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Sample records for european aqua thermodynamic

  1. AQUA-motion domain and metaphorization patterns in European Portuguese: AQUA-motion metaphor in AERO-motion and abstract domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Jakubowicz Batoréo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The AQUA-motion verbs – as studied by Majsak & Rahilina 2003 and 2007, Lander, Majsak & Rahilina [2005] 2008, 2012 and 2013, and Divjak & Lemmens 2007, and in European Portuguese (EP by Batoréo, 2007, 2008, 2009; Batoréo et al., 2007; Casadinho, 2007 – allow typically metaphorical uses, which we postulate can be organized in patterns. Our study shows that in European Portuguese there are two metaphorization patterns to be observed: (i AQUA-motion metaphor in AERO-motion domain and (ii AQUA-motion metaphor in abstract domain (e.g. abundance, arts, politics, etc.. In the first case, where the target domain of the metaphorization is the air, in EP we navigate through a crowd or we float in a waltz, whereas in the second, where it is abstract, we swim in money or in blood, and politicians navigate at sea or face floating currency in finances. In the present paper we survey the EP verbs of AQUA-motion metaphors in non-elicited data from electronically available language corpora (cf. Linguateca. In some cases comparisons are made with typologically diferent languages (as, e.g. Polish, cf. Prokofjeva’s 2007, Batoréo 2009.

  2. Improvement of the European thermodynamic database NUCLEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissoneau, L.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache, DEN, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance (France); Bakardjieva, S. [Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Inorgan Chem, CZ-25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Barrachin, M. [Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, St Paul Les Durance (France); Bechta, S. [NITI, Aleksandrov Res Inst Technol, Sosnovyi Bor (Russian Federation); Bottomley, D. [Commiss European Communities, Joint Res Ctr, Inst Transuranium Elements, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cheynet, B.; Fischer, E. [Thermodata, F-38400 St Martin Dheres (France); Kiselova, M. [Nucl Res Inst UJV, Rez 25068 (Czech Republic); Mezentseva, L. [Russian Acad Sci, Inst Silicate Chem, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Modelling of corium behaviour during a severe accident requires knowledge of the phases present at equilibrium for a given corium composition, temperature and pressure. The thermodynamic database NUCLEA in combination with a Gibbs Energy minimizer is the European reference tool to achieve this goal. This database has been improved thanks to the analysis of bibliographical data and to EU-funded experiments performed within the SARNET network, PLINIUS as well as the ISTC CORPHAD and EVAN projects. To assess the uncertainty range associated with Energy Dispersive X-ray analyses, a round-robin exercise has been launched in which a UO{sub 2}-containing corium-concrete interaction sample from VULCANO has been analyzed by three European laboratories with satisfactorily small differences. (authors)

  3. Improvement of the European thermodynamic database NUCLEA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakardjieva, Snejana; Barrachin, M.; Bechta, S.; Bottomley, D.; Brissoneau, L.; Cheynet, B.; Fischer, E.; Journeau, C.; Kiselová, M.; Mezentseva, L.; Piluso, P.; Wiss, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2010), s. 84-96 ISSN 0149-1970 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : corium * Severe Accidents * thermodynamic databese Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2010

  4. Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fermi, Enrico

    1956-01-01

    Indisputably, this is a modern classic of science. Based on a course of lectures delivered by the author at Columbia University, the text is elementary in treatment and remarkable for its clarity and organization. Although it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the fundamental facts of thermometry and calorimetry, no advanced mathematics beyond calculus is assumed.Partial contents: thermodynamic systems, the first law of thermodynamics (application, adiabatic transformations), the second law of thermodynamics (Carnot cycle, absolute thermodynamic temperature, thermal engines), the entr

  5. Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanchini, E.

    1988-01-01

    The definition of energy, in thermodynamics, is dependent by starting operative definitions of the basic concepts of physics on which it rests, such as those of isolated systems, ambient of a system, separable system and set of separable states. Then the definition of energy is rigorously extended to open systems. The extension gives a clear physical meaning to the concept of energy difference between two states with arbitrary different compositions

  6. AquaBuOY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Alla; Fredrikson, Göran; Claeson, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    BuOY in five representative generic sea states. Ocean energy and offshore wave energy conversion in the United States is at a significant milestone. During the next year, ocean energy technology developers and energy officials have the potential to deploy pilot scale ocean power plants and transition......This paper describes development of the mathematical model simulating ocean performance of an offshore wave energy point absorber device-AquaBuOY. The AquaBuOY is the next generation of the technology, based on the IPS point absorber system and the hose pump, both of Sweden. AquaEnergy Group Ltd......, engineers, and developers can continue to lay the groundwork for government spending and interest in ocean energies....

  7. NASA 3D Models: Aqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aqua, Latin for water, is a NASA Earth Science satellite mission named for the large amount of information that the mission is collecting about the Earth's water...

  8. NASA 3D Models: Aqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aqua carries six state-of-the-art instruments to observe the Earth's oceans, atmosphere, land, ice and snow covers, and vegetation, providing high measurement...

  9. Simulation Of Aqua-Ammonia Refrigeration System Using The Cape-Open To Cape-Open COCO Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janavi Gohil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have simulated a flow sheet of aqua ammonia refrigeration system using Cape Open simulator. The main aim of writing this paper is to compare the results obtained from thermodynamic simulation of aqua ammonia refrigeration system and the results obtained from the flow sheet simulation in Cape-Open to Cape-Open COCO simulator. The corresponding COP values obtained from both the sources are calculated and compared. With the error being very minute the calculations using simulator prove to be more efficient and timesaving when compared to the results obtained by calculations done using tedious thermodynamic simulations and constant mass balance for different process conditions.

  10. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Van Der Veer, Henk; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years’ project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs ...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product (MYDARNSS) consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of...

  12. Statistical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jeong Ui; Jang, Jong Jae; Jee, Jong Gi

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are thermodynamics on the law of thermodynamics, classical thermodynamics and molecule thermodynamics, basics of molecule thermodynamics, molecule and assembly partition function, molecule partition function, classical molecule partition function, thermodynamics function for ideal assembly in fixed system, thermodynamics function for ideal assembly in running system, Maxwell-Boltzmann's law of distribution, chemical equilibrium like calculation of equilibrium constant and theory of absolute reaction rate.

  13. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alunno-Bruscia, M.; v.d. Veer, H.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5. years' project,

  14. Separating climate change signals into thermodynamic, lapse-rate and circulation effects: theory and application to the European summer climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Nico; Kotlarski, Sven; Fischer, Erich; Lüthi, Daniel; Zubler, Elias; Schär, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Climate models robustly project a strong overall summer warming across Europe showing a characteristic north-south gradient with enhanced warming and drying in southern Europe. However, the processes that are responsible for this pattern are not fully understood. We here employ an extended surrogate or pseudo-warming approach to disentangle the contribution of different mechanisms to this response pattern. The basic idea of the surrogate technique is to use a regional climate model and apply a large-scale warming to the lateral boundary conditions of a present-day reference simulation, while maintaining the relative humidity (and thus implicitly increasing the specific moisture content). In comparison to previous studies, our approach includes two important extensions: first, different vertical warming profiles are applied in order to separate the effects of a mean warming from lapse-rate effects. Second, a twin-design is used, in which the climate change signals are not only added to present-day conditions, but also subtracted from a scenario experiment. We demonstrate that these extensions provide an elegant way to separate the full climate change signal into contributions from large-scale thermodynamic (TD), lapse-rate (LR), and circulation and other remaining effects (CO). The latter in particular include changes in land-ocean contrast and spatial variations of the SST warming patterns. We find that the TD effect yields a large-scale warming across Europe with no distinct latitudinal gradient. The LR effect, which is quantified for the first time in our study, leads to a stronger warming and some drying in southern Europe. It explains about 50 % of the warming amplification over the Iberian Peninsula, thus demonstrating the important role of lapse-rate changes. The effect is linked to an extending Hadley circulation. The CO effect as inherited from the driving GCM is shown to further amplify the north-south temperature change gradient. In terms of mean summer

  15. Basic Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered

  16. Basic Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  17. Statistical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gyeong Hui

    2008-03-01

    This book consists of 15 chapters, which are basic conception and meaning of statistical thermodynamics, Maxwell-Boltzmann's statistics, ensemble, thermodynamics function and fluctuation, statistical dynamics with independent particle system, ideal molecular system, chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate in ideal gas mixture, classical statistical thermodynamics, ideal lattice model, lattice statistics and nonideal lattice model, imperfect gas theory on liquid, theory on solution, statistical thermodynamics of interface, statistical thermodynamics of a high molecule system and quantum statistics

  18. AQUA AMSR-E Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentemann, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's AQUA satellite carries the JAXA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). The AQUA satellite was launched in May 2002 into a polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km, with a LECT of 1:30 AM/PM. AMSR-E has 12 channels corresponding to 6 frequencies; all except 23.8 GHz measure both vertical and horizontal polarizations. Geophysical retrievals of SST, wind speed, water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rain rates are calculated using a multi-stage linear regression algorithm derived through comprehensive radiative transfer model simulations. SST retrievals are prevented by rain, sun glint, near land emissions, and radio frequency interference due to geostationary satellite broadcasts. Since only a small number of retrievals are unsuccessful, almost complete global coverage is available daily. At high latitudes, where cloud cover regularly prevents infrared observations of SSTs, the microwave observations of SST provide a significant improvement to measurement capabilities. Validation of the datasets through comparison to the global drifting buoy networks yields mean biases of -0.02 K and standard deviations of 0.50 K. AMSR-E SSTs have been widely used for numerical weather prediction, ocean modeling, fisheries, and oceanographic research.

  19. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  20. Mobility, turnover and storage of pollutants in soils, sediments and waters: Achievements and results of the EU project AquaTerra. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, J.A.C.; Grathwohl, P.; Fowler, H.J.; Bellin, A.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Lair, G.J.; Barceló, D.; Petrovic, M.; Navarro, A.; Négrel, P.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Darmendrail, D.; Rijnaarts, H.; Langenhoff, A.; Weert, J. de; Slob, A.; Zaan, B.M. van der; Gerritse, J.; Frank, E.; Gutierrez, A.; Kretzschmar, R.; Gocht, T.; Steidle, D.; Garrido, F.; Jones, K.C.; Meijer, S.; Moeckel, C.; Marsman, A.; Klaver, G.; Vogel, T.; Bürger, C.; Kolditz, O.; Broers, H.P.; Baran, N.; Joziasse, J.; Tümpling, W. von; Gaans, P. van; Merly, C.; Chapman, A.; Brouyère, S.; Batlle Aguilar, J.; Orban, Ph.; Tas, N.; Smidt, H.

    2009-01-01

    AquaTerra is one of the first environmental projects within the 6th Framework program by the European Commission. It began in June 2004 with a multidisciplinary team of 45 partner organizations from 13 EU countries, Switzerland, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro. Results from sampling and modeling in 4

  1. Installation of aerosol behavior model into multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis code AQUA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Akira

    1997-12-01

    The safety analysis of FBR plant system for sodium leak phenomena needs to evaluate the deposition of the aerosol particle to the components in the plant, the chemical reaction of aerosol to humidity in the air and the effect of the combustion heat through aerosol to the structural component. For this purpose, ABC-INTG (Aerosol Behavior in Containment-INTeGrated Version) code has been developed and used until now. This code calculates aerosol behavior in the gas area of uniform temperature and pressure by 1 cell-model. Later, however, more detailed calculation of aerosol behavior requires the installation of aerosol model into multi-cell thermal hydraulic analysis code AQUA. AQUA can calculate the carrier gas flow, temperature and the distribution of the aerosol spatial concentration. On the other hand, ABC-INTG can calculate the generation, deposition to the wall and flower, agglomeration of aerosol particle and figure out the distribution of the aerosol particle size. Thus, the combination of these two codes enables to deal with aerosol model coupling the distribution of the aerosol spatial concentration and that of the aerosol particle size. This report describes aerosol behavior model, how to install the aerosol model to AQUA and new subroutine equipped to the code. Furthermore, the test calculations of the simple structural model were executed by this code, appropriate results were obtained. Thus, this code has prospect to predict aerosol behavior by the introduction of coupling analysis with multi-dimensional gas thermo-dynamics for sodium combustion evaluation. (J.P.N.)

  2. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  3. AIRS/Aqua Level 2G Precipitation Estimate V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  4. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  5. General thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Olander, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The book’s methodology is unified, concise, and multidisciplinary, allowing students to understand how the principles of thermodynamics apply to all technical fields that touch upon this most fundamental of scientific theories. It also offers a rigorous approach to the quantitative aspects of thermodynamics, accompanied by clear explanations to help students transition smoothly from the physical concepts to their mathematical representations

  6. HIF evaluation of In-Situ Aqua TROLL 400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Evan F.

    2017-10-18

    The In-Situ Aqua TROLL 400 (Aqua TROLL 400) was tested at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) against known standards over the Aqua TROLL 400’s operating temperature to verify the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications and the USGS recommendations for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and specific conductance (SC). The Aqua TROLL 400 manufacturer’s specifications are within the USGS recommendations for all parameters tested, except for DO, which is outside the USGS recommendation at DO concentrations of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and higher. The Aqua TROLL 400 was compliant with Serial Digital Interface at 1200 baud (SDI-12) version 1.3. During laboratory testing of pH, the Aqua TROLL 400 sonde met the U.S. Geological Survey “National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data” (NFM) recommendations for pH at all values tested, except at 4 degrees Celsius (°C) at pH 9.395 and pH 3.998. The Aqua TROLL 400 met the manufacturer specifications for pH at all values tested, except for pH buffers 3.998, 9.395, and 10.245 at 4 °C; pH 2.990 and 3.998 at 15 °C; and pH 3.040 at 40 °C. The Aqua TROLL 400 met the NFM recommendations at 93.7 percent of the SC values tested and met the manufacturer’s accuracy specifications at 56.3 percent of the SC values tested. During the laboratory testing for DO, the Aqua TROLL 400 met the manufacturer specifications, except at 5.55 mg/L, and met the NFM recommendations at all concentrations tested. An Aqua TROLL 400 was field tested at USGS Station 02492620, National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) Station, Mississippi, on the Pearl River for 6 weeks and showed good agreement with the well-maintained site sonde data for pH, DO, temperature, and SC.

  7. The MODIS cloud optical and microphysical products: Collection 6 updates and examples from Terra and Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Marchant, Benjamin; Arnold, G. Thomas; Zhang, Zhibo; Hubanks, Paul A.; Holz, Robert E.; Yang, Ping; Ridgway, William L.; Riedi, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    The MODIS Level-2 cloud product (Earth Science Data Set names MOD06 and MYD06 for Terra and Aqua MODIS, respectively) provides pixel-level retrievals of cloud-top properties (day and night pressure, temperature, and height) and cloud optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, and water path for both liquid water and ice cloud thermodynamic phases–daytime only). Collection 6 (C6) reprocessing of the product was completed in May 2014 and March 2015 for MODIS Aqua and Terra, respectively. Here we provide an overview of major C6 optical property algorithm changes relative to the previous Collection 5 (C5) product. Notable C6 optical and microphysical algorithm changes include: (i) new ice cloud optical property models and a more extensive cloud radiative transfer code lookup table (LUT) approach, (ii) improvement in the skill of the shortwave-derived cloud thermodynamic phase, (iii) separate cloud effective radius retrieval datasets for each spectral combination used in previous collections, (iv) separate retrievals for partly cloudy pixels and those associated with cloud edges, (v) failure metrics that provide diagnostic information for pixels having observations that fall outside the LUT solution space, and (vi) enhanced pixel-level retrieval uncertainty calculations. The C6 algorithm changes collectively can result in significant changes relative to C5, though the magnitude depends on the dataset and the pixel’s retrieval location in the cloud parameter space. Example Level-2 granule and Level-3 gridded dataset differences between the two collections are shown. While the emphasis is on the suite of cloud optical property datasets, other MODIS cloud datasets are discussed when relevant. PMID:29657349

  8. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  9. Thermodynamic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Jiang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle states that the information about a volume of a system is encoded on the boundary surface of the volume. Holography appears in many branches of physics, such as optics, electromagnetism, many-body physics, quantum gravity, and string theory. Here we show that holography is also an underlying principle in thermodynamics, a most important foundation of physics. The thermodynamics of a system is fully determined by its partition function. We prove that the partition function of a finite but arbitrarily large system is an analytic function on the complex plane of physical parameters, and therefore the partition function in a region on the complex plane is uniquely determined by its values along the boundary. The thermodynamic holography has applications in studying thermodynamics of nano-scale systems (such as molecule engines, nano-generators and macromolecules) and provides a new approach to many-body physics. PMID:26478214

  10. Stochastic thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2014-04-01

    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response

  11. Modern thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  12. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  13. An Algorithm For Climate-Quality Atmospheric Profiling Continuity From EOS Aqua To Suomi-NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    We will present results from an algorithm that is being developed to produce climate-quality atmospheric profiling earth system data records (ESDRs) for application to hyperspectral sounding instrument data from Suomi-NPP, EOS Aqua, and other spacecraft. The current focus is on data from the S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instruments as well as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on EOS Aqua. The algorithm development at Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) has common heritage with the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm operationally processing S-NPP data in the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), but the ESDR algorithm has a flexible, modular software structure to support experimentation and collaboration and has several features adapted to the climate orientation of ESDRs. Data record continuity benefits from the fact that the same algorithm can be applied to different sensors, simply by providing suitable configuration and data files. The radiative transfer component uses an enhanced version of optimal spectral sampling (OSS) with updated spectroscopy, treatment of emission that is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), efficiency gains with "global" optimal sampling over all channels, and support for channel selection. The algorithm is designed for adaptive treatment of clouds, with capability to apply "cloud clearing" or simultaneous cloud parameter retrieval, depending on conditions. We will present retrieval results demonstrating the impact of a new capability to perform the retrievals on sigma or hybrid vertical grid (as opposed to a fixed pressure grid), which particularly affects profile accuracy over land with variable terrain height and with sharp vertical structure near the surface. In addition, we will show impacts of alternative treatments of regularization of the inversion. While OE algorithms typically implement regularization by using background estimates from

  14. Statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    1952-01-01

    Nobel Laureate's brilliant attempt to develop a simple, unified standard method of dealing with all cases of statistical thermodynamics - classical, quantum, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and more.The work also includes discussions of Nernst theorem, Planck's oscillator, fluctuations, the n-particle problem, problem of radiation, much more.

  15. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Van Der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.l.m.

    2009-01-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main sci...

  16. Solvation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with a subject that has been studied since the beginning of physical chemistry. Despite the thousands of articles and scores of books devoted to solvation thermodynamics, I feel that some fundamen­ tal and well-established concepts underlying the traditional approach to this subject are not satisfactory and need revision. The main reason for this need is that solvation thermodynamics has traditionally been treated in the context of classical (macroscopic) ther­ modynamics alone. However, solvation is inherently a molecular pro­ cess, dependent upon local rather than macroscopic properties of the system. Therefore, the starting point should be based on statistical mechanical methods. For many years it has been believed that certain thermodynamic quantities, such as the standard free energy (or enthalpy or entropy) of solution, may be used as measures of the corresponding functions of solvation of a given solute in a given solvent. I first challenged this notion in a paper published in 1978 b...

  17. Environmental factors that determine the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa YAMAMOTO

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the seasonal dynamics of two populations of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet & Flahault var. flos-aquae and four populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii Elenkin in eutrophic water bodies over 1 year from February 2006 to January 2007. The growth of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was promoted at high temperatures even if in one case the biomass development was very low when other co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp. and Microcystis spp. were abundant. In contrast, the highest density of the other population of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was observed in August when the population density of M. aeruginosa (Kützing Kützing reached an annual peak. A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae usually bloomed in summer but could also tolerate low temperatures in the winter, and was present in relatively high densities. The populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii observed in this study can be divided into three groups based on preferred temperature; three populations increased in winter, and the other increased in summer. Large biomasses of the low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae were observed mainly during winter when population densities of co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp., Microcystis spp. and Planktothrix raciborskii (Woloszynska Anagnostidis & Komárek were relatively low or almost absent. The increase in or existence of cooccurring cyanoprokaryotes during the summer resulted in a decrease of the A. flos-aquae population density. It was revealed that high temperatures (20-25 °C are suitable for maintaining A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii strains isolated from the study ponds, implying that low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae can grow over a wide range of water temperatures. The high-temperatureadapted A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii co-existed with M. aeruginosa during summer; however, its peak population density was significantly lower than those in previous years when M. aeruginosa was absent

  18. One-year outcomes of AquaLase cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sonia H; Bhatt, Anand B

    2007-01-01

    The authors report surgical experience and clinical outcomes up to 1 year postoperatively in patients who underwent cataract surgery with the AquaLase liquefaction device (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The device is a handpiece option for use with Alcon's Infiniti Vision System that uses heated balanced saline solution micropulses to liquefy lenticular material. Twenty-seven eyes of 23 patients underwent cataract extraction with the use of the AquaLase liquefaction device. The average age of participants was 68 years, and the average nuclear sclerotic grade was 1.96 on a 4-point scale. Outcomes were judged by metrics such as visual acuity, inflammation, endothelial cell count, and postoperative posterior capsule opacification. At 30 days postoperatively, 78% of eyes had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20. Visual acuity was 20/25 or better 1 year postoperatively in 88% of patients without complications except conversion to ultrasound phacoemulsification for two dense cataracts.

  19. APLIKASI GESTALT PADA DESAIN LABEL KEMASAN PRODUK AQUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Kristiana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Dalam suatu produk, elemen Positioning, Differensiasi dan Brand merupakan tiga hal pokok yang harus dipertimbangkan dalam sebuah kemasan. Desain kemasan yang menarik mampu membuka ruang tersendiri di benak konsumen melalui komunikasi visual. Danone Perusahaan asal Perancis mengeluarkan desain kemasan yang khusus. Desain kemasan produk air mineral Aqua pada botol minuman ukuran 600ml, bertema ‘Temukan Indonesiamu”  dengan mengangkat tema budaya lokal Indonesia , terdiri dari 5 judul yaitu Berbagi, Santun, Ramah, Kekeluargaan, dan Gotong Royong. Dari kelima seri tersebut ada dua judul yaitu Santun dan Gotong-Royong yang dalam memvisualkannya menggunakan teori Gestalt. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Deskriptif kualitatif dimana teori Gestalt, selanjutnya dideskripsikan dan dianalisis secara kualitatif. Hasil dari penelitian ini yaitu adanya pesan yang mendalam dari kedua desain kemasan tersebut. Kata Kunci : Desain Kemasan, Gestalt, Aqua,. Abstract In a product, Positioning, Differentiation and Brand elements are the three key points to be considered in a package. An attractive packaging design is able to open its own space in the minds of consumers through visual communication. Danone Company from France issued a special packaging design. The design of Aqua mineral water product packaging at 600ml bottle beverage, themed 'Discover Indonesiamu' with the theme of Indonesian local culture, consists of 5 titles: Sharing, Politeness, Friendly, Kinship, and Cooperation. Of the five series there are two titles namely Politeness and Cooperation which in visualizing using the theory of Gestalt. This research uses qualitative descriptive method in which Gestalt theory, hereinafter described and analyzed qualitatively. The result of this research is the deep message of both packaging design. Keywords: Packaging Design, Gestalt, Aqua.

  20. Aqua/Aura Updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver Performance Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver (IAM) performance prediction model that was developed for Aqua and Aura following the 2017 IAM series. This updated model uses statistical regression methods to identify potential long-term trends in maneuver parameters, yielding improved predictions when re-planning past maneuvers. The presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager.

  1. Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion® membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar eMurugesan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lack of comprehensive understanding about the interactions between Nafion membrane and battery electrolytes prevents the straightforward tailoring of optimal materials for redox flow battery applications. In this work, we analyzed the interaction between aqua-vanadyl cation and sulfonic sites within the pores of Nafion membranes using combined theoretical and experimental X-ray spectroscopic methods. Molecular level interactions namely solvent share and contact pair mechanisms are discussed based on Vanadium and Sulfur K-edge spectroscopic analysis.

  2. Evaluation of Aqua crop Model to Predict Crop Water Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan; Faiz Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Water and nutrient are critical inputs for crop production, especially in meeting challenges from increasing fertilizer cost and irregular water availability associated with climate change. The Land and Water Division of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed Aqua Crop, an integrated application software to simulate the interactions between plant, water and soil. Field management and irrigation management are the factors that need to be considered since it affects the interactions. Four critical components are needed in the Aqua Crop model, viz. climate, crop, field management and soil conditions. In our case study, climate data from rice field in Utan Aji, Kangar, Perlis was applied to run a simulation by using AquaCrop model. The rice crop was also assessed against deficit irrigation schedules and we found that use of water at optimum level increased rice yield. Results derived from the use of the model corresponded conventional assessment. This model can be adopted to help farmers in Malaysia in planning crop and field management to increase the crop productivity, especially in areas where the water is limited. (author)

  3. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacio, German Rau

    1998-01-01

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  4. The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): CONTROL SST Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michael; Williamson, David L.; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Mcgregor, John L.; Borth, Hartmut; hide

    2013-01-01

    Climate simulations by 16 atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) are compared on an aqua-planet, a water-covered Earth with prescribed sea surface temperature varying only in latitude. The idealised configuration is designed to expose differences in the circulation simulated by different models. Basic features of the aqua-planet climate are characterised by comparison with Earth. The models display a wide range of behaviour. The balanced component of the tropospheric mean flow, and mid-latitude eddy covariances subject to budget constraints, vary relatively little among the models. In contrast, differences in damping in the dynamical core strongly influence transient eddy amplitudes. Historical uncertainty in modelled lower stratospheric temperatures persists in APE.Aspects of the circulation generated more directly by interactions between the resolved fluid dynamics and parameterized moist processes vary greatly. The tropical Hadley circulation forms either a single or double inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) at the equator, with large variations in mean precipitation. The equatorial wave spectrum shows a wide range of precipitation intensity and propagation characteristics. Kelvin mode-like eastward propagation with remarkably constant phase speed dominates in most models. Westward propagation, less dispersive than the equatorial Rossby modes, dominates in a few models or occurs within an eastward propagating envelope in others. The mean structure of the ITCZ is related to precipitation variability, consistent with previous studies.The aqua-planet global energy balance is unknown but the models produce a surprisingly large range of top of atmosphere global net flux, dominated by differences in shortwave reflection by clouds. A number of newly developed models, not optimised for Earth climate, contribute to this. Possible reasons for differences in the optimised models are discussed.The aqua-planet configuration is intended as one component of an

  5. The MODIS Cloud Optical and Microphysical Products: Collection 6 Up-dates and Examples From Terra and Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Marchant, Benjamin G.; Arnold, G. Thomas; Zhang, Zhibo; Hubanks, Paul A.; Holz, Robert E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The MODIS Level-2 cloud product (Earth Science Data Set names MOD06 and MYD06 for Terra and Aqua MODIS, respectively) provides pixel-level retrievals of cloud-top properties (day and night pressure, temperature, and height) and cloud optical properties(optical thickness, effective particle radius, and water path for both liquid water and ice cloud thermodynamic phases daytime only). Collection 6 (C6) reprocessing of the product was completed in May 2014 and March 2015 for MODIS Aqua and Terra, respectively. Here we provide an overview of major C6 optical property algorithm changes relative to the previous Collection 5 (C5) product. Notable C6 optical and microphysical algorithm changes include: (i) new ice cloud optical property models and a more extensive cloud radiative transfer code lookup table (LUT) approach, (ii) improvement in the skill of the shortwave-derived cloud thermodynamic phase, (iii) separate cloud effective radius retrieval datasets for each spectral combination used in previous collections, (iv) separate retrievals for partly cloudy pixels and those associated with cloud edges, (v) failure metrics that provide diagnostic information for pixels having observations that fall outside the LUT solution space, and (vi) enhanced pixel-level retrieval uncertainty calculations.The C6 algorithm changes collectively can result in significant changes relative to C5,though the magnitude depends on the dataset and the pixels retrieval location in the cloud parameter space. Example Level-2 granule and Level-3 gridded dataset differences between the two collections are shown. While the emphasis is on the suite of cloud opticalproperty datasets, other MODIS cloud datasets are discussed when relevant.

  6. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Mário J

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...

  7. Partial Molar Volumes of Aqua Ions from First Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Julia; Bruneval, Fabien; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2017-08-08

    Partial molar volumes of ions in water solution are calculated through pressures obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The correct definition of pressure in charged systems subject to periodic boundary conditions requires access to the variation of the electrostatic potential upon a change of volume. We develop a scheme for calculating such a variation in liquid systems by setting up an interface between regions of different density. This also allows us to determine the absolute deformation potentials for the band edges of liquid water. With the properly defined pressures, we obtain partial molar volumes of a series of aqua ions in very good agreement with experimental values.

  8. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  9. 77 FR 63801 - Aqua-Leisure Industries, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... filed a Supplemental Full Report in which it reported that the Firm had received at least 28 consumer... millions of units sold, Aqua Leisure received only 6 consumer reports (including suspect reports) in 2004... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [CPSC Docket No. 13-C0001] Aqua-Leisure Industries, Inc...

  10. 75 FR 16732 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Aqua-Loop Cooling Towers, Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... to Iran. With your permission we are going to give Aqua-Loop's information to them so they can send... this channel is what you were thinking, and if I understood correctly, you are going to have some kind... Charges 2-3 occurred. Aqua-Loop received from Parto Abgardan a piece of the original sample as well as a...

