy at BMELV (Thomas De Witte); (k) About the ecology of short rotation plants (Heino Wolf); (l) Generation of electricity and heat on the basis of straw - The first straw-fired heating plant in Germany (Rainer Knieper); (m) Standardization of liquid fuels in European context (Thomas Brehmer, Franz Heger); (n) Bio fuels of the second generation: Production, quantities of biomass and strategies of supply (Lutz Freytag); (o) Biomass-fired heating plant Simmering (Ludwig Gockner); (p) Industrial network Renewably Energy in the Free State of Saxony (Klaus Beumler); (q) Exemplary regional conversion of an intelligent, decentralised

  14. The scale of biomass production in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima-shi 739-8527 (Japan); Inoue, Takashi; Fukuda, Katsura [Global Warming Research Department, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., 2-3-6 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8141 (Japan); Komoto, Keiichi; Hada, Kenichiro [Renewable energy Team, Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division, Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Inc., 2-3 Kanda-nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8443 (Japan); Hirata, Satoshi [Technical Institute, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Kawasakicho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Recycle Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced and Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-2 Hiro, Suehiro, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiromi [Socioeconomic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1-6-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8126 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    Policymakers working to introduce and promote the use of bioenergy in Japan require detailed information on the scales of the different types of biomass resources generated. In this research, the first of its type in Japan, the investigators reviewed various statistical resources to quantify the scale distribution of forest residues, waste wood from manufacturing, waste wood from construction, cattle manure, sewage sludge, night soil, household garbage, and waste food oil. As a result, the scale of biomass generation in Japan was found to be relatively small, on the average is no more than several tons in dry weight per day. (author)

  15. Assessment of potential biomass energy production in China towards 2030 and 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guangling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a more detailed picture of potential biomass energy production in the Chinese energy system towards 2030 and 2050. Biomass for bioenergy feedstocks comes from five sources, which are agricultural crop residues, forest residues and industrial wood waste, energy crops and woody crops, animal manure, and municipal solid waste. The potential biomass production is predicted based on the resource availability. In the process of identifying biomass resources...

  16. Biomass CCS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavezzali, S.

    2009-11-15

    The use of biomass in power generation is one of the important ways in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, the cofiring of biomass with coal could be regarded as a common feature to any new build power plant if a sustainable supply of biomass fuel is readily accessible. IEA GHG has undertaken a techno-economic evaluation of the use of biomass in biomass fired and co-fired power generation, using post-combustion capture technology. This report is the result of the study undertaken by Foster Wheeler Italiana.

  17. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  18. SEEMLA: 'Filling the gap' - The Future of bioenergy in the EU and the role of biomass from marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Kerckow, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of the H2020 funded EU project SEEMLA is the establishment of suitable innovative land-use strategies for a sustainable production of plant-based energy on marginal lands while improving general ecosystem services. In the context of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG, Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz) and the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) a concept should be developed with SEEMLA for a sustainable use of domestic biomass in order to be able to 'fill the gap' of the future demand in renewable resources as an energy source till 2050. The project partner countries are Italy, the Ukraine and Greece besides Germany.

  19. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  20. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  1. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of leading countries' approaches to biomass energy development; 1999 nendo shuyokoku ni okeru biomass energy kaihatsu eno torikumi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The survey aims to help Japan deliberate its future biomass energy development strategy including the course Japan is to follow in its research and development of biomass energy by clarifying leading countries' approaches to the subject matter and trends of their research and development efforts in this connection. The states of biomass energy development in the U.S. and Europe are reported. In the U.S., President Clinton issued Executive Order 13134 on August 12, 1999, regarding bio-based products and bioenergy development. In this country, bioenergy and bio-based production technologies have developed to reach a stage where business pays, and commercial plants are in service. The U.S. Administration mentions as a strategy the efficient development of the bioenergy industry. In Europe, where resources are versatile and local, it is difficult to assess the economy of scale, and small-scale development efforts are being accumulated. Practical technologies under development mostly involve direct combustion. European measures are similar to U.S. measures in that such political goals as local development and employment promotion are firmly woven into them. (NEDO)

  2. Estimation of the resource and technological prospective of biomass as renewable energy in Mexico (Annexe 2 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso y prospectiva tecnologica de la biomasa como energetico renovable en Mexico (Anexo 2 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, Omar R [Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F.(Mexico); Agullon, Javier; Gamino, Benjamin [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F.(Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The work that next appears is a first effort towards the estimation of the resource and technological prospective of the biomass energy as renewable energy in Mexico. It tries to give an overview considering the present situation of energy plantations, production of alcohol from biomass as well as of the production of agricultural remainders, at worldwide scale as well as in our country. The report includes very general estimations of the of biomass resource, production costs, technological analyses, costs of investment and production of energy and technological prospective to 25 years in each one of the previously mentioned headings. [Spanish] El trabajo que a continuacion se presenta es un primer esfuerzo hacia la estimacion del recurso y prospectiva tecnologica de la biomasa como energetico renovable en Mexico. Pretende dar un panorama general estimando la situacion actual de plantaciones energeticas, de produccion de alcoholes a partir de biomasa asi como de produccion de residuos agricolas, tanto a escala mundial como en nuestro pais. El informe abarca estimaciones muy generales del recurso de biomasa, costos de produccion, analisis tecnologicos, costos de inversion y de produccion de energia y prospectiva tecnologica a 25 anos en cada uno de los rubros mencionados anteriormente.

  3. Saving the Planet’s Climate or Water Resources? The Trade-Off between Carbon and Water Footprints of European Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Berger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Little information regarding the global water footprint of biofuels consumed in Europe is available. Therefore, the ultimate origin of feedstock underlying European biodiesel and bioethanol consumption was investigated and combined with the irrigation requirements of different crops in different countries. A (blue water consumption of 1.9 m3 in 12 countries per GJ of European biodiesel and 3.3 m3 in 23 countries per GJ of bioethanol was determined. Even though this represents an increase by a factor of 60 and 40 compared to fossil diesel and gasoline, these figures are low compared to global average data. The assessment of local consequences has shown that the irrigation of sunflower seed in Spain causes 50% of the impacts resulting from biodiesel—even though it constitutes only 0.9% of the feedstock. In case of bioethanol production, the irrigation of sugar cane in Egypt, which constitutes only 0.7% of the underlying feedstock, causes 20% of the impacts. In a case study on passenger cars, it was shown that biofuels can reduce the global warming potential by circa 50% along the product life cycle. However, the price of this improvement is an approximate 19 times increased water consumption, and resulting local impacts are even more severe.

  4. Woody biomass energy potential in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauri, Pekka; Havlík, Petr; Kindermann, Georg; Forsell, Nicklas; Böttcher, Hannes; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    From a biophysical perspective, woody biomass resources are large enough to cover a substantial share of the world's primary energy consumption in 2050. However, these resources have alternative uses and their accessibility is limited, which tends to decrease their competitiveness with respect to other forms of energy. Hence, the key question of woody biomass use for energy is not the amount of resources, but rather their price. In this study we consider the question from the perspective of energy wood supply curves, which display the available amount of woody biomass for large-scale energy production at various hypothetical energy wood prices. These curves are estimated by the Global Biosphere Management Model (GLOBIOM), which is a global partial equilibrium model of forest and agricultural sectors. The global energy wood supply is estimated to be 0–23 Gm 3 /year (0–165 EJ/year) when energy wood prices vary in a range of 0–30$/GJ (0–216$/m 3 ). If we add household fuelwood to energy wood, then woody biomass could satisfy 2–18% of world primary energy consumption in 2050. If primary forests are excluded from wood supply then the potential decreases up to 25%. - highlights: • We examine woody biomass energy potential by partial equilibrium model of forest and agriculture sectors. • It is possible to satisfy 18% (or 14% if primary forests are excluded) of the world's primary energy consumption in 2050 by woody biomass. • To achieve this would require an extensive subsidy/tax policy and would lead to substantial higher woody biomass prices compared to their current level

  5. Projecting changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources: A critical review of the suite of modelling approaches used in the large European project VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, Myron A.; Arvanitidis, Christos; Butenschön, Momme; Canu, Donata Melaku; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Cucco, Andrea; Domenici, Paolo; Fernandes, Jose A.; Gasche, Loic; Huebert, Klaus B.; Hufnagl, Marc; Jones, Miranda C.; Kempf, Alexander; Keyl, Friedemann; Maar, Marie; Mahévas, Stéphanie; Marchal, Paul; Nicolas, Delphine; Pinnegar, John K.; Rivot, Etienne; Rochette, Sébastien; Sell, Anne F.; Sinerchia, Matteo; Solidoro, Cosimo; Somerfield, Paul J.; Teal, Lorna R.; Travers-trolet, Morgan; De Wolfshaar, Van Karen E.

