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Sample records for european beech forest

  1. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  2. Climate Change Impairs Nitrogen Cycling in European Beech Forests.

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    Michael Dannenmann

    Full Text Available European beech forests growing on marginal calcareous soils have been proposed to be vulnerable to decreased soil water availability. This could result in a large-scale loss of ecological services and economical value in a changing climate. In order to evaluate the potential consequences of this drought-sensitivity, we investigated potential species range shifts for European beech forests on calcareous soil in the 21st century by statistical species range distribution modelling for present day and projected future climate conditions. We found a dramatic decline by 78% until 2080. Still the physiological or biogeochemical mechanisms underlying the drought sensitivity of European beech are largely unknown. Drought sensitivity of beech is commonly attributed to plant physiological constraints. Furthermore, it has also been proposed that reduced soil water availability could promote nitrogen (N limitation of European beech due to impaired microbial N cycling in soil, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. Hence we investigated the influence of simulated climate change (increased temperatures, reduced soil water availability on soil gross microbial N turnover and plant N uptake in the beech-soil interface of a typical mountainous beech forest stocking on calcareous soil in SW Germany. For this purpose, triple 15N isotope labelling of intact beech seedling-soil-microbe systems was combined with a space-for-time climate change experiment. We found that nitrate was the dominant N source for beech natural regeneration. Reduced soil water content caused a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and therefore, a massive attenuation of gross nitrification rates and nitrate availability in the soil. Consequently, nitrate and total N uptake of beech seedlings were strongly reduced so that impaired growth of beech seedlings was observed already after one year of exposure to simulated climatic change. We conclude that the N cycle in this

  3. Climate Change Impairs Nitrogen Cycling in European Beech Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenmann, Michael; Bimüller, Carolin; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Tejedor, Javier; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche, Rainer; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    European beech forests growing on marginal calcareous soils have been proposed to be vulnerable to decreased soil water availability. This could result in a large-scale loss of ecological services and economical value in a changing climate. In order to evaluate the potential consequences of this drought-sensitivity, we investigated potential species range shifts for European beech forests on calcareous soil in the 21st century by statistical species range distribution modelling for present day and projected future climate conditions. We found a dramatic decline by 78% until 2080. Still the physiological or biogeochemical mechanisms underlying the drought sensitivity of European beech are largely unknown. Drought sensitivity of beech is commonly attributed to plant physiological constraints. Furthermore, it has also been proposed that reduced soil water availability could promote nitrogen (N) limitation of European beech due to impaired microbial N cycling in soil, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. Hence we investigated the influence of simulated climate change (increased temperatures, reduced soil water availability) on soil gross microbial N turnover and plant N uptake in the beech-soil interface of a typical mountainous beech forest stocking on calcareous soil in SW Germany. For this purpose, triple 15N isotope labelling of intact beech seedling-soil-microbe systems was combined with a space-for-time climate change experiment. We found that nitrate was the dominant N source for beech natural regeneration. Reduced soil water content caused a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and therefore, a massive attenuation of gross nitrification rates and nitrate availability in the soil. Consequently, nitrate and total N uptake of beech seedlings were strongly reduced so that impaired growth of beech seedlings was observed already after one year of exposure to simulated climatic change. We conclude that the N cycle in this ecosystem and here

  4. SYNTAXOMOMICAL SURVEY O F EUROPEAN BEECH FORESTS: SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

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    H. DIERSCHKE

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A short overwiev is given about the historical development of syntaxonomy of European beech forests. Different solutions of classification have been proposed, following more or less two main approaches: Division of alliances and suballiances by ecologically or geographically orientated species groups. A new classification of European beech forests is proposed with 8 (or more geographically orientated alliances, which can be further divided into suballiances by ecological species groups. For each alliance character and differential species, nomenclatural type and the area is mentioned, based on a (non puplished synthetic table, including 10.006 relevés from all parts of Europe. From this table also some overlapping species groups (a-n are given.

  5. Canopy transpiration of pure and mixed forest stands with variable abundance of European beech

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    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    SummaryThe importance of tree species identity and diversity for biogeochemical cycles in forests is not well understood. In the past, forestry has widely converted mixed forests to pure stands while contemporary forest policy often prefers mixed stands again. However, the hydrological consequences of these changes remain unclear. We tested the hypotheses (i) that significant differences in water use per ground area exist among the tree species of temperate mixed forests and that these differences are more relevant for the amount of stand-level canopy transpiration (Ec) than putative complementarity effects of tree water use, and (ii) that the seasonal patterns of Ec in mixed stands are significantly influenced by the identity of the present tree species. We measured xylem sap flux during 2005 (average precipitation) and 2006 (relatively dry) synchronously in three nearby old-growth forest stands on similar soil differing in the abundance of European beech (pure beech stand, 3-species stand with 70% beech, 5-species stand with sapwood area basis, reflecting a considerable variation in hydraulic architecture and leaf conductance regulation among the co-existing species. Moreover, transpiration per crown projection area (ECA) also differed up to 5-fold among the different species in the mixed stands, probably reflecting contrasting sapwood/crown area ratios. We conclude that Ec is not principally higher in mixed forests than in pure beech stands. However, tree species-specific traits have an important influence on the height of Ec and affect its seasonal variation. Species with a relatively high ECA (notably Tilia) may exhaust soil water reserves early in summer, thereby increasing drought stress in dry years and possibly reducing ecosystem stability in mixed forests.

  6. Contributions to the phytocoenologic study in pure european beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains (North-Western Romania

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    Călin-Gheorghe PĂŞCUŢ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we present a phytocoenologic study on the associations found in pure European beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains namely: Festuco drymejae-Fagetum Morariu et al. 1968, Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955.Characterization of the associations we studied and presentation of the tables have been made considering the selection of the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to Codru-Moma Mountains.The phytocoenoses of pure forest stands of European beech forests belonging to the two associations were analyzed in terms of floristic composition, life forms spectrum, spectrum chart of the floral elements and ecological indices.

  7. Crown plasticity and neighborhood interactions of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an old-growth forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröter, M.; Härdtle, W.; Oheimb, von G.

    2012-01-01

    Competition for canopy space is a process of major importance in forest dynamics. Although virgin and old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in Europe have been studied for many years, there are to date no studies of individual-tree crown plasticity and the way this is influenced by

  8. The neglected bee trees: European beech forests as a home for feral honey bee colonies

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    Patrick Laurenz Kohl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a common belief that feral honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L. were eradicated in Europe through the loss of habitats, domestication by man and spread of pathogens and parasites. Interestingly, no scientific data are available, neither about the past nor the present status of naturally nesting honeybee colonies. We expected near-natural beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests to provide enough suitable nest sites to be a home for feral honey bee colonies in Europe. Here, we made a first assessment of their occurrence and density in two German woodland areas based on two methods, the tracing of nest sites based on forager flight routes (beelining technique, and the direct inspection of potential cavity trees. Further, we established experimental swarms at forest edges and decoded dances for nest sites performed by scout bees in order to study how far swarms from beekeeper-managed hives would potentially move into a forest. We found that feral honey bee colonies regularly inhabit tree cavities in near-natural beech forests at densities of at least 0.11–0.14 colonies/km2. Colonies were not confined to the forest edges; they were also living deep inside the forests. We estimated a median distance of 2,600 m from the bee trees to the next apiaries, while scout bees in experimental swarms communicated nest sites in close distances (median: 470 m. We extrapolate that there are several thousand feral honey bee colonies in German woodlands. These have to be taken in account when assessing the role of forest areas in providing pollination services to the surrounding land, and their occurrence has implications for the species’ perception among researchers, beekeepers and conservationists. This study provides a starting point for investigating the life-histories and the ecological interactions of honey bees in temperate European forest environments.

  9. The neglected bee trees: European beech forests as a home for feral honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrick Laurenz; Rutschmann, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    It is a common belief that feral honey bee colonies ( Apis mellifera L.) were eradicated in Europe through the loss of habitats, domestication by man and spread of pathogens and parasites. Interestingly, no scientific data are available, neither about the past nor the present status of naturally nesting honeybee colonies. We expected near-natural beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forests to provide enough suitable nest sites to be a home for feral honey bee colonies in Europe. Here, we made a first assessment of their occurrence and density in two German woodland areas based on two methods, the tracing of nest sites based on forager flight routes (beelining technique), and the direct inspection of potential cavity trees. Further, we established experimental swarms at forest edges and decoded dances for nest sites performed by scout bees in order to study how far swarms from beekeeper-managed hives would potentially move into a forest. We found that feral honey bee colonies regularly inhabit tree cavities in near-natural beech forests at densities of at least 0.11-0.14 colonies/km 2 . Colonies were not confined to the forest edges; they were also living deep inside the forests. We estimated a median distance of 2,600 m from the bee trees to the next apiaries, while scout bees in experimental swarms communicated nest sites in close distances (median: 470 m). We extrapolate that there are several thousand feral honey bee colonies in German woodlands. These have to be taken in account when assessing the role of forest areas in providing pollination services to the surrounding land, and their occurrence has implications for the species' perception among researchers, beekeepers and conservationists. This study provides a starting point for investigating the life-histories and the ecological interactions of honey bees in temperate European forest environments.

  10. Species richness pattern along altitudinal gradient in Central European beech forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrivnák, R.; Gömöry, D.; Slezák, M.; Ujházy, K.; Hédl, Radim; Jarčuška, B.; Ujházyová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2014), s. 425-441 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : altitude * beech-dominated forest * species richness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  11. Factors impacting stemflow generation in a European beech forest: Individual tree versus neighborhood properties

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    Metzger, Johanna Clara; Germer, Sonja; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2017-04-01

    The redistribution of precipitation by canopies changes the water flow dynamics to the forest floor. The spatial pattern of throughfall has been researched in a number of studies in different ecosystems. Yet, also stemflow substantially influences water input patterns, constituting a mean of 12% of gross precipitation for European beech as one of the most abundant tree species in Central Europe. While the initiation of stemflow depends mostly on precipitation event properties, stemflow amounts are strongly shaped by canopy structure. Stemflow research has mainly addressed the impact of single tree morphological variables. In previous studies, the impact of forest structure on area-based stemflow was studied comparing plots with different properties using few exemplary stemflow measurements. In non-homogeneous stands, this approach might not be accurate, as the variation of stand properties like tree density could change tree individual stemflow fluxes. To investigate this, a total measurement of all trees per plot is required. We hypothesize, that in addition to individual tree metrics, tree neighborhood relations have a significant impact on stemflow generation in a heterogeneous beech forest. Our study site is located in the pristine forest of the National Park Hainich, central Germany. It is heterogeneous in respect to tree density, species composition and tree age. We measured stemflow in an areal approach, for all trees on 11 subplots (each 10 m x 10 m) spaced evenly throughout a 1 ha plot. This involved overall 65 trees, which is 11% of the plot's trees. 27 precipitation events were recorded in spring and early summer of 2015 and 2016. Stand properties were surveyed, including diameter at breast height, height, position and species of a tree. From this data, we calculated neighborhood properties for each tree, as number, basal area, and relative height of neighboring trees within a radius of the plot's mean tree distance. Using linear mixed effects models, we

  12. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

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    Filip Oulehle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared two adjacent mature forest ecosystem types (spruce vs. beech to unravel the fate of assimilated carbon (C and the cycling of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N without the risk of the confounding influences of climatic and site differences when comparing different sites. The stock of C in biomass was higher (258 t·ha−1 in the older (150 years beech stand compared to the younger (80 years planted spruce stand (192 t·ha−1, whereas N biomass pools were comparable (1450 kg·ha−1. Significantly higher C and N soil pools were measured in the beech stand, both in forest floor and mineral soil. Cumulative annual CO2 soil efflux was similar among stands, i.e., 9.87 t·ha−1·year−1 of C in the spruce stand and 9.01 t·ha−1·year−1 in the beech stand. Soil temperature explained 78% (Q10 = 3.7 and 72% (Q10 = 4.2 of variability in CO2 soil efflux in the spruce and beech stand, respectively. However, the rather tight N cycle in the spruce stand prevented inorganic N losses, whereas losses were higher in the beech stand and were dominated by nitrate in the mineral soil. Our results highlighted the long-term consequences of forest management on C and N cycling.

  13. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Ódor, Péter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...... with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus...

  14. Projected effects of climate change on the carbon stocks of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Zala County, Hungary

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    Somogyi Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change will lead to the local extinction of many tree species from large areas during this century, affecting the functioning and ecosystem services of many forests. This study reports on projected carbon losses due to the assumed local climate change-driven extinction of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Zala County, South-Western Hungary, where the species grows at the xeric limit of its distribution. The losses were calculated as a difference between carbon stocks in climate change scenarios assuming an exponentially increasing forest decline over time, and those in a baseline scenario assuming no climate change. In the climate change scenarios, three different sets of forest management adaptation measures were studied: (1 only harvesting damaged stands, (2 additionally salvaging dead trees that died due to climate change, and (3 replacing, at an increasing rate over time, beech with sessile oak (Quercus petraea Matt. Lieb. after final harvest. Projections were made using the open access carbon accounting model CASMOFOR based on modeling or assuming effects of climate change on mortality, tree growth, root-to-shoot ratio and decomposition rates. Results demonstrate that, if beech disappears from the region as projected by the end of the century, over 80% of above-ground biomass carbon, and over 60% of the carbon stocks of all pools (excluding soils of the forests will be lost by 2100. Such emission rates on large areas may have a discernible positive feedback on climate change, and can only partially be offset by the forest management adaptation measures.

  15. Eddy-covariance methane flux measurements over a European beech forest

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    Gentsch, Lydia; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The role of forests in global methane (CH4) turnover is currently not well constrained, partially because of the lack of spatially integrative forest-scale measurements of CH4 fluxes. Soil chamber measurements imply that temperate forests generally act as CH4 sinks. Upscaling of chamber observations to the forest scale is however problematic, if the upscaling is not constrained by concurrent 'top-down' measurements, such as of the eddy-covariance type, which provide sufficient integration of spatial variations and of further potential CH4 flux components within forest ecosystems. Ongoing development of laser absorption-based optical instruments, resulting in enhanced measurement stability, precision and sampling speed, has recently improved the prospects for meaningful eddy-covariance measurements at sites with presumably low CH4 fluxes, hence prone to reach the flux detection limit. At present, we are launching eddy-covariance CH4 measurements at a long-running ICOS flux tower site (Hainich National Park, Germany), located in a semi natural, unmanaged, beech dominated forest. Eddy-covariance measurements will be conducted with a laser spectrometer for parallel CH4, H2Ov and CO2 measurements (FGGA, Los Gatos Research, USA). Independent observations of the CO2 flux by the FGGA and a standard Infrared Gas Analyser (LI-7200, LI-COR, USA) will allow to evaluate data quality of measured CH4 fluxes. Here, we want to present first results with a focus on uncertainties of the calculated CH4 fluxes with regard to instrument precision, data processing and site conditions. In future, we plan to compare eddy-covariance flux estimates to side-by-side turbulent flux observations from a novel eddy accumulation system. Furthermore, soil CH4 fluxes will be measured with four automated chambers situated within the tower footprint. Based on a previous soil chamber study at the same site, we expect the Hainich forest site to act as a CH4 sink. However, we hypothesize that our

  16. Climate change impairs processes of soil and plant N cycling in European beech forests on marginal soil

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    Tejedor, Javier; Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Pole, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Bilela, Silvija; Dannenmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Beech forests of Central Europe are covering large areas with marginal calcareous soils, but provide important ecological services and represent a significant economical value. The vulnerability of these ecosystems to projected climate conditions (higher temperatures, increase of extreme drought and precipitation events) is currently unclear. Here we present comprehensive data on the influence of climate change conditions on ecosystem performance, considering soil nitrogen biogeochemistry, soil microbiology, mycorrhiza ecology and plant physiology. We simultaneously quantified major plant and soil gross N turnover processes by homogenous triple 15N isotope labeling of intact beech natural regeneration-soil-microbe systems. This isotope approach was combined with a space for time climate change experiment, i.e. we transferred intact beech seedling-soil-microbe mesocosms from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Transfers within N slope served as controls. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed. Reduced soil water content resulted in a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB). Consequently, we found a massive five-fold reduction of gross nitrification in the climate change treatment and a subsequent strong decline in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech. Because nitrate was the major nutrient for beech in this forest type with little importance of ammonium and amino acids, this resulted in a strongly reduced performance of beech natural regeneration with reduced N content, N metabolite concentrations and plant biomass. These findings provided an explanation for a large-scale decline of distribution of beech forests on calcareous soils in Europe by almost 80% until 2080 predicted by statistical modeling. Hence, we

  17. Large beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees as ‘lifeboats’ for lichen diversity in central European forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, J.; Hošek, J.; Malíček, J.; Palice, Zdeněk; Syrovátková, L.; Steinová, J.; Černajová, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2016), s. 1073-1090 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Fagus * forest management * Red-listed species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016

  18. Ecological indicators of Tuber aestivum habitats in temperate European beech forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moser, B.; Büntgen, Ulf; Molinier, V.; Peter, M.; Sproll, L.; Stobbe, U.; Tegel, W.; Egli, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, oct (2017), s. 59-66 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Burgundy truffle * Carpinus betulus forest * Ecological indicator values * Fagus sylvatica forest * Potential distribution of Tuber aestivum * Truffle ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  19. Environment vs. Plant Ontogeny: Arthropod Herbivory Patterns on European Beech Leaves along the Vertical Gradient of Temperate Forests in Central Germany

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    Stephanie Stiegel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and leaf trait effects on herbivory are supposed to vary among different feeding guilds. Herbivores also show variability in their preferences for plant ontogenetic stages. Along the vertical forest gradient, environmental conditions change, and trees represent juvenile and adult individuals in the understorey and canopy, respectively. This study was conducted in ten forests sites in Central Germany for the enrichment of canopy research in temperate forests. Arthropod herbivory of different feeding traces was surveyed on leaves of Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus (European beech; Fagaceae in three strata. Effects of microclimate, leaf traits, and plant ontogenetic stage were analyzed as determining parameters for herbivory. The highest herbivory was caused by exophagous feeding traces. Herbivore attack levels varied along the vertical forest gradient for most feeding traces with distinct patterns. If differences of herbivory levels were present, they only occurred between juvenile and adult F. sylvatica individuals, but not between the lower and upper canopy. In contrast, differences of microclimate and important leaf traits were present between the lower and upper canopy. In conclusion, the plant ontogenetic stage had a stronger effect on herbivory than microclimate or leaf traits along the vertical forest gradient.

  20. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: A case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emberson, Lisa D.; Bueker, Patrick; Ashmore, Mike R.

    2007-01-01

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO 3 SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O 3 risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O 3 risk. - A new flux-based model provides a revised assessment of risks of ozone impacts to European forests

  1. Edaphic potentials of beech forests on Brezovica

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    Knežević Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the soils in the montane beech forest (Fagetum moesiacae montanum Jov. 53 in the management units "Južni Kuèaj II" and "Bogovina I", on the mountain massif Brezovica. Soil genesis in the beech forests of Brezovica, along with vegetation and relief, was affected by the character of parent rock. The study soils occur over two types of bedrock: limestone and argilloschist The soil types and sub-types are defined based on the profile morphology, parent rock and pedogenetic processes Two types of soil were analysed on limestone: black earth (calcomelanosol and brown soil (calcocambisol. Two sub-types of black earth were defined: organomineral and brownised. There are two varieties of organomineral black earth: colluvial and lithic. Also two sub-types of brown soils were defined and: typical and illimerised. The soils on limestone are characterised by great spatial variability. Different combinations of soil formations occur on a small area. Soil combinations consist of two or three development phases, the most represented of which are the following: organomineral black earth - brownised black earth; organomineral black earth - brownised black earth - typical brown soil; typical brown soil - illimerised soil Typical brown soil is formed on argilloschists and it occurs in two forms: medium deep, medium skeletal acid brown soil and deep, poorly skeletal acid brown soil The most productive sites of the montane beech forest on Brezovica are deep acid brown soils and the soil combination: typical brown soil - illimerised soil on limestone.

  2. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

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    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system for classifying beech...

  3. Climate threats on growth of rear-edge European beech peripheral populations in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-Liñán, I.; Akhmetzyanov, L.; Menzel, A.

    2017-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral

  4. Safeguarding saproxylic fungal biodiversity in Apennine beech forest priority habitats

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    Maggi, Oriana; Lunghini, Dario; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Sabatini, Francesco Maria; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    The FAGUS LIFE Project (LIFE11/NAT/IT/135) targets two European priority habitats, i.e. Habitat 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex, and Habitat 9220* Apennine beech forests with Abies alba, within two National Parks: Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni; Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga. The current limited distribution of the target habitats is also due to the impact of human activities on forest systems, such as harvesting and grazing. The FAGUS project aims at developing and testing management strategies able to integrate the conservation of priority forest habitats (9210* and 9220*) and the sustainable use of forest resources. In order to assess the responses to different management treatments the BACI monitoring design (Before-After, Control-Intervention) has been applied on forest structure and diversity of focus taxa before and after experimental harvesting treatments. Conventional management of Apennine beech forests impacts a wealth of taxonomic groups, such as saproxylic beetles and fungi, which are threatened throughout Europe by the lack of deadwood and of senescing trees, and by the homogeneous structure of managed forests. Deadwood has been denoted as the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests not only for supporting a wide diversity of organisms, but also for playing a prominent role in several ecological processes, creating the basis for the cycling of photosynthetic energy, carbon, and nutrients stored in woody material. Especially fungi can be regarded as key group for understanding and managing biodiversity associated with decaying wood. The before-intervention field sampling was carried out in Autumn 2013 in 33 monitoring plots across the two national Parks. The occurrence at plot level of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota sporocarps was surveyed. All standing and downed deadwood with a minimum diameter of 10 cm was sampled for sporocarps larger than 1 mm, and information on decay class and fungal morphogroups

  5. Methanol and other VOC fluxes from a Danish beech forest during late springtime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schade, Gunnar W.; Solomon, Sheena J.; Dellwik, Ebba

    2011-01-01

    In-canopy mixing ratio gradients and above-canopy fluxes of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a commercial proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Denmark. Fluxes of methanol were bidirectional: Emission...

  6. Beech forests of Azerbaijan: The modern condition, age structure and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Hasanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan is a country with low forest cover, only 11.8% of the territory is covered with forests. All forests perform important water-soil-protection functions. In forests, naturally grow 107 species of trees and 328 shrubs species. Despite the fact that there are many species in dendroflora, only 10 tree species have economic value for the forest sector of the country. Beech (31.68%, oak (27.40% and hornbeam (26.01% are growing in 85.09% of forested areas. Beech forests are spread on 327 thousand hectares from 989,5 of total forest lands of he Republic. Beech forests are a source of high-quality wood and beech nuts. All beech forests grow in mountains at heights of 600–800 and 1600–1800 m above the sea level and performing important ecological functions. Until recently there were no problems with natural renewal of the beech forests, but now the regeneration of beech forests is alarming. In recent years, the productivity and density of beech forests decreased substantially, the natural regeneration proceeds unsatisfactorily and, consequently, reduction of beech forests takes place. We have researched 33,8 thousand hectares of beech forests of the Lesser Caucasus, their natural regeneration and made analysis of age structure of forests. Keywords: Fagus orientalis, Beech forests, Silviculture, Natural regeneration, Age class

  7. Arthropod diversity in pristine vs. managed beech forests in Transcarpathia (Western Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Chumak

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that biodiversity in pristine beech forests is not generally higher than in managed beech forests. However, the much higher amount of dead wood in pristine forests provides a source habitat for saproxylic species spreading into managed forest plots in the same region, but not to distant forests, far from virgin forests, such as in Western Europe.

  8. Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

    2013-01-01

    Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances. PMID:23308115

  9. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system...

  10. Faunal diversity of Fagus sylvatica forests: A regional and European perspective based on three indicator groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Walentowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the postglacial history of European beech (Fagus sylvatica and the plant species composition of beech forests in  Central Europe are fairly well understood, the faunal biodiversity has been less well investigated. We studied three groups of  mostly sedentary organisms in beech forest at regional and European scales by combining field studies with a compilation of existing literature and expert knowledge. Specifically, we examined the relationship between host tree genera and saproxylic  beetles, and the diversity and composition of forest ground-dwelling molluscs and ground beetles in relation to the abundance  of beech. At a west central European scale (Germany, where beech has a “young” ecological and biogeographical history,  we found 48 primeval forest relict species of saproxylic beetles associated with beech, 124 ground beetles and 91 molluscs  inhabiting beech forest, yet none exclusive of west central European beech forests. High levels of faunal similarity between beech and other woodland trees suggested that many of the beech forest dwelling species are euryoecious and likely to  originate from mid-Holocene mixed broadleaf forests. Beech forests of the mountain ranges in southern and east central  Europe, which are ecologically and biogeographically “old”, were found to harbour distinct species assemblages, including  beech forest specialists (such as 10 carabid species in the Carpathians and narrow-range endemics of broadleaf forest. The  observed biodiversity patterns suggest differentiated conservation priorities in “young” and “old” European beech forest  regions.

  11. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition alters growth responses of European beech (Fagus sylvativa L.) to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Carsten; Niemeyer, Thomas; Fichtner, Andreas; Jansen, Kirstin; Kunz, Matthias; Maneke, Moritz; von Wehrden, Henrik; Quante, Markus; Walmsley, David; von Oheimb, Goddert; Härdtle, Werner

    2018-02-01

    Global change affects the functioning of forest ecosystems and the services they provide, but little is known about the interactive effects of co-occurring global change drivers on important functions such as tree growth and vitality. In the present study we quantified the interactive (i.e. synergistic or antagonistic) effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) on tree growth (in terms of tree-ring width, TRW), taking forest ecosystems with European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as an example. We hypothesised that (i) N deposition and climatic variables can evoke non-additive responses of the radial increment of beech trees, and (ii) N loads have the potential to strengthen the trees' sensitivity to climate change. In young stands, we found a synergistic positive effect of N deposition and annual mean temperature on TRW, possibly linked to the alleviation of an N shortage in young stands. In mature stands, however, high N deposition significantly increased the trees' sensitivity to increasing annual mean temperatures (antagonistic effect on TRW), possibly due to increased fine root dieback, decreasing mycorrhizal colonization or shifts in biomass allocation patterns (aboveground vs. belowground). Accordingly, N deposition and climatic variables caused both synergistic and antagonistic effects on the radial increment of beech trees, depending on tree age and stand characteristics. Hence, the nature of interactions could mediate the long-term effects of global change drivers (including N deposition) on forest carbon sequestration. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that interaction processes between climatic variables and N deposition are complex and have the potential to impair growth and performance of European beech. This in turn emphasises the importance of multiple-factor studies to foster an integrated understanding and models aiming at improved projections of tree growth responses to co-occurring drivers

  12. Flux-profile relationships over a fetch limited beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of an internal boundary layer and a roughness sublayer on flux-profile relationships for momentum and sensible heat have been investigated for a closed beech forest canopy with limited fetch conditions. The influence was quantified by derivation of local scaling functions for sensible...... heat flux and momentum (phi(h) and phi(m)) and analysed as a function of atmospheric stability and fetch. For heat, the influences of the roughness sublayer and the internal boundary layer were in agreement with previous studies. For momentum, the strong vertical gradient of the flow just above...... the canopy top for some wind sectors led to an increase in phi(m), a feature that has not previously been observed. For a fetch of 500 m over the beech forest during neutral atmospheric conditions, there is no height range at the site where profiles can be expected to be logarithmic with respect to the local...

  13. China's Beech Forests in the Pre-Quaternary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu-Sheng

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagus in China is never dominant in Late Cretaceous and Tertiary floras although it might reach its highest diversity in the Miocene. The genus Fagus was more widely distributed during the Palaeogene than in the Neogene. Furthermore, the ecological requirements of Fagus in the Palaeogene seem much broader than those in the Neogene onwards. This is because the Palaeogene floras containing Fagus lived in various conditions from an arid and hot climate to a humid and warm habitat. Additionally, Fagus then coexisted with many kinds of hygrophilous, thermophilous and xerophilous plants. However, the wide distribution, broad ecological adaptation and species composition changed greatly in the Neogene. The Neogene Fagus-containing floras are slightly more similar to the modern beech forests than the Palaeogene ones, although a big difference remains. Chinese fossil data document the post-Tertiary development of the modern beech forests. doi:10.1002/mmng.19980010111

  14. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, Petia S.; Andersen, Christian P.; Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The effects of experimentally elevated O 3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ 13 C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O 3 under beech and spruce, and was related to O 3 -stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O 3 on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O 3 regime. δ 13 C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g s of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O 3 in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O 3 effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests. - Drought has the capacity to override the stimulating ozone effect on soil respiration in adult European beech/Norway spruce forest.

  15. Făgetele primare din România, o contribuţie la Patrimoniul Mondial UNESCO [Romania’s primary beech forests, a contribution to UNESCO World Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovu Adrian Biriș

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Heritage List (WHL of UNESCO currently comprises 1007 properties in 161 States Parties. Most of these sites are cultural (779 and only 197 are natural sites whereas 31 are mixed sites with outstanding universal cultural and natural values. Romania has only 8 sites registered on WHL of UNESCO, 7 cultural sites and one natural site – The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve - being underrepresented in relation with the real value of its natural patrimony. Beech is a deciduous species exclusively European and the beech forests constitute the potential natural vegetation for the temperate zone of Europe. Beech forests represent an outstanding and globally unparalleled example of the ongoing ecological processes of post-glacial expansion. This is a key factor for supporting the nomination of beech forests under WHL of UNESCO. Romania, the country with the larges area of beech forests and well preserved primary beech forests, has an important responsibility for the conservation of an adequate and representative network of beech forests. Considering these aspects, the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change - Department for Waters, Forests and Fisheries, National Forest Administration – Romsilva, Forest Research and Management Institute, WWF Danube-Carpathian Programme Office and Greenpeace CEE Romania Foundation have signed a protocol for collaboration having as target the selection of certain beech forests to be included on the WHL of UNESCO. Keywords

  16. Cultural treatments and woody debris: the study case of beech forests in Casentino (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calamini G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the first results about quantity and quality of dead wood on the ground in beech forests of Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park. The presence of dead wood depends on several factors such as forest productivity, natural disturbances and human activities. Data from some mature managed beech stands have been collected and compared with those from unmanaged beech forest (Sasso Fratino full-protected Reserve. Results do not show significant differences between managed and unmanaged forests. The dead wood varies between 5 and 8 Mg ha-1 (in terms of total dry weight mostly composed by fine woody debris.

  17. Competition for nitrogen between European beech and sycamore maple shifts in favour of beech with decreasing light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Judy; Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant species use different strategies for maximizing growth and fitness under changing environmental conditions. At the ecosystem level, seedlings in particular compete with other vegetation components for light and nitrogen (N), which often constitute growth-limiting resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of light availability on the competition for N between seedlings of European beech and sycamore maple and analysed the consequences of this competition for the composition of N metabolites in fine roots. Our results show different strategies in N acquisition between beech and sycamore maple. Both species responded to reduced light availability by adapting their morphological and physiological traits with a decrease in biomass and net assimilation rate and an increase in specific leaf area and leaf area ratio. For beech seedlings, competition with sycamore maple led to a reduction in organic N uptake capacity. Reduced light availability led to a decrease in ammonium, but an increase in glutamine-N uptake capacity in sycamore maple. However, this response was stronger compared with that of beech and was accompanied by reduced growth. Thus, our results suggest better adaptation of N acquisition to reduced light availability in beech compared with sycamore maple seedlings.

  18. Climate threats on growth of rear-edge European beech peripheral populations in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado-Liñán, I.; Akhmetzyanov, L.; Menzel, A.

    2017-12-01

    European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral populations will most likely be the most threatened ones. Four peripheral beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula were studied in order to assess the climate factors influencing tree growth for the last six decades. The analyses included an individual tree approach in order to detect not only the changes in the sensitivity to climate but also the potential size-mediated sensitivity to climate. Our results revealed a dominant influence of previous and current year summer on tree growth during the last six decades, although the analysis in two equally long periods unveiled changes and shifts in tree sensitivity to climate. The individual tree approach showed that those changes in tree response to climate are not size dependent in most of the cases. We observed a reduced negative effect of warmer winter temperatures at some sites and a generalized increased influence of previous year climatic conditions on current year tree growth. These results highlight the crucial role played by carryover effects and stored carbohydrates for future tree growth and species persistence.

  19. THE ROLE OF TREEFALL COMPLEXES IN REGENERATION OF TREE SPECIES AND IN MAINTAINING OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF NATURAL BEECH AND DARK CONIFEROUS-BEECH FORESTS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Ripa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of maintaining biological diversity mechanisms is important for elaborating methods for the restoration of natural forests that most fully implement ecosystem functions. The objectives of work are: to identify intact beech and dark coniferous-beech forests of the Carpathians on the basis of analyzing history of nature management and field studies; to characterize the population structure of the main tree species in the intact forests of the Carpathians; to determine the renewal of various species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes to treefall microsites in the forest types studied. The objects of the research are monodominant beech forests and mixed (dark coniferous-beech forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians, in which beech (Fagus sylvatica, white fir (Abies alba and European spruce (Picea abies are the main dominant of tree sinusia. Monodominant beech forests (the age of stands 250–350 years were studied on 9 sample plots (from 1 to 1.05 ha laid in the Ugolsky forest range of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve at an altitude of 600 to 1000 m above sea level, and also on the 2 sample plots (from 1 to 1.09 hectares laid in the Lower Volovets forestry at an altitude of 600–800 meters above sea level. Uneven-aged dark coniferous-beech forest (the age of forest stands is 250–300 years old was explored on one sample plot (1.2 ha laid in the Podlisnivsky forestry of the Carpathian National Park at an altitude of 750 m above sea level. Population analysis of the main tree and shrub species as well as geobotanical releves was made on the sample plots. Treefall microsite complexes were investigated to identify the peculiarities in the location of tree undergrowth, herb and moss species in beech and mixed forests. The following elements of treefall microsite complex were singled out: treefall pit, treefall mound and tree trunk. At each treefall microsite complex the research was carried out according to the following scheme: an

  20. Tree- and Stand-Level Thinning Effects on Growth of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on a Northeast- and a Southwest-Facing Slope in Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Diaconu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated changes in climate and research findings on the drought sensitivity of beech have triggered controversial discussions about the future of European beech. We investigated the growth response of beech on the tree- and stand-level in mature stands to three different thinning intensities (no thinning, strong thinning, very strong thinning on a northeast- and southwest-facing slope in Southwest Germany. Linear mixed-effects models were formulated to describe effects on growth parameters on the tree- and stand-level (diameter, height, basal area, volume. At the stand-level, the stand basal area increment and stand volume increment were lower on the thinned plots. At the tree-level, the basal area increment significantly increased with increasing thinning intensity. The growth of individual trees was also influenced by initial tree size, the size-related rank of the tree within a stand, and by the aspect of the site. Our data indicate that growth of European beech is impaired on the southwest-facing slope with a warmer and drier climate and that a very strong thinning regime applied at advanced age can accelerate growth of European beech trees even on the warmer and drier site. Our findings, therefore, imply that in a warmer climate intensive thinning may also represent an important adaptive forest management measure in European beech stands.

  1. The role of granivorous rodents in beech forest regeneration in the Beskydy Mts. (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2008), s. 131-134 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : beech mast biomass * granivorous rodents * daily consumption rate * mountain beech forest * regeneration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. A reference genome of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bagdevi; Gupta, Deepak K; Pfenninger, Markus; Hickler, Thomas; Langer, Ewald; Nam, Bora; Paule, Juraj; Sharma, Rahul; Ulaszewski, Bartosz; Warmbier, Joanna; Burczyk, Jaroslaw; Thines, Marco

    2018-06-01

    The European beech is arguably the most important climax broad-leaved tree species in Central Europe, widely planted for its valuable wood. Here, we report the 542 Mb draft genome sequence of an up to 300-year-old individual (Bhaga) from an undisturbed stand in the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park in central Germany. Using a hybrid assembly approach, Illumina reads with short- and long-insert libraries, coupled with long Pacific Biosciences reads, we obtained an assembled genome size of 542 Mb, in line with flow cytometric genome size estimation. The largest scaffold was of 1.15 Mb, the N50 length was 145 kb, and the L50 count was 983. The assembly contained 0.12% of Ns. A Benchmarking with Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) analysis retrieved 94% complete BUSCO genes, well in the range of other high-quality draft genomes of trees. A total of 62,012 protein-coding genes were predicted, assisted by transcriptome sequencing. In addition, we are reporting an efficient method for extracting high-molecular-weight DNA from dormant buds, by which contamination by environmental bacteria and fungi was kept at a minimum. The assembled genome will be a valuable resource and reference for future population genomics studies on the evolution and past climate change adaptation of beech and will be helpful for identifying genes, e.g., involved in drought tolerance, in order to select and breed individuals to adapt forestry to climate change in Europe. A continuously updated genome browser and download page can be accessed from beechgenome.net, which will include future genome versions of the reference individual Bhaga, as new sequencing approaches develop.

  3. Resilient Leaf Physiological Response of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. to Summer Drought and Drought Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E. Pflug

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major environmental constraint to trees, causing severe stress and thus adversely affecting their functional integrity. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is a key species in mesic forests that is commonly expected to suffer in a future climate with more intense and frequent droughts. Here, we assessed the seasonal response of leaf physiological characteristics of beech saplings to drought and drought release to investigate their potential to recover from the imposed stress and overcome previous limitations. Saplings were transplanted to model ecosystems and exposed to a simulated summer drought. Pre-dawn water potentials (ψpd, stomatal conductance (gS, intercellular CO2 concentration (ci, net-photosynthesis (AN, PSII chlorophyll fluorescence (PItot, non-structural carbohydrate concentrations (NSC; soluble sugars, starch and carbon isotope signatures were measured in leaves throughout the growing season. Pre-dawn water potentials (ψpd, gS, ci, AN, and PItot decreased as drought progressed, and the concentration of soluble sugars increased at the expense of starch. Carbon isotopes in soluble sugars (δ13CS showed a distinct increase under drought, suggesting, together with decreased ci, stomatal limitation of AN. Drought effects on ψpd, ci, and NSC disappeared shortly after re-watering, while full recovery of gS, AN, and PItot was delayed by 1 week. The fast recovery of NSC was reflected by a rapid decay of the drought signal in δ13C values, indicating a rapid turnover of assimilates and a reactivation of carbon metabolism. After recovery, the previously drought-exposed saplings showed a stimulation of AN and a trend toward elevated starch concentrations, which counteracted the previous drought limitations. Overall, our results suggest that the internal water relations of beech saplings and the physiological activity of leaves are restored rapidly after drought release. In the case of AN, stimulation after drought may partially

  4. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brændholt, Andreas; Ibrom, Andreas; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem respiration (Reco) represents a major component of the global carbon cycle. It consists of many sub-components, such as aboveground plant respiration and belowground root and microbial respiration, each of which may respond differently to abiotic factors, and thus to global...... of Reco in a temperate beech forest at diel, seasonal and annual time scales. Reco was measured by eddy covariance while respiration rates from soil, tree stems and isolated coarse tree roots were measured bi-hourly by an automated closed-chamber system. Soil respiration (Rsoil) was measured in intact...... plots, and heterotrophic Rsoil was measured in trenched plots. Tree stem (Rstem) and coarse root (Rroot) respiration were measured by custom made closed-chambers. We found that the contribution of Rstem to total Reco varied across the year, by only accounting for 6% of Reco during winter and 16% during...

  5. Litter quality effects of beech and hornbeam on undergrowth species diversity in Luxembourg forests on limestone and decalcified marl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Do beech and hornbeam differ in undergrowth species diversity, and could these differences be explained by mass of the organic layer, pH or soil moisture? Could species richness under beech and hornbeam be explained by differences in N dynamics? Location: Ancient forests dominated by beech

  6. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests-signs for facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Kampf, Friederike; Hilbrig, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤2 mm) by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1) spruce as a central tree, (2) spruce as competitor, (3) beech as a central tree, and (4) beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB), length (FRL), and root area index (RAI) were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA) exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL) and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA), asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  7. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests – signs for facilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eBolte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤ 2 mm by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1 spruce as a central tree, (2 spruce as competitor, (3 beech as a central tree, and (4 beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB, length (FRL, and root area index (RAI were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA, asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  8. Utilization of beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckemann, H

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews (for beech in W. Germany, and, in many cases for competitive hardwoods/softwoods): regional felling statistics/assortment structures; age class structures; profitability/prices; import/export trends; sales trends (for beech timber from Hesse State Forests); beech plywood production; ownership of forests, and specific uses of beech, including as an energy source, in sleepers, and in furniture.

  9. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  10. The influence of seedling density in containers on morphological characteristics of European beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzesiński Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence on growth parameters, in particular the morphological features of the root system, of 1-year-old European beech seedlings cultivated in containers with two different densities. The experiment was conducted in the container nursery in Skierdy (Forest District of Jabłonna in spring 2011. After 10 months of cultivation in Hiko polyethylene containers, above- and below-ground parts of the seedlings were measured. The measurements of the root system were conducted with a scanner and the WinRHIZO software. No influence due to the seedling density on either shoot height or thickness was observed, but instead the research showed that different seedling densities affected the development of root systems. The mean root thickness and dry mass of the European beech seedlings were significantly higher at the lower density. The influence of seedling density on the development of root mass deserves special attention as it is the most important factor affecting future growth of the seedlings during cultivation. This tendency also suggests that the amount of nutrients allocated to shoot development may be higher in order to improve the efficiency of photosynthesis. At both densities, differences in biomass accumulation affected the root-toshoot ratio. In seedlings cultivated at the lower density, the increased dry root matter of the seedlings resulted in a significant increase in the root-to-shoot ratio. This may cause a potential growth advantage of these seedlings after they are planted and may thus result in a more productive cultivation.

  11. Some Indicators of Beech Forests Vitality in the Republic of Serbia in Period 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Nevenić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Forests monitoring is one of the largest forest bio-monitoring systems that is carried out in order to record changes by using the most important environmental parameters. The National Focal Centre for forest monitoring in the Republic of Serbia, within the Institute of Forestry of the Republic of Serbia has been taking an active part in an international program of ICP Forest, with a view to improving its working activities and harmonizing them with other approaches to monitoring forests and forest ecosystems. Material and Methods: In order to determine forest ecosystem processes, it is necessary to carry out detailed research of ecological and socio-economic consequences of forest deterioration and to study the impacts of regional climate changes on forest communities. In the period from 2004 to 2009, observations were performed on 130 sample plots and data necessary for further analysis were collected. These plots are systematically arranged in either a 16x16 km or a 4 x 4 km grid system. The main parameters assessed on the sample plots are the degree of defoliation and discolouration as well as the extent of damage. A comparative analysis of the data obtained in this period will provide a better insight into the present state of beech forests in Serbia as well the effects of defoliation and discolouration trends. Results and Conclusion: Beech is the most common broadleaved tree species on the Level I sample plots. Its health state is the result of adverse effects of complex factors of abiotic and biotic origin (i.e. effects of both living organisms and complex natural processes within the beech forests habitats. This paper presents some indicators of beech forest vitality whose occurrence show certain regularity and which can be interpreted as a trend. The annual values of the health state elements and the fluctuations of these parameters from year to year present important indicators of vitality of beech forests in

  12. 24.000 ha de păduri primare de fag, propunerea României pentru Patrimoniul Mondial UNESCO [24000 ha of primary beech forests, the Romanian proposal in UNESCO World Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biriș I.-A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the coordination of The Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forests, about 24000 ha of primeval beech forests located in 8 natural protected area from the Romanian Carpathians were included for inscription into the World Heritage List to extend the „Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany” (1133bis. The extended World Heritage property is proposed to carry the joint new name: „Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe”. Supported by 13 European countries (Romania included, the nomination proposes to establish a transnational serial UNESCO property, with a surface of more that 95000 ha, that reunites the most representative and well preserved beech forests from the natural areal of this species in order to illustrate the ecological process of extension - that is in progress at present - of beech on the European continent. The process of choosing these canditate sites was thought for completing the existent sites and for providing arguments and reflecting better on the extension of species distribution at the level of Europe. At the end of January 2016, Austria, the coordinator country of the nomination process at the international level transmitted the common dossier for the nomination to the committee of evaluation of UNESCO World Heritage List.

  13. Mapping beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest...

  14. Cascading effects of a highly specialized beech-aphid–fungus interaction on forest regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Cook-Patton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialist herbivores are thought to often enhance or maintain plant diversity within ecosystems, because they prevent their host species from becoming competitively dominant. In contrast, specialist herbivores are not generally expected to have negative impacts on non-hosts. However, we describe a cascade of indirect interactions whereby a specialist sooty mold (Scorias spongiosa colonizes the honeydew from a specialist beech aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator, ultimately decreasing the survival of seedlings beneath American beech trees (Fagus grandifolia. A common garden experiment indicated that this mortality resulted from moldy honeydew impairing leaf function rather than from chemical or microbial changes to the soil. In addition, aphids consistently and repeatedly colonized the same large beech trees, suggesting that seedling-depauperate islands may form beneath these trees. Thus this highly specialized three-way beech-aphid–fungus interaction has the potential to negatively impact local forest regeneration via a cascade of indirect effects.

  15. Harvested wood products and carbon sink in a young beech high forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (KP, Italy has elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goal of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The whole forest area not subjected to afforestation, reforestation or deforestation processes since 1990 will be considered as managed forest. In order to analyse different management strategies, the Carbon-Pro Project, involving 9 partners of the European CADSES area, considered a young beech high forest (ex-coppice, defined as "transitory silvicultural system" as a common case study for the Pre-alps region. Using data collected with forest plans during the period 1983 - 2005, aboveground and belowground forest carbon stock and sink of a specific forest compartment were estimated by the Carbon Stock Method proposed by the IPCC Guidelines. In order to apply this approach 41 trees were cut and a species-specific allometric equation was developed. Considering the aboveground tree biomass, the carbon sink amounts to 1.99 and 1.84 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for the period 1983 - 1994 and 1994 - 2005 respectively. Adding the belowground tree biomass, the estimated sink amounts to 2.59 and 2.39 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for each period. Taking the harvested wood products (firewood, the total carbon sequestration during the second period is 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1. The case study highlights the possible rules for the different management strategies. In effect, the utilisation of the entire increase in aboveground biomass as firewood gives an energy substitution effect but, according to the Marrakesh Accords, it cannot be accounted for the KP. On the other hand, an accumulation strategy gives the maximum possible carbon absorption and retention.

  16. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, M.; Rinne, J.; Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC) and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameters...

  17. Effect of the density of transplants in reforestation on the morphological quality of the above-ground part of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. six years after planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Houšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of the above-ground part of European beech planted at different densities and spacing patterns for the purpose of artificial forest regeneration was monitored 3, 4 and 6 years after planting. The initial numbers of beech transplants were 5,000 pcs.ha−1, 10,000 pcs.ha−1, 15,000 pcs.ha−1 and 20,000 pcs.ha−1. The spacing pattern of transplants was either square or rectangular nearly in all variants: 1.4 × 1.4 m, 2 × 1 m, 1 × 1 m, 0.8 × 0.8 m, 1 ×0.65 m, 0.7 × 0.7 m and 1 × 0.5 m. Conclusions following out from the research are as follows: 1. neither the chosen density of transplants nor their spacing pattern had an essential influence on the after-planting loss or damage of trees; 2. through the planting of larger-diameter transplants it is possible to achieve canopy closure more rapidly as well as faster growth of the plantation; these beech plants keep the edge in growth and quality even 6 years after planting; 3. the higher is the beech plantation density, the less individuals occur in such a plantation with inappropriate stem form; 4. beech plants of the worst quality were found on plots with the lowest initial density of transplants (5,000 and 10,000 pcs.ha−1, yet the number of promising trees was sufficient even there. Thus, none of the experimental numbers of transplants per hectare or spacing arrangements of the European beech transplants can be claimed as inappropriate; however, further monitoring of the plots is necessary.

  18. Thirty-two years of change in an old-growth Ohio beech-maple forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, James R

    2013-05-01

    Old-growth forests dominated by understory-tolerant tree species are among forest types most likely to be in equilibrium. However, documentation of the degree to which they are in equilibrium over decades-long time periods is lacking. Changes in climate, pathogens, and land use all are likely to impact stand characteristics and species composition, even in these forests. Here, 32 years of vegetation changes in an old-growth beech (Fagus grandifolia)-sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest in Hueston Woods, southwest Ohio, USA, are summarized. These changes involve canopy composition and structure, turnover in snags, and development of vegetation in treefall gaps. Stand basal area and canopy density have changed little in 32 years. However, beech has decreased in canopy importance (49% to 32%) while sugar maple has increased (32% to 47%). Annual mortality was about 1.3% throughout the study period. Mortality rates increased with stem size, but the fraction of larger stems increased due to ingrowth from smaller size classes. Beech was represented by more very large stems than small canopy stems: over time, death of those larger stems with inadequate replacement has caused the decrease in beech importance. Sugar maple was represented by more small canopy stems whose growth has increased its importance. The changes in beech and sugar maple relative importance are hypothesized to be due to forest fragmentation mostly from the early 1800s with some possible additional effects associated with the formation of the state park. Snag densities (12-16 snags/ha) and formation rates (1-3 snags.ha(-1).yr(-1)) remained consistent. The treefall gaps previously studied are closing, with a few, large stems remaining. Death of gap border trees occurs consistently enough to favor species able to combine growth in gaps and survival in the understory.

  19. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light......, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances...... be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or temperature dependencies for individual compounds across species. Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic...

  20. Diversity of dead wood inhabiting fungal and bryophytes in semi-natural beech forests in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ódor, P.; Heilmann-Clausen, J.; Christensen, M.; Aude, E.; Dort, van K.W.; Piltaver, A.; Siller, I.; Veerkamp, M.T.; Walleyn, R.; Standovár, T.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Kosec, J.; Matocec, N.; Kraigher, H.; Grebenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    Saproxylic organisms are among the most threatened species in Europe and constitute a major conservation problem because they depend on the most important forestry product - dead wood. Diversity of fungal and bryophyte communities occurring on dead beech trees was analyzed in five European countries

  1. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The hill beech forests cover most of the woody area in the Doftana Valley. The present study refers, for the first time, to two beech forests typical to this belt, which belong to the phytocoenological associations Epipactieto-Fagetum (Resmeritã,1972, in the Lunca Mare area, and Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum (Vida 1983, Täuber 1987 in the Sotrile area, from floristic, structural, biomass and necromassaccumulation point of view, within the framework of the vertical structure of biocoenosis.The limestone substratum, occasionally with small outcrops in the first beech forest, differs chiefly through the pH levels (6.34-5.67 from the siliceous substratum (pH 5.11-4.36 in the second beech forest. The layer of trees is dominated by Fagus sylvatica in both forests; this species is associated with Cerasus avium (4.5%,Acer pseudoplatanus (2% and Sorbus torminalis (2% in the first beech forest, and is monodominant in the second. Although the forest underwent selective cuts, more intense in the Lunca Mare area, the aboveground ligneous biomass reaches nowadays 222 t/ha in the Lunca Mare area compared to only 163 t/ha in the Sotrile area; theaverage height is 28.8±2.49 m and 23.7±1.12 m, respectively, and the diameter is 33.30±7.9 cm and 31.60±6.28 cm, respectively. The species of macrofungi, not very numerous during the study because of scarce precipitations (6 and 7 species, respectively,are predominant on the rhytidoma trees in the beech forest rooted on the limestone ground; in the Sotrile beech forest they are joined by mycorrhizal and parasite species. The layer of shrub is underdeveloped. The herbaceous layer is discontinuous, and includes, along herbs, small plants and saplings belonging to the ligneous species and to liana Hedera helix. The maximal value of the aboveground biomass of thelayer is 317 kg/ha DM in the Lunca Mare area and 235 kg /ha DM in the Sotrile area.Bryophyta is present in large quantities, especially in the ªotrile area

  2. Extra-zonal beech forests in Tuscany: structure, diversity and synecologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viciani D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the structural, synecological and floristic diversity features of beech-dominated forest communities in four major areas of the Antiapenninic Tyrrhenian system in Tuscany: Metalliferous hills, mountains to the south of Mt. Amiata, volcanic area of the upper Lente valley and Mt. Cetona. These are relict woodlands of Holo-Pleistocene origin with a special ecological and conservation value due to their extrazonal location in lowland submediterranean areas. Results show substantial among-area differences in structure, synecology and plant species composition, but in general a potential for coppices to reach the tall forest stage, as demonstrated by the old-growth stands of Pietraporciana and Sassoforte. Compared with montane Apenninic beechwoods, the relatively rich flora of the studied communities include thermophilous species with a southern Apennine-Balkan distribution, making their syntaxonomical position unclear. Closer affinities are found with the calcicolous Beech Forests of the association and with the silicicolous ones of the . Based on the Natura 2000 system, all the examined communities belong to the priority Habitat “Apennine beech forests with and ” (code: 9210*. Due their relict nature, these biotopes appear vulnerable to climate changes and to a production-oriented forest management. Criteria of naturalistic silviculture should instead promote the dynamic development of these communities towards tall forests and their natural regeneration.