  11. ELABORATION OF NOT LARGE MOBILE MODULAR INSTALLATION ''AQUA - EXPRESS'' (300 L/H) FOR LRW CLEANING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Yurii; Dmitriev, Sergey; Iljin, Vadim; Ojovan, Mihail; Burcl, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Mobile modular installation ''Aqua-Express'' is a liquid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste (LL and ILRW) treatment facility, intended for not large research centers and other organizations, which activity causes the formation of a few quantity (up to 500 m3/year) of low and intermediate level radioactive waste water. Mobile modular installation ''Aqua-Express'' has the following features: (1) filtration, sorption and ultrafiltration units are used for LL and ILRW purification; (2) installation ''Aqua-Express'' consists of a cascade of three autonomous aqueous liquid waste-purifying installations; (3) installation ''Aqua-Express'' is a mobile installation; the installation can be transported by car, train, ship, or plane, as well as placed in a standard transport (sea or railway) container; (4) installation ''Aqua-Express'' does not includes any technological equipment for conditioning the secondary radioactive waste. Productivity of the installation ''Aqua-Express'' by purified water depends on composition of the initial liquid waste and makes up to 300 l/h. In present report is described the design of installation ''Aqua-Express'', theory of LRW purification in the installation ''Aqua-Express'' and some results of its use at cleaning real radioactive waters at State unitary enterprise - MosNPO ''Radon''

  12. [Influence AquaLase at corneal endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirásková, N; Rozsíval, P; Ludvíková, M; Burova, M; Nekolová, J

    2009-07-01

    To assess the effect of the cleaning of the posterior capsule using pulses of balanced salt solution (BSS) on the corneal endothelial cells. This pilot study involves 43 patients with bilateral cataracts having lens removal using torsional phacoemulsification (Ozil, Infiniti, Alcon) and bimanul irrigation/aspiration (I/A). Posterior capsule of the right eye of each patient was cleaned using pulses of BSS (AquaLase, Infiniti, Alcon). Surgery was performed by one of 2 surgeons (NJ, PR), both eyes of each patient was operated on by the same surgeon. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endotelial cell count and pachymetry were evaluated pre- and postoperatively as well as occurence af peri- and postoperative complications. Preoperative mean pachymetry (P) was 566 +/- 45 microm in the right eye (RE) and 562 +/- 42 microm in the left eye (LE), mean endotelial cell count (ECC) 2541 +/- 317 cells/mm2 (RE) and 2567 +/- 311 cells/mm2 (LE). Three months after surgery P was 557 +/- 43 microm (RE) and 558 +/- 45 microm (LE) and ECC 2368 +/- 416 cells/mm2 (RE) and 2396 +/- 417 cells/mm2 (LE). There was no statistical difference in postoperative changes of both corneal parameters between right and left eyes. Best corrected visual acuity improved in all eyes and no peri-or postoperative complications occured. Cleaning of the posterior capsule using AquaLase is safe for corneal endothelial cells.

  13. A Study on the Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-Acupuncture on Writhing Reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Sun-Hee

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:In spite of the use of Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture in the clinics, the scientific evaluation on effects is not enough. Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture is used according to the stimulation of acupuncture point and the chemical effects of Bee Venom. The aims of this study is to investigate the analgegic effects of the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture, through the change of writhing reflex Materials and Methods:Pain animal model was used acetic acid method. The changes of writhing reflex of the mice which were derived pain by injecting acetic acid into the abdomen, after stimulating Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture on Chungwan(CV12 and non acupuncture point on the backside were measured. Results:1. It showed that the writhing reflex were appeared on the groups which injected acetic acid only, and saline-acetic acid group(sample I, but not on the group bee venom-saline group(sample II. 2. The change of writhing reflex by Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture showed significant decrease in the order of Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group III(2.5×10-3g/kg, II(2.5×10-4g/kg, and I(2.5×10-5g/kg, compared with control group. There were significant decrease of number of writhing reflex in 5~10, 10~15 and 15~20 minutes intervals of Chung wan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group I, and in 0~5, 5~10, 10~15 and 15~20 minutes intervals of II and III, compared with control group. 3. The change of writhing reflex by non acupuncture point Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture showed significant decrease in the 0~5 and 5~10 minutes intervals and the total number of writhing reflex in 2.5×10-4g/kg group, compared with control group 4. The effects of writhing reflex of Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group showed significant decrease, compared with non acupuncture point Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group. Conclusion:This study shows that the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture on Chungwan(CV12 decreases the numbers of writhing reflex. As the

  14. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  15. Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn

  16. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  17. Comparison of thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratillake, M.R.; Newton, G.W.A.; Robinson, V.J.

    1988-05-01

    Four thermodynamic databases used by European groups for geochemical modelling have been compared. Thermodynamic data for both aqueous species and solid species have been listed. When the values are directly comparable any differences between them have been highlighted at two levels of significance. (author)

  18. Thermodynamic tables to accompany Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    This booklet is provided at no extra charge with new copies of Balmer's Modern Engineering Thermodynamics. It contains two appendices. Appendix C contains 40 thermodynamic tables, and Appendix D consists of 6 thermodynamic charts. These charts and tables are provided in a separate booklet to give instructors the flexibility of allowing students to bring the tables into exams. The booklet may be purchased separately if needed.

  19. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  20. Gemas: issues from the comparison of aqua regia and X-ray fluorescence results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinelli, Enrico; Birke, Manfred; Reimann, Clemens; Demetriades, Alecos; DeVivo, Benedetto; Flight, Dee; Ladenberger, Anna; Albanese, Stefano; Cicchella, Domenico; Lima, Annamaria

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of analytical results from aqua regia (AR) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) can provide information on soil processes controlling the element distribution. The GEMAS (GEochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soils) agricultural soil database is used for this comparison. Analyses for the same suite of elements and parameters were carried out in the same laboratory under strict quality control procedures. Sample preparation has been conducted at the laboratory of the The comparison of analytical results from aqua regia (AR) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) can provide information on soil processes controlling the element distribution in soil. The GEMAS (GEochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soils) agricultural soil database, consisting of 2 x ca. 2100 samples spread evenly over 33 European countries, is used for this comparison. Analyses for the same suite of elements and parameters were carried out in the same laboratory under strict quality control procedures. Sample preparation has been conducted at the laboratory of the Geological Survey of the Slovak Republic, AR analyses were carried out at ACME Labs, and XRF analyses at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Germany Element recovery by AR is very different, ranging from 80% (e.g. Mn, P, Co). Recovery is controlled by mineralogy of the parent material, but geographic and climatic factors and the weathering history of the soils are also important. Nonetheless, even the very low recovery elements show wide ranges of variation and spatial patterns that are affected by other factors than soil parent material. For many elements soil pH have a clear influence on AR extractability: under acidic soil conditions almost all elements tend to be leached and their extractability is generally low. It progressively increases with increasing pH and is highest in the pH range 7-8. Critical is the clay content of the soil that almost for all

  1. Analisis Pengawasan Logistik Produk Aqua Ukuran 330ml Pada CV. Dlu'x Resto Samarinda

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiana, Ali Masuhud, H. Mulyadi Syp

    2016-01-01

    The problem in this research is "Are Determination Against Aqua Products Logistics Control 330ml sizes on CV. DLux Resto has been optimized? "This study aims to determine the amount of inventory on the CV aqua 330ml sizes. Dlu'x Resto in Samarinda.Formulation of the problem in this study is whether the determination of the logistical monitoring product inventory aqua 330ml sizes that have been carried out on the CV. Dlu'x Resto Samarinda already performed optimally.The hypothesis in this stud...

  2. A Study on the Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-Acupuncture on Writhing Reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Sun-Hee; Koh Hyung-kyun; Park Dong-Suk

    2000-01-01

    Introduction:In spite of the use of Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture in the clinics, the scientific evaluation on effects is not enough. Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture is used according to the stimulation of acupuncture point and the chemical effects of Bee Venom. The aims of this study is to investigate the analgegic effects of the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture, through the change of writhing reflex Materials and Methods:Pain animal model was used acetic acid method. The changes of writhing reflex of ...

  3. Kinerja Saham PT Aqua Golden Mississippi Tbk. Setelah Pembatalan Go Private dan Estimasi Harga Saham Aqua Tahun 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Wandita Putri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available PT Aqua Golden Mississippi is a company that plans to go private, but until today have not obtained approval from the shareholders. Failure may be caused from several things: the company offer price is too small, no quorum, shares held is still profitable for shareholders, and other factors. The existence of the company's plan to go private would affect the performance of the company stock. Stock performance can be analyzed with - average rate of profit, the level of risk, and sensitivity to the stock exchange. The method used in the calculation of stock performance in this paper is the GMR, STDEV, CAPM, and DDM for the calculation of estimated stock price. Through the conducted analysis, investors / shareholders are encouraged to pay attention to the news and information related to go private to be conducted by the company, stock performance, and perform estimate calculations. This is to find out what the right decision for private investors. 

  4. Thermodynamics in Einstein's thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The role of the thermodynamical approach in the Einstein's scientific work is analyzed. The Einstein's development of a notion about statistical fluctuations of thermodynamical systems that leads him to discovery of corpuscular-wave dualism is retraced

  5. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions

  6. Advanced classical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emanuel, G.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical and mathematical foundations of thermodynamics are presented in an advanced text intended for graduate engineering students. Chapters are devoted to definitions and postulates, the fundamental equation, equilibrium, the application of Jacobian theory to thermodynamics, the Maxwell equations, stability, the theory of real gases, critical-point theory, and chemical thermodynamics. Diagrams, graphs, tables, and sample problems are provided. 38 references

  7. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  8. Aqua AIRS Level 2G Precipitation Estimate (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  9. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  10. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  11. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, OSU DB, 0.0125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  12. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Nighttime (4 microns), Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  13. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.025 degrees, Pacific Ocean, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  14. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, East US, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  15. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, 0.125 degrees, Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OSU distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  16. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  17. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, West US, Day time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  18. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  19. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  20. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  1. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, East US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  2. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Day time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  3. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.025 degrees, Pacific Ocean, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  4. Debris Likelihood, based on GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS, and GOES Imager, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Debris Likelihood Index (Estimated) is calculated from GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended...

  5. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (4 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  6. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  7. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, West US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  8. Global NOAA CoastWatch Chlorophyll Frontal Product from MODIS/Aqua (NCEI Accession 0110333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS/Aqua chlorophyll frontal products: the NOAA Okeanos operational production system produces near real-time chlorophyll frontal products (magnitude and...

  9. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. EOS Aqua Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP April 13, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reflects the EOS Aqua mission status, spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, orbital maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment high interest events, ground track error, spacecraft orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  11. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The geophysical parameters have been averaged and binned into 1 x 1 deg grid cells,...

  12. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient for Downwelling Irradiance (KD) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  13. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (AIRS Only). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  14. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  15. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B HSB geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  16. Aqua AIRS Near Real Time (NRT) Level 2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  17. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  18. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  19. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, East US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  20. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Chlorophyll (CHL) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  1. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Land Reflectance Global Binned Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  2. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (MYD06_L2) product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely...

  4. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Support retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  5. NAMMA MODIS/AQUA AND MODIS/TERRA DEEP BLUE PRODUCTS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA MODIS/AQUA and MODIS/TERRA Deep Blue Products dataset is a collection of images depicting the aerosol optical depth derived from the MODIS deep blue...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MYD04_L2) product continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue...

  7. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Daytime, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  8. Primary Productivity, NASA Aqua MODIS and GOES Imager, 0.1 degrees, Global, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific...

  9. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  10. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath (MYD01) product contains reformatted and packaged raw instrument data. MODIS instrument data, in packetized...

  12. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  13. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Infrared (IR) quality assurance subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  14. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  15. Aqua AIRS Near Real Time (NRT) Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  16. Primary Productivity, NASA Aqua MODIS, 4.4 km, Global, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific evaluation by professional...

  17. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  18. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  19. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  20. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James T [Bethel Park, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  1. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters: nuricell- aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer, Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition: β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil, using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus as cultured species. Methods: Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g, specific growth rate, survivability (% test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day, which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer. Conclusions: These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  2. An introduction to equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morrill, Bernard; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics discusses classical thermodynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. It introduces the laws of thermodynamics and the connection between statistical concepts and observable macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system. Chapter 1 discusses the first law of thermodynamics while Chapters 2 through 4 deal with statistical concepts. The succeeding chapters describe the link between entropy and the reversible heat process concept of entropy; the second law of thermodynamics; Legendre transformations and Jacobian algebra. Finally, Chapter 10 provides a

  3. Thermodynamics for scientists and engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gyeong Hui

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with thermodynamics for scientists and engineers. It consists of 11 chapters, which are concept and background of thermodynamics, the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics and entropy, mathematics related thermodynamics, properties of thermodynamics on pure material, equilibrium, stability of thermodynamics, the basic of compound, phase equilibrium of compound, excess gibbs energy model of compound and activity coefficient model and chemical equilibrium. It has four appendixes on properties of pure materials and thermal mass.

  4. Thermodynamics of Bioreactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-06-07

    Thermodynamic principles have been applied to enzyme-catalyzed reactions since the beginning of the 1930s in an attempt to understand metabolic pathways. Currently, thermodynamics is also applied to the design and analysis of biotechnological processes. The key thermodynamic quantity is the Gibbs energy of reaction, which must be negative for a reaction to occur spontaneously. However, the application of thermodynamic feasibility studies sometimes yields positive Gibbs energies of reaction even for reactions that are known to occur spontaneously, such as glycolysis. This article reviews the application of thermodynamics in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. It summarizes the basic thermodynamic relationships used for describing the Gibbs energy of reaction and also refers to the nonuniform application of these relationships in the literature. The review summarizes state-of-the-art approaches that describe the influence of temperature, pH, electrolytes, solvents, and concentrations of reacting agents on the Gibbs energy of reaction and, therefore, on the feasibility and yield of biological reactions.

  5. Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.

  6. Black Holes and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    We review the remarkable relationship between the laws of black hole mechanics and the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. It is emphasized that - in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics - the validity the laws of black hole mechanics does not appear to depend upon the details of the underlying dynamical theory (i.e., upon the particular field equations of general relativity). It also is emphasized that a number of unresolved issues arise in ``ordinary thermodynamics'' in the context of gener...

  7. Methods of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, Howard

    1997-01-01

    Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m

  8. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented of the Fourth International Symposium on Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials held in Vienna, 21-25 October 1974. The technological theme of the Symposium was the application of thermodynamics to the understanding of the chemistry of irradiated nuclear fuels and to safety assessments for hypothetical accident conditions in reactors. The first four sessions were devoted to these topics and they were followed by four more sessions on the more basic thermodynamics, phase diagrams and the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of nuclear materials. Sixty-seven papers were presented

  9. Thermodynamic and Quantum Thermodynamic Analyses of Brownian Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Gyftopoulos, Elias P.

    2006-01-01

    Thermodynamic and quantum thermodynamic analyses of Brownian movement of a solvent and a colloid passing through neutral thermodynamic equilibrium states only. It is shown that Brownian motors and E. coli do not represent Brownian movement.

  10. AquaCrop-OS: A tool for resilient management of land and water resources in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozovic, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.; Neale, Christopher M. U.; Raes, Dirk; Steduto, Pasquale; Fereres, Elias; Hsiao, Theodore C.

    2017-04-01

    Water managers, researchers, and other decision makers worldwide are faced with the challenge of increasing food production under population growth, drought, and rising water scarcity. Crop simulation models are valuable tools in this effort, and, importantly, provide a means of quantifying rapidly crop yield response to water, climate, and field management practices. Here, we introduce a new open-source crop modelling tool called AquaCrop-OS (Foster et al., 2017), which extends the functionality of the globally used FAO AquaCrop model. Through case studies focused on groundwater-fed irrigation in the High Plains and Central Valley of California in the United States, we demonstrate how AquaCrop-OS can be used to understand the local biophysical, behavioural, and institutional drivers of water risks in agricultural production. Furthermore, we also illustrate how AquaCrop-OS can be combined effectively with hydrologic and economic models to support drought risk mitigation and decision-making around water resource management at a range of spatial and temporal scales, and highlight future plans for model development and training. T. Foster, et al. (2017) AquaCrop-OS: An open source version of FAO's crop water productivity model. Agricultural Water Management. 181: 18-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.11.015.

  11. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: The science of chemical thermodynamics has substantially contributed to the understanding of the many problems encountered in nuclear and reactor technology. These problems include reaction of materials with their surroundings and chemical and physical changes of fuels. Modern reactor technology, by its very nature, has offered new fields of investigations for the scientists and engineers concerned with the design of nuclear fuel elements. Moreover, thermodynamics has been vital in predicting the behaviour of new materials for fission as well as fusion reactors. In this regard, the Symposium was organized to provide a mechanism for review and discussion of recent thermodynamic investigations of nuclear materials. The Symposium was held in the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre, at the invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. The International Atomic Energy Agency has given much attention to the thermodynamics of nuclear materials, as is evidenced by its sponsorship of four international symposia in 1962, 1965, 1967, and 1974. The first three meetings were primarily concerned with the fundamental thermodynamics of nuclear materials; as with the 1974 meeting, this last Symposium was primarily aimed at the thermodynamic behaviour of nuclear materials in actual practice, i.e., applied thermodynamics. Many advances have been made since the 1974 meeting, both in fundamental and applied thermodynamics of nuclear materials, and this meeting provided opportunities for an exchange of new information on this topic. The Symposium dealt in part with the thermodynamic analysis of nuclear materials under conditions of high temperatures and a severe radiation environment. Several sessions were devoted to the thermodynamic studies of nuclear fuels and fission and fusion reactor materials under adverse conditions. These papers and ensuing discussions provided a better understanding of the chemical behaviour of fuels and materials under these

  12. Thermodynamics and heat power

    CERN Document Server

    Granet, Irving

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental ConceptsIntroductionThermodynamic SystemsTemperatureForce and MassElementary Kinetic Theory of GasesPressureReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsWork, Energy, and HeatIntroductionWorkEnergyInternal EnergyPotential EnergyKinetic EnergyHeatFlow WorkNonflow WorkReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsFirst Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionFirst Law of ThermodynamicsNonflow SystemSteady-Flow SystemApplications of First Law of ThermodynamicsReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Second Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionReversibility-Second Law of ThermodynamicsThe Carnot CycleEntropyReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsProperties of Liquids and GasesIntroductionLiquids and VaporsThermodynamic Properties of SteamComputerized PropertiesThermodynamic DiagramsProcessesReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Ideal GasIntroductionBasic ConsiderationsSpecific Hea...

  13. The thermodynamic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, B.

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  14. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  15. Equilibrium thermodynamics - Callen's postulational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide the background for nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we outline the fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics. Equilibrium thermodynamics must not only be obtained as a special case of any acceptable nonequilibrium generalization but, through its shining example, it also elucidates

  16. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  17. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus A

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  18. Enrichment of ammonia concentration from aqua-ammonia vapors by using 3A molecular sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, J.S.; Lin, T.M.; She, K.Y.; Chen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In aqua-ammonia refrigeration systems, the ammonia is the refrigerant and the water is the absorbent, the vapor produced in the generator always contains a small fraction of water. The removed of this residual water is a crucial issue in order to guarantee a reliable and efficient operation of these systems. Currently, the thermal distillation methods (via a rectifier and/or an analyzer) are used to further separate the water from aqua-ammonia mixtures. In this study, a molecular sieve module is used for ammonia purification. A thermal system with a 3A molecular sieve module was set up, and the conditions of working fluid entering into the sieve module is similar to that entering into the rectifier tower of a typical aqua-ammonia absorption system. Results from ammonia enrichment tests indicate the concentration of ammonia can be raised from about 80% up to about 99% if siever installation was properly arranged.

  19. Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy

  20. Cross-Calibration of the Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) with Terra and Aqua MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Kumar, A. Senthil; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) sensor on-board the Oceansat-2 spacecraft has been operational since its launch in September, 2009. The Oceansat 2 OCM primary design goal is to provide continuity to Oceansat-1 OCM to obtain information regarding various ocean-colour variables. OCM acquires Earth scene measurements in eight multi-spectral bands in the range from 402 to 885 nm. The MODIS sensor on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft has been successfully operating for over a decade collecting measurements of the earth's land, ocean surface and atmosphere. The MODIS spectral bands, designed for land and ocean applications, cover the spectral range from 412 to 869 nm. This study focuses on comparing the radiometric calibration stability of OCM using near-simultaneous TOA measurements with Terra and Aqua MODIS acquired over the Libya 4 target. Same-day scene-pairs from all three sensors (OCM, Terra and Aqua MODIS) between August, 2014 and September, 2015 were chosen for this analysis. On a given day, the OCM overpass is approximately an hour after the Terra overpass and an hour before the Aqua overpass. Due to the orbital differences between Terra and Aqua, MODIS images the Libya 4 site at different scan-angles on a given day. Some of the high-gain ocean bands for MODIS tend to saturate while viewing the bright Libya 4 target, but bands 8-10 (412 nm - 486 nm) provide an unsaturated response and are used for comparison with the spectrally similar OCM bands. All the standard corrections such as bidirectional reflectance factor (BRDF), relative spectral response mismatch, and impact for atmospheric water-vapor are applied to obtain the reflectance differences between OCM and the two MODIS instruments. Furthermore, OCM is used as a transfer radiometer to obtain the calibration differences between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands.

  1. Stable Failure-Inducing Micro-Silica Aqua Epoxy Bonding Material for Floating Concrete Module Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Ho Jay Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies in the development of floating concrete structures focused on a connection system made of modules. In the connection system, the modules are designed to be attached by pre-stressing (PS while floating on the water, which exposes them to loads on the surface of the water. Therefore, the development of a pre-connection material becomes critical to ensure successful bonding of floating concrete modules. Micro-silica mixed aqua-epoxy (MSAE was developed for this task. To find the proper MSAE mix proportion, 0% to 4% micro-silica was mixed in a standard mixture of aqua-epoxy for material testing. Also, the effect of micro-silica on the viscosity of the aqua epoxy was evaluated by controlling the epoxy silane at proportions of 0%, ±5%, and ±10%. After completion of the performance tests of the MSAE, we evaluated the effect of MSAE in a connected structure. The plain unreinforced concrete module joint specimens applied with MSAE at thicknesses of 5, 10, and 20 mm were prepared to be tested. Finally, we evaluated the performance of MSAE-applied reinforced concrete (RC module specimens connected by PS tendons, and these were compared with those of continuous RC and non-MSAE-applied beams. The results showed that the mix of micro-silica in the aqua-epoxy changed the performance of the aqua-epoxy and the mix ratio of 2% micro-silica gave a stable failure behavior. The flexural capacity of concrete blocks bonded with MSAE changed according to the bond thickness and was better than that of concrete blocks bonded with aqua-epoxy without micro-silica. Even though MSAE insignificantly increases the load-carrying capacity of the attached concrete module structure, the stress concentration reduction effect stabilized the failure of the structure.

  2. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km (MYD07_L2). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone 8-Day L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone 8-Day L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MYD08_E3). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator...

  4. Assessment of MODIS-Aqua chlorophyll-a algorithms in coastal and shelf waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilstone, G.H.; Lotliker, A.A; Miller, P.I.; Ashraf, P.M.; SrinivasaKumar, T.; Suresh, T.; Ragavan, B.R.; Menon, H.B.

    applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aqua (MODIS-Aqua) data against in situ measurements. Ocean Colour 3 band ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM) and Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chl-a algorithms were...

  5. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MYD08_D3). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator...

  6. Thermodynamics and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansson, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    Economics, as the social science most concerned with the use and distribution of natural resources, must start to make use of the knowledge at hand in the natural sciences about such resources. In this, thermodynamics is an essential part. In a physicists terminology, human economic activity may be described as a dissipative system which flourishes by transforming and exchanging resources, goods and services. All this involves complex networks of flows of energy and materials. This implies that thermodynamics, the physical theory of energy and materials flows, must have implications for economics. On another level, thermodynamics has been recognized as a physical theory of value, with value concepts similar to those of economic theory. This paper discusses some general aspects of the significance of non-equilibrium thermodynamics for economics. The role of exergy, probably the most important of the physical measures of value, is elucidated. Two examples of integration of thermodynamics with economic theory are reviewed. First, a simple model of a steady-state production system is sued to illustrate the effects of thermodynamic process constraints. Second, the framework of a simple macroeconomic growth model is used to illustrate how some thermodynamic limitations may be integrated in macroeconomic theory

  7. Advanced thermodynamics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Jog, Milind A

    2011-01-01

    Thermolab Excel-Based Software for Thermodynamic Properties and Flame Temperatures of Fuels IntroductionImportance, Significance and LimitationsReview of ThermodynamicsMathematical BackgroundOverview of Microscopic/NanothermodynamicsSummaryAppendix: Stokes and Gauss Theorems First Law of ThermodynamicsZeroth LawFirst Law for a Closed SystemQuasi Equilibrium (QE) and Nonquasi-equilibrium (NQE) ProcessesEnthalpy and First LawAdiabatic Reversible Process for Ideal Gas with Constant Specific HeatsFirst Law for an Open SystemApplications of First Law for an Open SystemIntegral and Differential Form

  8. Thermodynamics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics I includes review of properties and states of a pure substance, work and heat, energy and the first law of thermodynamics, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics

  9. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds

    1984-01-01

    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  10. Thermodynamics of quantum strings

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, M J

    1994-01-01

    A statistical mechanical analysis of an ideal gas of non-relativistic quantum strings is presented, in which the thermodynamic properties of the string gas are calculated from a canonical partition function. This toy model enables students to gain insight into the thermodynamics of a simple 'quantum field' theory, and provides a useful pedagogical introduction to the more complicated relativistic string theories. A review is also given of the thermodynamics of the open bosonic string gas and the type I (open) superstring gas. (author)

  11. Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematica

  12. AquaUsers: Improving access to remotely sensed data for non-specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Oliver; Walker, Peter; Calton, Ben; Miller, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In recent years more and more complex remotely sensed data have been made available to the public by national and international agencies. These data are also reprocessed by different organisations to produce secondary products that are of specific need to a community. For instance the production of chlorophyll concentration maps from ocean colour data provided by NASA for the marine community. Providing access to such data has normally been focused on simply making the data available with appropriate metadata so that domain specialists can make use of it. One area that has seen significant investment, both of time and money, has been in the production of web based data portals. Primarily these have focused on spatial data. By providing a web map visualisation users are able to quickly assess both spatial coverage and data values. Data portal improvements have been possible thanks to advancements in back end data servers such as Thredds and ncWMS as well as improvements in front-end libraries for data visualisation including OpenLayers and D3. Data portals that make use of these technological advancements have aimed at improving the access and use of data by trained scientific domain specialists. There is now a push to improve access to these systems by non-scientific domain specialists through several European Commission funded projects, including OPEC and AquaUsers. These projects have improved upon an open source web GIS portal created by Plymouth Marine Laboratory [https://github.com/pmlrsg/GISportal]. We will present the latest version of our GIS portal, discuss the designs steps taken to achieve the latest build and share user stories as to how non-domain specialists are now able to utilise the system and get benefits from remotely sensed data. A first version was produced and disseminated to end users for feedback. At this stage the end users included government advisors, fish farmers and scientific groups with no specific GIS training or knowledge. This

  13. Theoretical physics 5 thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to thermodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, defining macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy and pressure,together with thermodynamic principles. The first part of the book introduces the laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes phases and phase transitions in depth. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series cove...

  14. Elements of chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K

    2005-01-01

    This survey of purely thermal data in calculating the position of equilibrium in a chemical reaction highlights the physical content of thermodynamics, as distinct from purely mathematical aspects. 1970 edition.

  15. Elements of statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K

    2006-01-01

    Encompassing essentially all aspects of statistical mechanics that appear in undergraduate texts, this concise, elementary treatment shows how an atomic-molecular perspective yields new insights into macroscopic thermodynamics. 1974 edition.

  16. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  17. Workshop on Teaching Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to arrange a meeting of teachers of thermodynamics in the United Kingdom, a meeting held in the pleasant surroundings of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in Sept~mber, 1984. This volume records the ideas put forward by authors, the discussion generated and an account of the action that discussion has initiated. Emphasis was placed on the Teaching of Thermodynamics to degree-level students in their first and second years. The meeting, a workshop for practitioners in which all were expected to take part, was remarkably well supported. This was notable in the representation of essentially every UK university and polytechnic engaged in teaching engineering thermodynamics and has led to a stimulating spread of ideas. By intention, the emphasis for attendance was put on teachers of engineering concerned with thermodynamics, both mechanical and chemical engineering disciplines. Attendance from others was encouraged but limited as follows: non-engineering acad­ emics, 10%, industrialists, 10%. The ...

  18. Black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Including black holes in the scheme of thermodynamics has disclosed a deep-seated connection between gravitation, heat and the quantum that may lead us to a synthesis of the corresponding branches of physics

  19. Polyelectrolytes thermodynamics and rheology

    CERN Document Server

    P M, Visakh; Picó, Guillermo Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses current development of theoretical models and experimental findings on the thermodynamics of polyelectrolytes. Particular emphasis is placed on the rheological description of polyelectrolyte solutions and hydrogels.

  20. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution CHLA Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  1. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Climatology Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  2. Calibration and testing of AquaCrop for selected sorghum genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... sorghum production highly susceptible to rainfall amount and distribution. Examining yield .... explained in the materials and methods section. MATERIALS AND ... crop and soil characteristics, and management practices that define the ...... Reference Manual, Annex I – AquaCrop, Version 4.0. FAO, Rome.

  3. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution CHLA Climatology Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  4. AquaEnv: an aquatic acid–base modelling environment in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, A.F.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    AquaEnv is an integrated software package for aquatic chemical model generation focused on ocean acidification and antropogenic CO2 uptake. However, the package is not restricted to the carbon cycle or the oceans: it calculates, converts, and visualizes information necessary to describe pH, related

  5. MODIS-Aqua Reveals Evolving Phytoplankton Community Structure During the Arabian Sea Northeast Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2016-01-01

    Applying a bio-optical model designed to identify the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris to MODIS-Aqua revealed (1) patterns in its spatial distribution not previously seen (including its appearance in places not previously sampled), and (2) the surprising disassociation of total chlorophyll biomass with the presence of N. miliaris.