    2018-01-01

    We review and compare four broad categories of spatially-explicit modelling approaches currently used to understand and project changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources including: 1) statistical species distribution models, 2) physiology-based, biophysical models of

  6. A joint European and African research & innovation agenda on waste management. Waste as a resource: Recycling & recovery of raw materials (2014-2020)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and Innovation Agenda, provides the platform for addressing these basic waste management practices in our municipalities, in innovative ways that will realise the potential provided by waste as a renewable resource and thus grow the waste economy...

  7. Biomass power: Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the

  8. Targets and tools for optimizing lignocellulosic biomass quality of miscanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus is a perennial energy grass characterized by a high productivity and resource-use efficiency, making it an ideal biomass feedstock for the production of cellulosic biofuels and a wide range of other biobased value-chains. However, the large-scale commercialization of converting biomass

  9. Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of four South African grass species on light, soil resources and cutting gradients. ... Aristida junciformis, produced nearly double the biomass of taller species such as Hyparrhenia hirta and Eragrostis curvula in the low-nutrient treatments, with the reverse being ...

  10. Supercritical Water Gasification of Wet Biomass : Modeling and Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.

    2016-01-01

    In the following decades, biomass will play an important role among the other renewable energy sources globally as it is already the fourth largest energy resource after coal, oil and natural gas. It is possible to obtain gaseous, liquid or solid biofuels from biomass via thermochemical or

  11. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  12. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  13. Projecting changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources: A critical review of the suite of modelling approaches used in the large European project VECTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Myron A.; Arvanitidis, Christos; Butenschön, Momme; Canu, Donata Melaku; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Cucco, Andrea; Domenici, Paolo; Fernandes, Jose A.; Gasche, Loic; Huebert, Klaus B.; Hufnagl, Marc; Jones, Miranda C.; Kempf, Alexander; Keyl, Friedemann; Maar, Marie; Mahévas, Stéphanie; Marchal, Paul; Nicolas, Delphine; Pinnegar, John K.; Rivot, Etienne; Rochette, Sébastien; Sell, Anne F.; Sinerchia, Matteo; Solidoro, Cosimo; Somerfield, Paul J.; Teal, Lorna R.; Travers-Trolet, Morgan; van de Wolfshaar, Karen E.

    2018-02-01

    We review and compare four broad categories of spatially-explicit modelling approaches currently used to understand and project changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources including: 1) statistical species distribution models, 2) physiology-based, biophysical models of single life stages or the whole life cycle of species, 3) food web models, and 4) end-to-end models. Single pressures are rare and, in the future, models must be able to examine multiple factors affecting living marine resources such as interactions between: i) climate-driven changes in temperature regimes and acidification, ii) reductions in water quality due to eutrophication, iii) the introduction of alien invasive species, and/or iv) (over-)exploitation by fisheries. Statistical (correlative) approaches can be used to detect historical patterns which may not be relevant in the future. Advancing predictive capacity of changes in distribution and productivity of living marine resources requires explicit modelling of biological and physical mechanisms. New formulations are needed which (depending on the question) will need to strive for more realism in ecophysiology and behaviour of individuals, life history strategies of species, as well as trophodynamic interactions occurring at different spatial scales. Coupling existing models (e.g. physical, biological, economic) is one avenue that has proven successful. However, fundamental advancements are needed to address key issues such as the adaptive capacity of species/groups and ecosystems. The continued development of end-to-end models (e.g., physics to fish to human sectors) will be critical if we hope to assess how multiple pressures may interact to cause changes in living marine resources including the ecological and economic costs and trade-offs of different spatial management strategies. Given the strengths and weaknesses of the various types of models reviewed here, confidence in projections of changes in the

  14. Sorghums: viable biomass candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, T A; Arthur, M F; Kresovich, S; Scantland, D A

    1980-01-01

    Agronomic studies conducted at Battelle's Columbus Division to evaluate biomass and sugar yields of sweet sorghum are described and the major findings are summarized. Development opportunities for using sorghum cultivars as a large-scale energy crop are discussed. With presently available cultivars, sweet sorghum should produce 3500 to 4000 liters ethanol per hectare from the fermentable sugars alone. Conversion of the stalk fibers into alcohol could increase production by another 1600 to 1900 liters per hectare with existing cultivars. These yields are approximately 30 to 40% greater per hectare than would be obtained from above average yields of grain and stalk fiber with corn. There is reason to believe, that with hybrid sweet sorghum, these yields could be further increased by as much as 30%. Diminishing land availability for agricultural crops necessitates that maximum yields be obtained. Over the next decade, imaginative technological innovations in sorghum harvesting, processing, and crop preservation, coupled with plant breeding research should help this crop realize its full potential as a renewable resource for energy production.

  15. Modelling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakova, Nadezhda; Petkov, Venko; Mihailov, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an essential preliminary step in a gasifier. The first step in modelling the pyrolysis process of biomass is creating a model for the chemical processes taking place. This model should describe the used fuel, the reactions taking place and the products created in the process. The numerous different polymers present in the organic fraction of the fuel are generally divided in three main groups. So, the multistep kinetic model of biomass pyrolysis is based on conventional multistep devolatilization models of the three main biomass components - cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Numerical simulations have been conducted in order to estimate the influence of the heating rate and the temperature of pyrolysis on the content of the virgin biomass, active biomass, liquid, solid and gaseous phases at any moment. Keywords: kinetic models, pyrolysis, biomass pyrolysis.

  16. Biomass cogeneration: A business assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, J. C.

    1981-11-01

    The biomass cogeneration was reviewed. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  17. Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-08-01

    DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

  18. Aproveitamento sustentável de biomassa e de recursos naturais na inovação química Sustainable use fo biomass and natural resources for chemical innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Galembeck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased production of biomass is currently the only immediately accessible alternative for large-scale carbon sequestration and it can produce large amounts of food, fuel and raw materials for the chemical industry that can in turn growingly replace oil as a source of organic building blocks and also of hydrogen and sulfur. Development of processes for biomass and abundant minerals transformation into chemical raw materials should now benefit from large inputs from nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information and micro-reactor technologies. Success in R&D&Innovation along this line can yield new products and processes needed to perform desirable functions within a sustainable development paradigm.

  19. Wallowa County Integrated Biomass Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Nils [Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc., Wallowa, OR (United States)

    2014-05-02

    The Integrated Biomass Energy Center (IBEC) is an approximately 0.1 MW CHP integrated biorefinery in Northeastern Oregon which will demonstrate and validate small-scale combined heat and power from lignin intermediates/residues. IBEC will be co-located with feedstock suppliers and thermal and power customers for distributed generation. The project was developed by Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc.

  20. Process for treating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2018-04-10

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  1. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  2. A resource of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms generated by RAD tag sequencing in the critically endangered European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, J.M.; Jacobsen, M.W.; Frydenberg, J.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced representation genome sequencing such as restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is finding increased use to identify and genotype large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in model and nonmodel species. We generated a unique resource of novel SNP markers for the Eu...... 425 loci and 376 918 associated SNPs provides a valuable tool for future population genetics and genomics studies and allows for targeting specific genes and particularly interesting regions of the eel genome...

  3. Economics of multifunctional biomass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignaciuk, A.

    2006-01-01

    for the Bioelectricity sector. The main questions that are dealt within this chapter are: to what extent the multi-product crops increase the potential of bioelectricity production and how do they affect the prices of agricultural commodities. These questions are analyzed in the general equilibrium framework. This line of analysis is chosen because it allows comprising the bottom-up information about multi-productivity with the general setting of the whole economy in an applied computable general equilibrium (AGE) framework. This is important since energy policy responses influence main economic sectors and via feedback effects they influence the whole economy. The impact of climate policies on land use allocation, sectoral production and consumption levels and prices of land, food, electricity and other commodities, including the multiproductivity of crops is assessed. Moreover, this chapter provides an analysis to what extent competition for land can be reduced by using multi-product crops. In Chapter 5, the general equilibrium framework is further explored. The phytoremediation characteristics of willow plantations and forestry, thanks to which contaminated land can be cleaned up, are analyzed. The potentials of additional land for biomass production, which is currently not used due to its poor productivity characteristics or due to its high contamination with heavy metals, are calculated. Such land cannot be used for food production, therefore the analysis of the effects of an increased land quantity for biomass production is performed and an assessment of its impact on the environment and on the economy is done. Moreover, this chapter deals with the question to what extent the competition issues for land can be resolved by using the multifunctional characteristics of biomass and forestry crops. Chapter 6 deals with material substitution and resource cascading. Two different chemicals are dealt with, that are currently produced using fossil fuels; (1) nylon and (2

  4. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  5. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    solid biomass leaves the other renewable energy sources standing in terms of use and potential. Primary energy output from solid biomass combustion rose in 2009 yet again to a new height of 72.8 Mtoe, which equates to a 3.6% increase on 2008. The reason for this exploit, which prevailed over the tight economic context, is the resolve made by many countries to rely on this energy to achieve their European electricity or heat production target levels

  6. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  7. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadego, C.