  3. Phenotypic Plasticity Explains Response Patterns of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Saplings to Nitrogen Fertilization and Drought Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dziedek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Climate and atmospheric changes affect forest ecosystems worldwide, but little is known about the interactive effects of global change drivers on tree growth. In the present study, we analyzed single and combined effects of nitrogen (N fertilization and drought events (D on the growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. saplings in a greenhouse experiment. We quantified morphological and physiological responses to treatments for one‐ and two‐year‐old plants. N fertilization increased the saplings’ aboveground biomass investments, making them more susceptible to D treatments. This was reflected by the highest tissue dieback in combined N and D treatments and a significant N × D interaction for leaf δ13C signatures. Thus, atmospheric N deposition can strengthen the drought sensitivity of beech saplings. One‐year‐old plants reacted more sensitively to D treatments than two‐year‐old plants (indicated by D‐induced shifts in leaf δ13C signatures of one‐year‐old and two‐year‐old plants by +0.5‰ and −0.2‰, respectively, attributable to their higher shoot:root‐ratios (1.8 and 1.2, respectively. In summary, the saplings’ treatment responses were determined by their phenotypic plasticity (shifts in shoot:root‐ratios, which in turn was a function of both the saplings’ age (effects of allometric growth trajectories = apparent plasticity and environmental impacts (effects of N fertilization = plastic allometry.

  4. Size-dependence of tree growth response to drought for Norway spruce and European beech individuals in monospecific and mixed-species stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Pretzsch, H; Schütze, G; Rötzer, T

    2017-09-01

    Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores. Linear mixed models were developed to estimate the influence of drought periods. The results show that ageing-related growth decline is significant in drought years. Drought resilience and resistance decrease significantly with growth size among Norway spruce individuals. Evidence is also provided for robustness in the resilience capacity of European beech during drought stress. Spruce benefits from species mixing with deciduous beech, with over-yielding spruce in pure stands. The importance of the influence of size-dependence within tree growth studies during disturbances is highlighted and should be considered in future studies of disturbances, including drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Relationship between particular dendrobiometrical indicators of natural European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dendrocenoses in Central Balkan Range

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    Ferezliev Angel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In parallel studies, different regression models were tested to identify relationships between particular dendrobiometrical indicators on two sample plots representing forests dominated by the European beech in the Central Balkan Range (Bulgaria. The presence of incomplete multicollinearity was studied through correlation matrix for factor variables. To avoid multicollinear negative impact, step multiple regression was applied and adequate regression equations of the relationships under consideration were formulated. The results of statistical analysis confirmed that the link between the investigated indicators is strong and that the ’cloud‘ data show some ’sphericity‘ and distribution close to normal. In one of the sample plots, one major volume-forming factor – height does not participate in the obtained regression equation, so it is not possible to estimate its influence. By testing linear and several nonlinear regression dependencies and by mediating widely used statistical criterions for model selection, the optimal linear model of the considered link was chosen.

  6. Microbial Activity in Forest Soil Under Beech, Spruce, Douglas Fir and Fir

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    Hajnal-Jafari Timea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the microbial activity in forest soil from different sites under deciduous and coniferous trees in Serbia. One site on Stara planina was under beech trees (Fagus sp. while another under mixture of spruce (Picea sp. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga sp.. The site on Kopaonik was under mixture of beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp. trees. The site on Tara was dominantly under fir (Abies sp., beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp.. The total number of bacteria, the number of actinobacteria, fungi and microorganisms involved in N and C cycles were determined using standard method of agar plates. The activities of dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The microbial activity was affected by tree species and sampling time. The highest dehydrogenase activity, total number of bacteria, number of actinobacteria, aminoheterotrophs, amylolytic and cellulolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under beech trees. The highest total number of fungi and number of pectinolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under spruce and Douglas fir trees. The correlation analyses proved the existence of statistically significant interdependency among investigated parameters.

  7. Social valuation of scenic beauty in Catalonian beech forests; Valoracion social de las propiedades esteticas de los hayedos en Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Garcia, C.; Burriel, M.; Alcazar, J.

    2011-07-01

    Methods tested in other countries are applied for scenic beauty valuation in several beech locations in Catalonia including significant differences in site, origin, age and stand structure. The study intends to measure stand scenic beauty as seen from inside the forest, as forest visitors see it (near-view). Assessments are obtained through panels of observers in slide sessions, which are transformed into scaled ratings and related through regression analysis to plot-based forest inventory data. The development of statistical models that describe social visual preferences allows the assessment of the contribution of different forestry-related physical variables to the aesthetic improvement of beech forests. It can also be useful as a guide to beech forest planning where recreational use is prevailing or very important. (Author) 37 refs.

  8. Plant biodiversity of beech forests in central-northern Italy: a methodological approach for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcantonio M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are reckoned essentials as biodiversity reservoirs and carbon sinks. Current threats to forest ecosystems (e.g., climate changes, habitat loss and fragmentation, management changes call for monitoring their biodiversity and preserving their ecological functions. In this study, we characterized plants diversity of five beech forests located in central and north Apennines mountain chain, using results by a probabilistic sampling. In order to achieve our goals, we have considered species richness and abundance, taxonomic distinctness and species composition, using both old and new analytical approaches. Results have shown how: (1 the forest type dominated by Fagus sylvatica is characterized by high complexity, with marked compositional, structural and biodiversity differences; (2 beech forests of Pigelleto di Piancastagnaio and Valle della Corte show the highest plants diversity values. The ecological characteristics of these areas, which sustain high diversity values, are unique and of great conservation interest; (3 the use of species richness as the only diversity measure have not allowed an efficient differentiation between studied areas. Indeed, the use of different indexes and analytical methods is required to detect multiple characteristics of biological diversity, as well as to carry out efficient biodiversity surveys aimed to develop optimal conservation strategies. In the future, we plan to apply the sampling methodology and the analytical approach used in this paper to characterize plants diversity of similar forest types.

  9. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European...

  10. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  11. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hill beech forests cover most of the woody area in the Doftana Valley. The present study refers, for the first time, to two beech forests typical to this belt, which belong to the phytocoenological associations Epipactieto-Fagetum (Resmeriţă, 1972, in the Lunca Mare area, and Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum (Vida 1983, Täuber 1987 in the Sotrile area, from floristic, structural, biomass and necromass accumulation point of view, within the framework of the vertical structure of biocoenosis. The limestone substratum, occasionally with small outcrops in the first beech forest, differs chiefly through the pH levels (6.34-5.67 from the siliceous substratum (pH 5.11-4.36 in the second beech forest. The layer of trees is dominated by Fagus sylvatica in both forests; this species is associated with Cerasus avium (4.5%, Acer pseudoplatanus (2% and Sorbus torminalis (2% in the first beech forest, and is monodominant in the second. Although the forest underwent selective cuts, more intense in the Lunca Mare area, the aboveground ligneous biomass reaches nowadays 222 t/ha in the Lunca Mare area compared to only 163 t/ha in the Sotrile area; the average height is 28.8ą2.49 m and 23.7ą1.12 m, respectively, and the diameter is 33.30ą7.9 cm and 31.60ą6.28 cm, respectively. The species of macrofungi, not very numerous during the study because of scarce precipitations (6 and 7 species, respectively, are predominant on the rhytidoma trees in the beech forest rooted on the limestone ground; in the Sotrile beech forest they are joined by mycorrhizal and parasite species. The layer of shrub is underdeveloped. The herbaceous layer is discontinuous, and includes, along herbs, small plants and saplings belonging to the ligneous species and to liana Hedera helix. The maximal value of the aboveground biomass of the layer is 317 kg/ha DM in the Lunca Mare area and 235 kg /ha DM in the Sotrile area. Bryophyta is present in large quantities, especially in the Sotrile

  12. De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of differential gene expression in response to drought in European beech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Müller

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological and economic importance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. genomic resources of this species are still limited. This hampers an understanding of the molecular basis of adaptation to stress. Since beech will most likely be threatened by the consequences of climate change, an understanding of adaptive processes to climate change-related drought stress is of major importance. Here, we used RNA-seq to provide the first drought stress-related transcriptome of beech. In a drought stress trial with beech saplings, 50 samples were taken for RNA extraction at five points in time during a soil desiccation experiment. De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of differential gene expression revealed 44,335 contigs, and 662 differentially expressed genes between the stress and normally watered control group. Gene expression was specific to the different time points, and only five genes were significantly differentially expressed between the stress and control group on all five sampling days. GO term enrichment showed that mostly genes involved in lipid- and homeostasis-related processes were upregulated, whereas genes involved in oxidative stress response were downregulated in the stressed seedlings. This study gives first insights into the genomic drought stress response of European beech, and provides new genetic resources for adaptation research in this species.

  13. Major characteristics of mixed fir and beech virgin forests in the National park Biogradska Gora in Montenegro

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    Čurović Milić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage forest ecosystems at a sufficiently high biodiversity level it is necessary to study the ecological, structural and production characteristics of virgin forests. The research was directed towards identifying the characteristics of mixed fir and beech forests (Abieti-Fagetum s. lat. in the area of the strict reserve of the National Park Biogradska Gora in Montenegro. Basic characteristics of these forests were researched in the process of definition of forest types. In this manner, it is for the first time that a realistic base for typological management of forests and forest ecosystems with similar ecological and structural characteristics was provided for the specific sites.

  14. Increased carbon sequestration in a Danish beech forest during 1996-2016: Observations and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, Kim; Ibrom, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    A study of the net exchange of CO2 (NEE) between the atmosphere and a beech forest near Sorø, Denmark, during 14 years (1996-2009) showed that the beech forest acted as an increasing sink of CO2 [1]. A significant increase in gross primary production (GPP) and a smaller and not significant increase in ecosystem respiration (RE) were also found. Thus, the increased NEE was mainly attributed to an increase in GPP. The length of the carbon uptake period (CUP) significantly increased, whereas there was a no increase in the leafed period (LP). This means that the leaves stayed active longer. The increase in the carbon uptake period explained about half of the increasing NEE. The remaining increase was believed to be due to an observed increased uptake capacity of the canopy and increased annual radiation efficiency[2]. The causes for this were hypothesized to be a combination of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, higher summer precipitation, and increased availability of N. A higher nitrogen content in the leaves was observed towards the end of the observation period. An updated analysis of the flux data, now including the years 1996-2016, confirms the increasing trend in carbon sequestration of the forest, an increasingly longer growing season, and a significant correlation of NEE and CUP, however, similarly to the first study, the increase in CUP only explains about half of the total increase. Here we investigate three hypotheses for the remaining reasons for the increase: H1: increased canopy nitrogen content H2: carbon dioxide fertilisation H3: increased water availability due to changing precipitation patterns. We describe the multiannual development of canopy photosynthesis capacity with regression analysis and perform sensitivity studies with the canopy model MAESTRA [3] to investigate the above hypotheses. The results will be presented, critically discussed and interpreted with respect to general effects of global climate change and site specific, local

  15. Natural radiation dose of small mammalians in beech forest of Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Protection of the environment itself from radiation hazards is recognized as important as that of humans. Actual data on the background natural radiation dose, which is necessary to evaluate the effect of radiation, are very few, especially in the terrestrial environment. Forests around the Japan's first large scale nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho were selected as the research field for evaluating the background natural radiation to the environment. Data observed will be used in future for the comparison with the radiation dose from radionuclides released from the plant. Small mammalians, mouse (Apodeums argentus) and mole (Urotrichus talpoides), were selected as representative animals of the forests in this study, and it was planned to measure their radiation doses from natural sources; environmental γ-rays, Rn and internal radionuclides. The forests around the plant were classified into three types: beech, oak and coniferous. We have been measuring the natural radiation to the mammalians in each of those forests one by one and report the data for the beech forest here. The mammalians caught in traps in the beech forest during June-October, 2006 were analyzed for their natural radionuclides burdens ( 210 Pb, 210 Po, 40 K, 87 Rb, 226 Ra, 238 U and 232 Th) in 11 organs and carcass. Radiation dose rates from environmental γ-rays and atmospheric concentration of Rn in the forest were also measured during August-December, 2006. Mean internal dose rates of mouse and mole caught in June, 2006 were estimated to be 0.036 μGy h -1 and 0.28 μGy h -1 , respectively, from mean concentrations of the nuclides in a total body and internal dose conversion coefficients by FASSET. The difference of the dose between the two mammalian species was attributed to higher contribution of 210 Po in mole, in which dose reached 0.25 μGy h -1 in contrast to that in mouse of 0.016 μGy h -1 . The concentration of 210 Po in kidney of mole (0.37 Bq g -1 wet) was

  16. Some clastic rocks as parent rocks in beech forests of Brezovica - Južni Kučaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On the large forest areas, where the measures of soil quality improvement are absent or rarely undertaken, the rocks are the sources of a great number of elements in plant nutrition and one of the factors affecting the contents of some elements in plants. The aim of the study is to determine the differences in the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Fe, Cd, Co, Pb and Cr in the beech leaves developed in the same climate conditions, on morphologically similar terrains, composed of different types of sedimentary rocks. This paper presents the study results of the contents of the above elements in argillites, sandstones (grauwackes and microconglomerates occurring as the parent rocks in high beech forests in the region of GJ Bogovina (Brezovica Južni Kučaj and in the leaves of beech developed on these rocks.

  17. Climate change induces shifts in abundance and activity pattern of bacteria and archaea catalyzing major transformation steps in nitrogen turnover in a soil from a mid-European beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Tejedor, Javier; Bimüller, Carolin; Bimueller, Carolin; Dannenmann, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Knabner, Ingrid Kögel; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing climate change will lead to more extreme weather events, including severe drought periods and intense drying rewetting cycles. This will directly influence microbial nitrogen (N) turnover rates in soil by changing the water content and the oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, a space for time climate change experiment was conducted by transferring intact beech seedling-soil mesocosms from a northwest (NW) exposed site, representing today's climatic conditions, to a southwest (SW) exposed site, providing a model climate for future conditions with naturally occurring increased soil temperature (+0.8°C in average). In addition, severe drought and intense rainfall was simulated by a rainout shelter at SW and manual rewetting after 39 days drought, respectively. Soil samples were taken in June, at the end of the drought period (August), 24 and 72 hours after rewetting (August) and after a regeneration period of four weeks (September). To follow dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities involved in N turnover, abundance and activity of nitrifiers, denitrifiers, N2-fixing microbes and N-mineralizers was analyzed based on marker genes and the related transcripts by qPCR from DNA and RNA directly extracted from soil. Abundance of the transcripts was reduced under climate change with most pronounced effects for denitrification. Our results revealed that already a transfer from NW to SW without further treatment resulted in decreased cnor and nosZ transcripts, encoding for nitric oxide reductase and nitrous oxide reductase, respectively, while nirK transcripts, encoding for nitrite reductase, remained unaffected. Severe drought additionally led to reduced nirK and cnor transcripts at SW. After rewetting, nirK transcripts increased rapidly at both sites, while cnor and nosZ transcripts increased only at NW. Our data indicate that the climate change influences activity pattern of microbial communities involved in denitrification processes to a different extend

  18. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. van Meeningen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur, European beech (Fagus sylvatica and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m−2 s−1, whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the

  19. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  20. Effect of the silvicultural treatment on canopy properties, litter and seed production in beech coppices under conversion to high forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is widely distributed in Italy where it covers 1035103 ha, mainly concentrated in the mountainous areas at altitudes above 900 m. The major part is represented by high forest often issued from the conversion of coppice woods, which in the past was the silvicultural system most widely applied mainly to provide fire wood. The social changes occurred in the second half of the last century –fire wood market crisis and the increasing importance of environmental issues- enhanced the conversion into high forest of large areas previously managed as coppice by means of different silvicultural treatments and practices. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of this choice were not adequately investigated. Results of annual measurements (1992-2009 made in a beech coppice stand aged 65 are here reported. The study area is located on the Alpe di Catenaia, a pre-Apennine outcrop close to Arezzo (Central Italy. Variables strictly related to stand productivity and dynamics such as annual litter and seed production, leaf area index (LAI and transmittance (PAR were measured in the research area of Buca Zamponi to estimate the effects of two theses, natural evolution (TEST and conversion into high forest (DIR. Three thinnings were undertaken in the latter thesis in 1972, 1987 and 2002. Additional theses of natural evolution (CONTR and advance seed cutting (TS were added in 2002 in a nearby study area (Eremo della Casella. Results showed the high productivity of coppice stands, under conversion to high forest, with mean values of annual total litter, leaf litter and leaf area index of 5 Mg ha-1, 3 Mg ha-1 and 6 m2m-2, respectively. These findings confirm both the prompt response of beech to intensive thinning cycles and the reliability of undertaking coppice conversion into high forest. Furthermore, the positive trend observed in the ecological parameters and the high consistency of leaf fraction, highlight the still juvenile

  1. Impact of windstorm on a community of centipedes (Chilopoda) in a beech forest in Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewska, Małgorzata; Skwierczyński, Filip

    2018-01-01

    The study was carried out in the years 2016-2017, five years after a windstorm which destroyed 1/3 of the protected beech forest area in the west of Poland. The community of centipedes in the area affected by the windstorm was depleted in terms of the species richness, diversity, and population density. The dominance structures were shortened and the species composition was rebuilt. The areas that proved to be the richest in terms of species richness and diversity among the sites affected by the windstorm were the one where windfallen trees were left and the other where beech trees had been planted by humans. In total, the quantitative and qualitative samples collected four times throughout a year featured 608 specimens from 11 species of two centipede orders - Lithobiomorpha and Geophilomorpha. Lithobius curtipes and L. forficatus were found in all of the investigated areas. L. pelidnus and L. piceus were captured at control sites exclusively. Only one species - L. erythrocephalus was found solely at the damaged site. The most numerous and most frequently found species in the community were L. curtipes , L. mutabilis , and Strigamia acuminata respectively. Although windstorms are natural phenomena their consequences may lead to significant changes in the community of the investigated soil animals. The importance of coarse woody debris, significantly contributing to the improvement and maintenance of species richness and diversity of Chilopoda, has once again been confirmed.

  2. Phytotoxic substances in soils of polluted beech forest stands; Phytotoxische Stoffe in Boeden immissionsbelasteter Buchenwaelder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glavac, V.; Parlar, H.; Michalas, F.; Droefke, P.

    1992-12-31

    Extensive germination experiments and growth experiments were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions with garden cress (Lepidium sativum ssp. sativum). The experiments show that the germination capacity ability of the plants in soil areas under old beech trees which are influenced by the trunk runoff water is impaired considerably. The investigations with nutrient solutions permit the following conclusion: The absence or occurrence of germinating plant species in the tree foot area is not influenced by the minerals alone but above all by organic compounds. In this investigation, the growth-inhibiting effect of several phenolic acids occurring in beech forests is recognized. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die umfangreichen Keim- und Wachstumsversuche mit der Gartenkresse (Lepidium sativum ssp.sativum), die unter kontrollierten Laborbedingungen durchgefuehrt wurden, zeigen, dass die Keimfaehigkeit der Pflanzen in den vom Stammablaufwasser beeinflussten Bodenbereichen der Altbuchen deutlich gehemmt wird. Die Untersuchungen mit Naehrloesungen lassen die Schlussfolgerung zu, dass nicht die Mineralstoffe allein, sondern vor allem organische Verbindungen das Fehlen oder Vorkommen aufkeimender Pflanzenarten im Baumflussbereich weitgehend bedingen. In dieser Untersuchung wird die wachstumshemmende Wirkung von mehreren im Oekosystem Buchenwald vorkommenden phenolischen Saeuren nachgewiesen. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of spatial discordance of primary and effective seed dispersal of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) by ecological and genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerón, M; López de Heredia, U; Lorenzo, Z; Alonso, J; Dounavi, A; Gil, L; Nanos, N

    2013-03-01

    Spatial discordance between primary and effective dispersal in plant populations indicates that postdispersal processes erase the seed rain signal in recruitment patterns. Five different models were used to test the spatial concordance of the primary and effective dispersal patterns in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) population from central Spain. An ecological method was based on classical inverse modelling (SSS), using the number of seed/seedlings as input data. Genetic models were based on direct kernel fitting of mother-to-offspring distances estimated by a parentage analysis or were spatially explicit models based on the genotype frequencies of offspring (competing sources model and Moran-Clark's Model). A fully integrated mixed model was based on inverse modelling, but used the number of genotypes as input data (gene shadow model). The potential sources of error and limitations of each seed dispersal estimation method are discussed. The mean dispersal distances for seeds and saplings estimated with these five methods were higher than those obtained by previous estimations for European beech forests. All the methods show strong discordance between primary and effective dispersal kernel parameters, and for dispersal directionality. While seed rain was released mostly under the canopy, saplings were established far from mother trees. This discordant pattern may be the result of the action of secondary dispersal by animals or density-dependent effects; that is, the Janzen-Connell effect. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Transfer Analysis of Provenance Trials Reveals Macroclimatic Adaptedness of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASZTOVITS, Ervin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse provenance tests of beech situated close to theSoutheastern-continental limits of the species, in order to develop a response model of adaptation andplasticity of populations on evolutionary-ecological basis, following sudden climatic changes as aresult of transplanting. Modelling of juvenile height was performed with the help of ecodistancevariables. The concept of transfer analysis and ecodistance is based on the hypothesis that phenotypicresponse to macroclimatic changes depends on the inherited adaptive potential of the population andon the magnitude and direction of experienced environmental change. In common garden experiments,the transfer to the planting site is interpreted as simulation of environmental change. The applicationof ecodistance of transfer for evaluating common garden experiments provides much neededquantitative information about response of tree populations to predicted climatic changes.The analysis of three field experiments of European beech in SE Europe invalidate earlier doubtsabout the existence of macroclimatic adaptation patterns in juvenile growth and justify restrictions ofuse of reproductive material on the basis of evolutionary ecology. The presented model illustrates thatresponse to climatic change is regionally divergent, depending on testing conditions and on hereditarytraits. In particular, climatic warming in the central-northern part of the range may lead to productionincrease. However, under the stressful and uncertain conditions at the lower (xeric limit of thespecies, growth depression and vitality loss are predicted. The deviating behaviour of higher elevationprovenances support their separate treatment.The results may be utilised in climate change adaptation and mitigation policy in forestry andnature conservation, to revise rules for use of reproductive material and also for validatingevolutionary and ecological hypotheses related to climate change effects.

  5. The impact of forest roads on understory plant diversity in temperate hornbeam-beech forests of Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljouei, Azade; Abdi, Ehsan; Marcantonio, Matteo; Majnounian, Baris; Amici, Valerio; Sohrabi, Hormoz

    2017-08-01

    Forest roads alter the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems, modifying temperature, humidity, wind speed, and light availability that, in turn, cause changes in plant community composition and diversity. We aim at investigating and comparing the diversity of herbaceous species along main and secondary forest roads in a temperate-managed hornbeam-beech forest, north of Iran. Sixteen transects along main and secondary forest roads were established (eight transects along main roads and eight along secondary roads). To eliminate the effect of forest type, all transects were located in Carpinetum-Fagetum forests, the dominant forest type in the study area. The total length of each transect was 200 m (100 m toward up slope and 100 m toward down slope), and plots were established along it at different distances from road edge. The diversity of herbaceous plant species was calculated in each plot using Shannon-Wiener index, species richness, and Pielou's index. The results showed that diversity index decreased when distance from road edge increases. This decreasing trend continued up to 60 m from forest road margin, and after this threshold, the index slightly increased. Depending on the type of road (main or secondary) as well as cut or fill slopes, the area showing a statistical different plant composition and diversity measured through Shannon-Wiener, species richness, and Pielou's index is up to 10 m. The length depth of the road edge effect found in main and secondary forest roads was small, but it could have cumulative effects on forest microclimate and forest-associated biota at the island scale. Forest managers should account for the effect of road buildings on plant communities.

  6. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  7. Forty-two years of change in an old-growth and second-growth beech-maple forest of north central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalie R. Pinheiro; P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix

    2008-01-01

    Using data collected in 1964 and 2006, we examined changes in the composition and structure of a second-growth and old-growth beech-maple forest of Crall Woods, located in Ashland County of north central Ohio. Over the 42 years, the old-growth forest (estimated to be at least 250 years old) experienced a significant shift in species composition as American beech,...

  8. Competition for nitrogen sources between European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J; Waldhecker, P; Brüggemann, N; Rennenberg, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the short-term consequences of direct competition between beech and sycamore maple on root N uptake and N composition, mycorrhizal seedlings of both tree species were incubated for 4 days (i.e. beech only, sycamore maple only or both together) in an artificial nutrient solution with low N availability. On the fourth day, N uptake experiments were conducted to study the effects of competition on inorganic and organic N uptake. For this purpose, multiple N sources were applied with a single label. Furthermore, fine roots were sampled and analysed for total amino acids, soluble protein, total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium content. Our results clearly show that both tree species were able to use inorganic and organic N sources. Uptake of inorganic and organic N by beech roots was negatively affected in the presence of the competing tree species. In contrast, the presence of beech stimulated inorganic N uptake by sycamore maple roots. Both the negative effect of sycamore maple on N uptake of beech and the positive effect of beech on N uptake of sycamore maple led to an increase in root soluble protein in beech, despite an overall decrease in total N concentration. Thus, beech compensated for the negative effects of the tree competitor on N uptake by incorporating less N into structural N components, but otherwise exhibited the same strategy as the competitor, namely, enhancing soluble protein levels in roots when grown under competition. It is speculated that enhanced enzyme activities of so far unknown nature are required in beech as a defence response to inter-specific competition.

  9. Transformation of even-aged European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) to uneven-aged management under changing growth conditions caused by climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Erik; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Transformation from even-aged to uneven-aged forest management is currently taking place throughout Europe. Climate change is, however, expected to change growth conditions—possibly quite radically. Using a deterministic approach, it was the objective of this study to investigate the influence...... of such changes on optimal transformation strategies for an even-aged stand of European Beech in Denmark. For a range of growth change scenarios, represented by changes in site index, optimal harvest policies were determined using a matrix modelling approach and a differential evolution algorithm. Transition...... probabilities were updated continuously based on stand level variables and the transition matrix was thus dynamic. With optimal transformation policies, stand development followed similar pathways during the transformation phase irrespective of climate change scenario. Optimal transformation policies were thus...

  10. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  11. Fine root dynamics of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as influenced by elevated ozone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainiero, Raphael; Kazda, Marian; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Nikolova, Petia Simeonova; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Fine root dynamics (diameter < 1 mm) in mature Fagus sylvatica, with the canopies exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone concentrations, were investigated throughout 2004. The focus was on the seasonal timing and extent of fine root dynamics (growth, mortality) in relation to the soil environment (water content, temperature). Under ambient ozone concentrations, a significant relationship was found between fine root turnover and soil environmental changes indicating accelerated fine root turnover under favourable soil conditions. In contrast, under elevated ozone, this relationship vanished as the result of an altered temporal pattern of fine root growth. Fine root survival and turnover rate did not differ significantly between the different ozone regimes, although a delay in current-year fine root shedding was found under the elevated ozone concentrations. The data indicate that increasing tropospheric ozone levels can alter the timing of fine root turnover in mature F. sylvatica but do not affect the turnover rate. - Doubling of ozone concentrations in mature European beech affected the seasonal timing of fine root turnover rather than the turnover rate.

  12. Attraction and antennal response of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), to selected synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Manning, Lee-Anne; Unelius, C Rikard; Park, Kye Chung; Stringer, Lloyd D; White, Nicola; Bunn, Barry; Twidle, Andrew; Suckling, David M

    2009-09-01

    The common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), and the German wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), are significant problems in New Zealand beech forests (Nothofagus spp.), adversely affecting native birds and invertebrate biodiversity. This work was undertaken to develop synthetic attractants for these species to enable more efficient monitoring and management. Seven known wasp attractants (acetic acid, butyl butyrate, isobutanol, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and 2,4-hexadienyl butyrate) were field tested, and only heptyl butyrate and octyl butyrate attracted significantly higher numbers of wasps than a non-baited trap. Accordingly, a series of straight-chain esters from methyl to decyl butyrate were prepared and field tested for attraction of social wasps. Peak biological activity occurred with hexyl butyrate, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and nonyl butyrate. Polyethylene bags emitting approximately 18.4-22.6 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate were more attractive than polyethylene bags emitting approximately 14.7-16.8 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate in the field. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies indicated that queens and workers of V. vulgaris had olfactory receptor neurons responding to various aliphatic butyrates. These results are the first to be reported on the EAG response and the attraction of social wasps to synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests and will enable monitoring of social wasp activity in beech forests. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Production dynamics of fine roots in beech forests: possible mechanism of resource allocation between above- and below-ground production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, R.; Osawa, A.; Naramoto, M.; Mizunaga, H.; Sato, M.

    2017-12-01

    The masting phenomenon that seed production has large annual variation with spatial synchrony appears generally in beeches. Therefore, net primary production and carbon allocation mechanism in beech forests may differ among several years in relation to annual variation of seed production. On the other hand, fine roots play key roles in carbon dynamics and nutrient and water acquisition of an ecosystem. Evaluation of fine root dynamics is essential to understand long-term dynamics of production in forest ecosystems. Moreover, the influence of mast seeding on resource allocation should be clarified in such beech forests. The aim of this study is to clarify possible relationships between the patterns of above- and below-ground production in relation to the masting events using observation data of litter fall and fine root dynamics. We applied the litter trap method and a minirhizotron method in a cool-temperate natural forest dominated by beech (Fagus crenata Blume). Ten litter traps were set from 2008 to 2016, then annual leaf and seed production were estimated. Four minirhizotron tubes were buried in Aug. 2008 and soil profiles were scanned monthly until Nov. 2016 during the periods of no snow covering. The scanned soil profiles were analyzed for calculating fine root production using the WinRHIZO Tron software. In the present study site, rich production of mast seeding occurred biennially and fine root production showed various seasonal patterns. There was no significant correlation between seed production and annual fine root production in the same year. However, seed production had a positive correlation with fine root production in autumn in the previous year and indicated a negative correlation with that in autumn in the current year. These results indicate that higher fine root production has led to increased nutrient acquisition, which resulted in rich seed production in the next year. It is also suppressed after the masting events due to shortage in

  14. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  15. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  16. Similar net ecosystem exchange of beech stands located in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.

    2002-01-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as measured with eddy covariance was compared for two European beech stands for the years 1996-1999: a young beech forest (32 year-old) growing in east France, and a mature beech stand (80 year-old) located in Denmark. Those sites are included in the Carboeuroflux....../Carbodata European networks. Except for some short-term differences (1-5 days), the temporal variation of NEE followed similar patterns in both sites. This similarity followed from similar values of. (i) dates of bud break and of leaf fall; (ii) ecosystem respiration rates during winter; (iii) diurnal NEE during...

  17. Testing the applicability of BIOME-BGC to simulate beech gross primary production in Europe using a new continental weather dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesi , Marta; Chirici , Gherardo; Marchetti , Marco; Hasenauer , Hubert; Moreno , Adam; Knohl , Alexander; Matteucci , Giorgio; Pilegaard , Kim; Granier , André; Longdoz , Bernard; Maselli , Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Key message A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily by spring temperature and more irregularly by summer water stress. [br/] Context The spread of beech forests in Europe enhances the importance of modelling and monitoring their growth in view of ongoing climate changes. [br/] Aims The current paper assesses the capability o...

  18. Soil base saturation combines with beech bark disease to influence composition and structure of sugar maple-beech forests in an acid rain-impacted region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Todd C. McDonnell; Timothy J. Sullivan; Martin Dovciak; Scott W. Bailey; Michael R. Antidormi; Michael R. Zarfos

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple, an abundant and highly valued tree species in eastern North America, has experienced decline from soil calcium (Ca) depletion by acidic deposition, while beech, which often coexists with sugar maple, has been afflicted with beech bark disease (BBD) over the same period. To investigate how variations in soil base saturation combine with effects of BBD in...

  19. Estimation of beech tree transpiration in relation to their social status in forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Střelcová, K.; Matejka, F.; Minďáš, J.

    2002-01-01

    The results of sap flow continuous measurements by a tree-trunk heat balance method (THB) on beech model trees are analysed in this paper. Experimental research works were carried out in a mature mixed fir-spruce-beech stand in the research area Pol'ana - Hukavský Grúň (φ = 48°39', λ = 19°29', H = 850 m a.s.l.) in UNESCO Biosphere Reserve on two co-dominant and one sub-dominant beech trees. A mathematical model of daily transpiration dynamics was proposed for a quantitative analysis of the daily course of sap flow intensity. The model works on a one-tree level and enables to consider the influence of the tree social position in the stand on the sap flow intensity of model beech trees and to express the dependence of sap flow intensity on the tree height and crown projection

  20. Identification of stress biomarkers for drought and increased soil temperature in seedlings of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popović, Milica [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.; Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Glavni Trg 9 – SI-5261, Vipava, Slovenia.; Gregori, Marco [Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Glavni Trg 9 – SI-5261, Vipava, Slovenia.; Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Chirurgiche e della Salute Trieste, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy.; Vodnik, Dominik [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Agronomy, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Ferlan, Mitja [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Mrak, Tanja [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Štraus, Ines [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; McDowell, Nathan G. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354, USA.; Kraigher, Hojka [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; de Marco, Ario [Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Glavni Trg 9 – SI-5261, Vipava, Slovenia.

    2017-11-01

    Drought is an environmental stress that impacts plant productivity. Projections show both an increase in intense rain events and a reduction in the number of rain days, conditions that leads to increased risk of drought. Consequently, the identification of molecular biomarkers suitable for evaluating the impact of water deprivation conditions on forest plant seedlings is of significant value for monitoring purposes and forest management. In this study, we evaluated a biochemical methodology for the assessment of drought stress coupled with variable soil temperature in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings by analyzing a set of metabolites and enzymes involved in free radical scavenging and cell wall synthesis. The results indicate that the specific activities and isoform profile of superoxide dismutases and glutathione peroxidases together with the variation of phenolic compounds enable discrimination between seedlings with different degrees of photosynthetic activity. This approach represents a promising platform for the assessment of drought stress in forest trees and could serve for enhancing selection and breeding practices, allowing for plants that are more tolerant of abiotic stress.

  1. Influence of litter diversity on dissolved organic matter release and soil carbon formation in a mixed beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Andrea; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf litter on below ground carbon export and soil carbon formation in order to understand how litter diversity affects carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. 13C labeled and unlabeled leaf litter of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior), characterized by low and high decomposability, were used in a litter exchange experiment in the Hainich National Park (Thuringia, Germany). Litter was added in pure and mixed treatments with either beech or ash labeled with 13C. We collected soil water in 5 cm mineral soil depth below each treatment biweekly and determined dissolved organic carbon (DOC), δ13C values and anion contents. In addition, we measured carbon concentrations and δ13C values in the organic and mineral soil (collected in 1 cm increments) up to 5 cm soil depth at the end of the experiment. Litter-derived C contributes less than 1% to dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected in 5 cm mineral soil depth. Better decomposable ash litter released significantly more (0.50±0.17%) litter carbon than beech litter (0.17±0.07%). All soil layers held in total around 30% of litter-derived carbon, indicating the large retention potential of litter-derived C in the top soil. Interestingly, in mixed (ash and beech litter) treatments we did not find a higher contribution of better decomposable ash-derived carbon in DOM, O horizon or mineral soil. This suggest that the known selective decomposition of better decomposable litter by soil fauna has no or only minor effects on the release and formation of litter-derived DOM and soil organic matter. Overall our experiment showed that 1) litter-derived carbon is of low importance for dissolved organic carbon release and 2) litter of higher decomposability is faster decomposed, but litter diversity does not influence the carbon flow.

  2. Changes in phenology and the influence on the carbon sequestration in a Danish beech forest over 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim; Ibrom, Andreas

    Observations of carbon sequestration in a Danish beech forest over the last 20 years have shown a steady increase in NEE. Earlier studies (Pile- gaard et al. 2011) have shown, that about half of the increase can be attributed to an increase in the growing season length. The growing sea- son has...... 6 years using the R package Phenopix (Filippa et al. 2016). The new data is compared with CUP and LP to give more detailed information on the phenology. The information is used to examine the evolution of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over the 20 year period....

  3. Two years of continuous CO2 eddy-flux measurements over a Danish beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the EUROFLUX network a long-term monitoring station for fluxes of CO2 and water vapour has been established in an 80-year old beech forest in Denmark. The station has been in continuous operation since June 1996 and will be so at least to the end of 2002. A primary goal of EUROFLUX...... summer of 1997 and an average soil and air temperature, respectively, 1.2 and 1.6 degreesC higher than the first year. The ecosystem photosynthetic assimilation was slightly higher during the second year, mainly caused by increased incoming radiation. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All nights reserved....

  4. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Jennifer L. Koch; Marek Krasowski; Judy. Loo

    2013-01-01

    Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the...

  5. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108-119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19-38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166-184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one stand.

  6. Treefall gap disturbance in an old-growth beech forest in southwestern Japan by a catastrophic typhoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Hideyuki

    2000-01-01

    In 1991, the catastrophic Typhoon 9119 created many treefall gaps in an old-growth beech (Fagus crenata) forest on Mt. Garyu, southwestern Japan. In a 3.3-ha plot, the density and basal area of fatally damaged trunks (DBH ≥ 20 cm) were 29.1 trunks/ha (16.9% of all pre-typhoon trunks) and 9.1 m 2 /ha. (24.4% of total pre-typhoon basal area), respectively. Many of the dominant beech were lost and larger trunks were damaged. The pre- and post-typhoon DBH distribution both had an inverse J-shape. Spatial distribution of living trunks was not random but clustered irrespective of typhoon damage or DBH size, suggesting that the stand structure of the study plot would be an unusual one as compared with the previous study stands in Japanese beech forests. The death of pre-typhoon trunks, seemed to die standing or to be killed by snap-off, occurred singly; however, the typhoon fatally damaged many clustered trunks at the same time. Uprooting was the most frequent cause of gaps created by the typhoon. The intermediate DBH size class (40 - 70 cm) would be more likely to be uprooted than snapped-off. The DBH distribution of snap-off may reflect the total pre-typhoon trunk distribution. Branch-fall had a flat DBH distribution. Uprooting might have a clustered distribution, while snap-off and branch-fall both had random distributions. The smaller trunks of snap-off and branch-fall seemed to result from injuries caused by the fall of larger trunks

  7. Adaptation of European beech (Fagus silvatica L.) to different ecological conditions: leaf size variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, M.

    2004-01-01

    In beech trees, both leaf morphology and leaf area show considerable adaptation capabilities to the local radiation climate. The plants adapting to shade conditions create large leaf area with high chlorophyll concentration and high water content in the living tissues. On the other hand, the leaves of plants exposed to radiation of higher intensity have smaller area, several layers of mesophyll, thick epidermis and cuticle, higher dry weight, higher energy potential of the dry mass and several other characteristic properties

  8. Joint Slovak-Ukraine-Germany Beech Ecosystems as the World Natural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vološčuk Ivan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The European beech Fagus sylvatica L. ssp. sylvatica L. is exclusively found in Europe. The beech survived the ice age in small refuges in the south and south-east Europe and went on to colonise large parts of the continent. The post-ice age colonisation of the landscape by the beech took place parallel to the settlement of land by humans and the formation of a more complex society. For centuries much of the Carpathian mountain forests remained untouched (Fig. 1. Virgin forests constitute a natural heritage of global significance. In 2007, 10 protected areas with the Primeval Beech Forests of Carpathians (Slovakia, Ukraine were added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. On 25 June 2011, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee added five of Germany’s beech forest protected areas to the World Heritage List. This extended the transboundary world natural heritage site ‘Primeval Beech Forest of the Carpathians’, located in the Slovak Republic and Ukraine, to include a German forest protected areas, and renamed it ‘Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Ancient Beech Forests of Germany’. This paper is aimed at the presentation of the outstanding universal value of the ecological processes in the Joint World Heritage Sites, short description of protected areas and principles of their integrated management plan. This paper also deals with problems in management plan realisation in practice. Ultimate goal is to achieve that management and socio-economic sustainable development practices are in harmony with primary objectives of World Heritage Site protection, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape stability, rational use of natural resources, ecotourism development and with potential of the landscape in largest possible extend.

  9. Modelling exploratio of the future of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) under climate change - Range, abundance, genetic diversity and adaptive response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Degen, B.; Buschbom, J.; Hickler, T.; Thuiller, W.; Sykes, M.T.; Winter, de W.P.

    2010-01-01

    We explored impacts of climate change on the geographic distribution of European beech by applying state of the art statistical and process-based models, and assessed possible climate change impacts on both adaptive capacity in the centre of its distribution and adaptive responses of functional

  10. Intraspecific Variation in Wood Anatomical, Hydraulic, and Foliar Traits in Ten European Beech Provenances Differing in Growth Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0–14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ13C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ13C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were

  11. Beech-mast crop evaluation in Kněhyně forest complex (Beskydy Mts. Czech Republic) as a food supply for granivorous rodents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Čepelka, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2013), s. 27-32 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : beech mountain forests * biomass of beechnuts harvest * diet supply for granivorous species Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  12. Lignin properties in topsoils of a beech/oak forest after 8 years of manipulated litter fall: relevance of altered input and oxidation of lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Strohmeier, S.; Kaiser, K.; Bowden, R.D.; Lajtha, K.; Ohm, H.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims We studied the response of lignin oxidation in soils of a beech/oak forest to changes in litter fall. Additionally we considered possible factors in lignin oxidation, including altered (i) input of fresh organic matter and (ii) fungi-to-bacteria ratios. Methods The field-based

  13. Effects of litter quality and parent material on organic matter characteristics and N-dynamics in Luxembourg beech and hornbeam forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Martinez-Hernandez, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    To test effects of litter quality and soil conditions on N-dynamics, we selected seven forests in Luxembourg dominated by beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), and located on acid loam, decalcified marl or limestone, and measured organic matter characteristics, microbial C

  14. Distribution model of understory vegetation in beech forests from Central Apennines (Italy in relation to edaphic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nicola C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first results of a study of monitoring species and habitats in the framework of the Life 04NAT/IT/000190 "Tutela dei siti Natura 2000 gestiti dal Corpo Forestale dello Stato" are presented. This study was carried out by the Department of Plant Biology of the University of Rome (La Sapienza and the National Forest Service. We focused the investigation on the relationships between herbaceous species and pedological parameters (humus and soil in Central-Apennine beech forests. Data have been collected through 40 phytosociological relevés, 15 soil profiles and 40 humus profiles in 40 forest plots, between March 2005 and September 2006. In this paper we presented data elaborated on a subset of 15 plots where soil profiles were available. The species of undergrowth showed different ecological requirements to some edaphic and humus parameters (pH, sand, loam, clay, organic matter, nitrogen, carbon/nitrogen ratio, Ca++, K+;thickness and carbon content of the organic layers: significant correlations have been found using Pearson correlation test. The multiple regression analysis allowed to identify the factors more influencing the species distribution: thickness of the organic layers, carbon content (% C and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N. Basing on the thickness of humus horizons (OL, OF, OH, and on carbon content, two species groups with different ecology have been recognized: (a nemoral species typical of shady beech stands on oligomull/dysmull/thin amphimull (0 < 1cm.; 5.7 < %C < 9.9; (b heliophilous species of more xeric stands on thick amphimull (1.25 < 11.5 cm.; 9.9 < %C < 13.7. The relationships among species and soil parameters and humus forms allow to recognize small differences within a homogeneous habitat and therefore they can provide management indications also at micro-scale level.

  15. Soil base saturation combines with Beech Bark Disease to influence composition and structure of Sugar Maple-Beech forests in an acid rain-impacted region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Dovciak, Martin; Bailey, Scott W.; Antidormi, Michael; Zarfos, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar maple, an abundant and highly valued tree species in eastern North America, has experienced decline from soil calcium (Ca) depletion by acidic deposition, while beech, which often coexists with sugar maple, has been afflicted with beech bark disease (BBD) over the same period. To investigate how variations in soil base saturation combine with effects of BBD in influencing stand composition and structure, measurements of soils, canopy, subcanopy, and seedlings were taken in 21 watersheds in the Adirondack region of NY (USA), where sugar maple and beech were the predominant canopy species and base saturation of the upper B horizon ranged from 4.4 to 67%. The base saturation value corresponding to the threshold for Al mobilization (16.8%) helped to define the species composition of canopy trees and seedlings. Canopy vigor and diameter at breast height (DBH) were positively correlated (P soils, soil-Ca depletion and BBD may have created opportunities for gap-exploiting species such as red maple and black cherry, whereas in high-base saturation soils, sugar maple dominated the canopy. Where soils were beginning to recover from acidic deposition effects, sugar maple DBH and basal area increased progressively from 2000 to 2015, whereas for beech, average DBH did not change and basal area did not increase after 2010.

  16. Sap flux density and stomatal conductance of European beech and common oak trees in pure and mixed stands during the summer drought of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonard, F.; André, F.; Ponette, Q.; Vincke, C.; Jonard, M.

    2011-10-01

    SummarySap flux density of European beech and common oak trees was determined from sap flow measurements in pure and mixed stands during the summer drought of 2003. Eight trees per species and per stand were equipped with sap flow sensors. Soil water content was monitored in each stand at different depths by using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). Leaf area index and vertical root distribution were also investigated during the growing season. From sap flux density ( SFD) data, mean stomatal conductance of individual trees ( G s) was calculated by inverting the Penman-Monteith equation. Linear mixed models were developed to analyse the effects of species and stand type (pure vs. mixed) on SFD and G s and on their sensitivity to environmental variables (vapour pressure deficit ( D), incoming solar radiation ( R G), and relative extractable water ( REW)). For reference environmental conditions, we did not find any tree species or stand type effects on SFD. The sensitivity of SFD to D was higher for oak than for beech in the pure stands ( P sapwood-to-leaf area ratio compared to oak. The sensitivity of G s to REW was higher for beech than for oak and was ascribed to a higher vulnerability of beech to air embolism and to a more sensitive stomatal regulation. The sensitivity of beech G s to REW was lower in the mixed than in the pure stand, which could be explained by a better sharing of the resources in the mixture, by facilitation processes (hydraulic lift), and by a rainfall partitioning in favour of beech.

  17. Effects of forest management practices in temperate beech forests on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Jariyavidyanont, Katalee; Kaunzner, Jennifer; Juncheed, Kantida; Uengwetwanit, Tanaporn; Rudloff, Renate; Schulz, Elke; Hofrichter, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Krüger, Dirk; Buscot, François

    2015-05-01

    Forest management practices (FMPs) significantly influence important ecological processes and services in Central European forests, such as leaf litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Changes in leaf litter diversity, and thus, its quality as well as microbial community structure and function induced by different FMPs were hypothesized to be the main drivers causing shifts in decomposition rates and nutrient release in managed forests. In a litterbag experiment lasting 473 days, we aimed to investigate the effects of FMPs (even-aged timber management, selective logging and unmanaged) on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation over time. Our results showed that microbial communities in leaf litter were strongly influenced by both FMPs and sampling date. The results from nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination revealed distinct patterns of bacterial and fungal successions over time in leaf litter. We demonstrated that FMPs and sampling dates can influence a range of factors, including leaf litter quality, microbial macronutrients, and pH, which significantly correlate with microbial community successions.

  18. Environmental change impacts on the C- and N-cycle of European forests: a model comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cameron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important components of the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about how predicted changes to climate and nitrogen deposition will perturb the carbon and nitrogen cycles of European forests and thereby alter forest growth, carbon sequestration and N2O emission. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon and nitrogen balance, including the exchange of greenhouse gases, of European forests over the period 2010–2030, with a particular emphasis on the spatial variability of change. The analysis was carried out for two tree species: European beech and Scots pine. For this purpose, four different dynamic models were used: BASFOR, DailyDayCent, INTEGRATOR and Landscape-DNDC. These models span a range from semi-empirical to complex mechanistic. Comparison of these models allowed assessment of the extent to which model predictions depended on differences in model inputs and structure. We found a European average carbon sink of 0.160 ± 0.020 kgC m−2 yr−1 (pine and 0.138 ± 0.062 kgC m−2 yr−1 (beech and N2O source of 0.285 ± 0.125 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (pine and 0.575 ± 0.105 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (beech. The European average greenhouse gas potential of the carbon sink was 18 (pine and 8 (beech times that of the N2O source. Carbon sequestration was larger in the trees than in the soil. Carbon sequestration and forest growth were largest in central Europe and lowest in northern Sweden and Finland, N. Poland and S. Spain. No single driver was found to dominate change across Europe. Forests were found to be most sensitive to change in environmental drivers where the drivers were limiting growth, where changes were particularly large or where changes acted in concert. The models disagreed as to which environmental changes were most significant for the geographical variation in forest growth and as to which tree species showed the largest rate of carbon sequestration. Pine and beech forests were found to

  19. Beech forests in the Ruhr and in the Westphalian Bight. A comparative study. Buchenwaelder im Ruhrgebiet und in der Westfaelischen Bucht. Eine vergleichende Untersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, R. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 16 - Biologie); Werner, W. (Trier Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 3 - Geographie/Geowissenschaften, Geschichte, Politikwissenschaft, Klassische Archaeologie, Aegyptologie, Kunstgeschichte, Papyrologie)

    1989-01-01

    The Ruhr district, one of the most industrialized and most densely populated regions of Germany, is part of the Westphalian Bight. The potential natural vegetation of the Ruhrgebiet are loess beech forests (Milio-Fagetum), which are also common in other parts of the Westphalian Bight. However, a comparison of the beech forests of the Ruhrgebiet with the Milio-Fagetum stands of other areas of the Westphalian Bight shows distinct differences in floristic composition of the herb layer as well as in C/N ratio and heavy metal contents of the upper 4 cm of the mineral soil. The differences can only be explained by the former long lasting immission load of the Ruhrdistrict. (orig.).

  20. A new approach in the monitoring of the phytosanitary conditions of forests: the case of oak and beech stands in the Sicilian Regional Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rizza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the health conditions of oak and beech stands in the three Regional Parks of Sicily (Etna, Madonie and Nebrodi. A total of 81 sampling areas were investigated, 54 in oak stands and 27 in beech stands. The phytosanitary conditions of each tree within the respective sampling area was expressed with a synthetic index namely phytosanitary class (PC. Oak stands showed severe symptoms of decline, with 85% of the sampling areas including symptomatic trees. In general, beech stands were in better condition, with the exception of Nebrodi Park, where trees showed severe symptoms of decline. On oak trees, infections of fungal pathogens were also observed, including Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Polyporus sp., Fistulina hepatica, Mycrosphaera alphitoides and Armillaria sp. By contrast, on beech trees Biscogniauxia nummularia, Fomes fomentarius and Neonectria radicicola were recognized. Furthermore, twenty-two permanent sampling areas were delimited with the aim of monitoring regularly the health conditions of forests in these three parks.

  1. Validation of PROBA-V GEOV1 and MODIS C5 & C6 fAPAR Products in a Deciduous Beech Forest Site in Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nestola, E.; Sanchez-Zapero, J.; Latorre, C.; Mazzenga, F.; Matteucci, G.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Camacho, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 126. ISSN 2072-4292 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : fAPAR * validation * PROBA-V GEOV1 * MODIS C5 * MODIS C6 * beech forest * up-scaling * GCOS requirements * in-situ comparison and evaluation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.244, year: 2016

  2. Hotspots of the European forests carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Thürig, E.; Heidema, N.; Armolaitis, K.; Biber, P.; Cieciala, E.; Kaufmann, E.; Mäkipää, R.; Nilsen, P.; Petritsch, R.; Pristova, T.; Rock, J.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Sievanen, R.; Somogyi, Z.; Vallet, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of a group discussion held at the Savonlinna meeting `Management of forest ecosystems and its impact on the GHG budget¿. The aim of this break-out group discussion was to `Characterize forest management impacts on the GHG budget of forest ecosystems in different European

  3. Increasing net CO2 uptake by a Danish beech forest during the period from 1996 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim; Ibrom, Andreas; Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The net CO2 exchange (NEE) was measured by the eddy covariance method. Ecosystem respiration (RE) was estimated from nighttime values and gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) was calculated as the sum of RE and NEE. Over the years the beech forest acted as a sink of on average of 157...... g C m−2 yr−1. In one of the years only, the forest acted as a small source. During 1996–2009 a significant increase in annual NEE was observed. A significant increase in GEE and a smaller and not significant increase in RE was also found. Thus the increased NEE was mainly attributed to an increase...... in GEE. The overall trend in NEE was significant with an average increase in uptake of 23 g C m−2 yr−2. The carbon uptake period (i.e. the period with daily net CO2 gain) increased by 1.9 days per year, whereas there was a non significant tendency of increase of the leafed period. This means...