  6. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  7. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lavenda, Bernard H

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Bernard H. Lavenda has written A New Perspective on Thermodynamics to combine an old look at thermodynamics with a new foundation. The book presents a historical perspective, which unravels the current presentation of thermodynamics found in standard texts, and which emphasizes the fundamental role that Carnot played in the development of thermodynamics. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics will: Chronologically unravel the development of the principles of thermodynamics and how they were conceived by their discoverers Bring the theory of thermodynamics up to the present time and indicate areas of further development with the union of information theory and the theory of means and their inequalities. New areas include nonextensive thermodynamics, the thermodynamics of coding theory, multifractals, and strange attractors. Reintroduce important, yet nearly forgotten, teachings of N.L. Sardi Carnot Highlight conceptual flaws in timely topics such as endoreversible engines, finite-time thermodynamics, geometri...

  8. Gravity as a thermodynamic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Moustos, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The analogy between the laws of black hole mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics led Bekenstein and Hawking to argue that black holes should be considered as real thermodynamic systems that are characterised by entropy and temperature. Black hole thermodynamics indicates a deeper connection between thermodynamics and gravity. We review and examine in detail the arguments that suggest an interpretation of gravity itself as a thermodynamic theory.

  9. Crosstalk effect and its mitigation in Aqua MODIS middle wave infrared bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wang, Menghua

    2017-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. A follow on MODIS was launched on an afternoon orbit in 2002 and is aboard the Aqua spacecraft. Both MODIS instruments are very akin, has 36 bands, among which bands 20 to 25 are Middle Wave Infrared (MWIR) bands covering a wavelength range from approximately 3.750 μm to 4.515 μm. It was found that there was severe contamination in these bands early in mission but the effect has not been characterized and mitigated at the time. The crosstalk effect induces strong striping in the Earth View (EV) images and causes significant retrieval errors in the EV Brightness Temperature (BT) in these bands. An algorithm using a linear approximation derived from on-orbit lunar observations has been developed to correct the crosstalk effect and successfully applied to mitigate the effect in both Terra and Aqua MODIS Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Photovoltaic (PV) bands. In this paper, the crosstalk effect in the Aqua MWIR bands is investigated and characterized by deriving the crosstalk coefficients using the scheduled Aqua MODIS lunar observations for the MWIR bands. It is shown that there are strong crosstalk contaminations among the five MWIR bands and they also have significant crosstalk contaminations from Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands. The crosstalk correction algorithm previously developed is applied to correct the crosstalk effect in these bands. It is demonstrated that the crosstalk correction successfully reduces the striping in the EV images and improves the accuracy of the EV BT in the five bands as was done similarly for LWIR PV bands. The crosstalk correction algorithm should thus be applied to improve both the image quality and radiometric accuracy of the Aqua MODIS MWIR bands Level 1B (L1B) products.

  10. Aqua ammonia 15 N obtaining and application with vainness for sugar-cane fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar; Trivellin, Paulo Cesar O.; Oliveira, Claudineia R. de; Bendassoli, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds marked with the isotope 15 N are continuously being used in agronomic studies and, when associated to the isotopic dilution technique, they constitute an important tool in clarifying the N cycle. At the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), it was obtained ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms, by means of the ionic exchange chromatography technique, which made possible to produce aqua ammonia ( 15 NH 3 aq). Four repetitions were taken to the aqua ammonia production process to use the nitrogen compound in the field experiment. In each process 150g of ammonium sulfate enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms was used, obtaining 31,0 ± 1,6 g of aqua ammonia on the average (80% yield), with the same enhancement. The incidence of isotopic dilution has not been observed during the procedure, what made the use of such methodology possible. After obtaining the aqua ammonia 15 N through this procedure, it was added to the vinasse (an equivalent to 50 m 3 ha -1 ) in doses that corresponded to 70 kg ha -1 of N-NH 3 aq. The mixture was applied to the sugar-cane straw on the soil's surface, aimed to the crop's fertilization. The compound's isotopic composition was analyzed by means of a spectrometer of masses ANCA-SL Europe Scientific, while the total-N volatilized, by the micro-Kjeldahl. Method. In accordance to the low NH 3 (6,4 ± 1,9 kg ha -1 ) volatilization results, it could be concluded that the application of vinasse and aqua ammonia mixture to the straw on the soil's surface was efficient, due to the vinasse's acid character, which allowed the NH 3 , in presence of the ion H + , to stay in the NH 4 + form in solution. (author)

  11. The Effects of Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-Acupuncture on Liver Injury of Rats Induced by CCI4 (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park, Hee-Soo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the study of the effects of Aqua-acupuncture with Gardeniae Fructus on thc recovery of rat's liver which was damaged by 0.3ml/ea of CCI4. Rats were divided into 4 groups; Normal-group(None treated group, Control-group(Not treated after CCI4-intoxicated, Exp. I(Treated with Saline Aqua-acupuncture after CCI4-intoxicated and Exp. ll(Treated with Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture after CCI4-intoxicated. Biochemical assays for each serum enzyme activities of AST, ALT, Albumin, LDH, γ-GT, TG and Total cholesterol were performed. The results were summarized as follows: 1. AST activities in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. In companson with Saline-treated group after CCI4-intoxicated, the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group *The professor of Dept. of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, 2. At T activities in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. In com pan son with Saline-treated group after CCI4-intoxicated, the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated worked effectively to rat's damaged liver. 3. Albumin in serum increased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupurkture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. 4. LDH in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. In comparison with Saline-treated group after CClcintox icated, the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated worked highly effectively to rat's damaged liver. 5. γ-GT In serum significantly decreased In the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture trea ted group after CCI4-intoxicated. In compan son with Saline-treated group after CCI4-intoxicated, the Crardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated was not recognized significantly. 6. TG in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus

  12. Effects of Aqua Exercises Towards Improving The Quality of Life (QoL) of Obese Women in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Noor Liyana Binti; Jalil, Asma Diyana binti Abd; Hasri, Noor Haninah Binti; Rahman, Hezlin Aryani Binti Abd; Shari, Maisarah Binti; Idris, Nur Izzati Binti

    2018-05-01

    Aqua exercise is a form of water exercise, done in the water which is beneficial for weight loss as well as improving the quality of life. It is suitable for all age group and fitness levels whereby due to the water buoyancy makes it easier to perform exercises especially for obese and knee-injured people. However, there was not much study done to measure the effectiveness of the aqua exercises in improving the quality life. Thus, this study aims to investigate and compare the effectiveness of aqua exercises towards obese women within eight domains of the Quality of Life (QoL). This study uses the 36-Items Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire and a purposive sample of 61 participants to measure the effectiveness of the aqua exercise before and after 36 days of aqua workout. As the nature of the data collected was not normally distributed, hence the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used as the statistical method of analysis. The findings of this study showed that there was a significant difference between the overall QoL pre and post since the p-value physical functioning, general health, social functioning, mental health, and health transition were the domains showing significant difference between the pre and post-test (p-value < 0.05), and where majority of the participants showed a significant improvement after the aqua workouts. Thus, it can be concluded that aqua exercises is effective in improving the general QoL of obese women.

  13. Calorimetry and thermodynamics of living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    Calorimetry of living systems and classical thermodynamics developed in parallel, from Lavoisier's early ice calorimeter experiments on guinea pigs, followed by Dubrunfaut's macrocalorimetric research of fermentation processes and Atwater-Rosa's whole-body calorimetry on humans and domestic animals, to the introduction of the famous Tian-Calvet instrument that found entrance into so many different fields of biology. In this work, six examples of living-system calorimetry and thermodynamics are presented. These are: (i) glycolytic oscillations far off the thermodynamic equilibrium; (ii) growth and energy balances in fermenting and respiring yeast cultures; (iii) direct and indirect calorimetric monitoring of electrically stimulated reptile metabolism; (iv) biologic and climatic factors influencing the temperature constancy and distribution in the mound of a wood ant colony as an example of a complex ecological system; (v) energetic considerations on the clustering of European honeybees in winter as a means to save energy and stored food as well as for their Japanese counterparts in defending against hornet predators; and (vi) energetic and evolutionary aspects of the mass specific entropy production rate, the so-called bound dissipation or psiu-function. The examples presented here are just a very personal selection of living systems from a broad spectrum at all levels of complexity. Common for all of them is that they were investigated calorimetrically on the background of classical and irreversible thermodynamics

  14. International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group September 27-29, 2016 Aqua Spring 2017 IAM Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    This Aqua Spring 2017 IAM Series powerpoint presentation will be presented at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque, NM. Topics to be discussed are: recap Aqua 2016 IAM campaign maneuver results and post 2016 IAM MLT evolution; current DMU strategy; 2017 IAM campaign dates and planning; Aqua latest lifetime MLT team predictions. Susan Good is a contractor who supports David Tracewell in code 595 therefore this is being routed through 595. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical has reviewed and approved this presentation.

  15. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The first session of the symposium discussed in general the thermodynamic properties of actinides, including thorium, uranium and Plutonium which provide reactor fuel. The second session was devoted to applications of thermodynamic theory to the study of nuclear materials, while the experimental techniques for the determination of thermodynamic data were examined at the next session. The thermodynamic properties of alloys were considered at a separate session, and another session was concerned with solids other than alloys. Vaporization processes, which are of special interest in the development of high-temperature reactors, were discussed at a separate session. The discussions on the methods of developing the data and ascertaining their accuracy were especially useful in highlighting the importance of determining whether any given data are reliable before they can be put to practical application. Many alloys and refractory materials (i. e. materials which evaporate only at very high temperatures) are of great importance in nuclear technology, and some of these substances are extremely complex in their chemical composition. For example, until recently the phase composition of the oxides of thorium, uranium and plutonium had been only very imperfectly understood, and the same was true of the carbides of these elements. Recent developments in experimental techniques have made it possible to investigate the phase composition of these complex materials as well as the chemical species of these materials in the gaseous phase. Recent developments in measuring techniques, such as fluorine bomb calorimetry and Knudsen effusion technique, have greatly increased the accuracy of thermodynamic data

  16. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    -called emergent properties. Tendency towards increased entropy is an essential determinant for the behaviour of ideal gas mixtures, showing that even in the simplest physical/chemical systems, (dys)organisation of components is crucial for the behaviour of systems. This presentation aims at illustrating...... that the behaviour of two functionally interacting biological components (molecules, protein domains, pathways, organelles) differs from the behaviour these components would exhibit in isolation from one another, where the difference should be essential for the maintenance and growth of the living state, For a true...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...

  17. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  18. Statistical thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Gokcen, N A

    1986-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists, researchers, and graduate students interested in solutions in general, and solutions of metals in particular. Readers are assumed to have a good background in thermodynamics, presented in such books as those cited at the end of Chapter 1, "Thermo­ dynamic Background." The contents of the book are limited to the solutions of metals + metals, and metals + metalloids, but the results are also appli­ cable to numerous other types of solutions encountered by metallurgists, materials scientists, geologists, ceramists, and chemists. Attempts have been made to cover each topic in depth with numerical examples whenever necessary. Chapter 2 presents phase equilibria and phase diagrams as related to the thermodynamics of solutions. The emphasis is on the binary diagrams since the ternary diagrams can be understood in terms of the binary diagrams coupled with the phase rule, and the Gibbs energies of mixing. The cal­ culation of thermodynamic properties from the phase diagrams is ...

  19. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattices, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. This book is divided into three parts. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. In the third part, the multi-electron system is discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for the superconducting state in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and examined in-depth. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States is an introductory treatise and textbook on meso...

  20. Concise chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, APH

    2010-01-01

    EnergyThe Realm of ThermodynamicsEnergy BookkeepingNature's Driving ForcesSetting the Scene: Basic IdeasSystem and SurroundingsFunctions of StateMechanical Work and Expanding GasesThe Absolute Temperature Scale Forms of Energy and Their Interconversion Forms of Renewable Energy Solar Energy Wind Energy Hydroelectric Power Geothermal Energy Biomass Energy References ProblemsThe First Law of Thermodynamics Statement of the First Law Reversible Expansion of an Ideal GasConstant-Volume ProcessesConstant-Pressure ProcessesA New Function: EnthalpyRelationship between ?H and ?UUses and Conventions of

  1. Thermodynamics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl

  2. Thermodynamics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kaufui Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition from Students: "It is a great thermodynamics text…I loved it!-Mathew Walters "The book is comprehensive and easy to understand. I love the real world examples and problems, they make you feel like you are learning something very practical."-Craig Paxton"I would recommend the book to friends."-Faure J. Malo-Molina"The clear diction, as well as informative illustrations and diagrams, help convey the material clearly to the reader."-Paul C. Start"An inspiring and effective tool for any aspiring scientist or engineer. Definitely the best book on Classical Thermodynamics out."-Seth Marini.

  3. Mechanics, Waves and Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Jain, Sudhir

    2016-05-01

    Figures; Preface; Acknowledgement; 1. Energy, mass, momentum; 2. Kinematics, Newton's laws of motion; 3. Circular motion; 4. The principle of least action; 5. Work and energy; 6. Mechanics of a system of particles; 7. Friction; 8. Impulse and collisions; 9. Central forces; 10. Dimensional analysis; 11. Oscillations; 12. Waves; 13. Sound of music; 14. Fluid mechanics; 15. Water waves; 16. The kinetic theory of gases; 17. Concepts and laws of thermodynamics; 18. Some applications of thermodynamics; 19. Basic ideas of statistical mechanics; Bibliography; Index.

  4. Statistical thermodynamics of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: consequences of laws of thermodynamics; Helmholtz and Gibbs energies; analytical forms of excess partial molar properties; single-component and multicomponent equilibria; phase rules and diagrams; lever rule; fermions, bosons, and Boltzons; approximate equations; enthalpy and heat capacity; Pd-H system; hydrogen-metal systems; limitations of Wagner model; energy of electrons and hols; dopants in semiconductors; derived thermodynamic properties; simple equivalent circuit; calculation procedure; multicompoent diagrams re; Engel-Brewer theories; p-n junctions; and solar cells

  5. Pengaruh Citra Merek Dan Kualitas Produk Dengan Kepuasan Konsumen Sebagai Variabel Antara Terhadap Loyalitas Konsumen Air Minum Merek Aqua (Studi Pada Konsumen Aqua Yang Berdomisili Di Perumahan Puri Anjasmoro)

    OpenAIRE

    Lutfiana, Astri Ayu; Saryadi, Saryadi; Wijayanto, Andi

    2013-01-01

    Aqua is a brand of bottled mineral water. The factors predicted affecting consumer loyalty are brand image and product quality. This study aims to examine the influence of brand image, product quality, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty of Aqua drinking water in the community who are living in Puri Anjasmoro Residential. Type of research is explanatory research. Sampling technique used purposive sampling, which is sampling techniques used based on purpose and specific considerations....

  6. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  7. AIRS/Aqua L1B Infrared (IR) geolocated and calibrated radiances V005 (AIRIBRAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  8. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) geolocated and calibrated radiances V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  9. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Near Real Time (NRT) Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  13. AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Global Swath Rain Rate/Type GSFC Profiling Algorithm V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-2B rain product includes instantaneous rain rate and rain type over ice-free and snow-free land and ocean between 70 degrees north and south...

  14. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS and AMSU instruments on board of Aqua satellite. It is a...

  15. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS instrument on board of Aqua satellite. It is a monthly...

  16. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) quality assurance subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MYDCSR_G) provides a variety of statistical measures that characterize observed...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C2.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  19. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 6.25 km 89 GHz Brightness Temperature (Tb) Polar Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 6.25 km daily sea ice product includes 89.0 GHz brightness temperature averages (daily, ascending, and descending) on a 6.25 km polar...

  20. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B Infrared (IR) quality assurance subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  1. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B AMSU (A1/A2) geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  2. AIRS/Aqua L1C Infrared (IR) resampled and corrected radiances V006 (AIRICRAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  4. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1Deg CMG V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  5. Black Hole Thermodynamics in an Undergraduate Thermodynamics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Barry R.; McLeod, Robert J.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy, which has been drawn between black hole physics and thermodynamics, is mathematically broadened in this article. Equations similar to the standard partial differential relations of thermodynamics are found for black holes. The results can be used to supplement an undergraduate thermodynamics course. (Author/SK)

  6. Correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics: connection with Hill nanothermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir; Cervera, Javier; Pellicer, Julio

    2005-01-01

    The equivalence between Tsallis thermodynamics and Hill's nanothermodynamics is established. The correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics are pointed out. Through this connection we also find a general expression for the entropic index q which we illustrate with two physical examples, allowing in both cases to relate q to the underlying dynamics of the Hamiltonian systems

  7. Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic-aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Liang, Jianhong; Yao, Guocai; Liu, Miao

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic-aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air-water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.

  8. Dynamic of N fertilizers: urea (15 N) and aqua ammonia (15 N) incorporated to the sugar cane soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.

    1988-05-01

    The dynamic of N fertilizers, urea and aqua ammonia, in the soil of sugar cane crops are studied with an emphasis on the horizontal and vertical moving. The nitrogen routing from urea and aqua ammonia sources, by isotopic technique with 15 N in relation to the leaching, volatilization and extraction by the cultivation and residue of N immobilized manure in the soil with sugar cane plantation is also analysed. (C.G.C.)

  9. Robust aqua material. A pressure-resistant self-assembled membrane for water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Erez; Weissman, Haim; Rybtchinski, Boris; Shimoni, Eyal; Kaplan-Ashiri, Ifat; Werle, Kai; Wohlleben, Wendel

    2017-01-01

    ''Aqua materials'' that contain water as their major component and are as robust as conventional plastics are highly desirable. Yet, the ability of such systems to withstand harsh conditions, for example, high pressures typical of industrial applications has not been demonstrated. We show that a hydrogel-like membrane self-assembled from an aromatic amphiphile and colloidal Nafion is capable of purifying water from organic molecules, including pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals in a very wide range of concentrations. Remarkably, the membrane can sustain high pressures, retaining its function. The robustness and functionality of the water-based self-assembled array advances the idea that aqua materials can be very strong and suitable for demanding industrial applications. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Robust aqua material. A pressure-resistant self-assembled membrane for water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Erez; Weissman, Haim; Rybtchinski, Boris [Department of Organic Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl Street, Rehovot, 7610001 (Israel); Shimoni, Eyal; Kaplan-Ashiri, Ifat [Department of Chemical Research Support, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl Street, Rehovot, 7610001 (Israel); Werle, Kai; Wohlleben, Wendel [Department of Material Physics, Materials and Systems Research, BASF SE, 67056, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2017-02-13

    ''Aqua materials'' that contain water as their major component and are as robust as conventional plastics are highly desirable. Yet, the ability of such systems to withstand harsh conditions, for example, high pressures typical of industrial applications has not been demonstrated. We show that a hydrogel-like membrane self-assembled from an aromatic amphiphile and colloidal Nafion is capable of purifying water from organic molecules, including pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals in a very wide range of concentrations. Remarkably, the membrane can sustain high pressures, retaining its function. The robustness and functionality of the water-based self-assembled array advances the idea that aqua materials can be very strong and suitable for demanding industrial applications. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Preparation of shrimp waste as aqua feedstuff: a study of physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karun Thongprajukeaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different preparation methods (boiling, microwave irradiation, oven-drying, soaking, and sun-drying for improving the protein quality of shrimp waste (SW when used as aqua feedstuff were observed. The findings from this study indicate that microwave irradiation maintained both the chemical composition and total carotenoid concentration of the SW. This method controlled the appropriate physicochemical characteristics thus promoting proteolytic digestion, as indicated by measurement of changes in pH, water solubility, microstructures, and thermal transition. The protein digestibility based on the use of digestive enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus also increased after preparation with microwave irradiation. Based on this study, improvement in the protein quality in SW may be achieved by microwave irradiation and this method may be used as an alternative method for preparing aqua feedstuff.

  12. Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sihyun

    Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.

  13. A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiotti@uel.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86051-990, Londrina-PR (Brazil); Fresneda, R., E-mail: rodrigo.fresneda@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados 5001, 09210-580, Santo André-SP (Brazil); Molina, C., E-mail: cmolina@usp.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Arlindo Bettio 1000, CEP 03828-000, São Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed on top of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases. - Highlights: • A strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics is proposed. • Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. • Thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. • Thermodynamic potentials are related by canonical transformations.

  14. A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldiotti, M.C.; Fresneda, R.; Molina, C.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed on top of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases. - Highlights: • A strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics is proposed. • Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. • Thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. • Thermodynamic potentials are related by canonical transformations.

  15. New perspectives in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrin, J.

    1986-01-01

    The last decade has seen a unity of method and approach in the foundations of thermodynamics and continuum mechanics, in which rigorous laws of thermodynamics have been combined with invariance notions of mechanics to produce new and deep understanding. Real progress has been made in finding a set of appropriate concepts for classical thermodynamics, by which energy conservation and the Clausius inequality can be given well-defined meanings for arbitrary processes and which allow an approach to the entropy concept which is free of traditional ambiguities. There has been, moreover, a careful scrutiny of long established but nevertheless not sharply defined concepts such as the Maxwell equal-area rule, the famous Gibbs phase rule, and the equivalence of work and heat. The thirteen papers in this volume accordingly gather together for the first time the many ideas and concepts which have raised classical thermodynamics from a heuristic and intuitive science to the level of precision presently demanded of other branches of mathematical physics

  16. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, Peter T

    1990-01-01

    Exceptionally articulate treatment combines precise mathematical style with strong physical intuition. Wide range of applications includes negative temperatures, negative heat capacities, special and general relativistic effects, black hole thermodynamics, gravitational collapse, more. Over 100 problems with worked solutions. Advanced undergraduate, graduate level. Table of applications. Useful formulas and other data.

  17. Thermodynamic stabilization of colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, R.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de

    An analysis is given of the conditions necessary for obtaining a thermodynamically stable dispersion (TSD) of solid particles in a continuous aqueous solution phase. The role of the adsorption of potential-determining ions at the planar interface in lowering the interfacial free energy (γ) to

  18. Chemical thermodynamics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keszei, Ernoe [Budapest Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Eminently suitable as a required textbook comprising complete material for or an undergraduate chemistry major course in chemical thermodynamics. Clearly explains details of formal derivations that students can easily follow and so master applied mathematical operations. Offers problems and solutions at the end of each chapter for self-test and self- or group study. This course-derived undergraduate textbook provides a concise explanation of the key concepts and calculations of chemical thermodynamics. Instead of the usual 'classical' introduction, this text adopts a straightforward postulatory approach that introduces thermodynamic potentials such as entropy and energy more directly and transparently. Structured around several features to assist students' understanding, Chemical Thermodynamics: - Develops applications and methods for the ready treatment of equilibria on a sound quantitative basis. - Requires minimal background in calculus to understand the text and presents formal derivations to the student in a detailed but understandable way. - Offers end-of-chapter problems (and answers) for self-testing and review and reinforcement, of use for self- or group study. This book is suitable as essential reading for courses in a bachelor and master chemistry program and is also valuable as a reference or textbook for students of physics, biochemistry and materials science.

  19. Thermodynamics applied. Where? Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirs, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, thermodynamics has been applied in a number of new fields leading to a greater societal impact. This paper gives a survey of these new fields and the reasons why these applications are important. In addition, it is shown that the number of fields could be even greater in the future

  20. Thermodynamics, applied. : Where? why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirs, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    In recent years thermodynamics has been applied in a number of new fields leading to a greater societal impact. The paper gives a survey of these new fields and the reasons why these applications are important. In addition it is shown that the number of fields could be even greater in the future and

  1. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a

  2. On Teaching Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbasch, F.

    2011-01-01

    The logical structure of classical thermodynamics is presented in a modern, geometrical manner. The first and second law receive clear, operatively oriented statements and the Gibbs free energy extremum principle is fully discussed. Applications relevant to chemistry, such as phase transitions, dilute solutions theory and, in particular, the law…

  3. Black hole thermodynamical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Cirto, Leonardo J.L.

    2013-01-01

    As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S BG of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L 2 (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L 3 . Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S BG is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L d-1 if d>1, instead of being proportional to L d (d ≥ 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)

  4. Thermodynamics Far from the Thermodynamic Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Rodrigo; Rubí, J Miguel

    2017-11-16

    Understanding how small systems exchange energy with a heat bath is important to describe how their unique properties can be affected by the environment. In this contribution, we apply Landsberg's theory of temperature-dependent energy levels to describe the progressive thermalization of small systems as their spectrum is perturbed by a heat bath. We propose a mechanism whereby the small system undergoes a discrete series of excitations and isentropic spectrum adjustments leading to a final state of thermal equilibrium. This produces standard thermodynamic results without invoking system size. The thermal relaxation of a single harmonic oscillator is analyzed as a model example of a system with a quantized spectrum than can be embedded in a thermal environment. A description of how the thermal environment affects the spectrum of a small system can be the first step in using environmental factors, such as temperature, as parameters in the design and operation of nanosystem properties.

  5. Complex formation constant and hydration number change of aqua-rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: It is now well established that the inner-sphere hydration number of aqua-rare earth ions changes from nine to eight in the middle of the rare earth series. This hydration number change greatly affects the complex formation of rare earth ions as we observe irregular variations in most series behaviours of the complex formation constant (K) in aqueous solution systems when K being plotted against 1/r or r (r is ionic radius of rare earth ion). Furthermore, it shows very anomalous concentration dependence in the sense that nona-aqua Ln 3+ ion increases in number with increase in salt concentration in aqueous rare earth salt solution (salt chloride, perchlorate). In this report, a theoretical derivation of the formation constant (K) for the inner-sphere complex formation of rare earth ions with a monodentate ligand was made by taking account of both the hydration number change in the middle of the series and its anomalous salt concentration dependence. The series behaviour of the formation constant against 1/r (or r) is successfully explained with using the empirical finding that K varies almost linearly with 1/r (or r) in the region where only one hydration number dominates. This success is also taken as evidence that the anomalous salt concentration dependence of the hydration number change is caused by the outer-sphere complex formation of rare earth ions with the condition that nona-aqua rare earth ions form outer-sphere complexes more easily than octa-aqua ions

  6. Enantioselective Addition of Allyltin Reagents to Amino Aldehydes Catalyzed with Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III Aqua Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Nishiyama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III aqua complexes, (PheboxRhX2(H2O [X = Cl, Br], were found to be efficient Lewis acid catalysts for the enantioselective addition of allyl- and methallyltributyltin reagents to amino aldehydes. The reactions proceed smoothly in the presence of 5–10 mol % of (PheboxRhX2(H2O complex at ambient temperature to give the corresponding amino alcohols with modest to good enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee.

  7. Thermodynamics for the practicing engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis; Vanvliet, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This book concentrates specifically on the applications of thermodynamics, rather than the theory. It addresses both technical and pragmatic problems in the field, and covers such topics as enthalpy effects, equilibrium thermodynamics, non-ideal thermodynamics and energy conversion applications. Providing the reader with a working knowledge of the principles of thermodynamics, as well as experience in their application, it stands alone as an easy-to-follow self-teaching aid to practical applications and contains worked examples.

  8. AquaLase versus NeoSoniX--a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiraskova, Nada; Rozsival, Pavel; Kadlecova, Jana; Nekolova, Jana; Pozlerova, Jana; Dubravska, Zlatica

    2007-12-01

    To compare the metrics and surgical outcome when using Infiniti AquaLase and NeoSoniX cataract removal modalities. This prospective clinical study involved 50 patients with bilateral cataracts and lens removal using AquaLase in the right eye and NeoSoniX in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endothelial cell density and pachymetry were evaluted pre- and postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon Signed- Rank Test. Preoperative mean pachymetry was 569 +/- 31 mu in the right eye (RE) and 560 +/- 37 mu in the left eye (LE), mean endothelial cell density 2744 +/- 418 cells/mm(2) (RE) and 2730 +/- 472 cells/mm(2) (LE). One week after operation pachymetry was 576 +/- 52 mu (RE) and 583 +/- 72 mu (LE) and endothelial cell density 2388 +/- 586 cells/mm(2) (RE) and 2463 +/- 615 cells/mm(2) (LE). One month after surgery pachymetry was 556 +/- 43 mu (RE) and 559 +/- 44 mu (LE) and endothelial cell density 2368 +/- 52 cells/mm(2) (RE) and 2495 +/- 548 cells/mm(2) (LE). BCVA improved in all eyes and was 0.8 or better on the first postoperative day. Both the NeosoniX and AquaLase minimize intraoperative damage to ocular structures.

  9. Consistency of two global MODIS aerosol products over ocean on Terra and Aqua CERES SSF datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce; Loeb, Norman G.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Miller, Walter F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika B.

    2004-12-01

    MODIS aerosol retrievals over ocean from Terra and Aqua platforms are available from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets generated at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two aerosol products are reported side by side. The primary M product is generated by subsetting and remapping the multi-spectral (0.44 - 2.1 μm) MOD04 aerosols onto CERES footprints. MOD04 processing uses cloud screening and aerosol algorithms developed by the MODIS science team. The secondary (AVHRR-like) A product is generated in only two MODIS bands: 1 and 6 on Terra, and ` and 7 on Aqua. The A processing uses NASA/LaRC cloud-screening and NOAA/NESDIS single channel aerosol algorthm. The M and A products have been documented elsewhere and preliminarily compared using two weeks of global Terra CERES SSF (Edition 1A) data in December 2000 and June 2001. In this study, the M and A aerosol optical depths (AOD) in MODIS band 1 and (0.64 μm), τ1M and τ1A, are further checked for cross-platform consistency using 9 days of global Terra CERES SSF (Edition 2A) and Aqua CERES SSF (Edition 1A) data from 13 - 21 October 2002.

  10. CERES cloud property retrievals from imagers on TRMM, Terra, and Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Heck, Patrick W.; Doelling, David R.; Trepte, Qing Z.

    2004-02-01

    The micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds play a crucial role in Earth"s radiation budget. The NASA Clouds and Earth"s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is providing simultaneous measurements of the radiation and cloud fields on a global basis to improve the understanding and modeling of the interaction between clouds and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere. Cloud properties derived for CERES from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites are compared to ensure consistency between the products to ensure the reliability of the retrievals from multiple platforms at different times of day. Comparisons of cloud fraction, height, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, and ice and liquid water paths from the two satellites show excellent consistency. Initial calibration comparisons are also very favorable. Differences between the Aqua and Terra results are generally due to diurnally dependent changes in the clouds. Additional algorithm refinement is needed over the polar regions for Aqua and at night over those same areas for Terra. The results should be extremely valuable for model validation and improvement and for improving our understanding of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget.