    1992-05-01

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  8. The potential of animal manure, straw and grass for European biogas production in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Biogas is a diverse energy source, suitable as a flexible and storable energy form. In the European Union (EU), biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the energy policy targets. The sustainability of substrates used for biogas production has however been under a critical...... discussion. The aim of this study was to project and map the potentials of sustainable biomasses in 2030 in the EU. The investigated types of residual biomass were animal manure, straw from cereal production, and excess grass from both rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. In total the energy...... potential from the investigated resources was projected to range from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. In the perspectives of the energy political targets, the projected energy potential could cover 2.3-3.9% of the total EU energy consumption in 2030 or 8.4-14.3% of the total...

  9. Northeastern states sharpen biomass focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Wood energy use in the northeastern region of the USA currently replaces an estimated annual equivalent of 45--50 million barrels of oil. Including municipal wastes and recovered methane emissions for regional landfills, total biomass contribution to the energy economy is over 70 million barrels of oil equivalent annually. A reasonable consensus suggests wood alone could replace the equivalent of over 300 million barrels of oil each year on a sustainable basis over the next two decades. Beyond energy security, over 60,000 total jobs are now provided in the region by the wood energy industry. Over 375,000 total jobs could be generated by the wood energy industry, about 65,000 in the harvesting, transportation, and end-use operations of the wood energy industry. Biomass producers must be committed to sustainable development by necessity. Sound forest management practices that keep residual stand damage from wood harvesting to a minimum can create positive impacts on the region's forest. When combined with a balanced energy policy, the conditional use of wood energy can play a modest, but significant, role in reducing air emissions. Depletion of traditional energy resources creates open-quotes bubbleclose quotes benefits which will be exhausted after a generation. Sustainable development of biomass can create inexhaustible wealth for generations, and does not pose the risk of sudden ecological disruption. While the choice between policy options is not mutually exclusive, the interrelationship between energy security, economic growth and environmental quality clearly favors biomass. The environmental benefits and the economic growth impacts of biobased products produced by the northeastern states are considerable. The 11 states located in the northeastern USA should intensify their efforts to work with industry and investors to expand markets for industrial biobased products, either produced from local feedstocks or manufactured by companies operating in the region

  10. Smart film actuators using biomass plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Satoshi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel smart film actuator based on the use of a biomass plastic as a piezoelectric film. Conventional polymeric smart sensors and actuators have been based upon synthetic piezoelectric polymer films such as PVDF. Almost all synthetic polymers are made from nearly depleted oil resources. In addition combustion of their materials releases carbon dioxide, thereby contributing to global warming. Thus at least two important sustainability principles are violated when employing synthetic polymers: avoiding depletable resources and avoiding ecosystem destruction. To overcome such problems, industrial plastic products made from synthetic polymers were developed to replace oil-based plastics with biomass plastics. This paper applies a biomass plastic with piezoelectricity such as poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). As a result, PLLA film becomes a distributed parameter actuator per se, hence an environmentally conscious smart film actuator is developed. Firstly, this paper overviews the fundamental properties of piezoelectric synthetic polymers and biopolymers. The concept of carbon neutrality using biopolymers is mentioned. Then a two-dimensional modal actuator for exciting a specific structural mode is proposed. Furthermore, a biomass plastic-based cantilever beam with the capability of modal actuation is developed, the validity of the proposed smart film actuator based upon a biomass plastic being analytically as well as experimentally verified

  11. Biomass. A modern and environmentally acceptable fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.O.; House, J.I.

    1995-01-01

    The energy of the sun and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere are captured by plants during photosynthesis. Plant biomass can be used to absorb carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels, or it can be converted into modern energy carriers such as electricity, and liquid and gaseous fuels. Biomass supplies 13% of the world's energy consumption (55 EJ, 1990), and in some developing countries it accounts for over 90% of energy use. There is considerable potential for the modernisation of biomass fuels through improved utilisation of existing resources, higher plant productivities and efficient conversion processes using advanced technologies. The interest in bioenergy is increasing rapidly, and it is widely considered as one of the main renewable energy resources of the future due to its large potential, economic viability, and various social and environmental benefits. In particular, biomass energy is among the most favourable options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Most of the perceived problems such as land availability, environmental impact, economic viability, and efficiency can be overcome with good management. The constraints to achieving environmentally-acceptable biomass production are not insurmountable, but should rather be seen as scientific and entrepreneurial opportunities which will yield numerous advantages at local, national and international levels in the long term

  12. Impact of mineral and bone disorder on healthcare resource use and associated costs in the European Fresenius medical care dialysis population: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiroli, Silvia; Mattin, Caroline; Belozeroff, Vasily; Perrault, Louise; Mitchell, Dominic; Gioni, Ioanna

    2012-10-29

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the economic consequences of SHPT have not been adequately studied in the European population. We assessed the relationship between SHPT parameters (intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH], calcium, and phosphate) and hospitalisations, medication use, and associated costs among CKD patients in Europe. The analysis of this retrospective cohort study used records of randomly selected patients who underwent haemodialysis between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006 at participating European Fresenius Medical Care facilities in 10 countries. Patients had ≥ 1 iPTH value recorded, and ≥ 1 month of follow-up after a 3-month baseline period during which SHPT parameters were assessed. Time at risk was post-baseline until death, successful renal transplantation, loss to follow-up, or the end of follow-up. Outcomes included cost per patient-month, rates of hospitalisations (cardiovascular disease [CVD], fractures, and parathyroidectomy [PTX]), and use of SHPT-, diabetes-, and CVD-related medications. National costs were applied to hospitalisations and medication use. Generalised linear models compared costs across strata of iPTH, total calcium, and phosphate, adjusting for baseline covariates. There were 6369 patients included in the analysis. Mean ± SD person-time at risk was 13.1 ± 6.4 months. Patients with iPTH > 600 pg/mL had a higher hospitalisation rate than those with lower iPTH. Hospitalisation rates varied little across calcium and phosphate levels. SHPT-related medication use varied with iPTH, calcium, and phosphate. After adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, patients with baseline iPTH > 600 pg/mL had 41% (95% CI: 25%, 59%) higher monthly total healthcare costs compared with those with iPTH in the K/DOQI target range (150-300 pg/mL). Patients with baseline phosphate and total calcium levels above target ranges (1.13-1.78 mmol/L and 2

  13. Biomass combustion technologies for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr. [Appel Consultants, Inc., Stevenson Ranch, CA (United States); McGowin, C.R.; Hughes, E.E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Technology in power production from biomass has been advancing rapidly. Industry has responded to government incentives such as the PURPA legislation in the US and has recognized that there are environmental advantages to using waste biomass as fuel. During the 1980s many new biomass power plants were built. The relatively mature stoker boiler technology was improved by the introduction of water-cooled grates, staged combustion air, larger boiler sizes up to 60 MW, higher steam conditions, and advanced sootblowing systems. Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology achieved full commercial status, and now is the leading process for most utility-scale power applications, with more complete combustion, lower emissions, and better fuel flexibility than stoker technology. Bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB) technology has an important market niche as the best process for difficult fuels such as agricultural wastes, typically in smaller plants. Other biomass power generation technologies are being developed for possible commercial introduction in the 1990s. Key components of Whole Tree Energy{trademark} technology have been tested, conceptual design studies have been completed with favorable results, and plans are being made for the first integrated process demonstration. Fluidized-bed gasification processes have advanced from pilot to demonstration status, and the world`s first integrated wood gasification/combined cycle utility power plant is starting operation in Sweden in early 1993. Several European vendors offer biomass gasification processes commercially. US electric utilities are evaluating the cofiring of biomass with fossil fuels in both existing and new plants. Retrofitting existing coal-fired plants gives better overall cost and performance results than any biomass technologies;but retrofit cofiring is {open_quotes}fuel-switching{close_quotes} that provides no new capacity and is attractive only with economic incentives.

  14. Surplus biomass through energy efficient kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jan-Olof; Westerlund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The magnitude of the national heat demand for drying lumber in kilns is established. → Each part of the total heat consumption is divided and shown between the main drying conditions. → The potential to increase the energy efficiency in kilns with available techniques is presented. → The market demand for the biomass, available with increase kiln energy efficiency, is reviled. -- Abstract: The use of biomass in the European Union has increased since the middle of the 1990s, mostly because of high subsidies and CO 2 emission regulation through the Kyoto protocol. The sawmills are huge biomass suppliers to the market; out of the Swedish annual lumber production of 16.4 Mm 3 , 95% is produced by medium to large-volume sawmills with a lumber quotient of 47%. The remaining part is produced as biomass. An essential part (12%) of the entering timber is used for supply of heat in their production processes, mostly in the substantial drying process. The drying process is the most time and heat consuming process in the sawmill. This study was undertaken to determine the sawmills' national use of energy and potential magnitude of improvements. If the drying process can be made more effective, sawmills' own use of biomass can be decreased and allow a considerably larger supply to the biomass market through processed or unprocessed biomass, heat or electricity production. The national electricity and heat usage when drying the lumber have been analysed by theoretical evaluation and experimental validation at a batch kiln. The main conclusion is that the heat consumption for drying lumber among the Swedish sawmills is 4.9 TW h/year, and with available state-of-the-art techniques it is possible to decrease the national heat consumption by approximately 2.9 TW h. This additional amount of energy corresponds to the market's desire for larger energy supply.