  4. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  5. Can decision rules simulate carbon allocation for years with contrasting and extreme weather conditions? A case study for three temperate beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Verbeeck, Hans; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The allocation of carbohydrates to different tree processes and organs is crucial to understand the overall carbon (C) cycling rate in forest ecosystems. Decision rules (DR) (e.g. functional balances and source-sink relationships) are widely used to model C allocation in forests. However, standard...... allocation and wood growth at beech stands with contrasting climate and standing stock. However, the allocation model required high quality GPP input and errors (even modest) in GPP resulted in large errors in the growth of the tree organs lowest in the modelled sink hierarchy (woody organs). The ability...

  6. Comparison of leaf gas exchange and stable isotope signature of water-soluble compounds along canopy gradients of co-occurring Douglas-fir and European beech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögelein, Rebekka; Hassdenteufel, Martin; Thomas, Frank M; Werner, Willy

    2012-07-01

    Combined δ(13) C and δ(18) O analyses of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material were used to determine intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) and variability of stomatal conductance at different crown positions in adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees. Simultaneous gas exchange measurements allowed evaluation of the differences in calculating iWUE from leaf or phloem water-soluble compounds, and comparison with a semi-quantitative dual isotope model to infer variability of net photosynthesis (A(n) ) between the investigated crown positions. Estimates of iWUE from δ(13) C of leaf water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) outperformed the estimates from phloem compounds. In the beech crown, δ(13) C of leaf WSOM coincided clearly with gas exchange measurements. The relationship was not as reliable in the Douglas-fir. The differences in δ(18) O between leaf and phloem material were found to correlate with stomatal conductance. The semi-quantitative model approach was applicable for comparisons of daily average A(n) between different crown positions and trees. Intracanopy gradients were more pronounced in the beech than in the Douglas-fir, which reached higher values of iWUE at the respective positions, particularly under dry air conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Differences in the photosynthetic UV-B response between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šprtová, M.; Marek, M.V.; Urban, O.; Kalina, J.; Špunda, V.

    2008-01-01

    Cloned saplings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) (7 years old) were exposed to enhanced UV-B irradiation (+25%) continuously over three growing seasons (1999-2001). Selected parameters of variable chlorophyll alpha fluorescence and pigment composition were analysed in the late summer of the third growing season to evaluate the influence of long-term elevated UV-B irradiation on broadleaf and conifer tree species. To obtain information on the xanthophyll cycle, the de-epoxidation state (DEPS) was calculated. These tree species responded differentially to the long-term effects of enhanced UV-B radiation, Norway spruce was more sensitive compared to the European beech. The results show that in Norway spruce long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions caused negative changes at the level of primary photosynthetic reactions. Contrary to the beech, this had higher degree of UV-B protective responses. UV-B radiation is not effective stressor to its primary photosynthetic reaction

  8. Nematode communities of natural and managed beech forests - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Madsen, Mette Vestergård; Johansson, Sanne

    2002-01-01

    forests is discussed. We suggest dead wood input to be the driving variable leading to the observed differences in the nematode community between managed and natural forests of Zealand, Denmark. The marked site differences found in this study emphasizes the need to carefully choose reference areas where...

  9. Romanian legal management rules limit wood production in Norway spruce and beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouriaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The quantitative impact of forest management on forests’ wood resource was evaluated for Picea and Fagus mixed forests. The effects on the productivity of tendering operations, thinnings and rotation length have seldom been directly quantified on landscape scale. Methods Two sites of similar fertility but subject to contrasted forest management were studied with detailed inventories: one in Germany, the other in Romania, and compared with the respective national forest inventories. In Romania, regulations impose very long rotations, low thinnings and a period of no-cut before harvest. In contrast, tending and thinnings are frequent and intense in Germany. Harvests start much earlier and must avoid clear cutting but maintain a permanent forest cover with natural regeneration. While Germany has an average annual wood increment representative for Central Europe, Romania represents the average for Eastern Europe. Results The lack of tending and thinning in the Romanian site resulted in twice as many trees per hectare as in the German site for the same age. The productivity in Romanian production forests was 20 % lower than in Germany despite a similar fertility. The results were supported by the data from the national forest inventory of each country, which confirmed that the same differential exists at country scale. Furthermore, provided the difference in rotation length, two crops are harvested in Germany when only one is harvested in Romania. The losses of production due to a lower level of management in Romania where estimated to reach 12.8 million m3.y-1 in regular mountain production forests, and to 15 million m3.y-1 if managed protection forest is included. Conclusions The productivity of Picea and Fagus mountain forests in Romania is severely depressed by the lack of tending and thinning, by overly long rotations and the existence of a 25-years no-cut period prior to harvest. The average standing volume in Germany was 50

  10. Temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at seasonal and interannual time scales in a temperate beech forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Campioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of carbon (C taken up by the tree canopy for respiration and production of tree organs with different construction and maintenance costs, life span and decomposition rate, crucially affects the residence time of C in forests and their C cycling rate. The carbon-use efficiency, or ratio between net primary production (NPP and gross primary production (GPP, represents a convenient way to analyse the C allocation at the stand level. In this study, we extend the current knowledge on the NPP-GPP ratio in forests by assessing the temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at interannual (for 8 years and seasonal (for 1 year scales for a young temperate beech stand, reporting dynamics for both leaves and woody organs, in particular stems. NPP was determined with biometric methods/litter traps, whereas the GPP was estimated via the eddy covariance micrometeorological technique.

    The interannual variability of the proportion of C allocated to leaf NPP, wood NPP and leaf plus wood NPP (on average 11% yr−1, 29% yr−1 and 39% yr−1, respectively was significant among years with up to 12% yr−1 variation in NPP-GPP ratio. Studies focusing on the comparison of NPP-GPP ratio among forests and models using fixed allocation schemes should take into account the possibility of such relevant interannual variability. Multiple linear regressions indicated that the NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and wood significantly correlated with environmental conditions. Previous year drought and air temperature explained about half of the NPP-GPP variability of leaves and wood, respectively, whereas the NPP-GPP ratio was not decreased by severe drought, with large NPP-GPP ratio on 2003 due mainly to low GPP. During the period between early May and mid June, the majority of GPP was allocated to leaf and stem NPP, whereas these sinks were of little importance later on. Improved estimation of seasonal GPP and of the

  11. Assessment of CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Danish Beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest and an adjacent N-fertilised barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, J.M.; Prieme, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured regularly in an agricultural field treated with 280 g m(-2) of sewage sludge. In a nearby beech forest N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured in a well-drained (dry) area and in a wet area adjacent to a drainage canal. We observed brief increases of both CH4 and N2O...... and independent of drainage status. Methane oxidation was observed all-year round in the forest cumulating to -225 mg C m(-2) and -84 mg C m(-2) in dry and wet areas. In a model experiment with incubated soil cores, nitrogen amendment (NH4Cl) and perturbation significantly reduced CH4 oxidation in the forest soil...... sludge, respectively. Four months after the sludge applications a significant effect on CO2 and NO emissions was still obvious in the field, the latter perhaps due to elevated nitrification. Nitrous oxide emission in the beech forest was about six times smaller (45 mg N m(-2)) than in the field...

  12. Transformation of iron forms during pedogenesis after tree uprooting in a natural beech-dominated forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejnecký, V.; Šamonil, P.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Vašát, R.; Ash, C.; Drahota, P.; Šebek, O.; Němeček, K.; Drábek, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 132, SEP (2015), s. 12-20 ISSN 0341-8162 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Soil formation * Iron forms * Tree uprooting * Pit–mound microtopography * Cambisols * Old -growth temperate forest Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.612, year: 2015

  13. Use of microsatellite markers in an American beech (Fagus grandifolia) population and paternity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Koch; Dave Carey; M.E. Mason

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species amplification of six microsatellite markers from European beech (Fagus sylvatica Linn) and nine markers from Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) was tested in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Three microsatellites from each species were successfully adapted for use in American beech...

  14. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARZIEH BEGYOM-FAGHIR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haddadi-Moghaddam H, Begyom-Faghir M, Abedi T. 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 89-94.This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran province. Fifteen gaps in small, medium, and large sizes were randomly selected. Abundance of tree saplings, shrubs and herbaceous species were counted on 4 m2 micro-plots within the gaps. Diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur's N1, Hill's N2, species richness and Smith-Wilson’s evenness index were computed. The results revealed that there was significant difference among three gap categories in terms of diversity. The highest diversity values of tree and herbaceous species were obtained in the large gaps, while the highest diversity value of shrub species was in the medium gaps. Species composition of small gaps (28 species: 7 trees and 21 herbaceous, medium gaps (37 species: 7 trees, 5 shrubs and 25 herbaceous and large gaps (40 species: 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 29 herbaceous were recognized. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in order to maintain plant diversity and composition up to 400 m2 gap size cloud be used in this forests.

  15. Temperature responses of growth and wood anatomy in European beech saplings grown in different carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdieck, Dieter; Ziche, Daniel; Böttcher-Jungclaus, Kerstin

    2007-02-01

    Effects of temperature on growth and wood anatomy were studied in young European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) grown in 7-l pots for 2.5 years in field-phytotron chambers supplied with an ambient (approximately 400 micromol mol-1) or elevated (approximately 700 micromol mol-1) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]). Temperatures in the chambers ranged in increments of 2 degrees C from -4 degrees C to +4 degrees C relative to the long-term mean monthly (day and night) air temperature in Berlin-Dahlem. Soil was not fertilized and soil water and air humidity were kept constant. Data were evaluated by regression analysis. At final harvest, stem diameter was significantly greater at increased temperature (Delta1 degrees C: 2.4%), stems were taller (Delta1 degrees C: 8.5%) and stem mass tree-1 (Delta1 degrees C: 10.9%) and leaf area tree-1(Delta1 degrees C: 6.5%) were greater. Allocation pattern was slightly influenced by temperature: leaf mass ratio and leaf area ratio decreased with increasing temperature (Delta1 degrees C: 2.3% and 2.2% respectively), whereas stem mass/total mass increased (Delta1 degrees C: 2.1%). Elevated [CO2] enhanced height growth by 8.8% and decreased coarse root mass/total mass by 10.3% and root/shoot ratio by 11.7%. Additional carbon was mainly invested in aboveground growth. At final harvest a synergistic interaction between elevated [CO2] and temperature yielded trees that were 3.2% taller at -4 degrees C and 12.7% taller at +4 degrees C than trees in ambient [CO2]. After 2.5 seasons, cross-sectional area of the oldest stem part was approximately 32% greater in the +4 degrees C treatment than in the -4 degrees C treatment, and in the last year approximately 67% more leaf area/unit tree ring area was produced in the highest temperature regime compared with the lowest. Elevated [CO2] decreased mean vessel area of the 120 largest vessels per mm2 by 5.8%, causing a decrease in water conducting capacity. There was a positive interaction between

  16. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L., Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech, higher foliage longevity (fir or both (boreal pine forest. In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re

  17. Testing the applicability of BIOME-BGC to simulate beech gross primary production in Europe using a new continental weather dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiesi, Marta; Chirici, Gherardo; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily by spring temperature and more irregularly by summer water stress.The spread of beech forests in Europe...... forest ecosystems having different climatic conditions where the eddy covariance technique is used to measure water and carbon fluxes. The experiment is in three main steps. First, the accuracy of BIOME-BGC GPP simulations is assessed through comparison with flux observations. Second, the influence...... of two major meteorological drivers (spring minimum temperature and growing season dryness) on observed and simulated inter-annual GPP variations is analysed. Lastly, the impacts of two climate change scenarios on beech GPP are evaluated through statistical analyses of the ground data and model...

  18. Gap formation in Danish beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests of low management intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Vesterdal, Lars

    2006-01-01

    -based managed forest, soil solution was collected for 5 years and soil moisture measured in the fourth year after gap formation. Average NO3-N concentrations were significantly higher in the gaps (9.9 and 8.1 mg NO3-N l(-1), respectively) than under closed canopy (0.2 mg l(-1)). In the semi-natural forest......, measurements were carried out up to 29 months after gap formation. Average NO3-N concentrations in the gap were 19.3 mg NO3-N l(-1). Gap formation alone did not account for this high level, as concentrations were high also under closed canopy (average 12.4 mg NO3-N l(-1)). However, the gap had significantly...... higher N concentrations when trees were in full leaf, and NO3-N drainage losses were significantly increased in the gap. No losses occurred under closed canopy in growing seasons. Soil moisture was close to field capacity in all three gaps, but decreased under closed canopy in growing seasons...

  19. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, Maren, E-mail: maren.olbrich@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  20. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, Maren; Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Welzl, Gerhard; Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  1. Height increment of beech and maple depending on the amount of incident light in the Badin primeval forest; Vyskovy prirastok buka a javora v zavislosti od mnozstva dopadajuceho svetla v pralese Badin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havasova, M [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra regionalnej geografie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Processed study is devoted to a dependency of height increase of natural regeneration of beech and maple in Badin primeval forest . In selected site discontinuities there were chosen 2 tran-sects 1 m in width and oriented towards East - West and North - South, passing through the centre of the discontinuity. Heights of beech and maple individuals, as well as the rate of their annual increase (for 2010) were measured there. These data were then transformed to the values of reduced elevation gain. The amount of incident radiation was measured by hemispherical photographs, and we set the values of direct (DSF) and indirect sunlight (ISF). Globally, a negative effect of direct sunlight on the height growth of beech was shown. For height growth of maple no significant effect of different values of ISF or DFS was demonstrated, Justas well as no tran-sect orientation. Beech reached higher gains than maple. Overall bigger gains of the ground wood were achieved on the north side of the discontinuity. Height increment of beech and maple depending on the amount of incident light in the Badin primeval forest. (author)

  2. Biogeochemical cycle of boron in a forest ecosystem: the case study of Montiers beech-stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims at establishing and understanding the biogeochemical cycle of boron and its isotopes within a forest ecosystem. In that context, many questions remain concerning the dynamics of boron within terrestrial ecosystems: - What are the major sources of boron? - What type of transfer occurs between the compartments of the environment? - What mechanisms are controlling those transfers? In order to establish this biogeochemical cycle, we quantified the different stocks (vegetation, humus and soil) and fluxes (atmospheric dust and dissolved deposition, throughfall, stem-flows, litterfall and drainage) of boron in the study site of Montiers. The use of boron isotopes will give us insight concerning the mechanisms controlling the dynamics of boron. This thesis is divided in 4 main parts: 1. The first part aims at establishing a new method of extraction, purification and measurement of boron and its isotopes within vegetation samples. 2. The second part focuses on the sources and mechanisms controlling boron within atmospheric dust and dissolved deposition on the study site of Montiers. 3. The third part aims at establishing the stocks and fluxes of boron on two distinct soils: a rendisoil (basic pH) and an alocrisoil (acid pH). The goal is to determine the influence of different soil properties on boron dynamics within its biogeochemical cycle. 4. The last part aims at establishing a model of boron and boron isotopes dynamics in the soil plant system. This model is mainly based of the measurement made in 2012. (author) [fr

  3. Fungal community in sclerotia of Japanese Beech forest soils in north eastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathia Amasya, Anzilni; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Makiko

    2014-05-01

    Sclerotia are resting structures of ectomycorrhizal fungi and appear as a response to unfavorable environmental conditions such as desiccation. They are hard, black, comparatively smooth and mostly spherical. Sclerotia are formed in rhizosphere and the 14C ages of sclerotia from A horizons of volcanic ash soils may range from modern until ca. 100~1,200 yr B.P. Most sclerotia-forming fungal species are known to be host-specific plant pathogens and therefore their abundance may indicate the presence of their host plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate fungal communities in sclerotia with an interest in describing the existing or may have previously existed host plant community. To investigate fungal community inside of sclerotia by 16S rDNA gene clone library, several hundred of sclerotia (ca. 1g) were collected from Fagus crenata forest soil in north eastern Japan. The rDNA ITS regions were then amplified by the PCR using primer pair ITS-1F/ITS-4. Aliquots of the amplified DNA were digested with restriction endonucleases AluI, Hae III, and HhaI to obtain ITS-RFLPs. To obtain the fungal community profiles a quenching fluorescence primer was used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to monitor the PCR amplification and then used for T-RFLP. The predominant group determined by clone library analysis from the sclerotia was Ascomycota: Arthrinium arundinis, which has been reported to be one of the soil fungal species responsible for bamboo degradation and a pathogen for many species belonging to Poaceae family.

  4. Decomposition performance of animals as an indicator of stress acting on beech-forest ecosystems - microcosmos experiments with carbon-14-labelled litter components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.; Wolters, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid rain and heavy metals on the biotic interactions in the soil of beech forest with mull, must, and limed must was investigated with the aid of close-to-nature microcosmos systems. Parameters made use of were the decomposition of carbon-14-labelled litter components and the turnover of the microflora in C, N, and P. As the results show, increased proton uptake will bear on rearly every stage of the decomposition process in mull soils. As a result, there may be litter accumulation on the ground and first signs of humus disintegration in the mineral soil of mull soils. A direct relation between the acidity of the environment and the extent of decomposition inhibition does not exist. Despite wide-ranging impairment of edaphic animals, the activity of the ground fauna still is to be considered as the most important buffer system of soils rich in bases. Acidic condition of the beech forest soils with the humus form 'must' led to drastic inhibition of litter decomposition, to a change of the effect of edaphic animals, and to an increase in N mineralization. The grazing animals frequently aggravate the decomposition inhibition resulting from acid precipitation. The comparision of the decomposition process in a soil containing must as compared to one containing mull showed acidic soils to be on a lower biological buffer level than soils rich in bases. The main buffer capacity of acidic soils lies in the microflora, which is adapted to sudden increases in acidity and which recovers quickly. In the opinion of the authors, simple liming is not enough to increase the long-term biogenic stability of a forest ecosystem. A stabilizing effect of the fauna, for instance on nitrogen storage, is possible only if forest care measuries are carried out, for instance careful loosening of the mineral soil, which will attract earthworm species penetrating deeply into the soil. (orig./MG) With 12 refs., 6 figs [de

  5. Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of growth, non-structural carbohydrates and C stable isotopes in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartazza, Andrea; Moscatello, Stefano; Matteucci, Giorgio; Battistelli, Alberto; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of growth, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of NSC were studied in a beech forest of Central Italy over a 2-year period characterized by different environmental conditions. The net C assimilated by forest trees was mainly used to sustain growth early in the season and to accumulate storage carbohydrates in trunk and root wood in the later part of the season, before leaf shedding. Growth and NSC concentration dynamics were only slightly affected by the reduced soil water content (SWC) during the drier year. Conversely, the carbon isotope analysis on NSC revealed seasonal and inter-annual variations of photosynthetic and post-carboxylation fractionation processes, with a significant increase in δ(13)C of wood and leaf soluble sugars in the drier summer year than in the wetter one. The highly significant correlation between δ(13)C of leaf soluble sugars and SWC suggests a decrease of the canopy C isotope discrimination and, hence, an increased water-use efficiency with decreasing soil water availability. This may be a relevant trait for maintaining an acceptable plant water status and a relatively high C sink capacity during dry seasonal periods. Our results suggest a short- to medium-term homeostatic response of the Collelongo beech stand to variations in water availability and solar radiation, indicating that this Mediterranean forest was able to adjust carbon-water balance in order to prevent C depletion and to sustain plant growth and reserve accumulation during relatively dry seasons.

  6. Beech Bark Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Houston; James T. O' Brien

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease causes significant mortality and defect in American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.). The disease results when bark, attacked and altered by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., is invaded and killed by fungi, primarily Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers, and sometimes N. galligena Bres.

  7. Attitudes of ornamental trees and shrubs producers towards nursery production of ornamental beech cultivars in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is, along with its significance as a forest species, renowned as an ornamental species, due to its numerous cultivars. Ornamental beech cultivars are planted in various green spaces, but a small number of such trees have ascertained in Serbia. For the time being, production of beech cultivars is represented in a very small number of nurseries, with a negligible share of those seedlings in their total assortment. The aim of this research is to study the attitudes of ornamental trees and shrubs producers towards the nursery production of ornamental beech cultivars, and possibilities of its improvements in Serbia. “Door to door” survey and in-depth interviews were used as research techniques. Surveys with the representatives of 65 nurseries in Serbia (in the selected statistical region Šumadija and Western Serbia were conducted in the first stage of data collection. In the second stage of data collection were interviewed the representatives of the 10 nurseries who, during the survey, pointed out that they produce ornamental beech cultivars. Nurserymen’s attitudes suggest that there is a possibility to improve the production of ornamental beech cultivars in Serbia, with the appropriate support measures and increased interest of customers on the market, i.e. with the provision of subsidies for the production of seedlings and greater use of cultivars by utility companies in the cities of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ТP 31041: Establishment of forest plantations to increase the afforested areas in Serbia

  8. Certified reference materials - beech leaves and spruce needles - for the quality control in monitoring damage in forests by acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, E A; Griepink, B [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Community Bureau of Reference; Muntau, H [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    1989-12-01

    The chemical determination of various elements in leaves or needles allows to establish the damage caused by acid deposition. To control the quality of such determinations the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) produced two Certified Reference Materials: Beech leaves (CRM No. 100) and Spruce needles (CRM No. 101). After a careful preparation procedure, a homogeneity study and a long term stability study, the materials were certified for: Cl, N, P and S in CRM No. 100, Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, N, P, S and Zn in CRM No. 101. Indicative values on the content of 19 majors and trace elements are also reported. (orig.).

  9. Epiphytic lichens of Stužica (E Slovakia) in the context of Central European old-growth forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; Malíček, J.; Šoun, J.; Pouska, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2015), s. 104-126 ISSN 0018-0971 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : beech forest * diversity inventory * Sorensen's similarity index Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.821, year: 2015

  10. Temperature responses of growth and wood anatomy in European beech saplings grown in different carbon dioxide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overdieck, D.; Ziche, D.; Bottcher-Jungclaus, K.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between wood anatomical properties, growth, and mass allocation of well-watered beech saplings growing in different temperature and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) regimes. The study was conducted to test whether growth was enhanced by increasing temperature and CO 2 , as well as to determine whether the leaf area to stem cross-sectional area ratio, leaf mass ratio, and leaf area ratio declined with increasing temperature. The study also investigated the hypothesis that vessel member and size decreases with increasing temperature and CO 2 as well as the hypothesis that wood parenchyma content declines with increasing temperature and increases in response to elevated CO 2 . The beech saplings were grown in 7-1 pots for 2.5 years in field-phytotron chambers supplied with ambient or elevated CO 2 . Temperatures in the chambers ranged in increments of 2 degrees C. Soil was not fertilized and soil water and air humidity were kept constant. Data were evaluated by regression analysis. Results of the study showed that stem diameter was significantly larger at increased temperatures. In addition, stems were taller, and leaf area and stem mass were greater. The allocation pattern was influenced by temperature, as leaf mass ratio and leaf area ratio decreased with increasing temperature. Elevated CO 2 enhanced height growth by 8.8 per cent, and decreased coarse root mass and total mass by 10.3 per cent. The root/shoot ratio was decreased by 11.7 per cent. At final harvest, a synergistic interaction was observed between elevated CO 2 and temperature yielded trees that were 3.2 per cent taller at -4 degrees C, and 12.7 per cent taller at 4 degrees C than trees grown in ambient CO 2 . After 2.5 seasons, the cross-sectional area of the oldest stem part was approximately 32 per cent greater in the 4 degree C treatment than the -4 degree C treatment. In the final year, approximately 67 per cent more leaf area per unit tree ring area was produced in the

  11. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, Filip; Růžek, M.; Tahovská, K.; Bárta, J.; Myška, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 282. ISSN 1999-4907 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies * carbon * nitrogen * budget * respiration * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.951, year: 2016

  12. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirb., Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Denmark, The Netherlands and Finland, respectively. This was done in order to obtain information about functional acclimation, tree internal N conservation and its relevance for both ecosystem internal N cycling and foliar N exchange with the atmosphere. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal variability in beech trees than in the coniferous canopies. The concentrations of N and chlorophyll in the beech leaves were synchronized with the seasonal course of solar radiation implying close physiological acclimation, which was not observed in the coniferous needles. During phases of intensive N metabolism in the beech leaves, the NH4+ concentration rose considerably. This was compensated for by a strong pH decrease resulting in relatively low Γ values (ratio between tissue NH4+ and H+). The Γ values in the coniferous were even smaller than in beech, indicating low probability of NH3 emissions from the foliage to the atmosphere as an N conserving mechanism. The reduction in foliage N content during senescence was interpreted as N re-translocation from the senescing leaves into the rest of the trees. The N re-translocation efficiency (ηr) ranged from 37 to 70% and decreased with the time necessary for full renewal of the canopy foliage. Comparison with literature data from in total 23 tree species showed a general tendency for ηr to on average be reduced by 8% per year the canopy stays longer, i.e. with each additional year it takes for canopy renewal. The boreal pine site returned the lowest amount of N via foliage litter to the soil, while the temperate Douglas fir stand which had the largest peak canopy N content and the lowestηr returned the highest amount of N to the soil. These results

  13. Are optical indices good proxies of seasonal changes in carbon fluxes and stress-related physiological status in a beech forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, E; Scartazza, A; Di Baccio, D; Castagna, A; Ranieri, A; Cammarano, M; Mazzenga, F; Matteucci, G; Calfapietra, C

    2018-01-15

    This study investigates the functionality of a Mediterranean-mountain beech forest in Central Italy using simultaneous determinations of optical measurements, carbon (C) fluxes, leaf eco-physiological and biochemical traits during two growing seasons (2014-2015). Meteorological variables showed significant differences between the two growing seasons, highlighting a heat stress coupled with a reduced water availability in mid-summer 2015. As a result, a different C sink capacity of the forest was observed between the two years of study, due to the differences in stressful conditions and the related plant physiological status. Spectral indices related to vegetation (VIs, classified in structural, chlorophyll and carotenoid indices) were computed at top canopy level and used to track CO 2 fluxes and physiological changes. Optical indices related to structure (EVI 2, RDVI, DVI and MCARI 1) were found to better track Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) variations for 2014, while indices related to chlorophylls (SR red edge, CL red edge, MTCI and DR) provided better results for 2015. This suggests that when environmental conditions are not limiting for forest sink capacity, structural parameters are more strictly connected to C uptake, while under stress conditions indices related to functional features (e.g., chlorophyll content) become more relevant. Chlorophyll indices calculated with red edge bands (SR red edge, NDVI red edge, DR, CL red edge) resulted to be highly correlated with leaf nitrogen content (R 2 >0.70), while weaker, although significant, correlations were found with chlorophyll content. Carotenoid indices (PRI and PSRI) were strongly correlated with both chlorophylls and carotenoids content, suggesting that these indices are good proxies of the shifting pigment composition related to changes in soil moisture, heat stress and senescence. Our work suggests the importance of integrating different methods as a successful approach to understand how changing climatic

  14. The impact of Norway spruce planting on herb vegetation in the mountain beech forests on two bedrock types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máliš, František; Ujházy, K.; Vodálová, A.; Barka, I.; Čaboun, V.; Sitková, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 5 (2012), s. 1551-1569 ISSN 1612-4669 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : boreal forests * Bavarian Alps * temperate forests * soil * biodiversity * nitrogen mineralizaton Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.959, year: 2012

  15. Characteristics of organic matter fractions separated by wet-sieving and differences in density from five soils of different pedogenesis under mature beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormstein, Svendja; Kaiser, Michael; Ludwig, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    Forest top- and subsoil account for approximately 70 % of the organic C (OC) globally stored in soil reasoning their large importance for terrestrial ecosystem services such as the mitigation of climate change. In contrast to forest topsoil, there is much less information about the decomposition and stabilization of organic matter (OM) in subsoil. Therefore, we sampled the pedogenetic horizons of five soils under mature beech forest developed on different parent material (i.e. Tertiary Sand, Loess, Basalt, Lime Stone, Red Sandstone) down to the bedrock. The bulk soil samples were characterized for texture, oxalate and dithionite soluble Fe and Al, pH, OC, microbial biomass C and basal respiration (cumulative CO2 emission after 7 and 14 days). Furthermore, we analyzed aggregate size fractions separated by wet-sieving (i.e. >1000 µm, 1000-250 µm, 250-53 µm, soil horizon specific samples. The OC of the topsoil (Ah horizon) on Lime Stone and Red Sandstone was predominately stored in the larger macro-aggregates (>1000 µm). In contrast, the major part of the topsoil OC on Basalt and Tertiary Sand was found in the smaller macro-aggregates (1000-250 µm). For the topsoil samples, we found that the basal respiration as well as the microbial biomass C were positively correlated (p ≤0.05) with the OC amounts associated with the free and occluded light fraction and with the macro-aggregates (1000-250 µm) and micro-aggregates (250-53 µm) suggesting these fractions to store the major part of the easily decomposable OM. The OC amount associated with the heavy fraction and the fraction stabilization in forest topsoil. In the subsoil (horizons below the Ah), the contribution of the OC associated with the aggregate size fractions 53 µm were positively correlated with basal respiration and the microbial biomass C. This suggests, in contrast to the topsoil, the easily decomposable OM to be distributed more homogeneously among fractions. Only the OC content of the soil mineral

  16. Tests for attraction to prey and predator avoidance by chemical cues in spiders of the beech forest floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetter, Melissa B.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spiders leave draglines, faeces and other secretions behind when traveling through their microhabitat. The presence of these secretions may unintentionally inform other animals, prey as well as predators, about a recent and possible current predation risk or food availability. For a wolf spider, other spiders including smaller conspecifics, form a substantial part of their prey, and larger wolf spiders, again including conspecifics, are potential predators. We tested two hypotheses: that large wolf spiders may locate patches of potential spider prey through the presence of silk threads and/or other secretions; and that prey spiders may use secretions from large wolf spiders to avoid patches with high predation risk. We used large (subadult or adult Pardosa saltans to provide predator cues and mixed dwarf spiders or small (juvenile P. saltans to provide prey cues. Subadult wolf spiders were significantly attracted to litter contaminated by dwarf spiders or small conspecifics after 6 hours but no longer after 24 hours. In contrast, neither dwarf spiders nor small P. saltans showed significant avoidance of substrate contaminated by adult P. saltans. However, small P. saltans showed different activity patterns on the two substrates. The results indicate that wolf spiders are able to increase the efficiency of foraging by searching preferentially in patches with the presence of intraguild prey. The lack of a clear patch selection response of the prey in spite of a modified activity pattern may possibly be associated with the vertical stratification of the beech litter habitat: the reduced volume of spaces in the deeper layers could make downward rather than horizontal movement a fast and safe tactic against a large predator that cannot enter these spaces.

  17. Combining stable isotope and carbohydrate analyses in phloem sap and fine roots to study seasonal changes of source-sink relationships in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartazza, Andrea; Moscatello, Stefano; Matteucci, Giorgio; Battistelli, Alberto; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    Carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) and carbohydrate content of phloem sap and fine roots were measured in a Mediterranean beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest throughout the growing season to study seasonal changes of source-sink relationships. Seasonal variations of δ(13)C and content of phloem sap sugars, collected during the daylight period, reflected the changes in soil and plant water status. The correlation between δ(13)C and content of phloem sap sugars, collected from plants belonging to different social classes, was significantly positive only during the driest month of July. In this month, δ(13)C of phloem sap sugars was inversely related to the increment of trunk radial growth and positively related to δ(13)C of fine roots. We conclude that the relationship between δ(13)C and the amount of phloem sap sugars is affected by a combination of causes, such as sink strength, tree social class, changes in phloem anatomy and transport capacity, and phloem loading of sugars to restore sieve tube turgor following the reduced plant water potential under drought conditions. However, δ(13)C and sugar composition of fine roots suggested that phloem transport of leaf sucrose to this belowground component was not impaired by mild drought and that sucrose was in a large part allocated towards fine roots in July, depending on tree social class. Hence, fine roots could represent a functional carbon sink during the dry seasonal periods, when transport and use of assimilates in other sink tissues are reduced. These results indicate a strict link between above- and belowground processes and highlight a rapid response of this Mediterranean forest to changes in environmental drivers to regulate source-sink relationships and carbon sink capacity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Production of dissolved organic carbon in forest soils along the north-south European transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, F.; Paces, T.; Jackova, I.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the C loss from forest soils due to the production of dissolved organic C (DOC) along a north-south European transect. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from the forest soils incubated at a controlled temperature and water content. Soils were sampled from forest plots from Sweden to Italy. The plots represent monocultures of spruce, pine and beech and three selected chronosequences of spruce and beech spanning a range of mean annual temperature from 2 to 14 deg. C. The DOM was characterized by its DOC/DON ratio and the C isotope composition δ 13 C. The DOC/DON ratio of DOM varied from 25 to 15 after 16 days of incubation and it decreased to between 16 and 10 after 126 days. At the beginning of incubation the δ 13 C values of DOC were 1 per mille or 2 per mille less negative than incubated soils. At the end of the experiment δ 13 C of DOC were the same as soil values. In addition to DOC production heterotrophic respiration and N mineralization were measured on the incubated soils. The DON production rates decreased from 30 to 5 μgN gC -1 d -1 after 16 days of incubation to constant values from 5 to 2 μgN gC -1 d -1 after 126 days at the end of experiment. The DIN production rates were nearly constant during the experiments with values ranging from 20 to 4 μgN gC -1 d -1 . DOC production followed first-order reaction kinetics and heterotrophic respiration followed zero-order reaction kinetics. Kinetic analysis of the experimental data yielded mean annual DOC and respiration productions with respect to sites. Mean annual estimates of DOC flux varied from 3 to 29 g of C m -2 (1-19 mg C g -1 of available C), corresponding to mean DOC concentrations from 2 to 85 mg C L -1 .

  19. Hypoxylon species on beech and other broadleaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genus Hypoxylon cause wood decay and most of them are saprophytes on dead wood or parasites of weakness. The following species in this genus were identified in this study performed at several localities in Serbia and Montenegro: H. deustum, H. fragiforme, H. nummularium, H. multiforme, H. rubiginosum and H. fuscum. Among them the most significant species is H. deustum, the fungus causing root and butt rot of standing beech trees. It was recorded from all coppice and high forests of beech. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the recorded fungi their range, plant hosts and significance.

  20. Temporal changes in the climate sensitivity of Norway spruce andEuropean beech along an elevation gradient in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Tomáš; Čermák, P.; Trnka, Miroslav; Žid, T.; Rybníček, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 239 (2017), s. 24-33 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) EHP-CZ02-0V-1-066-01-2014 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : czech republic * drought * fagus sylvatica * picea abies * temperature * tree-ring width chronology Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  1. A 3-year continuous record of nitrogen trace gas fluxes from untreated and limed soil of a N-saturated spruce and beech forest ecosystem in Germany: 1. N2O emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papen, Hans; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    1999-08-01

    For 3 years we followed the complete annual cycles of N2O emission rates with 2-hour resolution in spruce and beech plantations of the Höglwald Forest, Bavaria, Germany, in order to gain detailed information about seasonal and interannual variations of N2O emissions. In addition, microbiological process studies were performed for identification of differences in N turnover rates in the soil of a spruce and a beech site and for estimation of the contribution of nitrification and denitrification to the actual N2O emission. Both pronounced seasonal and extreme interannual variations of N2O emissions were identified. During long-term frost periods, while the soil was frozen, and during soil thawing, extremely high N2O emissions occurred, contributing up to 73% to the total annual N2O loss. The enormous N2O releases during the long-term frost period were due to high microbial N turnover rates (tight coupling of ammonification, nitrification, denitrification) in small unfrozen water films of the frozen soil at high concentrations of easily degradable substrates derived from the enormous pool of dead microbial biomass produced during the long-term frost period. Liming of a spruce site resulted in a significant increase in ammonification, nitrification, and N2O emissions as compared with an untreated spruce control site. The beech control site exhibited 4-5 times higher N2O emissions than the spruce control site, indicating that forest type itself is an important modulator of N2O release from soil. At all sites, nitrification contributed ˜70% to the N2O flux, whereas denitrification contributed markedly less (˜30%). There was a significant positive correlation between amount of in situ N input by wet deposition and magnitude of in situ N2O emissions. At the beech site, 10% of the actual N input was released from the soil in form of N2O, whereas at the spruce site the fraction was 0.5%. N2O emission rates were positively correlated with net nitrification rates. The

  2. Differences in top-soil features between beech-mixture and Norway spruce forests of the Šumava Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, K.; Starý, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 12 (2009), s. 540-555 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/1200 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : ash content * Bohemia Forest * element content (P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al) Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Timely salvage can reduce losses from beech scale-Nectria attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Crosby; J. C. Bjorkbom

    1958-01-01

    Beech is one of our more common hardwoods. It is an important component of the northern hardwood forest type, which occupies about 29 percent of the commercial forest land in the New England and Middle Atlantic States. In terms of total sawtimber volume, beech follows close on sugar maple, red oak, and yellow birch. It is used for a variety of products such as...

  4. Drivers of earthworm incidence and abundance across European forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandeler, Hans De; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Ampoorter, Evy

    2016-01-01

    Earthworms have a significant influence on the structure, composition and functioning of forest ecosystems, but in spite of their role as ecosystem engineers, little is known on the factors controlling their distribution across European forests. Optimised sampling techniques, as well as more adva...

  5. Plant effects on soil carbon storage and turnover in montane beech (Nothofagus) forest and adjacent tussock grassland in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, K.R.; Scott, N.A.; Ross, D.J.; Parshotam, A.; Claydon, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Land cover is a critical factor that influences, and is influenced by, atmospheric chemistry and potential climate changes. As considerable uncertainty exists about the effects of differences in land cover on below-ground carbon (C) storage, we have compared soil C contents and turnover at adjacent, unmanaged, indigenous forest (Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortiodes) and grassland (Chionochloa pallens) sites near the timberline in the same climo-edaphic environment in Craigieburn Forest Park, Canterbury, New Zealand. Total soil profile C was 13% higher in the grassland than in the forest ( 19.9 v. 16.7 kg/m 2 ), and based on bomb 14 C measurements, the differences mainly resulted from more recalcitrant soil C in the grassland (5.3 v. 3.0 kg/m 2 ). Estimated annual net primary production was about 0.4 kg C/m 2 for the forest and 0.5 kg C/m 2 for the grassland; estimated annual root production was about 0.2 and 0.4 kg C/m 2 , respectively. In situ soil surface CO 2 -C production was similar in the grassland and the forest. The accumulation of recalcitrant soil C was unrelated to differences in mineral weathering or soil texture, but was apparently enhanced by greater soil water retention in the grassland ecosystem. Thus, contrary to model (ROTHC) predictions, this soil C fraction could be expected to respond to the effects of climate change on precipitation patterns. Overall, our results suggest that the different patterns of soil C accumulation in these ecosystems have resulted from differences in plant C inputs, soil aluminium, and soil physical characteristics, rather than from differences in soil mineral weathering or texture. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia

  6. Future of Beech in Southeast Europe from the Perspective of Evolutionary Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁTYÁS, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide quantitative information on the effect of climaticchange on the growth and vitality of European beech: although the species is considered in itsoptimum highly plastic and adaptable, it becomes climate-sensitive closer to its xeric (lowerdistribution limits. The future of beech in Southeast Europe requires special attention because thisregion harbours significant populations living at or near their xeric distribution boundary. Even thoughthe low elevation occurrences are uniquely vulnerable to climatic shifts, observations and modellingstudies pertaining to this region are particularly scarce.Out of climatic factors determining the xeric distributional limits for beech, Ellenberg’s droughtindex (EQ appeared as the most influential. Growth response analyses in comparative tests haveconfirmed the existence of macroclimatic adaptation of beech and have proven that warming and morearid conditions lead to decline of growth and vitality, while no decline was observed if EQ changed inthe opposite direction. The response to weather extremes was investigated in field plots. Recurrentsummer droughts of 3 to 4 consecutive years, above mean EQ value 40-42 resulted in pest and diseaseattacks and mass mortality.The discussed approaches indicate consistently a high level of uncertainty regarding the future ofbeech at the xeric limit in Southeast Europe. According to field observations and bioclimatic data inHungary, a large part of low-elevation beech forests presently in the zone of EQ index 20 might bethreatened by the warming in the second half of the century, while higher-elevation occurrences mayremain stable.The interpretation of the results bears some stipulations, such as the consequence of ecologicaland human interactions in influencing present distribution patterns, the unclear role of persistence,natural selection and plasticity and uncertainties of climate projections. Grim projections mayprobably be partly

  7. Mixing Effects in Norway Spruce—European Beech Stands Are Modulated by Site Quality, Stand Age and Moisture Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Houpert

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although mixing tree species is considered an efficient risk-reduction strategy in the face of climate change, the conditions where mixtures are more productive than monocultures are under ongoing debate. Generalizations have been difficult because of the variety of methods used and due to contradictory findings regarding the effects of the species investigated, mixing proportions, and many site and stand conditions. Using data from 960 plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory data, we assessed whether Picea abies (L. Karst–Fagus sylvatica L. mixed stands are more productive than pure stands, and whether the mixing effect depends on site- or stand-characteristics. The species proportions were estimated using species proportion by area, which depends on the maximum stand basal area of an unmanaged stand (BAmax. Four different alternatives were used to estimate BAmax and to investigate the effect of these differing alternatives on the estimated mixture effect. On average, the mixture had a negative effect on the growth of Picea abies. However, this effect decreased as moisture availability increased. Fagus sylvatica grew better in mixtures and this effect increased with site quality. A significant interaction between species proportions and quadratic mean diameter, a proxy for stand age, was found for both species: the older the stand, the better the growth of Fagus sylvatica and the lower the growth of Picea abies. Overyielding was predicted for 80% of the investigated sites. The alternative to estimate BAmax weakly modulated the estimated mixture effect, but it did not affect the way mixing effects changed with site characteristics.

  8. European Mixed Forests: definition and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Bravo-Oviedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We aim at (i developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii review the research perspectives in mixed forests.Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide.Material and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests.Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients. The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time.The research perspectives identified are (i species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii the concept of maximum density in mixed forests, (iii conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests.Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields of research indicate that gradient studies, experimental design approaches, and model simulations are key topics providing new research opportunities.Keywords: COST Action; EuMIXFOR; mixed-species forests; admixtures of species.

  9. Modelling and economic evaluation of forest biome shifts under climate change in Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Hanewinkel; Susan Hummel; Dominik. Cullmann

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the economic effects of a predicted shift from Norway spruce (Picea abies) to European beech (Fagus sylvatica) for a forest area of 1.3 million ha in southwest Germany. The shift was modelled with a generalized linear model (GLM) by using presence/absence data from the National Forest Inventory in Baden-Wurttemberg...

  10. Climate limits across space and time on European forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A. L. S.; Neumann, M.; Hasenauer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The impact climate has on forests has been extensively studied. However, the large scale effect climate has on forest structures, such as average diameters, heights and basal area are understudied in a spatially explicit manner. The limits, tipping points and thresholds that climate places on forest structures dictate the services a forest may provide, the vulnerability of a forest to mortality and the potential value of the timber there within. The majority of current research either investigates climate impacts on forest pools and fluxes, on a tree physiological scale or on case studies that are used to extrapolate results and potential impacts. A spatially explicit study on how climate affects forest structure over a large region would give valuable information to stakeholders who are more concerned with ecosystem services that cannot be described by pools and fluxes but require spatially explicit information - such as biodiversity, habitat suitability, and market values. In this study, we quantified the limits that climate (maximum, minimum temperature and precipitation) places on 3 forest structures, diameter at breast height, height, and basal area throughout Europe. Our results show clear climatic zones of high and low upper limits for each forest structure variable studied. We also spatially analyzed how climate restricts the potential bio-physical upper limits and creates tipping points of each forest structure variable and which climate factors are most limiting. Further, we demonstrated how the climate change has affected 8 individual forests across Europe and then the continent as a whole. We find that diameter, height and basal area are limited by climate in different ways and that areas may have high upper limits in one structure and low upper limits in another limitted by different climate variables. We also found that even though individual forests may have increased their potential upper limit forest structure values, European forests as a whole

  11. Protecting the forests while allowing removal of damaged trees may imperil saproxylic insect biodiversity in the Hyrcanian Beech Forests of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Jörg; Thorn Simon; Baier Roland; Sagheb-Talebi Khosro; Barimani Hassan V.; Seibold Sebastian; Michael D. Ulyshen; Gossner Martin M.

    2015-01-01

    The 1.8 million ha of forest south of the Caspian Sea represent a remarkably intact ecosystem with numerous old-growth features and unique species assemblages. To protect these forests, Iranian authorities recently passed a law which protects healthy trees but permits the removal of injured, dying and dead trees. To quantify the biodiversity effects of this strategy,...

  12. Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Meyfroidt, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Buergi, M.; Chen, Y.; Erb, K.; Gimmi, U.; McInerney, D.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Pasztor, F.; Ryder, J.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Valade, A.

    2015-04-01

    European forest use for fuel, timber and food dates back to pre-Roman times. Century-scale ecological processes and their legacy effects require accounting for forest management when studying today's forest carbon sink. Forest management reconstructions that are used to drive land surface models are one way to quantify the impact of both historical and today's large scale application of forest management on today's forest-related carbon sink and surface climate. In this study we reconstruct European forest management from 1600 to 2010 making use of diverse approaches, data sources and assumptions. Between 1600 and 1828, a demand-supply approach was used in which wood supply was reconstructed based on estimates of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. For the same period demand estimates accounted for the fuelwood needed in households, wood used in food processing, charcoal used in metal smelting and salt production, timber for construction and population estimates. Comparing estimated demand and supply resulted in a spatially explicit reconstruction of the share of forests under coppice, high stand management and forest left unmanaged. For the reconstruction between 1829 and 2010 a supply-driven back-casting method was used. The method used age reconstructions from the years 1950 to 2010 as its starting point. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2), (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest, (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management, (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high stand management, and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking which at its peak in 1853 removed 50 Tg dry litter per year.

  13. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic O3 exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respira...

  14. Sources of nitrous oxide emitted from European forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    Forest ecosystems may provide strong sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is important for atmospheric chemical and radiative properties. Nonetheless, our understanding of controls on forest N2O emissions is insufficient to narrow current flux estimates, which still are associated with great...... uncertainties. In this study, we have investigated the quantitative and qualitative relationships between N-cycling and N2O production in European forests in order to evaluate the importance of nitrification and denitrification for N2O production. Soil samples were collected in 11 different sites characterized...... by variable climatic regimes and forest types. Soil N-cycling and associated production of N2O was assessed following application of 15N-labeled nitrogen. The N2O emission varied significantly among the different forest soils, and was inversely correlated to the soil C: N ratio. The N2O emissions were...

  15. How Biotic Differentiation of Human Impacted Nutrient Poor Deciduous Forests Can Affect the Preservation Status of Mountain Forest Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Durak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant loss of biodiversity resulting from human activity has caused biotic homogenisation to become the dominant process shaping forest communities. In this paper, we present a rare case of biotic differentiation in European temperate deciduous forest herb layer vegetation. The process is occurring in nutrient poor oak-hornbeam forests in mountain areas (Polish Eastern Carpathians, Central Europe where non-timber use was converted into conventional forest management practice. This change contributed to increases in the nitrogen content and pH reaction of the soil that, contrary to predominant beliefs on the negative impact of habitat eutrophication on diversity, did not result in a decrease in the latter. We discuss possible reasons for this phenomenon that indicate the important role of tree stand composition (an increasing admixture of beech worsening the trophic properties of the soil. The second issue considered involves the effect of the changes in herb species composition of oak-hornbeam forest on its distinctiveness from the beech forest predominating in the Polish Eastern Carpathians. Unfortunately, despite the increase in the species compositional dissimilarity of oak-hornbeam forest, a reduction in their distinctiveness in relation to the herb species composition of beech forest was found. Such a phenomenon is an effect of the major fragmentation of oak-hornbeam forests, a spread of beech forest-type species, and forest management that gives preference to beech trees. Consequently, it can be expected that changes occurring in oak-hornbeam forest vegetation will contribute to a decrease in the forest vegetation variability at the regional scale.

  16. Examination of forest products trade between Turkey and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of getting in the foreign trade forms one of the basic stones of economic development for countries. The current and potential trading volume among countries and determining the main factors affecting trade are quite important. The trade currents of the European Union (EU) countries and Turkey in the forest ...

  17. Forest resource projection tools at the European level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Verkerk, P.J.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Packalen, Tuula; Sallnäs, O.; Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, J.; Forsell, Nicklas; Frank, S.; Gusti, Mykola; Havlik, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have developed their own systems for projecting forest resources and wood availability. Although studies using these tools are helpful for developing national policies, they do not provide a consistent assessment for larger regions such as the European Union or Europe as a whole.

  18. Managing carbon sinks by changing rotation length in European forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaipainen, Terhi; Liski, Jari; Pussinen, Ari; Karjalainen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    Elongation of rotation length is a forest management activity countries may choose to apply under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol to help them meet their commitments for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We used the CO2FIX model to analyze how the carbon stocks of trees, soil and wood products depend on rotation length in different European forests. Results predicted that the carbon stock of trees increased in each forest when rotation length was increased, but the carbon stock of soil decreased slightly in German and Finnish Scots pine forests; the carbon stock of wood products also decreased slightly in cases other than the Sitka spruce forest in UK. To estimate the efficiency of increasing rotation length as an Article 3.4 activity, we looked at changes in the carbon stock of trees resulting from a 20-year increase in current rotation lengths. To achieve the largest eligible carbon sink mentioned in Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol, the rotation lengths need to be increased on areas varying from 0.3 to 5.1 Mha depending on the forest. This would in some forests cause 1-6% declines in harvesting possibilities. The possible decreases in the carbon stock of soil indicate that reporting the changes in the carbon stocks of forests under Article 3.4 may require measuring soil carbon

  19. EUFODOS: European Forest Downstream Services - Improved Information on Forest Structure and Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmugl, M.; Gallaun, H.; Wack, R.; Granica, K.; Schardt, M.

    2013-05-01

    Forests play a key role in the European economy and environment. This role incorporates ecological functions which can be affected by the occurrence of insect infestations, forest fire, heavy snowfall or windfall events. Local or Regional Authorities (LRAs) thus require detailed information on the degradation status of their forests to be able to take appropriate measures for their forest management plans. In the EUFODOS project, state-of-the-art satellite and laser scanning technologies are used to provide forest authorities with cost-effective and comprehensive information on forest structure and damage. One of the six test sites is located in the Austrian province of Styria where regional forest authorities have expressed a strong need for detailed forest parameters in protective forest. As airborne laser-scanning data is available, it will be utilized to derive detailed forest parameters such as the upper forest border line, tree height, growth classes, forest density, vertical structure or volume. At the current project status, the results of (i) the forest border line, (ii) the segmentation of forest stands and (iii) the tree top detection are available and presented including accuracy assessment and interim results are shown for timber volume estimations. The final results show that the forest border can be mapped operationally with an overall accuracy of almost 99% from LiDAR data. For the segmentation of forest stands, a comparison of the automatically derived result with visual-manual delineation showed in general a more detailed segmentation result, but for all visual-manual segments a congruence of 87% within a 4 m buffer. Tree top detections were compared to stem numbers estimated based on angle-count samplings in a field campaign, which led to a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.79.

  20. EUFODOS: European Forest Downstream Services – Improved Information on Forest Structure and Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hirschmugl

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests play a key role in the European economy and environment. This role incorporates ecological functions which can be affected by the occurrence of insect infestations, forest fire, heavy snowfall or windfall events. Local or Regional Authorities (LRAs thus require detailed information on the degradation status of their forests to be able to take appropriate measures for their forest management plans. In the EUFODOS project, state-of-the-art satellite and laser scanning technologies are used to provide forest authorities with cost-effective and comprehensive information on forest structure and damage. One of the six test sites is located in the Austrian province of Styria where regional forest authorities have expressed a strong need for detailed forest parameters in protective forest. As airborne laser-scanning data is available, it will be utilized to derive detailed forest parameters such as the upper forest border line, tree height, growth classes, forest density, vertical structure or volume. At the current project status, the results of (i the forest border line, (ii the segmentation of forest stands and (iii the tree top detection are available and presented including accuracy assessment and interim results are shown for timber volume estimations. The final results show that the forest border can be mapped operationally with an overall accuracy of almost 99% from LiDAR data. For the segmentation of forest stands, a comparison of the automatically derived result with visual-manual delineation showed in general a more detailed segmentation result, but for all visual-manual segments a congruence of 87% within a 4 m buffer. Tree top detections were compared to stem numbers estimated based on angle-count samplings in a field campaign, which led to a correlation coefficient (R of 0.79.