  11. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  12. Choice of the thermodynamic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.

    1985-09-01

    Some basic ideas of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, both at equilibrium and off equilibrium, are recalled. In particular, the selection of relevant variables which underlies any macroscopic description is discussed, together with the meaning of the various thermodynamic quantities, in order to set the thermodynamic approaches used in nuclear physics in a general prospect [fr

  13. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  14. EFFECTS OF AQUA-AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS AND WEIGHT LOSS AMONG OBESE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Hossein Abadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence revealed that aquatic exercises are safer than land-based exercises and it allows increased movement amplitude and energy expenditure for obese, middle-aged, or elderly people, it is important to ascertain the physiological effects of aqua aerobic exercise on health among the obese students. This study aimed to determine the effects of aqua aerobics exercise on cardiovascular fitness (VO2max and resting HR and weight loss (weight, BMI, and WHR among obese students. Methods: Fifty healthy obese college students (22.28±1.83 years with minimum BMI value of 28 kg.m-², voluntarily took part in this study. They have been divided randomly into an exercising group (n=25 and BMI=33.11±5.32kg.m-2 and control group (n=25 and BMI=33.64±3.12kg.m-2. The exercising group participated in an aqua aerobic exercise at 60-75% of maximum HR for 60 minutes, three times per week for 12 weeks. The changes (by pre and post-test in weight, WHR, resting HR and VO2max were measured for both groups via In Body Scan 370, Polar heart rate monitor and Bleep test, respectively. Results: There was a significant (p≤0.001 improved in weight loss (-8.78±3.61kg, and the changes of BMI (-3.24±1.1kg.m-2, WHR (-0.056±0.035, resting HR (-1.48±1.004 bmp, and VO2max (4.43±2.51 ml.kg-1. min-1 in the exercising group, compared to the control group. The results indicate that the aqua aerobic exercise is an effective way to enhance cardiovascular fitness and weight loss among obese students. Conclusion: Aqua aerobic exercise as a favorable exercise environment for the obese can be advised such a significant intervention strategy for weight loss and improvement in cardiovascular fitness.

  15. Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production

  16. Statistical Thermodynamics and Microscale Thermophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Van P.

    1999-08-01

    Many exciting new developments in microscale engineering are based on the application of traditional principles of statistical thermodynamics. In this text Van Carey offers a modern view of thermodynamics, interweaving classical and statistical thermodynamic principles and applying them to current engineering systems. He begins with coverage of microscale energy storage mechanisms from a quantum mechanics perspective and then develops the fundamental elements of classical and statistical thermodynamics. Subsequent chapters discuss applications of equilibrium statistical thermodynamics to solid, liquid, and gas phase systems. The remainder of the book is devoted to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of transport phenomena and to nonequilibrium effects and noncontinuum behavior at the microscale. Although the text emphasizes mathematical development, Carey includes many examples and exercises to illustrate how the theoretical concepts are applied to systems of scientific and engineering interest. In the process he offers a fresh view of statistical thermodynamics for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as practitioners, in mechanical, chemical, and materials engineering.

  17. Fragile Thermodynamic Order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhoeft, N.; Lander, G.H.; Colineau, E.

    2003-01-01

    An asymmetric shift in the position of the magnetic Bragg peak with respect to the fiducial lattice has been observed by resonant X-ray scattering in a diverse series of antiferromagnetic compounds. This apparent violation of Bragg's law is interpreted in terms of a dynamically phased order parameter. We demonstrate the use of this effect as a novel probe of fragile or dynamic thermodynamic order in strongly correlated electronic systems. In particular, fresh light is shed on the paradoxical situation encountered in URu 2 Si 2 where the measured entropy gain on passing through T Neel is incompatible with the ground state moment estimated by neutron diffraction. The intrinsic space-time averaging of the probe used to characterise the thermodynamic macroscopic state may play a crucial and previously neglected role. In turn, this suggests the further use of resonant X-ray scattering in investigations of systems dominated by quantum fluctuations. (author)

  18. Mechanics and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This introduction to classical mechanics and thermodynamics provides an accessible and clear treatment of the fundamentals. Starting with particle mechanics and an early introduction to special relativity this textbooks enables the reader to understand the basics in mechanics. The text is written from the experimental physics point of view, giving numerous real life examples and applications of classical mechanics in technology. This highly motivating presentation deepens the knowledge in a very accessible way. The second part of the text gives a concise introduction to rotational motion, an expansion to rigid bodies, fluids and gases. Finally, an extensive chapter on thermodynamics and a short introduction to nonlinear dynamics with some instructive examples intensify the knowledge of more advanced topics. Numerous problems with detailed solutions are perfect for self study.

  19. Thermodynamical quantum information sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesniak, M.; Vedral, V.; Brukner, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Thermodynamical properties fully originate from classical physics and can be easily measured for macroscopic systems. On the other hand, entanglement is a widely spoken feature of quantum physics, which allows to perform certain task with efficiency unavailable with any classical resource. Therefore an interesting question is whether we can witness entanglement in a state of a macroscopic sample. We show, that some macroscopic properties, in particular magnetic susceptibility, can serve as an entanglement witnesses. We also study a mutual relation between magnetic susceptibility and magnetisation. Such a complementarity exhibits quantum information sharing between these two thermodynamical quantities. Magnetization expresses properties of individual spins, while susceptibility might reveal non-classical correlations as a witness. Therefore, a rapid change of one of these two quantities may mean a phase transition also in terms of entanglement. The complementarity relation is demonstrated by an analytical solution of an exemplary model. (author)

  20. A commentary on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Day, William Alan

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this book is to comment on, and clarify, the mathematical aspects of the theory of thermodynamics. The standard presentations of the subject are often beset by a number of obscurities associated with the words "state", "reversible", "irreversible", and "quasi-static". This book is written in the belief that such obscurities are best removed not by the formal axiomatization of thermodynamics, but by setting the theory in the wider context of a genuine field theory which incorporates the effects of heat conduction and intertia, and proving appropriate results about the governing differential equations of this field theory. Even in the simplest one-dimensional case it is a nontrivial task to carry through the details of this program, and many challenging problems remain open.

  1. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. New to this edition is the examination of magnetic crystals, where magnetic symmetry is essential for magnetic phase transitions. The multi-electron system is also discussed  theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for superconductivity in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and studied in-depth. Thermod...

  2. Thermodynamics of clan production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Alberto; Lupia, Sergio; Ugoccioni, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Scenarios for particle production in the GeV and TeV regions are reviewed. The expected increase with the c.m. energy of the average number of clans for the soft component and the decrease for the semihard one indicate possible classical and quantum behavior of gluons, respectively. Clan thermodynamics, discussed in the paper, appears as the natural framework to deal with such phenomena

  3. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  4. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  5. Thermodynamics of chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonasera, A.; Latora, V.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-07-01

    The maximal Lyapunov exponents (LE) are calculated, starting from concepts of hydrodynamics. Analytical expressions for the LE can be found in ergodic limit by using results of the classical thermodynamics for a Boltzmann gas and for systems undergoing a second order phase transition. A recipe is given to measure LE in systems which might have a critical behavior, such as a Bose-Einstein condensation or a transition to a quark-gluon plasma. (author)

  6. Advanced thermodynamic (exergetic) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsaronis, G; Morosuk, T

    2012-01-01

    Exergy analysis is a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. However, the lack of a formal procedure in using the results obtained by an exergy analysis is one of the reasons for exergy analysis not being very popular among energy practitioners. Such a formal procedure cannot be developed as long as the interactions among components of the overall system are not being taken properly into account. Splitting the exergy destruction into unavoidable and avoidable parts in a component provides a realistic measure of the potential for improving the thermodynamic efficiency of this component. Alternatively splitting the exergy destruction into endogenous and exogenous parts provides information on the interactions among system components. Distinctions between avoidable and unavoidable exergy destruction on one side and endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction on the other side allow the engineer to focus on the thermodynamic inefficiencies that can be avoided and to consider the interactions among system components. The avoidable endogenous and the avoidable exogenous exergy destruction provide the best guidance for improving the thermodynamic performance of energy conversion systems.

  7. The discovery of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Based on the idea that a scientific journal is also an "agora" (Greek: market place) for the exchange of ideas and scientific concepts, the history of thermodynamics between 1800 and 1910 as documented in the Philosophical Magazine Archives is uncovered. Famous scientists such as Joule, Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Clausius, Maxwell or Boltzmann shared this forum. Not always in the most friendly manner. It is interesting to find out, how difficult it was to describe in a scientific (mathematical) language a phenomenon like "heat", to see, how long it took to arrive at one of the fundamental principles in physics: entropy. Scientific progress started from the simple rule of Boyle and Mariotte dating from the late eighteenth century and arrived in the twentieth century with the concept of probabilities. Thermodynamics was the driving intellectual force behind the industrial revolution, behind the enormous social changes caused by this revolution. The history of thermodynamics is a fascinating story, which also gives insights into the mechanism that seem to govern science.

  8. Effects of Hominis Placenta Aqua-acupuncture on Kidney and Liver Intoxicated by HgCI2 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Sang-Keel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was perfomled to examine the therapeutic effect of aqua-acupuncture solution of Hominis Placenta(HP on kidney and liver intoxicated by HgCl2 in rats. Methods: 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture were carried out everyday for 8 days on corresponding bilateral loci of Shinsu(BL23 and Kansu(BL18, respectively, after mercuric chloride intoxication in rats. Thereafter BUN, creatinine, GOT, GPT, ALP, -GT, albumin and total bilirubin were measured before intoxication, and at the 4th and the 8th experimental day. Histopathological and immunochemical observation were also carried out. Results: 1. It showed significant decreases of BUN in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th experimental day as compared with the control group. 2. It showed significant decreases of creatinine in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th and the 8th experimental days as compared with the control group. 3. There were not any significant changes of GOT, GPT, ALP, γ-GT, albumin and total bilirubin in the HP aqua-acupuncture groups compared with the control group. 4. By the histopathological observations on kidney under a light microscope, all the 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu showed the preventive effect on tubulo-interstitial necrosis and muItifocal calcification in tubular lumen respectively compared with the control group. 5. By the histopathological observations on liver under a light mIcroscope, the groups 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Kansu did not show any significant changes in the liver compared with the control group. 6. By the immunochemical analysis of heat shock protein(hsp and glucose-regulated protein(grp in rat renal cortex, the expressions of hsp70 and grp78 were decreased in the and HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu respectively compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Hominis Placenta aqua-acupuncture have an effect on prevention and protection of

  9. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  10. Sonochemical Preparation and Subsequent Fixation of Oxygen-Free Graphene Sheets at N,N-Dimethyloctylamine-Aqua Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Trusova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the syntheses of oxygen-free graphene sheets and the method of its fixation at an oil-aqua interface were presented. The graphene sheets were prepared by exfoliation of synthetic graphite powder in an aqua-organic medium under ultrasound irradiation. N,N-Dimethyloctylamine- (DMOA- aqua emulsion was used as the liquid medium, and pH was equal to 3. The obtained graphene nanosuspension was fractionated by sedimentation and decanted according to the weight. The graphene nanoparticle fractions, differing in configuration and number of layers, have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron diffraction, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS. It was found that using a DMOA-aqua mixture as the liquid medium in ultrasonic treatment of synthetic graphite leads to the formation of oxygen-free 1-2-layer graphene sheets attached to the DMOA-aqua interface. The proposed method differs from known ones by using a small amount of more environmentally friendly organic substances. It allows to obtain large quantities of oxygen-free graphene, and finally unconverted graphite can be directed for reuse. The proposed method allows to obtain both 2D graphene sheets with micron linear dimensions and 3D packages with a high content of defects. Both these species are in demand in areas related to the development of new materials with unique electrophysical properties.

  11. Thermodynamics: The Unique Universal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamics is a physical branch of science that governs the thermal behavior of dynamical systems from those as simple as refrigerators to those as complex as our expanding universe. The laws of thermodynamics involving conservation of energy and nonconservation of entropy are, without a doubt, two of the most useful and general laws in all sciences. The first law of thermodynamics, according to which energy cannot be created or destroyed, merely transformed from one form to another, and the second law of thermodynamics, according to which the usable energy in an adiabatically isolated dynamical system is always diminishing in spite of the fact that energy is conserved, have had an impact far beyond science and engineering. In this paper, we trace the history of thermodynamics from its classical to its postmodern forms, and present a tutorial and didactic exposition of thermodynamics as it pertains to some of the deepest secrets of the universe.

  12. Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R

    2016-11-13

    A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U (1) -U (0) The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as 'real' thermodynamic variablesThis article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Aqua-planet simulations of the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Ferreira, Rosana; Chao, Winston C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Amazon Basin convection and cold fronts on the formation and maintenance of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) is studied using aqua-planet simulations with a general circulation model. In the model, a circular patch of warm sea-surface temperature (SST) is used to mimic the effect of the Amazon Basin on South American monsoon convection. The aqua-planet simulations were designed to study the effect of the strength and latitude of Amazon Basin convection on the formation of the SACZ. The simulations indicate that the strength of the SACZ increases as the Amazon convection intensifies and is moved away from the equator. Of the two controls studied here, the latitude of the Amazon convection exerts the strongest effect on the strength of the SACZ. An analysis of the synoptic-scale variability in the simulations shows the importance of frontal systems in the formation of the aqua-planet SACZ. Composite time series of frontal systems that occurred in the simulations show that a robust SACZ occurs when fronts penetrate into the subtropics and become stationary there as they cross eastward of the longitude of the Amazon Basin. Moisture convergence associated with these frontal systems produces rainfall not along the model SACZ region and along a large portion of the northern model Amazon Basin. Simulations in which the warm SST patch was too weak or too close to the equator did not produce frontal systems that extended into the tropics and became stationary, and did not form a SACZ. In the model, the SACZ forms as Amazon Basin convection strengthens and migrates far enough southward to allow frontal systems to penetrate into the tropics and stall over South America. This result is in agreement with observations that the SACZ tends to form after the onset of the monsoon season in the Amazon Basin.

  14. Evapotranspiration simulated by CRITERIA and AquaCrop models in stony soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Campi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a water balance model is also based on the ability to correctly perform simulations in heterogeneous soils. The objective of this paper is to test CRITERIA and AquaCrop models in order to evaluate their suitability in estimating evapotranspiration at the field scale in two types of soil in the Mediterranean region: non-stony and stony soil. The first step of the work was to calibrate both models under the non-stony conditions. The models were calibrated by using observations on wheat crop (leaf area index or canopy cover, and phenological stages as a function of degree days and pedo-climatic measurements. The second step consisted in the analysing the impact of the soil type on the models performances by comparing simulated and measured values. The outputs retained in the analysis were soil water content (at the daily scale and crop evapotranspiration (at two time scales: daily and crop season. The model performances were evaluated through four statistical tests: normalised difference (D% at the seasonal time scale; and relative root mean square error (RRMSE, efficiency index (EF, coefficient of determination (r2 at the daily scale. At the seasonal scale, values of D% were less than 15% in stony and on-stony soils, indicating a good performance attained by both models. At the daily scale, the RRMSE values (<30% indicate that the evapotranspiration simulated by CRITERIA is acceptable in both soil types. In the stony soil conditions, 3 out 4 statistical tests (RRMSE, EF, r2 indicate the inadequacy of AquaCrop to simulate correctly daily evapotranspiration. The higher performance of CRITERIA model to simulate daily evapotranspiration in stony soils, is due to the soil submodel, which requires the percentage skeleton as an input, while AquaCrop model takes into account the presence of skeleton by reducing the soil volume.

  15. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  16. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  17. Chemical thermodynamics of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenthe, I.; Fuger, J.; Lemire, R.J.; Muller, A.B.; Nguyen-Trung Cregu, C.; Wanner, H.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive overview on the chemical thermodynamics of those elements that are of particular importance in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems is provided. This is the first volume in a series of critical reviews to be published on this subject. The book provides an extensive compilation of chemical thermodynamic data for uranium. A description of procedures for activity corrections and uncertainty estimates is given. A critical discussion of data needed for nuclear waste management assessments, including areas where significant gaps of knowledge exist is presented. A detailed inventory of chemical thermodynamic data for inorganic compounds and complexes of uranium is listed. Data and their uncertainty limits are recommended for 74 aqueous complexes and 199 solid and 31 gaseous compounds containing uranium, and on 52 aqueous and 17 solid auxiliary species containing no uranium. The data are internally consistent and compatible with the CODATA Key Values. The book contains a detailed discussion of procedures used for activity factor corrections in aqueous solution, as well as including methods for making uncertainty estimates. The recommended data have been prepared for use in environmental geochemistry. Containing contributions written by experts the chapters cover various subject areas such a s: oxide and hydroxide compounds and complexes, the uranium nitrides, the solid uranium nitrates and the arsenic-containing uranium compounds, uranates, procedures for consistent estimation of entropies, gaseous and solid uranium halides, gaseous uranium oxides, solid phosphorous-containing uranium compounds, alkali metal uranates, uncertainties, standards and conventions, aqueous complexes, uranium minerals dealing with solubility products and ionic strength corrections. The book is intended for nuclear research establishments and consulting firms dealing with uranium mining and nuclear waste disposal, as well as academic and research institutes

  18. Thermodynamics of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofta, H.

    1972-01-01

    The phenomenology of the phase transitions has been considered. The definitions of thermodynamic functions and parameters, as well as those of the phase transitions, are given and some of the relations between those quantities are discussed. The phase transitions classification proposed by Ehrenfest has been described. The most important features of phase transitions are discussed using the selected physical examples including the critical behaviour of ferromagnetic materials at the Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic materials at the Neel temperature. Some aspects of the Ehrenfest's equations, that have been derived, for the interfacial lines and surfaces are considered as well as the role the notion of interfaces. (S.B.)

  19. Thermodynamics of quark gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S. N.

    1980-07-01

    The application of quantum statistical mechanics to a system of particles consisting of quarks is considered. Realistic theoretical investigations have been underway to understand highly dense objects such as white dwarfs and neutron stars. The various possibilities in the case of very high densities such as 10/sup 15/ or 10/sup 16/ g/cm/sup 3/ are enumerated. The thermodynamics of a phase transition from neutron matter phase to quark matter phase is analysed. Preliminary results based on quantum chromodynamics and other phenomenological models are reported.

  20. Time and Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is vital to the health and welfare of all living beings, and Earth's temperature varies considerably from place to place. Early humans could only live in warm areas such as the tropics. Although modern humans have the technology to keep their houses and offices warm even in cold environments, the growth and development of civilization has created unintentional effects. Cities are warmer than their surrounding regions, and on a global scale, Earth is experiencing rising temperatures. Thus, the science of thermodynamics offers an important tool to study these effects. "Time and

  1. Thermodynamics of Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    Thermodynamics of Crystals is a gold mine of a references bargain with more derivations of useful equations per dollar, or per page, than almost any other book I know. Useful to whom? To the solid state physicist, the solid state chemist working the geophysicist, the rock mechanic, the mineral physicist. Useful for what? For lattice dynamics, crystal potentials, band structure. For elegant, rigorous, and concise derivations of fundamental equations. For comparison of levels of approximation. For some data and physical insights, especially for metals and simple halides. This book is a reissue, with some changes and additions, of a 1970 treatise. It ages well, since the fundamentals do not change.

  2. Interfacial solvation thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the interplay of cavity formation, polarizability, desolvation, and surface capillary waves in driving the interfacial adsorptions of ions and molecules at air–water interfaces. Here we revisit these questions by combining exact potential distribution results with linear response theory and other physically motivated approximations. The results highlight both exact and approximate compensation relations pertaining to direct (solute–solvent) and indirect (solvent–solvent) contributions to adsorption thermodynamics, of relevance to solvation at air–water interfaces, as well as a broader class of processes linked to the mean force potential between ions, molecules, nanoparticles, proteins, and biological assemblies. (paper)

  3. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  4. Gravitation, Thermodynamics, and Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    During the past 30 years, research in general relativity has brought to light strong hints of a very deep and fundamental relationship between gravitation, thermodynamics, and quantum theory. The most striking indication of such a relationship comes from black hole thermodynamics, where it appears that certain laws of black hole mechanics are, in fact, simply the ordinary laws of thermodynamics applied to a system containing a black hole. This article will review the present status of black h...

  5. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  6. Terra and Aqua MODIS Design, Radiometry, and Geometry in Support of Land Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Vermote, Eric; Saleous, Nazmi; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) mission includes the construction and launch of two nearly identical Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. The MODIS proto-flight model (PFM) is onboard the EOS Terra satellite (formerly EOS AM-1) launched on December 18, 1999 and hereafter referred to as Terra MODIS. Flight model-1 (FM1) is onboard the EOS Aqua satellite (formerly EOS PM-1) launched on May 04, 2002 and referred to as Aqua MODIS. MODIS was developed based on the science community s desire to collect multiyear continuous datasets for monitoring changes in the Earth s land, oceans and atmosphere, and the human contributions to these changes. It was designed to measure discrete spectral bands, which includes many used by a number of heritage sensors, and thus extends the heritage datasets to better understand both long- and short-term changes in the global environment (Barnes and Salomonson 1993; Salomonson et al. 2002; Barnes et al. 2002). The MODIS development, launch, and operation were managed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. The sensors were designed, built, and tested by Raytheon/ Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Goleta, California. Each MODIS instrument offers 36 spectral bands, which span the spectral region from the visible (0.41 m) to long-wave infrared (14.4 m). MODIS collects data at three different nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 km. Key design specifications, such as spectral bandwidths, typical scene radiances, required signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or noise equivalent temperature differences (NEDT), and primary applications of each MODIS spectral band are summarized in Table 7.1. These parameters were the basis for the MODIS design. More details on the evolution of the NASA EOS and development of the MODIS instruments are provided in Chap. 1. This chapter focuses on the MODIS sensor design, radiometry, and geometry as they apply to land remote sensing. With near

  7. Earth System Science Research Using Datra and Products from Terra, Aqua, and ACRIM Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the research conducted at CSR to extend MODIS data and products to the applications required by users in the State of Texas. This research presented in this report was completed during the timeframe of August 2004 - December 31, 2007. However, since annual reports were filed in December 2005 and 2006, results obtained during calendar year 2007 are emphasized in the report. The stated goals of the project were to complete the fundamental research needed to create two types of new, Level 3 products for the air quality community in Texas from data collected by NASA s EOS Terra and Aqua missions.

  8. Quantum Thermodynamics at Strong Coupling: Operator Thermodynamic Functions and Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Tsung Hsiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying or constructing a fine-grained microscopic theory that will emerge under specific conditions to a known macroscopic theory is always a formidable challenge. Thermodynamics is perhaps one of the most powerful theories and best understood examples of emergence in physical sciences, which can be used for understanding the characteristics and mechanisms of emergent processes, both in terms of emergent structures and the emergent laws governing the effective or collective variables. Viewing quantum mechanics as an emergent theory requires a better understanding of all this. In this work we aim at a very modest goal, not quantum mechanics as thermodynamics, not yet, but the thermodynamics of quantum systems, or quantum thermodynamics. We will show why even with this minimal demand, there are many new issues which need be addressed and new rules formulated. The thermodynamics of small quantum many-body systems strongly coupled to a heat bath at low temperatures with non-Markovian behavior contains elements, such as quantum coherence, correlations, entanglement and fluctuations, that are not well recognized in traditional thermodynamics, built on large systems vanishingly weakly coupled to a non-dynamical reservoir. For quantum thermodynamics at strong coupling, one needs to reexamine the meaning of the thermodynamic functions, the viability of the thermodynamic relations and the validity of the thermodynamic laws anew. After a brief motivation, this paper starts with a short overview of the quantum formulation based on Gelin & Thoss and Seifert. We then provide a quantum formulation of Jarzynski’s two representations. We show how to construct the operator thermodynamic potentials, the expectation values of which provide the familiar thermodynamic variables. Constructing the operator thermodynamic functions and verifying or modifying their relations is a necessary first step in the establishment of a viable thermodynamics theory for

  9. Experimental approaches to membrane thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamics describes a system on the macroscopic scale, yet it is becoming an important tool for the elucidation of many specific molecular aspects of membrane properties. In this note we discuss this application of thermodynamics, and give a number of examples on how thermodynamic measurements...... have contributed to the understanding of specific membrane phenomena. We mainly focus on non-specific interactions of bilayers and small molecules (water and solutes) in the surrounding solvent, and the changes in membrane properties they bring about. Differences between thermodynamic...

  10. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L

    2013-01-01

    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  11. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  12. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1981-03-01

    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  13. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  14. Chemical thermodynamic representation of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemer, T.B.; Besmann, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The entire data base for the dependence of the nonstoichiometry, x, on temperature and chemical potential of oxygen (oxygen potential) was retrieved from the literature and represented. This data base was interpreted by least-squares analysis using equations derived from the classical thermodynamic theory for the solid solution of a solute in a solvent. For hyperstoichiometric oxide at oxygen potentials more positive than -266700 + 16.5T kJ/mol, the data were best represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 3 O 7 ] solution. For O/U ratios above 2 and oxygen potentials below this boundary, a [UO 2 ]-[U 2 O 4 . 5 ] solution represented the data. The data were represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 1 / 3 ] solution. The resulting equations represent the experimental ln(PO 2 ) - ln(x) behavior and can be used in thermodynamic calculations to predict phase boundary compositions consistent with the literature. Collectively, the present analysis permits a mathematical representation of the behavior of the total data base

  15. Light cone thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Tommaso; Perez, Alejandro

    2018-02-01

    We show that null surfaces defined by the outgoing and infalling wave fronts emanating from and arriving at a sphere in Minkowski spacetime have thermodynamical properties that are in strict formal correspondence with those of black hole horizons in curved spacetimes. Such null surfaces, made of pieces of light cones, are bifurcate conformal Killing horizons for suitable conformally stationary observers. They can be extremal and nonextremal depending on the radius of the shining sphere. Such conformal Killing horizons have a constant light cone (conformal) temperature, given by the standard expression in terms of the generalization of surface gravity for conformal Killing horizons. Exchanges of conformally invariant energy across the horizon are described by a first law where entropy changes are given by 1 /(4 ℓp2) of the changes of a geometric quantity with the meaning of horizon area in a suitable conformal frame. These conformal horizons satisfy the zeroth to the third laws of thermodynamics in an appropriate way. In the extremal case they become light cones associated with a single event; these have vanishing temperature as well as vanishing entropy.

  16. Use of LST images from MODIS/AQUA sensor as an indication of frost occurrence in RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de S. Simões

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlthough frost occurrence causes severe losses in agriculture, especially in the south of Brazil, the data of minimum air temperature (Tmin currently available for monitoring and predicting frosts show insufficient spatial distribution. This study aimed to evaluate the MDY11A1 (LST – Land Surface Temperature product, from the MODIS sensor on board the AQUA satellite as an estimator of frost occurrence in the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. LST images from the nighttime overpass of the MODIS/AQUA sensor for the months of June, July and August from 2006 to 2012, and data from three conventional weather stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET were used. Consistency was observed between Tmin data measured in weather stations and LST data obtained from the MODIS sensor. According to the results, LSTs below 3 ºC recorded by the MODIS/AQUA sensor are an indication of a favorable scenario to frost occurrence.

  17. Thermodynamics and statistical physics. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnakenberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    This textbook covers tthe following topics: Thermodynamic systems and equilibrium, irreversible thermodynamics, thermodynamic potentials, stability, thermodynamic processes, ideal systems, real gases and phase transformations, magnetic systems and Landau model, low temperature thermodynamics, canonical ensembles, statistical theory, quantum statistics, fermions and bosons, kinetic theory, Bose-Einstein condensation, photon gas

  18. Thermodynamic Properties and Thermodynamic Geometries of Black p-Branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Huan Wei; Xiao Cui; Jia-Xin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The heat capacity and the electric capacitance of the black p-branes (BPB) are generally defined, then they are calculated for some special processes. It is found that the Ruppeiner thermodynamic geometry of BPB is flat. Finally, we give some discussions for the flatness of the Ruppeiner thermodynamic geometry of BPB and some black holes. (paper)

  19. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  20. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  1. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  2. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  3. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-04-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  4. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  5. AquaResp® — free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, Peter G.

    AquaResp® is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up...... to four input ports and output control via two digital and two analogue ports. In addition AquaResp can read one COM-port if the oxygen analyser has a RS-232 output signal. The present version of the program has options for parsing data strings generated by two major fibre optic oxygen electrode...

  6. Optimized extraction of daily bio-optical time series derived from MODIS/Aqua imagery for Lake Tanganyika, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie; Bergamino, N; Stenuite, S

    2010-01-01

    the MODIS-Aqua sensor. Standard MODIS Aqua Ocean Color products were found to not provide a suitable calibration for high altitude lakes such as the Lake Tanganyika. An optimization of the extraction process and the validation of the dataset were performed with independent sets of in situ measurements. Our......Lake Tanganyika is one of the world's great freshwater ecosystems. In recent decades its hydrodynamic characteristics have undergone important changes that have had consequences on the lake's primary productivity. The establishment of a long-term Ocean Color dataset for Lake Tanganyika...

  7. Dinuclear ru-aqua complexes for selective epoxidation catalysis based on supramolecular substrate orientation effects

    KAUST Repository

    Di Giovanni, Carlo; Poater, Albert; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Cavallo, Luigi; Solà , Miquel; Llobet, Antoni A.