  15. Biomass energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng'eny-Mengech, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals more specifically with biomethanation process and non conventional sources of biomass energy such as water hyacinths and vegetable oil hydrocarbon fuels. It highlights socioeconomic issues in biomass energy production and use. The paper also contains greater details on chemical conversion methods and processes of commercial ethanol and methanol production. (author). 291 refs., 6 tabs

  16. 11 Soil Microbial Biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    186–198. Insam H. (1990). Are the soil microbial biomass and basal respiration governed by the climatic regime? Soil. Biol. Biochem. 22: 525–532. Insam H. D. and Domsch K. H. (1989). Influence of microclimate on soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21: 211–21. Jenkinson D. S. (1988). Determination of microbial.

  17. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  18. Hydrogen from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is generally regarded as the energy carrier of the future. The development of a process for hydrogen production from biomass complies with the policy of the Dutch government to obtain more renewable energy from biomass. This report describes the progress of the BWP II project, phase 2 of

  19. Biomass power. Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the diffusion outcome by 2007 was very disappointing: only 525 MW. This paper argues that two factors lie at the core of this: the conceptualization of biomass resources by political decision-makers in the instruments used, and the desire that policy instruments be in line with market liberalization principles. These generated a persistent economic obstacle for biomass power generation, and impeded the development of markets for the supply of biomass resources. The policy learning regarding the heterogeneity of biomass resources, and the investors' expectations on risks, profitability and resource markets was very slow among political decision-makers. The paper contributes to the understanding of diffusion outcomes by proposing to analyse diffusion by means of five indicators: types of resources, technologies, developers, motivations to invest and project sizes. Besides, the paper shows the usefulness of investigating policy instruments in terms of their risk and profitability characteristics. This enables a better understanding of the diffusion patterns and outcomes. (author)

  20. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  1. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  2. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P; Leal, J; Saez, R M

    1996-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs.

  3. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P; Leal, J; Saez, R M

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  4. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  6. Biomass power in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.K. [Zurn/NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity production from biomass fuel has been hailed in recent years as an environmentally acceptable energy source that delivers on its promise of economically viable renewable energy. A Wall Street Journal article from three years ago proclaimed wood to be {open_quotes}moving ahead of costly solar panels and wind turbines as the leading renewable energy alternative to air-fouling fossils fuels and scary nuclear plants.{close_quotes} Biomass fuel largely means wood; about 90% of biomass generated electricity comes from burning waste wood, the remainder from agricultural wastes. Biomass power now faces an uncertain future. The maturing of the cogeneration and independent power plant market, restructuring of the electric industry, and technological advances with power equipment firing other fuels have placed biomass power in a competitive disadvantage with other power sources.

  7. Remarks on energetic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul; Pelletier, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  8. A study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J. Y.; Ng, W. P. Q.; Law, K. H.

    2017-06-01

    In the past decades, palm industry is booming due to its profitable nature. An environmental concern regarding on the palm industry is the enormous amount of waste produced from palm industry. The waste produced or palm biomass is one significant renewable energy source and raw material for value-added products like fiber mats, activated carbon, dried fiber, bio-fertilizer and et cetera in Malaysia. There is a need to establish the palm biomass industry for the recovery of palm biomass for efficient utilization and waste reduction. The development of the industry is strongly depending on the two reasons, the availability and supply consistency of palm biomass as well as the availability of palm biomass processing facilities. In Malaysia, the development of palm biomass industry is lagging due to the lack of mature commercial technology and difficult logistic planning as a result of scattered locality of palm oil mill, where palm biomass is generated. Two main studies have been carried out in this research work: i) industrial study of the feasibility of decentralized and centralized palm biomass processing in Sarawak and ii) development of a systematic and optimized palm biomass processing planning for the development of palm biomass industry in Sarawak, Malaysia. Mathematical optimization technique is used in this work to model the above case scenario for biomass processing to achieve maximum economic potential and resource feasibility. An industrial study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak has been carried out to evaluate the optimality of centralized processing and decentralize processing of the local biomass industry. An optimal biomass processing strategy is achieved.

  9. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  10. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  11. New market potential: Torrefaction of woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hess, J. Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-02

    Biomass was the primary source of energy worldwide until a few generations ago, when the energy-density, storability and transportability of fossil fuels enabled one of the most rapid cultural transformations in the history of humankind: the industrial revolution. In just a few hundred years, coal, oil and natural gas have prompted the development of highly efficient, high-volume manufacturing and transportation systems that have become the foundation of the world economy. But over-reliance on fossil resources has also led to environmental and energy security concerns. In addition, one of the greatest advantages of using biomass to replace fossil fuels is reduced greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint.

  12. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  13. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyi, Lwin [Energy Resources Section, Environment and Natural Resources Management Division, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region`s vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  14. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Kyi

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  15. Modeling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Memon, A.S.; Akhund, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The fuels used in industry and power sector for the last two decades have become expensive. As a result renewable energy source have been emerging increasingly important, of these, biomass appears to be the most applicable in the near future. The pyrolysis of biomass plays a key role amongst the three major and important process generally encountered in a gas producer, namely, pyrolysis, combustion and reduction of combustion products. Each biomass has its own pyrolysis characteristics and this important parameters must be known for the proper design and efficient operation of a gasification system. Thermogravimetric analysis has been widely used to study the devolatilization of solid fuels, such as biomass. It provides the weight loss history of a sample heated at a predetermined rate as a function of time and temperature. This paper presents the experimental results of modelling the weight loss curves of the main biomass components i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Thermogravimetric analysis of main components of biomass showed that pyrolysis is first order reaction. Furthermore pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloe can be regarded as taking place in two stages, for while lignin pyrolysis is a single stage process. This paper also describes the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) technique to predict the weight retained during pyrolysis at any temperature, for number of biomass species, such as cotton stalk, bagasse ad graoundnut shell. (author)

  16. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  17. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, David C.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Kataria, Atish; Shen, Jian-Ping

    2018-04-17

    Described herein are processes for converting a biomass starting material (such as lignocellulosic materials) into a low oxygen containing, stable liquid intermediate that can be refined to make liquid hydrocarbon fuels. More specifically, the process can be a catalytic biomass pyrolysis process wherein an oxygen removing catalyst is employed in the reactor while the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis conditions. The stream exiting the pyrolysis reactor comprises bio-oil having a low oxygen content, and such stream may be subjected to further steps, such as separation and/or condensation to isolate the bio-oil.

  18. Biomass for green cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumming, R. [Lafarge Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Lafarge examined the use of waste biomass products in its building materials and provided background information on its operations. Cement kiln infrastructure was described in terms of providing access to shipping, rail and highways; conveying and off-loading equipment; having large storage facilities; and, offering continuous monitoring and stack testing. The presentation identified the advantages and disadvantages of a few different biomass cases such as coal; scrap tires; non-recyclable household waste; and processed biomass. A chart representing landfill diversion rates was presented and the presentation concluded with a discussion of energy recovery and recycling. 1 tab., figs.