  1. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, Maren; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Gerstner, Elke; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Matyssek, Rainer; Stich, Susanne; Leuchner, Michael; Werner, Herbert; Schlink, Katja; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard; Welzl, Gerhard; Scherb, Hagen; Ernst, Dieter; Heller, Werner; Bahnweg, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  2. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, Maren; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Gerstner, Elke [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Matyssek, Rainer [Forest Botany, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Stich, Susanne [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Leuchner, Michael; Werner, Herbert [Bioclimatology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schlink, Katja; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard [Section of Forest Genetics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Scherb, Hagen [Institute of Biomathematics and Biometry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ernst, Dieter; Heller, Werner [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bahnweg, Guenther, E-mail: bahnweg@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  3. Selective bark-stripping of beech, Fagus sylvatica, by free-ranging horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Sluijs, van der L.A.M.; Wytema, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and intensity of bark-stripping by horses was surveyed in stands and tree lanes of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Veluwezoom National Park, by using transects. Damage was apparent on 38% of beech trees, and 11% were seriously damaged (score 3 or more). Susceptibility to

  4. Wood and bark anatomy of young beech in relation to Cryptococcus attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Lonsdale

    1983-01-01

    Within a sample of European beech, partial resistance to attack by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga, was associated with a smooth bark which had a regular, vertical pattern in its surface 'growth lines'. Such bark contained relatively little lignified outer parenchyma, and the main stone cell layer was strongly developed. The '...

  5. Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Meyfroidt, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Bürgi, M.; Chen, Y.; Erb, K.; Gimmi, U.; McInerney, D.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Pasztor, F.; Ryder, J.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Valade, A.

    2015-07-01

    Because of the slow accumulation and long residence time of carbon in biomass and soils, the present state and future dynamics of temperate forests are influenced by management that took place centuries to millennia ago. Humans have exploited the forests of Europe for fuel, construction materials and fodder for the entire Holocene. In recent centuries, economic and demographic trends led to increases in both forest area and management intensity across much of Europe. In order to quantify the effects of these changes in forests and to provide a baseline for studies on future land-cover-climate interactions and biogeochemical cycling, we created a temporally and spatially resolved reconstruction of European forest management from 1600 to 2010. For the period 1600-1828, we took a supply-demand approach, in which supply was estimated on the basis of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. We made demand estimates by multiplying population with consumption factors for construction materials, household fuelwood, industrial food processing and brewing, metallurgy, and salt production. For the period 1829-2010, we used a supply-driven backcasting method based on national and regional statistics of forest age structure from the second half of the 20th century. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2); (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest; (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management; (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high-stand management; and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking, which at its peak in 1853 resulted in the removal of 50 Tg dry litter per year.

  6. Assessment of a relaxed eddy accumulation for measurements of fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds: Study over arable crops and a mature beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, M.W.; Clayborough, R.; Beswick, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system, based on the design by Beverland et al. (Journal of Geophysics Research 101 (D17) 22, 807-22, 815), for the measurement of biogenic VOC species was evaluated by intercomparison with an eddy correlation CO2 flux system over a mature deciduous beech canopy...... (Fagus Sylvatica) during the FOREXNOX program. Measurements from a site where winter wheat and barley (Hordeum Vulgare ann Triticum Aestivum) were being harvested are also presented. The system was inter-compared with two different eddy correlation systems for measuring CO2 fluxes. Good results were...

  7. Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Bathgate, Stephen; Blennow, Kristina; Borges, Jose G.; Bugmann, Harald; Delzon, Sylvain; Faias, Sonia P.; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Gardiner, Barry; Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon; Gracia, Carlos; Guerra Hernández, Juan; Kellomäki, Seppo; Kramer, Koen; Lexer, Manfred J.; Lindner, Marcus; van der Maaten, Ernst; Maroschek, Michael; Muys, Bart; Nicoll, Bruce; Palahi, Marc; Palma, João HN; Paulo, Joana A.; Peltola, Heli; Pukkala, Timo; Rammer, Werner; Ray, Duncan; Sabaté, Santiago; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Seidl, Rupert; Temperli, Christian; Tomé, Margarida; Yousefpour, Rasoul; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures.

  8. Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Christopher P O; Bathgate, Stephen; Blennow, Kristina; Borges, Jose G; Bugmann, Harald; Delzon, Sylvain; Faias, Sonia P; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Gardiner, Barry; Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon; Gracia, Carlos; Hernández, Juan Guerra; Kellomäki, Seppo; Kramer, Koen; Lexer, Manfred J; Lindner, Marcus; van der Maaten, Ernst; Maroschek, Michael; Muys, Bart; Nicoll, Bruce; Palahi, Marc; Palma, João HN; Paulo, Joana A; Peltola, Heli; Pukkala, Timo; Rammer, Werner; Ray, Duncan; Sabaté, Santiago; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Seidl, Rupert; Temperli, Christian; Tomé, Margarida; Yousefpour, Rasoul; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures. PMID:28855959

  9. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant) and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible) trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early

  10. Forest report 2013; Waldzustandsbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.

  11. Green electricity externalities: Forest biomass in an Atlantic European Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solino, M.; Prada, A.; Vazquez, M.X.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are expected to represent a growing proportion of the primary energy sources for the production of electricity. Environmental and social reasons support this tendency. European and Spanish energy plans assign a role of primary importance to biomass in general and, especially, to forest biomass for the period up to 2010. This paper reviews, organises and quantifies the potentials and values of this renewable resource in the foremost Spanish Region in terms of silviculture. The non-market externalities (environmental, economic and social) are classified, and some of them are quantified to present a synthesis of the benefits of a partial substitution of fossil fuels by forest biomass for electricity generation. (author)

  12. Sources of nitrous oxide emitted from European forest soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ambus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems may provide strong sources of nitrous oxide (N2O, which is important for atmospheric chemical and radiative properties. Nonetheless, our understanding of controls on forest N2O emissions is insufficient to narrow current flux estimates, which still are associated with great uncertainties. In this study, we have investigated the quantitative and qualitative relationships between N-cycling and N2O production in European forests in order to evaluate the importance of nitrification and denitrification for N2O production. Soil samples were collected in 11 different sites characterized by variable climatic regimes and forest types. Soil N-cycling and associated production of N2O was assessed following application of 15N-labeled nitrogen. The N2O emission varied significantly among the different forest soils, and was inversely correlated to the soil C:N ratio. The N2O emissions were significantly higher from the deciduous soils (13 ng N2O-N cm-3 d-1 than from the coniferous soils (4 ng N2O-N cm-3 d-1. Nitrate (NO3- was the dominant substrate for N2O with an average contribution of 62% and exceeding 50% at least once for all sites. The average contribution of ammonium (NH4+ to N2O averaged 34%. The N2O emissions were correlated with gross nitrification activities, and as for N2O, gross nitrification was also higher in deciduous soils (3.4 µg N cm-3 d-1 than in coniferous soils (1.1 µg N cm-3 d-1. The ratio between N2O production and gross nitrification averaged 0.67% (deciduous and 0.44% (coniferous. Our study suggests that changes in forest composition in response to land use activities and global change may have implications for regional budgets of greenhouse gases. From the study it also became clear that N2O emissions were driven by the nitrification activity, although the N2O was produced per se mainly from denitrification. Increased nitrification in response to accelerated N inputs predicted for forest ecosystems in Europe may

  13. Regional factors rather than forest type drive the community structure of soil living oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.

  14. Nonstructural carbohydrate-balance response to long-term elevated CO2 exposure in European beech and Norway spruce mixed cultures: biochemical and ultrastructural responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašková, P.; Radochová, Barbora; Lhotáková, Z.; Michálek, Jan; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2017), s. 1498-1494 ISSN 0045-5067 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chloroplast ultrastructure * CO2 enrichment * forest trees * soluble carbohydrates * starch Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 1.827, year: 2016

  15. Growth and yield of mixed versus pure stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) analysed along a productivity gradient through Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretzsch, H.; Ammer, C.; Barbeito, I.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.; Verheyen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Mixing of complementary tree species may increase stand productivity, mitigate the effects of drought and other risks, and pave the way to forest production systems which may be more resource-use efficient and stable in the face of climate change. However, systematic empirical studies on mixing

  16. Effects of stand composition and thinning in mixed-species forests : a modeling approach applied to Douglas-fir and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Models estimating growth and yield of forest stands provide important tools for forest management. Pure stands have been modeled extensively and successfully for decades; however, relatively few models for mixed-species stands have been developed. A spatially explicit, mechanistic model (COMMIX) is

  17. Assessment of beech scale resistance in full- and half-sibling American beech families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson

    2010-01-01

    A beech bark disease infested American beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and two uninfested trees were selected in a mature natural stand in Michigan, USA, and mated to form two full-sib families for evaluating the inheritance of resistance to beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.), the insect element of beech bark disease....

  18. The contribution of nitrogen deposition to the eutrophication signal in understorey plant communities of European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Vries, de W.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the composition of forest understorey vegetation both in space and time, using repeated data from the European wide monitoring program ICP-Forests, which focuses on normally managed forest. Our aim was to assess whether both spatial and

  19. Modelling and mapping the suitability of European forest formations at 1-km resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casalegno, Stefano; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    factors. Here, we used the bootstrap-aggregating machine-learning ensemble classifier Random Forest (RF) to derive a 1-km resolution European forest formation suitability map. The statistical model use as inputs more than 6,000 field data forest inventory plots and a large set of environmental variables...

  20. Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Schmidt, Inger K.; Callesen, Ingeborg

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge of tree species effects on soil C and N pools is scarce, particularly for European deciduous tree species. We studied forest floor and mineral soil carbon and nitrogen under six common European tree species in a common garden design replicated at six sites in Denmark. Three decades...... on forest floor C and N content was primarily attributed to large differences in turnover rates as indicated by fractional annual loss of forest floor C and N. The C/N ratio of foliar litterfall was a good indicator of forest floor C and N contents, fractional annual loss of forest floor C and N...

  1. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  2. Thermopower of beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I. A.; Smirnov, B. I.; Orlova, T. S.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermopower S of high-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon with micron-sized sap pores aligned with the tree growth direction. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range 5-300 K. The samples have been fabricated by pyrolysis of beech wood in an argon flow at different carbonization temperatures ( T carb). The thermopower S has been measured both along and across the sap pores, thus offering a possibility of assessing its anisotropy. The curves S( T carb) have revealed a noticeable increase of S for T carb biocarbons, which suggests that for T carb ˜ 1000°C they undergo a phase transition of the insulator-(at T carb 1000°C) type. The existence of this transition is attested also by the character of the temperature dependences S( T) of beech wood biocarbon samples prepared at T carb above and below 1000°C.

  3. Realizing Mitigation Efficiency of European Commercial Forests by Climate Smart Forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Augustynczik, Andrey Lessa Derci; Reyer, Christopher P O; Lasch-Born, Petra; Suckow, Felicitas; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2018-01-10

    European temperate and boreal forests sequester up to 12% of Europe's annual carbon emissions. Forest carbon density can be manipulated through management to maximize its climate mitigation potential, and fast-growing tree species may contribute the most to Climate Smart Forestry (CSF) compared to slow-growing hardwoods. This type of CSF takes into account not only forest resource potentials in sequestering carbon, but also the economic impact of regional forest products and discounts both variables over time. We used the process-based forest model 4 C to simulate European commercial forests' growth conditions and coupled it with an optimization algorithm to simulate the implementation of CSF for 18 European countries encompassing 68.3 million ha of forest (42.4% of total EU-28 forest area). We found a European CSF policy that could sequester 7.3-11.1 billion tons of carbon, projected to be worth 103 to 141 billion euros in the 21st century. An efficient CSF policy would allocate carbon sequestration to European countries with a lower wood price, lower labor costs, high harvest costs, or a mixture thereof to increase its economic efficiency. This policy prioritized the allocation of mitigation efforts to northern, eastern and central European countries and favored fast growing conifers Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris to broadleaves Fagus sylvatica and Quercus species.

  4. Differential impacts of calcium and aluminum treatments on sugar maple and American beech growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen; Timothy J. Fahey

    2015-01-01

    Acid deposition induced losses of calcium (Ca) from northeastern forests have had negative effects on forest health for decades, including the mobilization of potentially phytotoxic aluminum (Al) from soils. To evaluate the impact of changes in Ca and Al availability on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and American beech (Fagus...

  5. Species effect on the water use efficiency of a mixed forest of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Belgium Ardennes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubie, Rémy; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc; Vincke, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    Induced by climate change, intensity and frequency of droughts should be more important for the next century. How does water availability affect the physiology of woody plants at the species and stand scale? Carbon and water vapour fluxes measurements of a mixed forest (deciduous and coniferous) were performed for over ten years by the eddy covariance method in Belgian Ardennes (Aubinet et al, 2001) as a part of the CarboEurope project. Whereas carbon fluxes have been analyzed in detailed and good estimations of the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) and Gross Primary Production (GPP) were obtained, a thorough analysis of water vapour fluxes remains to be done. Improving analysis of water vapour fluxes and monitoring species transpiration will contribute to the estimation of the water use efficiency, WUE, at both the species and stand scale. The WUE well characterizes the vegetation productivity and ecosystem response to environmental factors. It also allows evaluating the sensitivity of temperate woody species to drought. The species concerned are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Since summer 2009 we monitor and analyze each species water use by measuring sap flow with the thermal dissipation method (Granier, 1987). Results at the species level will then be upscaled and compared to stand water vapour fluxes measurements obtained by the eddy covariance methodology. Transpiration of each species will be analyzed in relation with their own phenological and ecophysiological attributes, ecosystem soil and atmospheric conditions, to clarify among others their behaviour in case of water deficit. Data are actually analysed, the presented results will concern the 2009, and a part of 2010 growing season.

  6. Influence of different forest system management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes: a case study from central European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Schulz, Elke; Schloter, Michael; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Leaf litter decomposition is the key ecological process that determines the sustainability of managed forest ecosystems, however very few studies hitherto have investigated this process with respect to silvicultural management practices. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of forest management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics (C, N, Mg, K, Ca, P) and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes. We approached these questions using a 473 day long litterbag experiment. We found that age-class beech and spruce forests (high forest management intensity) had significantly higher decomposition rates and nutrient release (most nutrients) than unmanaged deciduous forest reserves (Pforest management (low forest management intensity) exhibited no significant differences in litter decomposition rate, C release, lignin decomposition, and C/N, lignin/N and ligninolytic enzyme patterns compared to the unmanaged deciduous forest reserves, but most nutrient dynamics examined in this study were significantly faster under such near-to-nature forest management practices. Analyzing the activities of ligninolytic enzymes provided evidence that different forest system management practices affect litter decomposition by changing microbial enzyme activities, at least over the investigated time frame of 473 days (laccase, Pforest system management practices can significantly affect important ecological processes and services such as decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  7. Drivers of forest cover change in Eastern Europe and European Russia, 1985–2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Munteanu, Catalina; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    to explain variation in forest loss between countries, nor does trade and price liberalization policy. None of our covariates explain forest regrowth on non-forested land over the period. We conclude that history and land privatization drove important cross-country variation in forest dynamics in the region......The relative importance of geography, history, and policy in driving forest cover change at broad scales remains poorly understood. We examine variation in forest cover dynamics over the period 1985–2012 across 19 countries in Eastern Europe and European Russia in order to shed light on the role...... of these in driving forest cover change after the collapse of socialism. Using a combination of cross-section and panel regression methods, we find that privatization of forest lands increased forest cover loss due to logging, as did increases in agricultural land between 1850 and 1900. Land quality has no power...

  8. Role of six European tree species and land-use legacy for nitrogen and water budgets in forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Christiansen, Jesper; Vesterdal, Lars; Callesen, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    -year-old common garden design with stands of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) replicated at two sites...... in Denmark, Mattrup and Vallø during 2 years. Mean annual percolation below the root zone (mm yr−1±SE, n=4) ranked in the following order: maple (351±38)>lime (284±32), oak (271±25), beech (257±30), ash (307±69)≫ spruce (75±24). There were few significant tree species effects on N fluxes. However, the annual...... mean N throughfall flux (kg N ha−1 yr−1±SE, n=4) for spruce (28±2) was significantly larger than for maple (12±1), beech (11±1) and oak (9±1) stands but not different from that of lime (15±3). Ash had a low mean annual inorganic N throughfall deposition of 9.1 kg ha−1, but was only present at Mattrup...

  9. Quantifying the detrimental impacts of land-use and management change on European forest bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S I Wade

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of changing forest management practices in Europe are poorly understood despite European forests being highly managed. Furthermore, the effects of potential drivers of forest biodiversity decline are rarely considered in concert, thus limiting effective conservation or sustainable forest management. We present a trait-based framework that we use to assess the detrimental impact of multiple land-use and management changes in forests on bird populations across Europe. Major changes to forest habitats occurring in recent decades, and their impact on resource availability for birds were identified. Risk associated with these changes for 52 species of forest birds, defined as the proportion of each species' key resources detrimentally affected through changes in abundance and/or availability, was quantified and compared to their pan-European population growth rates between 1980 and 2009. Relationships between risk and population growth were found to be significantly negative, indicating that resource loss in European forests is an important driver of decline for both resident and migrant birds. Our results demonstrate that coarse quantification of resource use and ecological change can be valuable in understanding causes of biodiversity decline, and thus in informing conservation strategy and policy. Such an approach has good potential to be extended for predictive use in assessing the impact of possible future changes to forest management and to develop more precise indicators of forest health.

  10. EPOCH 0013 - the impact of elevated CO{sub 2} upon the response of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.S.J.; Jarvis, P.G. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management

    1994-12-31

    Apart from details on the EPOCH project, this paper includes information on the currently funded project under the Environment R & D programme (the likely impact of rising CO{sub 2} and temperature on European forests, 1993 & 1994) and the proposed extension of this is Environment R & D, phase II (predicting the response of European forests to global change, 1995 & 1996). Some suggestions for future work under Framework IV are also proposed. 30 refs., 14 refs., 8 tabs.

  11. Comparative analysis of harmonized forest area stimates for European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; Strobl, P.; Miguel-Ayanz, J. San

    2011-01-01

    Harmonized forest area information provides an important basis for environmental modelling and policy-making at both national and international levels. Traditionally, this information has been provided by national forest inventory statistics but is now increasingly complemented with remote sensing...

  12. Soil type affects migration pattern of airborne Pb and Cd under a spruce-beech forest of the UN-ECE integrated monitoring site Zoebelboden, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobler, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.kobler@umweltbundesamt.a [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Fitz, Walter J.; Dirnboeck, Thomas; Mirtl, Michael [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    Anthropogenic trace element emissions have declined. However, top soils all over the world remain enriched in trace elements. We investigated Pb and Cd migration in forest soils of a remote monitoring site in the Austrian limestone Alps between 1992 and 2004. Large spatial variability masked temporal changes in the mineral soil of Lithic Leptosols (Skeltic), whereas a significant reduction of Pb concentrations in their forest floors occurred. Reductions of concentrations in the less heterogeneous Cambisols (Chromic) were significant. In contrast, virtually no migration of Pb and Cd were found in Stagnosols due to their impeded drainage. Very low element concentrations (<1 mug l{sup -1}) in field-collected soil solutions using tension lysimeters (0.2 mum nylon filters) imply that migration largely occurred by preferential flow as particulate-bound species during intensive rainfall events. Our results indicate that the extent of Pb and Cd migration in soils is largely influenced by soil type. - Comparison between soil solid phase and soil solution concentrations imply that trace element migration largely occurred by preferential flow as particulate-bound species.

  13. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, F.; Koskela, J.; Hubert, J.; Kraigher, H.; Longauer, R.; Olrik, D.C.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across

  14. Suitability of close-to-nature silviculture for adapting temperate European forests to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brang, P.; Spathelf, P.; Larsen, J.B.; Bauhus, J.; Boncina, A.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Europe, close-to-nature silviculture (CNS) has been widely advocated as being the best approach for managing forests to cope with future climate change. In this review, we identify and evaluate six principles for enhancing the adaptive capacity of European temperate forests in a

  15. Increasing carbon sinks in European forests: effect of afforestation and changes in mean growing stock volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilén, T.; Cienciala, E.; Schelhaas, M.; Verkerk, P.J.; Lindner, M.; Peltola, H.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, both forest area and growing stock have increased since the 1950s, and European forests have acted as a carbon sink during the last six decades. However, the contribution of different factors affecting the sink is not yet clear. In this study, historical inventory data were combined with

  16. Irregular Shelterwood Cuttings Promote Viability of European Yew Population Growing in a Managed Forest: A Case Study from the Starohorské Mountains, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Sedmáková

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing probability of Taxus baccata (L. decline given climate change brings forth many uncertainties for conservation management decisions. In this article, the authors present the effects of applying regeneration cuttings since the year 2000 on the viability of the understory yew population. By collecting data from a stand located at the centre of the largest population of European yew in Slovakia, containing approximately 160,000 individuals, and analysing tree-ring records from 38 sampled trees, the improved performance of yews, including stem growth, seed production, and number of regenerated individuals, was revealed. Thinning the canopy by removing 15% of the growing stock volume per decade, combined with the subsequent irregular shelterwood cuttings, was assessed as a useful strategy. Moreover, lower radial growth of females compared to males, but simultaneously their similar response to climate, suggests a possible trade-off between reproduction and growth. Release cuttings of up to 30% of the standing volume in the vicinity of the female trees, executed in the rainy summers following warmer winters, and consistent elimination of deer browsing, can further enhance the positive effects of applied cuts on yew viability. Overall, the suggested active measures could be considered as an effective option to preserve the unique biodiversity of calcareous beech-dominated forests in Central Europe.

  17. How closely does stem growth of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) relate to net carbon gain under experimentally enhanced ozone stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Winkler, J. Barbro; Löw, Markus; Nunn, Angela J.; Kuptz, Daniel; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Reiter, Ilja M.; Matyssek, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that O 3 -induced changes in leaf-level photosynthetic parameters have the capacity of limiting the seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. To this end, canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss were assessed in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) by using a physiologically based model, integrating environmental and photosynthetic parameters. The latter were derived from leaves at various canopy positions under the ambient O 3 regime, as prevailing at the forest site (control), or under an experimental twice-ambient O 3 regime (elevated O 3 ), as released through a free-air canopy O 3 fumigation system. Gross carbon gain at the canopy-level declined by 1.7%, while respiratory carbon loss increased by 4.6% under elevated O 3 . As this outcome only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth, O 3 -induced changes in allocation are referred to and discussed as crucial in quantitatively linking carbon gain with stem growth. - Highlights: ► We model O 3 -induced changes in the photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. ► Elevated O 3 decreases gross carbon gain but increases respiratory carbon loss. ► Reduction in net carbon gain only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth. ► O 3 effects on the whole-tree allocation is crucial in addition to carbon gains. - Reduction in net carbon gain at the canopy level only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth under elevated ozone.

  18. Short-term natural δ13C and δ18O variations in pools and fluxes in a beech forest: the transfer of isotopic signal from recent photosynthates to soil respired CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matteucci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The fate of photosynthetic products within the plant-soil continuum determines how long the reduced carbon resides within the ecosystem and when it returns back to the atmosphere in the form of respiratory CO2. We have tested the possibility of measuring natural variation in δ13C and δ18O to disentangle the potential times needed to transfer carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis down to trunk, roots and, in general, to belowground up to its further release in the form of soil respiration into the atmosphere in a beech (Fagus sylvatica forest. We have measured the variation in stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions in plant material and in soil respired CO2 every three hours for three consecutive days. Possible steps and different signs of post-photosynthetic fractionation during carbon translocation were also identified. A 12 h-periodicity was observed for variation in δ13C in soluble sugars in the top crown leaves and it can be explained by starch day/night dynamics in synthesis and breakdown and by stomatal limitations under elevated vapour pressure deficits. Photosynthetic products were transported down the trunk and mixed with older carbon pools, therefore causing the dampening of the δ13C signal variation. The strongest periodicity of 24 h was found in δ13C in soil respiration indicating changes in root contribution to the total CO2 efflux. Other non-biological causes like diffusion fractionation and advection induced by gas withdrawn from the measurement chamber complicate data interpretation on this step of C transfer path. Nevertheless, it was possible to identify the speed of carbohydrates' translocation from the point of assimilation to the trunk breast height because leaf-imprinted enrichment of δ18O in soluble sugars was less modified along the downward transport and was well related to environmental parameters potentially linked to stomatal conductance. The speed of carbohydrates translocation from the site of

  19. Lizards on ice: evidence for multiple refugia in Liolaemus pictus (Liolaemidae during the last glacial maximum in the Southern Andean beech forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Vera-Escalona

    Full Text Available Historical climate changes and orogenesis are two important factors that have shaped intraspecific biodiversity patterns worldwide. Although southern South America has experienced such complex events, there is a paucity of studies examining the effects on intraspecific diversification in this part of the world. Liolaemus pictus is the southernmost distributed lizard in the Chilean temperate forest, whose genetic structure has likely been influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. We conducted a phylogeographic study of L. pictus in Chile and Argentina based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes recovering two strongly divergent groups, Northern and Southern clades. The first group is distributed from the northernmost limit of the species to the Araucanía region while the second group is distributed throughout the Andes and the Chiloé archipelago in Southern Chile. Our results suggest that L. pictus originated 751 Kya, with divergence between the two clades occurring in the late Pleistocene. Demographic reconstructions for the Northern and Southern clades indicate a decrease in effective population sizes likely associated with Pleistocene glaciations. Surprisingly, patterns of genetic variation, clades age and historical gene flow in populations distributed within the limits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM are not explained by recent colonization. We propose an "intra-Andean multiple refuge" hypothesis, along with the classical refuge hypothesis previously proposed for the biota of the Chilean Coastal range and Eastern Andean Cordillera. Our hypothesis is supported by niche modelling analysis suggesting the persistence of fragments of suitable habitat for the species within the limits of the LGM ice shield. This type of refuge hypothesis is proposed for the first time for an ectothermic species.

  20. Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cools, Nathalie; Vesterdal, Lars; De Vos, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of other site-related factors. This study aimed to unravel the factors determining C:N ratios of forest floor, mineral soil...... mineral soil layers it was the humus type. Deposition and climatic variables were of minor importance at the European scale. Further analysis for eight main forest tree species individually, showed that the influence of environmental variables on C:N ratios was tree species dependent. For Aleppo pine...... and peat top soils in more than 4000 plots of the ICP Forests large-scale monitoring network. The first objective was to quantify forest floor, mineral and peat soil C:N ratios across European forests. Secondly we determined the main factors explaining this C:N ratio using a boosted regression tree...

  1. Bat and bird diversity along independent gradients of latitude and tree composition in European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Yohan M; Barbaro, Luc; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Ampoorter, Evy; Nezan, Julien; Verheyen, Kris; Jactel, Hervé

    2016-10-01

    Species assemblages are shaped by local and continental-scale processes that are seldom investigated together, due to the lack of surveys along independent gradients of latitude and habitat types. Our study investigated changes in the effects of forest composition and structure on bat and bird diversity across Europe. We compared the taxonomic and functional diversity of bat and bird assemblages in 209 mature forest plots spread along gradients of forest composition and vertical structure, replicated in 6 regions spanning from the Mediterranean to the boreal biomes. Species richness and functional evenness of both bat and bird communities were affected by the interactions between latitude and forest composition and structure. Bat and bird species richness increased with broadleaved tree cover in temperate and especially in boreal regions but not in the Mediterranean where they increased with conifer abundance. Bat species richness was lower in forests with smaller trees and denser understorey only in northern regions. Bird species richness was not affected by forest structure. Bird functional evenness increased in younger and denser forests. Bat functional evenness was also influenced by interactions between latitude and understorey structure, increasing in temperate forests but decreasing in the Mediterranean. Covariation between bat and bird abundances also shifted across Europe, from negative in southern forests to positive in northern forests. Our results suggest that community assembly processes in bats and birds of European forests are predominantly driven by abundance and accessibility of feeding resources, i.e., insect prey, and their changes across both forest types and latitudes.

  2. Decomposition performance of animals as an indicator of stress acting on beech-forest ecosystems - microcosmos experiments with carbon-14-labelled litter components. Final report. Die Zersetzungsleistung der Tiere als Indikator fuer die Belastung von Buchenwald-Oekosystemen - Mikrokosmosexperimente mit sup 14 C markierten Streukomponenten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, M.; Wolters, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid rain and heavy metals on the biotic interactions in the soil of beech forest with mull, must, and limed must was investigated with the aid of close-to-nature microcosmos systems. Parameters made use of were the decomposition of carbon-14-labelled litter components and the turnover of the microflora in C, N, and P. As the results show, increased proton uptake will bear on rearly every stage of the decomposition process in mull soils. As a result, there may be litter accumulation on the ground and first signs of humus disintegration in the mineral soil of mull soils. A direct relation between the acidity of the environment and the extent of decomposition inhibition does not exist. Despite wide-ranging impairment of edaphic animals, the activity of the ground fauna still is to be considered as the most important buffer system of soils rich in bases. Acidic condition of the beech forest soils with the humus form 'must' led to drastic inhibition of litter decomposition, to a change of the effect of edaphic animals, and to an increase in N mineralization. The grazing animals frequently aggravate the decomposition inhibition resulting from acid precipitation. The comparision of the decomposition process in a soil containing must as compared to one containing mull showed acidic soils to be on a lower biological buffer level than soils rich in bases. The main buffer capacity of acidic soils lies in the microflora, which is adapted to sudden increases in acidity and which recovers quickly. In the opinion of the authors, simple liming is not enough to increase the long-term biogenic stability of a forest ecosystem. A stabilizing effect of the fauna, for instance on nitrogen storage, is possible only if forest care measuries are carried out, for instance careful loosening of the mineral soil, which will attract earthworm species penetrating deeply into the soil. (orig./MG) With 12 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Marek Krasowski; Judy Loo; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of beech bark proteins from trees resistant and susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) was conducted. Sixteen trees from eight geographically isolated stands, 10 resistant (healthy) and 6 susceptible (diseased/infested) trees, were studied. The genetic complexity of the sample unit, the sampling across a wide geographic area, and the complexity of...

  4. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Latte, Nicolas; Perin, Jérôme; Kint, Vincent; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Global change-particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition-has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L.) were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87-186 years old). The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size) were filtered out in order to fo...

  5. Beech cupules as keystone structures for soil fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melguizo-Ruiz, Nereida; Jiménez-Navarro, Gerardo; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Facilitative or positive interactions are ubiquitous in nature and play a fundamental role in the configuration of ecological communities. In particular, habitat modification and niche construction, in which one organism locally modifies abiotic conditions and favours other organisms by buffering the effects of adverse environmental factors, are among the most relevant facilitative interactions. In line with this, 'keystone structures', which provide resources, refuge, or advantageous services decisive for other species, may allow the coexistence of various species and thus considerably contribute to diversity maintenance. Beech cupules are woody husks harbouring beech fruits that remain in the forest soil for relatively long periods of time. In this study, we explored the potential role of these cupules in the distribution and maintenance of the soil fauna inhabiting the leaf litter layer. We experimentally manipulated cupule availability and soil moisture in the field to determine if such structures are limiting and can provide moist shelter to soil animals during drought periods, contributing to minimize desiccation risks. We measured invertebrate abundances inside relative to outside the cupules, total abundances in the leaf litter and animal body sizes, in both dry and wet experimental plots. We found that these structures are preferentially used by the most abundant groups of smaller soil animals-springtails, mites and enchytraeids-during droughts. Moreover, beech cupules can be limiting, as an increase in use was found with higher cupule densities, and are important resources for many small soil invertebrates, driving the spatial structure of the soil community and promoting higher densities in the leaf litter, probably through an increase in habitat heterogeneity. We propose that fruit woody structures should be considered 'keystone structures' that contribute to soil community maintenance. Therefore, beech trees may indirectly facilitate soil fauna

  6. Beech Range Extension and Vegetation History: Pollen Stratigraphy of Two Wisconsin Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara L

    1987-12-01

    The pollen stratigraphy of two small lakes in eastern Wisconsin (Radtke Lake, Washington county, and Gass Lake, Manitowoc County) records the Holocene (past 10 000 yr) spread of beech (Fagus grandifolia: Fagaceae). Radiocarbon dates were obtained for the oldest stratigraphic levels at which beech pollen appeared consistently in amounts > 0.5% of terrestrial pollen. A spatially continuous pattern of beech expansion from the north was ruled out, because beech trees grew in Wisconsin by 6000 BP, 2000 yr before adjacent populations were established to the north. Alternative geographic patterns of speed (from the south or east) were spatially discontinuous, requiring seed dispersal distances of perhaps 25-130 km. That beechnuts could be dispersed across such distances suggests (1) the involvement of Blue Jays, Passenger Pigeons, or other vertebrates, and (2) a capacity for reaching climatically controlled range limits, given sufficient time despite such discontinuities in habitat. A lag 1000-2000 yr between the establishment of source populations in Michigan and Indiana and the appearance of beech in Wisconsin suggests that low-probability dispersal events were involved and that dispersal constraints limited the range of beech during this time, although climatic and edaphic explanations for the lag cannot be ruled out. Pollen data from the two sites reveal other features of vegetation history in eastern Wisconsin: an open Picea-Fraxinus woodland prior to 11 000 BP; sequence of Picea, Abies, Betula, and then Pinus forests between 11 000 and 7500 BP; the establishment of a coniferous/deciduous forest ecotone ("tension zone") ° 7000 BP in this region; and the presence of Quercus-dominanted deciduous forests from 7000 BP until 110 BP (time of Euro-American settlement), a period punctuated by a gradual decrease in Ulmus populations (° 4500 and 5700 BP at the two sites) and by an increase in mesophytic tree abundance at the expense of Quercus after 3500 BP. © 1987 by the

  7. Identifying key research objectives to make European forests greener for bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a biodiverse mammal order providing key ecosystem services such as pest suppression, pollination and seed dispersal. Bats are also very sensitive to human actions, and significant declines in many bat populations have been recorded consequently. Many bat species find crucial roosting and foraging opportunities in European forests. Such forests have historically been exploited by humans and are still influenced by harvesting. One of the consequences of this pressure is the loss of key habitat resources, often making forests inhospitable to bats. Despite the legal protection granted to bats across Europe, the impacts of forestry on bats are still often neglected. Because forest exploitation influences forest structure at several spatial scales, economically viable forestry could become more sustainable and even favour bats. We highlight that a positive future for bat conservation that simultaneously benefits forestry is foreseeable, although more applied research is needed to develop sound management. Key future research topics include the detection of factors influencing the carrying capacity of forests, and determining the impacts of forest management and the economic importance of bats in forests. Predictive tools to inform forest managers are much needed, together with greater synergies between forest managers and bat conservationists.

  8. Comparison of ozone uptake and sensitivity between a phytotron study with young beech and a field experiment with adult beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Angela J.; Kozovits, A.R.; Reiter, I.M.; Heerdt, C.; Leuchner, M.; Luetz, C.; Liu, X.; Low, M.; Winkler, J.B.; Grams, T.E.E.; Haeberle, K.-H.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Rennenberg, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2005-01-01

    Chamber experiments on juvenile trees have resulted in severe injury and accelerated loss of leaves along with reduced biomass production under chronically enhanced O 3 levels. In contrast, the few studies conducted on adult forest trees in the field have reported low O 3 sensitivity. In the present study, young beech in phytotrons was more sensitive to O 3 than adult beech in the field, although employed O 3 regimes were similar. The hypotheses tested were that: (1) differences in O 3 uptake were caused by the ontogenetically higher stomatal conductance of young compared to adult trees (2) the experimental settings in the phytotrons enhanced O 3 uptake compared to field conditions, and (3) a low detoxification capacity contributes to the higher O 3 sensitivity of the young trees. The higher O 3 sensitivity of juvenile beech in the phytotrons is demonstrated to relate to both the experimental conditions and the physiological responsiveness inherent to tree age. - Juvenile beech trees in phytotrons are more sensitive to ozone than adult forest trees due to lower defence capacity and growth conditions

  9. The Results of Complex Selective Logging in Beech-Hornbeam Tree Stands of the Greater Caucasus in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Yakhyaev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex selective logging conducted in beech-hornbeam tree stands on the northeastern slope of the Greater Caucasus are analyzed in the paper. Experiments were carried out in two forestry districts, involving beech stands, comprising 2–3 units, with 30° slopes, in beech forests with woodruff, fescue and forb forest types. It has been revealed that for recovering the main tree species, as well as for increasing productivity and sustainability of the beech-hornbeam tree stands, which was spread out in the northern exposures, 2–3 repetitions of complex selective logging are recommended. It is recommended that in order to increase the amount of beech in the tree stand composition to 6–8 units in young stands and to 4–6 units at the slopes of south exposures, to complete 3–4 thinning operations, with the increasing beech share to 4–5 units in the upper story and in the undergrowth.

  10. Intra-specific variations in expression of stress-related genes in beech progenies are stronger than drought-induced responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsjens, Caroline; Nguyen Ngoc, Quynh; Guzy, Jonas; Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Müller, Markus; Finkeldey, Reiner; Leuschner, Christoph; Polle, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly decreasing water availability as a consequence of climate change is likely to endanger the range of long-lived tree species. A pressing question is, therefore, whether adaptation to drought exists in important temperate tree species like European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), a wide-spread, dominant forest tree in Central Europe. Here, five beech stands were selected along a precipitation gradient from moist to dry conditions. Neutral genetic markers revealed strong variation within and little differentiation between the populations. Natural regeneration from these stands was transferred to a common garden and used to investigate the expression of genes for abscisic acid (ABA)-related drought signaling [9-cis-epoxy-dioxygenase (NCED), protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), early responsive to dehydration (ERD)] and stress protection [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), glutamine amidotransferase (GAT)] that are involved in drought acclimation. We hypothesized that progenies from dry sites exhibit constitutively higher expression levels of ABA- and stress-related genes and are less drought responsive than progenies from moist sites. Transcript levels and stress responses (leaf area loss, membrane integrity) of well-irrigated and drought-stressed plants were measured during the early, mid- and late growing season. Principal component (PC) analysis ordered the beech progenies according to the mean annual precipitation at tree origin by the transcript levels of SOD, ALDH, GAT and ERD as major loadings along PC1. PC2 separated moist and drought treatments with PP2C levels as important loading. These results suggest that phosphatase-mediated signaling is flexibly acclimated to the current requirements, whereas stress compensatory measures exhibited genotypic variation, apparently underlying climate selection. In contrast to expectation, the drought responses were less pronounced than the progeny-related differences and the

  11. The influence of regeneration fellings on the development of artificially regenerated beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) plantations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednář, Pavel; Černý, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2014), s. 859-867 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : European beech * regeneration felling * artificial regeneration * height * DBH – the diameter at breast-height * quality * ISF – Indirect Site Factor Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  12. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  13. Emerging Diseases in European Forest Ecosystems and Responses in Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna B. Boberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New diseases in forest ecosystems have been reported at an increasing rate over the last century. Some reasons for this include the increased disturbance by humans to forest ecosystems, changed climatic conditions and intensified international trade. Although many of the contributing factors to the changed disease scenarios are anthropogenic, there has been a reluctance to control them by legislation, other forms of government authority or through public involvement. Some of the primary obstacles relate to problems in communicating biological understanding of concepts to the political sphere of society. Relevant response to new disease scenarios is very often associated with a proper understanding of intraspecific variation in the challenging pathogen. Other factors could be technical, based on a lack of understanding of possible countermeasures. There are also philosophical reasons, such as the view that forests are part of the natural ecosystems and should not be managed for natural disturbances such as disease outbreaks. Finally, some of the reasons are economic or political, such as a belief in free trade or reluctance to acknowledge supranational intervention control. Our possibilities to act in response to new disease threats are critically dependent on the timing of efforts. A common recognition of the nature of the problem and adapting vocabulary that describe relevant biological entities would help to facilitate timely and adequate responses in society to emerging diseases in forests.

  14. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  15. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon dynamics of four European coniferous forests using a biogeochemistry model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churkina, G.; Tenhunen, J.; Thornton, P.; Falge, E.; Elbers, J.A.; Erhard, M.; Grünwald, T.; Kowalski, A.; Rannik, Ü.; Sprinz, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides the first steps toward a regional-scale analysis of carbon (C) budgets. We explore the ability of the ecosystem model BIOME-BGC to estimate the daily and annual C dynamics of four European coniferous forests and shifts in these dynamics in response to changing environmental

  16. Detecting the critical periods that underpin interannual fluctuations in the carbon balance of European forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Guerric; Delpierre, Nicolas; Jung, Martin

    2010-01-01

    . The analysis was first conducted at seven European forest flux tower sites with contrasting species and climatic conditions. Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE), a generic process-based model, represented fairly well most features of the critical period patterns and their climate...

  17. Natural disturbances in the European forests in the 19th and 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Schuck, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper, based on a literature review, presents a quantitative overview of the role of natural disturbances in European forests from 1850 to 2000. Such an overview provides a basis for modelling the possible impacts of climate change and enables one to assess trends in disturbance regimes in

  18. Critical loads and excess loads of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Bril, J.; Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Breeuwsma, A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, concern has arisen about the impact of the dispersion of heavy metals in Europe. Therefore, a study (ESQUAD) was initiated to assess critical loads and steady-state concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils. The calculation methods used strongly resemble those

  19. A slight recovery of soils from Acid Rain over the last three decades is not reflected in the macro nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) at 97 forest stands of the Vienna Woods✰

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Rigorous studies of recovery from soil acidification are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area at different soil depths) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining acidic deposition is reflected in soil and foliar chemistry. Top soil pH within the stemflow area increased significantly by 0.6 units in both H2O and KCl extracts from 1984 to 2012. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased markedly in the stemflow area and to a lower extent in the top soil of the between trees area. Trends of declining base cations in the lower top soil were probably caused by mobilization of organic S and associated leaching with high amounts of sulfate. Contents of C, N and S decreased markedly in the stemflow area from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that mineralization rates of organic matter increased due to more favorable soil conditions. It is concluded that the top soil will continue to recover from acidic deposition. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed. The beech trees of the Vienna Woods showed no sign of recovery from acidification although S deposition levels decreased. Release of historic S even increased foliar S contents. Base cation levels in the foliage declined but are still adequate for beech trees. Increasing N/nutrient ratios over time were considered not the result of marginally higher N foliar contents in 2012 but of diminishing nutrient uptake due to the decrease in ion concentration in soil solution. The mean foliar N/P ratio already increased to the alarming value of 31. Further nutritional imbalances will predispose trees to vitality loss. PMID:27344089

  20. Comparative Structural Dynamics of the Janj Mixed Old-Growth Mountain Forest in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Are Conifers in a Long-Term Decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Keren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regression of conifers in European mixed old-growth mountain forests has been observed for a long period and studied from different aspects. Old-growth (OG forests in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH have not experienced heavy air pollution and chronic overbrowsing that have affected many other European OG forests, while climatic and anthropogenic disturbances have been well documented. We analysed stand structure in the Janj OG forest, compared it with inventories of Lom and Perucica OG forests (BiH and with earlier inventories of the same reserves. At present, OG forest Janj is characterized by a high growing stock (1215 m3∙ha−1. This is due to good site quality, prevalence of conifers (84% and dominant endogenous processes in recent decades. In all three OG forests, indicators of structural change exhibited progression of European beech over time. Historical evidence revealed the occurrence of warm summers and droughts followed by bark beetle outbreaks in the 1920s, 1940s and early 1950s, which in turn influenced a marked conifer decline. It seems likely that repeated canopy opening released waves of European beech regeneration. These stand structural changes have delayed the rejuvenation of conifers and can help explain the early observations of conifer decline.

  1. A contribution to the sessile oak site and beech site defining in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in sessile oak forests and beech forests in the region central Serbia. The stands are classified as pure stands with the percentage of other species up to 10% per tree number, mixed forests of sessile oak with other species, and mixed forests of beech with other species, whose percentage does not exceed 50%. Altogether 257 stands were monitored - 202 beech stands and 55 sessile oak stands. By the applied method of defining the local heat potential (Lujić, 1960, modified by Ratknić et al. (2001 and Krstić (2004, 2008, which represents possibility of soil heating without vegetation, were determined. In this way, a scale of 162 possible combinations of local heat potential was obtained, which explains more precisely the dependence of beech stands and sessile oak stands on the topographic conditions. By applying the weighted values of the thermal co-ordinates of aspect and slope (E for each altitudinal belt of 100 m, it was concluded that pure stands have the widest ecological range. Pure beech stands occur at the sites with 34 combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=4.6 to 8.12. Pure sessile oak stands occur at the sites with 12 combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=5.10 to 8.11. The percentage of mixed beech stands with other broadleaf species is the highest at the sites with the co-ordinate V=10-11 (at the altitudes between 700 and 900 m is about 60 %. Mixed stands of sessile oak and beech are located on the terrains with combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=7.9 to 8.12. By using the local heat potential of a region, it can be identified which sites, i.e. which combinations of exposure, slope and altitude belong to the particular tree species. Consequently, a more reliable selection of tree species can be done for the bio-reclamation of barrens and other deforested terrains.

  2. Short-term effects of forest disturbances on soil nematode communities in European mountain spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerevková, A; Renčo, M; Cagáň, L

    2013-09-01

    The nematode communities in spruce forests were compared with the short-term effects of forest damage, caused by windstorm, wildfire and management practices of forest soils. Soil samples were collected in June and October from 2006 to 2008 in four different sites: (1) forest unaffected by the wind (REF); (2) storm-felled forest with salvaged timber (EXT); (3) modified forest affected by timber salvage (wood removal) and forest fire (FIR); and (4) storm-felled forest where timber had been left unsalvaged (NEX). Nematode analysis showed that the dominant species in all four investigated sites were Acrobeloides nanus and Eudorylaimus silvaticus. An increase of A. nanus (35% of the total nematode abundance) in the first year in the FIR site led to the highest total abundance of nematodes compared with other sites, where nematode abundance reached the same level in the third year. In the FIR site bacterial feeders appeared to be the most representative trophic group, although in the second and third year, after disturbance, the abundance of this trophic group gradually decreased. In the NEX site, the number of nematode species, population densities and Maturity Index were similar to that recorded for the FIR site. In EXT and NEX sites, the other dominant species was the plant parasitic nematode Paratylenchus microdorus. Analyses of nematodes extracted from different forest soil samples showed that the highest number of species and diversity index for species (H'spp) were in the REF site. Differences between the nematode fauna in REF and other localities were clearly depicted by cluster analysis. The greatest Structure Index and Enrichment Index values were also in REF. In the EXT site, the number of nematode species, their abundance, H'spp and Maturity Index were not significantly different from those recorded in the reference site.

  3. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the

  4. How forest management affects ecosystem services, including timber production and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncker, Philipp S.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    and services. By use of virtual but realistic datasets, we quantified, for multiple services, the effects of five forest management alternatives that form an intensity gradient. Our virtual forest management units represented Central European forest ecosystems in the submontane vegetation zone under a humid......–temperate climate with acidic soils. In this zone the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is the dominant tree species. In order to assess the effects on ecosystem services, the untouched natural forest reserve served as a reference. Wherever possible, response functions were deduced to couple the various services...... via stand-level data to demonstrate trade-offs between the services. Management units comprised all development phases in the sense of a "normal forest". It was clearly illustrated that maximizing the rates of biomass production and carbon sequestration may conflict with protection of authentic...

  5. The impact of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in European forests and forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Wim; Reinds, Gert Jan; Gundersen, Per

    2006-01-01

    for CO2 emissions because of harvest and forest fires, was assumed 33% of the overall C pool changes by growth. C sequestration in the soil were based on calculated nitrogen (N) retention (N deposition minus net N uptake minus N leaching) rates in soils, multiplied by the C/N ratio of the forest soils......An estimate of net carbon (C) pool changes and long-term C sequestration in trees and soils was made at more than 100 intensively monitored forest plots (level II plots) and scaled up to Europe based on data for more than 6000 forested plots in a systematic 16 km x 16 km grid (level I plots). C...... pool changes in trees at the level II plots were based on repeated forest growth surveys At the level I plots, an estimate of the mean annual C pool changes was derived from stand age and available site quality characteristics. C sequestration, being equal to the long-term C pool changes accounting...

  6. Stable isotope signatures reflect dietary diversity in European forest moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Seifert, Carlo Lutz; Lehner, Lisamarie; Truxa, Christine; Wanek, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Information on larval diet of many holometabolous insects remains incomplete. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis in adult wing tissue can provide an efficient tool to infer such trophic relationships. The present study examines whether moth feeding guild affiliations taken from literature are reflected in isotopic signatures. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance indicate that centroids of dietary groups differ significantly. In particular, species whose larvae feed on mosses or aquatic plants deviated from those that consumed vascular land plants. Moth δ(15)N signatures spanned a broader range, and were less dependent on species identity than δ(13)C values. Comparison between moth samples and ostensible food sources revealed heterogeneity in the lichenivorous guild, indicating only Lithosia quadra as an obligate lichen feeder. Among root-feeding Agrotis segetum, some specimens appear to have developed on crop plants in forest-adjacent farm land. Reed-feeding stem-borers may partially rely on intermediary trophic levels such as fungal or bacterial growth. Diagnostic partitioning of moth dietary guilds based on isotopic signatures alone could not be achieved, but hypotheses on trophic relationships based on often vague literature records could be assessed with high resolution. Hence, the approach is well suited for basic categorization of moths where diet is unknown or notoriously difficult to observe (i.e. Microlepidoptera, lichen-feeders).

  7. Concurring Regulation in European Forest Law; Forest Certification and the New EU Timber Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    Newly made EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) may prima facie look like competing regulation and an overlap of the existing forest certification schemes of FSC and PEFC as also EUTR combats illegally harvested timber. The novel EUTR, however, is a public law scheme wheras FSC and PEFC are private law

  8. Cropland management dynamics as a driver of forest cover change in European Russia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Krylov, A.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M.; McCarty, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The European part of Russia spans over 40% of the European subcontinent and comprises most of Europe's temperate and boreal forests. The region has undergone a socio-economic transition during the last two decades that has resulted in radical changes in land management. Large-scale agriculture land abandonment caused massive afforestation in the Central and Northern parts of the region (Alcantara et al. 2012). Afforestation of former croplands is currently not included in the official forestry statistical reports (Potapov et al. 2012), but is likely to have major impacts on regional carbon budgets (Kuemmerle et al. 2009). We employed a complete archive of Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery and automatic data processing algorithm to create regional time-sequential image composites and multi-temporal metrics for 1985-2012. Spectral metrics were used as independent variables to map forest cover and change with help of supervised machine learning algorithms and trend analysis. Forest cover loss was attributed to fires, harvesting, and wind/disease dynamics, while forest cover gain was disaggregated into reforestation and afforestation using pre-1990 TM imagery as baseline data. Special attention was paid to agricultural abandonment. Fire events of the last decade have been further characterized by ignition place, time, and burning intensity using MODIS fire detection data. Change detection products have been validated using field data collected during summer 2012 and 2013 and high resolution imagery. Massive arable land abandonment caused forest area increase within Central agricultural regions. While total logging area decreased after the USSR breakdown, logging and other forms of clearing increased within the Central and Western parts of the region. Gross forest gain and loss were nearly balanced within region; however, the most populated regions of European Russia featured the highest rate of net forest cover loss during the last decade. The annual burned forest area as

  9. New flux based dose–response relationships for ozone for European forest tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büker, P.; Feng, Z.; Uddling, J.; Briolat, A.; Alonso, R.; Braun, S.; Elvira, S.; Gerosa, G.; Karlsson, P.E.; Le Thiec, D.

    2015-01-01

    To derive O 3 dose–response relationships (DRR) for five European forest trees species and broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf tree plant functional types (PFTs), phytotoxic O 3 doses (PODy) were related to biomass reductions. PODy was calculated using a stomatal flux model with a range of cut-off thresholds (y) indicative of varying detoxification capacities. Linear regression analysis showed that DRR for PFT and individual tree species differed in their robustness. A simplified parameterisation of the flux model was tested and showed that for most non-Mediterranean tree species, this simplified model led to similarly robust DRR as compared to a species- and climate region-specific parameterisation. Experimentally induced soil water stress was not found to substantially reduce PODy, mainly due to the short duration of soil water stress periods. This study validates the stomatal O 3 flux concept and represents a step forward in predicting O 3 damage to forests in a spatially and temporally varying climate. - Highlights: • We present new ozone flux based dose–response relationships for European trees. • The model-based study accounted for the soil water effect on stomatal flux. • Different statistically derived ozone flux thresholds were applied. • Climate region specific parameterisation often outperformed simplified parameterisation. • Findings could help redefining critical levels for ozone effects on trees. - New stomatal flux based ozone dose–response relationships for tree species are derived for the regional risk assessment of ozone effects on European forest ecosystems.