    2014-01-01

    Ru-aqua complex {[RuII(trpy)(H2O)] 2(μ-pyr-dc)}+ is a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes. High turnover numbers (TNs), up to 17000, and turnover frequencies (TOF), up to 24120 h-1 (6.7 s -1), have been obtained using PhIO as oxidant. This species presents an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides. In addition, it shows different reactivity to cis and trans olefins due to a substrate orientation supramolecular effect transmitted by its ligand scaffold. This effect together with the impressive reaction rates are rationalized using electrochemical techniques and DFT calculations. A new Ru-aqua complex that behaves as a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes is reported. High turnover numbers and frequencies are obtained by using PhIO as oxidant. The complex shows an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides (see figure). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Comparison of CERES Cloud Properties Derived from Aqua and Terra MODIS Data and TRMM VIRS Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Young, D. F.; Sun-Mack, S.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Chen, Y.; Heck, P. W.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project is obtaining Earth radiation budget measurements of unprecedented accuracy as a result of improved instruments and an analysis system that combines simultaneous, high-resolution cloud property retrievals with the broadband radiance data. The cloud properties are derived from three different satellite imagers: the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) on the Aqua and Terra satellites. A single set of consistent algorithms using the 0.65, 1.6 or 2.1, 3.7, 10.8, and 12.0-æm channels are applied to all three imagers. The cloud properties include, cloud coverage, height, thickness, temperature, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, and liquid or ice water path. Because each satellite is in a different orbit, the results provide information on the diurnal cycle of cloud properties. Initial intercalibrations show excellent consistency between the three images except for some differences of ~ 1K between the 3.7-æm channel on Terra and those on VIRS and Aqua. The derived cloud properties are consistent with the known diurnal characteristics of clouds in different areas. These datasets should be valuable for exploring the role of clouds in the radiation budget and hydrological cycle.

  9. Lutetium(III) aqua ion: On the dynamical structure of the heaviest lanthanoid hydration complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessa, Francesco; D’Angelo, Paola, E-mail: p.dangelo@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Spezia, Riccardo [CNRS, UMR 8587, Laboratoire Analyse et Modelisation Pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, Blvd. F. Mitterrand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France)

    2016-05-28

    The structure and dynamics of the lutetium(III) ion in aqueous solution have been investigated by means of a polarizable force field molecular dynamics (MD). An 8-fold square antiprism (SAP) geometry has been found to be the dominant configuration of the lutetium(III) aqua ion. Nevertheless, a low percentage of 9-fold complexes arranged in a tricapped trigonal prism (TTP) geometry has been also detected. Dynamic properties have been explored by carrying out six independent MD simulations for each of four different temperatures: 277 K, 298 K, 423 K, 632 K. The mean residence time of water molecules in the first hydration shell at room temperature has been found to increase as compared to the central elements of the lanthanoid series in agreement with previous experimental findings. Water exchange kinetic rate constants at each temperature and activation parameters of the process have been determined from the MD simulations. The obtained structural and dynamical results suggest that the water exchange process for the lutetium(III) aqua ion proceeds with an associative mechanism, in which the SAP hydration complex undergoes temporary structural changes passing through a 9-fold TTP intermediate. Such results are consistent with the water exchange mechanism proposed for heavy lanthanoid atoms.

  10. Sistem Monitoring Proses Produksi pada Mesin Bardi di PT. Tirta Investama (Danone Aqua Sukabumi Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Haryanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses produksi pengisian air Aqua galon menggunakan mesin Bardi di PT. Tirta Investama Aqua Danone Sukabumi memiliki parameter-parameter proses yang harus selalu dipantau, sehingga jika terjadi nilai parameter yang melebihi atau kurang dari batas toleransi yang diberikan dapat segera dilakukan tidakan intervensi untuk menghindari terjadi kerusakan atau hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan. Sistem monitoring parameter proses produksi berbasis web dapat dimanfaatkan untuk memantau parameter-parameter pada mesin Bardi. Sistem ini terdiri atas perangkat keras dan perangkat lunak. Perangkat keras terdiri atas sensor-sensor yang dipasang pada mesin Bardi yang menghasilkan sinyal analog yang kemudian oleh PLC Allen Bradley data akan dikonversi menjadi data digital. Data akan dikirimkan secara real-time dan disimpan pada database server komputer dan disinkronisasikan dengan web server. Perangkat lunak pada pemograman website menggunakan Adobe Dreamweaver CS6 sebagai kontrol visual dan tampilan data menggunakan bahasa pemograman PHP dan database MySQL. Sistem monitoring proses produksi dapat memantau parameter-parameter mesin Bardi serta mentransmisikan data perubahan parameter proses produksi yang ditampilkan melalui aplikasi web.

  11. Dinuclear ru-aqua complexes for selective epoxidation catalysis based on supramolecular substrate orientation effects

    KAUST Repository

    Di Giovanni, Carlo

    2014-03-03

    Ru-aqua complex {[RuII(trpy)(H2O)] 2(μ-pyr-dc)}+ is a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes. High turnover numbers (TNs), up to 17000, and turnover frequencies (TOF), up to 24120 h-1 (6.7 s -1), have been obtained using PhIO as oxidant. This species presents an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides. In addition, it shows different reactivity to cis and trans olefins due to a substrate orientation supramolecular effect transmitted by its ligand scaffold. This effect together with the impressive reaction rates are rationalized using electrochemical techniques and DFT calculations. A new Ru-aqua complex that behaves as a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes is reported. High turnover numbers and frequencies are obtained by using PhIO as oxidant. The complex shows an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides (see figure). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Thermodynamics of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, Frank D

    2010-01-01

    Applications of elementary thermodynamic principles to the dynamics of the Earth lead to robust, quantitative conclusions about the tectonic effects that arise from convection. The grand pattern of motion conveys deep heat to the surface, generating mechanical energy with a thermodynamic efficiency corresponding to that of a Carnot engine operating over the adiabatic temperature gradient between the heat source and sink. Referred to the total heat flux derived from the Earth's silicate mantle, the efficiency is 24% and the power generated, 7.7 x 10 12 W, causes all the material deformation apparent as plate tectonics and the consequent geological processes. About 3.5% of this is released in seismic zones but little more than 0.2% as seismic waves. Even major earthquakes are only localized hiccups in this motion. Complications that arise from mineral phase transitions can be used to illuminate details of the motion. There are two superimposed patterns of convection, plate subduction and deep mantle plumes, driven by sources of buoyancy, negative and positive respectively, at the top and bottom of the mantle. The patterns of motion are controlled by the viscosity contrasts (>10 4 : 1) at these boundaries and are self-selected as the least dissipative mechanisms of heat transfer for convection in a body with very strong viscosity variation. Both are subjects of the thermodynamic efficiency argument. Convection also drives the motion in the fluid outer core that generates the geomagnetic field, although in that case there is an important energy contribution by compositional separation, as light solute is rejected by the solidifying inner core and mixed into the outer core, a process referred to as compositional convection. Uncertainty persists over the core energy balance because thermal conduction is a drain on core energy that has been a subject of diverse estimates, with attendant debate over the need for radiogenic heat in the core. The geophysical approach to

  13. Fundamental functions in equilibrium thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.J. ter

    In the standard presentations of the principles of Gibbsian equilibrium thermodynamics one can find several gaps in the logic. For a subject that is as widely used as equilibrium thermodynamics, it is of interest to clear up such questions of mathematical rigor. In this paper it is shown that using

  14. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  15. Thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štejfa, V.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Červinka, C.; Rocha, M.A.A.; Santos, L.M.N.B.F.; Schröder, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, MAY (2013), 117-125 ISSN 0021-9614 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : monoterpenes * pinene * vapor pressure * heat capacity * vaporization and sublimation enthalpy * ideal - gas thermodynamic Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.423, year: 2013

  16. Thermodynamic optimization of power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haseli, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic Optimization of Power Plants aims to establish and illustrate comparative multi-criteria optimization of various models and configurations of power plants. It intends to show what optimization objectives one may define on the basis of the thermodynamic laws, and how they can be applied

  17. Ch. 33 Modeling: Computational Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, Theodore M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter considers methods and techniques for computational modeling for nuclear materials with a focus on fuels. The basic concepts for chemical thermodynamics are described and various current models for complex crystalline and liquid phases are illustrated. Also included are descriptions of available databases for use in chemical thermodynamic studies and commercial codes for performing complex equilibrium calculations.

  18. Thermodynamics of urban population flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A

    2012-12-01

    Orderliness, reflected via mathematical laws, is encountered in different frameworks involving social groups. Here we show that a thermodynamics can be constructed that macroscopically describes urban population flows. Microscopic dynamic equations and simulations with random walkers underlie the macroscopic approach. Our results might be regarded, via suitable analogies, as a step towards building an explicit social thermodynamics.

  19. Thermodynamics from Car to Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The historical background to the laws of thermodynamics is explained using examples we can all observe in the world around us, focusing on motorised transport, refrigeration and solar heating. This is not to be considered as an academic article. The purpose is to improve understanding of thermodynamics rather than impart new knowledge, and for…

  20. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  1. Thermodynamics in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.F.; Zhu, J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is very powerful to deal with the behavior of early universe. Moreover, the effective loop quantum cosmology gives a successful description of the universe in the semiclassical region. We consider the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe as a thermodynamical system and investigate the thermodynamics of LQC in the semiclassical region. The effective density and effective pressure in the modified Friedmann equation from LQC not only determine the evolution of the universe in LQC scenario but also are actually found to be the thermodynamic quantities. This result comes from the energy definition in cosmology (the Misner-Sharp gravitational energy) and is consistent with thermodynamic laws. We prove that within the framework of loop quantum cosmology, the elementary equation of equilibrium thermodynamics is still valid.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Leachman, Jacob; Lemmon, Eric; Penoncello, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic propertie...

  3. Applied statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The book guides the reader from the foundations of statisti- cal thermodynamics including the theory of intermolecular forces to modern computer-aided applications in chemical en- gineering and physical chemistry. The approach is new. The foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics are presen- ted in a simple way and their applications to the prediction of fluid phase behavior of real systems are demonstrated. A particular effort is made to introduce the reader to expli- cit formulations of intermolecular interaction models and to show how these models influence the properties of fluid sy- stems. The established methods of statistical mechanics - computer simulation, perturbation theory, and numerical in- tegration - are discussed in a style appropriate for newcom- ers and are extensively applied. Numerous worked examples illustrate how practical calculations should be carried out.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    This work reviews and discusses the data and information on the various thermodynamic properties of vanadium available through March 1985. These include the heat capacity and enthalpy, enthalpy of melting, vapor pressure, and enthalpy of vaporization. The existing data have been critically evaluated and analyzed, and the recommended values for heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy function covering the temperature range from 1 to 3800 K have been generated. These values are referred to tempertures based on IPTS-1968. The units used for various properties are joules per mole (J. mol - 1 ). The estimated uncertainties in the heat capacity are +/-3% below 15 K, +/-10% from 15 to 150 K, +/-3% from 150 to 298.15 K, +/-2% from 298.15 to 1000 K, +/-3% from 1000 to the melting point (2202 K), and +/-5% in the liquid region

  5. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  6. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  7. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  8. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, Sven; Scharge, Tina; Willms, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  9. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  10. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  11. Respiratory toxicity of cyanobacterial aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 in the zebrafish gill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, De Lu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Si Yi [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Jian Kun [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hu, Chun Xiang, E-mail: cxhu@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yong Ding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxin causes physiological and histological changes in zebrafish gills. • Changes in gill enzymes (ALT, AST) and ultrastructure demonstrate injury. • Reduced AChE and MAO activity suggest altered neurotransmitter inactivation. - Abstract: Aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae are frequently identified in eutrophic waterbodies worldwide. These toxins severely endanger environmental safety and human health due to the production of paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs). Although the molecular mechanisms of aphantoxin neurotoxicity have been studied, many questions remain to be resolved such as in vivo alterations in branchial histology and neurotransmitter inactivation induced by these neurotoxins. Aphantoxins extracted from a naturally isolated strain of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The basic components of the isolated aphantoxins identified were gonyautoxin 1 (GTX1), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), and neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), which comprised 34.04, 21.28, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was administrated 5.3 or 7.61 mg STX equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) of the A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins by intraperitoneal injection. Histological alterations and changes in neurotransmitter inactivation in the gills of zebrafish were investigated for 24 h following exposure. Aphantoxin exposure significantly increased the activities of gill alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and resulted in histological alterations in the gills during the first 12 h of exposure, indicating the induction of functional and structural damage. Gill acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities were inhibited significantly, suggesting an alteration of neurotransmitter inactivation in zebrafish gills. The observed alterations in gill structure and function followed a time- and dose-dependent pattern. The results demonstrate that

  12. Instrumentation of the model in scaled 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    The objective of this report is to provide guidelines for the instrumentation of a model in scale 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY wave energy converter. The model will be located in Nissum Bredning area: this is an important waterway already used by Aalborg University for real sea tests of wave...... energy converters....

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  14. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 25 km Tb and Sea Ice Concentration Polar Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 25 km daily sea ice product includes 6.9 - 89.0 GHz TBs and sea ice concentration averages (daily, ascending, and descending) on a 25 km...

  15. Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, A.; Rijnveld, M.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Project AquaTerra generates knowledge about the river-soil-sediment-groundwater system and delivers scientific information of value for river basin management. In this article, the use and ignorance of scientific knowledge in decision making is explored by a theoretical review. We elaborate

  16. Statistical Thermodynamics of Disperse Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    Principles of statistical physics are applied for the description of thermodynamic equilibrium in disperse systems. The cells of disperse systems are shown to possess a number of non-standard thermodynamic parameters. A random distribution of these parameters in the system is determined....... On the basis of this distribution, it is established that the disperse system has an additional degree of freedom called the macro-entropy. A large set of bounded ideal disperse systems allows exact evaluation of thermodynamic characteristics. The theory developed is applied to the description of equilibrium...

  17. Thermodynamic light on black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.

    1977-01-01

    The existence of black holes and their relevance to our understanding of the nature of space and time are considered, with especial reference to the application of thermodynamic arguments which can reveal their energy-transfer processes in a new light. The application of thermodynamics to strongly gravitating systems promises some fascinating new insights into the nature of gravity. Situations can occur during gravitational collapse in which existing physics breaks down. Under these circumstances, the application of universal thermodynamical principles might be our only guide. (U.K.)

  18. Thermodynamic metrics and optimal paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David A; Crooks, Gavin E

    2012-05-11

    A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.

  19. Some aspects of plasma thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgoraki, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The objective reasons which have inhibited the development of a plasma-thermodynamics theory are discussed and the authors formulate the fundamental principles which can be the basis of a common plasma-thermodynamics theory. Two kinds of thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas are discussed, an isothermal plasma and a nonisothermal plasma. An isothermal plasma is a high-temperature plasma; the Saha-Eggert equation describes its behavior. A nonisothermal plasma is a low-temperature plasma, and the reactions taking place therein are purely plasma-chemical. The ionization equilibrium and the composition of such a plasma can be found with the aid of the equations presented in this paper

  20. Practical chemical thermodynamics for geoscientists

    CERN Document Server

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr

    2012-01-01

    Practical Chemical Thermodynamics for Geoscientists covers classical chemical thermodynamics and focuses on applications to practical problems in the geosciences, environmental sciences, and planetary sciences. This book will provide a strong theoretical foundation for students, while also proving beneficial for earth and planetary scientists seeking a review of thermodynamic principles and their application to a specific problem. Strong theoretical foundation and emphasis on applications Numerous worked examples in each chapter Brief historical summaries and biographies of key thermodynamicists-including their fundamental research and discoveries Extensive references to relevant literature.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process

  2. Terra, Aqua, and Aura Direct Broadcast - Providing Earth Science Data for Realtime Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Case, Warren F.; Franklin, Ameilia

    2010-01-01

    The need for realtime data to aid in disaster management and monitoring has been clearly demonstrated for the past several years, e.g., during the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, the hurricane Katrina in 2005, fires, etc. Users want (and often require) the means to get earth observation data for operational regional use as soon as they are generated by satellites. This is especially true for events that can cause loss of human life and/or property. To meet this need, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, Terra and Aqua, provide realtime data useful to disaster management teams. This paper describes the satellites, their Direct Broadcast (DB) capabilities, the data uses, what it takes to deploy a DB ground station, and the future of the DB.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Deflation in Covariance and Resultant Pc Values for AQUA, AURA and TERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed O.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will display statistical analysis performed for raw conjunction CDMs received for the EOS Aqua, Aura and Terra satellites within the period of February 2015 through July 2016. The analysis performed indicates a discernable deflation in covariance calculated at the JSpOC after the utilization of the dynamic drag consider parameter was implemented operationally in May 2015. As a result, the overall diminution in the conjunction plane intersection of the primary and secondary objects appears to be leading to reduced probability of collision (Pc) values for these conjunction events. This presentation also displays evidence for this theory with analysis of Pc trending plots using data calculated by the SpaceNav CRMS system.

  4. Simulation of potato yield in temperate condition by the AquaCrop model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2017-01-01

    Potato production ranks fourth in the world after rice, wheat, and maize and it is highly sensitive to water stress. It is thus very important to implement irrigation management strategies to minimize the effects of water stress under different climate conditions. The use of modelling tools...... to calculate the soil water balance on a daily basis has become widespread in the last decades. Therefore, this study was performed to simulate potato yield, dry matter and soil water content under different water stress condition using the AquaCrop model. Three levels of irrigation comprising full irrigated...... (If), deficit irrigated (Id) and not irrigated (I0) were investigated in three-years potato field experiment (2013–15) with four replicates in randomized complete block design. Tuber and total dry matter yield, canopy cover, dry matter production during the crop growth season, and soil water content...

  5. AQUA-SIT, monitorare la qualità dell’acqua in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ioannilli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available AQUA-SIT: a real time water quality monitoring system Two spin-off companies from the Tor Vergata University of Rome are jointly developing an innovative system for real-time monitoring of water quality. The new system integrates a set of sensors, hydrological models, models of pollutant diffusion into the water fl ow and an advanced geographic decision support system. It presents contained investment costs and reduced operational costs, thanks to the centralization of information. Although in a prototypical state, the project has already found a strong interest from some stakeholders in Italy.

  6. AQUA-SIT, monitorare la qualità dell’acqua in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ioannilli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available AQUA-SIT: a real time water quality monitoring systemTwo spin-off companies from the Tor Vergata University of Rome are jointly developing an innovative system for real-time monitoring of water quality. The new system integrates a set of sensors, hydrological models, models of pollutant diffusion into the water fl ow and an advanced geographic decision support system. It presents contained investment costs and reduced operational costs, thanks to the centralization of information. Although in a prototypical state, the project has already found a strong interest from some stakeholders in Italy.

  7. Comparative study of irreversibilities in an aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataer, O E [Gazi Univ., Ankara (TR). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Gogus, Y [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1991-03-01

    Irreversibilities in components of an aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration system (ARS) have been determined by second law analysis. The components of the ARS are as follows: condenser, evaporator, absorber, generator, pump, expansion valves, mixture heat exchanger and refrigerant heat exchanger. It is assumed that the ammonia concentration at the generator exit is, independent of the other parameters, equal to 0.999 and at the evaporator exit the gas is saturated vapour. Pressure losses between the generator and condenser, and the evaporator and absorber are taken into consideration. In the results the dimensionless exergy loss of each component, the exergetic coefficient of performance, the coefficient of performance and the circulation ratio are given graphically for each different generator, evaporator, condenser and absorber temperature. (author).

  8. AquaMUNE, a brown seaweed extract, improves metabolism, immune response, energy and chelates heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has shown interest in the curative powers of ocean plants, many of which appear to possess powerful anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, and immuno-suppressive properties. AQUAMune, a brown seaweed extract developed by Aqua-10 Laboratories, has gained marketing rights for use as a nutritional supplement. Research shows that it acts as a receptor blocker for many pathogens, including Salmonella, and is effective against Haemophilus pneumonia. AQUAMune is also reported to inhibit outbreaks of genital herpes. Other marine plants are also showing positive curative powers. Evidence reveals that a red marine algae from the Philippines has selective antitumor properties; and that carageenans, a family of sulfated polysaccharides, appear to have anti-viral capabilities. Seaweeds act as natural chelators of heavy metals that improve metabolism in cells, increase ATP production, body temperature, energy levels, and immune function.

  9. Poly[aqua(μ3-pyridazine-4-carboxylato-κ2O:O:O′lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Starosta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Li(C5H3N2O2(H2O]n, is composed of centrosymmetric dimers in which two LiI ions are bridged by a carboxylate O atom, each donated by a ligand, acting in a bidentate mode. The second carboxylato O atoms bridge the dimers to LiI ions in adjacent dimers, forming molecular layers parallel to (001. Each LiI ion is coordinated by two bridging carboxylate O atoms, a bridging carboxylate O atom donated by the adjacent dimer and an aqua O atom, resulting in a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry. The layers are held together by O—H...N hydrogen bonds in which coordinated water O atoms act as donors and ligand hetero-ring N atoms as acceptors.

  10. Thermodynamical string fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nadine [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Sjöstrand, Torbjörn [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden)

    2017-01-31

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.

  11. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  12. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots.

  13. Spectroscopic Characterization of Aqua [ fac-Tc(CO)3]+ Complexes at High Ionic Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Hall, Gabriel B; Engelhard, Mark H; Du, Yingge; Washton, Nancy M; Lukens, Wayne W; Lee, Sungsik; Pearce, Carolyn I; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2018-06-05

    Understanding fundamental Tc chemistry is important to both the remediation of nuclear waste and the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; however, current knowledge of the electronic structure and spectral signatures of low-valent Tc compounds significantly lags behind the remainder of the d-block elements. In particular, identification and treatment of Tc speciation in legacy nuclear waste is challenging due to the lack of reference data especially for Tc compounds in the less common oxidation states (I-VI). In an effort to establish a spectroscopic library corresponding to the relevant conditions of extremely high ionic strength typical for the legacy nuclear waste, compounds with the general formula of [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH 2 ) 3- n (OH) n ] 1- n (where n = 0-3) were examined by a range of spectroscopic techniques including 99 Tc/ 13 C NMR, IR, XPS, and XAS. In the series of monomeric aqua species, stepwise hydrolysis results in the increase of the Tc metal center electron density and corresponding progressive decrease of the Tc-C bond distances, Tc electron binding energies, and carbonyl stretching frequencies in the order [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH 2 ) 3 ] + > [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH 2 ) 2 (OH)] > [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH 2 )(OH) 2 ] - . These results correlate with established trends of the 99 Tc upfield chemical shift and carbonyl 13 C downfield chemical shift. The lone exception is [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH)] 4 which exhibits a comparatively low electron density at the metal center attributed to the μ 3 -bridging nature of the - OH ligands causing less σ-donation and no π-donation. This work also reports the first observations of these compounds by XPS and [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 Cl 3 ] 2- by XAS. The unique and distinguishable spectral features of the aqua [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 ] + complexes lay the foundation for their identification in the complex aqueous matrixes.

  14. Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

  15. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial–aquatic robotic platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-01-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire–abstract–implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial–aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots. (topical review)

  16. Thermodynamic Calculations for Systems Biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu, Rohana; Gundersen, Maria T.; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    the transamination of a pro-chiral ketone into a chiral amine (interesting in many pharmaceutical applications). Here, the products are often less energetically stable than the reactants, meaning that the reaction may be thermodynamically unfavourable. As in nature, such thermodynamically-challenged reactions can...... on the basis of kinetics. However, many of the most interesting non-natural chemical reactions which could potentially be catalysed by enzymes, are thermodynamically unfavourable and are thus limited by the equilibrium position of the reaction. A good example is the enzyme ω-transaminase, which catalyses...... be altered by coupling with other reactions. For instance, in the case of ω-transaminase, such a coupling could be with alanine dehydrogenase. Herein, the aim of this work is to identify thermodynamic bottlenecks within a multi-enzyme process, using group contribution method to calculate the Gibbs free...

  17. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of PBMR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Kadiroglu, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    The thermodynamic analysis of a PBMR is presented for various pressures and temperatures values. The design parameters of the components of the power plant are calculated and an optimum cycle for the maximum thermal efficiency is sought for. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic efficiency of solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2010-04-26

    The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics and review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators. We develop an expression for the optical thermodynamic efficiency which combines the first and second laws of thermodynamics. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. We provide examples illustrating the use of this new metric for concentrating photovoltaic systems for solar power applications, and in particular show how skewness mismatch limits the attainable optical thermodynamic efficiency.

  20. Thermodynamic origin of nonimaging optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2016-10-01

    Nonimaging optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence, in this paper, a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for the designs of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory, while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background. Much of the paper is pedagogical and retrospective. Some of the development of flowline designs will be introduced at the end and the connection between the thermodynamics and flowline design will be graphically presented. We will conclude with some speculative directions of where the ideas might lead.

  1. First principles thermodynamics of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducastelle, F.

    1993-01-01

    We present a brief report on the methods of solid state physics (electronic structure, statistical thermodynamics) that allow us to discuss the phase stability of alloys and to determine their phase diagrams. (orig.)

  2. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, G.; Seiler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H 2 . The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H 2 . An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  3. Thermodynamics from concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shavit, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The book presents a logical methodology for solving problems in the context of conservation laws and property tables or equations. The authors elucidate the terms around which thermodynamics has historically developed, such as work, heat, temperature, energy, and entropy. Using a pedagogical approach that builds from basic principles to laws and eventually corollaries of the laws, the text enables students to think in clear and correct thermodynamic terms as well as solve real engineering problems.

  4. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  5. Generalization of Gibbs Entropy and Thermodynamic Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Chul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we extend Gibbs's approach of quasi-equilibrium thermodynamic processes, and calculate the microscopic expression of entropy for general non-equilibrium thermodynamic processes. Also, we analyze the formal structure of thermodynamic relation in non-equilibrium thermodynamic processes.

  6. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing ‘free’ creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  7. Hemoglobin levels and quality of life in patients with symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia: the eAQUA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouysset JL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Loup Mouysset,1 Beata Freier,2 Joan van den Bosch,3 Charles Briac Levaché,4 Alain Bols,5 Hans Werner Tessen,6 Laura Belton,7 G Chet Bohac,8 Jan-Henrik Terwey,9 Giuseppe Tonini101Department of Medical Oncology, Clinique Rambot Provencale, Aix en Provence, France; 2Clinical Oncology, Wojewodzki Szpital Specjalistyczny, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Internal Medicine/Oncology, Albert Schweitzer Ziekenhuis locatie Dordwijk, Dordrecht, the Netherlands; 4Radiotherapy Service, Medical Oncology, Polyclinique Francheville, Périgueux, France; 5Central Pharmacy, AZ Sint-Jan Brugge-Oostende AV, Brugge, Belgium; 6Private Oncology Practice. Goslar, Germany; 7LB Biostatistics, London, UK; 8Clinical Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 9Medical Development – Oncology, Amgen (Europe GmbH, Zug, Switzerland; 10Department of Medical Oncology, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Roma, ItalyPurpose: To assess hemoglobin (Hb outcomes and fatigue-related quality-of-life (QoL (electronic assessment in patients with solid tumors and symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy and darbepoetin alfa (DA or another erythropoiesis-stimulating agent according to European indication.Methods: eAQUA was a Phase IV prospective observational study. The primary outcome (assessed in the primary analysis set [PAS]: patients receiving one or more DA dose who had baseline and week 9 assessments for Hb and QoL was the proportion of patients receiving DA having both Hb increases ≥1 g/dL and improved QoL between baseline and week 9. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F subscale scores were anchored to fatigue visual analog scale scores to determine the minimally important difference for improved QoL. Overall data/data over time are reported for the full analysis set (patients receiving one or more erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose, n=1,158; week 9 data (ie, data relating to the primary and secondary outcomes are reported

  8. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  9. Design of thermodynamic experiments and analyses of thermodynamic relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezer Arnas, A.

    2009-01-01

    In teaching of thermodynamics, a certain textbook is followed internationally whatever language it is written in. However, although some do a very good job, most are not correct and precise and furthermore NONE discuss at all the need for and importance of designing thermodynamic experiments although experimentation in engineering is considered to be the back bone of analyses, not pursued much these days, or numerical studies, so very predominant these days. Here some thermodynamic experiments along with physical interpretation of phenomena through simple mathematics will be discussed that are straightforward, meaningful and which can be performed by any undergraduate/graduate student. Another important topic for discussion is the fact that the thermodynamic state principle demands uniqueness of results. It has been found in literature that this fact is not well understood by those who attempt to apply it loosely and end up with questionable results. Thermodynamics is the fundamental science that clarifies all these issues if well understood, applied and interpreted. The attempt of this paper is to clarify these situations and offer alternative methods for analyses. (author)

  10. Chemical Thermodynamics Vol. 12 - Chemical Thermodynamics of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamsjaeger, Heinz; GAJDA, Tamas; Sangster, James; Saxena, Surendra K.; Voigt, Wolfgang; Perrone, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This is the 12th volume of a series of expert reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of key chemical elements in nuclear technology and waste management. This volume is devoted to the inorganic species and compounds of tin. The tables contained in Chapters III and IV list the currently selected thermodynamic values within the NEA TDB Project. The database system developed at the NEA Data Bank, see Section II.6, assures consistency among all the selected and auxiliary data sets. The recommended thermodynamic data are the result of a critical assessment of published information. The values in the auxiliary data set, see Tables IV-1 and IV-2, have been adopted from CODATA key values or have been critically reviewed in this or earlier volumes of the series

  11. Thermodynamic Database for Zirconium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerlerud Perez, Rosa

    2003-05-01

    For many decades zirconium alloys have been commonly used in the nuclear power industry as fuel cladding material. Besides their good corrosion resistance and acceptable mechanical properties the main reason of using these alloys is the low neutron absorption. Zirconium alloys are exposed to a very severe environment during the nuclear fission process and there is a demand for better design of this material. To meet this requirement a thermodynamic database is developed to support material designers. In this thesis some aspects about the development of a thermodynamic database for zirconium alloys are presented. A thermodynamic database represents an important facility in applying thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for a given material providing: 1) relevant information about the thermodynamic properties of the alloys e.g. enthalpies, activities, heat capacity, and 2) significant information for the manufacturing process e.g. heat treatment temperature. The basic information in the database is first the unary data, i.e. pure elements; those are taken from the compilation of the Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE) and then the binary and ternary systems. All phases present in those binary and ternary systems are described by means of the Gibbs energy dependence on composition and temperature. Many of those binary systems have been taken from published or unpublished works and others have been assessed in the present work. All the calculations have been made using Thermo C alc software and the representation of the Gibbs energy obtained by applying Calphad technique

  12. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Aqua satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a scientific instrument (radiometer) launched by NASA in 2002 on board the Aqua satellite platform (a...