  19. Electricity from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    1998-11-01

    Electricity from biomass assesses the potential of biomass electricity for displacing other more polluting power sources and providing a relatively clean and ecologically friendly source of energy; discusses its environmental and economic effects, while analysing political and institutional initiatives and constraints; evaluates key factors, such as energy efficiency, economics, decentralisation and political repurcussions; considers the processes and technologies employed to produce electricity from biomass; and discusses the full range of incentives offered to producers and potential producers and the far-reaching implications it could have for industry, society and the environment. (author)

  20. Sustainable Elastomers from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Yuan, Liang; Tang, Chuanbing

    2017-07-18

    Sustainable elastomers have undergone explosive growth in recent years, partly due to the resurgence of biobased materials prepared from renewable natural resources. However, mounting challenges still prevail: How can the chemical compositions and macromolecular architectures of sustainable polymers be controlled and broadened? How can their processability and recyclability be enabled? How can they compete with petroleum-based counterparts in both cost and performance? Molecular-biomass-derived polymers, such as polymyrcene, polymenthide, and poly(ε-decalactone), have been employed for constructing thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs). Plant oils are widely used for fabricating thermoset elastomers. We use abundant biomass, such as plant oils, cellulose, rosin acids, and lignin, to develop elastomers covering a wide range of structure-property relationships in the hope of delivering better performance. In this Account, recent progress in preparing monomers and TPEs from biomass is first reviewed. ABA triblock copolymer TPEs were obtained with a soft middle block containing a soybean-oil-based monomer and hard outer blocks containing styrene. In addition, a combination of biobased monomers from rosin acids and soybean oil was formulated to prepare triblock copolymer TPEs. Together with the above-mentioned approaches based on block copolymers, multigraft copolymers with a soft backbone and rigid side chains are recognized as the first-generation and second-generation TPEs, respectively. It has been recently demonstrated that multigraft copolymers with a rigid backbone and elastic side chains can also be used as a novel architecture of TPEs. Natural polymers, such as cellulose and lignin, are utilized as a stiff, macromolecular backbone. Cellulose/lignin graft copolymers with side chains containing a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate exhibited excellent elastic properties. Cellulose graft copolymers with biomass-derived polymers as side chains were

  1. Resource Partitioning in Food, Space and Time between Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) and European Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) at the Southern Edge of Their Continuous Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hallvard; Kiljunen, Mikko; Knudsen, Rune; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Arctic charr and European whitefish are considered to be strong competitors in lakes, with the latter usually being the superior species. However, high niche plasticity and lake morphometry may suggestively facilitate resource partitioning and coexistence between charr and whitefish. Here, we explore the trophic niche utilization (diet and habitat use) of charr and whitefish co-occurring with brown trout in the deep and oligotrophic Lake Fyresvatnet, southern Norway (59°05'N, 8°10'E). Using CPUE, stomach contents and stable isotope analyses, a distinct resource partitioning was revealed between brown trout and the other two species. Brown trout typically occupied the littoral zone, feeding on benthic invertebrates, surface insects and small-sized whitefish. In contrast, charr and whitefish were predominantly zooplanktivorous, but diverged somewhat in habitat utilization as charr shifted seasonally between the profundal and the littoral zone, whereas whitefish were found in the upper water layers (littoral and pelagic habitats). Accordingly, the stable isotope values of carbon (δ13C) reflected a pelagic orientated prey resource use for both charr and whitefish, whereas brown trout had elevated carbon and nitrogen (δ15N) signatures that reflected their benthivore and piscivore diet, respectively. The findings suggest that charr may not rely upon the profundal zone as a feeding habitat but as a refuge area, and may coexist with whitefish if a third competitive and predatory species like brown trout co-occur in the lake. The study indicates that a general high habitat plasticity of Arctic charr may be essential in the presently observed coexistence with a competitively superior fish species like whitefish, and that a third fish species like brown trout may facilitate this particular fish community structure.

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  3. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  5. Marketing research for energy from biomass in Europe; Marktverkenning voor energie uit biomassa in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijpkema, B. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Van den Berg, P.; Vanb Haren, P. [Biomass Technology Group BTG, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    Insight is given into the European market for energy from biomass, including information on plant size, most promising technologies, etc. These potentials may offer opportunities for manufacturers of energy generating systems. A quick scan of 23 European countries has been carried out as phase 1 of this project, which resulted in data, presented in the following format: General introduction; Existing energy infrastructure and structure of the energy demand; Price of fossil fuels, electricity and heat; Available biomass quantities; Prices of biomass; Installed biomass plants; Policy and regulations. Based on that information an overall conclusion was drawn for each country`s biomass energy situation. In phase 2 a more detailed survey has been executed for Estonia, Germany, Poland and Spain. The results of both phases are presented in a separate English report. This report is the result of phase 3 in which the results of phase 1 and 2 are evaluated to assess the possibilities for Dutch manufacturers of biomass energy systems

  6. Kansas' forest resources, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Gary J. Brand; Melissa Powers

    2007-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis (NRS-FIA) program is changing to a Web-based, dynamically linked reporting system. As part of the process, this year NRS-FIA is producing this abbreviated summary of 2005 data. This resource bulletin reports on area, volume, and biomass using data from 2001 through 2005. Estimates from...

  7. Renewable Resources in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is derived form natural resources that are replenished at a faster rate than they are consumed, and thus cannot be depleted. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and some forms of biomass are common sources of renewable energy. Almost 90...

  8. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  9. Cofiring biomass with coal: Opportunities for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A A; Shamsuddin, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia generated 108,175 GWh of electricity in 2010 where 39.51 % was sourced from coal. Coal power generation is also planned to overtake natural gas as the main fuel for electricity generation within the next two decades. Malaysia also has a vast biomass resource that is currently under-utilised for electricity generation. This paper studies the option of cofiring biomass in existing Malaysian coal power plants to increase the nation's renewable energy mix as well as to reduce its power sector carbon dioxide emission. Benefits of cofiring to the nation were discussed and agricultural residues from palm oil and paddy was identified as a potential source of biomass for cofiring. It was also found that there is a willingness for cofiring by stakeholders but barriers existed in the form of technical issues and lack of clear direction and mechanism.

  10. Cofiring biomass with coal: Opportunities for Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia generated 108,175 GWh of electricity in 2010 where 39.51 % was sourced from coal. Coal power generation is also planned to overtake natural gas as the main fuel for electricity generation within the next two decades. Malaysia also has a vast biomass resource that is currently under-utilised for electricity generation. This paper studies the option of cofiring biomass in existing Malaysian coal power plants to increase the nation's renewable energy mix as well as to reduce its power sector carbon dioxide emission. Benefits of cofiring to the nation were discussed and agricultural residues from palm oil and paddy was identified as a potential source of biomass for cofiring. It was also found that there is a willingness for cofiring by stakeholders but barriers existed in the form of technical issues and lack of clear direction and mechanism.

  11. Biomass assessment and small scale biomass fired electricity generation in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Coal fired electricity is a major factor in Australia's greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) emissions. The country has adopted a mandatory renewable energy target (MRET) to ensure that 20% of electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020. In order to support the MRET, a market scheme of tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) has been implemented since 2001. Generators using biomass from eligible sources are able to contribute to GHG emission reduction through the substitution of coal for electricity production and are eligible to create and trade RECs. This paper quantifies the potential biomass resources available for energy generation from forestry and agriculture in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian Regions for biomass production. We analyse the cost of electricity generation using direct firing of biomass, and estimate the required REC prices to make it competitive with coal fired electricity generation. Major findings suggest that more than 2.6 million tonnes of biomass are produced every year within 200 km of the regional hub of Mount Gambier and biomass fired electricity is viable using feedstock with a plant gate cost of 46 Australian Dollars (AUD) per tonne under the current REC price of 34 AUD per MWh. These findings are then discussed in the context of regional energy security and existing targets and incentives for renewable energies. -- Highlights: → We assessed the biomass production in the Green Triangle. → 2.6 million tonnes of biomass per year are produced within 200 km from Mt Gambier. → Renewable Energy Certificates makes bioenergy competitive with coal electricity. → At a REC price of 34 AUD, biomass of up to 46 AUD/tonne might be used for bionergy

  12. Biomass boiler still best choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The City of Mount Gambier upgraded its boiler in September after analysis showed that biomass was still the optimal energy option. The Mount Gambier Aquatic Centre was built by the local city council in the 1980s as an outdoor pool facility for the public. The complex has three pools — an Olympic-sized, toddler and a learner pool — for a total volume of 1.38ML (including balance tanks). The large pool is heated to 27-28°C, the smaller one 30-32°C. From the very beginning, the pool water was heated by a biomass boiler, and via two heat exchangers whose combined capacity is 520 kW. The original biomass boiler ran on fresh sawdust from a local timber mill. After thirty years of dedicated service the original boiler had become unreliable and difficult to operate. Replacement options were investigated and included a straight gas boiler, a combined solar hot water and gas option, and biomass boilers. The boiler only produces heat, not electricity. All options were subjected to a triple bottom line assessment, which included potential capital costs, operating costs, community and environmental benefits and costs. The project was also assessed using a tool developed by Mount Gambier City Council that considers the holistic benefits — the CHAT Tool, which stands for Comprehensive Holistic Assessment Tool. “Basically it is a survey that covers environmental, social, economic and governance factors,” the council's environmental sustainability officer, Aaron Izzard told WME. In relation to environmental considerations, the kinds of questions explored by the CHAT Tool included: Sustainable use of resources — objective is to reduce council's dependence on non-renewable resources; Greenhouse emissions — objective is to reduce council's contribution of GHG into the atmosphere; Air quality — objective is to improve local air quality. The conclusion of these analyses was that while a biomass boiler would have a higher capital cost than a straight gas

  13. Termisk forgasning af biomasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    The title of this Ph.D. thesis is: Thermal Gasification of Biomass. Compilation of activities in the ”Biomass Gasification Group” at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This thesis gives a presentation of selected activities in the Biomass Gasification Group at DTU. The activities are related...... to thermal gasification of biomass. Focus is on gasification for decentralised cogeneration of heat and power, and on related research on fundamental processes. In order to insure continuity of the presentation the other activities in the group, have also been described. The group was started in the late...... of these activities has been fruitful. The two- stage gasifier was developed for gasification aiming at decentralised cogeneration of heat and power. The development ranged from lap-top scale equipment to a fully automatic plant with more than 2000 hours of operation. Compared to most other gasification processes...