  10. The biotransformation of soil biocenosis by micromycetes under introduction of Fagus sylvatica L. to oak-hornbeam forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, Artur; Bilyera, Nataliya; Sedykh, Olena; Melnychuk, Maksym

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: micromycetes, beech, soil enzymes, illuminance, Penicillium canescens. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a commercially valuable tree species. As the potential distribution area for beech forest is restricted by Europe, planting of artificial stands is adopted in this region. Beech introduction can alter ecosystem considerably, but the mechanism of this transformation is not clear. We aimed to define abiotic and biotic parameters affecting floor development in beech stands introduced to the oak-hornbeam forest ecosystem ca.50 years ago in Eastern Europe (Ukraine). The daylight illuminace level was similar (2.9-6.5 klx) for both stands. However, grass cover in beech stands did not exceed 0.1-0.5 % even on sites with illuminace level 7.5-8.3 klx. It does not comply with the commonly used suggestion that shading is the main factor causes forest floor absence in the beech stands. We indicated predominantly biotic factors influencing forest floor formation. Thus, particular edaphon represented by micromycetes was able to inhibit plants and microorganisms. We isolated Penicillium canescens strains from soil under beech stands. These fungi utilized beech root exudates and phenol compounds of leaf litter, and produced biologically active substances caused cytostatic and mutagenic effects. They also accelerated (in 2-3.2 times) soil β-glucosidase activity, but had no effect on phosphatase. The biomass of fungi varied under cultivation of Penicillium canescens strains on Czapek medium with the addition of aqueous extracts of beech leaf litter. The biomass of micromycetes increased on 10-15 % at plant phenols concentrations up to 1 mg mL-1. On the contrary, increasing the concentration of phenols up to 4 mg mL-1resulted in a biomass decrease to 40%. The relationship between the concentration of plant phenols and rate of fungal biomass formation indicates that there is probably seasonal regulation of micromycetes activity in the forest biocenosis. The highest

  11. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  12. Joining Criteria for Harmonizing European Forest Available for Wood Supply Estimates. Case Studies from National Forest Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Fischer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For national and international reporting on forest available for wood supply (FAWS, harmonized data are needed. This information is required as forests provide goods for various sectors like the timber industry or the bioenergy sector. The effect of applying different thresholds to the three restriction classes (environmental, social and economic restriction within the proposed reference definition for FAWS was evaluated. We applied the reference definition for FAWS to national data sets provided by five European National Forest Inventories using harmonized thresholds. The effects on FAWS area and growing stock were evaluated for each restriction and threshold. All countries within this study could report on protected areas. Social restrictions were not applied in any country, data on other restrictions are available but definitions vary. The application of common thresholds for restrictions proved difficult as effects vary between countries. The economic restriction is the most challenging to assess as many countries do not have corresponding data for direct calculation of, e.g., harvesting costs. Using proxies for harvesting costs was difficult, as common thresholds may not be applied in different countries. For standardized reporting, a FAWS definition should be developed that utilizes existing, harmonized indicators to describe restrictions.

  13. H and Al ionic toxicity in seedlings of spruce and beech trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost-Siebert, K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of aluminium and hydrogen on seedlings of spruce and beech trees was tested. Parameters as root growth, state of health, minerals content and production of dry matter were measured. The results are discussed and show that ion concentrations of hydrogen and aluminium, average for todays forest soils, reduce root growth, damage roots and disturb the uptake of Ca/sup 2+/ and Mg/sup 2+/.

  14. The analysis of the regional self-governing units forests in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lišková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on identification, analysis, description and comparison of the regional self-governing units (RSGU forests in selected European countries. The analysis deals not only with forests in the ownership of basic regional self-governing units such as villages but also with forests of higher regional self-governing unit such as regions or federated states. The identification and description of this type of ownership is not overly published in the Czech Republic. The published foreign overall studies and summaries state mainly the division into forests in public and private ownership. This article is created on the basis of the selection of relevant information sources according to corresponding key words. The methods of analysis of available literary sources, conspectus, comparison and interpretation were used to deal with the topic. The quantity of information is higher and more available within basic regional self-governing units than with higher regional self-governing units. On the basis of obtained information it can be stated that the share of forest ownership in the observed countries varies ranging from zero share in the ownership to fifty per cent share in Germany.

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies a major gene for beech bark disease resistance in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina Ćalić; Jennifer Koch; David Carey; Charles Addo-Quaye; John E. Carlson; David B. Neale

    2017-01-01

    Background: The American Beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), native to eastern North America, is ecologically important and provides high quality wood products. This species is susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) and is facing high rates of mortality in North America. The disease occurs from an interaction between the woolly beech scale...

  16. Creating a Regional MODIS Satellite-Driven Net Primary Production Dataset for European Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Neumann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Net primary production (NPP is an important ecological metric for studying forest ecosystems and their carbon sequestration, for assessing the potential supply of food or timber and quantifying the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. The global MODIS NPP dataset using the MOD17 algorithm provides valuable information for monitoring NPP at 1-km resolution. Since coarse-resolution global climate data are used, the global dataset may contain uncertainties for Europe. We used a 1-km daily gridded European climate data set with the MOD17 algorithm to create the regional NPP dataset MODIS EURO. For evaluation of this new dataset, we compare MODIS EURO with terrestrial driven NPP from analyzing and harmonizing forest inventory data (NFI from 196,434 plots in 12 European countries as well as the global MODIS NPP dataset for the years 2000 to 2012. Comparing these three NPP datasets, we found that the global MODIS NPP dataset differs from NFI NPP by 26%, while MODIS EURO only differs by 7%. MODIS EURO also agrees with NFI NPP across scales (from continental, regional to country and gradients (elevation, location, tree age, dominant species, etc.. The agreement is particularly good for elevation, dominant species or tree height. This suggests that using improved climate data allows the MOD17 algorithm to provide realistic NPP estimates for Europe. Local discrepancies between MODIS EURO and NFI NPP can be related to differences in stand density due to forest management and the national carbon estimation methods. With this study, we provide a consistent, temporally continuous and spatially explicit productivity dataset for the years 2000 to 2012 on a 1-km resolution, which can be used to assess climate change impacts on ecosystems or the potential biomass supply of the European forests for an increasing bio-based economy. MODIS EURO data are made freely available at ftp://palantir.boku.ac.at/Public/MODIS_EURO.

  17. Increasing large scale windstorm damage in Western, Central and Northern European forests, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregow, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Alper, M. E.

    2017-04-01

    Using reports of forest losses caused directly by large scale windstorms (or primary damage, PD) from the European forest institute database (comprising 276 PD reports from 1951-2010), total growing stock (TGS) statistics of European forests and the daily North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, we identify a statistically significant change in storm intensity in Western, Central and Northern Europe (17 countries). Using the validated set of storms, we found that the year 1990 represents a change-point at which the average intensity of the most destructive storms indicated by PD/TGS > 0.08% increased by more than a factor of three. A likelihood ratio test provides strong evidence that the change-point represents a real shift in the statistical behaviour of the time series. All but one of the seven catastrophic storms (PD/TGS > 0.2%) occurred since 1990. Additionally, we detected a related decrease in September-November PD/TGS and an increase in December-February PD/TGS. Our analyses point to the possibility that the impact of climate change on the North Atlantic storms hitting Europe has started during the last two and half decades.

  18. The European forest sector: past and future carbon budget and fluxes under different management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, Giacomo; Kurz, Werner A.; Fiorese, Giulia; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The comprehensive analysis of carbon stocks and fluxes of managed European forests is a prerequisite to quantify their role in biomass production and climate change mitigation. We applied the Carbon Budget Model (CBM) to 26 European countries, parameterized with country information on the historical forest age structure, management practices, harvest regimes and the main natural disturbances. We modeled the C stocks for the five forest pools plus harvested wood products (HWPs) and the fluxes among these pools from 2000 to 2030. The aim is to quantify, using a consistent modeling framework for all 26 countries, the main C fluxes as affected by land-use changes, natural disturbances and forest management and to assess the impact of specific harvest and afforestation scenarios after 2012 on the mitigation potential of the EU forest sector. Substitution effects and the possible impacts of climate are not included in this analysis. Results show that for the historical period from 2000 to 2012 the net primary productivity (NPP) of the forest pools at the EU level is on average equal to 639 Tg C yr-1. The losses are dominated by heterotrophic respiration (409 Tg C yr-1) and removals (110 Tg C yr-1), with direct fire emissions being only 1 Tg C yr-1, leading to a net carbon stock change (i.e., sink) of 110 Tg C yr-1. Fellings also transferred 28 Tg C yr-1 of harvest residues from biomass to dead organic matter pools. The average annual net sector exchange (NSE) of the forest system, i.e., the carbon stock changes in the forest pools including HWP, equals a sink of 122 Tg C yr-1 (i.e., about 19 % of the NPP) for the historical period, and in 2030 it reaches 126, 101 and 151 Tg C yr-1, assuming constant, increasing (+20 %) and decreasing (-20 %) scenarios, respectively, of both harvest and afforestation rates compared to the historical period. Under the constant harvest rate scenario, our findings show an incipient aging process of the forests existing in 1990: although NPP

  19. The role of nutrients, productivity and climate in determining tree fruit production in European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Marcos; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan A; Espelta, Josep Maria; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Fruit production (NPP f ), the amount of photosynthates allocated to reproduction (%GPP f ) and their controls for spatial and species-specific variability (e.g. nutrient availability, climate) have been poorly studied in forest ecosystems. We characterized fruit production and its temporal behaviour for several tree species and resolved the effects of gross primary production (GPP), climate and foliar nutrient concentrations. We used data for litterfall and foliar nutrient concentration from 126 European forests and related them to climatic data. GPP was estimated for each forest using a regression model. Mean NPP f ranged from c. 10 to 40 g C m -2  yr -1 and accounted for 0.5-3% of GPP. Forests with higher GPPs produced larger fruit crops. Foliar zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were associated positively with NPP f , whereas foliar Zn and potassium (K) were negatively related to its temporal variability. Maximum NPP f and interannual variability of NPP f were higher in Fagaceae than in Pinaceae species. NPP f and %GPP f were similar amongst the studied species despite the different reproductive temporal behaviour of Fagaceae and Pinaceae species. We report that foliar concentrations of P and Zn are associated with %GPP f , NPP f and its temporal behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. The response of soil solution chemistry in European forests to decreasing acid deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, James; Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Carnicelli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    to emissions controls. In this study, we assessed the response of soil solution chemistry in mineral horizons of European forests to these changes. Trends in pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), major ions, total aluminium (Altot) and dissolved organic carbon were determined for the period 1995–2012. Plots...... with at least 10 years of observations from the ICP Forests monitoring network were used. Trends were assessed for the upper mineral soil (10–20 cm, 104 plots) and subsoil (40–80 cm, 162 plots). There was a large decrease in the concentration of sulphate () in soil solution; over a 10‐year period (2000...... over the entire dataset. The response of soil solution acidity was nonuniform. At 10–20 cm, ANC increased in acid‐sensitive soils (base saturation ≤10%) indicating a recovery, but ANC decreased in soils with base saturation >10%. At 40–80 cm, ANC remained unchanged in acid‐sensitive soils (base...

  1. Maine's forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  2. Reduced European emissions of S and N - Effects on air concentrations, deposition and soil water chemistry in Swedish forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla, E-mail: gunilla.pihl.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Akselsson, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.akselsson@nateko.lu.se [Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund University, Soelvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Hellsten, Sofie, E-mail: sofie.hellsten@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per Erik, E-mail: pererik.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution in Swedish forests have been assessed in relation to European emission reductions, based on measurements in the Swedish Throughfall Monitoring Network. Measurements were analysed over 20 years with a focus on the 12-year period 1996 to 2008. Air concentrations of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, have decreased. The SO{sub 4}-deposition has decreased in parallel with the European emission reductions. Soil water SO{sub 4}-concentrations have decreased at most sites but the pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated acidification recovery only at some of the sites. No changes in the bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen could be demonstrated. Elevated NO{sub 3}-concentrations in the soil water occurred at irregular occasions at some southern sites. Despite considerable air pollution emission reductions in Europe, acidification recovery in Swedish forests soils is slow. Nitrogen deposition to Swedish forests continues at elevated levels that may lead to leaching of nitrate to surface waters. - Highlights: > S deposition to Swedish forests has decreased in parallel with European emissions. > Soil water pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated a slow recovery. > The bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen over Sweden has not decreased. > Continued N deposition to Swedish forests may cause leaching of N to surface waters. - Reduced European emissions have led to decreased acidic deposition and a slow recovery of soil water but nitrogen deposition remains the same in Swedish forests.

  3. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Latte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L. were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old. The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate, mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity, mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1 before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition; and (2 since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands.

  4. Free and Open Source Software underpinning the European Forest Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Aseretto, Dario; Di Leo, Margherita; de Rigo, Daniele; Corti, Paolo; McInerney, Daniel; Camia, Andrea; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide, governments are growingly focusing [1] on free and open source software (FOSS) as a move toward transparency and the freedom to run, copy, study, change and improve the software [2]. The European Commission (EC) is also supporting the development of FOSS (see e.g., [3]). In addition to the financial savings, FOSS contributes to scientific knowledge freedom in computational science (CS) [4] and is increasingly rewarded in the science-policy interface within the emerging paradigm of open science [5-8]. Since complex computational science applications may be affected by software uncertainty [4,9-11], FOSS may help to mitigate part of the impact of software errors by CS community-driven open review, correction and evolution of scientific code [10,12-15]. The continental scale of EC science-based policy support implies wide networks of scientific collaboration. Thematic information systems also may benefit from this approach within reproducible [16] integrated modelling [4]. This is supported by the EC strategy on FOSS: "for the development of new information systems, where deployment is foreseen by parties outside of the EC infrastructure, [F]OSS will be the preferred choice and in any case used whenever possible" [17]. The aim of this contribution is to highlight how a continental scale information system may exploit and integrate FOSS technologies within the transdisciplinary research underpinning such a complex system. A European example is discussed where FOSS innervates both the structure of the information system itself and the inherent transdisciplinary research for modelling the data and information which constitute the system content. The information system. The European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC, http://forest.jrc.ec.europa.eu/efdac/) has been established at the EC Joint Research Centre (JRC) as the focal point for forest data and information in Europe to supply European decision-makers with processed, quality checked and timely policy relevant

  5. Is it possible and necessary to control European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. outbreak in the Białowieża Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilszczański Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the information published in ‘Forest Research Papers’ (vol. 77(4, 2016, regarding the problem of the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. in the Białowieża Forest, we present our viewpoint on this issue. The role of the European spruce bark beetle in the Białowieża Forest is discussed based on the experience gained in Europe’s forests. We present the effects of I. typographus outbreaks on forest biodiversity as well as outbreak mitigation in the context of the processes taking place in semi-natural forests.

  6. How much does climate change threaten European forest tree species distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Paź, Sonia; Frelich, Lee E; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2018-03-01

    Although numerous species distribution models have been developed, most were based on insufficient distribution data or used older climate change scenarios. We aimed to quantify changes in projected ranges and threat level by the years 2061-2080, for 12 European forest tree species under three climate change scenarios. We combined tree distribution data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, EUFORGEN, and forest inventories, and we developed species distribution models using MaxEnt and 19 bioclimatic variables. Models were developed for three climate change scenarios-optimistic (RCP2.6), moderate (RCP4.5), and pessimistic (RPC8.5)-using three General Circulation Models, for the period 2061-2080. Our study revealed different responses of tree species to projected climate change. The species may be divided into three groups: "winners"-mostly late-successional species: Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, and Quercus petraea; "losers"-mostly pioneer species: Betula pendula, Larix decidua, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris; and alien species-Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus rubra, and Robinia pseudoacacia, which may be also considered as "winners." Assuming limited migration, most of the species studied would face a significant decrease in suitable habitat area. The threat level was highest for species that currently have the northernmost distribution centers. Ecological consequences of the projected range contractions would be serious for both forest management and nature conservation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Trends in Spring Phenology of Western European Deciduous Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliakim Hamunyela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenology is changing because of recent global warming, and this change may precipitate changes in animal distribution (e.g., pests, alter the synchronization between species, and have feedback effects on the climate system through the alteration of biogeochemical and physical processes of vegetated land surface. Here, ground observations (leaf unfolding/first leaf separation of six deciduous tree species and satellite-derived start-of-growing season (SOS are used to assess how the timing of leafing/SOS in Western European deciduous forest responded to climate variability between 2001 and 2011 and evaluate the reliability of satellite SOS estimates in tracking the response of forest leafing to climate variability in this area. Satellite SOS estimates are derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Temporal trends in the SOS are quantified using linear regression, expressing SOS as a function of time. We demonstrated that the growing season was starting earlier between 2001 and 2011 for the majority of temperate deciduous forests in Western Europe, possibly influenced by regional spring warming effects experienced during the same period. A significant shift of up to 3 weeks to early leafing was found in both ground observations and satellite SOS estimates. We also show that the magnitude and trajectory of shifts in satellite SOS estimates are well comparable to that of in situ observations, hence highlighting the importance of satellite imagery in monitoring leaf phenology under a changing climate.

  8. Facilitation between woody and herbaceous plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in temperate European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresoglou, Stavros D; Wulf, Monika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2017-02-01

    In late-successional environments, low in available nutrient such as the forest understory, herbaceous plant individuals depend strongly on their mycorrhizal associates for survival. We tested whether in temperate European forests arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) woody plants might facilitate the establishment of AM herbaceous plants in agreement with the mycorrhizal mediation hypothesis. We used a dataset spanning over 400 vegetation plots in the Weser-Elbe region (northwest Germany). Mycorrhizal status information was obtained from published resources, and Ellenberg indicator values were used to infer environmental data. We carried out tests for both relative richness and relative abundance of herbaceous plants. We found that the subset of herbaceous individuals that associated with AM profited when there was a high cover of AM woody plants. These relationships were retained when we accounted for environmental filtering effects using path analysis. Our findings build on the existing literature highlighting the prominent role of mycorrhiza as a coexistence mechanism in plant communities. From a nature conservation point of view, it may be possible to promote functional diversity in the forest understory through introducing AM woody trees in stands when absent.

  9. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  10. Drivers of decomposition in forest soils: Insights from a trans-European experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Meta-data analyses and the model based hypotheses state that global soil C storage is controlled by microbial scale processes of fungal competition for available nitrogen (N). The details of these microbe-dependent feedback mechanisms on N and C dynamics in European soils are largely unknown and contentious. Global trends of increasing atmospheric N deposition and the continuing use of inorganic N fertilizer in both agriculture and forestry mean that the soils vital function as a carbon sink is potentially under threat. We set out to experimentally investigate these hypotheses across a Trans-European gradient of forest soils and provide reliable information on soil microbial responses to nitrogen inputs for predictive climate change models. Changes in nutrient status could result in a chain reaction of interacting microbial mechanisms which in turn could lead to the shifts in underlying ecosystem biogeochemical process rates. Recent meta-analysis has shown that plant fungal symbiont community structure, exerts a greater fundamental control over soil C storage than temperature, precipitation or net primary production. Based on the hypothesis that plant associated fungi effectively scavenge all available organic and inorganic N leaving little N for the growth of the free-living decomposer microbial community and preventing further breakdown of SOM. To investigate these possible effects we have sampled forest soils across a trans European gradient (ALTER-net-MSII network) which have received additional inputs of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer or carbon in the form of sugar, over a three year period. We have studied both nitrogen and carbon dynamics in these systems using a tool box of stable isotopes, high through-put sequencing for microbial community analysis and be-spoke litter bags to tease out the dominant drivers of decomposition. The results and conclusions from these analyses will be presented.

  11. Climate- and successional-related changes in functional composition of European forests are strongly driven by tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Zavala, Miguel A; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Vilà-Cabrera, Albert; Lloret, Francisco; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Wirth, Christian; Greenwood, Sarah; Kändler, Gerald; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Kattge, Jens; Dahlgren, Jonas; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Intense droughts combined with increased temperatures are one of the major threats to forest persistence in the 21st century. Despite the direct impact of climate change on forest growth and shifts in species abundance, the effect of altered demography on changes in the composition of functional traits is not well known. We sought to (1) quantify the recent changes in functional composition of European forests; (2) identify the relative importance of climate change, mean climate and forest development for changes in functional composition; and (3) analyse the roles of tree mortality and growth underlying any functional changes in different forest types. We quantified changes in functional composition from the 1980s to the 2000s across Europe by two dimensions of functional trait variation: the first dimension was mainly related to changes in leaf mass per area and wood density (partially related to the trait differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms), and the second dimension was related to changes in maximum tree height. Our results indicate that climate change and mean climatic effects strongly interacted with forest development and it was not possible to completely disentangle their effects. Where recent climate change was not too extreme, the patterns of functional change generally followed the expected patterns under secondary succession (e.g. towards late-successional short-statured hardwoods in Mediterranean forests and taller gymnosperms in boreal forests) and latitudinal gradients (e.g. larger proportion of gymnosperm-like strategies at low water availability in forests formerly dominated by broad-leaved deciduous species). Recent climate change generally favoured the dominance of angiosperm-like related traits under increased temperature and intense droughts. Our results show functional composition changes over relatively short time scales in European forests. These changes are largely determined by tree mortality, which should be further

  12. Beech wood export and import trends in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available By the establishment and analysis of the model of beech wood export and export trends in Serbia (by quantity and value, for the period 1988-2002 the regularities of the changes of their magnitude in time were defined. On this basis, the relations of import and export trends were analyzed. Based on the study elements, the potentials of beech sawlog and beech sawnwood export, as well as the potential economic effects, were pointed out.

  13. Genetic effects of air pollution on forest tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longauer, Roman; Goemoery, Dusan; Paule, Ladislav; Blada, Ioan; Popescu, Flaviu; Mankovska, Blanka; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard; Schubert, Roland; Percy, Kevin; Szaro, Robert C.; Karnosky, David F.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of air pollution on the genetic structure of Norway spruce, European silver fir and European beech were studied at four polluted sites in Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic. In order to reduce potential effects of site heterogeneity on the health condition, pair-wise sampling of pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was applied. Genotypes of sampled trees were determined at 21 isozyme gene loci of spruce, 18 loci of fir and 15 loci of beech. In comparison with Norway spruce, fewer genetic differences were revealed in beech and almost no differentiation between pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was observed in fir. In adult stands of Norway spruce, sensitive trees exhibited higher genetic multiplicity and diversity. The decline of pollution-sensitive trees may result thus in a gradual genetic depletion of pollution-exposed populations of Norway spruce through the loss of less frequent alleles with potential adaptive significance to altered stressing regimes in the future. Comparison of the subsets of sensitive and tolerant Norway spruce individuals as determined by presence or absence of discolorations (''spruce yellowing'') revealed different heterozygosity at 3 out of 11 polymorphic loci. - Genetic effects of air pollution on main forest trees of the Carpathians are species- and site-specific

  14. Specific impacts of beech and Norway spruce on the structure and diversity of the rhizosphere and soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, S; Oger, P; Tisserand, E; Cébron, A; Turpault, M-P; Buée, M; De Boer, W; Leveau, J H J; Frey-Klett, P

    2016-06-15

    The impacts of plant species on the microbial communities and physico-chemical characteristics of soil are well documented for many herbs, grasses and legumes but much less so for tree species. Here, we investigate by rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing the diversity of microorganisms from the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota:Fungi) in soil samples taken from the forest experimental site of Breuil-Chenue (France). We discovered significant differences in the abundance, composition and structure of the microbial communities associated with two phylogenetically distant tree species of the same age, deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and coniferous Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst), planted in the same soil. Our results suggest a significant effect of tree species on soil microbiota though in different ways for each of the three microbial groups. Fungal and archaeal community structures and compositions are mainly determined according to tree species, whereas bacterial communities differ to a great degree between rhizosphere and bulk soils, regardless of the tree species. These results were confirmed by quantitative PCR, which revealed significant enrichment of specific bacterial genera, such as Burkholderia and Collimonas, known for their ability to weather minerals within the tree root vicinity.

  15. Do forests best mitigate CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by setting them aside for maximization of carbon storage or by management for fossil fuel substitution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeroe, Anders; Fayez Mustapha, Walid; Stupak, Inge

    2017-01-01

    fossil fuels and fossil fuel intensive materials. We defined a modelling framework for calculation of the carbon pools and fluxes along the forest energy and wood product supply chains over 200 years for three forest management alternatives (FMA): 1) a traditionally managed European beech forest...... the lowest CCE when using coal as the reference fossil fuel. With natural gas as the reference fossil fuel, the CCE of the business-as-usual and the energy poplar was nearly equal, with the unmanaged forest having the highest CCE after 40 years. CPTs ranged from 0 to 156 years, depending on the applied model...... assumptions. CCE and CPT were especially sensitive to the reference fossil fuel, material alternatives to wood, forest growth rates for the three FMAs, and energy conversion efficiencies. Assumptions about the long-term steady-state levels of carbon stored in the unmanaged forest had a limited effect on CCE...

  16. An analysis of the decadal variability of Carbon fluxes in three evergreen European forests through modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpierre, N.; Dufrêne, E.

    2009-04-01

    With several sites measuring mass and energy turbulent fluxes for more than ten years, the CarboEurope database appears as a valuable resource for addressing the question of the determinism of the interannual variability of carbon (C) and water balances in forests ecosystems. Apart from major climate-driven anomalies during the anomalous 2003 summer and 2007 spring, little is known about the factors driving interannual variability (IAV) of the C balance in forest ecosystems. We used the CASTANEA process-based model to simulate the C and W fluxes and balances of three European evergreen forests for the 2000-2007 period (FRPue Quercus ilex, 44°N; DETha Picea abies, 51°N; FIHyy Pinus sylvestris, 62°N). The model fairly reproduced the day-to-day variability of measured fluxes, accounting for 70-81%, 77-91% and 59-90% of the daily variance of measured NEP, GPP and TER, respectively. However, the model was challenged in representing the IAV of fluxes integrated on an annual time scale. It reproduced ca. 80% of the interannual variance of measured GPP, but no significant relationship could be established between annual measured and modelled NEP or TER. Accordingly, CASTANEA appeared as a suitable tool for disentangling the influence of climate and biological processes on GPP at mutiple time scales. We show that climate and biological processes relative influences on the modelled GPP vary from year to year in European evergreen forests. Water-stress related and phenological processes (i.e. release of the winter thermal constraint on photosynthesis in evergreens) appear as primary drivers for the particular 2003 and 2007 years, respectively, but the relative influence of other climatic factors widely varies for less remarkable years at all sites. We discuss shortcomings of the method, as related to the influence of compensating errors in the simulated fluxes, and assess the causes of the model poor ability to represent the IAV of the annual sums of NEP and TER.

  17. Evaporation and transpiration from forests in Central Europe - relevance of patch-level studies for spatial scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstner, B.

    Spatial scaling from patch to the landscape level requires knowledge on the effects of vegetation structure on maximum surface conductances and evaporation rates. The following paper summarizes results on atmospheric, edaphic, and structural controls on forest evaporation and transpiration observed in stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Forest canopy transpiration (Ec) was determined by tree sapflow measurements scaled to the stand level. Estimates of understory transpiration and forest floor evaporation were derived from lysimeter and chamber measurements. Strong reduction of Ec due to soil drought was only observed at a Scots pine stand when soil water content dropped below 16% v/v. Although relative responses of Ec on atmospheric conditions were similar, daily maximum rates of could differ more than 100% between forest patches of different structure (1.5-3.0mmd-1 and 2.6-6.4mmd-1 for spruce and beech, respectively). A significant decrease of Ecmax per leaf area index with increasing stand age was found for monocultures of Norway spruce, whereas no pronounced changes in were observed for beech stands. It is concluded that structural effects on Ecmax can be specified and must be considered for spatial scaling from forest stands to landscapes. Hereby, in conjunction with LAI, age-related structural parameters are important for Norway spruce stands. Although compensating effects of tree canopy layers and understory on total evaporation of forests were observed, more information is needed to quantify structure-function relationships in forests of heterogenous structure.

  18. Pan-European strategy for genetic conservation of forest trees and establishment of a core network of dynamic conservation units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.M.G.; Alan, Murat; Bozzano, Michele; Burianek, Vaclav

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of forests, at the level of species and at the level of genetic diversity within species, is an important resource for Europe. Over the past several decades European countries have made considerable efforts to conserve the genetic diversity of tree species. According to the EUFGIS

  19. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  20. Pennsylvania forests 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Albright; William H. McWilliams; Richard H. Widmann; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the third cycle of annualized inventory of Pennsylvania with field data collected from 2009 through 2014. Pennsylvania has 16.9 million acres of forest land dominated by sawtimber stands of oak/hickory and maple/beech/birch forest-type groups. Volumes continue to increase as the forests age with an average of 2,244 cubic feet per acre on...

  1. New flux based dose-response relationships for ozone for European forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büker, P; Feng, Z; Uddling, J; Briolat, A; Alonso, R; Braun, S; Elvira, S; Gerosa, G; Karlsson, P E; Le Thiec, D; Marzuoli, R; Mills, G; Oksanen, E; Wieser, G; Wilkinson, M; Emberson, L D

    2015-11-01

    To derive O3 dose-response relationships (DRR) for five European forest trees species and broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf tree plant functional types (PFTs), phytotoxic O3 doses (PODy) were related to biomass reductions. PODy was calculated using a stomatal flux model with a range of cut-off thresholds (y) indicative of varying detoxification capacities. Linear regression analysis showed that DRR for PFT and individual tree species differed in their robustness. A simplified parameterisation of the flux model was tested and showed that for most non-Mediterranean tree species, this simplified model led to similarly robust DRR as compared to a species- and climate region-specific parameterisation. Experimentally induced soil water stress was not found to substantially reduce PODy, mainly due to the short duration of soil water stress periods. This study validates the stomatal O3 flux concept and represents a step forward in predicting O3 damage to forests in a spatially and temporally varying climate. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of chemical analyses of atmospheric deposition in forested European sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin ULRICH

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the activities of the Integrated Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests and of the EU Regulation 2152/2003, a Working Group on Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analyses has been created to assist the participating laboratories in the analysis of atmospheric deposition, soil and soil solution, and leaves/needles. As part of the activity of the WG, this study is a statistical analysis in the field of water analysis of chemical concentrations and relationships between ions, and between conductivity and ions for different types of samples (bulk or wet-only samples, throughfall, stemflow considered in forest studies. About 5000 analyses from seven laboratories were used to establish relationships representative of different European geographic and climatic situations, from northern Finland to southern Italy. Statistically significant differences between the relationships obtained from different types of solutions, interacting with different types of vegetation (throughfall and stemflow samples, broad-leaved trees and conifers and with varying influence of marine salt were tested. The ultimate aim is to establish general relationships between ions, and between conductivity and ions, with relative confidence limits, which can be used as a comparison with those established in single laboratories. The use of such techniques is strongly encouraged in the ICPF laboratories to validate single chemical analyses, to be performed when it is still possible to replicate the analysis, and as a general overview of the whole set of analyses, to obtain an indication of the laboratory performance on a long-term basis.

  3. Temporal changes in vegetation of a virgin beech woodland remnant: stand-scale stability with intensive fine-scale dynamics governed by stand dynamic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Standovár

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this resurvey study is to check if herbaceous vegetation on the forest floor exhibits overall stability at the stand-scale in spite of intensive dynamics at the scale of individual plots and stand dynamic events (driven by natural fine scale canopy gap dynamics. In 1996, we sampled a 1.5 ha patch using 0.25 m² plots placed along a 5 m × 5 m grid in the best remnant of central European montane beech woods in Hungary. All species in the herbaceous layer and their cover estimates were recorded. Five patches representing different stand developmental situations (SDS were selected for resurvey. In 2013, 306 plots were resurveyed by using blocks of four 0.25 m² plots to test the effects of imperfect relocation. We found very intensive fine-scale dynamics in the herbaceous layer with high species turnover and sharp changes in ground layer cover at the local-scale (< 1 m2. A decrease in species richness and herbaceous layer cover, as well as high species turnover, characterized the closing gaps. Colonization events and increasing species richness and herbaceous layer cover prevailed in the two newly created gaps. A pronounced decrease in the total cover, but low species turnover and survival of the majority of the closed forest specialists was detected by the resurvey at the stand-scale. The test aiming at assessing the effect of relocation showed a higher time effect than the effect of imprecise relocation. The very intensive fine-scale dynamics of the studied beech forest are profoundly determined by natural stand dynamics. Extinction and colonisation episodes even out at the stand-scale, implying an overall compositional stability of the herbaceous vegetation at the given spatial and temporal scale. We argue that fine-scale gap dynamics, driven by natural processes or applied as a management method, can warrant the survival of many closed forest specialist species in the long-run. Nomenclature: Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 2010 for

  4. Upland Trees Contribute to Exchange of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) in Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Thompson, R.; Canadell, J.; Winiwarter, W.; Machacova, K.; Maier, M.; Halmeenmäki, E.; Svobodova, K.; Lang, F.; Pihlatie, M.; Urban, O.

    2017-12-01

    The increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration contributes to the acceleration of the greenhouse effect. However, the role of trees in the N2O exchange of forest ecosystems is still an open question. While the soils of temperate and boreal forests were shown to be a natural source of N2O, trees have been so far overlooked in the forest N2O inventories. We determined N2O fluxes in common tree species of boreal and temperate forests: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies), downy and silver birch (Betula pubescens, B. pendula), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). We investigated (1) whether these tree species exchange N2O with the atmosphere under natural field conditions, (2) how the tree N2O fluxes contribute to the forest N2O balance, and (3) whether these fluxes show seasonal dynamics. The studies were performed in a boreal forest (SMEAR II station, Finland; June 2014 - May 2015) and two temperate mountain forests (White Carpathians, Czech Republic; Black Forest, Germany; June and July 2015). Fluxes of N2O in mature tree stems and forest floor were measured using static chamber systems followed by chromatographic and photo-acoustic analyses of N2O concentration changes. Pine, spruce and birch trees were identified as net annual N2O sources. Spruce was found the strongest emitter (0.27 mg ha-1 h-1) amounting thus up to 2.5% of forest floor N2O emissions. All tree species showed a substantial seasonality in stem N2O flux that was related to their physiological activity and climatic variables. In contrast, stems of beech trees growing at soils consuming N2O may act as a substantial sink of N2O from the atmosphere. Consistent N2O consumption by tree stems ranging between -12.1 and -35.2 mg ha-1 h-1 and contributing by up to 3.4% to the forest floor N2O uptake is a novel finding in contrast to current studies presenting trees as N2O emitters. To understand these fluxes, N2O exchange of photoautotrophic organisms associated with

  5. Palaeoecological data as a tool to predict possible future vegetation changes in the boreal forest zone of European Russia: a case study from the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, E. Yu; Tsyganov, A. N.; Olchev, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    New multi-proxy records (pollen, testate amoebae, and charcoal) were applied to reconstruct the vegetation dynamics in the boreal forest area of the southern part of Valdai Hills (the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve) during the Holocene. The reconstructions of the mean annual temperature and precipitation, the climate moisture index (CMI), peatland surface moisture, and fire activity have shown that climate change has a significant impact on the boreal forests of European Russia. Temperature growth and decreased moistening during the warmest phases of the Holocene Thermal Maximum in 7.0-6.2 ka BP and 6.0-5.5 ka BP and in the relatively warm phase in 3.4-2.5 ka BP led to structural changes in plant communities, specifically an increase in the abundance of broadleaf tree species in forest stands and the suppression of Picea. The frequency of forest fires was higher in that period, and it resulted in the replacement of spruce forests by secondary stands with Betula and Pinus. Despite significant changes in the climatic parameters projected for the 21st century using even the optimistic RCP2.6 scenario, the time lag between climate changes and vegetation responses makes any catastrophic vegetation disturbances (due to natural reasons) in the area in the 21st century unlikely.

  6. Beech and spruce under the influence of electromagnetic radiation by radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Götz, G.; Matyssek, R.; Käs, G.

    2001-01-01

    Throughout a three-year study period beech and spruce trees were examined for potential effects of electromagnetic radiation by radar on the morphological and physiological performance at the crown level. No effects of radar on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal regulation as well as twig and foliage differentiation were found in late summer after seasonal exposure to this kind of radiation, when comparing radar-exposed with shielded crown parts. Adverse effects caused by radar on forest trees appear to be unlikely on a short-term scale, given conditions similar to those of this case study [de

  7. Characteristics of the soil in mountain beech communities on mountain Manjača

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremija Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented results of soil study, which will be used for defining the beech forest types of management unit 'Dubička Gora' on Mt. Manjača, are the basis for solving a series of current tasks of forestry profession. Relief and chemical nature of limestone are the main factors of the soil cover differentiation (Knežević, Košanin, 2004.. The results of physical and chemical soil properties are shown and its taxonomy is determined. Forest cover is represented by heterogeneous units-forest combinations. Four basic soil types are defined on the basis of detailed field and laboratory research: rendzina on dolomite, chernozem on limestone, brown soil on limestone, illimerised soil on limestone and dolomite.

  8. Assessing impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.J.; Mavsar, R.; Giergiczny, M.; Lindner, M.; Edwards, D.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    To develop viable strategies for intensifying the use of forest biomass and for increasing forest protection, impacts on ecosystem services need to be assessed. We investigated the biophysical and economic impacts of increased forest biomass production and biodiversity protection on forest ecosystem

  9. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  10. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity' and ‘selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems. PMID:27010076

  11. Element fluxes through European forest ecosystems and their relationships with stand and site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, W. de; Salm, C. van der; Reinds, G.J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a European wide assessment of element budgets, using available data on deposition, meteorology and soil solution chemistry at 121 Intensive Monitoring plots. Input fluxes from the atmosphere were derived from fortnightly or monthly measurements of bulk deposition and throughfall, corrected for canopy uptake. Element outputs from the forest ecosystem were derived by multiplying fortnightly or monthly measurements of the soil solution composition at the bottom of the root zone with simulated unsaturated soil water fluxes. Despite the uncertainties in the calculated budgets, the results indicate that: (i) SO 4 is still the dominant source of actual soil acidification despite the generally lower input of S than N, due to the different behaviour of S (near tracer) and N (strong retention); (ii) base cation removal due to man-induced soil acidification is limited; and (iii) Al release is high in areas with high S inputs and low base status. - An assessment of element budgets, using available data on deposition, meteorology and soil solution chemistry at 121 Intensive Monitoring plots in Europe

  12. Home-range size and habitat use of European Nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus nesting in a complex plantation-forest landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sharps, Katrina; Henderson, Ian; Conway, Greg; Armour-Chelu, Neal; Dolman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the consequences of commercial plantation management for birds of conservation concern are poorly understood. The European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus is a species of conservation concern across Europe due to population depletion through habitat loss. Pine plantation-forest is now a key Nightjar nesting habitat, particularly in northwestern Europe, and increased understanding of foraging habitat selection is required. We radiotracked 31 Nightjars in an extensive (185-km2) comple...

  13. European Holocene landscape change: a comparison of pollen-based approaches to reconstructing land use shifts and forest decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil; Fyfe, Ralph; Gaillard, Marie-José; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Davis, Basil; Kaplan, Jed

    2016-04-01

    Europe's primaeval forests have been progressively cleared and fragmented since the first appearance of Neolithic farming activities around 6000 years ago. Understanding spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is valuable to researchers interested in past human-environment interactions. Here we present a comparison of reconstructed Holocene forest cover across Europe from three different transformed fossil pollen-based datasets, an extensive modern surface pollen data set, and modern forest cover from remote sensing. The REVEALS approach (Trondman et al., 2015) provides a quantified and validated reconstruction of vegetation incorporating plant productivity estimates, but is currently only available for a limited number of grid cells in mid-latitude and northern Europe for a limited number of time windows. The pseudobiomization (PBM) (Fyfe et al., 2015) and plant functional type (PFT) (Davis et al., 2015) based approaches provide continuous semi-quantitative records of land use change for temperate and Northern Europe spanning the Holocene, but do not provide truly quantified vegetation reconstructions. Estimated modern forest cover based on the various approaches ranges between ~29 and 54%. However, the Holocene estimates of vegetation change show broadly similar trends, with a forest maximum from ~8.2 to ~6 ka BP, and a decline in forest cover after 6 ka BP, accelerating after ~1.2 ka BP. The reconstructions, when broadly disaggregated into northern and mid-latitude Europe, confirm that mid-latitude forest cover has declined more than that in northern Europe over the last 6 ka. The continuous record provided by the PBM has been used to establish a 'half forest loss' date for each grid cell in temperate and northern Europe, which has identified that the timing of forest loss varied spatially with certain regions remaining forested for longer. References Davis BAS, Collins PM, Kaplan JO (2015) The age and post-glacial development of the modern European

  14. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO 3 SE model. - A method was developed to derive stomatal functions and ozone uptake calculation from sap flow.

  15. The response of soil solution chemistry in European forests to decreasing acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Carnicelli, Stefano; Cecchini, Guia; Clarke, Nicholas; Cools, Nathalie; Hansen, Karin; Meesenburg, Henning; Nieminen, Tiina M; Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla; Titeux, Hugues; Vanguelova, Elena; Verstraeten, Arne; Vesterdal, Lars; Waldner, Peter; Jonard, Mathieu

    2018-03-31

    Acid deposition arising from sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions from fossil fuel combustion and agriculture has contributed to the acidification of terrestrial ecosystems in many regions globally. However, in Europe and North America, S deposition has greatly decreased in recent decades due to emissions controls. In this study, we assessed the response of soil solution chemistry in mineral horizons of European forests to these changes. Trends in pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), major ions, total aluminium (Al tot ) and dissolved organic carbon were determined for the period 1995-2012. Plots with at least 10 years of observations from the ICP Forests monitoring network were used. Trends were assessed for the upper mineral soil (10-20 cm, 104 plots) and subsoil (40-80 cm, 162 plots). There was a large decrease in the concentration of sulphate (SO42-) in soil solution; over a 10-year period (2000-2010), SO42- decreased by 52% at 10-20 cm and 40% at 40-80 cm. Nitrate was unchanged at 10-20 cm but decreased at 40-80 cm. The decrease in acid anions was accompanied by a large and significant decrease in the concentration of the nutrient base cations: calcium, magnesium and potassium (Bc = Ca 2+  + Mg 2+  + K + ) and Al tot over the entire dataset. The response of soil solution acidity was nonuniform. At 10-20 cm, ANC increased in acid-sensitive soils (base saturation ≤10%) indicating a recovery, but ANC decreased in soils with base saturation >10%. At 40-80 cm, ANC remained unchanged in acid-sensitive soils (base saturation ≤20%, pHCaCl2 ≤ 4.5) and decreased in better-buffered soils (base saturation >20%, pHCaCl2 > 4.5). In addition, the molar ratio of Bc to Al tot either did not change or decreased. The results suggest a long-time lag between emission abatement and changes in soil solution acidity and underline the importance of long-term monitoring in evaluating ecosystem response to decreases in deposition. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons

  16. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of mast years, i.e. the synchronous production of vast amounts of fruits or seeds, has an important impact on forest ecosystems, their functioning and their services. We investigated the mast patterns of the forest tree species common beech, common and sessile oak, Norway spruce...... and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe over the last two to three decades. We analysed data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and additional Danish, German, Flemish and Swiss datasets.Within-plot synchrony...

  17. Modeling the location of the forest line in northeast European Russia with remotely sensed vegetation and GIS-based climate and terrain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Tarmo; Mikkola, Kari; Nikula, Ari

    2004-01-01

    GIS-based data sets were used to analyze the structure of the forest line at the landscape level in the lowlands of the Usa River Basin, in northeast European Russia. Vegetation zones in the area range from taiga in the south to forest-tundra and tundra in the north. We constructed logistic...

  18. Effects of climatic changes on carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of European part of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olchev, A; Kurbatova, J; Novenko, E; Desherevskaya, O; Krasnorutskaya, K

    2009-01-01

    Effects of possible climatic and vegetation changes on H 2 O and CO 2 fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of the central part of European Russia were quantified using modeling and experimental data. The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the global climatic model ECHAM5 (Roeckner et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127) with the A1B emission scenario. The possible trends of future vegetation changes were obtained by reconstructions of vegetation cover and paleoclimatic conditions in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, as provided from pollen and plant macrofossil analysis of profiles in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR). Applying the method of paleoanalogues demonstrates that increasing the mean annual temperature, even by 1-2 deg. C, could result in reducing the proportion of spruce in boreal forest stands by up to 40%. Modeling experiments, carried out using a process-based Mixfor-SVAT model, show that the expected future climatic and vegetation changes lead to a significant increase of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and gross primary productivity (GPP) of the boreal forests. Despite the expected warming and moistening of the climate, the modeling experiments indicate a relatively weak increase of annual evapotranspiration (ET) and even a reduction of transpiration (TR) rates of forest ecosystems compared to present conditions.

  19. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of Forest Management of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica with Different Types of Felling on Carbon and Economic Balances in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plch, Radek; Pulkrab, Karel; Bukáček, Jan; Sloup, Roman; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The selection of the most sustainable forest management under given site conditions needs suitable criteria and indicators. For this purpose, carbon and economic balance assessment, completed with environmental impact computation using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were used. The aim of this study was to compare forestry operations and wood production of selected forest stands with different i) tree species composition (Norway spruce - Picea abies and European beech - Fagus sylvatica) and ii) type of felling (chainsaw and harvester). Carbon and economic balance methods consist in the comparison of quantified inputs (fossil fuels, electricity, used machinery, fertilizers, etc., converted into emission units of carbon in Mg of C- CO2-eq. or EUR) with quantified outputs (biomass production in Mg of carbon or EUR). In this contribution, similar forest stands (“forest site complexes”) in the 4th forest vegetation zone (in the Czech Republic approximately 400-700 m above sea-level) were selected. Forestry operations were divided into 5 main stages: i) seedling production, ii) stand establishment and pruning, iii) thinning and final cutting, iv) skidding, and v) secondary timber transport and modelled for one rotation period of timber production (ca. 100 years). The differences between Norway spruce and European beech forest stands in the carbon efficiency were relatively small while higher differences were achieved in the economic efficiency (forest stands with Norway spruce had a higher economic efficiency). Concerning the comparison of different types of felling in Norway spruce forest stands, the harvester use proved to induce significantly higher environmental impacts (emission of carbon) and lower economic costs. The comparison of forestry operation stages showed that the main part of carbon emissions, originating from fuel production and combustion, is connected with a thinning and final cutting, skidding and secondary timber transport in relations to

  1. [Characteristics of wintering in ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in forest ecosystems of the East European Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griuntal', S Iu

    2000-01-01

    Specific features of wintering of the ground beetles in three habitats (litter, soil, and bark of fallen trees and stumps) were comparatively studied in the forests of forest-steppe (Voronezh District) and subzone of broad-leaved-spruce forests (Moscow District). The main mass of ground beetles is concentrated in the upper 10-cm soil layer, irrespective of the type of watering (automorphous or hydromorphous soils). Wintering under the bark is a facultative feature of the most species occurring in these biocoenoses.

  2. How to reconcile wood production and biodiversity conservation? The Pan-European boreal forest history gradient as an "experiment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Vladimir; Manton, Michael; Elbakidze, Marine; Rendenieks, Zigmars; Priednieks, Janis; Uhlianets, Siarhei; Yamelynets, Taras; Zhivotov, Anton; Angelstam, Per

    2018-07-15

    There are currently competing demands on Europe's forests and the finite resources and services that they can offer. Forestry intensification that aims at mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation is one example. Whether or not these two objectives compete can be evaluated by comparative studies of forest landscapes with different histories. We test the hypothesis that indicators of wood production and biodiversity conservation are inversely related in a gradient of long to short forestry intensification histories. Forest management data containing stand age, volume and tree species were used to model the opportunity for wood production and biodiversity conservation in five north European forest regions representing a gradient in landscape history from very long in the West and short in the East. Wood production indicators captured the supply of coniferous wood and total biomass, as well as current accessibility by transport infrastructure. Biodiversity conservation indicators were based on modelling habitat network functionality for focal bird species dependent on different combinations of stand age and tree species composition representing naturally dynamic forests. In each region we randomly sampled 25 individual 100-km 2 areas with contiguous forest cover. Regarding wood production, Sweden's Bergslagen region had the largest areas of coniferous wood, followed by Vitebsk in Belarus and Zemgale in Latvia. NW Russia's case study regions in Pskov and Komi had the lowest values, except for the biomass indicator. The addition of forest accessibility for transportation made the Belarusian and Swedish study region most suitable for wood and biomass production, followed by Latvia and two study regions in NW Russian. Regarding biodiversity conservation, the overall rank among regions was opposite. Mixed and deciduous habitats were functional in Russia, Belarus and Latvia. Old Scots pine and Norway spruce habitats were only functional in Komi. Thus

  3. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Lukešová

    Full Text Available The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE

  4. Human-sensitive bryophytes retreat into the depth of forest fragments in central European landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Hošek, J.; Brabec, Marek; Tenčík, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 3 (2016), s. 539-549 ISSN 1612-4669 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : colonization * forest continuity * fragmentation * forest management * fragment size Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2016

  5. Leaf area index from litter collection: impact of specific leaf area variability within a beech stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouriaud, O. [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches Forestieres de Nancy, Champenoux (France); Soudani, K. [Univ. Paris-Sud XI, Dept. d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale, Lab. Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay Cedex (France); Breda, N. [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches Forestieres de Nancy, Champenoux (France)

    2003-06-01

    Litter fall collection is a direct method widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in broad-leaved forest stands. Indirect measurements using radiation transmittance and gap fraction theory are often compared and calibrated against litter fall, which is considered as a reference method, but few studies address the question of litter specific leaf area (SLA) measurement and variability. SLA (leaf area per unit of dry weight, m{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup -1}) is used to convert dry leaf litter biomass (g .m{sup -}2) into leaf area per ground unit area (m{sup 2}{center_dot}m{sup -2}). We paid special attention to this parameter in two young beech stands (dense and thinned) in northeastern France. The variability of both canopy (closure, LAI) and site conditions (soil properties, vegetation) was investigated as potential contributing factors to beech SLA variability. A systematic description of soil and floristic composition was performed and three types of soil were identified. Ellenberg's indicator values were averaged for each plot to assess nitrogen soil content. SLA of beech litter was measured three times during the fall in 23 plots in the stands (40 ha). Litter was collected bimonthly in square-shaped traps (0.5 m{sup 2}) and dried. Before drying, 30 leaves per plot and for each date were sampled, and leaf length, width, and area were measured with the help of a LI-COR areameter. SLA was calculated as the ratio of cumulated leaf area to total dry weight of the 30 leaves. Leaves characteristics per plot were averaged for the three dates of litter collection. Plant area index (PAI), estimated using the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyser and considering only the upper three rings, ranged from 2.9 to 8.1. Specific leaf area of beech litter was also highly different from one plot to the other, ranging from 150 to 320 cm{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup -1}. Nevertheless, no relationship was found between SLA and stand canopy closure or PAI On the contrary, a significant

  6. Leaf area index from litter collection: impact of specific leaf area variability within a beech stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouriaud, O.; Soudani, K.; Breda, N.

    2003-01-01

    Litter fall collection is a direct method widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in broad-leaved forest stands. Indirect measurements using radiation transmittance and gap fraction theory are often compared and calibrated against litter fall, which is considered as a reference method, but few studies address the question of litter specific leaf area (SLA) measurement and variability. SLA (leaf area per unit of dry weight, m 2 ·g -1 ) is used to convert dry leaf litter biomass (g .m - 2) into leaf area per ground unit area (m 2 ·m -2 ). We paid special attention to this parameter in two young beech stands (dense and thinned) in northeastern France. The variability of both canopy (closure, LAI) and site conditions (soil properties, vegetation) was investigated as potential contributing factors to beech SLA variability. A systematic description of soil and floristic composition was performed and three types of soil were identified. Ellenberg's indicator values were averaged for each plot to assess nitrogen soil content. SLA of beech litter was measured three times during the fall in 23 plots in the stands (40 ha). Litter was collected bimonthly in square-shaped traps (0.5 m 2 ) and dried. Before drying, 30 leaves per plot and for each date were sampled, and leaf length, width, and area were measured with the help of a LI-COR areameter. SLA was calculated as the ratio of cumulated leaf area to total dry weight of the 30 leaves. Leaves characteristics per plot were averaged for the three dates of litter collection. Plant area index (PAI), estimated using the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyser and considering only the upper three rings, ranged from 2.9 to 8.1. Specific leaf area of beech litter was also highly different from one plot to the other, ranging from 150 to 320 cm 2 ·g -1 . Nevertheless, no relationship was found between SLA and stand canopy closure or PAI On the contrary, a significant relationship between SLA and soil properties was observed. Both SLA

  7. Elastic and Strength Properties of Heat-Treated Beech and Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Borůvka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of heat treatment on the elastic and strength properties of two diffuse porous hardwoods, namely Fagus sylvatica and Betula pendula. Two degrees of the heat treatment were used at temperatures of 165 °C and 210 °C. The dynamic and static elasticity modulus, bending strength, impact toughness, hardness, and density were tested. It is already known that an increase in treatment temperature decreases the mechanical properties and, on the other hand, leads to a better shape and dimensional stability. Higher temperatures of the heat treatment correlated with lower elastic and strength properties. In the case of higher temperature treatments, the decline of tested properties was noticeable as a result of serious changes in the chemical composition of wood. It was confirmed that at higher temperature stages of treatment, there was a more pronounced decrease in beech properties compared to those of the birch, which was the most evident in their bending strength and hardness. Our research confirmed that there is no reason to consider birch wood to be of a lesser quality, although it is regarded by foresters as an inferior tree species. After the heat treatment, the wood properties are almost the same as in the case of beech wood.