  13. AIRS/Aqua L3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRX3STD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  14. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 CO2 support retrieval (AIRS-only) V005 (AIRS2SPC) at GES DISC) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  15. AIRS/Aqua L3 Monthly Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) 5 degrees x 5 degrees V006 (AIRX3QPM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  16. Model of recreational and training sessions based on the use of funds aqua professionally applied in the preparation of students of economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Petrenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : study, develop and test a model of health-training exercises with the use of aqua. Material: in the experiment involved 69 students aged 17-18 years. Results : It was found that the developed model has a positive effect on physical performance of students promotes adaptive processes to the future professional activity and improve the learning process. Should consider the following: 1 the means and methods should be adequate aqua morphofunctional features and enhance the activity of the cardiovascular system, general endurance, power capabilities, flexibility, neurobehavioral performance, and 2 as a means of aqua aerobic exercise is advisable to use orientation and moderate intensity, and 3 use tools and techniques aqua should foster interest in a systematic and independent physical activities. Conclusions : the model promotes the development and improvement of the skills and abilities necessary to the future experts in economics.

  17. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B AMSU (A1/A2) geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  18. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  19. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMMYDCLD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  20. Determination of gold of No. 501 uranium deposits and soil samples by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Maogen; Yao Liying.

    1989-01-01

    The gold determination method is described by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal and presents the results obtained in determining gold of uranium deposits and soil samples

  1. Harmful Algal Blooms in the Mississippi Sound and Mobile Bay: Using MODIS Aqua and In Situ Data for HABs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holiday, Dan; Carter, Gregory; Gould, Richard W; MacIntyre, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    ... 2006 along wi concurrent MODIS Aqua weekly composite or same-day imagery. In situ or satellite-derived water properties included surface temperature, salinity, Chla, TSS, CDOM, and nutrient levels...

  2. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) geolocated and calibrated radiances V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  3. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) quality assurance subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  4. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2013-01-10

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  5. AquaDiva: Understanding the Link between the Surface and Subsurface Biogeosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, S.; Küsel, K.; Totsche, K. U.; Schwab, V.; Herrmann, M.; Nowak, M. E.; Gleixner, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the collaborative research project AquaDiva, we combine hydrogeochemical, metagemonic and biogeochemical tools to understand how the complex interactions between geologic setting and surface land use influence the function and biodiversity of the subsurface, especially ground water ecosystems. At the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory in central Germany, we investigate soil and seepage waters in recharge areas and aquifers in a fractured limestone setting characterized by a dynamic water infiltration regime. Within the Exploratory, we have so far identified three distinct biogeochemical zones in which land use and lithologic differences combine to give rise to surprisingly different biotic communities and hydrogeochemical properties with different degrees of connection to the surface. Here we will focus on how we have combined carbon isotopic, organic biomarkers such as phospholipid fatty acids, and `omics' approaches to determine (i) how deep soil-borne microorganisms can be traced into the subsurface, and (ii) which energy sources sustain microbial life in oligotrophic limestone aquifers. With increasing travel distance to the surface, there is a decline in the abundance of microbes, with less than 5% of the taxa identified overlapping with those identified in the soils. Dissolved organic matter also is altered as it passes through soils, demonstrating an overall increase in molecular weight and a change in molecular makeup as well as radiocarbon content. Using the radiocarbon signature (corrected for the influence of carbonate dissolution), as a way to identify if organic C is being supplied recently by plants, atmosphere sources of energy for communities within the aquifer differ for the identified biogeochemical zones and include (i) dominance of inputs of fresh organic carbon from the surface feeding heterotrophy in oxygenic environments; (ii) CO2 fixation linked to nitrogen and sulfur cycling in anoxic environments and (iii) rock-derived organic matter

  6. Validation of AquaCrop Model for Simulation of Winter Wheat Yield and Water Use Efficiency under Simultaneous Salinity and Water Stress

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mohammadi; B. Ghahraman; K. Davary; H. Ansari; A. Shahidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: FAO AquaCrop model (Raes et al., 2009a; Steduto et al., 2009) is a user-friendly and practitioner oriented type of model, because it maintains an optimal balance between accuracy, robustness, and simplicity; and it requires a relatively small number of model input parameters. The FAO AquaCrop model predicts crop productivity, water requirement, and water use efficiency under water-limiting and saline water conditions. This model has been tested and validated for different crops ...

  7. Evaluation of monthwise and overall trends of AOD over Indian cities using MODIS Aqua and Terra retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subhasis; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to have profound impact on climate system and human health. Regular and systematic monitoring of ambient air is thus necessary in order to asses its impact. There are several ground based stations worldwide employed in this service but still their numbers are inadequate and it is even almost impossible to have such stations at difficult geographical terrains and take measurement throughout the year. Aerosol optical depth or AOD, which is a measure of extinction of incoming solar radiation, serves as proxy to atmospheric aerosol loading. Various sensors onboard different satellites take routine measurement of AOD throughout the year. Satellite based AOD is used in many studies due to their wide coverage and availability for a longer time period. Satellite measures reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Column integrated value of aerosol are routinely estimated from those measurements using suitable inversion algorithms. MODIS instrument onboard Aqua and Terra satellites of Earth Observing System takes routine measurement in wide spectral range. We used those data to evaluate trend of AOD over almost fifty Indian cities having population more than a million. The cities we have chosen spread over almost entire length and breadth of the country. Few such studies have already been conducted using MODIS data. They typically used level 3 data. Since Level 3 data comes in 1x 1 degree gridded form they provide average value over a vast geographical region. We used level 2 dataset to enable us taking smaller region(1/2 x 1/2 degree here) centering the region of our interest . We used seasonal Mann-Kendall (M-K) statistics coupled with Sen's non-parametric slope estimation procedure to estimate monthwise and overall(i.e., yearly trend taking seasonality into account) AOD trend. We used median AOD for each month of every year to discard very high AOD's which we often get due to cloud contamination. Seasonal M-K test takes

  8. Two MODIS Aerosol Products over Ocean on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Wielicki, Bruce; Miller, Walter; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Tanré, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika

    2005-04-01

    Understanding the impact of aerosols on the earth's radiation budget and the long-term climate record requires consistent measurements of aerosol properties and radiative fluxes. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Science Team combines satellite-based retrievals of aerosols, clouds, and radiative fluxes into Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets from the Terra and Aqua satellites. Over ocean, two aerosol products are derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) using different sampling and aerosol algorithms. The primary, or M, product is taken from the standard multispectral aerosol product developed by the MODIS aerosol group while a simpler, secondary [Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) like], or A, product is derived by the CERES Science Team using a different cloud clearing method and a single-channel aerosol algorithm. Two aerosol optical depths (AOD), τA1 and τA2, are derived from MODIS bands 1 (0.644 μm) and 6 (1.632 μm) resembling the AVHRR/3 channels 1 and 3A, respectively. On Aqua the retrievals are made in band 7 (2.119 μm) because of poor quality data from band 6. The respective Ångström exponents can be derived from the values of τ. The A product serves as a backup for the M product. More importantly, the overlap of these aerosol products is essential for placing the 20+ year heritage AVHRR aerosol record in the context of more advanced aerosol sensors and algorithms such as that used for the M product.This study documents the M and A products, highlighting their CERES SSF specifics. Based on 2 weeks of global Terra data, coincident M and A AODs are found to be strongly correlated in both bands. However, both domains in which the M and A aerosols are available, and the respective τ/α statistics significantly differ because of discrepancies in sampling due to differences in cloud and sun-glint screening. In both aerosol products, correlation is observed between the retrieved

  9. The AquaVIT-1 intercomparison of atmospheric water vapor measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schiller, C.; Ebert, V.; Krämer, M.; Peter, T.; Amarouche, N.; Avallone, L. M.; Bauer, R.; Bozóki, Z.; Christensen, L. E.; Davis, S. M.; Durry, G.; Dyroff, C.; Herman, R. L.; Hunsmann, S.; Khaykin, S. M.; Mackrodt, P.; Meyer, J.; Smith, J. B.; Spelten, N.; Troy, R. F.; Vömel, H.; Wagner, S.; Wienhold, F. G.

    2014-09-01

    The AquaVIT-1 intercomparison of atmospheric water vapor measurement techniques was conducted at the aerosol and cloud simulation chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, in October 2007. The overall objective was to intercompare state-of-the-art and prototype atmospheric hygrometers with each other and with independent humidity standards under controlled conditions. This activity was conducted as a blind intercomparison with coordination by selected referees. The effort was motivated by persistent discrepancies found in atmospheric measurements involving multiple instruments operating on research aircraft and balloon platforms, particularly in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, where water vapor reaches its lowest atmospheric values (less than 10 ppm). With the AIDA chamber volume of 84 m3, multiple instruments analyzed air with a common water vapor mixing ratio, by extracting air into instrument flow systems, by locating instruments inside the chamber, or by sampling the chamber volume optically. The intercomparison was successfully conducted over 10 days during which pressure, temperature, and mixing ratio were systematically varied (50 to 500 hPa, 185 to 243 K, and 0.3 to 152 ppm). In the absence of an accepted reference instrument, the absolute accuracy of the instruments was not established. To evaluate the intercomparison, the reference value was taken to be the ensemble mean of a core subset of the measurements. For these core instruments, the agreement between 10 and 150 ppm of water vapor is considered good with variation about the reference value of about ±10% (±1σ). In the region of most interest between 1 and 10 ppm, the core subset agreement is fair with variation about the reference value of ±20% (±1σ). The upper limit of precision was also derived for each instrument from the reported data. The implication for atmospheric measurements is that the

  10. The Thermodynamic Machinery of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Kurzynski, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Living organisms are open thermodynamic systems whose functional structure has developed and been kinetically frozen during the historical process of biological evolution. A thermodynamics of both nonequilibrium and complex systems is needed for their description. In this book, the foundations of such a thermodynamics are presented. Biological processes at the cellular level are considered as coupled chemical reactions and transport processes across internal and the cytoplasmic membrane. All these processes are catalyzed by specific enzymes hence the kinetics of enzymatic catalysis and its control are described here in detail. The coupling of several processes through a common enzyme is considered in the context of free energy or signal transduction. Special attention is paid to evidence for a rich stochastic internal dynamics of native proteins and its possible role in the control of enzyme activity and in the action of biological molecular machines.

  11. Complexation thermodynamics of modified cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion complexes between two bile salts and a range of differently methylated β-cyclodextrins were studied in an attempt to rationalize the complexation thermodynamics of modified cyclodextrins. Calorimetric titrations at a range of temperatures provided precise values of the enthalpies (ΔH......°), entropies (ΔS°), and heat capacities (ΔCp) of complexation, while molecular dynamics simulations assisted the interpretation of the obtained thermodynamic parameters. As previously observed for several types of modified cyclodextrins, the substituents at the rims of the cyclodextrin induced large changes......° and then a strong decrease when the degree of substitution exceeded some threshold. Exactly the same trend was observed for ΔCp. The dehydration of nonpolar surface, as quantified by the simulations, can to a large extent explain the variation in the thermodynamic parameters. The methyl substituents form additional...

  12. Thermodynamics a complete undergraduate course

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    This is an undergraduate textbook in thermodynamics—the science of heat, work, temperature, and entropy. The text presents thermodynamics in and of itself, as an elegant and powerful set of ideas and methods. These methods open the way to understanding a very wide range of phenomena in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. Starting out from an introduction of concepts at first year undergraduate level, the roles of temperature, internal energy, and entropy are explained via the laws of thermodynamics. The text employs a combination of examples, exercises, and careful discussion, with a view to conveying the feel of the subject as well as avoiding common misunderstandings. The Feynman–Smuluchowski ratchet, Szilard’s engine, and Maxwell’s daemon are used to elucidate entropy and the second law. Free energy and thermodynamic potentials are discussed at length, with applications to solids as well as fluids and flow processes. Thermal radiation is discussed, and the main ideas significant to global...

  13. Nanofluidics thermodynamic and transport properties

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2014-01-01

    This volume offers a comprehensive examination of the subject of heat and mass transfer with nanofluids as well as a critical review of the past and recent research projects in this area. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of the transport processes using particle-fluid suspensions, such as nanofluids. The nanofluid research is examined and presented in a holistic way using a great deal of our experience with the subjects of continuum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of transport processes. Using a thorough database, the experimental, analytical, and numerical advances of recent research in nanofluids are critically examined and connected to past research with medium and fine particles as well as to functional engineering systems. Promising applications and technological issues of heat/mass transfer system design with nanofluids are also discussed. This book also: Provides a deep scientific analysis of nanofluids using classical thermodynamics and statistical therm...

  14. Development of Thermodynamic Conceptual Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaeb, P.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2010-07-01

    This research aims to develop a test for assessing student understanding of fundamental principles in thermodynamics. Misconceptions found from previous physics education research were used to develop the test. Its topics include heat and temperature, the zeroth and the first law of thermodynamics, and the thermodynamics processes. The content validity was analyzed by three physics experts. Then the test was administered to freshmen, sophomores and juniors majored in physics in order to determine item difficulties and item discrimination of the test. A few items were eliminated from the test. Finally, the test will be administered to students taking Physics I course in order to evaluate the effectiveness of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations that will be used for the first time at Chiang Mai University.

  15. Statistical thermodynamics of clustered populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsoukas, Themis

    2014-08-01

    We present a thermodynamic theory for a generic population of M individuals distributed into N groups (clusters). We construct the ensemble of all distributions with fixed M and N, introduce a selection functional that embodies the physics that governs the population, and obtain the distribution that emerges in the scaling limit as the most probable among all distributions consistent with the given physics. We develop the thermodynamics of the ensemble and establish a rigorous mapping to regular thermodynamics. We treat the emergence of a so-called giant component as a formal phase transition and show that the criteria for its emergence are entirely analogous to the equilibrium conditions in molecular systems. We demonstrate the theory by an analytic model and confirm the predictions by Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. Validation of JAXA/MODIS Sea Surface Temperature in Water around Taiwan Using the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-An Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research vessel-based Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD provides underwater measurements of the bulk sea surface temperature (SST at the depths of shallower than 5 m. The CTD observations of the seas around Taiwan provide useful data for comparison with SST of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers aboard Aqua and Terra satellites archived by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. We produce a high-resolution (1 km MODIS SST by using Multi-Channel SST (MCSST algorithm. There were 1516 cloud-free match-up data pairs of MODIS SST and in situ measurements during the period from 2003 - 2005. The difference of the root mean square error (RMSE of satellite observations from each platform during the day and at night was: 0.88°C in Aqua daytime, 0.71°C in Aqua nighttime, 0.71°C in Terra daytime, and 0.60°C in Terra nighttime. The total analysis of MODIS-derived SST shows good agreement with a bias of 0.03°C and RMSE of 0.75°C. The analyses indicate that the bias of Aqua daytime was always positive throughout the year and the large RMSE should be attributed to the large positive bias (0.45°C under diurnal warming. It was also found that the bias of Terra daytime was usually negative with a mean bias of -0.41°C; its large RMSE should be treated with care because of low solar radiation in the morning.

  17. Microbiology of healing mud (fango) from Roman Thermae Aquae Iasae Archaeological Site (Varaždinske Toplice, Croatia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mulec, J.; Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Oarga, A.; Scharfen, J.; Šestauberová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2015), s. 293-306 ISSN 0095-3628 Grant - others:Slovenian Research Agency(SI) J6-0152; Slovenian Research Agency(SI) P6-0119; Slovenian Research Agency(SI) L1-5453 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microbiology * healing mud * Roman Thermae Aquae Iasae Archaeological Site * Varaždinske Toplice Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.232, year: 2015

  18. Volatile organic compounds released from Microcystis flos-aquae under nitrogen sources and their toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinghuan; Yang, Lin; Yang, Wangting; Bai, Yan; Hou, Ping; Zhao, Jingxian; Zhou, Lv; Zuo, Zhaojiang

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication promotes massive growth of cyanobacteria and algal blooms, which can poison other algae and reduce biodiversity. To investigate the differences in multiple nitrogen (N) sources in eutrophicated water on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cyanobacteria, and their toxic effects on other algal growth, we analyzed VOCs emitted from Microcystis flos-aquae with different types and concentrations of nitrogen, and determined the effects under Normal-N and Non-N conditions on Chlorella vulgaris. M. flos-aquae released 27, 22, 20, 27, 19, 25 and 17 compounds, respectively, with NaNO 3 , NaNO 2 , NH 4 Cl, urea, Ser, Lys and Arg as the sole N source. With the reduction in N amount, the emission of VOCs was increased markedly, and the most VOCs were found under Non-N condition. C. vulgaris cell propagation, photosynthetic pigment and Fv/Fm declined significantly following exposure to M. flos-aquae VOCs under Non-N condition, but not under Normal-N condition. When C. vulgaris cells were treated with two terpenoids, eucalyptol and limonene, the inhibitory effects were enhanced with increasing concentrations. Therefore, multiple N sources in eutrophicated water induce different VOC emissions from cyanobacteria, and reduction in N can cause nutrient competition, which can result in emissions of more VOCs. Those VOCs released from M. flos-aquae cells under Non-N for nutrient competition can inhibit other algal growth. Among those VOCs, eucalyptol and limonene are the major toxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pemurnian Silika Pada Abu Layang Dari Pembangkit Listrik Di Paiton (PT YTL) Dengan Pelarutan Asam Klorida Dan Aqua Regia

    OpenAIRE

    Anggia, Denida Mega; Suprapto, Suprapto

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian mengenai pemurnian silika melalui pelarutan menggunakan asam klorida (HCl) dan aqua regia pada abu layang yang berasal dari PT YTL, Paiton, telah dilakukan.Parameter yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah konsentrasi asam dan waktu pelarutan HCl. Pengaruh pelarutan unsur Fe, Ca, dan Al dari sampel juga diteliti.Dari hasil XRD abu layang, terkandung mineral quartz, mullite, hematite dan kalsium oksida. Kondisi paling baik pada saat pelarutan sampel adalah menggunakan pelarutan a...

  20. Thermodynamics of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.

    1983-01-01

    The conversion of nuclear energy to useful work follows essentially the same course as the conversion of thermal energy from fossil fuel to work. The thermal energy released in the reactor core is first transferred to the primary coolant which then generally transfers its heat to a secondary fluid. The secondary fluid serves as the working fluid in a heat engine. In this chapter the authors briefly examine the thermodynamic principles governing the operation of such engines, the major thermodynamic cycles used, and their application to nuclear power plants

  1. Thermodynamics of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion of nuclear energy to useful work follows essentially the same course as the conversion of thermal energy from fossil fuel to work. The thermal energy released in the reactor core is first transferred to the primary coolant which then generally transfers its heat to a secondary fluid. The secondary fluid serves as the working fluid in a heat engine. The author briefly examines the thermodynamic principles governing the operation of such engines, the major thermodynamic cycles used, and their application to nuclear power plants. (Auth.)

  2. Placement by thermodynamic simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Juan de; Lanchares, Juan; Hermida, Roman

    2003-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization problems arise in different fields of science and engineering. There exist some general techniques coping with these problems such as simulated annealing (SA). In spite of SA success, it usually requires costly experimental studies in fine tuning the most suitable annealing schedule. In this Letter, the classical integrated circuit placement problem is faced by Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA). TSA provides a new annealing schedule derived from thermodynamic laws. Unlike SA, temperature in TSA is free to evolve and its value is continuously updated from the variation of state functions as the internal energy and entropy. Thereby, TSA achieves the high quality results of SA while providing interesting adaptive features

  3. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects...... numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments....

  4. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lejček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary segregation, their dependence on volume solid solubility, mutual solute–solute interaction and pressure effect in ferrous alloys is demonstrated.

  5. Thermodynamics of de Sitter universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chaoguang; Liu Liao; Wang Bobo

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the first law of thermodynamics can be applied to the de Sitter universe to relate its vacuum energy, pressure, entropy of horizon, chemical potential, etc., when the cosmological constant changes due to the fluctuation of the vacuum or other reasons. The second law should be reformulated in the form that the spontaneous decay of the vacuum never makes the entropy of the de Sitter universe decrease. The third law of thermodynamics, applying to the de Sitter universe, implies that the cosmological constant cannot reach zero by finite physical processes. The relation to the holographic principle is also briefly discussed

  6. Nuclear thermodynamics below particle threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Bagheri, A.; Chankova, R.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Voinov, A.

    2005-01-01

    From a starting point of experimentally measured nuclear level densities, we discuss thermodynamical properties of nuclei below the particle emission threshold. Since nuclei are essentially mesoscopic systems, a straightforward generalization of macroscopic ensemble theory often yields unphysical results. A careful critique of traditional thermodynamical concepts reveals problems commonly encountered in mesoscopic systems. One of which is the fact that microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory yield different results, another concerns the introduction of temperature for small, closed systems. Finally, the concept of phase transitions is investigated for mesoscopic systems

  7. Peaceful nuclear explosions and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Some theoretical advances in the thermodynamics of very high pressures are reviewed. A universal (system-independent) formulation of the thermodynamics is sketched, and some of the equations more frequently used are written in system-independent form. Among these equations are: Hugoniot pressure and temperature as functions of volume; the Mie-Gruneisen equation; and an explicit form for the equation of state. It is also shown that this formalism can be used to interpret and predict results from peaceful nuclear explosions. (author)

  8. Assessment of FAO AquaCrop Model for Simulating Maize Growth and Productivity under Deficit Irrigation in a Tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneille E. Greaves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop simulation models have a pivotal role to play in evaluating irrigation management strategies for improving agricultural water use. The objective of this study was to test and validate the AquaCrop model for maize under deficit irrigation management. Field observations from three experiments consisting of four treatments were used to evaluate model performance in simulating canopy cover (CC, biomass (B, yield (Y, crop evapotranspiration (ETc, and water use efficiency (WUE. Statistics for root mean square error, model efficiency (E, and index of agreement for B and CC suggest that the model prediction is good under non-stressed and moderate stress environments. Prediction of final B and Y under these conditions was acceptable, as indicated by the high coefficient of determination and deviations <10%. In severely stressed conditions, low E and deviations >11% for B and 9% for Y indicate a reduction in the model reliability. Simulated ETc and WUE deviation from observed values were within the range of 9.5% to 22.2% and 6.0% to 32.2%, respectively, suggesting that AquaCrop prediction of these variables is fair, becoming unsatisfactory as plant water stress intensifies. AquaCrop can be reliably used for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed irrigation management strategies for maize; however, the limitations should be kept in mind when interpreting the results in severely stressed conditions.

  9. AquaSAXS: a web server for computation and fitting of SAXS profiles with non-uniformally hydrated atomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Frédéric; Orland, Henri; Doniach, Sebastian; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) techniques are becoming more and more useful for structural biologists and biochemists, thanks to better access to dedicated synchrotron beamlines, better detectors and the relative easiness of sample preparation. The ability to compute the theoretical SAXS profile of a given structural model, and to compare this profile with the measured scattering intensity, yields crucial structural informations about the macromolecule under study and/or its complexes in solution. An important contribution to the profile, besides the macromolecule itself and its solvent-excluded volume, is the excess density due to the hydration layer. AquaSAXS takes advantage of recently developed methods, such as AquaSol, that give the equilibrium solvent density map around macromolecules, to compute an accurate SAXS/WAXS profile of a given structure and to compare it to the experimental one. Here, we describe the interface architecture and capabilities of the AquaSAXS web server (http://lorentz.dynstr.pasteur.fr/aquasaxs.php). PMID:21665925

  10. Three-dimensionally spiral structure of the water stream induced by a centrifugal stirrer in large aqua-cultural ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, Tomoaki; Inagaki, Taishi; Nakamura, Choji; Sugihara-Seki, Masako; Hyodo, Jinsuke

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted measurements of the water stream produced by a mechanical stirrer (diameter 2.4[m], electric power 50[W]) located in shallow rectangular reservoirs (small 0.7[ha], large 3.7[ha]), which may be employed as a cost-efficient aerator for the aqua-cultural purpose, with the aid of both particle tracking velocimetry by passive tracers floating on the surface and direct measurement by electro-magnetic velocimeter under the surface. The present measurements indicate that the stirrer drives primarily the horizontally rotating water stream and secondarily the vertical convection between the surface and the bottom of the reservoir, which results in the three-dimensionally spiral-shaped water streams scaled vertically by just a meter but horizontally by more than ten meters. It is suggested that the spiral structure driven by the stirrer may activate the underwater vertical mixing and enhance dissolved oxygen at the bottom of aqua-cultural pond more effectively than the paddle-wheel aerators commonly used in aqua-cultural ponds. This research was financially supported in part by the Kansai University Fund for Supporting Young Scholars, 2016-2017.

  11. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, B S; Marchini, A; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Minchin, D; Narščius, A; Ojaveer, H; Olenin, S

    2014-04-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present.

  12. Condition of red tide appearance in Wakasa Bay based on Terra, Aqua/MODIS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Oya, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Since June, 2004, studies on triggering factors of the red tide have been carried out in Awara Space Radio Observatory (ASRO), Fukui University of Technology utilizing directly received data of MODIS on the Terra and Aqua satellites which have been acquired in ASRO. Preliminary results of the data analyses for the period from July, 2001 to April, 2005 indicate conditions, for the appearance of the red tide bloom in Wakasa bay as follows: (1) the threshold amount of chlorophyll-a is close to 1.5mg/m 3, (2) the range of sea surface temperature (SST) is limited in a range from 12 to 20 °C and (3) the period of sunlit time in spring is also a significantly sensitive factor. We propose here to utilize MODIS band1 images corresponding to a red band with spatial resolution of 250m together with NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) images which has also spatial resolution of 250m, for the confirmation of the red tide. The problem of coincidence between colored region due to SS (Suspended Sediment) and red tide region using only band1 of MODIS, has been solved by using NDVI images in addition to band1 images together as two dimensional diagram.

  13. Variability of particulate organic carbon in inland waters observed from MODIS Aqua imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Hongtao; Ma, Ronghua; Zhang, Yuchao; Feng, Lian; Arthur Loiselle, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Surface concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC) in shallow inland lakes were estimated using MODIS Aqua data. A power regression model of the direct empirical relationship between POC and the atmospherically Rayleigh-corrected MODIS product (R rc,645 -R rc,1240 )/(R rc,859 -R rc,1240 ) was developed (R 2  = 0.72, RMSE = 35.86 μgL −1 , p < 0.0001, N = 47) and validated (RMSE = 44.46 μgL −1 , N = 16) with field data from 56 lakes in the Middle and Lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. This algorithm was applied to an 11 year series of MODIS data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of POC in a wide range of lakes with different trophic and optical properties. The results indicate that there is a general increase in minimum POC concentrations in lakes from middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The temporal dynamics of springtime POC in smaller lakes were found to be influenced by local meteorological conditions, in particular precipitation and wind speed, while larger lakes were found to be more sensitive to air temperature. (letter)

  14. Enhancement and evaluation of an algorithm for atmospheric profiling continuity from Aqua to Suomi-NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, A.; Moncet, J. L.; Payne, V.; Lynch, R.; Polonsky, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    We will present recent results from an algorithm for producing climate-quality atmospheric profiling earth system data records (ESDRs) for application to data from hyperspectral sounding instruments, including the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on EOS Aqua and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi-NPP, along with their companion microwave sounders, AMSU and ATMS, respectively. The ESDR algorithm uses an optimal estimation approach and the implementation has a flexible, modular software structure to support experimentation and collaboration. Data record continuity benefits from the fact that the same algorithm can be applied to different sensors, simply by providing suitable configuration and data files. Developments to be presented include the impact of a radiance-based pre-classification method for the atmospheric background. In addition to improving retrieval performance, pre-classification has the potential to reduce the sensitivity of the retrievals to the climatological data from which the background estimate and its error covariance are derived. We will also discuss evaluation of a method for mitigating the effect of clouds on the radiances, and enhancements of the radiative transfer forward model.

  15. Background Noises Versus Intraseasonal Variation Signals: Small vs. Large Convective Cloud Objects From CERES Aqua Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2015-01-01

    During inactive phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data from Aqua CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) observations between July 2006 and June 2010 for tropical deep convective (DC) and cirrostratus (CS) cloud object types according to the real-time multivariate MJO index, which assigns the tropics to one of the eight MJO phases each day. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The criteria for defining these cloud types are overcast footprints and cloud top pressures less than 400 hPa, but DC has higher cloud optical depths (=10) than those of CS (background noises resulting from various types of the tropical waves with different wavenumbers and propagation speeds/directions.

  16. MODIS Aqua Optical Throughput Degradation Impact on Relative Spectral Response and Calibration on Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shihyan; Meister, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Since Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua's launch in 2002, the radiometric system gains of the reflective solar bands have been degrading, indicating changes in the systems optical throughput. To estimate the optical throughput degradation, the electronic gain changes were estimated and removed from the measured system gain. The derived optical throughput degradation shows a rate that is much faster in the shorter wavelengths than the longer wavelengths. The wavelength-dependent optical throughput degradation modulated the relative spectral response (RSR) of the bands. In addition, the optical degradation is also scan angle-dependent due to large changes in response versus the scan angle over time. We estimated the modulated RSR as a function of time and scan angles and its impacts on sensor radiometric calibration for the ocean science. Our results show that the calibration bias could be up to 1.8 % for band 8 (412 nm) due to its larger out-of-band response. For the other ocean bands, the calibration biases are much smaller with magnitudes at least one order smaller.