  14. Biomass_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biomass data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  15. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  16. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  17. Role of biomass in global energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, G.; Christensen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin, normally in the form of purpose-grown energy crops or by-products from agriculture, forestry or fisheries. Biomass provides approximately 11-14% of the world's energy, but there are significant differences between industrialised and developing countries. In many developing countries biomass is the most important energy source. As a global average, biomass provides approximately 35% of developing countries' energy, but there are large regional differences. Many sub-Saharan African countries depend on biomass for up to 90% of their energy indicating that they have little in the way of industry or other modern activities. In the last decade interest in bioenergy has increased in industrialised countries partly due to growing concern about climate change, technological advances in biomass conversion, increasing focus on security of energy supply, and increasing interest in renewable energy generally. Two trends emerge: The developing countries will in general aim to reduce their dependence on traditional bioenergy. The relative share of bioenergy in the energy balance will therefore go down, though the number of people depending on traditional bioenergy probably will remain constant, with corresponding consequences for health and resources. Industrialised countries, plus a number of developing countries, will aim to increase their use of modern bioenergy technologies. With the traditional association of bioenergy as old fashioned and for the poor, the recent interest in biomass resources has invented a new term 'modern bioenergy' which covers a number of technological areas from combustion at domestic, industrial or power plant scale, gasification, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, extraction, digestion etc. There are some barriers to the increased use of bioenergy, but they can be overcome through dedicated interventions by public and private sector entities. (BA)

  18. 2007 Biomass Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Program is actively working with public and private partners to meet production and technology needs. With the corn ethanol market growing steadily, researchers are unlocking the potential of non-food biomass sources, such as switchgrass and forest and agricultural residues. In this way, the Program is helping to ensure that cost-effective technologies will be ready to support production goals for advanced biofuels.

  19. Homogeneous catalysis for the conversion of biomass and biomass-derived platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuss, Peter J.; Barta, Katalin; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from a petroleum-based infrastructure to an industry which utilises renewable resources is one of the key research challenges of the coming years. Biomass, consisting of inedible plant material that does not compete with our food production, is a suitable renewable feedstock. In

  20. Woody biomass availability for bioethanol conversion in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo; Grebner, Donald L.; Sun, Changyou; Munn, Ian A.; Schultz, Emily B.; Matney, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated woody biomass from logging residues, small-diameter trees, mill residues, and urban waste as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol conversion in Mississippi. The focus on Mississippi was to assess in-state regional variations and provide specific information of biomass estimates for those facilities interested in locating in Mississippi. Supply and cost of four woody biomass sources were derived from Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) information, a recent forest inventory conducted by the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory, and primary production costs. According to our analysis, about 4.0 million dry tons of woody biomass are available for production of up to 1.2 billion liters of ethanol each year in Mississippi. The feedstock consists of 69% logging residues, 21% small-diameter trees, 7% urban waste, and 3% mill residues. Of the total, 3.1 million dry tons (930 million liters of ethanol) can be produced for $34 dry ton -1 or less. Woody biomass from small-diameter trees is more expensive than other sources of biomass. Transportation costs accounted for the majority of total production costs. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the largest impacts in production costs of ethanol come from stumpage price of woody biomass and technological efficiency. These results provide a valuable decision support tool for resource managers and industries in identifying parameters that affect resource magnitude, type, and location of woody biomass feedstocks in Mississippi. (author)

  1. Biomass: An overview in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T. [USDA Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC (United States); Shapouri, H.

    1993-12-31

    Concerns about the heavy reliance on foreign sources of fossil fuels, environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels, environmental impacts of agricultural activities, the need to find sustainable renewable sources of energy, and the need for a sustainable agricultural resource base have been driving forces for the development of biomass as a source of energy. The development of biomass conversion technologies, of high-yielding herbaceous and short-rotation woody biomass crops, of high-yielding food, feed, and fiber crops, and of livestock with higher levels of feed conversion efficiencies has made the transition from total reliance on fossil fuels to utilization of renewable sources of energy from biomass a reality. A variety of biomass conversion technologies have been developed and tested. Public utilities, private power companies, and the paper industry are interested in applying this technology. Direct burning of biomass and/or cofiring in existing facilities will reduce emissions of greenhouse and other undesirable gases. Legislation has been passed to promote biomass production and utilization for liquid fuels and electricity. Land is available. The production of short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses provides alternatives to commodity crops to stabilize income in the agricultural sector. The production of biomass crops can also reduce soil erosion, sediment loadings to surface water, and agricultural chemical loadings to ground and surface water; provide wildlife habitat; increase income and employment opportunities in rural areas; and provide a more sustainable agricultural resource base.

  2. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  3. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  4. Biomass energy - large potential in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Changing from oil or coal to bio fuel is a high priority in all European countries. The potential for such a transition is largest in North-West Russia, where several factors point to biomass energy: large bio fuel resources, large need for heating because of the cold climate, and almost 100% coverage of district heating. Here, the largest continuous coniferous forest in Europe supplies the raw material for a considerable forest industry, including some of the biggest sawmills and paper- and cellulose factories in the world. The fraction of the timber that cannot go into this production is suitable as bio fuel. About 15% of the raw material in this industry is bark and sawdust which can be used for energy production. In addition, 10% of the biomass of the trees remains on the forest floor as twigs, treetops etc. If all this sawdust and felling waste was used to replace heating oil, the corresponding reduction of CO2 emission would amount to 25 mill m3 per year. The forest industry in Russia is currently in full production, and an increasing mass of sawdust and wood waste is accumulating in depositories that cover larger and larger areas. Depositories are often set on fire to keep down the masses; at the same time, the district heating plants are fired with expensive oil or coal. This paradoxical situation is due to the economical crises in the 1990s. Neither private companies nor the local governments could invest in bio fueled boilers. Bio fuel projects are cost-effective and easy to document and perfectly suitable for joint implementations under the Kyoto Protocol

  5. Fates of Chemical Elements in Biomass during Its Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Li, Wen-Wei; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-05-10

    Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated. Furthermore, various contaminants and inorganic elements (e.g., heavy metals, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine) embodied in biomass may be transferred into pyrolysis products or released into the environment, arousing environmental pollution concerns. Understanding their behaviors in biomass pyrolysis is essential to optimizing the pyrolysis process for efficient resource recovery and less environmental pollution. However, there is no comprehensive review so far about the fates of chemical elements in biomass during its pyrolysis. Here, we provide a critical review about the fates of main chemical elements (C, H, O, N, P, Cl, S, and metals) in biomass during its pyrolysis. We overview the research advances about the emission, transformation, and distribution of elements in biomass pyrolysis, discuss the present challenges for resource-oriented conversion and pollution abatement, highlight the importance and significance of understanding the fate of elements during pyrolysis, and outlook the future development directions for process control. The review provides useful information for developing sustainable biomass pyrolysis processes with an improved efficiency and selectivity as well as minimized environmental impacts, and encourages more research efforts from the scientific communities of chemistry, the environment, and energy.

  6. Empowerment model of biomass in west java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, C.; Fitriani, N. I.; Saad, A.; Yuliah, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Scarcity of fossil energy accelerates the search of renewable energy sources as the substitution. In West Java, biomass has potential to be developed into bio-briquette because the resources are abundant. The objectives of this research are mapping the potency of biomass as bio-briquette in West Java, and making the model of the empowerment biomass potential involving five fundamental step which are raw material, pre-processing process, conversion mechanism, products, and end user. The main object of this model focused on 3 forms which are solid, liquid, and gas which was made by involving the community component as the owner biomass, district government, academics and researcher communities, related industries as users of biomass, and the central government as the policy holders and investors as a funder. In the model was described their respective roles and mutual relationship one with another so that the bio-briquette as a substitute of fossil fuels can be realized. Application of this model will provide the benefits in renewability energy sources, environmental, socio economical and energy security.