  8. European Forest Cover During the Past 12,000 Years: A Palynological Reconstruction Based on Modern Analogs and Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Marco; Davis, Basil A S; Marquer, Laurent; Brewer, Simon; Kaplan, Jed O

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of land cover change in the past is fundamental to understand the evolution and present state of the Earth system, the amount of carbon and nutrient stocks in terrestrial ecosystems, and the role played by land-atmosphere interactions in influencing climate. The estimation of land cover changes using palynology is a mature field, as thousands of sites in Europe have been investigated over the last century. Nonetheless, a quantitative land cover reconstruction at a continental scale has been largely missing. Here, we present a series of maps detailing the evolution of European forest cover during last 12,000 years. Our reconstructions are based on the Modern Analog Technique (MAT): a calibration dataset is built by coupling modern pollen samples with the corresponding satellite-based forest-cover data. Fossil reconstructions are then performed by assigning to every fossil sample the average forest cover of its closest modern analogs. The occurrence of fossil pollen assemblages with no counterparts in modern vegetation represents a known limit of analog-based methods. To lessen the influence of no-analog situations, pollen taxa were converted into plant functional types prior to running the MAT algorithm. We then interpolate site-specific reconstructions for each timeslice using a four-dimensional gridding procedure to create continuous gridded maps at a continental scale. The performance of the MAT is compared against methodologically independent forest-cover reconstructions produced using the REVEALS method. MAT and REVEALS estimates are most of the time in good agreement at a trend level, yet MAT regularly underestimates the occurrence of densely forested situations, requiring the application of a bias correction procedure. The calibrated MAT-based maps draw a coherent picture of the establishment of forests in Europe in the Early Holocene with the greatest forest-cover fractions reconstructed between ∼8,500 and 6,000 calibrated years BP. This

  9. Improving the utilization of beech sawdust by sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenak, I.; Boda, K.; Jalc, D.; Lenart, J.; Kmet, V.; Havassy, I.; Kosta, K.

    1991-01-01

    Defibration following treatment with 1% H 2 SO 4 as an impregnation agent increased the in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility of beech sawdust to 59.5%. Digestibilities of barley straw, wheat straw, maize stover and bagasse were also increased through defibration without prior chemical treatment. Increased DM degradability was also reflected in better digestibility of fibre components and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The inclusion of treated beech sawdust in the diet at levels of up to 20% had no negative effect on lamb performance. Studies with 15 N labelled urea did not show clear positive effect on nitrogen utilization when sheep were fed the treated beech sawdust. Immobilized cellulase and the addition of branched-chain VFA significantly increased the in vitro degradation of treated beech sawdust. Methanol extract of treated beech sawdust had an inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococus bovis and Lactobacillus plantarum and reduced in vitro fermentation of rumen fluid. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  10. Screening for resistance to beech bark disease: Improvements and results from seedlings and grafted field selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Mary E. Mason; David W. Carey

    2012-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) is an insect-disease complex that has been killing American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) trees since the accidental introduction of the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) to Canada around 1890. Insect infestation is followed by infection with Neonectria ditissima or

  11. Development of molecular tools for use in beech bark disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson; Abdelali Barakat; John E. Carlson; David. Neale

    2011-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) has been killing American beech trees in eastern North America since the late 1890s. The disease is initiated by feeding of the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which leads to the development of small fissures in the bark.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of soil rotifers in a South-Bohemian beech forest Dinâmica espaço-temporal de rotíferos edáficos em uma floresta de faias no sul da Boêmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Devetter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine seasonal variation and vertical distribution of the soil rotifer assemblage in a climax beech forest in South Bohemia. During 2005, soil rotifer was investigated to the species level. Soil samples of 10 cm² and 10 cm in depth were divided into five layers, which were processed separately. Thirty one rotifer species were identified during the investigation. Dominant species significantly changed throughout the seasons. The most abundant species were Encentrum arvicola and Wierzejskiella vagneri among the monogononts, and Adineta steineri, Ceratotrocha cornigera, Habrotrocha filum, Habrotrocha ligula, Macrotrachela plicata, Mniobia tentans, Mniobia incrassata and Mniobia granulosa among the bdelloids. Mean Shannon diversity index varied from 1.99 to 2.63. Total rotifer abundance varied from 212±63 to 513±127 10³ individuals m-2 along the year, with the highest numbers found in May, and the lowest in July. The great part of the community was concentrated in the upper (fresh litter and second (partially decomposed litter layers and significantly decreased in the soil vertical profile on all sampling dates. The highest rotifer density of 43 individuals g-1 was found in the upper layer in May.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a variação sazonal e a distribuição vertical de comunidades de rotíferos edáficos em uma floresta de faias em clímax, no Sul da Boêmia. Durante 2005, as comunidades de rotíferos edáficos foram estudadas até o nível da espécie. Amostras de 10 cm² de área com 10 cm de profundidade foram divididas em cinco camadas, que foram processadas separadamente. Trinta e uma espécies de rotíferos foram identificadas durante a investigação. Todas as espécies dominantes tiveram variações significativas durante as estações climáticas. As espécies mais abundantes foram Encentrum arvicola e Wierzejskiella vagneri entre os monogonontes e Adineta steineri, Ceratotrocha

  13. A meta-database comparison from various European Research and Monitoring Networks dedicated to forest sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielewska, A.; Clarke, N.; Olejnik, Janusz; Hansen, K.; de Vries, W.; Lundin, L.; Tuovinen, J-P.; Fischer, R.; Urbaniak, M.; Paoletti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 1-9 ISSN 1971-7458 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Research and Monitoring Network * Meta- database * Forest * Monitoring Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2013

  14. Nitrogen Dynamics in European Forest Ecosystems: Considerations regarding Anthropogenic Nitrogen Depositions

    OpenAIRE

    Agren, G.I.; Kauppi, P.

    1983-01-01

    This study deals with the nutrient cycle of forest ecosystems over large geographic regions in Europe as affected by nitrogen deposition. The view is taken that the nitrogen cycle of a forest ecosystem has a maximum capacity for circulating nitrogen. Two different cases are defined: case (1) in which the nutrient cycle functions below its maximum capacity, and case (2) in which the circulation operates at the maximum level.

  15. Assessing forest influences on torrential hazards and risks: IRSTEA mission within the European H2020 project NAIAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Tacnet, Jean Marc; Berger, Frédéric; Curt, Corinne; Curt, Thomas; Arnaud, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    NAIAD (NAture Insurance value: Assessment and Demonstration) is a H2020 European project gathering 23 partners interested in ecosystems services related to water. The project more specifically links nature services to the assurance world and aims to operationalise "Natural Assurance Schemes", defined as a range of schemes to internalise the value of ecosystems services, e.g., the buffering role of river systems against water risks, in insurance policies. It is based on an assessment methodology that includes the physical, socio-cultural and valuation aspects of ecosystems services in relation to water, adapted to the institutional frame to align economic incentives and financial flows. Within the NAIAD projet, IRSTEA will more specifically try to highlight the role of mountain forests in torrential flood hazards and risks. The forest eventually acts on hydrology by buffering part of the rainwater. Vegetation has also a key role in soil conservation by curtailing primary sediment production in the hillslopes. Conversely, woody debris dramatically aggravate hazards by clogging bridges and key protections structures as open check dams. Finally this dual role may change in time due to the forest vulnerability to climatic, biologic or physical changes, e.g. after a wildfire. The first project step will be an extensive literature review on all these effects. Secondly indicators describing the torrential systems will be proposed and link to variably pronounced influence of forest. In a third time, case studies will be undertaken. The dramatic flood that occur in the region of Nice in summer 2015 (20 fatalities) will probably be used as a benchmark test. Several scenarios of alternative forest and river managements under varying climate forcing will be tested later. Complete torrential risk assessment studies will be performed on several sites within this project, with and without the forest influences in order to highlight its role. Numerous check dams have been built in

  16. Estimation of potential and actual evapotranspiration of boreal forest ecosystems in the European part of Russia during the Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olchev, A; Novenko, E

    2011-01-01

    A simple regression model for calculating annual actual evapotranspiration (ET) and potential evapotranspiration (PET), as well as annual transpiration (TR) of mature boreal forests grown in the European part of Russia in the Holocene using paleoclimatic and paleobotanical data (air temperature, precipitation, forest species compositions) is presented. The model is based on nonlinear approximations of annual values of ET, TR and PET obtained by the Levenberg–Marquardt method using the results of numerical simulations of ET, TR and PET provided by a process-based Mixfor-SVAT model for forests with different species compositions under various thermal and moistening conditions. The results of ET, TR and PET reconstructions for the Holocene show large variability and high correlation with the air temperature pattern. Minimal values of ET and PET are obtained for the Younger Dryas cold phase (11.0–10.0 14 C kyr BP) when ET varied between 320 and 370 mm yr −1 and PET varied between 410 and 480 mm yr −1 . During the Late Atlantic periods of the Holocene (4.5–5.1 14 C kyr BP), ET and PET reached maximal values (ET: 430–450 mm yr −1 and PET: 550–570 mm yr −1 ).

  17. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatova, J; Tatarinov, F; Varlagin, A; Avilov, V; Molchanov, A; Kozlov, D; Ivanov, D; Valentini, R

    2013-01-01

    Soil, tree stems, and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56° N 33° E) during the growing seasons of 2002–2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere–biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of the total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of the ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability, ranging from 0.7 to 10 μmol m −2  s −1 . Generally, the soil respiration depended on the soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions, the soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. The stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September, and in October it dramatically decreased. The tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3–5 μmol m −2  s −1 for dominant trees and about 1–2 μmol m −2  s −1 for subdominant trees. The respiration of living tree stems was about 10–20% of the ER. (letter)

  18. Monitoring of forest decline in forest ecosystems of the Bavarian Alps; Monitoring von Schaeden in Waldoekosystemen des bayerischen Alpenraumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehfuess, K.E.; Osswald, W.F.; Ewald, J.; Reuther, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde und Standortslehre; Nechwatal, J.; Lang, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Forstbotanik - Arbeitsgruppe Phytopathologie

    2000-09-01

    This regional multifactorial investigation addresses the dependence of vitality of Norway spruce and European beech (crown transparency, site index, root systems and nutritional status) on ecological factors and the presence of pathogens in mountain forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany). Existing data on airborne deposition and ozone concentrations were supplemented by 2 elevational transects, in which wet bulk deposition was measured and ozone passive samplers were exposed during 2 vegetation periods. The distribution of crown transparency in spruce and beech as related to site conditions and its relationships with long-term stand growth, nutritional status and root morphology suggest that transparent crowns as observed in the Calcareous Alps are nothing new and unlikely to be caused by atmospheric pollution. Their distribution must be regarded as an old, long-lasting and natural pattern of tree vitality. (orig.) [German] Es wurde die Abhaengigkeit der Vitalitaet von Fichten und Buchen (Kronentransparenz, Bestandesbonitaet, Wurzel- und Ernaehrungszustand) in den Bergwaeldern des Werdenfelser Landes (Oberbayern) von Standortsfaktoren und vom Befall durch pilzliche Pathogene mit einem regionalstatistischen, multifaktoriellen Ansatz untersucht. Vorhandene Daten zu Stoffeintrag und Ozonbelastung wurden durch eine zweijaehrige Beprobung des Freilandniederschlags und Ozon-Passivsammler-Messungen in zwei Hoehenprofilen ergaenzt. Die standortbezogene Verteilung der Kronentransparenz und ihre Beziehungen zum langfristigen Bestandeswachstum, zum Ernaehrungs- und Wurzelzustand legen nahe, dass es sich in den Kalkalpen nicht um neuartige, immissionsbedingte Waldschaeden, sondern um seit Alters her bestehende, natuerliche Vitalitaetsunterschiede handelt. (orig.)

  19. The wind and fire disturbance in Central European mountain spruce forests: the regeneration after four years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Budzáková

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A strong windstorm in November 2004 resulted in a huge blown-down spruce forest area in the southern part of the Tatra National Park in the Western Carpathians in Slovakia, Central Europe. The aim of this work is to study the vegetation composition of spruce forest at differently managed sites four years after this disturbance. Four study areas were selected for this purpose: (i an area where the fallen trees were extracted and new seedlings were planted; (ii an area, which was hit by a forest fire after the extraction; (iii an area where no active management was applied; (iv a reference forest unaffected by such disturbance. A total of 100 plots were selected, 25 of each area type. The result of DCA and CCA analyses consistently indicated that after this short period the non-extracted and extracted areas are currently most similar to the reference forest area, while the fire affected area differed. A one-way ANOVA comparing species cover for the different plot sizes indicated some significant differences between the extracted and non-extracted plots. The abundance of certain species commonly occurring in spruce forests, such as Dyopteris carthusiana agg., Vaccinium myrtillus and Avenella flexuosa, correlated weli with the non-extracted plots, compared to the extracted plots. Coverage of these species was lowest on burned plots. The lowest Shannon-Wiener’s diversity values were recorded in burned plots. This was most likely a consequence of mono-dominant competitive species spread, (mainly Chamerion angustifolium which profited from the altered ecological conditions following the fire. Although some differences were also registered in the Shannon-Wiener diversity index between the remaining research plots, however these were not statistically significant. The most important results of our investigations include the extensive influence of fire disturbance on vegetation. Study revealed that the wind-disturbed area is able to regenerate

  20. Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teuling, A.J.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Stöckli, R.

    2010-01-01

    on the exchange of water and energy and the interaction of this exchange with the soil water balance during heatwaves is largely unknown. Here we analyse observations from an extensive network of flux towers in Europe that reveal a difference between the temporal responses of forest and grassland ecosystems...... and induces a critical shift in the regional climate system that leads to increased heating. We propose that this mechanism may explain the extreme temperatures in August 2003. We conclude that the conservative water use of forest contributes to increased temperatures in the short term, but mitigates...

  1. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  2. European genetic conservation strategies of forest trees in the context of currently running climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of forests, at the level of species and at the level of genetic diversity within species, is an important resource for Europe. Over the past several decades countries have made efforts to conserve the diversity of tree species and genetic diversity. However, there was no harmonised

  3. Inventories of N2O and NO emissions from European forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesik, M.; Ambus, Per; Baritz, R.

    2005-01-01

    Forest soils are a significant source for the primary and secondary greenhouse gases N2O and NO. However, current estimates are still uncertain due to the still limited number of field measurements and the herein observed pronounced variability of N trace gas fluxes in space and time, which are d...

  4. Creating a regional MODIS satellite-driven net primary production dataset for european forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Mathias; Moreno, Adam; Thurnher, Christopher; Mues, Volker; Härkönen, Sanna; Mura, Matteo; Bouriaud, Olivier; Lang, Mait; Cardellini, Giuseppe; Thivolle-Cazat, Alain; Bronisz, Karol; Merganic, Jan; Alberdi, Iciar; Astrup, Rasmus; Mohren, Frits; Zhao, Maosheng; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is an important ecological metric for studying forest ecosystems and their carbon sequestration, for assessing the potential supply of food or timber and quantifying the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. The global MODIS NPP dataset using the MOD17 algorithm

  5. Restoration of Central-European mountain Norway spruce forest 15 years after natural and anthropogenic disturbance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, M. H.; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 144, 15 May (2015), s. 120-130 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Picea abies forest * disturbance * bark beetle * salvage logging * natural regeneration * Herb-layer vegetation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2015

  6. Windstorms as mediator of soil nematode community changes: Evidence from European spruce forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renčo M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013. Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp, maturity index (MI, maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5, sigma maturity index (ΣMI, enrichment index (EI and structure index (SI decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013 as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014 were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.

  7. Disintegration of beech wood char during thermal conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    In the present work the processes occurring in the structures of slowly pyrolysed beech wood char during thermal gasification have been investigated. Emphasis was put on physical changes and gas transport properties during conversion. The highly anisotropic structure of wood was preserved in its ...

  8. Experimental Study on Dry Torrefaction of Beech Wood and Miscanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyerusalem M. Gucho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermochemical pre-treatment process for upgrading the properties of biomass to resemble those of fossil fuels such as coal. Biomass properties of particular interest are chemical composition, physical property and combustion characteristics. In this work, torrefaction of beech wood and miscanthus (sinensis was carried out to study the influence of torrefaction temperature (240–300 °C and residence time (15–150 min on the aforementioned properties of the biomass. Results of the study revealed that torrefaction temperature has a significant influence on mass and energy yields, whereas the influence of the residence time becomes more apparent for the higher torrefaction temperatures (>280 °C. Torrefied miscanthus resulted in higher energy densification compared to beech wood for a residence time of 30 min. A significant improvement in grindability of the torrefied beech wood was obtained even for lightly torrefied beech wood (at 280 °C and 15 min of residence time. Observation from the combustion study showed that the ignition temperature is slightly affected by the torrefaction temperature. As a whole, the torrefaction temperature determines the characteristics of the torrefied fuel compared to other process parameters like residence time. Furthermore, with optimal process conditions, torrefaction produces a solid fuel with combustion reactivity and porosity comparable to raw biomass, whereas grindability and heating value are comparable to low quality coal.

  9. Experimental Study on Dry Torrefaction of Beech Wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gucho, Eyerusalem Merin; Shahzad, K.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Akhtar, N.A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermochemical pre-treatment process for upgrading the properties of biomass to resemble those of fossil fuels such as coal. Biomass properties of particular interest are chemical composition, physical property and combustion characteristics. In this work, torrefaction of beech

  10. Present state of beech bark disease in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus J. Lang

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease can be found at present time in young and old stands (20-150 years old) of Fagus sylvatica. The present state of the disease may be described as "normal" and apart from some cases, it is no threat to the existence of the stands.

  11. Hot callusing for propagation of American beech by grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; Paul Bloese; Jennifer L. Koch

    2013-01-01

    To increase grafting success rate, a hot callus grafting system was designed and implemented as part of a multiagency collaborative project to manage beech bark disease (BBD) through the establishment of regional BBD-resistant grafted seed orchards. Five years of data from over 2000 hot callus graft attempts were analyzed using a logistic regression model to determine...

  12. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  13. Forest health status in the Carpahian Mountains over the period 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, Ovidiu; Tanase, Mihai; Georgeta, Jianu; Anisoara, Lazar; Peiov, Agata; Uhlirova, Hana; Pajtik, Josef; Wawrzoniak, Jerzy; Shparyk, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    The results of forest health status assessments in the Carpathian Mountains from the monitoring networks developed by the European Union Scheme on the Protection of Forest Against Atmospheric Pollution (EU Scheme) and International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests), have led to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other stressors on forests at the regional scale. During the period 1997-2001, forests in the Carpathian Mountains were severely affected by air pollution and natural stresses with 29.7-34.9% of the trees included in defoliation classes 2-4. The broadleaves were slightly healthier than the conifers, and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was the least affected species. Norway spruce (Picea abies) has poor health status, with 42.9-46.6% of the trees damaged (2-4% defoliation classes). Silver fir (Abies alba) damage was also high, with 46.0-50.9% in defoliation classes 2-4. Pines (primarily Pinus sylvestris) were the least affected of the conifers, with 24.9-33.8% in defoliation classes 2-4. The results from the transnational networks (16x16 km) show that the Carpathian forests are slightly more damaged than the average for the entire Europe. The correlative studies performed in individual European countries show the relationships between air pollution stressors with trends in defoliation and a possible effect of natural stresses at each site. More specific, effects of tree age, drought, ozone and acid deposition critical level exceedances were demonstrated to affect crown condition. - About 1/3 of the Carpathian forest trees are damaged by natural stressors and air pollution

  14. Of Asian forests and European fields: Eastern U.S. plant invasions in a global floristic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Fridley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogeographic patterns of species invasions hold important clues to solving the recalcitrant 'who', 'where', and 'why' questions of invasion biology, but the few existing studies make no attempt to distinguish alien floras (all non-native occurrences from invasive floras (rapidly spreading species of significant management concern, nor have invasion biologists asked whether particular habitats are consistently invaded by species from particular regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here I describe the native floristic provenances of the 2629 alien plant taxa of the Eastern Deciduous Forest of the Eastern U.S. (EUS, and contrast these to the subset of 449 taxa that EUS management agencies have labeled 'invasive'. Although EUS alien plants come from all global floristic regions, nearly half (45% have native ranges that include central and northern Europe or the Mediterranean (39%. In contrast, EUS invasive species are most likely to come from East Asia (29%, a pattern that is magnified when the invasive pool is restricted to species that are native to a single floristic region (25% from East Asia, compared to only 11% from northern/central Europe and 2% from the Mediterranean. Moreover, East Asian invaders are mostly woody (56%, compared to just 23% of the total alien flora and are significantly more likely to invade intact forests and riparian areas than European species, which dominate managed or disturbed ecosystems. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These patterns suggest that the often-invoked 'imperialist dogma' view of global invasions equating invasion events with the spread of European colonialism is at best a restricted framework for invasion in disturbed ecosystems. This view must be superseded by a biogeographic invasion theory that is explicitly habitat-specific and can explain why particular world biotas tend to dominate particular environments.

  15. Effects of simulated historical tree litter raking on the understorey vegetation in a central European forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vild, Ondřej; Kalwij, Jesse; Hédl, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2015), s. 569-578 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : conservation management * litter raking * species diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2015

  16. Creating a Regional MODIS Satellite-Driven Net Primary Production Dataset for European Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Mathias; Moreno, Adam; Thurnher, Christopher; Mues, Volker; Härkönen, Sanna; Mura, Matteo; Bouriaud, Olivier; Lang, Mait; Cardellini, Giuseppe; Thivolle-Cazat, Alain; Bronisz, Karol; Merganic, Jan; Alberdi, Iciar; Astrup, Rasmus; Mohren, Frits

    2016-01-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is an important ecological metric for studying forest ecosystems and their carbon sequestration, for assessing the potential supply of food or timber and quantifying the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. The global MODIS NPP dataset using the MOD17 algorithm provides valuable information for monitoring NPP at 1-km resolution. Since coarse-resolution global climate data are used, the global dataset may contain uncertainties for Europe. We used a 1-km daily g...

  17. The occurrence of parasitic arthropods in two groups of European bison in the Białowieza primeval forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, J N

    2001-01-01

    Within 1992-2000, a total of 181 Białowieza Forest bison were examined from two winter herds. Twelf parasitic arthropod species were observed, a high infestation being typical of Demodex bisonianius, Chorioptes bovis, Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus, and Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii. The infestation in section 422 herd being higher for B. sedecimdecembrii, I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, Ch. bovis. D. bisonianus was slightly more prevalent in the section 391 herd, the intensity being, however, lower than that in the other herd. Among the remaining arthropods found in the Bialowieza Forest European bison, some Lipoptena cervi occurred in both herds, Demodex sp. and Sarcoptes scabiei were recorded only in the section 422 herd, Ixodes persulcatus was present only in the section 391 bison and those kept in the reservation, while D. bovis, Psoroptes ovis, and Melophagus ovinus were found in the reserve bison only. In the present study, the largest differences in the extent of infestation involved the hair-dwelling arthropods (B. sedecimdecembrii, I. rixinus).

  18. The interacting effects of ungulates and fire on forest dynamics: an analysis using the model FORSPACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Groen, T.A.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of interactions between the density of ungulates and forest fires on forest dynamics were studied on an area of 1188 ha called Planken Wambuis. The vegetation consists mainly of heathland and Scots pine forest but also includes oak, beech and birch, and parts of former arable land that

  19. Climatic control of stand thinning in unmanaged spruce forests of the southern taiga in European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vygodskaya, N.N.; Schulze, E.D.; Tchebakova, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    The demography of Picea abies trees was studied over a period of about 30 yr on permanent plots in six forest types of an unmanaged forest located in a forest reserve of the Southern Taiga, NW of Moscow. This study encompassed a broad range of conditions that are typical for old growth spruce forests in the boreal region, including sites with a high water table and well drained sites, podzolic soils, acidic soils and organic soils. At all sites stand density, tree height, breast height diameter and age has been periodically recorded since 1968. Tree density ranged between 178 and 1035 trees/ha for spruce and between 232 and 1168 trees/ha for the whole stand, including mainly Betula and Populus. Biomass ranged between 5.4 and 170 tdw/ha for spruce and between 33 to 198 tdw/ha for the whole stand. Averaged over a long period of time, biomass did not change with stand density according to the self-thinning rule. In fact, on most sites biomass remained almost constant in the long term, while stand density decreased. The study demonstrates that the loss of living trees was not regulated by competitive interactions between trees, but by disturbances caused by climatic events. Dry years caused losses of minor and younger trees without affecting biomass. In contrast, periodic storms resulted in a loss of biomass without affecting density, except for extreme events, where the whole stand may fall. Dry years followed by wet years enhance the effect on stand density. Since mainly younger trees were lost, the apparent average age of the stand increased more than real time (20% for Picea). Average mortality was 2.8 ± 0.5% yr 1 for spruce. Thus, the forest is turned over once every 160-180 yr by disturbances. The demography of dead trees shows that the rate of decay depends on the way the tree died. Storm causes uprooting and stem breakage, where living trees fall to the forest floor and decay with a mean residence time (t1/2) of about 16 yr (decomposition rate constant k d = 0

  20. Air Pollution and Forest Health: Establishing Cause and Effect in the Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I participated in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains,” in Stara Lesna, Slovakia from May 22–26, 2001. Researchers from Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the U.S. met to present their results from a three-year cooperative study of tree health and air quality monitoring in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Much of the work reported related to assessing the crown condition of trees in permanent plots in natural or managed (planted forests in the mountains. The endpoint was tree condition, with results extrapolated to the forests in the Carpathian range. From this I learned that, of the 50,000 trees evaluated, European beech (Fagus sylvatica was the most healthy, while Norway spruce (Picea abies (the principal forest tree and white fir (Abies alba sustained crown defoliation of up to 12.8%. The cause of this crown defoliation and tree decline was usually attributed to “air pollution” as a generic term and an automatic assumption. It is well known that deposition of heavy metals and acidic sulfur and nitrogen compounds can cause tree decline and predispose affected trees to bark beetles and climatic damage. Chemical analyses can also be done to detect metals and sulfur compounds in trees and soils. Sometimes these analyses were done, but most often the assumption was that crown defoliation was caused by air pollution. The assumption was that given sufficient exposure to high enough concentrations of toxic elements, sooner or later there will be a visible adverse response.

  1. Modelling Forest Water Consumption in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Nonhebel, S.

    1988-01-01

    The water consumption of oak, beech, spruce and pine forest is predicted from routinely measured meteorological data for five locations in the Netherlands. Differences in water consumption are found to be primarily a result of differences in interception loss. Predicted interception loss was found

  2. Environmental drivers of Ixodes ricinus abundance in forest fragments of rural European landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Liira, Jaan; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A O; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Kolb, Annette; Lenoir, Jonathan; Lindgren, Jessica; Naaf, Tobias; Paal, Taavi; Valdés, Alicia; Verheyen, Kris; Wulf, Monika; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2017-09-06

    The castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus) transmits infectious diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, which constitutes an important ecosystem disservice. Despite many local studies, a comprehensive understanding of the key drivers of tick abundance at the continental scale is still lacking. We analyze a large set of environmental factors as potential drivers of I. ricinus abundance. Our multi-scale study was carried out in deciduous forest fragments dispersed within two contrasting rural landscapes of eight regions, along a macroclimatic gradient stretching from southern France to central Sweden and Estonia. We surveyed the abundance of I. ricinus, plant community composition, forest structure and soil properties and compiled data on landscape structure, macroclimate and habitat properties. We used linear mixed models to analyze patterns and derived the relative importance of the significant drivers. Many drivers had, on their own, either a moderate or small explanatory value for the abundance of I. ricinus, but combined they explained a substantial part of variation. This emphasizes the complex ecology of I. ricinus and the relevance of environmental factors for tick abundance. Macroclimate only explained a small fraction of variation, while properties of macro- and microhabitat, which buffer macroclimate, had a considerable impact on tick abundance. The amount of forest and the composition of the surrounding rural landscape were additionally important drivers of tick abundance. Functional (dispersules) and structural (density of tree and shrub layers) properties of the habitat patch played an important role. Various diversity metrics had only a small relative importance. Ontogenetic tick stages showed pronounced differences in their response. The abundance of nymphs and adults is explained by the preceding stage with a positive relationship, indicating a cumulative effect of drivers. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem disservices of tick-borne diseases, via the

  3. THE QUALITY OF THE SURFACE AT THE BEECH WOODTURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CHERCIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been experiments made with outside cylindrical beech woodturning with low cutting speed, and feed successively changed. We study, qualitative rather than quantitative, the roughnesss of the surface achieved. It interprets the appearance of each surface based on the theory of cutting considerations. Resulted surface images are given, photographed with a camera and microscope. It appears that here are no propellers generated by the cutting tool nose on the cylindrical part, excepting the situation of using high feeds.

  4. Chemical Elements in Mulch and Litterfall of Beech Ecosystems and Their Total Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyana I. Lyubenovа

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The beech communities on the territory of Bulgaria had been objects of regional, local as well as large scale national investigations aiming their classification, determination of their ecological characteristics, conservation status, habitats etc. They are included as objects of the intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Bulgaria also. The investigations of chemical content of the litter – fall in these forests were conducted until now. The novelty of the present research is investigation of these elements in the mulch and the ratio between the established quantities calculation. The main goal is the biological turnover special features characterization of the investigated elements which give us a chance to define the investigated ecosystems state and functioning. The indexes as litter – mulch and acropetal coefficients were used for this aim. The content of macroelements as N, Ca and K and microelements as Pb, Zn, Mn and Fe in soils, mulch and in different litter fall fractions have been calculated. The investigation was carried out on three sample plots. During the investigation was established that the soils are characterized with acid reaction, high content of Fe, N and Mn and low content of Ca and K. The concentration of Zn and Pb are high also. The calculated average store of investigated elements in litter – fall is 81.312 kg.ha1 and in the mulch 314 kg.ha1. According to the acropetal coefficient N is accumulated mainly in the acorns, K – in the annual phytomass fractions and Ca – in the perennial fractions. The leaves and the acorns fraction accumulate Mn, and cupolas Fe. The litter – mulch coefficient vary from 1,6 (Mn to 4,2 (Pb. The tendencies of Zn and Ca turnovers acceleration are discovered, while the turnover of more investigated elements is inhibited. The litter – mulch coefficient for Zn and Ca is 0,8 and 1,4 accordingly, i.е. corresponding to the intensive type of turnovers which is not typical for the

  5. Diversity and community ecology of forest epiphyte testate amoebae from European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard J; Belyakova, Olga; Mazei, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant group of microorganisms which make a significant contribution to the diversity of protist life. Most of the world's potential habitats for testate amoebae have been barely studied and when such places are investigated they frequently reveal novel communities and species. Here we consider the testate amoeba communities associated with boreal forest epiphytes (mosses and lichens); an environment which we argue has been under-researched. We present a dataset of 165 samples from four regions of western Russia and analyse these data in relation to micro-habitat position and selected environmental data. The testate amoebae of epiphytes are abundant but dominated by ubiquitous species. We show that there are trends toward a lower species richness and test concentration with greater elevation on the trunk and in lichens compared to mosses. There are considerable differences in community composition between sampling regions. Of all measured environmental variables only moisture content showed a significant relationship with testate amoeba community structure. Our data highlight how little is known about testate amoeba communities of this habitat and call for greater research efforts, particularly in less-studied regions and biomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixed-Species Effects on Soil C and N Stocks, C/N Ratio and pH Using a Transboundary Approach in Adjacent Common Garden Douglas-Fir and Beech Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Muhie Dawud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed forest of Douglas-fir and beech has been suggested as one of the possible future forest types in Northwest Europe but the effects of this mixed forest on soil properties relative to monoculture stands are unknown. In a transboundary investigation of adjacent common garden Douglas-fir and beech stands, we determined the effects on topsoil properties. However, responses of C and N stocks, the C/N ratio and pH were site- and soil layer-specific and were mainly single-sided and without synergistic effects. Beech reduced the soil C and N stocks in Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site, caused an increase in the C/N ratio in the forest floor and mineral soil at both nutrient-poor and -rich sites, and reduced the acidifying effect of Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site. These results do not support the hypothesis that mixture effects would be consistent across sites and soil layers. The lack of synergistic effects may be attributed to the relatively similar litter quality or rooting depth that prevented any larger niche differentiation and complementarity. The results indicate that the transboundary approach within a mature common garden proved useful as a platform to test tree species interactions, and this approach could be explored in soil studies until dedicated mixed-species common gardens reach maturity.

  7. Plant bio-stimulator fertilizers can be applied in integrated plant management (IPM in forest nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the circumstances of only a limited number of pesticides being approved for use in forest nurseries, it is necessary to also examine the efficacy of new products available on the European market that stimulate growth and improve resilience and vitality among seedlings and saplings, with a view to the application of these products forming part of an integrated programme of plant protection. This paper describes trials of the three commercially available fertilizer products Actifos, Zielony Busz and Effective Microorganisms (EM, as carried out in seven Polish nurseries in an attempt to promote the growth of shoots and root systems of seedlings and saplings. In 64% of cases of it being used, Actifos was shown to stimulate growth significantly beyond control levels in the shoots of oak, beech, pine, spruce and alder saplings as well as the roots of young alders and oaks.

  8. Effect of stand edge on the natural regeneration of spruce, beech and Douglas-fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aimed at studying the strategy of woody plants regeneration during the regeneration of a spruce stand with the admixture of beech and Douglas-fir by border cutting (NW-SE aspect on acidic sites of higher elevations in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Spruce is better adapted to bear shade than Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, in optimal light conditions up to a distance of ca. 35 m (about 16% DIFFSF from the stand edge, the Douglas-fir can put the spruce into danger as to height growth. By contrast to beech, the density of spruce is significantly higher within the distance of 45 m (about 15% DIFFSF from the stand edge but further on the situation would change to the benefit of beech. The density of Douglas-fir significantly dominates over beech within a distance of 35 m from the stand edge; from 55 m (less than 15% DIFFSF, the situation changes in favour of beech. Beech can survive in full shade deep in the stand core waiting for its opportunity to come. As compared to spruce and Douglas-fir, the height growth of beech was at all times significantly greater at a distance of 25 m from the stand edge. Converted to practical conditions, spruce and Douglas-fir with individually admixed beech seedlings showed good prosperity approximately up to a distance of one stand height from the edge. A mixture of spruce and beech did well at a greater distance but good prosperity at a distance of 2–3 stand heights was shown only by beech. Thus, border regeneration eliminates disadvantages of the climatic extremes of clear-cutting and specifics of shelterwood felling during which one – usually shade-tolerant tree species dominates in the natural regeneration (e.g. beech.

  9. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  10. Ecophysiological variation of European hornbeams along the foliation period in semi-rural recreational forest landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Öztürk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the ecophysiological characteristics of deciduous trees in the recreational areas allows construction of planning objectives particularly for the urban forests. Analysis of a multipurpose vegetation parameter; LAI (Leaf Area Index together with some meteorological variables supplies to an extent the comprehension of those ecophysiological characteristics. Around this scope, the LAI dynamics of Carpinus betulus L. trees in a recreational area were monitored and analyzed along the foliation period of approximately three months. The mean LAI which was only 0.80 during the budburst stage gradually escalated reaching 1.49 after the flushing stage. The increment of the leaves in size and numbers led to the mean LAI achieve its climax with 3.41 in early May. Then, the mean LAI experienced a stable period until the end of May. The change in the mean LAI were subjected to correlation test especially with the air and soil temperatures. The correlations between the mean LAI and, in particular the soil temperature (r≥0.95 and air temperature were high and significant (P<0.01. There were no definite correlation between the mean LAI and mean sunlight duration, air humidity and total precipitation. Impact of air temperature on the LAI of Carpinus betulus L. trees indicates the vulnerability of the recreational area to possible urban heat oriented climate warming. On the other hand, the influence of soil temperature on the mean LAI warns the susceptibility of the recreational area to possible anthropogenic pressure resulting in soil compaction and regeneration difficulties. Consequently, sustainable management of this recreational area necessitates the anticipation and mitigation of these possible destructions.

  11. Forest report 2015; Waldzustandsbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This forest condition report of Hessen (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, weather and climate, the impact of spring drought on soil water balance and growth, drought stress risk of beech in Hessen, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, trends in the soil solution of forest ecosystems, soil chemistry and rooting in deeper soil layers. [German] Dieser Waldzustandsbericht von Hessen (Deutschland) enthaelt folgende Themen: Waldzustandserhebung fuer alle Baumarten, Witterung und Klima, Auswirkungen der Fruehjahrstrockenheit auf Bodenwasserhaushalt und Wachstum, Trockenstressrisiko der Buche in Hessen, Insekten und Pilze, Forstliches Umweltmonitoring, Stoffeintraege, Trends in der Bodenloesung von Waldoekosystemen, Bodenchemie und Durchwurzelung in tieferen Bodenschichten.

  12. Immission-load-related dynamics of S-SO42− in precipitation and in lysimetric solutions penetrating through beech ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla Ján

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a 23-year study of sulphate sulphur dynamics in beech ecosystems exposed to different immission loads. The amounts of S-SO42− in precipitation water entering the ecosystems were: the Kremnické vrchy Mts, a clear-cut area 519 kg ha−1 (24.7 kg ha−1 per year, a beech forest 476 kg ha−1 (22.7 kg ha−1 per year; the Štiavnické vrchy Mts an open place 401 kg ha−1 (24.6 kg ha−1 per year, a beech forest 324 kg ha−1 (19.1 kg ha−1 per year. The average SO42− concentrations in lysimetric solutions penetrating through surface humus to a depth of Cambisol 10 and 25 cm were increased as follows: in the Kremnické vrchy Mts from 12.71 to 16.17 mg l−1 and in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts from 18.73 to 28.80 mg l−1. The S-SO4−2 amounts penetrating the individual soil layers in the Kremnické vrchy Mts were as follows: in case of surface humus on clear-cut area 459 kg ha−1 (20.9 kg ha−1 per year, in beech forest 433 kg ha−1 (19.7 kg ha−1 per year; below 10 cm organo-mineral layer of the mentioned plots penetrated 169–171 kg ha−1 (7.7–7.8 kg ha−1 per year, and below 25 cm mineral layer 155–255 kg ha−1 (7.1−11.6 kg ha−1 per year – a higher amount was found on clear-cut area with an episodic lateral flow of soil solutions. In beech forest of the Štiavnické vrchy Mts penetrated below surface humus 424 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (18.9 kg ha−1 per year, below 10 cm mineral layer 458 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (19.9 kg ha−1 per year, and below 25 cm mineral layer as much as 599 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (26.0 kg ha−1 per year. This fact was caused by frequent lateral flow of soil solutions. The results indicate that the assumption about lower immission load of the beech ecosystem in the Kremnické vrchy Mts is wrong, at least in the case of S-SO42−. The testing has revealed that the studied beech ecosystems differ very significantly in sulphur amounts penetrating under 0.10 m and 0.25 m. The

  13. Do forests best mitigate CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by setting them aside for maximization of carbon storage or by management for fossil fuel substitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeroe, Anders; Mustapha, Walid Fayez; Stupak, Inge; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2017-07-15

    Forests' potential to mitigate carbon emissions to the atmosphere is heavily debated and a key question is if forests left unmanaged to store carbon in biomass and soil provide larger carbon emission reductions than forests kept under forest management for production of wood that can substitute fossil fuels and fossil fuel intensive materials. We defined a modelling framework for calculation of the carbon pools and fluxes along the forest energy and wood product supply chains over 200 years for three forest management alternatives (FMA): 1) a traditionally managed European beech forest, as a business-as-usual case, 2) an energy poplar plantation, and 3) a set-aside forest left unmanaged for long-term storage of carbon. We calculated the cumulative net carbon emissions (CCE) and carbon parity times (CPT) of the managed forests relative to the unmanaged forest. Energy poplar generally had the lowest CCE when using coal as the reference fossil fuel. With natural gas as the reference fossil fuel, the CCE of the business-as-usual and the energy poplar was nearly equal, with the unmanaged forest having the highest CCE after 40 years. CPTs ranged from 0 to 156 years, depending on the applied model assumptions. CCE and CPT were especially sensitive to the reference fossil fuel, material alternatives to wood, forest growth rates for the three FMAs, and energy conversion efficiencies. Assumptions about the long-term steady-state levels of carbon stored in the unmanaged forest had a limited effect on CCE after 200 years. Analyses also showed that CPT was not a robust measure for ranking of carbon mitigation benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Earthworms – good indicators for forest disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    YAHYA KOOCH; KATAYOUN HAGHVERDI

    2014-01-01

    In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass) and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca) to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest loca...

  15. Declining atmospheric deposition of heavy metals over the last three decades is reflected in soil and foliage of 97 beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in the Vienna Woods☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold; Berger, Torsten W.

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous studies on long-term changes of heavy metal distribution in forest soils since the implementation of emission controls are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining deposition of heavy metals is reflected in soil and foliar total contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. Mean soil contents of Pb in the stemflow area declined at the highest rate from 223 to 50 mg kg−1 within the last three decades. Soil contents of Pb and Ni decreased significantly both in the stemflow area and the between trees area down to 80–90 cm soil depth from 1984 to 2012. Top soil (0–5 cm) accumulation and simultaneous loss in the lower soil over time for the plant micro nutrients Cu and Zn are suggested to be caused by plant uptake from deep horizons. Reduced soil leaching, due to a mean soil pH (H2O) increase from 4.3 to 4.9, and increased plant cycling are put forward to explain the significant increase of total Mn contents in the infiltration zone of beech stemflow. Top soil Pb contents in the stemflow area presently exceed the critical value at which toxicity symptoms may occur at numerous sites. Mean foliar contents of all six studied heavy metals decreased within the last three decades, but plant supply with the micro nutrients Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe is still in the optimum range for beech trees. It is concluded that heavy metal pollution is not critical for the studied beech stands any longer. PMID:28709055

  16. Declining atmospheric deposition of heavy metals over the last three decades is reflected in soil and foliage of 97 beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in the Vienna Woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold; Berger, Torsten W

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous studies on long-term changes of heavy metal distribution in forest soils since the implementation of emission controls are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining deposition of heavy metals is reflected in soil and foliar total contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. Mean soil contents of Pb in the stemflow area declined at the highest rate from 223 to 50 mg kg -1 within the last three decades. Soil contents of Pb and Ni decreased significantly both in the stemflow area and the between trees area down to 80-90 cm soil depth from 1984 to 2012. Top soil (0-5 cm) accumulation and simultaneous loss in the lower soil over time for the plant micro nutrients Cu and Zn are suggested to be caused by plant uptake from deep horizons. Reduced soil leaching, due to a mean soil pH (H 2 O) increase from 4.3 to 4.9, and increased plant cycling are put forward to explain the significant increase of total Mn contents in the infiltration zone of beech stemflow. Top soil Pb contents in the stemflow area presently exceed the critical value at which toxicity symptoms may occur at numerous sites. Mean foliar contents of all six studied heavy metals decreased within the last three decades, but plant supply with the micro nutrients Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe is still in the optimum range for beech trees. It is concluded that heavy metal pollution is not critical for the studied beech stands any longer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Food preferences of winter bird communities in different forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen C Renner

    Full Text Available Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwäbische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communities preferred fat-rich, carbohydrate-rich or wild fruits and to determine how forest structure, seasonality and local weather conditions affected food preferences. We found higher bird activity in beech forests for the eleven resident species. We observed a clear preference for fat-rich food for all birds in both forest types. Snow cover affected activity at food stations but did not affect food preferences. Periods of extreme low temperatures increased activity.

  18. Subfossil leaves reveal a new upland hardwood component of the pre-European Piedmont landscape,Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J Elliott

    Full Text Available Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study

  19. Charcoal kiln sites, associated landscape attributes and historic forest conditions: DTM-based investigations in Hesse (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background An examination of the distribution of ancient charcoal kiln sites in the forest landscape seems to be worthwhile, since general trends in the selection of suitable kiln site locations in the past might become obvious. In this way forest landscape elements with a more intense usage by charcoal burning can be identified. By doing this, we can expect to gain information on the former condition and tree species composition of woodland. Investigations on the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in relation to landscape attributes are sparse, however, probably due to the high on-site mapping effort. The outstanding suitability of LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs for the detection of charcoal kiln sites has been recently proved. Hence, DTM-based surveys of charcoal kiln sites represent a promising attempt to fill this research gap. Methods Based on DTM-based surveys, we analyzed the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in two forest landscapes in the German federal state of Hesse: Reinhardswald and Kellerwald-Edersee National Park. In doing so, we considered the landscape attibutes "tree species composition", “water supply status”, “nutrient supply status”, “soil complex classes”, “altitude”, “exposition”, and “inclination”. Results We found that charcoal kiln sites were established preferably on hillside locations that provided optimal growing and regeneration conditions for European beech (Fagus sylvatica due to their acidic brown soils and sufficient water supply. These results are in line with instructions for the selection of appropriate kiln site locations, found in literature from the 18th to the 19th century. Conclusions We conclude that there were well-stocked, beech-dominated deciduous forest stands in northern Hesse before 1800, particularly at poorly accessible hillside locations. These large stocks of beech wood were utilized by the governments of the different Hessian territories

  20. Disturbances catalyze the adaptation of forest ecosystems to changing climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    The rates of anthropogenic climate change substantially exceed those at which forest ecosystems - dominated by immobile, long-lived organisms - are able to adapt. The resulting maladaptation of forests has potentially detrimental effects on ecosystem functioning. Furthermore, as many forest-dwelling species are highly dependent on the prevailing tree species, a delayed response of the latter to a changing climate can contribute to an extinction debt and mask climate-induced biodiversity loss. However, climate change will likely also intensify forest disturbances. Here, we tested the hypothesis that disturbances foster the reorganization of ecosystems and catalyze the adaptation of forest composition to climate change. Our specific objectives were (i) to quantify the rate of autonomous forest adaptation to climate change, (ii) examine the role of disturbance in the adaptation process, and (iii) investigate spatial differences in climate-induced species turnover in an unmanaged mountain forest landscape (Kalkalpen National Park, Austria). Simulations with a process-based forest landscape model were performed for 36 unique combinations of climate and disturbance scenarios over 1000 years. We found that climate change strongly favored European beech and oak species (currently prevailing in mid- to low-elevation areas), with novel species associations emerging on the landscape. Yet, it took between 357 and 706 years before the landscape attained a dynamic equilibrium with the climate system. Disturbances generally catalyzed adaptation and decreased the time needed to attain equilibrium by up to 211 years. However, while increasing disturbance frequency and severity accelerated adaptation, increasing disturbance size had the opposite effect. Spatial analyses suggest that particularly the lowest and highest elevation areas will be hotspots of future species change. We conclude that the growing maladaptation of forests to climate and the long lead times of autonomous

  1. Comparative analysis of the influence of climate change and nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems in European Russia: simulation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Komarov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An individual-based simulation model, EFIMOD, was used to simulate the response of forest ecosystems to climate change and additional nitrogen deposition. The general scheme of the model includes forest growth depending on nitrogen uptake by plants and mineralization of soil organic matter. The mineralization rate is dependent on nitrogen content in litter and forest floor horizons. Three large forest areas in European Central Russia with a total area of about 17 000 km2 in distinct environmental conditions were chosen. Simulations were carried out with two climatic scenarios (ambient climate and climate change and different levels of nitrogen deposition (ambient value and increase by 6 and 12 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The simulations showed that increased nitrogen deposition leads to increased productivity of trees, increased organic matter content in organic soil horizons, and an increased portion of deciduous tree species. For the climate change scenario, the same effects on forest productivity and similar shifts in species composition were predicted but the accumulation of organic matter in soil was decreased.

  2. Validation of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (v.5.1) against eddy covariance data for 10 European forest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collalti, A.; Marconi, S.; Ibrom, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (FEM) in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. A new carbon allocation module, coupled with new both phenological...... over Europe without a site-related calibration, the model has been deliberately parametrized with a single set of species-specific parametrizations for each forest ecosystem. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites...... sites we evaluate whether a more accurate representation of forest structural characteristics (i.e. cohorts, forest layers) and species composition can improve model results. In two of the three sites results reveal that model slightly increases its performances although, statistically speaking...

  3. Changes in the enchytraeid fauna of a moder soil beech stand after liming. Veraenderungen der Enchytraeidenfauna in einem Sauerhumus-Buchenwald nach Bestandeskalkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch-Boesken, J. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). 2. Zoologisches Inst.); Greven, H. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). 2. Zoologisches Inst.)

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the enchytraeid fauna before and two years after liming of a beech forest and comparison with an untreated area (Luzulo-Fagetum) reveal changes in the number of individuals/m[sup 2], number of species. Shannon-Weaver-Index and Evenness, particularly when individual soil horizons are considered. These changes obviously are related to the elevated pH of the soil after liming. pH-preferences of enchytraeids, whose dominances are strongly affected by liming, are shown. (orig.)

  4. Soil compaction of various Central European forest soils caused by traffic of forestry machines with various chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Allman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The primary objective of this paper was to compare the effects of different types of forestry machine chassis on the compaction of the top layers of soil and to define the soil moisture content level, at which machine traffic results in maximum compaction.Area of study: Measurements were conducted in eight forest stands located in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The soil types in the stands subjected to the study were luvisols, stagnosols, cambisols, and rendzinas.Material and Methods: The measurements were focused on tracked and wheeled (equipped with low pressure tyres cut-to-length machines, and skidders equipped with wide and standard tyres. The bulk density of soil was determined from soil samples extracted from the ruts, the centre of the skid trail, and the undisturbed stand. To determine soil moisture content, at which the soil is the most susceptible to compaction, the Proctor standard test was employed.Main results: The moisture content for maximal compaction fluctuated from 12% to 34.06%. Wheeled machines compacted the soil to 1.24 – 1.36 g.cm-3 (30.3 – 35.4 % compaction in dried state. Bulk density of soil in stands where tracked machine operated was lower, ranging from 1.02 to 1.06 g.cm-3 (25.3 % compaction.Research highlights: All wheeled machines caused the same amount of soil compaction in the ruts, despite differences in tyres, machine weight, etc. Maximum compaction caused by forestry machines occurred at minimal moisture contents, easily achievable in European climatic conditions.  Keywords: soil compaction; bulk density; soil moisture content limits; cut-to-length machines; skidders.

  5. Discrimination between acute and chronic decline of Central European forests using map algebra of the growth condition and forest biomass fuzzy sets: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samec, Pavel; Caha, Jan; Zapletal, Miloš; Tuček, Pavel; Cudlín, Pavel; Kučera, Miloš

    2017-12-01

    Forest decline is either caused by damage or else by vulnerability due to unfavourable growth conditions or due to unnatural silvicultural systems. Here, we assess forest decline in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) using fuzzy functions, fuzzy sets and fuzzy rating of ecosystem properties over a 1×1km grid. The model was divided into fuzzy functions of the abiotic predictors of growth conditions (F pred including temperature, precipitation, acid deposition, soil data and relative site insolation) and forest biomass receptors (F rec including remote sensing data, density and volume of aboveground biomass, and surface humus chemical data). Fuzzy functions were designed at the limits of unfavourable, undetermined or favourable effects on the forest ecosystem health status. Fuzzy sets were distinguished through similarity in a particular membership of the properties at the limits of the forest status margins. Fuzzy rating was obtained from the least difference of F pred -F rec . Unfavourable F pred within unfavourable F rec indicated chronic damage, favourable F pred within unfavourable F rec indicated acute damage, and unfavourable F pred within favourable F rec indicated vulnerability. The model in the 1×1km grid was validated through spatial intersection with a point field of uniform forest stands. Favourable status was characterised by soil base saturation (BS)>50%, BCC/Al>1, C org >1%, MgO>6g/kg, and nitrogen depositionforests had BS humus 46-60%, BCC/Al 9-20 and NDVI≈0.42. Chronic forest damage occurs in areas with low temperatures, high nitrogen deposition, and low soil BS and C org levels. In the Czech Republic, 10% of forests were considered non-damaged and 77% vulnerable, with damage considered acute in 7% of forests and chronic in 5%. The fuzzy model used suggests that improvement in forest health will depend on decreasing environmental load and restoration concordance between growth conditions and tree species composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  6. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  7. Effects of acid rain and liming on the enchytraeid fauna in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graefe, U.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the enchytraeid community has been observed in a Solling beech forest over a period of 11 years. Eight out of 18 formerly established species have disappeared in one decade. The connection to soil chemical changes due to atmospheric deposition is discussed. A comparison of adjoining beech and spruce stands revealed considerably lower species numbers under spruce. The community under beech is developing in the direction of the species community in the spruce stand. Liming affects changes in the dominance structure. Mesophilic species are favoured, acidophilic are repressed. In an oak-beech stand near Hamburg even the recolonization by previously absent species was observed. Liming experiments with 25, 50 and 100 dt CaCO 3 /ha showed decreasing total abundance of enchytraeids proportional to the amount of lime. Species number, diversity and evenness increased with lime treatments up to 50 dt/ha. (orig.)

  8. Dispersal of Airborne Pollen in Chatienshan Nature Reserve, Northern Taiwan, with Emphasis on Taiwan Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ku

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this first study on the pollen rain in natural forest in Taiwan using pollen traps, the dispersal patterns of airborne pollen were determined, with emphasis on Fagus hayatae and some major plant species, and the relationship between pollen assemblages and vegetation was elucidated. Seventeen pollen traps were installed on the western slope of Mt. Takai, northern Taiwan, from March 21 to May 10, 2008. Pollen and spores belonging to 37 families and 43 genera were identified. The results of correspondence analysis suggested differentiation of three vertical zones of pollen assemblages that corresponded to three vegetation types. Three patterns of occurrence were identified for the major pollen taxa, namely ubiquitous occurrence, local occurrence, and peak occurrence. The pollen influx of F. hayatae, a taxon characterized by local occurrence, was remarkably lower at a distance of over 200 m away from the pure stands. This suggests that pollen-mediated gene flow between the beech populations in Taiwan is unlikely. Besides providing basic data on the pollen dispersal of some important taxa in the middle altitudes of Taiwan, the present study also points out that caution should be taken in interpreting pollen percentage data from sediments.

  9. Water Balance and Forest Productivity in Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scarascia-Mugnozza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of water resources is one of the major drivers affecting forest and agricultural productivity. The sensitivity of Mediterranean forest species to water shortage is becoming even more relevant in relation to climate changes, that for Southern Europe could lead to an increase in temperature of 2 to 3 °C, paralleled by a decrease of 5 to 15% of summer rainfall. It is then important to study the relationship between water balance and productivity of important forest tree species such as beech and mountain pines that represent the upper limit of forest vegetation in almost all the Apennines range. In the present paper, the measurements of water balance, evapotranspiration, carbon exchange and productivity in beech and pine forests of central-southern Italy (Abruzzo and Calabria regions are reported. The results are obtained in the course of several years of experimentation with innovative techniques and integrated at the canopy level.

  10. Translating conservation genetics into management: Pan-European minimum requirements for dynamic conservation units of forest tree genetic diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Schueler, Silvio; Kraigher, Hojka; Olrik, Ditte C.; Hubert, Jason; Longauer, Roman; Bozzano, Michele; Yrjänä, Leena; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Rotach, Peter; Vietto, Lorenzo; Bordács, Sándor; Myking, Tor; Eysteinsson, Thröstur

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a review of theoretical and practical aspects related to genetic management of forest trees. The implementation of international commitments on forest genetic diversity has been slow and partly neglected. Conservation of forest genetic diversity is still riddled with problems, and complexities of national legal and administrative structures. Europe is an example of a complex region where the dis- tribution ranges of tree species extend across large geographical areas with ...

  11. Effects of Drought and Rewetting on Growth and Gas Exchange of Minor European Broadleaved Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kunz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and economically important European tree species such as Norway spruce, Scots pine, and European beech are projected to be negatively affected by the increasing intensity and frequency of dry and hot conditions in a future climate. Hence, there is an increasing need to investigate the suitability of presumably more drought tolerant species to ensure future ecological stability, biodiversity, and productivity of forests. Based on their distribution patterns and climatic envelopes, the rare, minor broadleaved tree species Sorbus torminalis ((L. CRANTZ, S. domestica (L., Acer campestre (L., and A. platanoides (L. are assumed to be drought tolerant, however, there is only limited experimental basis to support that notion. This study aimed at quantifying growth and gas exchange of seedlings of these species during drought conditions, and their capacity to recover following drought. For that purpose, they were compared to the common companion species Quercus petraea ((MATTUSCHKA LIEBL. and Fagus sylvatica (L.. Here, potted seedlings of these species were exposed to water limitation followed by rewetting cycles in a greenhouse experiment. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance as well as root and shoot growth rates indicated a high drought resistance of A. campestre and A. platanoides. Sorbus domestica showed a marked ability to recover after drought stress. Therefore, we conclude that these minor tree species have the potential to enrich forests on drought-prone sites. Results from this pot experiment need to be complemented by field studies, in which the drought response of the species is not influenced by restrictions to root development.

  12. Facilitative-competitive interactions in an old-growth forest: the importance of large-diameter trees as benefactors and stimulators for forest community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Forrester, David I; Härdtle, Werner; Sturm, Knut; von Oheimb, Goddert

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading) and belowground competition (crowding) among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services.

  13. Facilitative-competitive interactions in an old-growth forest: the importance of large-diameter trees as benefactors and stimulators for forest community assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fichtner

    Full Text Available The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading and belowground competition (crowding among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services.

  14. Facilitative-Competitive Interactions in an Old-Growth Forest: The Importance of Large-Diameter Trees as Benefactors and Stimulators for Forest Community Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Forrester, David I.; Härdtle, Werner; Sturm, Knut; von Oheimb, Goddert

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading) and belowground competition (crowding) among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services. PMID:25803035

  15. A walk on the wild side: Disturbance dynamics and the conservation and management of European mountain forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakowski, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert; Holeksa, Jan; Kuuluvainen, Timo; Nagel, Thomas A; Panayotov, Momchil; Svoboda, Miroslav; Thorn, Simon; Vacchiano, Giorgio; Whitlock, Cathy; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Bebi, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Mountain forests are among the most important ecosystems in Europe as they support numerous ecological, hydrological, climatic, social, and economic functions. They are unique relatively natural ecosystems consisting of long-lived species in an otherwise densely populated human landscape. Despite this, centuries of intensive forest management in many of these forests have eclipsed evidence of natural processes, especially the role of disturbances in long-term forest dynamics. Recent trends of land abandonment and establishment of protected forests have coincided with a growing interest in managing forests in more natural states. At the same time, the importance of past disturbances highlighted in an emerging body of literature, and recent increasing disturbances due to climate change are challenging long-held views of dynamics in these ecosystems. Here, we synthesize aspects of this Special Issue on the ecology of mountain forest ecosystems in Europe in the context of broader discussions in the field, to present a new perspective on these ecosystems and their natural disturbance regimes. Most mountain forests in Europe, for which long-term data are available, show a strong and long-term effect of not only human land use but also of natural disturbances that vary by orders of magnitude in size and frequency. Although these disturbances may kill many trees, the forests themselves have not been threatened. The relative importance of natural disturbances, land use, and climate change for ecosystem dynamics varies across space and time. Across the continent, changing climate and land use are altering forest cover, forest structure, tree demography, and natural disturbances, including fires, insect outbreaks, avalanches, and wind disturbances. Projected continued increases in forest area and biomass along with continued warming are likely to further promote forest disturbances. Episodic disturbances may foster ecosystem adaptation to the effects of ongoing and future

  16. Variations of Mercury Concentrations in American Beech Foliage over a Growing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, I.; Tsui, M. T. K.; Chow, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Accumulation of atmospheric gaseous mercury (Hg) in foliage is well known, however, a small fraction of Hg always exists as highly bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg) in foliage but the source of MeHg in foliage is unknown. Recent studies suggested in-vivo Hg methylation in foliage while others suggested external inputs (e.g., precipitation) as sources of MeHg in foliage. This study assesses the accumulation of total Hg and MeHg within the foliage of a small sample set of American Beech trees, one of the common tree species in the east coast and the study site is located within the campus of University of North Carolina - Greensboro, over the growing season in 2017 (spring, summer, and fall). In addition, this study evaluates the Hg concentrations in foliage as related to other physiological parameters (e.g., stomatal density, leaf area, chlorophyll, and carbon/nitrogen content) and the changes in environmental characteristics (e.g., sunlight) over the growing season. For this investigation, five American Beech trees with varying characteristics (height, age, and location) were selected. On a biweekly basis, starting late April 2017, foliage samples were collected and composited from different positions on each tree. For the samples processed to date, our results indicate that total Hg accumulation is occurring for all five trees with an initial mean value of 5.79 ng/g, increasing to a mean value of 13.9 ng/g over a ten-week period. Coincidentally, there has been a similar increase in chlorophyll (a+b) concentrations for the foliage, and there is a strong, positive relationship between chlorophyll and total-Hg concentrations. However, we found no relationships between total Hg concentrations and stomatal density of foliage or carbon/nitrogen content. This study is still ongoing and will continue through the end of the growing season in 2017. Additionally, from the same sample sets, besides total Hg analysis and other ancillary parameters in foliage, MeHg analysis

  17. Functional significance of tree species diversity and species identity on soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and pH in major European forest types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie

    Forests provide different ecosystem functions and services including soil carbon sequestration and nutrient supply to maintain growth and productivity. This PhD thesis explored tree species diversity and tree species identity (conifer proportion of basal area) effects on soil C stock and nutrient...... 8 and 12 years old common garden stands established in two contrasting bioclimatic regions. In all the studied contexts, tree species identity (confers versus broadleaves) was stronger than diversity in consistently driving variability of the examined soil properties and root characteristics......, particularly in topsoil layers. Diversity did not affect fine root characteristics of the young forests and effects on soil properties were different under the investigated contexts. Across the different European sites, diversity had no effect on C/N ratio and pH but under comparable environmental conditions...

  18. Central-European mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests: regeneration of tree species after a bark beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; Prach, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2004), s. 15-27 ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : forest management * mountain spruce forest * natural regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2004 http://www.sciencedirect.com

  19. The dependence of natural regeneration of forest trees on upper soil conditions and acidity at damaged sites in the Black Forest, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littek, T.

    1993-06-01

    It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of different upper soil conditions on the germination and establishment, as well as the growth, of young plants of various tree species. For this purpose, four test plots in the region of the Black Forest were laid out, in which, by various means of site preparation and fertilization, the upper soils were changed. Natural seeding of common spruce, European silver-fir, beech, sycamore maple, European mountainash, and grey alder was simulated by means of controlled sowing. For comparison, a greenhouse experiment was carried out, examining the germination and development of the same tree species in various soil substrata, using different fertilizers, and under the influence of artificial acid rain. The most important results - with a high level of variation depending on the tree species examined - can be summarized as follows: Based on the results of field and greenhouse experiments, as well as on the investigations of other authors, it can be concluded that natural regeneration of forest stands is considerably impeded under conditions of increasing soil acidity and by high acid depositions. This is seen directly as the result of unfavorable chemical conditions in the upper soil, as well as indirectly due to deteriorating competitiveness against other vegetation. Site preparation and lime or dolomite fertilization can be important measures in the practice of forestry, to encourage natural regeneration in highly acidic sites with an unfavourable humus layer and a high presence of competing vegetation. (orig./UWA). 2 figs., 85 tabs., 269 refs [de

  20. Erasing a European biodiversity hot-spot: Open woodlands, veterantrees and mature forests succumb to forestry intensification,succession, and logging in a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miklín, J.; Čížek, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-41 ISSN 1617-1381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952; GA TA ČR TA02021501 Grant - others:Universita Ostrava(CZ) SGS4/PřF/2012; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : forest management * land use/land cover change * lower Morava UNESCO biosphere reserve Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1617138113000794

  1. Investigation of beech wood modified by radio-frequency discharge plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Popelka, A.; Špitalský, Z.; Mičušík, M.; Omastová, M.; Valentin, M.; Sedliačik, J.; Janigová, I.; Kleinová, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, September (2015), s. 88-94 ISSN 0042-207X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : radio-frequency plasma * beech wood * adhesive properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2015

  2. Dinàmica dels micronutrients en la caiguda i descomposició de la virosta de tres sistemes forestals del Montseny

    OpenAIRE

    Caritat, Antònia

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of Mn, Fe and Zn has been studiedin the litterfall and in the decomposition process in individual monospecific stands of holm oak (Quercus ilex), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and fir (Abies alba) in the Montseny mountains. Usually, micronutrient concentrations in different litterfall fractions are higher than those in biomass due to the increase in dead organs. Beech is the forest with the highest manganese and iron return in litterfall. It has been observed that the maximum micronutr...

  3. Discrimination between acute and chronic decline of Central European forests using map algebra of the growth condition and forest biomass fuzzy sets: A case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, P.; Caha, J.; Zapletal, M.; Tuček, P.; Cudlín, Pavel; Kučera, M.

    599-600, DEC (2017), s. 899-909 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : abiotic predictors * Forest decline * Fuzzy modelling * Nitrogen deposition * Soil carbon Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  4. Mid-Holocene bottleneck for central European dry grasslands: Did steppe survive the forest optimum in northern Bohemia, Czech Republic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Chytrý, M.; Juřičková, L.; Sádlo, Jiří; Novák, J.; Ložek, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 716-726 ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : MId-Holocene * forest-steppe * pollen analysis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2015

  5. Epiphytic lichen diversity in central European oak forests: Assessment of the effects of natural environmental factors and human influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, David; Peksa, Ondrej; Vesela, Jana

    2010-01-01

    We investigated lichen diversity in temperate oak forests using standardized protocols. Forty-eight sites were sampled in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The effects of natural environmental predictors and human influences on lichen diversity (lichen diversity value, species richness) were analysed by means of correlation tests. We found that lichen diversity responded differently to environmental predictors between two regions with different human impact. In the industrial region, air pollution was the strongest factor. In the agricultural to highly forested regions, lichen diversity was strongly influenced by forest age and forest fragmentation. We found that several natural factors can in some cases obscure the effect of human influences. Thus, factors of naturality gradient must be considered (both statistically and interpretively) when studying human impact on lichen diversity. - We detected the different responses of lichens to ecological predictors in polluted and unpolluted areas.

  6. Non-indigenous plant species and their ecological range in Central European pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbe , Stefan; Wirth , Petra

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this study, forest ecosystems were analysed with regard to the occurrence and ecological range of non-indigenous plant species. Pine forests in the NE German lowland, which naturally and anthropogenically occur on a broad range of different sites, were taken as an example. The analysis is based on a data set of about 2 300 vegetation plots. The ecological range was assessed applying Ellenberg's ecological indicator values. Out of a total of 362 taxa recorded in the ...

  7. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  8. Assessing exergy of forest ecosystem using airborne and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkina, Olga; Fabianek, Tomas; Lukes, Petr; Zemek, Frantisek

    2017-04-01

    Interactions of the energy flows of forest ecosystem with environment are formed by a suite of forest structure, functions and pathways of self-control. According to recent thermodynamic theory for open systems, concept of exergy of solar radiation has been applied to estimate energy consumptions on evapotranspiration and biomass production in forest ecosystem or to indicate forest decline and human land use impact on ecosystem stability. However, most of the methods for exergy estimation in forest ecosystem is not stable and its physical meaning remains on the surface. This study was aimed to contribute to understanding the exergy of forest ecosystem using combination of remote sensing (RS) and eddy covariance technologies, specifically: 1/to explore exergy of solar radiation depending on structure of solar spectrum (number of spectral bands of RS data), and 2/to explore the relationship between exergy and flux tower eddy covariance measurements. Two study forest sites were located in Western Beskids in the Czech Republic. The first site was dominated by young Norway spruce, the second site was dominated by mature European beech. Airborne hyperspectral data in VNIR, SWIR and TIR spectral regions were acquired 9 times for study sites during a vegetation periods in 2015-2016. Radiometric, geometric and atmospheric corrections of airborne data were performed. Satellite multispectral Landsat-8 cloud-free 21 scenes were downloaded and atmospherically corrected for the period from April to November 2015-2016. Evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes were collected from operating flux towers located on study sites according to date and time of remote sensing data acquisition. Exergy was calculated for each satellite and airborne scene using various combinations of spectral bands as: Ex=E^out (K+ln E^out/E^in )+R, where Ein is the incoming solar energy, Eout is the reflected solar energy, R = Ein-Eout is absorbed energy, Eout/Ein is albedo and K is the Kullback increment

  9. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, Andreas; Korhonen, J. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally...

  10. Impact of European Union Timber Regulation on Forest Certification Strategies in the Finnish Wood Industry Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Holopainen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this explorative study is to find out how the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR has affected the forest and chain of custody (CoC certification strategies and practices among the Finnish wood industry companies. We are especially interested to find out whether more integrated strategies and collaborative networks have emerged for enhanced communications throughout the industry value chains. This qualitative interview study included both EUTR ex ante and ex post analysis, based on three rounds of managerial and expert interviews during 2011–2015. The results indicate that the EUTR appears to have enforced the supplier–client relations in the Finnish wood industry value chain. The sector still lacks integrated communication strategies with better understanding of customer and stakeholder values, which could contribute to more cohesive communication and marketing efforts reflecting the values of the whole industry. The certification practices are fairly spontaneously implemented following the traditional industry culture, which is not supportive of innovations and gaining competitive advantages in the broader material markets. Furthermore, the existence of two parallel forest certificates (Forest Stewardship Council (FSC and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC seems to hamper the effective communication and building of an image of sustainable wood products among customers and end consumers, groups that are also exposed to more general environmental communication, e.g., in the building material markets.

  11. Forest-edge utilization by carnivores in relation to local and landscape habitat characteristics in central European farmland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Červinka, J.; Pavluvčík, P.; Poláková, S.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2014), s. 176-182 ISSN 1616-5047 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * Farmland * Forest-edge utilization * Landscape characteristics * Local characteristics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2014

  12. Chromosera cyanophylla (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) a rare fungus of Central European old-growth forests and its habitat preferences in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, J.; Kříž, M.; Beran, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 100, 1-2 (2015), s. 189-204 ISSN 0029-5035 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Omphalina cyanophylla * Boubinskyr prales virgin forest * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.876, year: 2015

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Channel Retention in a Lowland Temperate Forest Stream Settled by European Beaver (Castor fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Grygoruk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Beaver ponds remain a challenge for forest management in those countries where expansion of beaver (Castor fiber is observed. Despite undoubted economic losses generated in forests by beaver, their influence on hydrology of forest streams especially in terms of increasing channel retention (amount of water stored in the river channel, is considered a positive aspect of their activity. In our study, we compared water storage capacities of a lowland forest stream settled by beaver in order to unravel the possible temporal variability of beaver’s influence on channel retention. We compared distribution, total damming height, volumes and areas of beaver ponds in the valley of Krzemianka (Northeast Poland in the years 2006 (when a high construction activity of beaver was observed and in 2013 (when the activity of beaver decreased significantly. The study revealed a significant decrease of channel retention of beaver ponds from over 15,000 m3 in 2006 to 7000 m3 in 2013. The total damming height of the cascade of beaver ponds decreased from 6.6 to 5.6 m. Abandoned beaver ponds that transferred into wetlands, where lost channel retention was replaced by soil and groundwater retention, were more constant over time and less vulnerable to the external disturbance means of water storage than channel retention. We concluded that abandoned beaver ponds played an active role in increasing channel retention of the river analyzed for approximately 5 years. We also concluded that if the construction activity of beaver was used as a tool (ecosystem service in increasing channel retention of the river valley, the permanent presence of beaver in the riparian zone of forest streams should have been assured.

  14. Surface Runoff and Snowmelt Infiltration into the Soil on Plowlands in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of the East European Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanov, A. T.; Dolgov, S. V.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Panov, V. I.; Petel'ko, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term series of observations over the spring water balance elements on fields with hydrologically contrasting agricultural backgrounds―a loose soil after fall moldboard plowing and a plowland compacted by 12-16% compared to the former soil (perennial grasses, winter crops, stubble)―have been analyzed. The values of surface runoff and water infiltration into the soil in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have been calculated for the spring (flooding) period and the entire cold season. The hydrological role of fall plowing has been shown, and water balance elements for the current (1981-2016) and preceding (1957-1980) periods have been compared. A significant decrease in runoff and an increase of water reserve in the soil have been revealed on all plowland types. Consequences of changes in the spring water balance on plowland have been analyzed.

  15. Impacts of a water stress followed by an early frost event on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) susceptibility to Scolytine ambrosia beetles - Research strategy and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, Sylvie; de Cannière, Charles; Molenberg, Jean-Marc; Vincke, Caroline; Deman, Déborah; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Climate change tends to induce more frequent abiotic and biotic extreme events, having large impacts on tree vitality. Weakened trees are then more susceptible to secondary insect outbreaks, as it happened in Belgium in the early 2000s: after an early frost event, secondary Scolytine ambrosia beetles attacks were observed on beech trees. In this study, we test if a combination of stress, i.e. a soil water deficit preceding an early frost, could render trees more attractive to beetles. An experimental study was set in autumn 2008. Two parcels of a beech forest were covered with plastic tents to induce a water stress by rain interception. The parcels were surrounded by 2-meters depth trenches to avoid water supply by streaming. Soil water content and different indicators of tree water use (sap flow, predawn leaf water potential, tree radial growth) were followed. In autumn 2010, artificial frost injuries will be inflicted to trees using dry ice. Trees attractivity for Scolytine insects, and the success of insect colonization will then be studied. The poster will focus on experiment setting and first results (impacts of soil water deficit on trees).

  16. Rainfall, fog and throughfall dynamics in a sub-tropical ridge-top cloud forest, National Park of Garajonay (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Santos, G.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed tree-heath/beech forest is a type of subtropical montane cloud forest found on wind- and fog-exposed ridges in the Canary Islands. With a dry season of 5 months and an annual precipitation of 600-700 mm, the extra water inputs through fog interception assume particular importance in this

  17. Estimation of beech pyrolysis kinetic parameters by Shuffled Complex Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Chaos, Marcos; Chen, Ruiyu; Lu, Shouxiang

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis kinetics of a typical biomass energy feedstock, beech, was investigated based on thermogravimetric analysis over a wide heating rate range from 5K/min to 80K/min. A three-component (corresponding to hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) parallel decomposition reaction scheme was applied to describe the experimental data. The resulting kinetic reaction model was coupled to an evolutionary optimization algorithm (Shuffled Complex Evolution, SCE) to obtain model parameters. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which SCE has been used in the context of thermogravimetry. The kinetic parameters were simultaneously optimized against data for 10, 20 and 60K/min heating rates, providing excellent fits to experimental data. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimized parameters were applicable to heating rates (5 and 80K/min) beyond those used to generate them. Finally, the predicted results based on optimized parameters were contrasted with those based on the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ground beetles as indicators of past management of old-growth forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Old-growth forests are terrestrial ecosystems with the highest level of biodiversity and the main environments for the study of conservation and dynamics of the forest system. In Mediterranean Europe, two millennia of human exploitation deeply altered the structural complexity of the native forests. Some animal groups, including insects, may be used as a proxy of such changes. In this paper we explored the possible effects of forest management on the functional diversity (species traits of carabid beetle communities. Three old-growth forests of the Sila National Park were sampled by pitfall traps set up in pure beech, beech-silver fir and Calabrian black pine forests. In each forest, five managed vs. five unmanaged stands were considered. Managed sites were exploited until the sixties of the past century and then left unmanaged. More than 6000 carabid specimens belonging to 23 species were collected. The functional diversity in carabid groups is influenced by forest management especially in beech and beech-silver fir stands. Body size, specialized predators, endemic species and forest species were negatively affected by stand management. On the contrary, omnivorous ground beetles populations (or species with a high dispersal power (macropterous and large geographic distribution were positively influenced by stand management. In pine forests the old-growth community seems less sensitive to past management and more affected by soil evolution. Soil erosion and disturbance may reduce species diversity of ground beetles. Anyway, the composition of the carabid community shows that 50-60 years of forest restoration are enough for the reconstruction of a fairly diverse assemblage reflecting a “subclimax” situation.

  19. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  20. Compensating effect of sap velocity for stand density leads to uniform hillslope-scale forest transpiration across a steep valley cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Maik; Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa; Weiler, Markus; Hildebrandt, Anke; Guderle, Marcus; Schymanski, Stan; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Roberts (1983) found that forest transpiration is relatively uniform across different climatic conditions and suggested that forest transpiration is a conservative process compensating for environmental heterogeneity. Here we test this hypothesis at a steep valley cross-section composed of European Beech in the Attert basin in Luxemburg. We use sapflow, soil moisture, biometric and meteorological data from 6 sites along a transect to estimate site scale transpiration rates. Despite opposing hillslope orientation, different slope angles and forest stand structures, we estimated relatively similar transpiration responses to atmospheric demand and seasonal transpiration totals. This similarity is related to a negative correlation between sap velocity and site-average sapwood area. At the south facing sites with an old, even-aged stand structure and closed canopy layer, we observe significantly lower sap velocities but similar stand-average transpiration rates compared to the north-facing sites with open canopy structure, tall dominant trees and dense understorey. This suggests that plant hydraulic co-ordination allows for flexible responses to environmental conditions leading to similar transpiration rates close to the water and energy limits despite the apparent heterogeneity in exposition, stand density and soil moisture. References Roberts, J. (1983). Forest transpiration: A conservative hydrological process? Journal of Hydrology 66, 133-141.

  1. Preferences of people with disabilities on wheelchairs in relation to forest trails for recreational in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the survey on the preferences of disabled people in wheelchairs for selected features recreational trails in the woods. The study was conducted in 2015, including a sample of 130 people older than 18 years, in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia (52 interviews in Poland, 21 in the Czech Republic and 57 in Slovakia. Respondents were interviewed both at the premises of the organisation as well as by email. The questions in the survey were designed to determine the preferences of the respondents in terms of recreational trails in the forests concerned: the optimal length of the route, recreational and educational points along the distribution routes of and usability of different types of forest roads. The results show that there is quite a lot of differences between the preferences of respondents from each of the analysed countries. Respondents from the Poland and Slovakia prefer shorter routes for recreation in forests, with a greater incidence of recreational and educational points along the route, whilst respondents in the Czech Republic prefer far longer routes, with a relatively larger distance between recreational points. In all the analysed countries, people with disabilities attributed highest usefulness to asphalt surfaces, concrete surfaces or surfaces made of cobblestones. The surface evaluated lowest for usability was made of wood.

  2. Beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas: evidence of central European glacial refugia for a temperate forest mammal species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffontaine, V; Libois, R; Kotlík, P; Sommer, R; Nieberding, C; Paradis, E; Searle, J B; Michaux, J R

    2005-05-01

    This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, a European rodent species strongly associated with forest habitat. We used sequences of 1011 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene from 207 bank voles collected in 62 localities spread throughout its distribution area. Our results reveal the presence of three Mediterranean (Spanish, Italian and Balkan) and three continental (western, eastern and 'Ural') phylogroups. The endemic Mediterranean phylogroups did not contribute to the post-glacial recolonization of much of the Palaearctic range of species. Instead, the major part of this region was apparently recolonized by bank voles that survived in glacial refugia in central Europe. Moreover, our phylogeographic analyses also reveal differentiated populations of bank voles in the Ural mountains and elsewhere, which carry the mitochondrial DNA of another related vole species, the ruddy vole (Clethrionomys rutilus). In conclusion, this study demonstrates a complex phylogeographic history for a forest species in Europe which is sufficiently adaptable that, facing climate change, survives in relict southern and northern habitats. The high level of genetic diversity characterizing vole populations from parts of central Europe also highlights the importance of such regions as a source of intraspecific genetic biodiversity.

  3. Forest management type influences diversity and community composition of soil fungi across temperate forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia eGoldmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive towards shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L., with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L. or spruce (Picea abies Karst. which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure.We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal OTU richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera.This study extends our knowledge

  4. Forest Management Type Influences Diversity and Community Composition of Soil Fungi across Temperate Forest Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive toward shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or spruce (Picea abies Karst.) which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure. We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal operational taxonomic units richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera. This study extends our

  5. Certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European union legislations: Current situation, problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of the current situation in the area of certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European Union legislation referring to the placement of wood and wood products on this market. The objective of the research was to observe the situation, phases which Serbia implemented in the process of forest and wood products certification until now, as well as the problems and challenges the companies in this process face. Based on research results, future development of the market of certified wood products in Serbia was assessed and the proposal of measures which should be realized in order for Serbia to become a country whose companies will be ready for the moment when provisions and measures of the new EU legislation become effective was given. The selection of the abovementioned objective was conditioned by the fact that from January 1st, 2013 new legislation takes effect, with significantly stricter terms for the placement of wood and wood products from other countries on this market. One of the conditions which will have to be fulfilled by the companies wishing to export their products on this market refers to proving their origin. Since the EU is the most significant market for wood products exported from Serbia, fulfillment of the stated and other terms from the new EU legislation is of great importance to Serbian companies. Until the beginning of September 2010, only 387,000 ha were certified, namely 17.2% of the total area under forests. In the same period, only 33 wood processing companies in Serbia possessed CoC certificates for their products. Such a small number of companies possessing certificates for their wood products compared to competitive neighboring countries can represent a serious limitation in achieving their satisfactory competitiveness on the EU market in the following period.

  6. Potential impact of global warming on the range of Spruce, Fir, Beech and sessile Oak in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedallu, Christian; Perez, Vincent; Gegout, Jean-Claude; Lebourgeois, Francois; Bertrand, Romain

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies all over the world that forecast the impact of global warming on vegetation but there is little information currently available to assess its consequences on French forests. The authors studied the range of four common species - spruce, fir, beech and sessile oak - so as to determine their ecology as accurately as possible and assess their sensitivity to global warming. Their range over the period from 1961-1990 was modelled and mapped for the whole of France using ecological variables that characterize climate, water supply, and soil nutrition. The models constructed predict effects from temperature, the water resource, water-logging and the trophic level of soils that are consistent with empirical knowledge about these species. Changes in the probabilities of presence during the 21. century investigated by simulating the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadCM3 climate model. Changes in climate as predicted by this model would lead to a decrease of the probabilities of presence for all four species initially in the first part of the 21. century at the outer limits of their ranges and then a very significant drop in most plains and medium altitude upland areas, even according to the most optimistic forecasts under scenario B2. The reduction in the forest surface areas that are favourable to the species investigated for the period 2070-2100 is estimated, depending on the scenario, to be between 92% and 99% for spruce, 80% and 93% for beech, 63% and 83% for fir and 43% and 83% for sessile oak. These forecasted changes are very significant in comparison with the current conditions that are favourable to the presence of these species for which edaphic variables act as a local filter within the overall climate envelope. The authors conclude by underscoring the value of these tools for identifying and mapping the most vulnerable areas so as to be in a position to track the behaviour of these species in these areas and determine the appropriate

  7. Chernobyl pollution in forest biogeocenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, E.; Bettoli, M.G.; Tubertini, O.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl pollution on forest biogeocenoses are described. Spruce, scotch pine, larch, beech, lichens and soils samples were analysed by high resolution gamma-spectrometry. In the established tree organs radioactivity was related to their structural and physiological features, as well as to their surface/dry weight ratios. In the developing organs growth dilution and translocation caused a lower radioactivity. Lichens retained remarkable amounts of radionuclides. The abnormal 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratios in the organic soils were explained by analysing the 'before Chernobyl' soils sampled in the same area. (orig.)

  8. Production and reduction of nitrous oxide in agricultural and forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K; Chen, G; Struwe, S; Kjøller, A

    2000-06-01

    A soil-water slurry experiment was conducted to study the potentials of N2O production and reduction in denitrification of agricultural and beech forest soils in Denmark. The effects of nitrate and ammonium additions on denitrification were also investigated. The forest soil showed a higher denitrification potential than the agricultural soil. However, N2O reduction potential of the agricultural soil was higher than the beech forest soil, shown by the ratio of N2O/N2 approximately 0.11 and 3.65 in the agricultural and the beech forest soils, respectively. Both nitrate and ammonium additions stimulated the N2O production in the two soils, but reduced the N2O reduction rates in the agricultural soil slurries. In contrast to the effect on the agricultural soil, nitrate reduced the N2O reduction rate in the beech forest soil, while ammonium showed a stimulating effect on the N2O reduction activity. After one week incubation, all of the N2O produced was reduced to N2 in the agricultural soil when nitrate was still present. Nitrous oxide reduction in the beech forest soil occurred only when nitrate almost disappeared. The different nitrate inhibitory effect on the N2O reduction activity in the two soils was due to the difference in soil pH. Inhibition of nitrate on N2O reduction was significant under acidic condition. Consequently, soil could serve as a sink of atmospheric N2O under the conditions of anaerobic, pH near neutral and low nitrate content.

  9. Decision support framework for evaluating the operational environment of forest bioenergy production and use: Case of four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdevšek Malovrh, Špela; Kurttila, Mikko; Hujala, Teppo; Kärkkäinen, Leena; Leban, Vasja; Lindstad, Berit H; Peters, Dörte Marie; Rhodius, Regina; Solberg, Birger; Wirth, Kristina; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija; Krč, Janez

    2016-09-15

    Complex policy-making situations around bioenergy production and use require examination of the operational environment of the society and a participatory approach. This paper presents and demonstrates a three-phase decision-making framework for analysing the operational environment of strategies related to increased forest bioenergy targets. The framework is based on SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis and the Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART). Stakeholders of four case countries (Finland, Germany, Norway and Slovenia) defined the factors that affect the operational environments, classified in four pre-set categories (Forest Characteristics and Management, Policy Framework, Technology and Science, and Consumers and Society). The stakeholders participated in weighting of SWOT items for two future scenarios with SMART technique. The first scenario reflected the current 2020 targets (the Business-as-Usual scenario), and the second scenario contained a further increase in the targets (the Increase scenario). This framework can be applied to various problems of environmental management and also to other fields where public decision-making is combined with stakeholders' engagement. The case results show that the greatest differences between the scenarios appear in Germany, indicating a notably negative outlook for the Increase scenario, while the smallest differences were found in Finland. Policy Framework was a highly rated category across the countries, mainly with respect to weaknesses and threats. Intensified forest bioenergy harvesting and utilization has potentially wide country-specific impacts which need to be anticipated and considered in national policies and public dialogue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Calibration of the L-MEB model over a coniferous and a deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jennifer P.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model used in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Level 2 Soil Moisture algorithm is calibrated using L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave measurements over a coniferous (Pine) and a deciduous (mixed/Beech) forest. This resulted...

  11. Fagus dominance in Chinese montane forests : natural regeneration of Fagus lucida and Fagus hayatae var. pashanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, K.F.

    1995-01-01


    Fagus species are important components of certain mesic temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Of eleven Fagus species distinguished, five are found in China. Chinese beeches are restricted to the mountains of southern China. In the montane

  12. Mapping host-species abundance of three major exotic forest pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M. Liebhold; Eugene R. Luzader; Andrew J. Lister; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Daniel B. Twardus

    2005-01-01

    Periodically over the last century, forests of the Eastern United States devastated by invasive pests. We used existing data to predict the geographical extent of future damage from beech bark disease (BBD), hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), and gypsy moth. The distributions of host species of these alien pests were mapped in 1-km2 cells by interpolating host basal area/ha...

  13. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-he.fr [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); De Marco, Alessandra [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 76, Lungotevere Thaon de Revel, Rome (Italy); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d' Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes), 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France); Tagliaferro, Francesco [IPLA (Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l‘Ambiente), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Renou, Camille [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Paoletti, Elena [IPSP-CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche — Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O{sub 3}) risk in Europe where ground-level O{sub 3} is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O{sub 3} was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O{sub 3} indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O{sub 3} injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O{sub 3} injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux–effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O{sub 3} injury. For O{sub 3} sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus cembra (high O{sub 3} sensitivity) and 32 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus halepensis (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m{sup −2} for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Fraxinus excelsior (high O{sub 3} sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O{sub 3} injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O{sub 3} uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for

  14. High resolution modelling of atmosphere-canopy exchange of acidifying and eutrophying components and carbon dioxide for European forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieterse, G.; Bleeker, A.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Erisman, J.W.; Wu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Deposition Model (IDEM) was improved by incorporating a novel multilayer biochemical dry deposition module for gases. The aerosol and base cation deposition module was adopted from IDEM. For evaluation of primary and ecosystem productivity, carbon respiration schemes were included. The resulting Framework for Atmosphere-Canopy Exchange Modelling (FACEM) was then evaluated by the case studies presented here. First, results for deposition of SO x , NO y and NH x were compared with site observations, showing correlations of up to R2 = 0.60. Applicability for grid deposition calculations for these compounds was then evaluated for Europe. The model was clearly able to reproduce the elevated deposition near the important emission areas in Europe. Next, we compared the modelled CO 2 fluxes with measurements from 26 European sites. Correlations of up to R2 = 0.81 indicate good performance. To evaluate grid performance, the 2003 European heat wave was studied in a final case study, resulting in convincing correspondence with the observed productivity anomalies

  15. Ectomycorrhizal Communities on the Roots of Two Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Populations from Contrasting Climates Differ in Nitrogen Acquisition in a Common Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberecht, Martin; Dannenmann, Michael; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Bilela, Silvija; Meier, Rudolf; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schloter, Michael; Polle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica), a dominant forest species in Central Europe, competes for nitrogen with soil microbes and suffers from N limitation under dry conditions. We hypothesized that ectomycorrhizal communities and the free-living rhizosphere microbes from beech trees from sites with two contrasting climatic conditions exhibit differences in N acquisition that contribute to differences in host N uptake and are related to differences in host belowground carbon allocation. To test these hypotheses, young trees from the natural regeneration of two genetically similar populations, one from dryer conditions (located in an area with a southwest exposure [SW trees]) and the other from a cooler, moist climate (located in an area with a northeast exposure [NE trees]), were transplanted into a homogeneous substrate in the same environment and labeled with (13)CO2 and (15)NH4 (+). Free-living rhizosphere microbes were characterized by marker genes for the N cycle, but no differences between the rhizospheres of SW or NE trees were found. Lower (15)N enrichment was found in the ectomycorrhizal communities of the NE tree communities than the SW tree communities, whereas no significant differences in (15)N enrichment were observed for nonmycorrhizal root tips of SW and NE trees. Neither the ectomycorrhizal communities nor the nonmycorrhizal root tips originating from NE and SW trees showed differences in (13)C signatures. Because the level of (15)N accumulation in fine roots and the amount transferred to leaves were lower in NE trees than SW trees, our data support the suggestion that the ectomycorrhizal community influences N transfer to its host and demonstrate that the fungal community from the dry condition was more efficient in N acquisition when environmental constraints were relieved. These findings highlight the importance of adapted ectomycorrhizal communities for forest nutrition in a changing climate. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  16. Fluorescence and electron microscopic investigations of the phloem of beeches, spruces and firs showing different degrees of damage symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, A.; Behnke, H.-D.; Horsch, F.; Filby, G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A. (comps.)

    1986-04-01

    The phloem of beeches, spruces and firs showing different degrees of damage symptoms (standard damage classification 0-3) was investigated with microscopic methods to examine their possible infections with mycoplasma-like-organisms (MLO), rickettsia-like-bacteria (RLB), and viruses. During the growing seasons of the years 1984 and 1985 root-, stem- and branch parts of up to 39 trees growing in three different areas were removed at monthly intervals and subsequently screened. Prerequisite to these investigations is a knowledge of the composition of the secondary phloem in these trees and of cytological changes which occur during the differentiation of the different phloem cells. None of the many samples contained MLO, RLB or viruses, and the rare occurrence of single structures which could be misinterpreted as MLO is discussed. Judged by this negative result of an in-situ-localization in the phloem of damaged trees, MLO, RLB and viruses are excluded as a primary factor of the new forest damage - for which a systemic spread would be prerequisite-, while a predisposing role of viruses was not likely to be shown with the methods applied.

  17. The variations of aluminium species in mountainous forest soils and its implications to soil acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradová, Monika; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Němeček, Karel; Ash, Christopher; Šebek, Ondřej; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) speciation is a characteristic that can be used as a tool for describing the soil acidification process. The question that was answered is how tree species (beech vs spruce) and type of soil horizon affect Al speciation. Our hypotesis is that spruce and beech forest vegetation are able to modify the chemical characteristics of organic horizon, hence the content of Al species. Moreover, these characteristics are seasonally dependent. To answer these questions, a detailed chromatographic speciation of Al in forest soils under contrasting tree species was performed. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. A basic forestry survey was performed on the investigated area. Soil and precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow) were collected under both beech and spruce stands at monthly intervals from April to November during the years 2008-2011. Total aluminium content and Al speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in aqueous soil extracts and in precipitation samples. We found that the most important factors affecting the chemistry of soils, hence content of the Al species, are soil horizons and vegetation cover. pH strongly affects the amount of Al species under both forests. Fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons contain a higher content of water extractable Al and Al(3+) compared to organo-mineral (A) and mineral horizons (B). With increasing soil profile depth, the amount of water extractable Al, Al(3+) and moisture decreases. The prevailing water-extractable species of Al in all studied soils and profiles under both spruce and beech forests were organically bound monovalent Al species. Distinct seasonal variations in organic and mineral soil horizons were found under both spruce and beech forests. Maximum concentrations of water-extractable Al and Al(3+) were determined in the summer, and the lowest in spring.

  18. Isoprene emission potentials from European oak forests derived from canopy flux measurements: an assessment of uncertainties and inter-algorithm variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic emission algorithms predict that oak forests account for ∼ 70 % of the total European isoprene budget. Yet the isoprene emission potentials (IEPs that underpin these model estimates are calculated from a very limited number of leaf-level observations and hence are highly uncertain. Increasingly, micrometeorological techniques such as eddy covariance are used to measure whole-canopy fluxes directly, from which isoprene emission potentials can be calculated. Here, we review five observational datasets of isoprene fluxes from a range of oak forests in the UK, Italy and France. We outline procedures to correct the measured net fluxes for losses from deposition and chemical flux divergence, which were found to be on the order of 5–8 and 4–5 %, respectively. The corrected observational data were used to derive isoprene emission potentials at each site in a two-step process. Firstly, six commonly used emission algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an average isoprene emission potential was calculated for each site with an associated uncertainty. We used these data to assess how the derived emission potentials change depending upon the specific emission algorithm used and, importantly, on the particular approach adopted to derive an average site-specific emission potential. Our results show that isoprene emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 depending on the specific algorithm used and whether or not it is used in a big-leaf or canopy environment (CE model format. When using the same algorithm, the calculated average isoprene emission potential was found to vary by as much as 34 % depending on how the average was derived. Using a consistent approach with version 2.1 of the Model for Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN, we derive new ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials for the five measurement sites: Alice Holt, UK (10 500 ± 2500

  19. Isoprene emission potentials from European oak forests derived from canopy flux measurements: an assessment of uncertainties and inter-algorithm variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Ben; Cash, James; Acton, W. Joe F.; Valach, Amy C.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Fares, Silvano; Goded, Ignacio; Gruening, Carsten; House, Emily; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Gros, Valérie; Schafers, Richard; Thomas, Rick; Broadmeadow, Mark; Nemitz, Eiko

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic emission algorithms predict that oak forests account for ˜ 70 % of the total European isoprene budget. Yet the isoprene emission potentials (IEPs) that underpin these model estimates are calculated from a very limited number of leaf-level observations and hence are highly uncertain. Increasingly, micrometeorological techniques such as eddy covariance are used to measure whole-canopy fluxes directly, from which isoprene emission potentials can be calculated. Here, we review five observational datasets of isoprene fluxes from a range of oak forests in the UK, Italy and France. We outline procedures to correct the measured net fluxes for losses from deposition and chemical flux divergence, which were found to be on the order of 5-8 and 4-5 %, respectively. The corrected observational data were used to derive isoprene emission potentials at each site in a two-step process. Firstly, six commonly used emission algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an average isoprene emission potential was calculated for each site with an associated uncertainty. We used these data to assess how the derived emission potentials change depending upon the specific emission algorithm used and, importantly, on the particular approach adopted to derive an average site-specific emission potential. Our results show that isoprene emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 depending on the specific algorithm used and whether or not it is used in a big-leaf or canopy environment (CE) model format. When using the same algorithm, the calculated average isoprene emission potential was found to vary by as much as 34 % depending on how the average was derived. Using a consistent approach with version 2.1 of the Model for Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), we derive new ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials for the five measurement sites: Alice Holt, UK (10 500 ± 2500 µg m-2 h-1); Bosco Fontana, Italy (1610

  20. Fertilization increases diameter growth of birch-beech-maple trees in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. O. Safford

    1973-01-01

    In a 60-year-old northern hardwood stand treated with lime plus NPK fertilizer, the following increases in average basal area growth rate over untreated trees were observed: sugar maple 128 percent, paper birch 69 percent, yellow birch 51 percent, and beech 20 percent. Magnitude of response was inversely related to relative growth rate of the species. Growth rate...

  1. Beech tree analyses in the Bohemian/Austrian/Bavarian frontier region; Fallstudie Buche im Dreilaendereck Boehmen/Oberoesterreich/Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Baumgarten, M.; Matyssek, R. [Muenchen Univ., Freising (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Forstbotanik] [and others

    2000-08-01

    The condition of beech trees was investigated in six forest stands in the Bayerischer Wald and Boehmerwald mountains between 1995 and 1997 in order to establish the interdependence between tree conditions, the prevailing natural and anthropogenic site factors, and air pollution especially with groundlevel ozone. Details of the investigations are presented. Although a potential long-term effect of ozone cannot be excluded, the damage observed in beech trees in this region since the eighties is assumed to be caused not by a single factor but by complex interaction patterns between several anthropogenic and natural factors. [German] Es erfolgte im Untersuchungsgebiet Bayerischer Wald/Boehmerwald im Zeitraum 1995 bis 1997 eine detaillierte Zustandscharakterisierung von Altbuchen an sechs Standorten. Im Rahmen der Gesamtuntersuchung sollte geklaert werden, ob Zusammenhaenge zwischen dem Baumzustand und den herrschenden natuerlichen und anthropogenen Standortfaktoren und Luftbelastungen mit Schwerpunkt des bodennahen Ozons bestehen. An Hand kontinuierlicher Ozonmessungen konnte bestaetigt werden, dass die Konzentration des bodennahen Ozons im wesentlichen eine Funktion der Meereshoehe ist; somit ist an Hochlagenstandorten von hoeheren Immissionen auszugehen. Bei den moeglicherweise besser an photooxidativen Stress akklimatisierten Hochlagenbuchen waren die Schaeden bei erhoehter Ozonbelastung geringer ausgepraegt als bei Tieflagenbuchen. Fuer die Hypothese, wonach man eine staerkere Schaedigung der Hochlagenbestaende zu erwarten hat, wurde keine Bestaetigung gefunden. Inositol wird seit einiger Zeit als sensitiver Indikator diskutiert, der auf veraenderte Umweltbedingungen reagiert. Die Inositolkonzentration in Sonnenblaettern von Altbuchen im Bayerischen Wald war in 1995 um ca. 50% geringer als in 1996. Bei den Jungbuchen im Phytotronenexperiment kam es bei anhaltendem Ozonstress und zunehmender Schaedigung zu einer starken Reduktion der Inositolkonzentration in

  2. Response of the leaf phenology and tree-ring width of European beech to climate variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Tomáš; Giagli, K.; Trnka, Miroslav; Bednářová, E.; Vavrčík, H.; Rybníček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 1520. ISSN 0037-5330 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : dendroclimatology * Fagus sylvatica * temperature * radial increment * soil moisture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2016

  3. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2002-01-01

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), were used to evaluate the effects of two pre-treatment processes (alkaline wet oxidation and enzyme treatment with laccase) on lignocellulosic materials for applications in particleboards and fiberboards. Wheat straw and beech fibers...... treatment gave a more reactive surface than alkaline wet oxidation for wheat straw, whereas the opposite was observed for beech. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed an almost complete loss of the ester carbonyl stretching signal and the corresponding C-C-O stretching in wet...

  4. Trophic conditions of forest soils of the Pieniny National Park, southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanic Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to characterise the edaphic conditions of forest areas in the Pieniny National Park (PNP, and to describe the dependencies between properties of forest soils and types of forest plant communities. The “Soil Trophic Index” (SIGg for mountainous areas was applied. The evaluation of the trophism for 74 forest monitoring employed the soil trophic index for mountainous areas SIGg or SIGgo. Plant communities in the forest monitoring areas were classified according to the Braun-Blanquet’s phytosociological method. Soils of PNP present in the forest monitoring areas were mostly classified as eutrophic brown soils (72.9%, rendzinas (10.8%, brown rendzinas (5.41%, and rubble initial soils (5.41%. Pararendzinas, dystrophic brown soils, and gley soils were less common (total below 5.5%. In the forest monitoring areas of PNP, eutrophic soils predominate over mesotrophic soils. High SIGg index of the soils is caused by high values of acidity and nitrogen content. The Carpathian beech forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum and thermophilic beech forest Carici albae-Fagetum associations are characterised by high naturalness and compatibility of theoretical habitats. The soils of the Carpathian fir forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum abietetosum subcommunity is characterised by a higher share of silt and clay particles and lower acidity as compared to the Carpathian beech forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum typicum subcommunity. The soils of the forest monitoring areas in PNP stand out in terms of their fertility against forest soils in other mountainous areas in Poland.

  5. Leaf morphology and phenology of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are linked to environmental conditions depending on the altitudinal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle-Vargas, Renee; Schuster, Christina; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    One of the principal responses of temperate climate trees to climate warming, besides migration, will be in-situ adaptation/evolution. For both, germination and growth rates can have a strong impact on survival and long-term recruitment and establishment of a species. Leaf morphology traits, together with phenology, are relevant to the study of inherent capacities of plants to adapt to an ever changing climate, especially in alpine regions, where a rapid warming has been observed in the last decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in possible adaptive traits (e.g. leaf morphology and phenology) of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and to asses a decisive component of the survival strategy of this important broadly distributed Central European tree species. We collected beech seeds at six sites along two transects of a south- (900, 1000 and 1100-1400 m.a.s.l.) and a north-facing slope (800, 900 and 1100 m.a.s.l.) in 2011 (mast year) near Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. All the seeds were stratified before sowing; 150 seeds were selected from each site and sowed (at the beginning of the spring) in square containers in a greenhouse under the same climatic conditions; seven phenological stages were defined following a modified beech germination key and the phenology of every seed was recorded three times a week. Harvesting took place 38/42 days after sowing and the specific leaf area (SLA), biomass, and leaf morphology (lamina length and width) were recorded for each seedling. Seeds from lower sites of the two transects presented a poorer germination rates (e.g. 30% for the south 900 m.a.s.l. site) and (75% for the north 800 m.a.s.l. site) when compared to seeds originating from higher elevations within the same transect. The highest germination percentages (98 and 85%) were observed in seeds originating from the highest elevations (e.g. 1100-1400 m.a.s.l. of the south site and 1100 m.a.s.l. of the north site, respectively). Although no significant

  6. First Steps into the Wild - Exploration Behavior of European Bison after the First Reintroduction in Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Schmitz

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is rapidly declining globally. One strategy to help to conserve species is to breed species in captivity and release them into suitable habitats. The way that reintroduced animals explore new habitats and/or disperse from the release site is rarely studied in detail and represents key information for the success of reintroduction projects. The European bison (Bison bonasus L. 1758 was the largest surviving herbivore of the post-glacial megafauna in Europe before it became extinct in the wild, surviving only in captivity since 1919. We investigated the exploration behavior of a herd of European bison reintroduced into the Rothaargebirge, a commercial forest in low range mountain intensively used and densely populated by humans, in the first six months after release. We focused on three questions: (1 how did the European bison move and utilize the habitat on a daily basis, (2 how did the animals explore the new environment, and (3 did their habitat preferences change over time. The European bison dispersed away from their previous enclosure at an average rate of 539 m/month, with their areas of daily use ranging from 70 to 173 ha, their movement ranging from 3.6 km to 5.2 km per day, and their day-to-day use of areas ranged between 389 and 900 m. We could identify three major exploration bouts, when the animals entered and explored areas previously unknown to them. During the birthing phase, the European bison reduced daily walking distances, and the adult bull segregated from the herd for 58 days. Around rut, roaming behavior of the herd increased slightly. The animals preferred spruce forest, wind thrown areas and grassland, all of which are food abundant habitat types, and they avoided beech forest. Habitat preference differed slightly between phases of the study period, probably due to phenological cycles. After six months, the complete summer home range was 42.5 km2. Our study shows that a small free-ranging herd of European

  7. Large-scale indicators for monitoring forest diversity of the main forest types in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Infusino M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Society’s perception of forest resources has gone through significant changes. Forest ecosystems play a multifunctional role and host an important portion of the whole biodiversity, particularly in the Mediterranean area. Remote sensing technologies provide a unique way to obtain spatially extensive information on forest ecosystems, but relatively few studies used such information to evaluate forest habitat and biotic diversity. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensing to predict forest diversity by linking remotely sensed information with diversity metrics obtained from ground measurements of butterfly diversity. The field work was carried out in Calabria in four different forest types (beech, chestnut, black pine and silver fir forests. The sampling of Lepidoptera was carried out by LED light traps. We positioned 9 traps per forest type, for a total of 36 sites chosen to sample the different stages of forest succession in each forest type. Samples were carried out once a month from May to November 2015. Data from in situ butterfly measurements were compared with above ground forest biomass estimated from airborne LiDAR with NDVI estimated from Landsat 8. Results indicated that the Geometridae/Noctuideae ratio of lepidopteran communities was significantly correlated with the tree biomass, its distribution among tree size classes and the NDVI. The Geometridae/Noctuidae ratio, therefore, represents an index easy to calculate, which can be employed to integrate data acquired from remote sensing in order to obtain continuous spatial estimates of forest naturalness.

  8. Nitrogen deposition outweighs climatic variability in driving annual growth rate of canopy beech trees: Evidence from long-term growth reconstruction across a geographic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilesca, Tiziana; Rita, Angelo; Brunetti, Michele; Giammarchi, Francesco; Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; van Noije, Twan; Tonon, Giustino; Borghetti, Marco

    2018-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of climatic variability and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in driving long-term tree growth in canopy beech trees along a geographic gradient in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula, from the Alps to the southern Apennines. We sampled dominant trees at different developmental stages (from young to mature tree cohorts, with tree ages spanning from 35 to 160 years) and used stem analysis to infer historic reconstruction of tree volume and dominant height. Annual growth volume (G V ) and height (G H ) variability were related to annual variability in model simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition and site-specific climatic variables, (i.e. mean annual temperature, total annual precipitation, mean growing period temperature, total growing period precipitation, and standard precipitation evapotranspiration index) and atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including tree cambial age among growth predictors. Generalized additive models (GAM), linear mixed-effects models (LMM), and Bayesian regression models (BRM) were independently employed to assess explanatory variables. The main results from our study were as follows: (i) tree age was the main explanatory variable for long-term growth variability; (ii) GAM, LMM, and BRM results consistently indicated climatic variables and CO 2 effects on G V and G H were weak, therefore evidence of recent climatic variability influence on beech annual growth rates was limited in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula; (iii) instead, significant positive nitrogen deposition (N dep ) effects were repeatedly observed in G V and G H ; the positive effects of N dep on canopy height growth rates, which tended to level off at N dep values greater than approximately 1.0 g m -2  y -1 , were interpreted as positive impacts on forest stand above-ground net productivity at the selected study sites. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparison between AOT40 and ozone uptake in forest trees of different species, age and site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Nunn, A. J.; Kozovits, A. R.; Reiter, I. M.; Heerdt, C.; Winkler, J. B.; Baumgarten, M.; Häberle, K.-H.; Grams, T. E. E.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Havranek, W. M.

    The current AOT40 concept for inferring risks in forest trees by ozone (O 3) injury is based on an accumulated external O 3 exposure rather than an internal O 3 dose or uptake rate. AOT40 assumes O 3 concentrations below 40 nl l -1 and night-time exposure to be negligible. Hence, this concept is rather inconsistent with observed forest conditions. In contrast, the flux concept of cumulative O 3 uptake (CU) into the leaves has the potential of reflecting a physiologically meaningful internal O 3 dose experienced by trees. In this paper, we relate AOT40 to cumulative O 3 uptake into European beech ( Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce ( Picea abies), European larch ( Larix decidua) and cembran pine ( Pinus cembra) trees differing in size, age and site conditions. We demonstrate that the flux concept can be extended to the tree and the stand level, making use of sap flow measurements through tree trunks. Although in both seedlings and adult trees AOT40 may show some linearity in correlations with average CU, the latter varies, at given AOT40, by 25±11% within and between species. This is because O 3 flux is primarily influenced by stomatal aperture, the latter being affected by climate, canopy position, leaf and tree age while varying between species. In particular, if weighed by detoxification capacity, we suggest, therefore, O 3 uptake related air quality indices to be promoted towards ecologically meaningful standards in forest protection, overcoming the shortcomings of exposure concepts. As O 3 injury results from the balance between O 3 uptake and detoxification in the leaf mesophyll, we conclude the flux concept in combination with measures of biochemical defence to have the capacity for predicting tree response to O 3 stress.

  10. Effect of environmental variables and stand structure on ecosystem respiration components in a Mediterranean beech forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guidolotti, G.; Rey, A.; D'Andrea, E.; Matteucci, G.; De Angelis, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 9 (2013), s. 960-972 ISSN 0829-318X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ecosystem respiration * Fagus sylvatica * leaf respiration * soil CO2 efflux * stem CO2 efflux * total non-structural carbohydrates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.405, year: 2013

  11. Fungi associated with decomposing deadwood in a natural beech-dominated forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Zrůstová, Petra; Tláskal, Vojtěch; Davidová, Anna; Merhautová, Věra; Vrška, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, OCT 2016 (2016), s. 109-122 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27454S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Deadwood * Decomposition * White-rot Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  12. Calcicolous beech forests and related vegetation in the Czech Republic: a comparison of formalized classifications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boublík, Karel; Petřík, Petr; Sádlo, Jiří; Hédl, Radim; Willner, W.; Černý, Tomáš; Kolbek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 79, - (2007), s. 141-161 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005202; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cephalanthero-Fagenion * Cocktail * formalized classification Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2007

  13. Post-Mortem Evaluation of Pathological Lesions in European Bison (Bison Bonasus in the Białowieża Primeval Forest Between 2008 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krzysiak Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the analysis of the findings of 234 post-mortem examinations on free-ranging and captive European bison selectively culled or having fallen between 2008 and 2013 in Białowieża Primeval Forest. Pneumonia, emphysema, nephritis, bodily traumas, and intestinal lesions were observed in 106 (45.3%, 77 (32.9%, 82 (35.0%, 68 (29.1%, and 56 (23.9% animals respectively and were the most common pathological changes. Almost half of all males (66 out of 140; 47.1% tested showed some pathological changes of prepuce and penis, described as posthitis or balanoposthitis. Infection with liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus was observed macroscopically in 114 (48.7% and 80 (32.9% bison respectively. F. hepatica prevalence was associated with the emergence of other liver changes such as hepatitis and cirrhosis (P < 0.001. Similarly, the prevalence of D. viviparus coincided with pneumonia (P = 0.001, changes in the upper respiratory tract (P = 0.04, and emphysema (P < 0.001. Hepatitis, infection with F. hepatica, and pathological lesions in the male and female reproductive tracts were associated with the animals’ age. Mechanical injuries, caused by other bison or less commonly by traffic accidents, were the most common cause of death of bison below six months of age. Most pathological changes were significantly more frequent in the selectively culled animals in comparison with the ones having fallen, which confirms the desirability of elimination as a tool to improve the health and welfare of the bison population and limit the number of reservoirs of invasive and possibly infectious diseases.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONCERNING THE OPTIMAL DIMENSIONS OF AN ELASTIC STRUCTURE OF BEECH WOOD PARQUET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia-Minerva ȚURCAȘ (DIACONU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the experimental research concerning the modulus of elasticity and the average value of the bending strength in case of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. wood. The investigations were performed according to SR EN 408-2004. The results of the research have been analysed in order to establish the variable parameters to be considered for the final experimental research focused on beech wood floor structures that meet the necessary requirements for the sports halls applications. The research presented in the paper is a part of the study theme of the Ph. D. thesis, which investigates the flooring structures able to support the requirements of sports halls activities, different from one sport to another.

  15. Proximate content and lipid profile of seeds from Rapanea melanophloeos (The Cape Beech) tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotier, N.; Chivandi, E.; Lembede, B.W.; Ibrahim, K.G.; Nyakudya, T.T.

    2017-01-01

    Rapanea melanophloeos(Cape beech)is a fruit-bearing tree indigenous to Southern Africa which produces edible fruit. Seed samples obtained from ripe fruit of the Cape beech trees had their proximate analysis and lipid profiling done. The dry matter and ash contributed 91.29 +- 0.00 %, 1.50 +- 0.01 % of the mass of the seed. Whilst the other proximate analytes namely crude fibre, crude protein and ether extract made up 5.71 +- 0.43 %, 10.50 +- 0.49 % and 4.75 +- 0.09 percentage of the mass of the seeds respectively. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil revealed Linoleic acid (50.43 +- 0.38 %) to be the most dominant. R. melanophloeos seeds are not a viable source of nutrients. (author)

  16. Enzymatic saccharification of hemicellulose obtained from hydrothermally pretreated sugar can bagasse and beech bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walch, E; Zemann, A; Bonn, G; Bobleter, O [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiochemie und Angewandte Physikalische Chemie; Schinner, F [Innsbruck Univ. (AT). Inst. for Microbiology

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of different xylanses and their use in the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse and beech bark were studied. Bagasse was pretreated by two different hydrothermolysis procedures, a recirculation and a direct flow-through process. The recirculation procedure resulted in a higher yield of dry matter in the hydrothermolysis solution and a higher saccharification effect after enzymatic hydrolysis. In the case of beech bark, the tannins have first to be removed at temperatures of 120-140{sup o}C. In a second hydrothermal step (at approximately 200{sup o}C), a hemicellulose solution is obtained which can be saccharified enzymatically with high yields. The inhibitory effect of the tannins is experimentally demonstrated. (author).

  17. Mass Mortality of Beech (Fagus sylvatica in South-West Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOLNÁR, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass mortality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in Hungary, which started in 2003 andwent on through 2004, is the result of a typical damage chain. Mortality appeared first of all in beechforests close or outside of its native distribution area. The most significant reason was the droughtperiod from 2000 to 2004, which weakened the trees, and favoured the development of different pestsand pathogens. Characteristic symptoms were frequent at stand margins and in stands thinned forregeneration. The direct causes of the mortality were insects, the green jewel beetle (Agrilus viridisand the beech bark beetle (Taphrorychus bicolor as well as the fungus species Biscogniauxianummularia. With the improvement of weather conditions a continuous recovery of the stands hasbeen observed since 2005.

  18. Decomposition, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization from beech leaf litter colonized with ectomycorrhizal or litter decomposing basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    COLPAERT, Jan; VAN TICHELEN, Katia

    1996-01-01

    The decomposition and the nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization of fresh beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf litter are described. Leaves were buried for up to 6 months in plant containers in which Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were cultivated at a low rate of nutrient addition. The saprotrophic abilities of three ectomycorrhizal fungi, Thelephora terrestris Ehrh.: Fr., Suillus bovinus (L.: Fr.) O. Kuntze and Paxillus involutes (Batsch: Fr) Fr., were compared with the degradation ca...

  19. Influence of thinning intensity and canopy type on Scots pine stand and growth dynamics in a mixed managed forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primicia, I.; Artázcoz, R.; Imbert, J.B.; Puertas, F.; Traver, M.C.; Castillo, F.J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We analysed the effects of thinning intensity and canopy type on Scots pine growth and stand dynamics in a mixed Scots pine-beech forest. Area of the study: Western Pyrenees. Material and methods: Three thinning intensities were applied in 1999 (0, 20 and 30% basal area removed) and 2009 (0, 20 and 40%) on 9 plots. Within each plot, pure pine and mixed pine-beech patches are distinguished. All pine trees were inventoried in 1999, 2009 and 2014. The effects of treatments on the tree and stand structure variables (density, basal area, stand and tree volume), on the periodic annual increment in basal area and stand and tree volume, and on mortality rates, were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Main Results: The enhancement of tree growth was mainly noticeable after the second thinning. Growth rates following thinning were similar or higher in the moderate than in the severe thinning. Periodic stand volume annual increments were higher in the thinned than in the unthinned plots, but no differences were observed between the thinned treatments. We observed an increase in the differences of the Tree volume annual increment between canopy types (mixed < pure) over time in the unthinned plots, as beech crowns developed. Research highlights: Moderate thinning is suggested as an appropriate forest practice at early pine age in these mixed forests, since it produced higher tree growth rates than the severe thinning and it counteracted the negative effect of beech on pine growth observed in the unthinned plots. (Author)

  20. Higher stability in forest-atmosphere exchange observed in a structurally diverse forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrakar, R.; Rayment, M.; Moyano, F.; Herbst, M.; Mund, M.; Knohl, A.

    2016-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that structurally diverse forests have greater stability on exchange processes with the atmosphere compared to forests with less diverse structure. In a case study, we assessed how net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and normalized maximum assimilation (Amax) varied over time in two forests in Germany based on 11 years of continuous eddy flux measurements. The two sites differ in structure as well as in species composition: one (Hainich) is an unmanaged, uneven-aged and heterogeneous mixed beech forest (65% beech), the other (Leinefelde) is a managed, even-aged and homogeneous pure beech stand. The two selected forests are of similar mean ages (about 130 years old) and exposed to similar air temperatures and vapour pressure deficits. Even though Hainich (the unmanaged forest) received higher rainfall (720 ± 134 mm vs 599±166 mm), the soil water availability showed no significant difference between both sites. Based on detailed biomass inventory, trees in Hainich are well distributed in all diameter at breast height (dbh) classes (10 to 90cm dbh) whereas in Leinefelde (the managed forest) trees are mostly confined to dbh classes of 40 to 55 cm. Our results showed a strong difference in inter-annual variability of NEE, which was lower in the unmanaged than in the managed site (coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.13 and 0.27, respectively). The lowest NEE was observed in both sites in 2004, a mast year and a year after the strong summer drought of 2003. The variation in the inter-annual normalized maximum assimilation (Amax) was lower in Hainich (standard deviation of 2.5 compared to 3.9 µmol m-2 s-1). Also, the seasonal course of Amax differed between the two forests which could explain why the mixed forest was more affected by the late summer drought of 2003, despite showing a more conservative carbon budget than the pure stand in the long term. The interannual anomaly in Amax was correlated with fruit production, the latter being larger in

  1. The role of extreme drought events in modelling the distribution of beech at its xeric limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasztovits, Ervin; Berki, Imre; Eredics, Attila; Móricz, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Context: Projections of species distribution models (SDMs) for future climate conditions are based on long term mean climate data. For management and conservation issues SDMs have been extensively used, but it is not tested whether models that are successful in predicting current distributions are equally powerful in predicting distributions under future climates. Methods: Observations after 2003 confirms that extreme drought events played an important role in driving beech mortality at low-elevation xeric limits. The objective of this study was (1) to set up a simple extreme drought event based vitality model (EDM) using sanitary logging information as a proxy of vitality response of beech and (2) to compare the spatial pattern of the predicted vitality loss provided by the EDM with the distribution limits of the SDMs for three terms (2025, 2050 and 2100) in Hungary to assess model performance. Results: Prediction for vitality loss for 2025 obtained from the EDM was in agreement with those of the SDM, but for the end of the century the EDM predicted a more serious decline in almost all regions of Hungary. Conclusion: The result of the comparison suggests that the increasing frequency and severity of extremes might play a more important role in limiting the distribution of beech in the future near to the xeric limit than long-term means.

  2. Influence of steaming on drying quality and colour of beech timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of influence of the “light” steaming process on conventional drying and colour of beech timber. A stack consisting of steamed and unsteamed boards was dried. Moisture content and moisture content profiles were recorded, and at the end of drying final moisture content, moisture content difference across thickness, case-hardening and colour were determinated. No statistically significant difference between steamed and unsteamed timber was established in any of the examined parameters (MC, ΔMC, gap. The results indicate that equal (or even better drying quality can be expected with steamed beech timber than with unsteamed timber, given the same drying schedule. Dry steamed timber was darker and more reddish than the unsteamed one. An imprecision of measurement by probes in the kiln was noticed in measuring steamed and unsteamed beech timber having a moisture content of between 7% and 15%, and a solution for overcoming this problem was given. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31041

  3. Local-scale topoclimate effects on treeline elevations: a country-wide investigation of New Zealand's southern beech treelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Bradley S; Buckley, Hannah L

    2015-01-01

    Although treeline elevations are limited globally by growing season temperature, at regional scales treelines frequently deviate below their climatic limit. The cause of these deviations relate to a host of climatic, disturbance, and geomorphic factors that operate at multiple scales. The ability to disentangle the relative effects of these factors is currently hampered by the lack of reliable topoclimatic data, which describe how regional climatic characteristics are modified by topographic effects in mountain areas. In this study we present an analysis of the combined effects of local- and regional-scale factors on southern beech treeline elevation variability at 28 study areas across New Zealand. We apply a mesoscale atmospheric model to generate local-scale (200 m) meteorological data at these treelines and, from these data, we derive a set of topoclimatic indices that reflect possible detrimental and ameliorative influences on tree physiological functioning. Principal components analysis of meteorological data revealed geographic structure in how study areas were situated in multivariate space along gradients of topoclimate. Random forest and conditional inference tree modelling enabled us to tease apart the relative effects of 17 explanatory factors on local-scale treeline elevation variability. Overall, modelling explained about 50% of the variation in treeline elevation variability across the 28 study areas, with local landform and topoclimatic effects generally outweighing those from regional-scale factors across the 28 study areas. Further, the nature of the relationships between treeline elevation variability and the explanatory variables were complex, frequently non-linear, and consistent with the treeline literature. To our knowledge, this is the first study where model-generated meteorological data, and derived topoclimatic indices, have been developed and applied to explain treeline variation. Our results demonstrate the potential of such an approach

  4. Forest understory plant and soil microbial response to an experimentally induced drought and heat-pulse event: the importance of maintaining the continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabell von Rein; Arthur Gessler; Katrin Premke; Claudia Keitel; Andreas Ulrich; Zachary E. Kayler

    2016-01-01

    Drought duration and intensity are expected to increase with global climate change. How changes in water availability and temperature affect the combined plant–soil–microorganism response remains uncertain. We excavated soil monoliths from a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest, thus keeping the understory plant–microbe communities intact, imposed an...

  5. Beech Fructification and Bank Vole Population Dynamics--Combined Analyses of Promoters of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reil

    Full Text Available The transmission of wildlife zoonoses to humans depends, amongst others, on complex interactions of host population ecology and pathogen dynamics within host populations. In Europe, the Puumala virus (PUUV causes nephropathia epidemica in humans. In this study we investigated complex interrelations within the epidemic system of PUUV and its rodent host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus. We suggest that beech fructification and bank vole abundance are both decisive factors affecting human PUUV infections. While rodent host dynamics are expected to be directly linked to human PUUV infections, beech fructification is a rather indirect predictor by serving as food source for PUUV rodent hosts. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of bank vole abundance on beech fructification. We analysed a 12-year (2001-2012 time series of the parameters: beech fructification (as food resource for the PUUV host, bank vole abundance and human incidences from 7 Federal States of Germany. For the first time, we could show the direct interrelation between these three parameters involved in human PUUV epidemics and we were able to demonstrate on a large scale that human PUUV infections are highly correlated with bank vole abundance in the present year, as well as beech fructification in the previous year. By using beech fructification and bank vole abundance as predictors in one model we significantly improved the degree of explanation of human PUUV incidence. Federal State was included as random factor because human PUUV incidence varies considerably among states. Surprisingly, the effect of rodent abundance on human PUUV infections is less strong compared to the indirect effect of beech fructification. Our findings are useful to facilitate the development of predictive models for host population dynamics and the related PUUV infection risk for humans and can be used for plant protection and human health protection purposes.

  6. N fluxes in two nitrogen saturated forested catchments in Germany: dynamics and modelling with INCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Langusch

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The N cycle in forests of the temperate zone in Europe has been changed substantially by the impact of atmospheric N deposition. Here, the fluxes and concentrations of mineral N in throughfall, soil solution and runoff in two German catchments, receiving high N inputs are investigated to test the applicability of an Integrated Nitrogen Model for European Catchments (INCA to small forested catchments. The Lehstenbach catchment (419 ha is located in the German Fichtelgebirge (NO Bavaria, 690-871 m asl. and is stocked with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. of different ages. The Steinkreuz catchment (55 ha with European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as the dominant tree species is located in the Steigerwald (NW Bavaria, 400-460 m asl.. The mean annual N fluxes with throughfall were slightly higher at the Lehstenbach (24.6 kg N ha-1 than at the Steinkreuz (20.4 kg N ha-1. In both catchments the N fluxes in the soil are dominated by NO3. At Lehstenbach, the N output with seepage at 90 cm soil depth was similar to the N flux with throughfall. At Steinkreuz more than 50 % of the N deposited was retained in the upper soil horizons. In both catchments, the NO3 fluxes with runoff were lower than those with seepage. The average annual NO3 concentrations in runoff in both catchments were between 0.7 to 1.4 mg NO3-N L-1 and no temporal trend was observed. The N budgets at the catchment scale indicated similar amounts of N retention (Lehstenbach: 19 kg N ha-1yr-1 ; Steinkreuz: 17 kg N ha-1yr-1. The parameter settings of the INCA model were simplified to reduce the model complexity. In both catchments, the NO3 concentrations and fluxes in runoff were matched well by the model. The seasonal patterns with lower NO3 runoff concentrations in summer at the Lehstenbach catchment were replicated. INCA underestimated the increased N3 concentrations during short periods of rewetting in late autumn at the Steinkreuz catchment. The model will be a helpful tool for the

  7. Sudden distortion of turbulence at a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Dellwik, Ebba

    2014-01-01

    Dellwik et al. (2013) presented data from a forest edge experiment based on two meteorological towers instrumented with sonic anemometers. The experiment was performed at a dense edge of the Tromnæs Forest, which is a 24 m tall mature beech stand on the island Falster, Denmark. The topography...... in the lateral variance, whereas the streamwise variance remained approximately constant. This result is in contrast to the predictions by homogeneous rapid distortion theory. We apply and develop an alternative framework based on inhomogeneous rapid distortion theory, also called blocking, in combination...

  8. Flow distortion at a dense forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The flow near tall forest edges is complex, yet poorly described. A field experiment using two meteorological masts equipped with sonic anemometers and a horizontally staring lidar was performed upwind and downwind of the interface between an open flat farmland and a tall (hc = 24 m) beech forest......, relative to the measurements upwind of the edge. The lidar data taken at several positions between the masts at 1.25hc show that the minimum wind speed occurred just upwind of the edge. At the 1.25hc level, at the forest mast, the momentum flux (\\documentclass...... qualitatively be explained with the concept of eddy‐blocking by the canopy top, which could also explain the observed increase in lateral variance and the decrease in the vertical variance. Despite the short distance to the edge of approximately 1.5hc, the beginning of a new internal boundary layer was visible...

  9. Growing season variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of a sphagnum mire in the broad-leaved forest zone of European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olchev, A; Volkova, E; Karataeva, T; Novenko, E

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO 2 and evapotranspiration (ET) of a karst-hole sphagnum peat mire situated at the boundary between broad-leaved and forest–steppe zones in the central part of European Russia in the Tula region was described using results from field measurements. NEE and ET were measured using a portable measuring system consisting of a transparent ventilated chamber combined with an infrared CO 2 /H 2 O analyzer, LI-840A (Li-Cor, USA) along a transect from the southern peripheral part of the mire to its center under sunny clear-sky weather conditions in the period from May to September of 2012 and in May 2013. The results of the field measurements showed significant spatial and temporal variability of NEE and ET that was mainly influenced by incoming solar radiation and ground water level. The seasonal patterns of NEE and ET within the mire were quite different. During the entire growing season the central part of the mire was a sink of CO 2 for the atmosphere. NEE reached maximal values in June–July (−6.8 ± 4.2 μmol m −2 s −1 ). The southern peripheral part of the mire, due to strong shading by the surrounding forest, was a sink of CO 2 for the atmosphere in June–July only. ET reached maximal values in the well-lighted central parts of the mire in May (0.34 ± 0.20 mm h −1 ) mainly because of high air and surface temperatures and the very wet upper peat horizon and sphagnum moss. Herbaceous species made the maximum contribution to the total gross primary production (GPP) in both the central and the peripheral parts of the mire. The contribution of sphagnum to the total GPP of these plant communities was relatively small and ranged on sunny days of July–August from −1.1 ± 1.1 mgC g −1 of dry weight (DW) per hour in the peripheral zone of the mire to −0.6 ± 0.2 mgC g −1 DW h −1 at the mire center. The sphagnum layer made the maximum contribution to total ET at the mire center (0

  10. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Due to the large size (e.g. sections of tree trunks) and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the timescales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the chronosequence approach and the five-decay class system that is based on a macromorphological assessment. For the decay classes 1-3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose, and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model, a regression approach, and the stage-based matrix model. In the decay classes 1-3, the ages of the CWD were similar and varied between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch, with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative of deadwood age. This seems to be due to a time lag between the death of a standing tree and its contact with the soil. We found distinct tree-species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were estimated to be in the range 0.018 to 0.022 y-1 for spruce and to about 0.012 y-1 for larch. Snapshot sampling (chronosequences) may overestimate the age and mean residence time of CWD. No sampling bias was, however, detectable using the stage-based matrix model. Cellulose and lignin time trends could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 years for spruce and 50 years for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than

  11. Ungulate Impact on Natural Regeneration in Spruce-Beech-Fir Stands in Černý důl Nature Reserve in the Orlické Hory Mountains, Case Study from Central Sudetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Vacek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study on tree regeneration of forest stands in the Černý důl Nature Reserve, which is situated in the Orlické hory Mountains Protected Landscape area in the Czech Republic. Research was conducted in a spruce-beech stand with an admixture of silver fir, sycamore maple and rowan on two comparative permanent research plots (PRPs (PRP 1—fenced enclosure and PRP 2—unfenced. Typological, soil, phytosociological and stand characteristics of the two PRPs are similar. The results showed that ungulate browsing is a limiting factor for successful development of natural regeneration of autochthonous tree species. The population of tree species of natural regeneration on the fenced plot (PRP 1 is sufficient in relation to the site and stand conditions. However, natural regeneration on PRP 2 is considerably limited by browsing. Damage is greatest to fir, sycamore maple and rowan; less severe to beech; and the least to spruce.

  12. Twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Holz, Ingo; Zipperle, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    nutrients C, N, S, P, Ca, K and Mg and the metals Mn, Cd, Pb, Al, Cu, Ni and Hg. Data were analysed using descriptive and multivariate statistics and maps were produced to identify regional differences in pollutant deposition. Out of the elements analysed, lead and sulphur concentrations showed the most pronounced downward trends over time in tree foliage and grassland samples with the largest decreases observed in the early 1990 s. Both the reduced lead and sulphur levels in the biomonitors reflect the successful implementation of clean air policies, i.e. the introduction of unleaded gasoline, the availability of desulphurisation technologies and the economic transition of Eastern European heavy industries. However, the decrease in sulphur concentrations was lower in beech foliage from SW Germany as compared to beech leaves from six German national parks suggesting regional differences in sulphur deposition and trends thereof. At the same time, sulphur concentrations declined more strongly in the grassland samples indicating that much of the deposited sulphur remains in the forest ecosystems while in the grassland ecosystems it is gradually removed by the frequent cutting and grazing. During the time series, the decrease in sulphur deposition coincided with a marked increase in rain pH. At the same time, the increasing nitrogen concentrations observed over time in beech leaves suggest that emissions of oxidised and reduced nitrogen are still adding to the large-scale eutrophication of SW German forests. However, N concentrations in both the tree foliage and in the bulk grassland samples were unrelated to the modelled N deposition. When also considering macronutrient concentrations and N:P and N:K ratios, the results point to serious nutrient imbalances in many beech forests, which may reduce plant vitality and tree growth in the long run. Biological monitoring using plants is an effective tool to address changes in the environmental quality over time and space. The success

  13. Influence of xylem ray integrity and degree of polymerization on bending strength of beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Reza Oladi; Olaf Schmidt; Carol A. Clausen; Katie Ohno; Darrel D. Nicholas; Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryaei; Maryam Karim

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this research was to evaluate the influence of xylem ray (XR) and degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose in Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) on impact bending strength against two white-rot fungi. Beech wood specimens, exposed to Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, were evaluated for...

  14. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest conversions may lead to an accumulation of carbon in vegetation, but little is known about changes in soil C storage with establishment of plantation forests. Understanding these effects is important to addressing issues relevant to ecosystem function and productivity, and to global balance of carbon. The study investigated the effects of the created coniferous plantations on former beech and pasture sites on the soil organic carbon storage. The major forest-related land-uses in the high mountainous regions of central Stara Planina Mountain were investigated: mountainous pasture, coniferous plantations (planted on previous pasture and beech forests between four and five decades ago and natural beech forests. The experimental data of soil properties, conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007, were used in determining the variations in organic carbon storage in forest litter and in mineral soil under different land-use patterns. At each site five representative soil profiles were opened and described giving a total 75 soil samples from the soil layers respectively at 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm depth. A total of 55 samples from forest floor layers (Aol, Aof, Aoh and greensward were collected with 25:25 cm plastic frame. The main soil properties were determined in accordance with the standardized methods in the Laboratory of soil science at the Forest Research Institute - BAS. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry was used to estimate the soil organic carbon stock in soil and litter. The results obtained showed that the SOC stock was quite similar among forest land-uses. The conversion of natural beech forests to coniferous plantations in studied region is related with slightly expressed decrease in soil carbon storage. The values of SOC stocks in 0-50 cm soil layer in these sites were 8.5 (±2.1 tones/ha for pine and 11.0 (±1.4 tones/ha for spruce, while under the natural beech forest it was 14.8 (±1.0 tones

  15. Modelling the decadal trend of ecosystem carbon fluxes demonstrates the important role of functional changes in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Jansson, P.E.; van der Linden, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon sinks and stocks. Trends in net ecosystem exchange have been observed in a Danish beech forest and this trend cannot be entirely attributed to changing climatic drivers. This study sought to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed trend...... for nitrogen demand during mast years is supported by the inter-annual variability in the estimated parameters. The inter-annual variability of photosynthesis parameters was fundamental to the simulation of the trend in carbon fluxes in the investigated beech forest and this demonstrates the importance......, the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the CO2 fluxes decreased the parameter uncertainty considerably compared to using CO2 fluxes as validation data alone. The fitted model was able to simulate the observed carbon fluxes well (R2=0.8, mean error=0.1gCm−2d−1) but did not reproduce the decadal (1997...

  16. Effect of CO2 enhancement on beech (Fagus sylvatica L. seedling root rot due to Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora cactorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is associated with higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The ongoing changes are likely to have significant, direct or indirect effects on plant diseases caused by many biotic agents such as phytopathogenic fungi. This study results showed that increased CO2 concentration did not stimulate the growth of 1-year-old beech Fagus sylvatica L seedlings but it activated pathogenic Phytophthora species (P. plurivora and P. cactorum which caused significant reduction in the total number of fine roots as well as their length and area. The results of the greenhouse experiment indicated that pathogens once introduced into soil survived in pot soil, became periodically active (in sufficient water conditions and were able to damage beech fine roots. However, the trees mortality was not observed during the first year of experiment. DNA analyses performed on soil and beech tissue proved persistence of introduced Phytophthora isolates.

  17. The role of forest type on throughfall during extreme precipitation events - A comparison of methods using data from the Pohorje mountains (NE Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhar, Urša; Simončič, Primož

    2013-04-01

    Extreme precipitation in the Alpine region is a major environmental factor due to high frequency of such events and consequences such as flooding of populated valley floors, erosion, avalanches, debris flow and landslides endangering exposed settlements. However, the effects of extreme precipitation are buffered by forest cover, therefore forest management practices should aim towards decreased surface runoff and soil erosion in alpine climates. In Central Europe, many pure Norway spruce stands, established on primary beech sites, were converted into mixed stands over the last 60 years. The conversion of forest management from spruce monocultures into mixed deciduous-coniferous forests changed the forest structure dramatically. This changes could influence the hydrological processes on the catchment scale, associated with major river flooding following extreme precipitation events. In this study, the effect of forest management on the partitioning of rainfall into throughfall and stemflow in coniferous and mixed deciduous-coniferous stands on Pohorje mountains in NE Slovenia were investigated. Four spruce Picea abies (L. Karst) stands were compared to four mixed spruce-beech Fagus sylvatica (L.) stands with prevailing forest plant community Cardamine Savensi Fagetum with small areas of Sphagno - Piceetum, Bazzanio - Piceetum and Rhytidiodelpholorei - Piceetum intermixed. The monthly throughfall from rain collectors and half-hourly throughfall from automated rain gauges in growing seasons from 2008 till 2012 were analyzed in order to estimate the throughfall under forest canopies. In the mixed spruce-beech stands the monthly stemflow on beech trees was also measured. For the precipitation in the open an automated weather station and rainfall collectors in an open area located very close to the research plots were used. There were small differences in seasonal throughfall found between the coniferous and mixed deciduous-coniferous stands. The seasonal throughfall was

  18. Remote sensing of canopy nitrogen at regional scale in Mediterranean forests using the spaceborne MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Yasmina; Rebel, Karin T.; Karssenberg, Derek; Wassen, Martin J.; Sardans, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep; De Jong, Steven M.

    2018-05-01

    Canopy nitrogen (N) concentration and content are linked to several vegetation processes. Therefore, canopy N concentration is a state variable in global vegetation models with coupled carbon (C) and N cycles. While there are ample C data available to constrain the models, widespread N data are lacking. Remotely sensed vegetation indices have been used to detect canopy N concentration and canopy N content at the local scale in grasslands and forests. Vegetation indices could be a valuable tool to detect canopy N concentration and canopy N content at larger scale. In this paper, we conducted a regional case-study analysis to investigate the relationship between the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) time series from European Space Agency (ESA) Envisat satellite at 1 km spatial resolution and both canopy N concentration (%N) and canopy N content (N g m-2, of ground area) from a Mediterranean forest inventory in the region of Catalonia, in the northeast of Spain. The relationships between the datasets were studied after resampling both datasets to lower spatial resolutions (20, 15, 10 and 5 km) and at the original spatial resolution of 1 km. The results at higher spatial resolution (1 km) yielded significant log-linear relationships between MTCI and both canopy N concentration and content: r2 = 0.32 and r2 = 0.17, respectively. We also investigated these relationships per plant functional type. While the relationship between MTCI and canopy N concentration was strongest for deciduous broadleaf and mixed plots (r2 = 0.24 and r2 = 0.44, respectively), the relationship between MTCI and canopy N content was strongest for evergreen needleleaf trees (r2 = 0.19). At the species level, canopy N concentration was strongly related to MTCI for European beech plots (r2 = 0.69). These results present a new perspective on the application of MTCI time series for canopy N detection.

  19. Acidotolerant Bacteria and Fungi as a Sink of Methanol-Derived Carbon in a Deciduous Forest Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareen Morawe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is an abundant atmospheric volatile organic compound that is released from both living and decaying plant material. In forest and other aerated soils, methanol can be consumed by methanol-utilizing microorganisms that constitute a known terrestrial sink. However, the environmental factors that drive the biodiversity of such methanol-utilizers have been hardly resolved. Soil-derived isolates of methanol-utilizers can also often assimilate multicarbon compounds as alternative substrates. Here, we conducted a comparative DNA stable isotope probing experiment under methylotrophic (only [13C1]-methanol was supplemented and combined substrate conditions ([12C1]-methanol and alternative multi-carbon [13Cu]-substrates were simultaneously supplemented to (i identify methanol-utilizing microorganisms of a deciduous forest soil (European beech dominated temperate forest in Germany, (ii assess their substrate range in the soil environment, and (iii evaluate their trophic links to other soil microorganisms. The applied multi-carbon substrates represented typical intermediates of organic matter degradation, such as acetate, plant-derived sugars (xylose and glucose, and a lignin-derived aromatic compound (vanillic acid. An experimentally induced pH shift was associated with substantial changes of the diversity of active methanol-utilizers suggesting that soil pH was a niche-defining factor of these microorganisms. The main bacterial methanol-utilizers were members of the Beijerinckiaceae (Bacteria that played a central role in a detected methanol-based food web. A clear preference for methanol or multi-carbon substrates as carbon source of different Beijerinckiaceae-affiliated phylotypes was observed suggesting a restricted substrate range of the methylotrophic representatives. Apart from Bacteria, we also identified the yeasts Cryptococcus and Trichosporon as methanol-derived carbon-utilizing fungi suggesting that further research is needed to

  20. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  1. Heat capacity and phonon mean free path in the biocarbon matrix of beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Wlosewicz, D.; Jezowski, A.

    2011-08-01

    The heat capacity at constant pressure C p of the biocarbon matrix prepared at a beech wood carbonization temperature of 1000°C has been measured in the temperature range 80-300 K. It has been shown that, in the temperature range 90-180 K, the heat capacity is C ˜ T 0.8 and, at T = 190-300 K, it is C p ˜ T 1.2. The phonon mean free path l( T) in the biocarbon matrix has been calculated using the obtained dependences C p ( T), our previous results on the phonon thermal conductivity of the carbon framework of this biocarbon matrix, and data available in the literature on the sound velocity in the matrix. It has been demonstrated that, in the temperature range 200-300 K, the mean value of l is ˜ 15 Å, which is close to the sizes of nanocrystallites ("carbon fragments") of ˜ 12Å, obtained earlier from X-ray diffraction data for the carbon matrix under consideration. These nanocrystallites participate in the formation of the carbon framework of the beech wood biocarbon matrix.

  2. Preservation of beech and spruce wood by allyl alcohol-based copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solpan, Dilek; Gueven, Olgun

    1999-01-01

    Allyl alcohol (AA), acrylonitrile (AN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), monomers and monomer mixtures AA+AN, AA+MMA were used to conserve and consolidate Beech and Spruce. After impregnation, copolymerisation and polymerisation were accomplished by gamma irradiation. The fine structure of wood+polymer(copolymer) composites was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was observed that copolymer obtained from AA+MMA monomer mixture showed the optimum compatibility. The compressional strength and Brinell Hardness Numbers determined for untreated and treated wood samples indicated that the mechanical strength of wood+copolymer composites was increased. It was found that the mechanical strength of the wood samples containing the AA+MMA copolymer was higher than the others. In the presence of P(AA/MMA), at highest conversion, the compressive strength perpendicular to the fibres in Beech and Spruce increased approximately 100 times. The water uptake capacity of wood+copolymer composites was observed to decrease by more than 50% relative to the original samples, and biodegradation did not take place

  3. Analysis and Model Based Assessment of Water Quality in European Mesoscale Forest Catchments with Different Management Strategies (a Climatic Gradient Approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Filipa; Schwaerzel, Kai; Nunes, João. Pedro; Feger, Karl-Heinz

    2010-05-01

    Forestry activities affect the environmental conditions of river basins by modifying soil properties and vegetation cover, leading to changes in e.g. runoff generation and routing, water yield or the trophic status of water bodies. Climate change is directly linked to forestry, since site-adapted sustainable forest management can buffer negative climate change impacts in river basins, while practices leading to over-harvesting or increasing wildfires can exacerbate these impacts. While studies relating hydrological processes with forestry practices or climate change have already been conducted, the combined impacts of both are rarely discussed. The main objective of the proposed work is to study the interactions between forest management and climate change and the effects of these upon water fluxes and water quality at the catchment scale, over medium to long-term periods and following an East-West climate gradient. Additional objectives are to increase knowledge about the relations between forest, water quality and soil conservation/degradation; and to improve the modelling of hydrological and matter transport processes in managed forests. The present poster shows a conceptual approach to understand this combined interaction by analysing an East-West climatic gradient (Ukraine-Germany-Portugal), with contrasting forestry practices and climate vulnerabilities. The activities within this workplan, to take place during the period 2010 - 2014, will be developed in close collaboration with several ongoing research projects in the host institution at the Dresden University of Technology (TUD) and in the University of Aveiro (UA). The Institute of Soil Science and Site-Ecology (ISSE) at TUD has an internationally renowned research tradition in forest hydrological topics using methods and findings from various (sub)disciplines in a multidisplinary approach. The measurement and simulation of forest catchments has also been a point of research at the Centre for

  4. Epiphytic lichens as sentinels for heavy metal pollution at forest ecosystems (central Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loppi, Stefano; Pirintsos, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens were useful as an early warning system for changes in forest ecosystems. - The results of a study using epiphytic lichens (Parmelia caperata) as sentinels for heavy metal deposition at six selected forest ecosystems of central Italy are reported. The woods investigated are characterized by holm oak (Quercus ilex), turkey oak (Quercus cerris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) and represent the typical forest ecosystems of central Italy at low, medium and high elevations, respectively. The results showed that levels of heavy metals in lichens were relatively low and consequently no risk of heavy metal air pollution is expected for the six forest ecosystems investigated. However, for two of them there are indications of a potential risk: the beech forest of Vallombrosa showed signs of contamination by Pb as a consequence of vehicle traffic due to the rather high touristic pressure in the area, and the holm oak forest of Cala Violina showed transboundary pollution by Mn, Cr and Ni originating from the steel industry in Piombino. Epiphytic lichens proved to be very effective as an early warning system to detect signs of a changing environment at forest ecosystems

  5. Analysis of ecological thresholds in a temperate forest undergoing dieback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin

    Full Text Available Positive feedbacks in drivers of degradation can cause threshold responses in natural ecosystems. Though threshold responses have received much attention in studies of aquatic ecosystems, they have been neglected in terrestrial systems, such as forests, where the long time-scales required for monitoring have impeded research. In this study we explored the role of positive feedbacks in a temperate forest that has been monitored for 50 years and is undergoing dieback, largely as a result of death of the canopy dominant species (Fagus sylvatica, beech. Statistical analyses showed strong non-linear losses in basal area for some plots, while others showed relatively gradual change. Beech seedling density was positively related to canopy openness, but a similar relationship was not observed for saplings, suggesting a feedback whereby mortality in areas with high canopy openness was elevated. We combined this observation with empirical data on size- and growth-mediated mortality of trees to produce an individual-based model of forest dynamics. We used this model to simulate changes in the structure of the forest over 100 years under scenarios with different juvenile and mature mortality probabilities, as well as a positive feedback between seedling and mature tree mortality. This model produced declines in forest basal area when critical juvenile and mature mortality probabilities were exceeded. Feedbacks in juvenile mortality caused a greater reduction in basal area relative to scenarios with no feedback. Non-linear, concave declines of basal area occurred only when mature tree mortality was 3-5 times higher than rates observed in the field. Our results indicate that the longevity of trees may help to buffer forests against environmental change and that the maintenance of old, large trees may aid the resilience of forest stands. In addition, our work suggests that dieback of forests may be avoidable providing pressures on mature and juvenile trees do

  6. Mechanical properties and chemical composition of beech wood exposed for 30 and 120 days to white-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Hamid Reza Taghiyari; Behbood Mohebby; Carol A. Clausen; Olaf Schmidt; Mohammad Ali Tajick Ghanbary; Mohammad Javad Vaseghi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposing specimens of Oriental beech [Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis (Lipsky) Greuter and Burdet] to the white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kummer and Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Pilát strain 325 have been studied concerning the mechanical properties and...

  7. 77 FR 31642 - Hawker Beech Craft Defense Company, LLC, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, Also Known...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,901] Hawker Beech Craft Defense Company, LLC, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft International SVC, Also Known As Rapid Surplus Parts, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft Svcs, Also Known As Travel...

  8. Removal of non benzidine direct red dye from aqueous solution by using natural sorbents: Beech and silver fir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muntean, S.G.; Todea, A.; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Bologa, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, MAR (2017), s. 235-250 ISSN 1944-3994 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Adsorption * Beech * Direct red * Kinetics * Silver fir Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  9. The formation of a ligno-suberised layer and necrophylactic periderm in beech bark (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primoz Oven; Niko Torelli; Walter C. Shortle; Martin Zupancic

    1999-01-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) bark was wounded in early April of 1993 and tissue changes followed on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 84, 112, and 140. In 7 days, tissue at the wound surface became necrotic and discoloured. In 14 days the walls of the parenchyma cells immediately underneath the necrotic tissue became thickened and after 21 days...

  10. The potential of beech seedlings to adapt to low P availability in soil - plant versus microbial effects on P mobilising potential in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Sonia; Frey, Beat; Frossard, Emmanuel; Spohn, Marie; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The objective of our work was to investigate to what extent tree seedlings (Fagus sylvatica) are able to adapt the process of P mobilisation in the rhizosphere according to P speciation in the soil. Such mobilisation activity can include root exudation of P mobilising compounds or stimulation of specific P mobilising soil microbes. We hypothesized that Fagus sylvatica seedlings can adapt their own activity based on their P nutritional status and genetic memory of how to react under a given nutritional situation. To test the hypothesis, we set up a cross-growth experiment with beech of different provenances growing in soil from their own provenance site and in soil differing in P availability. Experiments were performed as a greenhouse experiment, with temperature control and natural light, during one vegetation period in rhizoboxes . We used two acidic forest soils, contrasting in P availability, collected at field sites of the German research priority program "Ecosystem Nutrition". Juvenile trees were collected along with the soils at the sites and planted respectively. The occurrence of P mobilising compounds and available P in the rhizosphere and in bulk soil were measured during the active growth season of the plants. In particular, we assessed phosphatase activity, (measured with zymography and plate enzymatic assay at pH 4,6.5, and 11) carboxylates and phosphate (measured by application of ion exchange membranes to specific soil micro zones, and by microdialysis), and pH (mapping with optodes). Plant P nutrition status was assessed by total P, N/P, phosphatase activity, and metabolic (TCA extractable) P in the leaves. The P-nutritional status of the beech provenances differed markedly independent from the P status of the soil where they were actually grown during experiment. In particular, the juvenile trees from the site rich in mineral P were sufficient in P, while those from the P-poor site with mostly organic P, were deficient. Enzymatic activity at the

  11. Analyses of the impact of changes in atmospheric deposition and climate on forest growth in European monitoring plots: A stand growth approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solberg, S.; Dobbertin, M.; Reinds, G.J.; Andreassen, K.; Lange, H.; Garcia Fernandez, P.; Hildingsson, A.; Vries, de W.

    2009-01-01

    During the last 15 years a number of studies have shown increasing forest growth in central Europe, rather than a decline as was expected due to negative effects of air pollution. We have here used data from intensive monitoring plots spread over Europe for a five year period in order to examine the

  12. LiDAR Remote Sensing of Forest Structure and GPS Telemetry Data Provide Insights on Winter Habitat Selection of European Roe Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ewald

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of GPS-Telemetry and resource selection functions is widely used to analyze animal habitat selection. Rapid large-scale assessment of vegetation structure allows bridging the requirements of habitat selection studies on grain size and extent, particularly in forest habitats. For roe deer, the cold period in winter forces individuals to optimize their trade off in searching for food and shelter. We analyzed the winter habitat selection of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in a montane forest landscape combining estimates of vegetation cover in three different height strata, derived from high resolution airborne Laser-scanning (LiDAR, Light detection and ranging, and activity data from GPS telemetry. Specifically, we tested the influence of temperature, snow height, and wind speed on site selection, differentiating between active and resting animals using mixed-effects conditional logistic regression models in a case-control design. Site selection was best explained by temperature deviations from hourly means, snow height, and activity status of the animals. Roe deer tended to use forests of high canopy cover more frequently with decreasing temperature, and when snow height exceeded 0.6 m. Active animals preferred lower canopy cover, but higher understory cover. Our approach demonstrates the potential of LiDAR measures for studying fine scale habitat selection in complex three-dimensional habitats, such as forests.

  13. National forest inventory contributions to forest biodiversity monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirici, Cherardo; McRoberts, Ronald; Winter, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    . The primary international processes dealing with biodiversity and sustainable forest management, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Forest Europe, Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators 2010 of the European Environmental Agency, and the Montréal Process, all include indicators related...... (ground vegetation and regeneration) NFIs should invest more in harmonization efforts. On the basis of these key findings, we recommend that NFIs should represent a main component of a future global biodiversity monitoring network as urgently requested by the CBD....

  14. Sales of wood from state forests in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Office National des Forets

    2011-01-01

    After two years of diminishing demand in both volume and prices, all products experienced a recovery in 2010 that was significant for coniferous workable timber and for industrial timber but less so for deciduous workable timber particularly beech. Taking all species together, the supply of timber increased 10%, volumes sold went up 19% while the average unit price grew 12%. As a result, the overall turnover for French state-owned forests went up by 34%. Concerning the marketing channels for timber, supply contract volumes increased by 250,000 m 3 and accounted for 18% of overall volumes sold; their prices followed the general trends observed on the market. (authors)

  15. Combining multiple isotopes and metagenomic to delineate the role of tree canopy nitrification in European forests along nitrogen deposition and climate gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, R.; Avila, A.; Barceló, A.; Elustondo, D.; Hellstein, S.; Magnani, F.; Mattana, S.; Matteucci, G.; Merilä, P.; Michalski, G. M.; Nicolas, M.; Vanguelova, E.; Verstraeten, A.; Waldner, P.; Watanabe, M.; Penuelas, J.; Mencuccini, M.

    2017-12-01

    Forest canopies influence our climate through carbon, water and energy exchanges with the atmosphere. However, less investigated is whether and how tree canopies change the chemical composition of precipitation, with important implications on forest nutrient cycling. Recently, we provided for the first time isotopic evidence that biological nitrification in tree canopies was responsible for significant changes in the amount of nitrate from rainfall to throughfall across two UK forests at high nitrogen (N) deposition [1]. This finding strongly suggested that bacteria and/or Archaea species of the phyllosphere are responsible for transforming atmospheric N before it reaches the soil. Despite microbial epiphytes representing an important component of tree canopies, attention has been mostly directed to their role as pathogens, while we still do not know whether and how they affect nutrient cycling. Our study aims to 1) characterize microbial communities harboured in tree canopies for two of the most dominant species in Europe (Fagus sylvatica L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) using metagenomic techniques, 2) quantify the functional genes related to nitrification but also to denitrification and N fixation, and 3) estimate the contribution of NO3 derived from biological canopy nitrification vs. atmospheric NO3 input by using δ15N, δ18O and δ17O of NO3in forest water. We considered i) twelve sites included in the EU ICP long term intensive forest monitoring network, chosen along a climate and nitrogen deposition gradient, spanning from Fennoscandia to the Mediterranean and ii) a manipulation experiment where N mist treatments were carried out either to the soil or over tree canopies. We will present preliminary results regarding microbial diversity in the phyllosphere, water (rainfall and throughfall) and soil samples over the gradient. Furthermore, we will report differences between the two investigated tree species for the phyllosphere core microbiome in terms of relative

  16. Throughfall and stemflow chemistry in a northern hardwood forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, J S; Likens, G E; Bormann, F H

    1973-01-01

    The contribution of throughfall and stemflow as pathways of the intrasystem nutrient cycle within the forested Hubbard Brook ecosystem was investigated. Nutrients followed were Ca, Mg, K, Na, NO/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 4/, Fl, PO/sub 4/, H, organic N, and organic matter. Variation in throughfall and stemflow chemistry were determined under American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, the three major species comprising the forest studied. Nutrients generally recognized as being associated with organic molecules (e.g. P, N) moved more slowly from the forest canopy to the forest floor. These nutrients moved out of the canopy primarily via litterfall. Nutrients more commonly found in an ionic form (e.g. K) were found to move very rapidly from the forest canopy to the available nutrient pool in throughfall and stemflow. A comparison is made between the amount of each nutrient present in the forest canopy and the amount of these nutrients found in the throughfall and stemflow. The importance of hydrogen ion exchange in the removal of cations from the forest canopy is shown. Precipitation of low pH probably acts to accelerate the intrasystem cycling of nutrients within forested ecosystems. Total nutrient removal from the forest canopy by throughfall and stemflow is presented along with a comparison with the removal by litterfall.

  17. Black carbon surface oxidation and organic composition of beech-wood soot aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Corbin

    2015-10-01

    oxygenated carbonaceous ions (CO1-2+, potassium (K+, and water (H2O+ and related fragments. The C4+ : C3+ ratio, but not the C1+ : C3+ ratio, was consistent with the BC-structure trends of Corbin et al. (2015c. The CO1-2+ signals likely originated from BC surface groups: upon aging, both CO+ and CO2+ increased relative to C1-3+ while CO2+ simultaneously increased relative to CO+. Factor analysis (positive matrix factorization of SP-AMS and AMS data, using a modified error model to address peak-integration uncertainties, indicated that the surface composition of the BC was approximately constant across all stages of combustion for both fresh and aged samples. These results represent the first time-resolved measurements of in situ BC surface aging and suggest that the surface of beech-wood BC may be modelled as a single chemical species.

  18. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  19. The role of forests in climate change mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochieng, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Since the advent of professional forestry in the 17th century, forest monitoring has been part and parcel of forest management, and has been implemented in different forms in many European countries. The practice of forest monitoring was later exported to the European colonies, and has since been

  20. Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkema, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and f