  17. Research and development in heavy and extra heavy oil upgrading in PDVSA-Intevep: aqua conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Pedro; Machin, Ivan; Salerno, Gladys; Cotte, Edgar; Higuerey, Ingrid; Andriollo, Antida; Cordova, Jose; Zacarias, Luis; Marzin, Roger; Rivas, Guaicaipuro

    1999-01-01

    After twenty five years of Intevep's creation, is now a good time to revise, from a technical and conceptual perspective, some of the ideas developed in one of the activities that this institution has more persistently sustained. The referred activity targets at the generation of new processes for the upgrading of the bitumen or extra heavy crude oils that Venezuela possesses. This revision concludes in an eclectic synthesis method for the selection and harmonization of the various different advances made through the research performed on processes such as HDH, coking, visbreaking, partial or selective steam reforming and others. Thus, from conceptually different research perspectives a new PDVSA's process already known as as aqua conversion has been assembled. The deepening in the use of this methodology may lead to other new and better upgrading technologies or to improve the existing for the same. All this keeping in mind that whatever these technologies are proprietary or from third parties is of low relevance in front of the mayor objective of commercializing the wide extra heavy oil reservoirs of this country

  18. Molecular Biological Study of Anti-cancer Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chan-Yol

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available To study anti-cancer effect and molecular biological mechanism of bee venom for aqua-acupuncture, the effects of bee venom on cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed using MTT assay, tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, flow cytometric analysis, and activity of caspase-3 protease activity assay. To explore whether anti-cancer effects of bee venom are associated with the transcriptional control of gene expression, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of apoptosis-related genes was performed. The obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. The MTT assay demonstrated that cell viability was decreased by bee venom in a dose-dependant manner. 2. Significant induction of apoptosis was identified using tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, and flow cytometric analysis of sub G1 fraction. 3. In analysis of caspase-3 protease activity, the activity had increased significantly, in a dose-dependant manner. 4. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the apoptosis-related genes showed that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were down-regulated whereas Bax was up-regulated by bee venom treatment.

  19. Surface Energy Balance of Fresh and Saline Waters: AquaSEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelrady

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System model for large water bodies and add the effect of water salinity to the evaporation rate. Firstly, SEBS is modified for fresh-water whereby new parameterizations of the water heat flux and sensible heat flux are suggested. This is achieved by adapting the roughness heights for momentum and heat transfer. Secondly, a salinity correction factor is integrated into the adapted model. Eddy covariance measurements over Lake IJsselmeer (The Netherlands are carried out and used to estimate the roughness heights for momentum (~0.0002 m and heat transfer (~0.0001 m. Application of these values over the Victoria and Tana lakes (freshwater in Africa showed that the calculated latent heat fluxes agree well with the measurements. The root mean-square of relative-errors (rRMSE is about 4.1% for Lake Victoria and 4.7%, for Lake Tana. Verification with ECMWF data showed that the salinity reduced the evaporation at varying levels by up to 27% in the Great Salt Lake and by 1% for open ocean. Our results show the importance of salinity to the evaporation rate and the suitability of the adapted-SEBS model (AquaSEBS for fresh and saline waters.

  20. Trends and variability of water quality in Lake Tana, Ethiopia using MODIS-Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, N. M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Monger, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    Determining long-term water quality trends and variability in remote inland lakes has been challenging due to a lack of continuous in situ measurements. Utilizing ocean color remote sensing techniques for these lakes is difficult due to their sizes, shapes, and optically complex waters. Lake Tana is the largest body of water in Ethiopia, and is located in the country's northwestern highlands. The lake is quite shallow, averaging at about 8 meters depth, and is characteristically turbid due to nearby land degradation and high soil erosion rates. Lake Tana is an important source of accessible water for the rapidly growing population of Ethiopia and serves as the headwaters for the Blue Nile. Therefore, understanding water quality trends and seasonal variation over the past decade is essential to better preparing for future water needs. Here we use MODIS-Aqua data spanning years 2002-2016 to investigate these trends and variability in Lake Tana, where in situ measurements are limited. Daily water quality products were first processed using SeaDAS and then aggregated by month and year for analyses. Frequent cloud cover in the June, July, and August (JJA) rainy season due to monsoon and zonal dynamics presents an obstacle for obtaining mean lake values during these months. We also performed analyses on targeted regions of Lake Tana to determine whether some of the major tributaries and their corresponding watersheds have more influence on observed trends than others.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Tetrakis-aqua-bis-isonicotin-amide(itmd)nickel(II) Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardjo, S. B.; Hastuti, S.; Amanati, N.; Syaima, H.

    2018-03-01

    The complex of Tetrakis-aqua-bis-(isonicotinamide)nickel(II) sulfate has been synthesized in 1:2 mole ratio of metal to ligands in methanol. The formula of the complex predicted from analysis nickel content in the complex by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was Ni(itmd)2SO4(H2O)4. The conductivity of the complex in methanol was measured by conductivity meter correspond to 1:1 electrolyte. Thermal analysis of the complex was determined by Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA) indicating that the complex contains four H2O molecules as ligands. The magnetic susceptibility measurement showed that the complex was paramagnetic with μeff = 3.02 BM. The electronic spectra of the complex appear due to two transition peak on λ = 398 nm and 664 nm. The Infrared spectra showed a shift of NH2 stretching vibration of Ni(itmd)2SO4(H2O)4. These facts indicated that these functional groups were coordinated to the center ion of the complexes. The proposed structure of the complex was octahedral therefore the possibility formula of this complex was [Ni(itmd)2(H2O)4]SO4.

  2. Comparison of chlorophyll in the Red Sea derived from MODIS-Aqua and in vivo fluorescence

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J W

    2013-09-01

    The Red Sea is a unique marine environment but relatively unexplored. The only available long-term biological dataset at large spatial and temporal scales is remotely-sensed chlorophyll observations (an index of phytoplankton biomass) derived using satellite measurements of ocean colour. Yet such observations have rarely been compared with in situ data in the Red Sea. In this paper, satellite chlorophyll estimates in the Red Sea from the MODIS instrument onboard the Aqua satellite are compared with three recent cruises of in vivo fluorometric chlorophyll measurements taken in October 2008, March 2010 and September to October 2011. The performance of the standard NASA chlorophyll algorithm, and that of a new band-difference algorithm, is found to be comparable with other oligotrophic regions in the global ocean, supporting the use of satellite ocean colour in the Red Sea. However, given the unique environmental conditions of the study area, regional algorithms are likely to fare better and this is demonstrated through a simple adjustment to the band-difference algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Multi-pressure boiler thermodynamics analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzoni, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new method and the relative FORTRAN program for the thermodynamics design analysis of a multipressure boiler are reported. This method permits the thermodynamics design optimization with regard to total exergy production and a preliminary costs

  4. THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES ON THE CHARGE-TRANSFER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... technique was employed to investigate thermodynamic parameters associated with the interaction ... KEY WORDS: Amitriptyline , chloranilic acid, thermodynamic parameters. Global Jnl Pure & Applied Sciences Vol.10(1) 2004: 147-153 ...

  5. On thermodynamic limits of entropy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriya, H; Van Enter, A

    We give some sufficient conditions which guarantee that the entropy density in the thermodynamic limit is equal to the thermodynamic limit of the entropy densities of finite-volume (local) Gibbs states.

  6. Quantum and thermodynamic aspects of Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande e Lemos, J.P. de; Videira, A.L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The main results originating from the attempts of trying to incorporate quantum and thermodynamic properties and concepts to the gravitational system black hole, essentially the Hawking effect and the four laws of thermodynamics are reviewed. (Author) [pt

  7. Thermodynamic theory of equilibrium fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The postulational basis of classical thermodynamics has been expanded to incorporate equilibrium fluctuations. The main additional elements of the proposed thermodynamic theory are the concept of quasi-equilibrium states, a definition of non-equilibrium entropy, a fundamental equation of state in the entropy representation, and a fluctuation postulate describing the probability distribution of macroscopic parameters of an isolated system. Although these elements introduce a statistical component that does not exist in classical thermodynamics, the logical structure of the theory is different from that of statistical mechanics and represents an expanded version of thermodynamics. Based on this theory, we present a regular procedure for calculations of equilibrium fluctuations of extensive parameters, intensive parameters and densities in systems with any number of fluctuating parameters. The proposed fluctuation formalism is demonstrated by four applications: (1) derivation of the complete set of fluctuation relations for a simple fluid in three different ensembles; (2) fluctuations in finite-reservoir systems interpolating between the canonical and micro-canonical ensembles; (3) derivation of fluctuation relations for excess properties of grain boundaries in binary solid solutions, and (4) derivation of the grain boundary width distribution for pre-melted grain boundaries in alloys. The last two applications offer an efficient fluctuation-based approach to calculations of interface excess properties and extraction of the disjoining potential in pre-melted grain boundaries. Possible future extensions of the theory are outlined.

  8. Thermodynamic efficiency of nonimaging concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of a nonimaging concentrator is to transfer maximal flux from the phase space of a source to that of a target. A concentrator's performance can be expressed relative to a thermodynamic reference. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics. We review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators, especially for the photovoltaic (PV) role. We introduce the concept of optical thermodynamic efficiency which is a performance metric combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of this new metric. In particular we discuss concentrating PV systems for solar power applications.

  9. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  10. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio...

  11. Thermodynamical aspects of pulse tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Steijaert, P.P.; Gijzen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The cooling power of cryocoolers is determined by the work done by the compressor and the entropy produced by the irreversible processes in the various components of the system. In this paper we discuss the thermodynamics of pulse tubes, but many of the relationships are equally valid for other

  12. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  13. Thermodynamic theory of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The thermodynamic theory underlying black hole processes is developed in detail and applied to model systems. It is found that Kerr-Newman black holes undergo a phase transition at a = 0.68M or Q = 0.86M, where the heat capacity has an infinite discontinuity. Above the transition values the specific heat is positive, permitting isothermal equilibrium with a surrounding heat bath. Simple processes and stability criteria for various black hole situations are investigated. The limits for entropically favoured black hole formation are found. The Nernst conditions for the third law of thermodynamics are not satisfied fully for black holes. There is no obvious thermodynamic reason why a black hole may not be cooled down below absolute zero and converted into a naked singularity. Quantum energy-momentum tensor calculations for uncharged black holes are extended to the Reissner-Nordstrom case, and found to be fully consistent with the thermodynamic picture for Q < M. For Q < M the model predicts that 'naked' collapse also produces radiation, with such intensity that the collapsing matter is entirely evaporated away before a naked singularity can form.

  14. One Antimatter— Two Possible Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Klimenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional thermodynamics, which is formulated for our world populated by radiation and matter, can be extended to describe physical properties of antimatter in two mutually exclusive ways: CP-invariant or CPT-invariant. Here we refer to invariance of physical laws under charge (C, parity (P and time reversal (T transformations. While in quantum field theory CPT invariance is a theorem confirmed by experiments, the symmetry principles applied to macroscopic phenomena or to the whole of the Universe represent only hypotheses. Since both versions of thermodynamics are different only in their treatment of antimatter, but are the same in describing our world dominated by matter, making a clear experimentally justified choice between CP invariance and CPT invariance in context of thermodynamics is not possible at present. This work investigates the comparative properties of the CP- and CPT-invariant extensions of thermodynamics (focusing on the latter, which is less conventional than the former and examines conditions under which these extensions can be experimentally tested.

  15. Simulating metabolism with statistical thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, William R

    2014-01-01

    New methods are needed for large scale modeling of metabolism that predict metabolite levels and characterize the thermodynamics of individual reactions and pathways. Current approaches use either kinetic simulations, which are difficult to extend to large networks of reactions because of the need for rate constants, or flux-based methods, which have a large number of feasible solutions because they are unconstrained by the law of mass action. This report presents an alternative modeling approach based on statistical thermodynamics. The principles of this approach are demonstrated using a simple set of coupled reactions, and then the system is characterized with respect to the changes in energy, entropy, free energy, and entropy production. Finally, the physical and biochemical insights that this approach can provide for metabolism are demonstrated by application to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of Escherichia coli. The reaction and pathway thermodynamics are evaluated and predictions are made regarding changes in concentration of TCA cycle intermediates due to 10- and 100-fold changes in the ratio of NAD+:NADH concentrations. Finally, the assumptions and caveats regarding the use of statistical thermodynamics to model non-equilibrium reactions are discussed.

  16. THERMODYNAMICS USED IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermodynamics is a science in which energy transformations are studied as well as their relationships to the changes in the chemical properties of a system. It is the fundamental basis of many engineering fields. The profession of environmental engineering is no exception. In pa...

  17. Thermodynamics on the Molality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.; Maheswaran, M.

    2013-01-01

    For physical measurements, the compositions of solutions, especially electrolyte solutions, are expressed in terms of molality rather than mole fractions. The development of the necessary thermodynamic equations directly in terms of molality is not common in textbooks, and the treatment in the literature is not very systematic. We develop a…

  18. A Simple Statistical Thermodynamics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Comparing the predicted and actual rolls of combinations of both two and three dice can help to introduce many of the basic concepts of statistical thermodynamics, including multiplicity, probability, microstates, and macrostates, and demonstrate that entropy is indeed a measure of randomness, that disordered states (those of higher entropy) are…

  19. Possible extended forms of thermodynamic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic entropy is determined by a heat measurement through the Clausius equality. The entropy then formalizes a fundamental limitation of operations by the second law of thermodynamics. The entropy is also expressed as the Shannon entropy of the microscopic degrees of freedom. Whenever an extension of thermodynamic entropy is attempted, we must pay special attention to how its three different aspects just mentioned are altered. In this paper, we discuss possible extensions of the thermodynamic entropy. (paper)

  20. Chemical Thermodynamics and Information Theory with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamics and information touch theory every facet of chemistry. However, the physical chemistry curriculum digested by students worldwide is still heavily skewed toward heat/work principles established more than a century ago. Rectifying this situation, Chemical Thermodynamics and Information Theory with Applications explores applications drawn from the intersection of thermodynamics and information theory--two mature and far-reaching fields. In an approach that intertwines information science and chemistry, this book covers: The informational aspects of thermodynamic state equations The

  1. Contact Geometry of Mesoscopic Thermodynamics and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Grmela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The time evolution during which macroscopic systems reach thermodynamic equilibrium states proceeds as a continuous sequence of contact structure preserving transformations maximizing the entropy. This viewpoint of mesoscopic thermodynamics and dynamics provides a unified setting for the classical equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and statistical mechanics. One of the illustrations presented in the paper is a new version of extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics with fluxes as extra state variables.

  2. Thermodynamics of statistical inference by cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Alex H; Fisher, Charles K; Mora, Thierry; Mehta, Pankaj

    2014-10-03

    The deep connection between thermodynamics, computation, and information is now well established both theoretically and experimentally. Here, we extend these ideas to show that thermodynamics also places fundamental constraints on statistical estimation and learning. To do so, we investigate the constraints placed by (nonequilibrium) thermodynamics on the ability of biochemical signaling networks to estimate the concentration of an external signal. We show that accuracy is limited by energy consumption, suggesting that there are fundamental thermodynamic constraints on statistical inference.

  3. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  4. Casimir effect and thermodynamics of horizon instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dual thermodynamic description of a classical instability of generalized black hole spacetimes. From a thermodynamic perspective, the instability is due to negative compressibility in regions where the Casimir pressure is large. The argument indicates how the correspondence between thermodynamic and classical instability for horizons may be extended to cases without translational invariance

  5. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. [thermodynamic properties of gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The basic thermodynamic properties of gases are reviewed and the relations between them are derived from the first and second laws. The elements of statistical mechanics are then formulated and the partition function is derived. The classical form of the partition function is used to obtain the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies in the gas phase and the equipartition of energy theorem is given in its most general form. The thermodynamic properties are all derived as functions of the partition function. Quantum statistics are reviewed briefly and the differences between the Boltzmann distribution function for classical particles and the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions for quantum particles are discussed.

  6. The thermodynamic-buffer enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, J W

    1980-08-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation operates at optimal efficiency if and only if the condition of conductance matching L33/L11 = square root 1-q2 is fulfilled. In this relation L11 is the phenomenological conductance of phosphorylation, L33 the phenomenological conductance of the load, i.e. the irreversible ATP-utilizing processes in the cell, and q the degree of coupling of oxidative phosphorylation driven by respiration. Since during short time intervals L11 and q are constant whereas L33 fluctuates in the cell, oxidative phosphorylation would only rarely operate at optimal efficiency due to violation of conductance matching. This paper demonstrates that the reversible ATP-utilizing reaction catalyzed by adenylate kinase can effectively compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of a fluctuating L33 and hence allows oxidative phosphorylation to operate at optimal efficiency in the cell. Since the adenylate kinase reaction was found to buffer a thermodynamic potential, i.e. the phosphate potential, this finding was generalized to the concept of thermodynamic buffering. The thermodynamic buffering ability of the adenylate kinase reaction was demonstrated by experiments with incubated rat-liver mitochondria. Considerations of changes introduced in the entropy production by the adenylate kinase reaction allowed to establish the theoretical framework for thermodynamic buffering. The ability of thermodynamic buffering to compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of fluctuating loads was demonstrated by computer simulations. The possibility of other reversible ATP-utilizing reactions, like the ones catalyzed by creatine kinase and arginine kinase, to contribute to thermodynamic buffering is discussed. Finally, the comparison of the theoretically calculated steady-stae cytosolic adenine nucleotide concentrations with experimental data from perfused livers demonstrated that in livers from fed rats conductance matching is fulfilled on a

  7. Exploring the differences in cloud properties observed by the Terra and Aqua MODIS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol-cloud interaction in different parts of the globe is examined here using multi-year statistics of remotely sensed data from two MODIS sensors aboard NASA's Terra (morning and Aqua (afternoon satellites. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol loadings and cloud properties by the MODIS sensor allowed us to explore morning-to-afternoon variation of liquid cloud fraction (CF and optical thickness (COT for clean, moderately polluted and heavily polluted clouds in different seasons. Data analysis for seven-years of MODIS retrievals revealed strong temporal and spatial patterns in morning-to-afternoon variation of cloud fraction and optical thickness over different parts of the global oceans and the land. For the vast areas of stratocumulus cloud regions, the data shows that the days with elevated aerosol abundance were also associated with enhanced afternoon reduction of CF and COT pointing to the possible reduction of the indirect climate forcing. A positive correlation between aerosol optical depth and morning-to-afternoon variation of trade wind cumulus cloud cover was also found over the northern Indian Ocean, though no clear relationship between the concentration of Indo-Asian haze and morning-to-afternoon variation of COT was established. Over the Amazon region during wet conditions, aerosols are associated with an enhanced convective process in which morning shallow warm clouds are organized into afternoon deep convection with greater ice cloud coverage. Analysis presented here demonstrates that the new technique for exploring morning-to-afternoon variability in cloud properties by using the differences in data products from the two daily MODIS overpasses is capable of capturing some of the major features of diurnal variations in cloud properties and can be used for better understanding of aerosol radiative effects.

  8. The OpenCalphad thermodynamic software interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundman, Bo; Kattner, Ursula R; Sigli, Christophe; Stratmann, Matthias; Le Tellier, Romain; Palumbo, Mauro; Fries, Suzana G

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are needed for all kinds of simulations of materials processes. Thermodynamics determines the set of stable phases and also provides chemical potentials, compositions and driving forces for nucleation of new phases and phase transformations. Software to simulate materials properties needs accurate and consistent thermodynamic data to predict metastable states that occur during phase transformations. Due to long calculation times thermodynamic data are frequently pre-calculated into “lookup tables” to speed up calculations. This creates additional uncertainties as data must be interpolated or extrapolated and conditions may differ from those assumed for creating the lookup table. Speed and accuracy requires that thermodynamic software is fully parallelized and the Open-Calphad (OC) software is the first thermodynamic software supporting this feature. This paper gives a brief introduction to computational thermodynamics and introduces the basic features of the OC software and presents four different application examples to demonstrate its versatility. PMID:28260838

  9. Thermodynamic Model of Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Allen, P.

    1998-03-01

    We develop and test a thermodynamic model of spatial memory. Our model is an application of statistical thermodynamics to cognitive science. It is related to applications of the statistical mechanics framework in parallel distributed processes research. Our macroscopic model allows us to evaluate an entropy associated with spatial memory tasks. We find that older adults exhibit higher levels of entropy than younger adults. Thurstone's Law of Categorical Judgment, according to which the discriminal processes along the psychological continuum produced by presentations of a single stimulus are normally distributed, is explained by using a Hooke spring model of spatial memory. We have also analyzed a nonlinear modification of the ideal spring model of spatial memory. This work is supported by NIH/NIA grant AG09282-06.

  10. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible

  11. Thermodynamic Geometry and Hawking Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the role of thermodynamic fluctuations in the two parameter Hawking radiating black hole configurations. The system is characterized by an ensemble of arbitrary mass and radiation frequency of the black holes. In the due course of the Hawking radiations, we find that the intrinsic geometric description exhibits an intriguing set of exact pair correction functions and global correlation lengths. We investigate the nature of the constant amplitude radiation and find that it's not stable under fluctuations of the mass and frequency. Subsequently, the consideration of the York model decreasing amplitude radiation demonstrates that thermodynamic fluctuations are globally stable in the small frequency region. In connection with quantum gravity refinements, we take an account of the logarithmic correction into the constant amplitude and York amplitude over the Hawking radiation. In both considerations, we notice that the nature of the possible parametric fluctuations may precisely be ascertained w...

  12. Statistical thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes

    CERN Document Server

    Keizer, Joel

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the theory ofthermodynamics has changed enormously since its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century. Shortly after Thomson and Clausius enunciated their versions of the Second Law, Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann began actively pursuing the molecular basis of thermo­ dynamics, work that culminated in the Boltzmann equation and the theory of transport processes in dilute gases. Much later, Onsager undertook the elucidation of the symmetry oftransport coefficients and, thereby, established himself as the father of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Com­ bining the statistical ideas of Gibbs and Langevin with the phenomenological transport equations, Onsager and others went on to develop a consistent statistical theory of irreversible processes. The power of that theory is in its ability to relate measurable quantities, such as transport coefficients and thermodynamic derivatives, to the results of experimental measurements. As powerful as that theory is, it is linear and...

  13. Thermodynamical properties of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yungui; Wang Bin; Wang Anzhong

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the thermodynamical properties of dark energy. Assuming that the dark energy temperature T∼a -n and considering that the volume of the Universe enveloped by the apparent horizon relates to the temperature, we have derived the dark energy entropy. For dark energy with constant equation of state w>-1 and the generalized Chaplygin gas, the derived entropy can be positive and satisfy the entropy bound. The total entropy, including those of dark energy, the thermal radiation, and the apparent horizon, satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics. However, for the phantom with constant equation of state, the positivity of entropy, the entropy bound, and the generalized second law cannot be satisfied simultaneously

  14. Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of presenting thermodynamics in as simple and as unified a form as possible, this textbook starts with an introduction to the first and second laws and then promptly addresses the complete set of the potentials in a subsequent chapter and as a central theme throughout. Before discussing modern laboratory measurements, the book shows that the fundamental quantities sought in the laboratory are those which are required for determining the potentials. Since the subjects of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are a seamless whole, statistical mechanics is treated as integral part of the text. Other key topics such as irreversibility, the ideas of Ilya Prigogine, chemical reaction rates, equilibrium of heterogeneous systems, and transition-state theory serve to round out this modern treatment. An additional chapter covers quantum statistical mechanics due to active current research in Bose-Einstein condensation. End-of-chapter exercises, chapter summaries, and an appendix reviewing fundamental pr...

  15. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.R.; Zinner, N.T.; Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects of the intralayer repulsion and quantum statistical requirements in systems with more than one chain. Specifically, we consider the case of two chains and solve the problem analytically within the harmonic Hamiltonian approach which is accurate for large dipole moments. The case of three chains is calculated numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments. (author)

  16. Association theories for complex thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani

    2013-01-01

    of this review is two-fold: first to illustrate some of the significant capabilities of these association theories and why indeed they have already been extensively used and are expected to find even more applications in the future. The second and most important aspect of this review is to outline many...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...... models, we have now come to the understanding that simple one-fluid theories like the cubic equations of state or the various forms of local composition models will never be able to model a wide range of complex systems with sufficient accuracy. While various modern approaches have appeared, one very...

  17. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  19. Improved Estimates of Thermodynamic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques refined for estimating heat of vaporization and other parameters from molecular structure. Using parabolic equation with three adjustable parameters, heat of vaporization can be used to estimate boiling point, and vice versa. Boiling points and vapor pressures for some nonpolar liquids were estimated by improved method and compared with previously reported values. Technique for estimating thermodynamic parameters should make it easier for engineers to choose among candidate heat-exchange fluids for thermochemical cycles.

  20. Statistics and thermodynamics of fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic model of the fracture processes unifying the phenomenological study of long term strength of materials, fracture mechanics and statistical approaches to fracture is briefly outlined. The general framework of irreversible thermodynamics is employed to model the deterministic side of the failure phenomenon. The stochastic calculus is used to account for thg failure mechanisms controlled by chance; particularly, the random roughness of fracture surfaces.

  1. Thermodynamic data for uranium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitnaker, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Self-consistent thermodynamic data have been tabulated for uranium fluorides between UF 4 and UF 6 , including UF 4 (solid and gas), U 4 F 17 (solid), U 2 F 9 (solid), UF 5 (solid and gas), U 2 F 10 (gas), and UF 6 (solid, liquid, and gas). Included are thermal function - the heat capacity, enthalpy, and free energy function, heats of formation, and vaporization behavior

  2. THERMODYNAMIC MODEL OF GAS HYDRATES

    OpenAIRE

    Недоступ, В. И.; Недоступ, О. В.

    2015-01-01

    The interest to gas hydrates grows last years. Therefore working out of reliable settlement-theoretical methods of definition of their properties is necessary. The thermodynamic model of gas hydrates in which the central place occupies a behaviour of guest molecule in cell is described. The equations of interaction of molecule hydrate formative gas with cell are received, and also an enthalpy and energy of output of molecule from a cell are determined. The equation for calculation of thermody...

  3. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  4. Thermodynamic evolution far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantuleva, Tatiana A.

    2018-05-01

    The presented model of thermodynamic evolution of an open system far from equilibrium is based on the modern results of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the nonlocal theory of nonequilibrium transport developed by the author and the Speed Gradient principle introduced in the theory of adaptive control. Transition to a description of the system internal structure evolution at the mesoscopic level allows a new insight at the stability problem of non-equilibrium processes. The new model is used in a number of specific tasks.

  5. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  6. BRDF Characterization and Calibration Inter-Comparison between Terra MODIS, Aqua MODIS, and S-NPP VIIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Angal, Amit; Wu, Aisheng

    2016-01-01

    The inter-comparison of reflective solar bands (RSB) between Terra MODIS, Aqua MODIS, and SNPP VIIRS is very important for assessment of each instrument's calibration and to identify calibration improvements. One of the limitations of using their ground observations for the assessment is a lack of the simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs) over selected pseudo-invariant targets. In addition, their measurements over a selected Earth view target have significant difference in solar and view angles, and these differences magnify the effects of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). In this work, an inter-comparison technique using a semi-empirical BRDF model is developed for reflectance correction. BRDF characterization requires a broad coverage of solar and view angles in the measurements over selected pseudo-invariant targets. Reflectance measurements over Libya 1, 2, and 4 desert sites from both the Aqua and Terra MODIS are regressed to a BRDF model with an adjustable coefficient accounting for the calibration difference between the two instruments. The BRDF coefficients for three desert sites for MODIS bands 1 to 9 are derived and the wavelength dependencies are presented. The analysis and inter-comparison are for MODIS bands 1 to 9 and VIIRS moderate resolution radiometric bands (M bands) M1, M2, M4, M5, M7, M8, M10 and imaging bands (I bands) I1-I3. Results show that the ratios from different sites are in good agreement. The ratios between Terra and Aqua MODIS from year 2003 to 2014 are presented. The inter-comparison between MODIS and VIIRS are analyzed for year 2014.

  7. Biochemical thermodynamics: applications of Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The most efficient way to store thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions is to use matrices of species properties. Since equilibrium in enzyme-catalyzed reactions is reached at specified pH values, the thermodynamics of the reactions is discussed in terms of transformed thermodynamic properties. These transformed thermodynamic properties are complicated functions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength that can be calculated from the matrices of species values. The most important of these transformed thermodynamic properties is the standard transformed Gibbs energy of formation of a reactant (sum of species). It is the most important because when this function of temperature, pH, and ionic strength is known, all the other standard transformed properties can be calculated by taking partial derivatives. The species database in this package contains data matrices for 199 reactants. For 94 of these reactants, standard enthalpies of formation of species are known, and so standard transformed Gibbs energies, standard transformed enthalpies, standard transformed entropies, and average numbers of hydrogen atoms can be calculated as functions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. For reactions between these 94 reactants, the changes in these properties can be calculated over a range of temperatures, pHs, and ionic strengths, and so can apparent equilibrium constants. For the other 105 reactants, only standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation and average numbers of hydrogen atoms at 298.15 K can be calculated. The loading of this package provides functions of pH and ionic strength at 298.15 K for standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation and average numbers of hydrogen atoms for 199 reactants. It also provides functions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength for the standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation, standard transformed enthalpies of formation, standard transformed entropies of formation, and average numbers of hydrogen atoms for 94

  8. Poly[[μ-aqua-tetraaquabis(μ-2-hydroxy-4-oxocyclobut-1-ene-1,3-diolatostrontium] hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Bouhali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title coordination polymer, {[Sr(C4HO42(H2O5]·0.5H2O}n, the Sr2+ ion is coordinated by three monodentate hydrogensquarate (hsq anions and six aqua ligands in a distorted SrO9 monocapped square-antiprismatic geometry. The hsq anions and water molecules bridge the metal ions into infinite sheets lying parallel to (100. The O atom of the uncoordinated water molecule lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The packing is stabilized by numerous O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  9. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  10. Thermodynamic studies for drug design and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2012-04-01

    A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 - 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development toward an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in the design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  11. Consensus guidelines for the uniform reporting of study ethics in anatomical research within the framework of the anatomical quality assurance (AQUA) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Vikse, Jens; Pekala, Przemyslaw; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A; Jones, D Gareth; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2018-05-01

    Unambiguous reporting of a study's compliance with ethical guidelines in anatomical research is imperative. As such, clear, universal, and uniform reporting guidelines for study ethics are essential. In 2016, the International Evidence-Based Anatomy Working group in collaboration with international partners established reporting guidelines for anatomical studies, the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) Checklist. In this elaboration of the AQUA Checklist, consensus guidelines for reporting study ethics in anatomical studies are provided with in the framework of the AQUA Checklist. The new guidelines are aimed to be applicable to research across the spectrum of the anatomical sciences, including studies on both living and deceased donors. The authors hope the established guidelines will improve ethical compliance and reporting in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 31:521-524, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Quantum chemical analysis of Со2+ aqua complexes electrochemical reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor F. Vargalyuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of quantum chemical calculations results (GAMESS, density functional theory, B3LYP method as to [Co(H2On]z(H2O6–n clusters for z = 0, 1, 2 and n=1÷6, it has been demonstrated that electrochemical reduction of [Co(H2O6]2+ aqua complexes runs stage-wise. At the first stage, an electron injected into the [Co(H2O6]2+ complex is entirely located in the orbital of the central atom, as z(Co herewith changes from +1.714 е to +0.777 е. The weakening of Со–ОН2 bonds leads to decomposition of resulting [Co(H2O6]+ particles into two energetically related forms – [Co(H2O4]+ and [Co(H2O3]+. Further reduction of these intermediates runs differently. Electron injection into the [Co(H2O3]+ intermediate terminatesthe transition of Со2+-ions to Со0 z(Co= –0.264 е. This process is accompanied by rapid decomposition of [Co(H2O3]0 product into monohydrate atom of cobalt Со(Н2О. On the contrary, electron injection into the [Co(H2O4]+ intermediate leads to emergence of a specific structure – [Co+(H2O–(Н2О3]¹0, whereby the electron is located in the atoms of cobalt only by 28%, and by 72% in cobalt-coordinated water molecules, clearly focusing on one of the. In this molecule, z(H2O changes from +0.148 е to –0.347 е. There is an assumption that a non-equilibrium [Co+(H2O–(Н2О3]0¹ form transits to [Co(ОH(Н2О3]0 hydroxo-form, which further disproportionates turning into Co(ОH2 hydroxide. In order to reduce the impact of this unfavorable reaction pathway on the overall reaction rate Со2+ + 2ē = Со0, we suggest raising the temperature to ensure complete dissociation of [Co(H2O4]+ to [Co(H2O3]+.