  7. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  8. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a$1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community

  9. Study on new biomass energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    A biomass energy total system is proposed, and its feasibility is studied. It is the system in which liquid fuel is produced from eucalyptuses planted in the desert area in Australia for production of biomass resource. Eucalyptus tree planting aims at a growth amount of 40 cu m/ha. per year and a practical application area of 45,000ha. CO2 fixation in the biomass plantation becomes 540,000 tons at a 12 ton/ha. rate. Assuming that 0.55 ton of liquid fuel is produced from 1 ton of biomass, a petrochemical plant having a production of 2.5 million bbl/year per unit (equivalent to the fuel used in the 100,000kW class power plant) is needed. Moreover, survey is made on practicality of diesel substitution fuel by esterification of palm oil, and a marked effect of reduction in soot/smoke and particulates in exhaust gas is confirmed. The biomass conversion process technology and the technology for afforestation at the arid land and irrigation are important as future subjects, and the technology development using a bench plant and a pilot plant is needed.

  10. Biomass energy inventory and mapping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasile, J.D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A four-stage biomass energy inventory and mapping system was conducted for the entire State of Ohio. The product is a set of maps and an inventory of the State of Ohio. The set of amps and an inventory of the State`s energy biomass resource are to a one kilometer grid square basis on the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system. Each square kilometer is identified and mapped showing total British Thermal Unit (BTU) energy availability. Land cover percentages and BTU values are provided for each of nine biomass strata types for each one kilometer grid square. LANDSAT satellite data was used as the primary stratifier. The second stage sampling was the photointerpretation of randomly selected one kilometer grid squares that exactly corresponded to the LANDSAT one kilometer grid square classification orientation. Field sampling comprised the third stage of the energy biomass inventory system and was combined with the fourth stage sample of laboratory biomass energy analysis using a Bomb calorimeter and was then used to assign BTU values to the photointerpretation and to adjust the LANDSAT classification. The sampling error for the whole system was 3.91%.

  11. The potentials of biomass as renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass is a term used in the context of energy to define a range of products derived from photosynthesis. Annually large amounts of solar energy is stored in the leaves, stems and branches of plants. Of the various renewable sources of energy, biomass is thus unique in that it represents stored solar energy. In addition it is the only source of carbon, and it may be converted into convenient solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Biomass, principally in the form of wood, is humankind's oldest form of energy, and has been used to fuel both domestic and industrial activities. Traditional use has been, through direct combustion, a process still used extensively in many parts of the world. Biomass is a renewable and indigenous resource that requires little or no foreign exchange. But it is a dispersed, labor-intensive and land requiring source of energy and may avoid or reduce problems of waste disposal. We'll try to assess the potential contribution of biomass to the future world energy supply. 4 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Routing of biomass for sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaimi Masduki; Aini Zakaria

    1998-01-01

    Photosynthetically derived biomass and residues, including waste products from food processing industries are renewable. They accumulate every year in large quantities, causing deterioration to the environment and loss of potentially valuable resources. The conserved energy is potentially convertible; thermodynamically the energy can be tapped into forms which are more amenable for value added agricultural applications or for other higher value products such as chemicals or their feedstocks. The forms and types in which this biomass has to be modified for the intended use depend on the costs or the respective alternatives. Under current situations, where chemical feedstocks are available in abundance at very competitive prices, biomass is obviously more suitably placed in the agro-industrial sector. Recycling of the biomass or residues into the soil as biofertilizers or for some other uses for agricultural applications requires less intense energy inputs for their improvements. Highly efficient biological processes with microorganisms as the primary movers in the production of the desired end products indeed require less capital costs than in most other industrial entities. In this paper, the various processes, which are potentially valuable and economically feasible in the conversion of biomass and residues for several products important in the agricultural sector, are described. Emphasis is given to the approach and the possible permutations of these processes to arrive at the desired good quality products for sustainable agricultural development. (Author)

  14. Energetic and environmental performance of three biomass upgrading processes integrated with a CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo; Järvinen, Mika; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulate CHP-integrated production of wood pellets, torrefied wood pellets and pyrolysis slurry. ► Integration increases operation hours and district heat output by up to 38% and 22%. ► Additionally installed equipment reduces yearly power generation by up to 7%. ► Wood pellet production performs best energetically and environmentally. ► Integrated concepts substantially reduce fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: In order to react on future expected increased competition on restricted biomass resources, communal combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be integrated with biomass upgrading processes that add valuable products to the portfolio. In this paper, outgoing from a base case, the retrofit integration of production of wood pellets (WPs), torrefied wood pellets (TWPs) and wood fast pyrolysis slurry (PS) with an existing wood-fired CHP plant was simulated. Within the integration concept, free boiler capacity during times of low district heat demands is used to provide energy for the upgrading processes. By detailed part-load modelling, critical process parameters are discussed. With help of a multiperiod model of the heat duration curve, the work further shows the influence of the integration on plant operating hours, electricity production and biomass throughput. Environmental and energetic performance is assessed according to European standard EN 15603 and compared to the base case as well as to stand-alone production in two separate units. The work shows that all three integration options are well possible within the operational limits of the CHP plant. Summarising, this work shows that integration of WP, TWP and PS production from biomass with a CHP plant by increasing the yearly boiler workload leads to improved primary energy efficiency, reduced CO 2 emissions, and, when compared to stand-alone production, also to substantial fuel savings

  15. Effects of patient-reported non-severe hypoglycemia on healthcare resource use, work-time loss, and wellbeing in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Weitgasser, Raimund; Lahtela, Jorma; Jensen, Marie Markert; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2013-12-01

    Hypoglycemia is a frequent side effect induced by insulin treatment of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Limited data exist on the associated healthcare resource use and patient impact of hypoglycemia, particularly at a country-specific level. This study investigated the effects of self-reported non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHE) on use of healthcare resources and patient wellbeing. Patients with T1DM or insulin-treated T2DM diabetes from seven European countries were invited to complete four weekly questionnaires. Data were collected on patient demographics, NSHE occurrence in the last 7 days, hypoglycemia-related resource use, and patient impact. NSHE were defined as events with hypoglycemia symptoms, with or without blood glucose measurement, or low blood glucose measurement without symptoms, which the patient could manage without third-party assistance. Three thousand, nine hundred and fifty-nine respondents completed at least one wave of the survey, with 57% completing all four questionnaires; 3827 respondents were used for data analyses. Overall, 2.3% and 8.9% of NSHE in patients with T1DM and T2DM, respectively, resulted in healthcare professional contact. Across countries, there was a mean increase in blood glucose test use of 3.0 tests in the week following a NSHE. Among respondents who were employed (48%), loss of work-time after the last hypoglycemic event was reported for 9.7% of NSHE. Overall, 10.2% (daytime) and 8.0% (nocturnal) NSHE led to work-time loss, with a mean loss of 84.3 (daytime) and 169.6 (nocturnal) minutes among patients reporting work-time loss. Additionally, patients reported feeling tired, irritable, and having negative feelings following hypoglycemia. Direct comparisons between studies must be interpreted with caution because of different definitions of hypoglycemia severity, duration of the studies, and methods of data collection. NSHE were associated with use of extra healthcare resources and work-time loss in all

  16. Challenges and Opportunities for International Trade in Forest Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, P.; Mai-Moulin, T.; Junginger, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to reduce fossil fuel consumption, the use of woody biomass for heat and power generation is growing. Key destination markets will be countries within the European Union, particularly the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Denmark and Belgium. While demand from Asia (particularly South

  17. Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild, P.

    2011-07-15

    The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for materials and energy where biomass provides the only renewable source for chemicals. In a biorefinery, biomass is converted via different technologies into heat, power and various products. Here, pyrolysis (thermal degradation without added oxygen) of lignocellulosic biomass can play an important role, because it leads to an array of useful chemicals. Examples are furfural and acetic acid from hemicellulose, levoglucosan from cellulose and phenols and biochar from lignin. Since the three major biomass polymers hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin possess dissimilar thermal stabilities and reactivities, type and amount of degradation products are tunable by proper selection of the pyrolysis conditions. To determine if step-wise pyrolysis would be suitable for the production of chemicals, staged degasification of lignocellulosic biomass was studied. Due to limited yields, a hot pressurized water pre-treatment (aquathermolysis) followed by pyrolysis was subsequently developed as an improved version of a staged approach to produce furfural and levoglucosan from the carbohydrate fraction of the biomass. Lignin is the only renewable source for aromatic chemicals. Lignocellulosic biorefineries for bio-ethanol produce lignin as major by-product. The pyrolysis of side-streams into valuable chemicals is of prime importance for a profitable biorefinery. To determine the added-value of lignin side-streams other than their use as fuel for power, application research including techno-economic analysis is required. In this thesis, the pyrolytic valorisation of lignin into phenols and biochar was investigated and proven possible.

  18. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  19. Lorraine - The beautiful biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    This article evokes various projects of biomass energy production which have been recently developed and built in north-eastern France, notably for industrial and heating applications. It also outlines that the largest industrial projects have been given up: because of the relative steadiness of gas and coal prices, and of the possible opportunity given by shale gas exploitation, industries have been reluctant in investing installations which take longer time to be written off. The quantities of yearly available wood have been reduced for different reasons: resource accessibility, landscape preservation, vicinity of water harnessing points. These restrictions entailed the definition of threshold for the public support of new projects, a decision with which industrials disagree

  20. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  1. Forest biomass as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.E. Laks; R.W. Hemingway; A. Conner

    1979-01-01

    The Task Force on Forest Biomass as an Energy Source was chartered by the Society of American Foresters on September 26, 1977, and took its present form following an amendment to the charter on October 5, 1977. It built upon the findings of two previous task forces, the Task Force on Energy and Forest Resources and the Task Force for Evaluation of the CORRIM Report (...

  2. Burning of biomass waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm Christensen, B.; Evald, A.; Buelow, K.

    1997-01-01

    The amounts of waste wood from the Danish wood processing industry available for the energy market has been made. Furthermore a statement of residues based on biomass, including waste wood, used in 84 plants has been made. The 84 plants represent a large part of the group of purchasers of biomass. A list of biomass fuel types being used or being potential fuels in the future has been made. Conditions in design of plants of importance for the environmental impact and possibility of changing between different biomass fuels are illustrated through interview of the 84 plants. Emissions from firing with different types of residues based on biomass are illustrated by means of different investigations described in the literature of the composition of fuels, of measured emissions from small scale plants and full scale plants, and of mass balance investigations where all incoming and outgoing streams are analysed. An estimate of emissions from chosen fuels from the list of types of fuels is given. Of these fuels can be mentioned residues from particle board production with respectively 9% and 1% glue, wood pellets containing binding material with sulphur and residues from olive production. (LN)

  3. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  4. Mini-biomass electric generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, G. [International Applied Engineering, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Awareness of the living standards achieved by others has resulted in a Russian population which is yearning for a higher standard of living. Such a situation demands access to affordable electricity in remote areas. Remote energy requirements creates the need to transport power or fossil fuels over long distances. Application of local renewable energy resources could eliminate the need for and costs of long distance power supply. Vast forest resources spread over most of Russia make biomass an ideal renewable energy candidate for many off-grid villages. The primary objective for this preliminary evaluation is to examine the economic feasibility of replacing distillate and gasoline fuels with local waste biomass as the primary fuel for village energy in outlying regions of Russia. Approximately 20 million people live in regions where Russia`s Unified Electric System grid does not penetrate. Most of these people are connected to smaller independent power grids, but approximately 8 million Russians live in off-grid villages and small towns served by stand-alone generation systems using either diesel fuel or gasoline. The off-grid villages depend on expensive distillate fuels and gasoline for combustion in small boilers and engines. These fuels are used for both electricity generation and district heating. Typically, diesel generator systems with a capacity of up to 1 MW serve a collective farm, settlement and their rural enterprises (there are an estimated 10,000 such systems in Russia). Smaller gasoline-fueled generator systems with capacities in the range of 0.5 - 5 kW serve smaller farms or rural enterprises (there are about 60,000 such systems in Russia).

  5. Assessment of potential biomass energy production in China towards 2030 and 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangling

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a more detailed picture of potential biomass energy production in the Chinese energy system towards 2030 and 2050. Biomass for bioenergy feedstocks comes from five sources, which are agricultural crop residues, forest residues and industrial wood waste, energy crops and woody crops, animal manure, and municipal solid waste. The potential biomass production is predicted based on the resource availability. In the process of identifying biomass resources production, assumptions are made regarding arable land, marginal land, crops yields, forest growth rate, and meat consumption and waste production. Four scenarios were designed to describe the potential biomass energy production to elaborate the role of biomass energy in the Chinese energy system in 2030. The assessment shows that under certain restrictions on land availability, the maximum potential biomass energy productions are estimated to be 18,833 and 24,901 PJ in 2030 and 2050.

  6. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  7. Biosaline Biomass. Energy for the Netherlands in 2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J.

    2004-12-01

    European governments are aiming for a considerable contribution of biomass in their transition towards a sustainable energy society and the replacement of raw materials based on fossil fuels. For the Netherlands, the national goals are set such that the share of biomass should grow to 30% of total energy consumption by the year 2040. Biosaline biomass - produced in saline environments characterized by increased soil and water salinities up to half seawater level - may become an important source of secure and sustainable energy to cover part, or all, of the Dutch biomass energy target. This report assesses the viability of the import of biosaline forestry as a secure, cost-effective, environmentally and socially responsible source of renewable energy for the Netherlands until 2040. The report also defines steps to be taken and investments to be made to realize the biosaline transition path

  8. Second Generation Gaseous Biofuels: from Biomass to Gas Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, O.; Perrin, M.; Marchand, B.; Prieur-Vernat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous biofuels and biomethane production by thermochemical pathway has many assets and, already, it should be seen as an essential component of future French and European energy panorama by 2020. As a biomass gasification process is used, a very wide range of biomass is accessible, guaranteeing a significant development potential of the sector. Because of the inherent advantages of the methanation reaction, methanation processes have very high overall energy efficiency, today comparable to other technologies for energy recovery from biomass. Moreover, these can be further enhanced by a waste heat valorization. The existence of technology adapted to installations of medium size (20-80 MW biomethane) promotes strong integration in the local area and is exemplary in a framework of sustainable development. Most of the steps of the process of biomethane production from biomass are at present commercially available. However, the technical feasibility of the whole production line of biomethane was not demonstrated to an industrial scale yet. (authors)

  9. Biomass sector review for the Carbon Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-26

    The review drew on an extensive number of sources, including a detailed literature survey, in-house references, questionnaires and interviews with trade associations, industry participants and industry observers. The policy observations that were drawn from the review, together with the results of the analysis itself, were subject to a detailed peer review with leading industry participants, observers and academics. The purpose of this document, is to place the results of this analysis in the public domain and to ensure that it is available to those interested in developing the biomass sector in the UK. Screening of the available biomass resource in the UK highlighted four key biomass fuels: forestry crops, dry agricultural residue, waste wood arid woody energy crops. The four fuels could have a material impact on UK energy supply when used for heat and power. Currently they have the potential to supply up to an additional. 41TWh/yr or about 1.5% of UK energy supply. In the future this could rise to c.80TWh/yr, mainly through expansion in the supply of woody energy crops and/or dry agricultural residue. If available resources are used for biofuels the level of potential carbon saving decreases significantly compared with providing heat or electricity due to lower conversion efficiency. Consequently, biofuels are not covered in depth in this report. Although the UK has a considerable amount of biomass resource, gaining access to it is not always viable for developers and end-users as the UK. currently has a relatively undeveloped biomass fuel supply infrastructure. Just as biomass can be drawn from a number or sources, it can be converted to useful energy through a number of processes and delivered to a variety of markets. Our screening of biomass conversion processes demonstrated that currently combustion represents the best area of focus. Combustion is a proven, established conversion process and the lowest cost option available today. Co-firing was not analysed

  10. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranney, J W [Joint Institute for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States); Perlack, R D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  11. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Perlack, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  12. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  13. Biomass Deconstruction and Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng

    This thesis is about the use of an agricultural residue as a feedstock for fermentable sugars to be used for second generation (2G) bioethanol. The main focus of this thesis work is upon the recalcitrance of different anatomical fractions of wheat straw. Biomass recalcitrance is a collective...... of lignocellulosic biomass’ degradability, a high throughput screening (HTS) platform was developed for combined thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic degradation in Copenhagen laboratory during this thesis work. The platform integrates an automatized biomass grinding and dispensing system, a pressurized heating...... system, a plate incubator and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. In comparison with the reported HTS platforms, the Copenhagen platform is featured by the fully automatic biomass sample preparation system, the bench-scale hydrothermal pretreatment setup, and precise sugar measurement...

  14. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  15. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  16. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  17. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  18. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The European Reanalysis and Observations for Monitoring (EURO4M) project experts report that the year 2014 was unusually hot on the European continent, with the highest temperatures on record, following on from 2013 whose winter conditions were also exceptionally mild, and ahead of 2015 which is also set to be very warm. This situation led to a fall in solid biomass consumption for heating across the European Union. In 2014 electricity output increased by 4.5% on its 2013 level to 84.8 TWh, as the vagaries of climate have less impact on demand and it was also boosted by the expansion of biomass cogeneration and new coal-fired power plant conversions

  19. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that combines...... laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing opportunities...

  20. Utilizing hydrogen in aqueous phase conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Baoxiang; Zhao, Chen; Li, Xuebing; Lercher, Johannes A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Technische Chemie II

    2010-12-30

    Hydrogen generation and selective hydrodeoxygenation of biomass are the key for the successful integration of biogenic carbon resources for energy carriers and intermediates. This includes the generation of hydrogen from biomass in the liquid phase and more importantly, for the direct utilization of the hydrogen generated into the molecules. We will outline this strategy with two groups of oxofunctionalized molecules, i.e., glycerol as example for the aliphatic group and substituted phenols as the aromatic group. (orig.)