  13. Thermodynamics for Chemists, Physicists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hołyst, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamics is an essential part of chemical physics and is of fundamental importance in physics, chemistry and engineering courses. This textbook takes an interdisciplinary approach to the subject and is therefore suitable for undergraduates in all those courses. The book is an introduction to phenomenological thermodynamics and its applications to phase transitions and chemical reactions, with some references to statistical mechanics. It strikes the balance between the rigorousness of the Callen text and phenomenological approach of the Atkins text. The book is divided in three parts. The first introduces the postulates and laws of thermodynamics and complements these initial explanations with practical examples. The second part is devoted to applications of thermodynamics to phase transitions in pure substances and mixtures. The third part covers thermodynamic systems in which chemical reactions take place. There are some sections on more advanced topics such as thermodynamic potentials, natural variabl...

  14. Geometric description of BTZ black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the properties of the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole in (2+1) gravity. We use the formalism of geometrothermodynamics to introduce in the space of equilibrium states a two-dimensional thermodynamic metric whose curvature is nonvanishing, indicating the presence of thermodynamic interaction, and free of singularities, indicating the absence of phase transitions. Similar results are obtained for generalizations of the BTZ black hole which include a Chern-Simons term and a dilatonic field. Small logarithmic corrections of the entropy turn out to be represented by small corrections of the thermodynamic curvature, reinforcing the idea that thermodynamic curvature is a measure of thermodynamic interaction.

  15. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments. PMID:27035705

  16. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-11-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments.

  17. Thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štejfa, Vojtěch; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, Květoslav; Červinka, Ctirad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (−)-trans-Pinane, (+)-Δ-carene, eucalyptol, and limonene were studied. • New thermodynamic data were measured and calculated. • Many of thermodynamic data are reported for the first time. - Abstract: A thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes, (−)-trans-pinane, (+)-Δ-carene, eucalyptol, (+)-limonene, and (−)-limonene, is presented in this work. The vapor pressure measurements were performed using the static method over the environmentally important temperature range (238 to 308) K. Liquid heat capacities were measured by Tian–Calvet calorimetry in the temperature interval (258 to 355) K. The phase behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from T = 183 K. The thermodynamic properties in the ideal-gas state were calculated by combining statistical thermodynamic and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calculated ideal-gas heat capacities and experimental data for vapor pressures and condensed phase heat capacities were treated simultaneously to obtain a consistent thermodynamic description

  18. Thermodynamics of random reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Fischer

    Full Text Available Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa -1.5 for linear and -1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks.

  19. Thermodynamics of random reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jakob; Kleidon, Axel; Dittrich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha) and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa -1.5 for linear and -1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks.

  20. Thermodynamics and life span estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuddusi, Lütfullah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey is estimated by applying the first and second laws of thermodynamics to the human body. The people living in different regions of Turkey have different food habits. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to calculate the entropy generation rate per unit mass of a human due to the food habits. The lifetime entropy generation per unit mass of a human was previously found statistically. The two entropy generations, lifetime entropy generation and entropy generation rate, enable one to determine the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey with different food habits. In order to estimate the life span, some statistics of Turkish Statistical Institute regarding the food habits of the people living in seven regions of Turkey are used. The life spans of people that live in Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia regions are the longest and shortest, respectively. Generally, the following inequality regarding the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey is found: Eastern Anatolia < Southeast Anatolia < Black Sea < Mediterranean < Marmara < Aegean < Central Anatolia. - Highlights: • The first and second laws of thermodynamics are applied to the human body. • The entropy generation of a human due to his food habits is determined. • The life span of Turks is estimated by using the entropy generation method. • Food habits of a human have effect on his life span

  1. Relativistic thermodynamics of Fluids. l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, P.; Swenson, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    In 1953, Stueckelberg and Wanders derived the basic laws of relativistic linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics for chemically reacting fluids from the relativistic local conservation laws for energy-momentum and the local laws of production of substances and of nonnegative entropy production by the requirement that the corresponding currents (assumed to depend linearly on the derivatives of the state variables) should not be independent. Generalizing their method, we determine the most general allowed form of the energy-momentum tensor T/sup alphabeta/ and of the corresponding rate of entropy production under the same restriction on the currents. The problem of expressing this rate in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes is discussed in detail; it is shown that the number of independent forces is not uniquely determined by the theory, and seven possibilities are explored. A number of possible new cross effects are found, all of which persist in the Newtonian (low-velocity) limit. The treatment of chemical reactions is incorporated into the formalism in a consistent manner, resulting in a derivation of the law for rate of production, and in relating this law to transport processes differently than suggested previously. The Newtonian limit is discussed in detail to establish the physical interpretation of the various terms of T/sup alphabeta/. In this limit, the interpretation hinges on that of the velocity field characterizing the fluid. If it is identified with the average matter velocity following from a consideration of the number densities, the usual local conservation laws of Newtonian nonequilibrium thermodynamics are obtained, including that of mass. However, a slightly different identification allows conversion of mass into energy even in this limit, and thus a macroscopic treatment of nuclear or elementary particle reactions. The relation of our results to previous work is discussed in some detail

  2. Production of nutritionally-deficient mutants of the axenic blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae NRC-44-1 by ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, H D; Gorham, P R

    1975-01-01

    Anabaena flos-aquae NRC-44-1 is a freshwater nitrogen fixing blue-green alga of some ecological significance because of its toxicity. In axenic culture and possibly also in nature, the alga is highly susceptible to lysis at certain stages of its growth. Nothing is known about genetic phenomena governing toxin production, nitrogen fixation or other characteristics of this organism, mainly because of unavailability of mutant strains that could be utilized in genetic experiments. With the object of overcoming this obstacle to the eventual study of genetics of Anabaena flos-aquae, attempts were made to produce and isolate nutritionally-deficient mutants of this species.

  3. An introduction to statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Terrell L

    1987-01-01

    ""A large number of exercises of a broad range of difficulty make this book even more useful…a good addition to the literature on thermodynamics at the undergraduate level."" - Philosophical MagazineAlthough written on an introductory level, this wide-ranging text provides extensive coverage of topics of current interest in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Indeed, certain traditional topics are given somewhat condensed treatment to allow room for a survey of more recent advances.The book is divided into four major sections. Part I deals with the principles of quantum statistical mechanics a

  4. Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo

    2006-01-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...... of locally ordered structure in the MMG liquids is discussed in terms of the two-order-parameter model. It is found that the Arrhenius activation energy of clusters, h, is proportional to the chemical mixing enthalpy of alloys, Hchem. Fragility of the MMG forming liquids can be described by the ratio...

  5. Thermodynamics of the hot BIon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of the recently obtained nite temperature BIon solution of arXiv:1012.1494, focusing on two aspects. The first concerns comparison of the free energy of the three available phases for the finite temperature brane-antibrane wormhole configuration. Based on this we...... propose a heuristic picture for the dynamics of the phases that involves a critical temperature below which a stable phase exists. This stable phase is the finite temperature analogue of the thin throat branch of the extremal brane anti-brane wormhole configuration. The second aspect that we consider...

  6. Thermodynamic data for uranium fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitnaker, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Self-consistent thermodynamic data have been tabulated for uranium fluorides between UF/sub 4/ and UF/sub 6/, including UF/sub 4/ (solid and gas), U/sub 4/F/sub 17/ (solid), U/sub 2/F/sub 9/ (solid), UF/sub 5/ (solid and gas), U/sub 2/F/sub 10/ (gas), and UF/sub 6/ (solid, liquid, and gas). Included are thermal function - the heat capacity, enthalpy, and free energy function, heats of formation, and vaporization behavior.

  7. Some problems in relativistic thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitsman, E. V.

    2007-01-01

    The relativistic equations of state for ideal and real gases, as well as for various interface regions, have been derived. These dependences help to eliminate some controversies in the relativistic thermodynamics based on the special theory of relativity. It is shown, in particular, that the temperature of system whose velocity tends to the velocity of light in vacuum varies in accordance with the Ott law T = T 0 /√1 - v 2 /c 2 . Relativistic dependences for heat and mass transfer, for Ohm's law, and for a viscous flow of a liquid have also been derived

  8. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  9. Thermal physics kinetic theory and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj; Yadav, Raja Ram

    2016-01-01

    THERMAL PHYSICS: Kinetic Theory and Thermodynamics is designed for undergraduate course in Thermal Physics and Thermodynamics. The book provides thorough understanding of the fundamental principles of the concepts in Thermal Physics. The book begins with kinetic theory, then moves on liquefaction, transport phenomena, the zeroth, first, second and third laws, thermodynamics relations and thermal conduction. The book concluded with radiation phenomenon. KEY FEATURES: * Include exercises * Short Answer Type Questions * Long Answer Type Questions * Numerical Problems * Multiple Choice Questions

  10. Unified geometric description of black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jose L.; Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    In the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states we introduce a Legendre invariant metric which contains all the information about the thermodynamics of black holes. The curvature of this thermodynamic metric becomes singular at those points where, according to the analysis of the heat capacities, phase transitions occur. This result is valid for the Kerr-Newman black hole and all its special cases and, therefore, provides a unified description of black hole phase transitions in terms of curvature singularities.

  11. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transform...

  12. Irreversible thermodynamics of Poisson processes with reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, V; Fort, J

    1999-11-01

    A kinetic model is derived to study the successive movements of particles, described by a Poisson process, as well as their generation. The irreversible thermodynamics of this system is also studied from the kinetic model. This makes it possible to evaluate the differences between thermodynamical quantities computed exactly and up to second-order. Such differences determine the range of validity of the second-order approximation to extended irreversible thermodynamics.

  13. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  14. Thermodynamically consistent model calibration in chemical kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of biochemical reaction systems are constrained by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, which impose well-defined relationships among the reaction rate constants characterizing these systems. Constructing biochemical reaction systems from experimental observations often leads to parameter values that do not satisfy the necessary thermodynamic constraints. This can result in models that are not physically realizable and may lead to inaccurate, or even erroneous, descriptions of cellular function. Results We introduce a thermodynamically consistent model calibration (TCMC method that can be effectively used to provide thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of an open biochemical reaction system. The proposed method formulates the model calibration problem as a constrained optimization problem that takes thermodynamic constraints (and, if desired, additional non-thermodynamic constraints into account. By calculating thermodynamically feasible values for the kinetic parameters of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling cascade, we demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative significance of imposing thermodynamic constraints on these parameters and the effectiveness of our method for accomplishing this important task. MATLAB software, using the Systems Biology Toolbox 2.1, can be accessed from http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS lab/software.html. An SBML file containing the thermodynamically feasible EGF/ERK signaling cascade model can be found in the BioModels database. Conclusions TCMC is a simple and flexible method for obtaining physically plausible values for the kinetic parameters of open biochemical reaction systems. It can be effectively used to recalculate a thermodynamically consistent set of parameter values for existing thermodynamically infeasible biochemical reaction models of cellular function as well as to estimate thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of new

  15. Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-27

    We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.

  16. Elites municipales a través de las fuentes epigráficas : el ejemplo de Aquae Sextiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier García de Castro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La existencia, en el territorio circundante de la ciudad gala de Aquae Sextlae, de epitafios correspondientes a individuos con responsabilidad en la política municipal, pertenecientes a los ordines superiores o miembros de los principales collegia, implicaría a su vez una dualidad en la distribución del habitat de estos personajes, por una parte urbano y por otra rural, marcando así una diferenciación socioeconómica con el resto de los habitantes de la ciudad. Dentro de estos grupos de poder municipal destacan unas familias respecto a otras, así como la onomástica latina sobre las de otro origen étnico.The funerary monuments of upper social groups and magistrales in the surroundings of the román city of Aquae Sextiae in Gallia show an urban and rural distribution. This double structure makes olear a socioeconomic difference about the general inhabitants in the city. In these urban aristocracys we study the important role of some specific families, and also the significance of latín personal ñames.

  17. Removal of the arsenic from contaminated groundwater with use of the new generation of MicroDrop Aqua system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krzysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2012-01-01

    The results from a new pilot scale plant of the MicroDrop Aqua arsenic removal technology are introduced. The technology is based on the employing of electrochemical iron dissolution and efficient aeration prior to sand filtration. The pilot treatment was used to study effectiveness of iron relea...... addition and easily to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater.......The results from a new pilot scale plant of the MicroDrop Aqua arsenic removal technology are introduced. The technology is based on the employing of electrochemical iron dissolution and efficient aeration prior to sand filtration. The pilot treatment was used to study effectiveness of iron release...... in an electro-dissolution process that is taking place in an iron generator. It was found that there is a need of some extra time to reach a state of steady iron release and that could not be achieved within a short period of 10-20 minutes. The pilot plant proved to be able to remove arsenic to value below 5μg...

  18. Response of cellular stoichiometry and phosphorus storage of the cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae to small-scale turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xiao, Yan; Yang, Jixiang; Li, Chao; Gao, Xia; Guo, Jinsong

    2017-11-01

    Turbulent mixing, in particular on a small scale, affects the growth of microalgae by changing diffusive sublayers and regulating nutrient fluxes of cells. We tested the nutrient flux hypothesis by evaluating the cellular stoichiometry and phosphorus storage of microalgae under different turbulent mixing conditions. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were cultivated in different stirring batch reactors with turbulent dissipation rates ranging from 0.001 51 m2/s3 to 0.050 58 m2/s3, the latter being the highest range observed in natural aquatic systems. Samples were taken in the exponential growth phase and compared with samples taken when the reactor was completely stagnant. Results indicate that, within a certain range, turbulent mixing stimulates the growth of A. flos-aquae. An inhibitory effect on growth rate was observed at the higher range. Photosynthesis activity, in terms of maximum effective quantum yield of PSII (the ratio of F v/ F m) and cellular chlorophyll a, did not change significantly in response to turbulence. However, Chl a/C mass ratio and C/N molar ratio, showed a unimodal response under a gradient of turbulent mixing, similar to growth rate. Moreover, we found that increases in turbulent mixing might stimulate respiration rates, which might lead to the use of polyphosphate for the synthesis of cellular constituents. More research is required to test and verify the hypothesis that turbulent mixing changes the diffusive sublayer, regulating the nutrient flux of cells.

  19. Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slob, A.F.L.; Rijnveld, M.; Chapman, A.S.; Strosser, P.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Project AquaTerra generates knowledge about the river-soil-sediment-groundwater system and delivers scientific information of value for river basin management. In this article, the use and ignorance of scientific knowledge in decision making is explored by a theoretical review. We elaborate on the 'two-communities theory', which explains the problems of the policy-science interface by relating and comparing the different cultures, contexts, and languages of researchers and policy makers. Within AquaTerra, the EUPOL subproject examines the policy-science interface with the aim of achieving a good connection between the scientific output of the project and EU policies. We have found two major barriers, namely language and resources, as well as two types of relevant relationships: those between different research communities and those between researchers and policy makers. - Using scientific output in River Basin Management requires researchers and policy makers to acknowledge the multiple rationalities and different viewpoints that are brought in by the variety of stakeholders involved

  20. Treatise on irreversible and statistical thermodynamics an introduction to nonclassical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yourgrau, Wolfgang; Raw, Gough

    2002-01-01

    Extensively revised edition of a much-respected work examines thermodynamics of irreversible processes, general principles of statistical thermodynamics, assemblies of noninteracting structureless particles, and statistical theory. 1966 edition.

  1. Surface dependency in thermodynamics of ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Altug

    2004-01-01

    The Casimir-like size effect rises in ideal gases confined in a finite domain due to the wave character of atoms. By considering this effect, thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas confined in spherical and cylindrical geometries are derived and compared with those in rectangular geometry. It is seen that an ideal gas exhibits an unavoidable quantum surface free energy and surface over volume ratio becomes a control variable on thermodynamic state functions in microscale. Thermodynamics turns into non-extensive thermodynamics and geometry difference becomes a driving force since the surface over volume ratio depends on the geometry

  2. Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, P; Anders, J

    2016-02-26

    Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed.

  3. Statistical black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole

  4. Thermodynamic features of dioxins’ adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prisciandaro, Marina [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and of Economics, University of L’Aquila, Viale Giovanni Gronchi 18, L’Aquila 67100 (Italy); Piemonte, Vincenzo, E-mail: v.piemonte@unicampus.it [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Biomedico of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo 21, Rome 00128 (Italy); Mazziotti di Celso, Giuseppe [Faculty of Bioscience, University of Teramo, Via R. Balzarini, 1, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Ronconi, Silvia [Arta Abruzzo, Department of L’Aquila, Bazzano (AQ), 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Capocelli, Mauro [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Biomedico of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo 21, Rome 00128 (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We develop the P-T diagram for six PCDD. • We derive theoretical adsorption isotherms according to the Langmuir’s model. • We calculate K and w{sub max} values for several temperatures. • We estimate the adsorption heat with a good agreement with literature data. - Abstract: In this paper, the six more poisonous species among all congeners of dioxin group are taken into account, and the P-T diagram for each of them is developed. Starting from the knowledge of vapour tensions and thermodynamic parameters, the theoretical adsorption isotherms are calculated according to the Langmuir’s model. In particular, the Langmuir isotherm parameters (K and w{sub max}) have been validated through the estimation of the adsorption heat (ΔH{sub ads}), which varies in the range 20–24 kJ/mol, in agreement with literature values. This result will allow to put the thermodynamical basis for a rational design of different process units devoted to dioxins removal.

  5. Bioengineering thermodynamics of biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2015-12-01

    Cells are open complex thermodynamic systems. They can be also regarded as complex engines that execute a series of chemical reactions. Energy transformations, thermo-electro-chemical processes and transports phenomena can occur across the cells membranes. Moreover, cells can also actively modify their behaviours in relation to changes in their environment. Different thermo-electro-biochemical behaviours occur between health and disease states. But, all the living systems waste heat, which is no more than the result of their internal irreversibility. This heat is dissipated into the environment. But, this wasted heat represent also a sort of information, which outflows from the cell toward its environment, completely accessible to any observer. The analysis of irreversibility related to this wasted heat can represent a new approach to study the behaviour of the cells themselves and to control their behaviours. So, this approach allows us to consider the living systems as black boxes and analyze only the inflows and outflows and their changes in relation to the modification of the environment. Therefore, information on the systems can be obtained by analyzing the changes in the cell heat wasted in relation to external perturbations. The bioengineering thermodynamics bases are summarized and used to analyse possible controls of the calls behaviours based on the control of the ions fluxes across the cells membranes.

  6. Thermodynamical description of excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonche, P.

    1989-01-01

    In heavy ion collisions it has been possible to obtain composite systems at rather high excitation energies corresponding to temperatures of several MeV. The theoretical studies of these systems are based on concepts borrowed from thermodynamics or statistical physics, such as the temperature. In these lectures, we present the concepts of statistical physics which are involved in the physics of heavy ion as they are produced nowadays in the laboratory and also during the final stage of a supernova collapse. We do not attempt to describe the reaction mechanisms which yield such nuclear systems nor their decay by evaporation or fragmentation. We shall only study their static properties. The content of these lectures is organized in four main sections. The first one gives the basic features of statistical physics and thermodynamics necessary to understand quantum mechanics at finite temperature. In the second one, we present a study of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear physics. A phenomenological approach of the stability of hot nuclei follows. The microscopic point of view is proposed in the third part. Starting from the basic concepts derived in the first part, it provides a description of excited or hot nuclei which confirms the qualitative results of the second part. Furthermore it gives a full description of most properties of these nuclei as a function of temperature. Finally in the last part, a microscopic derivation of the equation of state of nuclear matter is proposed to study the collapse of a supernova core

  7. A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in Chemical Engineering University Education in Europe and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Peter; Aim, Karel; Dohrn, Ralf; Elliott, J. Richard; Jackson, George; Jaubert, Jean-Noel; Macedo, Eugenia A.; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Reczey, Kati; Victorov, Alexey; Zilnik, Ljudmila Fele; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey on the teaching of thermodynamics and transport phenomena in chemical engineering curricula in European and US Universities was performed and results are presented here. Overall, 136 universities and colleges responded to the survey, out of which 81 from Europe and 55 from the USA. In most of the institutions responding at least two…

  8. Discussion Meeting on Thermodynamics of Alloys Held in Sant Feliu de Guixols, Spain on 23-26 May 1990. Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-26

    OFFICE OF THE U.S. ARMY EUROPEAN RESEARCH OFFICE OF THE U.S. AIR FORCE MINISTERIO DE EDUCACION Y CIENCIA I I Wednesday, May 23 8.30 Registration 9.00... especially regarding the structural but less the thermodynamic proper- ties). The third binary system Ag-Te has been investigated in detail by our group. No

  9. Thermodynamic Optimality criteria for biological systems in linear irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimal, J C; Sánchez, N; Ramírez, PR

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the methodology of the so-called Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics (LIT) is applied; although traditionally used locally to study general systems in non-equilibrium states in which it is consider both internal and external contributions to the entropy increments in order to analyze the efficiency of two coupled processes with generalized fluxes J 1 , J 2 and their corresponding forces X 1 , X 2 . We extend the former analysis to takes into account two different operating regimes namely: Omega Function and Efficient Power criterion, respectively. Results show analogies in the optimal performance between and we can say that there exist a criteria of optimization which can be used specially for biological systems where a good design of the biological parameters made by nature at maximum efficient power conditions lead to more efficient engines than those at the maximum power conditions or ecological conditions. (paper)

  10. Surface circulation patterns in the Gulf of California derived from MODIS Aqua 250 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, G.; Salinas-González, F.; Gutiérrez de Velasco-Sanromán, G.; Godínez-Orta, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) is a marginal elongated and semi-enclosed sea located at northwest of Mexico, between the Peninsula of Baja California and the mainland Mexico. The considered area average 150 km in width and 1500 km in length, from the mouth of the Colorado River to Cabo Corrientes, Jalisco. It has a maximum depth of 3600 m at the southern inlet and the northern region average 200 m in deep. The study of superficial circulation patterns in the GC is of interest because its relevance to the mechanisms of transport for distribution of a variety of materials -plankton, contaminants, microalgae, etc.- and its association with areas of sedimentary deposits, zones where there is a higher probability for fishing or related to the presence of certain species of marine life. Recent studies explain the circulation of the GC as a result of the Pacific Ocean's forcing, wind, heat fluxes on the sea surface and the interaction between the flow produced by these agents and bathymetry. The objective of this work was to obtain evidence of the patterns of surface circulation using a spatial resolution of 250 m over a period of two to seven days (depending on cloud cover), which offered images from the MODIS Level 1B. This essay is an attempt to contribute with more information to the understanding of the regional dynamics of the GC and its local influence on the zones bordering the coast. Thus, MODIS Aqua 250 m data was used, to which algorithms were applied in order to enhance the contrast of reflectance levels of these bands (0.620-0.670 and 0.841-0.876 µm) within the marine environment. The results are associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which we used as tracers of the surface circulation, using a sequence of images from January 2004 to December 2008. Algorithms for dust and cloud detection were used and incorporated with thermal band images, in which zones of terrigenous contribution by eolian transport were identified. Furthermore, pluvial

  11. Antarctic Iceberg Tracking Based on Time Series of Aqua AMSRE Microwave Brightness Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Peterson, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Observations of icebergs are identified as one of the requirements for the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) in the area of reducing loss of life and property from natural and human-induced disasters. However, iceberg observations are not included among targets in the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan, and thus there is an unfulfilled need for iceberg detection and tracking in the near future. Large Antarctic icebergs have been tracked by the National Ice Center and by the academic community using a variety of satellite sensors including both passive and active microwave imagers, such as SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) deployed on the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) spacecraft. Improvements provided in recent years by NASA and non-NASA satellite radars, scatterometers, and radiometers resulted in an increased number of observed icebergs and even prompted a question: Is The Number of Antarctic Icebergs Really Increasing? [D.G. Long, J. Ballantyne, and C. Bertoia, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 83 (42): 469 & 474, 15 October 2002]. AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System) represents an improvement over SSM/I, its predecessor. AMSR-E has more measurement channels and higher spatial resolution than SSM/I. For example, the instantaneous field of view of the AMSR-E s 89-GHz channels is 6 km by 4 km versus 16 km by 14 km for SSM/I s comparable 85-GHz channels. AMSR-E, deployed on the Aqua satellite, scans across a 1450-km swath and provides brightness temperature measurements with nearglobal coverage every one or two days. In polar regions, overlapping swaths generate coverage up to multiple times per day and allow for creation of image time series with high temporal resolution. Despite these advantages, only incidental usage of AMSR-E data for iceberg tracking has been reported so far, none in an operational environment. Therefore, an experiment was undertaken in the RPC

  12. Antarctic Iceberg Tracking Based on Time Series of Aqua AMSR-E Microwave Brightness Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, S.; Peterson, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of icebergs are identified as one of the requirements for the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) in the area of reducing loss of life and property from natural and human-induced disasters. However, iceberg observations are not included among targets in the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan, and thus there is an unfulfilled need for iceberg detection and tracking in the near future. Large Antarctic icebergs have been tracked by the National Ice Center and by the academic community using a variety of satellite sensors including both passive and active microwave imagers, such as SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) deployed on the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) spacecraft. Improvements provided in recent years by NASA and non-NASA satellite radars, scatterometers, and radiometers resulted in an increased number of observed icebergs and even prompted a question: `Is The Number of Antarctic Icebergs Really Increasing?' [D.G. Long, J. Ballantyne, and C. Bertoia, Eos, AGU Transactions 83(42):469&474, 15 October 2002]. AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System) represents an improvement over SSM/I, its predecessor. AMSR-E has more measurement channels and higher spatial resolution than SSM/I. For example, the instantaneous field of view of the AMSR-E's 89-GHz channels is 6 km by 4 km versus 16 km by 14 km for SSM/I's comparable 85-GHz channels. AMSR-E, deployed on the Aqua satellite, scans across a 1450-km swath and provides brightness temperature measurements with near-global coverage every one or two days. In polar regions, overlapping swaths generate coverage up to multiple times per day and allow for creation of image time series with high temporal resolution. Despite these advantages, only incidental usage of AMSR-E data for iceberg tracking has been reported so far, none in an operational environment. Therefore, an experiment was undertaken in the RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability

  13. Friction Force: From Mechanics to Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Christian; Gruber, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We study some mechanical problems in which a friction force is acting on a system. Using the fundamental concepts of state, time evolution and energy conservation, we explain how to extend Newtonian mechanics to thermodynamics. We arrive at the two laws of thermodynamics and then apply them to investigate the time evolution and heat transfer of…

  14. Warming to ecocide a thermodynamic diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Sangster, Alan J

    2011-01-01

    Suggests a route to avoiding runaway climate change by reinstating the greenhouse thermostat to its full operational capacity Addresses mankind's contribution to climate change from a thermodynamic perspective Describes and illustrates the power of thermodynamics to furnish insights into the thermal behaviour of complex physical systems

  15. The thermodynamic solar energy; Le solaire thermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivoire, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  16. An Experimental Determination of Thermodynamic Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Erling; Muccianti, Christine; Vogel, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Measurements have been added to an old demonstration of chemical equilibria allowing the determination of thermodynamic constants. The experiment allows the students an opportunity to merge qualitative observations associated with Le Chatelier's principle and thermodynamic calculations using graphical techniques. (Contains 4 figures.)

  17. Statistical mechanics and the foundations of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loef, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to classical statistical mechanics and its relation to thermodynamics is presented. Emphasis is put on getting a detailed and logical presentation of the foundations of thermodynamics based on the maximum entropy principles which govern the values taken by macroscopic variables according to the laws of large numbers

  18. Impact of Thermodynamic Principles in Systems Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that properties of biological systems which are relevant for systems biology motivated mathematical modelling are strongly shaped by general thermodynamic principles such as osmotic limit, Gibbs energy dissipation, near equilibria and thermodynamic driving force. Each of these aspects

  19. Detonation Jet Engine. Part 1--Thermodynamic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most relevant works on jet engine design that utilize thermodynamic cycle of detonative combustion. The efficiency advantages of thermodynamic detonative combustion cycle over Humphrey combustion cycle at constant volume and Brayton combustion cycle at constant pressure were demonstrated. An ideal Ficket-Jacobs detonation cycle, and…

  20. Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, R.H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce