WorldWideScience

Sample records for europe

  1. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  2. Postcolonial Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How has European identity been shaped through its colonial empires? Does this history of imperialism influence the conceptualisation of Europe in the contemporary globalised world? How has coloniality shaped geopolitical differences within Europe? What does this mean for the future of Europe......? Postcolonial Europe: Comparative Reflections after the Empires brings together scholars from across disciplines to rethink European colonialism in the light of its vanishing empires and the rise of new global power structures. Taking an interdisciplinary approach to the postcolonial European legacy the book...... argues that the commonly used nation-centric approach does not effectively capture the overlap between different colonial and postcolonial experiences across Europe....

  3. Multilingual Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp.......Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp....

  4. Social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Sjef Ederveen; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Ruud de Mooij

    2003-01-01

    There is broad support for the European Union (EU) in the Netherlands: 73% of Dutch believe that EU membership is a 'good thing'. The figure in Germany is 59%, in France it is 50% and in the United Kingdom 30%. By contrast, engagement with Europe is very low in the Netherlands. In late 2002 fewer

  5. Europe phrasebook

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This book replaces "Western Europe Phrasbook". It includes Basque, Catalan, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Maltese, Portugese, Scottish Gaelic, Spanish and Welsh. This fully updated edition includes special sections on going out, sports and festivals, as well as local dishes, shopping and sightseeing.

  6. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  7. Transnational Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2016-01-01

    in this development. The article concludes that encounters of the kind we find in different forms of TV drama will make Europe more diverse and richer for a much broader audience. The interaction between the particular and universal in “narratives” on our past and contemporary social and cultural order contribute......This article deals with the social and cultural dimensions of globalization and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse the effects of stronger European integration on media production and reception. It combines theories and methods from sociology, anthropology and media studies......-productions has increased the distribution of original and often local stories in Europe. The article analyses examples of some successful European drama series, their audiences and reception. The analysis is discussed in the context of national and transnational media policy and the impact of globalisation...

  8. Unhomely Europes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Eleftheriotis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of PORTAL constitutes an indirect, sideways reflection on the EU’s move toward (re-discovering, establishing, and promoting shared cultural values. It seeks to unveil not the official historical contexts and traditions in which contemporary inventions of cultural identity occur. Rather, its aim is to discover and listen to competing voices and alternative visions—be they cultural, social, political, literary or cinematic—that give different shape to trans-European identities and model union, commonality, and belonging, according to transregional or translocal values. The special issue, then, is an exploration of possible forms of frictions occurring across the European cultural and historical landscape. It questions the pre-eminence of formal EU discourses on values, and the branding of Europe in the global marketplace, by listening to marginalised, unheard or discordant Euro-voices. The issue demonstrates the need for more rigorous theorisations of notions such as ‘value,’ whether ‘shared’ or ‘cultural,’ in the European region, and posits alternative mappings and visions of European belonging and identity. The essays included in this special issue consider Europe as a locus of frictions, consensus, tension, contestation and reconciliation. This locus is capable of co-locating Scotland with the Costa Brava, crossing Swedish views of Russia with their converse, recognising a Europe of borders that continuously unfold, acknowledging the interference of historical memories, and inflecting the Houellebecquian Euro-futurescape with Greco-Australian undertones; to cite a few examples of vibrant transvaluation occurring in the issue.

  9. Fortress Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    Ceuta and Melilla are two Spanish coastal-enclaves located in Northern Africa that constitute the only territories in mainland Africa belonging to an EU member state and, as a result, the only land border between the two continents. This book aims to study the role of these enclaves as EU border...... lookouts, as they are on the front line of the migration route between Europe and Africa. In effect, one of the most relevant contributions that this book aims to bring is to connect the study of the border in Ceuta and Melilla with the European dimension, that is, with the European policies that affect...

  10. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution." Creationism in Europe offers a discerning introduction to the cultural history of modern Europe, the variety of worldviews in Europe, and the interplay of science and religion in a global context...

  11. The Reshaping of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the different paths Europe may follow, this study treats Soviet reform and new -vi- dinking as an independent variable that propels systemic change...Europe dating back to the Bolshevik Revolution to reinstate Russia in the European family of nations. Whether the Soviet Union chooses to behave as a

  12. Islam in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler

    2008-01-01

    A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007.......A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007....

  13. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  14. Taenia solium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little...... is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine...... cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps...

  15. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  16. EPA Collaboration with Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    By working together to achieve common goals, the U.S. and Europe can enhance our respective environmental protection efforts while creating a cleaner environment on both continents and around the world.

  17. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... an expanding role in public debates about science policy and school curricula. In this, the first comprehensive history of creationism in Europe, leading historians, philosophers, and scientists narrate the rise of—and response to—scientific creationism, creation science, intelligent design, and organized...... antievolutionism in countries and religions throughout Europe. Providing a unique map of creationism in Europe, the authors chart the surprising history of creationist activities and strategies there. Over the past forty years, creationism has spread swiftly among European Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Hindus...

  18. Towards a New Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    This article raises two questions: What are the challenges for an understanding of Europe and European future? How can we rethink literary history so that it reflects the present historical and political moment of Europe? The aim of bringing these two concerns together is to argue that European...... literary history has the potential of being an agent in the forming a new understanding of Europe. The article takes its point of departure in Etienne Balibar’s suggestion that Europe should base its future ‘identity’ in palimpsestic collaboration and anti-essential agency in stead of basing it in a common...... culture. It argues that if we want the genre of literary history to adapt to a new and dynamic world, we have to rethink the term of ‘historicity’ and the function of history within literary history. The article suggests that literary histories could be developed through a strategic use of the concepts...

  19. Heat Roadmap Europe 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Heat Roadmap Europe (Pre-study 1) investigates the role of district heating in the EU27 energy system by mapping local conditions across Europe, identifying the potential for district heating expansion, and subsequently simulating the potential resource in an hourly model of the EU27 energy system....... In 2010, approximately 12% of the space heating demand in Europe is met by district heating, but in this study four alternative scenarios are considered for the EU27 energy system: 1. 2010 with 30% district heating 2. 2010 with 50% district heating 3. 2030 with 30% district heating 4. 2050 with 50......% district heating These scenarios are investigated in two steps. Firstly, district heating replaces individual boilers by converting condensing power plants to combined heat and power plants (CHP) to illustrate how district heating improves the overall efficiency of the energy system. In the second step...

  20. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    information systems (GIS) and energy system analyses. In this report, the inputs for other modelling tools such as PRIMES are presented, in order to enable other researches to generate similar heating scenarios for Europe. Although Heat Roadmap Europe presents a complete heat strategy for Europe, which...... includes energy efficiency, individual heating units (such as boilers and heat pumps), and heat networks, the recommendations here are primarily relating to the potential and modelling of district heating. Although other solutions will play a significant role in decarbonising the heating and cooling sector...... in a low-carbon energy system context, so we have focused on this area based on our extensive experience in this area [1-10]. This report includes guidelines on the potential heat demand in European buildings that can be met by district heating as well as some general guidelines on how this district...

  1. Cultural participation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, David; Kann-Rasmussen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a ‘problem’; it is becoming a ‘less cultural continent’ as fewer Europeans are ‘engaging in cultural activities’. This conclusion has been reached due to the findings of the latest cross national cultural participation survey. This paper questions the existence of this ‘problem......’ and instead suggests that there is a shared problematisation across Europe sustained by common discursive archaeology that employs various discursive strands in relation to a dominant institutional discourse. The argument is that the ‘problem’ of ‘non-participation’ legitimates a ‘solution’ that predates its...

  2. Cosmopolitan Futures for Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wallgren, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A Nordic proverb tells us that a prudent man does not make the goat his gardener. But that is exactly what we have done. In the garden of Europe we have handed over power to the goat of transnational companies and banks and to democratically weakly accountable bureaucrats. The harvest we have reaped is the euro-crisis. I will first present the basic features of what I consider to be the standard view of the political situation in Europe. In the discussion that follows I will try to show that ...

  3. Mapping Europe: Images of Europe in the Eurovision Song Contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajala, Mari

    2012-01-01

    abstractThe Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) offers a unique viewpoint to the ways Europe has been imagined on television from the 1950s to the present. This paper looks at the use of a key visual symbol for Europe, the European map, to outline the history of the ESC’s representation of Europe. Whilst

  4. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  5. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-15

    European dimension in its foreign policy. Hardly Satisfactory It is in the cards that Norway can become the Conmunity’s 13th member country...equal strategic importance. It is known that the Azores are an "important trampoline for U.S. intervention in Europe and the Middle East and on the

  6. Chytrid fungus in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garner, Trenton W J; Walker, Susan; Bosch, Jaime; Hyatt, Alex D; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fisher, Matthew C

    2005-01-01

    ...-offs that will likely lead to local extinction (4,5) (J. Bosch et al., unpub, data). We screened 1,664 current and archived samples of wild amphibians collected in Europe from 1994 to 2004 by researchers using amphibians as study organisms. B. dendrobatidis infects the skin of adult amphibians and the mouthparts of anuran larvae; samples included toe clip...

  7. NMC Horizon Report Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Jos Fransen

    2014-01-01

    The NMC Horizon Report Europe > 2014 Schools Edition was produced by the NMC in collaboration with the European Commission’s Directorate General for Education and Culture (EC DG EAC), the Joint Research Centre - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS), Inholland University, QIN

  8. Social cohesion in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nol Reverda

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the current discussions and policies towards social exclusion and cohesion in Europe. In a first section will briefly be identified how the wording in the social work discourse changed from originally the thinking in terms of poverty to the ideas of social cohesion nowadays.

  9. Rickettsioses in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; García-Álvarez, Lara; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Orientia (family rickettsiaceae, order rickettsiales) cause rickettsioses worldwide, and are transmitted by lice, fleas, ticks and mites. In Europe, only Rickettsia spp. cause rickettsioses. With improvement of hygiene, the risk of louse-borne rickettsiosis (epidemic typhus) is low in Europe. Nevertheless, recrudescent form of Rickettsia prowazekii infection persists. There could be an epidemic typhus outbreak if a body lice epidemic occurs under unfavorable sanitary conditions. In Europe, endemic typhus or Rickettsia typhi infection, transmitted by rats and fleas, causes febrile illness. At the beginning of this century, flea-borne spotted fever cases caused by Rickettsia felis were diagnosed. Flea-borne rickettsiosis should be suspected after flea bites if fever, with or without rash, is developed. Tick-borne rickettsioses are the main source of rickettsia infections in Europe. Apart from Rickettsia conorii, the Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) agent, other Rickettsia spp. cause MSF-like: Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia massiliae or Rickettsia aeschlimannii. In the 1990s, two 'new' rickettsioses were diagnosed: Lymphangitis Associated Rickettsiosis (LAR) caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, and Tick-Borne Lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-Borne-Necrosis-Erythema-Lymphadenopathy/Scalp Eschar Neck Lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA/DEBONEL/SENLAT), caused by Rickettsia slovaca, Candidatus Rickettsia rioja and Rickettsia raoultii. Lastly, European reports about mite-borne rickettsiosis are scarce. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The chapter develops a normative power approach to European studies that can be applied across and beyond its constitutive disciplines in order to interrogate and transgress the ideas and spaces on/of Europe. In four parts the chapter explores the terms ‘normative', ‘power', and ‘Europe', before......' - in order to make sense of ideas of the common good. Part two looks at three different types of power - ‘relational', ‘structural', and ‘normative' - as a means of understanding the power of ideas of the common good. Part three considers three different means of understanding Europe - ‘civilizational......', ‘categorical', and ‘cultural' - to show how the power of ideas of the common good shape our means of comprehending contemporary Europe. Part four attempts to apply the approach to the question of a European counter-terrorist response. This example was chosen because of the challenges it presents...

  11. Policy evaluation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattyn, V.; Voorst, S. van; Mastenbroek, E.; Dunlop, C.; Thiel, S. van; Ongaro, E.

    2018-01-01

    Policy evaluations are increasingly considered a taken-for-granted prerequisite for a well-performing public sector. In this chapter, we address the question whether this view reflects the actual situation concerning evaluation capacity and culture in Europe. First, we reflect on the history of

  12. A Europe of science

    CERN Multimedia

    Banda, E

    2000-01-01

    The GDP of the EU is roughly equivalent to that of the USA but the EU invests $60 billion less a year in research and development. To ensure that Europe can remain competitive it is vital that the EU increases investment in R&D and renews its mechanisms for collaboration (1 page).

  13. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  14. Europe in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the presence of European ‘contacts’ during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period, i.e. elements of culture derived from Central Europe that were introduced into historical Denmark, on the basis of three examples. First, Baltic Ware, a specific pottery type, was developed ...

  15. Connecting Europe: Postcolonial Mediations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzanesi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The current refugee crisis, magnified by media sensationalism and political opportunism, brings into sharp focus internal tensions that threaten the very notion of Europe. In a wave of nostalgia for the false security of the old sovereign states, old borders are being re-established and Fortress

  16. Shadows at Europe's heart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikide sisepoliitilistest konfliktidest, ebakompetentsuse ning korruptsiooni ilmingutest valitsustes. Toomas Hendrik Ilves kui positiivne näide Brüsselist kodumaale naasnud poliitikust. Vt. ka lk. 13-14: Europe's fraying fringe

  17. Populism in Europe: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartlett, J.; Birdwell, J.; de Lange, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nationalist populist parties and movements are growing in support throughout Europe. These groups are known for their opposition to immigration, their ‘anti-establishment’ views and their concern for protecting national culture. Their rise in popularity has gone hand-in-hand with the advent of

  18. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  19. PERIODONTAL CONDITIONS IN EUROPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PILOT, T; MIYAZAKI, H

    The aim of the present overview is to evaluate the periodontal conditions in European populations. Study was made of a number of extensive surveys of periodontal diseases carried out in a number of European countries, primarily North West Europe. These surveys often provide considerable detail.

  20. Postgraduate education in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses recent developments in doctoral education in business studies in Europe. Six key dilemmas relating to fundamental differences between two generic approaches in contemporary doctoral education have been identified. The theoretical basis of the paper is borrowed from institutio...

  1. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  2. E-prescription across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The use of electronic prescription has been designated as an important strategic policy to improve health care in Europe. The aim of the European Union is to have a cross-border electronic healthcare system in Europe which will enable EU citizens to obtain e-Prescriptions anywhere in Europe. Cross...

  3. Mapping Europe: Images of Europe in the Eurovision Song Contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Pajala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Eurovision Song Contest (ESC offers a unique viewpoint to the ways Europe has been imagined on television from the 1950s to the present. This paper looks at the use of a key visual symbol for Europe, the European map, to outline the history of the ESC’s representation of Europe. Whilst the European map was rarely used during the first decades of the ESC, it became a central visual element of the show in the 1990s, a period of great political change in Europe. Since then, the ESC maps have pictured an ever widening image of Europe, gradually moving towards a dynamic, moving image of Europe and finally, dispensing with a coherent map of Europe altogether.

  4. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...... in Europe. We report on a survey of the use of streaming media in the academic community in Europe, an open source content delivery network, and a portal for announcing live streaming events to the global academic community.......The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...

  5. Biobanking for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuille, Martin; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Bréchot, Christian; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dagher, Georges; Landegren, Ulf; Litton, Jan-Eric; Pasterk, Markus; Peltonen, Leena; Taussig, Mike; Wichmann, H-Erich; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Biobanks are well-organized resources comprising biological samples and associated information that are accessible to scientific investigation. Across Europe, millions of samples with related data are held in different types of collections. While individual collections can be well organized and accessible, the resources are subject to fragmentation, insecurity of funding and incompleteness. To address these issues, a Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Infrastructure (BBMRI) is to be developed across Europe, thereby implementing a European 'roadmap' for research infrastructures that was developed by a forum of EU member states and that has been received by the European Commission. In this review, we describe the work involved in preparing for the construction of BBMRI in a European and global context.

  6. Smart Energy Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B. V.

    2016-01-01

    is presented in terms of energy (primary energy supply), environment (carbon dioxide emissions), and economy (total annual socio-economic cost). The steps are ordered in terms of their scientific and political certainty as follows: Decommissioning nuclear power, implementing a large amount of heat savings......This study presents one scenario for a 100% renewable energy system in Europe by the year 2050. The transition from a business-as-usual situation in 2050, to a 100% renewable energy Europe is analysed in a series of steps. Each step reflects one major technological change. For each step, the impact......, converting the private car fleet to electricity, providing heat in rural areas with heat pumps, providing heat in urban areas with district heating, converting fuel in heavy-duty vehicles to a renewable electrofuel, and replacing natural gas with methane. The results indicate that by using the Smart Energy...

  7. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  8. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  9. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik; Kjærgaard, Peter C.; Blancke, Stefaan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our article is threefold. First, we present and discuss the extant literature on creationism in Europe (the “facts”). Within this section, we offer a review of the literature as well as an overview of the most remarkable developments and events recorded therein. Second, we indicate...... a sustained study of European creationism can contribute to other research domains such as the study of cultural evolution and the relation between science and religion....

  10. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-15

    European nations make it necessary to continue the road mapped out in Helsinki , but our task is not only to reduce and elimi- nate various dangers...and security and disarmament in Europe, by the Helsinki meeting of the foreign ministers of the countries that signed the CSCE final act, and pay the...Embarrassed by ’Their Split’ — Belgrade Sees Organized Provocations Back of the Excesses of Hajduk Fans"] [Text] Split, 25 Nov—The cathedral of Split

  11. Violent Radicalization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    and foiled plots inspired by militant Islamism have grabbed European and American headlines. This article identifies and discusses empirical studies of radicalization and points to the strengths as well as the weaknesses characterizing these studies. The aim is to take stock of the current state of research...... within this field and to answer the question: From an empirical point of view, what is known and what is not known about radicalization connected to militant Islamism in Europe?...

  12. The Alternatives of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei MARGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The specialised investigations in the last century and a half have led us to thecomprehensive understanding of Europe as a culture that was set up and has developed beingnurtured by three major sources: Jerusalem, Athens and Rome, plus other numerous sources. Thetriangle of the three cultural metropolitan cities in history, which have essentially given us thereligion and the vision upon the human fate, science and philosophy, law and civil dignity, remainthe most adequate metaphor to summarise the decisive sources of Europe. The destiny of Europecannot be thematised without examining these sources.Europeans today live in captivity with the present, with a culture somehow amputated by thelived dimension of the future.For this reason, the future has to become again a priority objective in democratic societies,and philosophy has the opportunity to develop a concept of rationality that includes science in anintegrative understanding, which clarifies its meaning, without preventing the success of scientificaction.Such a reason may set Europe in motion again with everything that is specific to it.

  13. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  14. Europe PMC in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Maria; Gou, Yuci; Graef, Florian; Hamelers, Audrey; Huang, Zhan; Ide-Smith, Michele; Iyer, Anusha; Kilian, Oliver; Katuri, Jyothi; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Marinos, Nikos; Nambiar, Rakesh; Parkin, Michael; Pi, Xingjun; Rogers, Frances; Talo, Francesco; Vartak, Vid; Venkatesan, Aravind; McEntyre, Johanna

    2018-01-04

    Europe PMC (https://europepmc.org) is a comprehensive resource of biomedical research publications that offers advanced tools for search, retrieval, and interaction with the scientific literature. This article outlines new developments since 2014. In addition to delivering the core database and services, Europe PMC focuses on three areas of development: individual user services, data integration, and infrastructure to support text and data mining. Europe PMC now provides user accounts to save search queries and claim publications to ORCIDs, as well as open access profiles for authors based on public ORCID records. We continue to foster connections between scientific data and literature in a number of ways. All the data behind the paper - whether in structured archives, generic archives or as supplemental files - are now available via links to the BioStudies database. Text-mined biological concepts, including database accession numbers and data DOIs, are highlighted in the text and linked to the appropriate data resources. The SciLite community annotation platform accepts text-mining results from various contributors and overlays them on research articles as licence allows. In addition, text miners and developers can access all open content via APIs or via the FTP site. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Archeomagnetism in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data

  16. Market Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Market Power Europe (MPE) constitutes an important contribution to the literature on the global role and actorness of the EU. In order to develop MPE as a theory, this contribution provides an assessment of how Russia, the USA and China have converged towards three EU trade policies in 2013....... The analysis finds that MPE fails to account for important dynamics related to externalization in the three cases. In order to improve MPE analytically, the article suggests that MPE should include three intervening variables to account for the EU’s ability to externalize its policies and act as MPE...

  17. Emerging Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    the only one to influence matters on a global scale besides, the US. Of particular importance in this context has been the growing attractiveness of the EU market and the considerable “soft power” which the EU exerts in some parts of the world. The paper reconstructs the most important steps of Europe......’s rise, with emphasis on the “expansionist” character of the EU. Internal developments in the EU have been crucial for its growing external influence. The “expansionism” of the EU and its system has until recently been peaceful. In the case of Ukraine, however, another (regional) power has applied...

  18. Europe debates its destiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Camargo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I propose to examine the issue that at present most mobilizes the European states and public opinion within them: the modification of the institutional-political model, in the form of a Constitutional Treaty for Europe, requiring parliamentary or popular ratification by its twenty-five member States, within a period that remains undecided. Events surrounding the consultation proposed to the European governments and their citizens, indicate – particularly if we take into account the negative votes in France and Holland, and others that may yet occur – that the European Union is divided, raising the concern that its process of regional integration could suffer interruption or even reversal. My analysis of the reasons European citizens and European states find themselves divided, with emphasis on those that separate the bureaucracy in Brussels from the EU’s citizens and national governments, will revolve on two basic axes: the enlargement of the EU, recently grown from fifteen states to twenty-five, and the transformation of the EU’s political-institutional model, which in securing itself to a constitutional anchor modifies both symbolically and substantively the degrees of sovereignty and autonomy of Europe’s numerous political actors. So doing, this analysis will seek support in theoretical currents that, stimulated by the importance and singularity of the process of European construction, have been brought to bear on the examination of the political instruments and procedures involved, their determinants, and their consequences. Beginning with the matter of enlargement, this article will look at the recurrent problems arising from admission of the ten new member countries from the Center and East of the continent – that is, the “other Europe” – formally incorporated in May 2004, and at the decisive weight this had in the decision to formulate a Constitution for Europe. Arriving thus at my second topic, I will

  19. Gas strategies in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch-Prigent, L. (Elf Aquitaine (France))

    1992-12-01

    The different factors affecting gas supply and demand in Europe are examined and the strategies considered necessary to ensure a successful European gas market in the 21st century are outlined. A number of conclusions are drawn. Even though a significant rise in the total demand for gas in Europe is forecast, there are enough sources to cover this demand. However, to think that this gas will be available at cheap conditions is an illusion. These sources are located further and further away which means that their costs will increase. Given the risks inherent in exploring, producing, transporting and marketing these reserves, all the concerned parties must be allowed an acceptable rate of return on their investment. The environmental positive assets inherent in natural gas will guarantee the industry a bright future if they can be fully exploited. New regulations must not hinder the development of new markets or the construction of new infrastructures. The transit directive already permits the softening of the rules regarding transportation; but in order for it to come into real effect there must be gas available on the market. (author)

  20. Pleistocene Paleoart of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As in Australia, Pleistocene rock art is relatively abundant in Europe, but it has so far received much more attention than the combined Ice Age paleoart of the rest of the world. Since archaeology initially rejected its authenticity for several decades, the cave art of France and Spain and the portable paleoart from various regions of Europe have been the subjects of thousands of studies. It is shown, however, that much of the published information is unreliable and subjective, and that fundamental trends in the evidence have been misunderstood. In particular, the data implies that the paleoart of the Early Upper Paleolithic, the work of robust humans such as Neanderthals, is considerably more sophisticated and developed that that of more recent times. Thus, the European paleoart demonstrates that the teleological model of cultural “evolution” is false, which is to be expected because evolution is purely dysteleological. This is confirmed by the extensive record of pre-Upper Paleolithic European paleoart, which is comprehensively reviewed in this paper.

  1. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  2. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brittlebank, A.; Hermans, M.; Bhugra, D.; Costa, M.; Rojnic-Kuzman, M.; Fiorillo, A.; Kurimay, T.; Hanon, C.; Wasserman, D.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Europeenne des Medecins Specialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an

  3. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke; Bartsch, Hans Helge; Travado, Luzia; Garami, Miklos; Di Salvo, Francesca; Micheli, Andrea; Veerus, Piret

    Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel

  4. The second generation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.

    2008-01-01

    The second generation in Europe is coming of age. The first group is making the transition to the labour market. This gives us, for the first time, the opportunity to compare the position of the second generation across Europe. If we look at one group - children of Turkish immigrants - in five

  5. A Geopolitical Overview of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that political instability in Europe and the rise and fall of European nations has occurred regularly throughout history. Reviews European geopolitical events and trends from 1815 to the present. Maintains that the rise of a strong Central Europe with German leadership will determine the future of the European Community. (CFR)

  6. NOTES in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meining, A; Spaun, G; Fernández-Esparrach, G

    2013-01-01

    The sixth EURO-NOTES workshop (4 - 6 October 2012, Prague, Czech Republic) focused on enabling intensive scientific dialogue and interaction between surgeons, gastroenterologists, and engineers/industry representatives and discussion of the state of the practice and development of natural orifice...... transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) in Europe. In accordance with previous meetings, five working groups were formed. In 2012, emphasis was put on specific indications for NOTES and interventional endoscopy. Each group was assigned an important indication related to ongoing research in NOTES...... and interventional endoscopy: cholecystectomy and appendectomy, therapy of colorectal diseases, therapy of adenocarcinoma and neoplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract, treating obesity, and new therapeutic approaches for achalasia. This review summarizes consensus statements of the working groups....

  7. Functional foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The fact that the European markets for functional foods generally are less developed, compared to the US and the Japanese markets, has often been attributed to a restrictive and inconsistent health claim legislation in and between the European countries. With the European Parliament's second...... reading of the main principles of the harmonized regulation COM/2003/0424, this situation is about to change. This article reviews the regulatory aspects, the results of consumer research and the marketing strategies regarding the use of health claims for functional foods in Europe, and it comments...... on the lack of correspondence between the new regulation and the marketing experiences and research as regard consumer reactions to health claims....

  8. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Andrei; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Averfalk, Helge

    2017-01-01

    The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document...... that such developments can begin now with technologies currently available. We present a database and the status of the technology and its ability of expansion to other European locations by reviewing experiences aimed at further research or application in the heating industry. This is based on a survey of the existing...... capacity of electric large-scale heat pumps with more than 1 MW thermal output, operating in European DH systems. The survey is the first database of its kind containing the technical characteristics of these heat pumps, and provides the basis for the analysis of this paper. By quantifying the heat sources...

  9. Europe without Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein A.M. Klemann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Middelaar, Luuk van, De passage naar Europa. Geschiedenis van een begin (Dissertatie Universiteit van Amsterdam 2009; Groningen: Historische Uitgeverij, 2009, 531 blz., ISBN 978 90 6554 236 6.De passage naar Europa [The Passage to Europe] is an interesting book – creative, original and readable, but for a doctoral dissertation it is also remarkably devoid of theory. Van Middelaar introduces various interesting notions and ideas (European ‘discourses’, ‘policy spheres’ and ‘zones of interactions’, but these remain ambiguous, and therefore rather noncommittal. The book stands out for its interpretative richness, its analytical sensitivity and its imaginative prose. It lacks an overall theoretical framework, however. It fails to link up with the wider academic debate on European integration.

  10. Rainfall Erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the Rfactor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national...... and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based....... Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1 km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months...

  11. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  12. Smart Energy Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The European Union has some of the most ambitious targets to decarbonise its energy system in the coming decades. To do so, it is likely that many countries will depend on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. There is still a lot of uncertainty in relation...... in excess of 80% are possible in the electricity sector. Hence, this approach is one potential solution that will enable the European energy system to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. In this study, the Smart Energy System approach is applied to Europe, which achieves two key objectives: firstly...... to the integration of these resources, since the current energy system is not designed to handle intermittency on the supply side. The Smart Energy System concept is one approach which can accommodate very large penetrations of these intermittent resources, with some analysis demonstrating how penetration levels...

  13. Urban Scaling in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography, and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the for...

  14. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    . The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation......Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  15. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...

  16. Disparities in multimorbidity across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Riis; Halling, Anders; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    education in Central and Eastern Europe compared to Northern Europe. Conclusion: Multimorbidity is highly prevalent among older Europeans, but more so among Europeans in the Eastern and Central regions. Societal initiatives to improve health care for older adults are warranted in order to decrease old age......Introduction: Europe is the continent with the highest share of older adults, many of which suffer from multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) and the associated negative outcomes. Health inequalities across European regions exist, but little is known about regional differences...... multimorbidity prevalence was 31.4% [30.7; 32.2]. Northern Europe had the lowest multimorbidity prevalence of 26.2% [25.2; 27.1], while Eastern and Central Europe had the highest, 35.2% [33.8; 36.5] and 34.8% [33.8; 35.9], respectively. In all regions female gender, increasing age, lower education, and lower...

  17. "europe Towards the Stars"

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    YOUNG EUROPEANS AND THEIR TEACHERS TO OBSERVE WITH SUPER-TELESCOPE With the above title, and following the very successful events of the past two years [1], ESO again organises an "educational adventure" in 1995. It takes place within the framework of the "Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture", initiated and supported by the European Commission. This time ESO will invite about fifty 17-18 year old grammar school pupils with their teachers to try their skills at one of the world's most advanced astronomical telescopes. The young people are the winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest that will take place during the summer and early autumn. The main event involves a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory in November this year. During this time, the participants will experience modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres and also have the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. THE CONTEST This year's programme will begin with national competitions in sixteen European countries. It is devised as a contest between joint teams of pupils and teachers. Each team is expected to consist of (up to) three pupils and their teacher. They can choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work. Each subject has a strong scientific and technological component. Here are short descriptions: At the telescope - Catching and interpreting the signals. "You observe with an existing telescope and instrument of your own choice. In your observational report you describe the scientific goal, the capability of your equipment, the execution of the observation. You discuss the observational data including an error analysis, and describe the conclusions." Technology for Science - Building an Instrument. "You build an astronomical instrument (e.g. a photometer or a

  18. Iron deficiency in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established

  19. [Euthanasia outside Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-08-10

    The passive form of euthanasia is legalized almost in every civilized country. Its active form is not a generally accepted legal institution. In Europe, active euthanasia is legalized only in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland. In Australia, the Act on the Rights of the Terminally Ill of 1995 legalized the institution of assisted suicide, which is not identical to active euthanasia. The difference lies in the fact that legalized active euthanasia means that the author of a murder is not punishable (under certain circumstances), whilst assisted suicide is not about murder, rather about suicide. In the first case, the patient is killed on his or her request by someone else. In the second case, the patient himself or herself executes the act of self-killing (by the assistance of a healthcare worker). In Australia, the institution of assisted suicide was repealed in 1997. Assisted suicide is legal in four USA member states: in Vermont, Washington, Montana and Oregon. In Uruguay, the active form of euthanasia has been legal since 1932.

  20. Inequality, Unemployment and Contemporary Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    1997-01-01

    Unemployment has social costs such as psychological harm, social exclusion, family breakdown, and loss of political voice. It can exacerbate inequality and technological conservatism. Reducing unemployment would contribute to solving many of Europe's social ills. (SK)

  1. The anthropological demography of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, Laura; Hutter, Inge

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a collection of related research studies on the anthropological demography of Europe. Anthropological demography is a specialty within demography that uses anthropological theory and methods to provide a better understanding of demographic phenomena in current and past

  2. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Orgiazzi, A.; Gardi, C.; Römbke, J.; Jansch, S.; Keith, A.; Neilson, R.; Boag, B.; Schmidt, O.; Murchie, A.K.; Blackshaw, R.P.; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Guernion, M.; Briones, M.J.I.; Rodeiro, J.; Pineiro, R.; Diaz Cosin, D.J.; Sousa, J.P.; Suhadolc, M.; Kos, I.; Krogh, P.H.; Faber, J.H.; Mulder, C.; Bogte, J.J.; Wijnen, van H.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Zwart, de D.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, collated, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use,

  3. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  4. On the Move towards "Europe"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the link between ideas of mobility in European policy-making and the "Europeanization of Europe". A critical approach to policy analysis of mobility related polices is used as an entrance to understanding the role of ideas of mobilities in the ongoing formation of ‘Europe......'. It is demonstrated how ideas of mobility appear as an emerging story-line within European transport policy-making. In connecting policy analysis with policy discourses, story-lines and discourse coalitions within the field of European transport policy, the article demonstrates how mobility within the Euro......-polity becomes closely connected to policy discourses of e.g. Network Europe, freedom, zero-friction Europe and in particular the promotion of the internal market, thus linking intimately to the European project. From this position, ideas of mobility add to the formation of a unified European territory as well...

  5. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  6. A significant time for Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    European Science ministers have unaminously approved a "Resolution on establishing a European area of research and innovation", a good start for scientific research to be co-ordinated at an Europe-wide level (1/2 page).

  7. Where Europe meets Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent). From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was

  8. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  9. Cost of depression in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocki, Patrik; Jönsson, Bengt; Angst, Jules; Rehnberg, Clas

    2006-06-01

    Depression is one of the most disabling diseases, and causes a significant burden both to the individual and to society. WHO data suggests that depression causes 6% of the burden of all diseases in Europe in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Yet, the knowledge of the economic impact of depression has been relatively little researched in Europe. The present study aims at estimating the total cost of depression in Europe based on published epidemiologic and economic evidence. A model was developed to combine epidemiological and economic data on depression in Europe to estimate the cost. The model was populated with data collected from extensive literature reviews of the epidemiology and economic burden of depression in Europe. The cost data was calculated as annual cost per patient, and epidemiologic data was reported as 12-month prevalence estimates. National and international statistics for the model were retrieved from the OECD and Eurostat databases. The aggregated annual cost estimates were presented in Euro for 2004. In 28 countries with a population of 466 million, at least 21 million were affected by depression. The total annual cost of depression in Europe was estimated at Euro 118 billion in 2004, which corresponds to a cost of Euro 253 per inhabitant. Direct costs alone totalled dollar 42 billion, comprised of outpatient care (Euro 22 billion), drug cost (Euro 9 billion) and hospitalization (Euro 10 billion). Indirect costs due to morbidity and mortality were estimated at Euro 76 billion. This makes depression the most costly brain disorder in Europe, accounting for 33% of the total cost. The cost of depression corresponds to 1% of the total economy of Europe (GDP). Our cost results are in good agreement with previous research findings. The cost estimates in the present study are based on model simulations for countries where no data was available. The predictability of our model is limited to the accuracy of the input data employed. As

  10. Control of bluetongue in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientara, Stéphan; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    Since 1998, bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11 and 16 have spread throughout Europe. In 2006, BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) emerged unexpectedly in northern Europe throughout a region including Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. In the following year, it spread rapidly throughout the rest of Europe. In 2008, two more BTV serotypes were detected in northern Europe: BTV-6 in the Netherlands and Germany and BTV-11 in Belgium. The European incursion of BTV has caused considerable economic losses, comprising not only direct losses from mortality and reduced production but also indirect losses because of ensuing bans on trade of ruminants between BTV-infected and non-infected areas. Given the significance of the disease, all affected countries have established control and eradication measures, which have evolved with the availability of detection and prevention tools such as vaccines. Before 2005, BTV vaccination campaigns in affected countries used only modified live virus vaccines and only sheep were vaccinated, except in Italy, where all susceptible domestic ruminant species were included. After 2005, inactivated vaccines became available and cattle and goats were included in the vaccination campaigns. This review looks at how bluetongue disease has evolved in Europe and how effective vaccination strategies have been. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta

    2015-01-01

    Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood......-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and biogeographic regions, (ii) present the ecological and social-cultural values of a wide diversity......). They are distributed across all biogeographical regions, but more abundantly in the Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Substantial ecological values are revealed in terms of landscape level biodiversity, ecosystem dynamics, and genetic resources. Social-cultural values are related to aesthetic values...

  12. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... is to provide a systematic analysis of the spectrum of these initiatives in Europe in terms of patterns of organisation, participants, resources, problems, and landscape values addressed. This review collects examples of integrated landscape initiatives from all over Europe through systematic internet key word...... searches and canvassing of European umbrella organisations; followed by an online survey of representatives from the identified initiatives (n??=??71). Our results show that the most relevant characteristics of integrated landscape initiatives in Europe are: a holistic approach to landscape management...

  13. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutgers, Michiel; Orgiazzi, Alberto; Gardi, Ciro

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map of Europe. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use......, vegetation and climate factors (covariables) with a greater spatial resolution. Statistically significant relationships were used to build habitat-response models for constructing earthworm maps with abundance, species richness, and diversity data. While a good number of environmental predictors were...... significant in our multiple regressions, geographical factors alone seem to be less relevant than climatic factors. Despite differing sampling protocols, land use and geological history were the most relevant factors determining the demography and diversity of the earthworms across Europe. Case studies from...

  14. Science in Society in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlgaard, Niels; Bloch, Carter Walter

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a special section of Science and Public Policy on science in society in Europe. Based on extensive data collected for the Monitoring Policy and Research Activities on Science in Society in Europe (MASIS) project, contributions to this special section explore pertinent issues...... related to the location, role and responsibility of science across EU member states and associated countries. By developing analytical typologies and classifying countries, the collection of papers provides a novel and detailed picture of Europe. It reveals considerable variation regarding...... the interactions of science and society at the national level, and it offers a platform for international learning. The identification of patterns and trends concerning the place of science in society may also feed into emerging European discussions about ‘responsible research and innovation’....

  15. The Social Economy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the social economy in Europe. Drawing on the most recent statistical data, the paper examines the social economy’s size in different European countries, and current trends and challenges in Europe; it also reviews its status and political context at the EU level....... The paper draws on the CIRIEC (2007) study of the Social Economy in the European Union (see: http://www2.ulg.ac.be/ciriec/en/), and the contribution on social enterprise draws on the work of the EMES Network (see www.emes.net)....

  16. Languages at Work in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlin has led a string of European university cooperation projects, launched from within the membership of the Conseil Européen pour les Langues / European Language Council. The overarching aim of these projects has been to map out the needs for foreign language and intercultural communication skills......Foreign language competences are vital not only for the individual European citizen, but in a more encompassing perspective, for mobility, socio-economic development and the competitiveness of Europe in a global world. - For more than a decade, Professor Wolfgang Mackiewicz of the Freie Universität...

  17. The Inclusive Education in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-García, Beatriz; Fernández, María Tomé

    2016-01-01

    One of the phenomena that is of most concern to educational policy in Europe is immigration due to the fact that this is the source of new educational needs. This research looks at how European educational legislation deals with this topic. For this intercultural values that make inclusive education will be evaluated, we will analyze intercultural…

  18. Heat Roadmap Europe 3 (STRATEGO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Drysdale, David

    Kingdom. These countries vary considerably in terms of population, climate, resources, and energy supply, so the key results, conclusions, and recommendations presented in this report can inform national energy policy across all of Europe. The results from this study indicate that a total investment...

  19. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    .01). CONCLUSIONS: EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in Europe would probably not be detected...

  20. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the ...

  1. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  2. Computer Science Research in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-29

    Kuka sold about half that number. Volks- " properties of concurrent processes. wagen has approximately 1000 robots of Descriptions of concurrent...Europe are ASEA in Sweden and measured points as vertices. Polyhedra Kuka in West Germany. Two major auto- can be used to approximate any shape. 10

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-13

    research at the Arts Lab, only simulate the structure of animal (and human) behavior, whereas intelligent computers, and therefore android robots...sophisticated studio for the production of HDTV programs. The purpose is to allow producers from all over Europe to gain experience with the new medium

  4. Do Not Track for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.; McDonald, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Online tracking is the subject of heated debates. In Europe, policy debates focus on the e-Privacy Directive, which requires firms to obtain the consumer’s consent for the use of tracking cookies and similar technologies. A common complaint about the Directive is that clicking "I agree" to hundreds

  5. Mortality after surgery in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearse, Rupert M; Moreno, Rui P; Bauer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an international...... study designed to assess outcomes after non-cardiac surgery in Europe....

  6. JPRS Report Science & Technology, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-09

    cine , which, on the other hand, has proven its efficacy. This question can only be addressed in the light of economic data. The population to be...April 1992 WEST EUROPE 11 [Text] Houses whose electricity and heating demands are covered by sunlight are no longer Utopia today. Professor Adolf

  7. Living Apart Together in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van Aubel; F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA couple of years ago Joschka Fischer, the German minister of Foreign Affairs articulated his European dream, calling for a specification of the 'Finalität', that is the ultimate goal of the process of European integration. It came at a moment that Europe is challenged by two conflicting

  8. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  9. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  10. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    the view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate...

  11. Allergology in Europe, the blueprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Monchy, J. G.; Demoly, P.; Akdis, C. A.; Cardona, V.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Gayraud, J.

    2013-01-01

    The number of patients with allergic diseases in Europe, and thus relevant demand for health care, is continuously increasing. In this EAACI-UEMS position paper, a rationale is given for the medical specialty of allergology. General practitioners and general paediatricians usually cannot elucidate

  12. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  13. Europe as Façade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.

    2014-01-01

    In China, numerous buildings employ an overtly baroque style, alluding to a hyper-Europe. In the context of an intensification of nationalistic Chinese sentiments that help maintain the Chinese nation-state, Europe remains an important constitutive outside. What cultural translations from Europe to

  14. Ismail Kadere’s Idea of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reconstruct and pinpoint the peculiarities of Ismail Kadare’s idea of Europe. Kadare’s idea of Europe, it is argued, differs from the ideas of Europe embraced or presumed by intellectuals like Paul Valéry, Georg Simmel, Danilo Kiš, Václav Havel, Adam Michnik, or Milan

  15. Patient Blood Management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, M T; Pendry, K; Georgsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient Blood Management (PBM) in Europe is a working group of the European Blood Alliance with the initial objective to identify the starting position of the participating hospitals regarding PBM for benchmarking purposes, and to derive good practices in PBM from...... the experience and expertise in the participating teams with the further aim of implementing and strengthening these practices in the participating hospitals. METHODS: We conducted two surveys in seven university hospitals in Europe: Survey on top indications for red blood cell use regarding usage of red blood...... cells during 1 week and Survey on PBM organization and activities. RESULTS: A total of 3320 units of red blood cells were transfused in 1 week at the seven hospitals. Overall, 61% of red cell units were transfused to medical patients and 36% to surgical patients, although there was much variation...

  16. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel...... reached agreement on two types of indicators. (a) Cancer prevalence indicators. These were proposed as a means of characterising the burden of cancer rehabilitation needs by time from diagnosis and patient health status. These indicators can be estimated from cancer registry data or by collecting data...... on follow-up and treatments for samples of cases archived in cancer registries. (b) Indicators of rehabilitation success. These include: return to work, quality of life, and satisfaction of specific rehabilitation needs. Studies can be performed to estimate these indicators in individual countries...

  17. Re-membering Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    -Soviet states into the “Eurovision” has been represented and discussed in Britain and Denmark, two countries with their own complex and complicated relationship to "Europe". Taking the cue from a growing scholarly production that argues for the importance of pop culture in the construction of social...... and political memories and perspectives (e.g. Couldry, Dittmer, Grey, Plate), this paper explores the ways that “Europe” is constructed and challenged in and by media in Denmark and Britain. The paper starts with a brief discussion of what the Eurovision Song Contest is and why it is an interesting framework......, Ukraine and Russia in order to explore how they are re-membered in relation to various perceptions of Europe....

  18. [Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe.

  19. Bat rabies surveillance in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, J; Fooks, A R; McElhinney, L; Horton, D; Echevarria, J; Vázquez-Moron, S; Kooi, E A; Rasmussen, T B; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2013-02-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977-2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands, North Germany, Denmark, Poland and also in parts of France and Spain. Most EBLV-2 isolates originated from the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands, and EBLV-2 was also detected in Germany, Finland and Switzerland. Thus far, only one isolate of BBLV was found in Germany. Published passive bat rabies surveillance comprised testing of 28 of the 52 different European bat species for rabies. EBLV-1 was isolated exclusively from Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus and Eptesicus isabellinus), while EBLV-2 was detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and 5 Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme). A virus from a single Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) was characterized as BBLV. During active surveillance, only oral swabs from 2 Daubenton's bats (EBLV-2) and from several Eptesicus bats (EBLV-1) yielded virus positive RNA. Virus neutralizing antibodies against lyssaviruses were detected in various European bat species from different countries, and its value and implications are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvander, Bertil; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, agriculture in Europe has undergone profound technological change, associated with and to an extent supporting the long post-war economic boom. This process has not gone unchallenged, however; some resistance to the process has come from a growing perception of environmental (and to an extent social) degradation, and some farms and businesses, particularly in Less Favoured Areas, have been simply unable to keep up. For both groups, organic farming has m...

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Carso region; the services are the usual ones such as telephone , telex, and cafeteria. Director Mirano Sancin, however, explains that the most...Europe Bares Its Teeth" first paragraph is SCIENCES & AVENIR introduction] [Excerpts] Until now, the Americans and the Japanese have had a monopoly on...the merger between the semiconductor activities of the French Thomson-CSF group and the Italian STET [Turin Telephone Company]. According to Geyres

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-22

    OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, 23 Jan 89] 34 EAST EUROPE COMPUTERS Hungarian Software Market Evaluated J Trade in Experts Rather Than Products... software . This simulator, together with a computerized image display system, offers excellent visualization conditions corresponding to patrol and...the diesel model, while 212,643 Pandas were sold (more than 2 million manu- factured since 1980). Sales of the " Tipo ," the new Fiat showpiece and

  3. Devonian tetrapod from western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, G.; Ahlberg, P.E.; Blieck, A.; Blom, H.; Clack, J.A.; Poty, E.; Thorez, J.; Janvier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Several discoveries of Late Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) have been made during the past two decades but each has been confined to one locality. Here we describe a tetrapod jaw of about 365 million years (Myr) old from the Famennian of Belgium, which is the first from western continental Europe. The jaw closely resembles that of Ichthyostega, a Famennian tetrapod hitherto known only from Greenland. The environment of this fossil provides information about the conditions that prevail...

  4. Youth Unemployment in Southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão; Guida Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Europe increased to very high levels after the great recession of 2008, reaching 23% in European Union and 45% in southern European countries. We examine the causes of the high youth unemployment rate which is consistently bigger than the overall unemployment rate. The empirical evidence shows that the youth unemployment rate depends crucially of the level of the overall unemployment rate and on the variation of the unemployment rate.

  5. Geomagnetically induced currents in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljanen Ari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in the European high-voltage power grids based on 1-min geomagnetic recordings in 1996–2008 and on 1-D models of the ground conductivity have been derived in the EURISGIC project (European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents. The simplified yet realistic power grid model indicates that large GIC can occur anywhere in Europe. However, geomagnetic variations are clearly larger in North Europe, so it is the likely region of significant GIC events. Additionally, there are areas in the North with especially low ground conductivities, which further tend to increase GIC. The largest modelled GIC values at single substations in 1996–2008 are about 400 A in the Nordic Countries, about 100 A in the British Isles, about 80 A in the Baltic Countries, and less than 50 A in Central and South Europe. The largest GIC event in the period studied is the Halloween storm on 29–30 October 2003, and the next largest ones occurred on 15 July 2000 and 9 November 2004.

  6. Allergology in Europe, the blueprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monchy, J G; Demoly, P; Akdis, C A; Cardona, V; Papadopoulos, N G; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Gayraud, J

    2013-10-01

    The number of patients with allergic diseases in Europe, and thus relevant demand for health care, is continuously increasing. In this EAACI-UEMS position paper, a rationale is given for the medical specialty of allergology. General practitioners and general paediatricians usually cannot elucidate and address all causative factors. Throughout Europe, therefore, the expertise of allergologists (allergists) is required. In collaboration with other medical professionals, they take care of allergic patients, in private practices or in specialized public centres. A well-structured collaboration between allergists and allergy centres offers the possibility of rapid signalling of new trends developing in the population of allergic patients (e.g., in food and drug allergy). Allergy centres also can perform clinical (and basic) research, teach medical students, future allergists and provide postgraduate training. To prevent that the quality of care in one or several countries within Europe lags behind developments in other countries, the UEMS Section and Board on Allergology together with the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology advocates the status of a full specialty of allergology in each European country, with a further intention to align their activities (blueprint, curriculum and centre visitation) with the UEMS Section of Paediatrics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Christian identity of secular Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other things, intensification of process of European integrations has imposed the need for realization and strengthening of common European cultural identity, that is for creating a new set of values, which would be common to all European citizens and which would be the basis for their permanent feeling of community and an experience of belonging to Europe as a common area. What are the chances of such a project since, on one hand, Islam is appearing in Europe as a religion that does not know secularity and, on the other hand, an important part of European inhabitants is showing the rise of anti-immigrant and , especially, anti-Islamic feelings, opposition to the presence of foreigners, fear of majorization and the loss of one's own identity and the values of European culture? The existing conflict with Islam is, most often, described as a conflict between secularized West where religion is a matter of private choice and religious (primarily Islamic world where religion is regulating every aspect of life. However, innumerable examples all around us (starting with the fact that the time is counted according to the Christian calendar, Christian holidays and iconography, Biblical myths, moral codes, architecture, toponims-to mention only few constantly reminds how much Christianity (primarily as a cultural tradition is strongly present in the lives of the secular Europeans, how much is that secular context in fact permeated with Christian story. Vestiges of that past, which are all around us, are not in fact perceived as a Christian story - in meeting with European secularism such recognition comes only to "others" to whom that story is not familiar. On what premises then can such a common forum be created on which all would really feel equally at home? In this work I will try to consider possible directions in which, considering the existing circumstances, Europe could move in search of the new common denominator. Since nations, according to

  8. Prognosis with dementia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Andersen, K; Breteler, M M

    2000-01-01

    The effect of dementia on time to death and institutionalization in elderly populations is of importance to resource planning, as well as to patients and their carers. The authors report a collaborative reanalysis of nine population-based studies conducted in Europe to compare dementia cases...... and noncases in risk of and time to death and to institutionalization. Prevalent and incident cases were more likely than noncases to reside in an institution at baseline and were more likely to enter institutional care. Prevalent cases also had over twice the risk of death compared to noncases and survival...

  9. Managing Human Resources in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Holt; Mayrhofer, Wolfgang

    and individual level and the changes in employment relations; the importance of various organizational forms for HRM ('looking inside'), discussing the specifics of HRM in multinational corporations, small and medium sized enterprises and not-for-profit organizations; the roles and contributions of HRM within...... and diversity management and virtual HRM. Written and edited by leading European authorities, this text is essential reading for all those studying or working in HRM in Europe, and allows an exciting synthesis of theory and practice, illustrated with living case studies....

  10. Newborn screening in southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Smon, Andraz; Angelkova, Natalija; Anton, Dana; Baric, Ivo; Djordjevic, Maja; Grimci, Lindita; Ivanova, Maria; Kadam, Adil; Kotori, Vjosa Mulliqi; Maksic, Hajrija; Marginean, Oana; Margineanu, Otilia; Milijanovic, Olivera; Moldovanu, Florentina; Muresan, Mariana; Murko, Simona; Nanu, Michaela; Lampret, Barbka Repic; Samardzic, Mira; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Savov, Aleksei; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Suzic, Biljana; Tincheva, Radka; Tahirovic, Husref; Toromanovic, Alma; Usurelu, Natalia; Battelino, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the current state of newborn screening (NBS) in the region of southeastern Europe, as an example of a developing region, focusing also on future plans. Responses were obtained from 11 countries. Phenylketonuria screening was not introduced in four of 11 countries, while congenital hypothyroidism screening was not introduced in three of them; extended NBS programs were non-existent. The primary challenges were identified. Implementation of NBS to developing countries worldwide should be considered as a priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Multiple Modernities of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept ‘multiple modernities’ has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served......, Eric Voegelin. Eric Voegelin talked of two spatio-temporal specific modernities, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. In short, for Voegelin the Atlantic modernity with its breakthroughs in the 17th and 18th centuries was a specific figuration that should not be mistaken for ‘modernity...

  12. Commission européenne

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Le journaliste politique Derk-Jan EPPINK présente les coulisses de la Commission, où il a travaillé pendant plus de 7 ans. Rattaché au cabinet du commissaire Fritz Bolkestein en 1999/2004, puis à celui de Siim Kallas en 2004/07, il livre ici une galerie de portraits de ceux qui font l’Europe à Bruxelles, de Jacques De­lors à Pascal Lamy, en passant par Valéry Giscard d’Estaing. Un récit à la fois instructif et divertissant sur les dessous de l’UE. (sh)

  13. Patient Blood Management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, M T; Pendry, K; Georgsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient Blood Management (PBM) in Europe is a working group of the European Blood Alliance with the initial objective to identify the starting position of the participating hospitals regarding PBM for benchmarking purposes, and to derive good practices in PBM from...... a similar range of clinical services, there was variation in transfusion rates between them. Further, there was variable implementation of PBM activities and monitoring of transfusion practice. These findings provide a baseline to develop joint action plans to further implement and strengthen PBM across...

  14. Antenna standards and laboratories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemanczyk, Jerzy

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an overview on antenna standards and laboratories within Europe. In this context, Europe will be limited geographically to the member nations of the European Union (EU), formerly the European Community, and the European Space Agency (ESA). In addition to these......The goal of this paper is to present an overview on antenna standards and laboratories within Europe. In this context, Europe will be limited geographically to the member nations of the European Union (EU), formerly the European Community, and the European Space Agency (ESA). In addition...

  15. Europe as Façade

    OpenAIRE

    de Kloet, J.

    2014-01-01

    In China, numerous buildings employ an overtly baroque style, alluding to a hyper-Europe. In the context of an intensification of nationalistic Chinese sentiments that help maintain the Chinese nation-state, Europe remains an important constitutive outside. What cultural translations from Europe to China are at stake here, when Europe is turned into a façade? Inspired by the work of Rey Chow and Michel Foucault, this article reads these façades as constitutive mirrors, both heterotopian and u...

  16. Defending basic research in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    « Research without a budget means a Europe without a future » On Wednesday 25th August 2010, 871 of you signed the Staff Council petition which carried this message. This is a resounding success for a month of August. Staff members and pensioners, you showed by your presence your mass support for our appeal to defend research budgets in Europe. The participation and messages of support from our colleagues in other European scientific organizations is confirmation that budget cuts in research are common practice far beyond the confines of CERN. If research had benefited from the promises made by the European Union in 2000 to increase investment in research and development (R&D) from 1.8% to 3% of GDP by 2010, the scientific community would more readily accept the current cuts. However, we are now in 2010 and the rate of 1.8% has remained the same. So, we have been hit twice: not only have we not had the good weather we were promised, we now find ourselves in the middl...

  17. Survey of Aquaponics in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Villarroel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available International aquaponic production has increased over the past decade, but less is known about research activities and production facilities operating in Europe. We conducted an online survey to get a better idea about research and production in Europe, focusing on five areas of aquaponics (i.e., demographics, facilities used, fish and crops produced, funding sources, and personal or company priorities for further development. The 68 respondents were distributed among 21 European countries, 43% were working at a university, and 19% were commercial producers. Only 11.8% of those surveyed had sold fish or plants in the past 12 months. Most respondents were male (66.2% and had a post-graduate degree (91.7%. Facilities were generally new (74.5% constructed after 2010 and self-designed. Production figures were modest, with less than 10 respondents producing more than 1000 kg of fish or plants per year (mostly tilapia or catfish and herbs or lettuce. Systems were often funded by government grants (35.3%. The great majority of respondents (80.4% stated that aquaponics was not their main source of income. Most respondents prioritized using aquaponics for educational purposes, while few (25% used it to produce their own food or improve their health. Questions related to personal knowledge about aquaponics underlined the need for more training about fish diseases and plant pests.

  18. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  19. Community wind projects in Europe; Projets eolienne communautaires en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renauld, M.A. [Enercon Gmbh (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Enercon has wind energy projects all over the world, including Canada, Europe, Australia, Brazil and Argentina. In Canada, the Enercon group has sales offices in Quebec and has operations in Edmonton, Calgary, Southern Ontario and Atlantic Canada. Their turbine manufacturing facility is in Quebec's Gaspe region. This presentation included illustrations of Enercon's simple and proven technologies that make it a leader in the industry. The presentation also highlighted the community wind energy projects that are underway or in operation in the United Kingdom, France and Germany. Most community projects produce 12 MW of power. Issues regarding investment and financing were also discussed. The level of local investment in community wind projects was shown to be strongly correlated to the level of social acceptance. The new trend for municipalities to generate their own electricity has made electricity production an election platform issue. figs.

  20. Council of Europe. Parliamentary Assembly: State of Media Freedom in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGonagle, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) adopted its Resolution 1920 (2013) on the state of media freedom in Europe on 24 January 2013. The Resolution provides a critical audit of media freedom across Europe and thereby continues the PACE’s earlier work on the same theme, e.g. its

  1. From the Lisbon Strategy to EUROPE 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Lorenz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the Lisbon Strategy and the EUROPE 2020 Strategy. It demonstrates while none of the two strategies are sufficient as support for the monetary integration and the Euro-collaboration.......This article compares the Lisbon Strategy and the EUROPE 2020 Strategy. It demonstrates while none of the two strategies are sufficient as support for the monetary integration and the Euro-collaboration....

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Bat Lyssaviruses in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinney, L.M.; Marston, D.A.; Leech, S.; Freuling, C.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Echevarria, J.; Vazquez-Moron, S.; Horton, D.L.; Müller, T.; Fooks, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Bat rabies cases in Europe are principally attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2). Between 1977 and 2011, 961 cases of bat rabies were reported to Rabies Bulletin Europe, with the vast majority (>97%) being

  3. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2012-01-01

    This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007.......This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007....

  4. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; de Mouzon, J

    2012-01-01

    This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008.......This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008....

  5. Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Macias, José Brambila

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a classification of public policies to promote healthier eating and a structured mapping of existing measures in Europe. Complete coverage of alternative policy types was ensured by complementing the review with a selection of major interventions from outside Europe. Within...

  6. Life in Europe under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcamo, J.; Olesen, Jørgen E

    Life in Europe will indeed go on as the climate changes, but not in the same way as before. The air will be warmer, winds will change, patterns of rainfall and snowfall will alter, and sea level is likely to rise. These phenomena are already being seen. Europe will in the future experience marked...

  7. Health care and general practice across Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Jong, F.A.J.M. de; Mulder, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains an overview of general practice and primary care medicine in Europe. It includes a clear description of the rapidly changing situation in Eastern Europe, as far as this situation is clear at all. The book is meant for those who require a systematic general briefing on the

  8. Epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.

    2001-01-01

    Within Europe large differences exist in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke. These diseases show a clear West-East gradient with high rates in Eastern Europe. In spite the decreasing trend in age-adjusted cardiovascular disease mortality in Western European countries an increase in the

  9. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment

  10. Obesity in Europe : scaling an epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index > 30 kg/m2 is relatively common in Europe especially among women and especially in Southern and Eastern European countries. Among men the distribution of body mass index values is surprisingly similar in most countries of Europe despite a large variability among

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desario, Costantina; Addie, Diane D.; Martella, Vito; Vieira, Maria João; Elia, Gabriella; Zicola, Angelique; Davis, Christopher; Thompson, Gertrude; Thiry, Ethienne; Truyen, Uwe; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), which causes hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, has 3 antigenic variants: types 2a, 2b, and 2c. Molecular method assessment of the distribution of the CPV variants in Europe showed that the new variant CPV-2c is widespread in Europe and that the viruses are distributed in different countries. PMID:17953097

  12. The future of astroparticle physics in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    ASPERA has published a roadmap that describes Europe's role in the field of astroparticle physics, including contributions made by Member States.ASPERA a publié une feuille de route qui décrit le rôle et l'apport de l'Europe dans le domaine de l'astroparticule.

  13. PET-container collection systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, T.; Groot, J.L.B. de; Rink, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a TNO study of the present situation in Europe with regard to PET-bottle recycling. The overview concentrates on the main PET-bottles consuming countries in Europe i.e.: France, Italy, Spain and the UK. In addition the system in Belgium is presented. Applying a

  14. Travelers to Europe Need Measles Protection: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been reported in Europe. And 35 people across Europe have died from the highly contagious infection in the past year, the World Health Organization says. "Most measles cases in the United States are the result of international travel," said Dr. Gary Brunette, chief of the CDC's ...

  15. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Matthijs, K.; Neels, K.; Timmerman, C.; Haers, J.; Mels, S.

    2016-01-01

    Willekens, F. (2015) Demographic transitions in Europe and the world. In: K. Matthijs, K. Neels, C. Timmerman. J. Haers and S. Mels eds. Population change at work in Europe, the Middle-East and North Africa. Beyond the demographic divide. Ashgate (International Population Studies Series) pp. 13-44.

  16. Consumption patterns and cultural values in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemien van der Veen; Agnes Neulinger; Jacob Rosendahl; Tino Bech-Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 6 in Consumption culture in Europe. The chapter focuses on cultural differences in consumption across Europe and describes general attitudes towards consumption and brands, the significance of shopping, and how these are linked to the motives of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic

  17. Potato developments in a changing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.U.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The papers in this book reflect societal and commercial changes such as consumer behaviour and marketing aspects in relation to fresh and processed potatoes in western, central and eastern Europe. Seed trade between western and central Europe is entering a new stage with altered inspection

  18. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  19. Hacking Europe: from computer cultures to Demoscenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, G.; Oldenziel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Describes how local hacker communities across Europe appropriated the computer and forged new cultures around it. Explores the mediating actors instrumental in introducing and spreading the cultures of computing around Europe. Highlights the role of mischief, humor, and play in hacker culture.

  20. Europe Versus Africa: Hegemony Versus Dependence | Ugwuanyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper proposes an alternative basis of self-worth on the part of Africa and authentic humanism on the part of Europe and argues that these are the necessary basis for a more productive relationship between Europe and Africa and the basis for promoting a genuine cultural dialogue between these two world cultures.

  1. Key Data on Education in Europe 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranguelov, Stanislav; de Coster, Isabelle; Forsthuber, Bernadette; Noorani, Sogol; Ruffio, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This seventh edition of "Key Data on Education in Europe" retains its main special feature which is the combination of statistical data and qualitative information to describe the organisation and functioning of education systems in Europe. The present 2009 edition maintains the subject-based structure defined by the previous one but…

  2. Governance and Enterprise Restructuring in Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Mico

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The research in this paper is to be focused on examining governance and enterprise restructuring in Southeast Europe (Western Balkans) transition economies. International organizations classify the following countries in Southeast Europe (Western Balkans): Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. Design/methodology/approach - The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has governance and enterprise restructuring as basic indicat...

  3. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age...

  4. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  5. Harmonised human biomonitoring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Reinhard; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Biot, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    for policy making; (ii) to evaluate policy actions aimed at reducing exposure to potentially hazardous environmental stressors; and (iii) to promote more comprehensive health impact assessments of policy options. In support of the European Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010, European scientists......, experts from authorities and other stakeholders joined forces to work towards developing a functional framework and standards for a coherent HBM in Europe. Within the European coordination action on human biomonitoring, 35 partners from 27 European countries in the COPHES consortium aggregated...... health concerns, and political and health priorities. The harmonised approach includes sampling recruitment, and analytical procedures, communication strategies and biobanking initiatives. The protocols and the harmonised approach are a means to increase acceptance and policy support and to in the future...

  6. Europe is going to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The Agency's Science Programme Committee (SPC) approved Mars Express after ESA's Council, meeting at ministerial level in Brussels on 11 and 12 May, had agreed the level of the science budget for the next 4 years, just enough to make the mission affordable. "Mars Express is a mission of opportunity and we felt we just had to jump in and do it. We are convinced it will produce first-rate science", says Hans Balsiger, SPC chairman. As well as being a first for Europe in Mars exploration, Mars Express will pioneer new, cheaper ways of doing space science missions. "With a total cost of just 150 million euros, Mars Express will be the cheapest Mars mission ever undertaken", says Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Mars Express will be launched in June 2003. When it arrives at the red planet six months later, it will begin to search for water and life. Seven instruments, provided by space research institutes throughout Europe, will make observations from the main spacecraft as it orbits the planet. Just before the spacecraft arrives, it will release a small lander, provided by research institutes in the UK, that will journey on to the surface to look for signs of life. The lander is called Beagle 2 after the ship in which Charles Darwin sailed round the world in search of evidence supporting his theory of evolution. But just as Darwin had to raise the money for his trip, so the search is on for public and private finance for Beagle 2. "Beagle 2 is an extremely important element of the mission", says Bonnet. Europe's space scientists have envisaged a mission to Mars for over fifteen years. But limited funding has prevented previous proposals from going ahead. The positioning of the planets in 2003, however, offers a particularly favourable passage to the red planet - an opportunity not to be missed. Mars Express will be joined by an international flotilla of spacecraft that will also be using this opportunity to work together on scientific questions and pave the way

  7. Religiousness and health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Möller, Sören; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    .87). Conversely, people who only prayed had higher odds of depressive symptoms than non-religious people 1.46 (95% CI 1.15, 1.86). Our findings suggest two types of religiousness: 1. Restful religiousness (praying, taking part in a religious organization and being religiously educated), which is associated......Recent research suggests that epidemiological forces in religion and health can have opposed effects. Using longitudinal data of people aged 50+ included in wave 1 (2004-2005) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), and followed up through waves 2 (2006-2007), 4 (2011......) and 5 (2013), we examined two forms of religious internalization and their association with health. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine all associations. Taking part in a religious organization was associated with lower odds of GALI (global activity limitation index) (OR = 0.86, 95...

  8. Leishmaniasis: diagnostic issues in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpiano, Paul; Pace, David

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease with clinical presentations that vary from asymptomatic infection to cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral disease. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence in Europe largely caused by an increase in international travel, difficulty eradicating leishmanial infection in AIDS patients, and the use of immunosuppressive medications. Clinical diagnosis may be challenging, and parasitological diagnosis entails the use of invasive procedures which may be unrevealing in the immunosuppressed. A number of less invasive tests for the detection of anti-leishmanial antibodies or leishmanial antigen are available but their sensitivity and specificity may vary with the infective species and results have to be interpreted in light of the clinical presentation. The availability of polymerase chain reaction assays amplifying leishmanial genetic material has been a major step forward in improving the diagnosis of leishmanial disease and the response to treatment.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzini, Daiana; Battaglia, Mario A

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a non-homogeneous distribution around the world. Some authors in past described a latitude gradient, with increasing risk from the equator to North and South Poles, but this theory is still controversial. Regarding Europe, there are many articles in the literature concerning the epidemiology of this disease but, unfortunately, they are not always comparable due to different methodologies, they do not cover all countries in the continent, and most of them reported data of small areas and rarely at a national level. In 2012 there were 20 national registries that could help to describe the epidemiology of the disease and, in addition, there is an European Register for Multiple Sclerosis that collect data from already existing national or regional MS registries and databases. Another valid alternative to obtain epidemiological data, also at national level, in a routinely and cost-saving way is through administrative data that are of increasing interest in the last years.

  10. Social Impact Assessment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Lyhne, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is applied worldwide to assess social impacts of plans and projects. In Europe, directives on environmental assessment (EA) require attention to social impacts, however, there is a need to investigate the implementation in practise. To this end, we study three Danish...... cases, which are characterised by debates and conflicts on social issues. Analysis of the EA statements shows inclusion of a broad range of social impacts. However, the EAs do not fully match the concerns of the public, and social impacts are not always analysed in depth, mitigation measures...... are not suggested or are postponed and the geographical distribution of impacts assessed is biased towards including negative local impacts. We discuss the scope and handling of social impacts, and possible implications. Based on this, we conclude with the view that EA might do the job of handling social impacts...

  11. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J; Filipescu, D; Kozek-Langenecker, S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (p......RBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. METHODS: We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month...... period in 2013. RESULTS: The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone...

  12. Api-tourism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara WOŚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Api-tourism, as a form of tourism that deals with culture and traditions of rural communities could be considered as one of the most sustainable way of development and a niche tourism. Api-tourism is a form of tourism connected with beekeeping as a traditional profession and with bee products in ecological, food and medicinal aspects. The activities related to api-tourism include visits in apiaries, open-air museums and bee museums where tourists have the opportunity to observe a beekeeper’s work, a method of making honey, its properties and specifics, to find out about other bee products, to watch how bee colony live, to recognize ecological correlation between a man and bees. The purpose of this article is to show good practice in api-tourism observed in Europe. The study is based on field research conducted in apiaries, bee museums and educational farms in the years 2012-2014.

  13. Tolerable soil erosion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Frank; Jones, Bob; Rickson, Jane; Smith, Celina

    2010-05-01

    Soil loss by erosion has been identified as an important threat to soils in Europe* and is recognised as a contributing process to soil degradation and associated deterioration, or loss, of soil functioning. From a policy perspective, it is imperative to establish well-defined baseline values to evaluate soil erosion monitoring data against. For this purpose, accurate baseline values - i.e. tolerable soil loss - need to be differentiated at appropriate scales for monitoring and, ideally, should take soil functions and even changing environmental conditions into account. The concept of tolerable soil erosion has been interpreted in the scientific literature in two ways: i) maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of soil quantity, and ii) maintaining biomass production, at a location. The first interpretation ignores soil quality by focusing only on soil quantity. The second approach ignores many soil functions by focusing only on the biomass (particularly crop) production function of soil. Considering recognised soil functions, tolerable soil erosion may be defined as 'any mean annual cumulative (all erosion types combined) soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur'. Assumptions and problems of this definition will be discussed. Soil functions can generally be judged not to deteriorate as long as soil erosion does not exceed soil formation. At present, this assumption remains largely untested, but applying the precautionary principle appears to be a reasonable starting point. Considering soil formation rates by both weathering and dust deposition, it is estimated that for the majority of soil forming factors in most European situations, soil formation rates probably range from ca. 0.3 - 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1. Although the current agreement on these values seems relatively strong, how the variation within the range is spatially distributed across Europe and how this may be affected by climate, land use and land management

  14. Changing precipitation extremes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.; van der Schrier, G.

    2010-09-01

    A growing number of studies indicate trends in precipitation extremes over Europe during recent decades. These results are generally based on descriptive indices of extremes which occur on average once (or several times) each year (or season). An example is the maximum one-day precipitation amount per year. Extreme value theory complements the descriptive indices, in order to evaluate the intensity and frequency of more rare events. Trends in more rare extremes are difficult to detect, because per definition only few events exist in the observational series. Although single extreme events cannot be simply and directly attributed to anthropogenic climate change, as there is always a finite chance that the event in question might have occurred naturally, the odds may have shifted to make some of them more likely than in an unchanging climate (IPCC, 2007). In this study we focus on climate extremes defined as rare events within the statistical reference distribution of rainfall that is monitored daily at a particular place. We examine the daily precipitation series from the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) project. Comparisons will be made between the trends in modest extremes detected using the descriptive indices and the trends in more rare extremes determined by fitting an extreme value distribution to the data in consecutive 20-yr periods of the record. The trends in multi-year return levels are determined for groups of stations in several subregions of Europe. Because the typical record length is about 50 yr, we will assess the trends in events that occur on average up to once in 50 yr.

  15. Budget of ozone and precursors over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, M.G.M.; Bosman, R.; Thijsse, T.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Esser, P. [IMW-TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Beck, J.P. [RIVM-LLO, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Vosbeek, M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    A three dimensional model for the European boundary layer (the LOTOS model) was used to calculate the budget of ozone and precursors over Europe. For two summer months (July and August) in 1990 the net chemical production of ozone is about 21 Tg/m. By dry deposition 17 Tg/m is lost and transport accounts for a net export of 4 Tg/m into the free troposphere. Large differences in chemical ozone production occur for different regions in Europe. Though the ozone efficiency in terms of ozone produced per NO{sub x} molecule oxidised is much lower in western Europe than elsewhere in Europe the ozone chemically produced per unit area is the highest in western Europe due to the high NO{sub x} emission in this region. (orig.)

  16. More Europe? Too few Europe? Too much Europe? Energy efficiency regulation; Mehr Europa? Zu wenig Europa? Zu viel Europa? Energieeffizienzrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orita, Stephan [AGFW Der Energieeffizienzverband fuer Waerme, Kaelte und KWK e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Recht und Europa

    2013-04-15

    Due to the permanent crises, Europe actually is on everyone's mind. Driven by the critical reporting, all sides move into the position. Especially, the calls for ''more Europe'' were very often to hear recently. However, this demand is at most ''cloudy''. It is a fact that the European Union intervenes in an increasing number of areas. This also applies to district heating, district cooling and cogeneration; at least in form of the energy efficiency regulation. What specifically means ''more Europe'' in this case?.

  17. Christian identity of secular Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on September 30, 2005. The newspaper explained that this publication was a contribution to debate regarding criticism of Islam and self-censorship. In response, Danish Muslim organizations held public protests and spread knowledge of Jyllands-Postens publication. As the controversy grew, some or all of the cartoons were reprinted in newspapers in more than fifty other countries, which led to violent protests, particularly in the Muslim world. Critics of the cartoons describe them as islamophobic and argue that they are blasphemous, intended to humiliate a marginalized Danish minority, and a manifestation of ignorance about the history of western imperialism, from colonialism to the current conflicts in the Middle East. Supporters of the cartoons claim they illustrate an important issue in an age of Islamic extremist terrorism and that their publication is a legitimate exercise of the right of free speech. They also note that similar cartoons about other religions are frequently printed, arguing that the followers of Islam were not targeted in a discriminatory way. The dispute has again pointed out to the relevance of religion and religious differences in the contemporary world. Again, several questions presented themselves as significant: citizen freedom, values and the rights to exercise them, secularism, tolerance, multiculturalism majority-minority relationships and so on. The resolution to these issues appears as of the outmost importance, considering the existing tendencies of united Europe to even more firmly establish cultural, economic, and political associations, in order to launch a one, joined European identity with vanishing national, ethnic and religious differences. Therefore, the question becomes: what could serve as a foundation for

  18. Shaping science policy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Julio E; Gago, José Mariano

    2014-05-01

    The Lisbon Strategy was adopted by the Heads of State and Government of the European Union (EU) in 2000. By moving science into a central position for the development of a European knowledge-based economy and society, its adoption at political level seems to have been a powerful catalyst for the increased involvement of scientists in science policy in the EU. Recognising the need for scientists to act collectively in order to contribute to shape the future of science policy in Europe, a pioneering group of European science organisations leaders and representatives, as well as other scientists, initiated a European, interdisciplinary, inclusive movement leading to the creation of the European Research Council (ERC) to support basic research of the highest quality. Having scientists' campaign for the funding of bottom-up research by the EU Framework Programmes exclusively on scientific grounds, and for an ERC, was a unique event in the recent history of European science policy. For the first time, the scientific community acted collectively and across disciplinary or national boundaries as a political actor for the sake of a better science policy for Europe. As is often the case when first-hand experience is gained through the creation of a new organization, novel forms of collaboration arise. The European biomedical community has recently proposed the creation of a strategic action plan for health research (the European Council of Health Research; EuCHR), provisionally translated at present into a Scientific Panel for Health (SPH) research in Horizon 2020, the EU's research-funding programme for the period 2014-2020. The creation of such Scientific Panel should be viewed as an important contribution by the biomedical community as a major political agreement has been reached on the need for a comprehensive and long-term scientific strategy to accelerate research and facilitate innovation at EU level. It is our belief that describing and analyzing the process leading

  19. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  20. Metrology at Philip Morris Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualandris R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the metrology function at Philip Morris Europe (PME, a multinational organisation producing at over 40 sites in the European, Middle Eastern and African Regions is presented. Standardisation of test methods and equipment as well as the traceability of calibration gauges to the same reference gauge are essential in order to obtain comparable results among the various production centers. The metrology function as well as the qualification of instruments and the drafting of test and calibration operating procedures for this region are conducted or co-ordinated by the Research and Development Department in Neuchatel, Switzerland. In this paper the metrology function within PME is presented based on the measurement of the resistance to draw for which the PME R&D laboratory is accredited (ISO/CEI 17025, as both a calibration and a testing laboratory. The following topics are addressed in this paper: traceability of calibration standards to national standards; comparison of results among manufacturing centres; the choice, the budget as well as the computation of uncertainties. Furthermore, some practical aspects related to the calibration and use of the glass multicapillary gauges are discussed.

  1. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  2. MIGRATION AND MALARIA IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of imported malaria cases due to immigrants in Europe has increased during the lasts decades, being the higher rates for those settled immigrants who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFRs at their country of origin. Cases are mainly due to P. falciparum and Sub-Saharan Africa is the most common origin. Clinically, malaria in immigrants is characterized by a mild clinical presentation with even asymptomatic o delayed malaria cases and low parasitemic level. These characteristics may be explained by a semi-immunity acquired after long periods of time exposed to stable transmission of malaria. Malaria cases among immigrants, even those asymptomatic patients with sub-microscopic parasitemia, could increase the risk of transmission and reintroduction of malaria in certain areas with the adequate vectors and climate conditions. Moreover imported malaria cases by immigrants can also play an important role in the non-vectorial transmission out of endemic area, by blood transfusions, organ transplantation or congenital or occupational exposures. Probably, out of endemic areas, screening of malaria among recent arrived immigrants coming from malaria endemic countries should be performed. These aim to reduce the risk of clinical malaria in the individual as well as to prevent autochthonous transmission of malaria in areas where it had been eradicated.

  3. Reforming long-term care in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa-i-Font, Joan

    2011-01-01

    .... Offers the very latest analysis of long-term care reform agendas in Europe. Compares countries comparatively less studied with the experiences of reform in Germany, the UK, Netherlands and Sweden...

  4. Statelessness and the refugee crisis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Berényi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union needs to issue a Directive on common standards for statelessness determination procedures with a view to mitigating the particular impacts of statelessness in the context of the continuing refugee crisis in Europe.

  5. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miroslav Mareš

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods...

  6. Governance of electrotechnical standardisation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report provides recommendations about the governance of electrotechnical standardisation in Europe to seven independent National Committees: DKE (Germany), Electrosuisse (Switzerland), OVE (Austria), NEC (the Netherlands), NEK (Norway), SEK (Sweden), and SESKO

  7. Agricultural impacts: Europe's diminishing bread basket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Holger

    2014-07-01

    Global demand for wheat is projected to increase significantly with continuing population growth. Currently, Europe reliably produces about 29% of global wheat supply. However, this might be under threat from climate change if adaptive measures are not taken now.

  8. The genus Crepidotus (Fr.) Staude in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senn-Irlet, Beatrice

    1995-01-01

    The genus Crepidotus in Europe is considered. After an examination of 550 collections seventeen species and eight varieties are recognized. Two keys are supplied; all taxa accepted are typified. Morphological, ecological and chorological characters are critically evaluated. Descriptive statistics

  9. First report of Coprinus spadiceisporus in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uljé, C.B.; Gennari, A.; Doveri, F.; Cacialli, G.; Caroti, V.

    1998-01-01

    The first record of Coprinus spadiceisporus Van De Bogart in Europe is described. A study of the type and that of Coprinus roseistipitatus Van De Bogart revealed that both are conspecific, and accordingly the latter name is considered synonymous.

  10. Science Travel Guide. Europe & USA Spectaculars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Fred W.

    This travel guide describes the attractions, both in Europe and the United States, which have scientific or technological interest. Included are universities of historical scientific significance, museums, industrial complexes, and architectural achievements. (CP)

  11. Antenna standards and laboratories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemanczyk, Jerzy

    1995-01-01

    organizations, there exists several organs within Europe whose aims are to define, coordinate and implement standards, laboratory certification, multilateral acceptance of testing and calibration as well as international acceptance of the same. These include ETSI, the European Telecommunications Standards...

  12. Living with Disfigurement in Early Medieval Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skinner, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This book examines social and medical responses to the disfigured face in early medieval Europe, arguing that the study of head and facial injuries can offer a new contribution to the history of early...

  13. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; Kupka, M

    2013-01-01

    The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?......The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?...

  14. Europæisk Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2015-01-01

    I slipstrømmen af skandinaviske seriesucceser vidner aktuelle krimier som Mord uden grænser og Fortitude nu om en fornyet tro på tv-fiktion med europæiske kultur- og sprogblandinger......I slipstrømmen af skandinaviske seriesucceser vidner aktuelle krimier som Mord uden grænser og Fortitude nu om en fornyet tro på tv-fiktion med europæiske kultur- og sprogblandinger...

  15. The future of aortic surgery in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czerny, Martin; Bachet, Jean; Bavaria, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    the interested reader with an overview of how aortic surgery and (perhaps more accurately) aortic medicine has evolved in Europe, and its present standing; also to provide a glimpse into the future, trying to disseminate the thoughts of a group of people actively involved in the development of aortic medicine...... in Europe, namely the Vascular Domain of the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS)....

  16. VSAT standards, status and applications in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, J.; Bull, S.

    1993-08-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for very small aperture terminals (VSATs) in Europe. Attention is given to the role played to date by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute in the promulgation of technical standards, and to the way in which these standards figure in European Community legislation aimed at opening the telecommunications market in Europe to private satellite communications networks. Also noted are the implementation of European VSAT networks to date, and the likely development of market trends from this point.

  17. "Europäische Bildung neu denken"

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyen, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Bildung und Wissen ist das Fundament, auf dem wir die Zukunft Europas bauen. Es muss daher unser gemeinsamer Anspruch sein, das Bildungswesen in Europa stetig zu verbessern. Wenn wir Europäische Bildung also neu denken möchten, dann spielen in meinen Augen die folgenden Punkte eine wichtige Rolle: Europa an Schulen, Digitalisierung im Bildungswesen und der europäische Erfahrungsaustausch über Best Practices. (DIPF/Orig.)

  18. Asia-Europe: The Third Link

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Setton, Jeremie; Pisani-Ferry, Jean

    2008-01-01

    [Introduction] The prevailing view of the world economy is strikingly polarised. Analyses of macroeconomic linkages and transmission channels routinely represent the world with the US at the centre and other regions, among which Asia and Europe, at the periphery. Asia and Europe are obviously regarded as important players, but mainly in interaction with the US rather than with each other. In recent assessments of the short‐term economic outlook, the US is still widely seen as the driving forc...

  19. Den europæiske katastrofe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdiger, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Erling Bjøl: Da verden gik amok. Politik og Kulturhistorie 1914-45; og Nils Arne Sørensen: Den store krig. Europæernes første verdenskrig.......Anmeldelse af Erling Bjøl: Da verden gik amok. Politik og Kulturhistorie 1914-45; og Nils Arne Sørensen: Den store krig. Europæernes første verdenskrig....

  20. Notes on Central Europe from Sociological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Musil

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The following article is an attempt to establish whether the Central Europe of the 20th century is indeed a specific, internally homogenous socio-cultural macro-region. Two mutually complementary approaches were used. One is an analysis of the measure of homogeneity of countries referred to as central Europe by means of selected structural features in two periods of the 20th century. The other is a measurement of the level of interaction among individual Central European countries in three periods during the 20th century. The other analysis, dealing with the intensity of interactions, was limited to the investigation of trends of mutual trade exchange. Central Europe was represented in these analyses by the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Hungary and Poland. The results of both approaches applied indicate that in terms of certain structural features, Central Europe has always been a relatively homogenous and specific European macro-region. However, the level of this structural homogeneity has changed according to historical, especially political, conditions. This historical variability was validated also by partial analysis of the interaction. Central Europe continues to exist as a unique and rather loosely structured macro-region of Europe. Although this not a significant bearing, numerous surveys show it is not negligible, either. The region obviously achieved the highest level of homogeneity and intaraction in the latter half of the 19th century and the 1910s.

  1. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  2. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  3. Europe within the Hyogo framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrito, P.

    2009-04-01

    During recent years, civil protection has undergone considerable changes, both at operational level and in terms of public opinion response. These changes are the result of a new cultural approach to catastrophes, which highlights the responsibility of emergencies to Governments and populations, not so much in terms of response, but rather in terms of insufficient prevention and possible delays in relief operations. This strategic role implies understanding the complexity of disaster risk reduction, a cross-cutting theme by nature, which requires political commitment, public understanding, scientific knowledge, early warning systems and disaster response mechanisms. Further, the evolution in the perception, understanding and role played by Civil Protection to address risks has enhanced the possibility of contributing to disaster risk reduction in a coherent way at the national level. Enhancing the dialogue and experience sharing of the actors dealing with disaster risk reduction is of paramount importance. In January 2005, just a few weeks after the tsunami claimed over 250,000 lives, 168 Governments gathered at Kobe, Japan, at the second World Conference on Disaster Reduction and adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. The Framework lays out a detailed ten-year plan to make risk reduction an essential component of development policies, Among the activities highlighted in the Hyogo Framework for Action to reduce the risk of disasters there are the need to for different sectors to collaborate on reducing the risk of disasters and for actors to share their experiences and knowledge. Through this paper, we introduce the above mentioned collaborative sectors and the investment of Europe into the Hyogo Framework.

  4. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Brázdil, R.; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of quantitative historical hydrology under the influence of developments in hydraulics and statistics. In the 19th century, discharge calculations based on flood marks were the only source of hydrological data for engineering design, but were later left aside in favour of systematic gauge records and conventional hydrological procedures. In the last two decades, there has been growing scientific and public interest in understanding long-term patterns of rare floods, in maintaining the flood heritage and memory of extremes, and developing methods for deterministic and statistical application to different scientific and engineering problems. A compilation of 46 case studies across Europe with reconstructed discharges demonstrates that (1) in most cases present flood magnitudes are not unusual within the context of the last millennium, although recent floods may exceed past floods in some temperate European rivers (e.g. the Vltava and Po rivers); (2) the frequency of extreme floods has decreased since the 1950s, although some rivers (e.g. the Gardon and Ouse rivers) show a reactivation of rare events over the last two decades. There is a great potential for gaining understanding of individual extreme events based on a combined multiproxy approach (palaeoflood and documentary records) providing high-resolution time flood series and their environmental and climatic changes; and for developing non-systematic and non-stationary statistical models based on relations of past floods with external and internal covariates under natural low-frequency climate variability.

  5. Different recommendations for empiric first-choice antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuiston Haslund, Josephine; Rosborg Dinesen, Marianne; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen

    2013-01-01

    . METHOD: Searches were undertaken on PubMed, the Cochrane Library databases, Google, and Google Scholar. Recommendations from different geographical regions in Europe were investigated: Northern Europe (Denmark, Sweden), Western Europe (Scotland), Central Europe (Germany), Southern Europe (Spain...

  6. Tuberculosis among HIV-positive patients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruk, Alexey; Bannister, Wendy; Podlekareva, Daria

    2011-01-01

    To describe temporal changes in the incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) (pulmonary or extrapulmonary) among HIV-positive patients in western Europe and risk factors of TB across Europe.......To describe temporal changes in the incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) (pulmonary or extrapulmonary) among HIV-positive patients in western Europe and risk factors of TB across Europe....

  7. Languages in "The United Nations of Europe": Debating a Postwar Language Policy for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovska, Zorana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that the current discourse on languages, constructed as meaningful for Europe's establishment and maintenance as a geopolitical unit, is just the latest round in a much longer debate on managing the diversity of languages taking place within the Council of Europe. From a critical sociolinguistic perspective, this…

  8. Taking Europe To The Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar

  9. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R González; Straus, Lawrence G; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-06-09

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.

  10. Clinical epidemiology of human AE in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, D A; Demonmerot, F; Knapp, J; Richou, C; Grenouillet, F; Chauchet, A; Vuitton, L; Bresson-Hadni, S; Millon, L

    2015-10-30

    This review gives a critical update of the situation regarding alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Europe in humans, based on existing publications and on findings of national and European surveillance systems. All sources point to an increase in human cases of AE in the "historic endemic areas" of Europe, namely Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France and to the emergence of human cases in countries where the disease had never been recognised until the end of the 20th century, especially in central-eastern and Baltic countries. Both increase and emergence could be only due to methodological biases; this point is discussed in the review. One explanation may be given by changes in the animal reservoir of the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (increase in the global population of foxes in Europe and its urbanisation, as well as a possible increased involvement of pet animals as definitive infectious hosts). The review also focuses onto 2 more original approaches: (1) how changes in therapeutic attitudes toward malignant and chronic inflammatory diseases may affect the epidemiology of AE in the future in Europe, since a recent survey of such cases in France showed the emergence of AE in patients with immune suppression since the beginning of the 21st century; (2) how setting a network of referral centres in Europe based on common studies on the care management of patients might contribute to a better knowledge of AE epidemiology in the future. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Development of superconducting power devices in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixador, Pascal, E-mail: Pascal.Tixador@grenoble.cnrs.f [Grenoble INP/Institut Neel - G2Elab, CNRS Batiment E, BP 166, 25 Av. des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2010-11-01

    Europe celebrated last year (2008) the 100-year anniversary of the first liquefaction of helium by H. Kammerling Onnes in Leiden. It led to the discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Europe is still active in the development of superconducting (SC) devices. The discovery of high critical temperature materials in 1986, again in Europe, has opened a lot of opportunities for SC devices by broking the 4 K cryogenic bottleneck. Electric networks experience deep changes due to the emergence of dispersed generation (renewable among other) and to the advances in ICT (Information Communication Technologies). The networks of the future will be 'smart grids'. Superconductivity will offer 'smart' devices for these grids like FCL (Fault Current Limiter) or VLI (Very Low Inductance) cable and would certainly play an important part. Superconductivity also will participate to the required sustainable development by lowering the losses and enhancing the mass specific powers. Different SC projects in Europe will be presented (Cable, FCL, SMES, Flywheel and Electrical Machine) but the description is not exhaustive. Nexans has commercialized the first two FCLs without public funds in the European grid (UK and Germany). The Amsterdam HTS cable is an exciting challenge in term of losses for long SC cables. European companies (Nexans, Air Liquide, Siemens, Converteam, ...) are also very active for projects outside Europe (LIPA, DOE FCL, ...).

  12. Coming of Age in an Integrating Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Ginnerskov Hansen, Mette

    Over the last decades there has been an increase in cross-border student mobility in Europe (Teichler 2009). More than 3 million students from EU and EEA have participated in EU's Erasmus exchange program, a growing number of 'free-moving' young Europeans pursue tertiary education abroad and scho......Over the last decades there has been an increase in cross-border student mobility in Europe (Teichler 2009). More than 3 million students from EU and EEA have participated in EU's Erasmus exchange program, a growing number of 'free-moving' young Europeans pursue tertiary education abroad...... and scholarship opportunities available to students from EU's "neighbourhood" enable young people from across EU's border to study in the European Union. This paper aims at exploring how students from different parts of Europe make sense of themselves as young Europeans in an integrating Europe. Viewing Aarhus...... backgrounds of incoming students) and on 50 loosely structured narrative interviews with students from different places in Europe conducted at different times during their stay abroad. The paper aims at contributing to our understanding of the generation of Europeans who grew up after the fall of the wall...

  13. Economic Benefits of Space Tourism to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P.

    The European aerospace industry has been very slow to consider the commercial opportunities in supplying passenger space travel services. This has been a costly mistake not just of space policy, but also of economic policy and environmental policy. This is because it is very unlikely that space tourism will remain just a small-scale activity of the very rich; it is much more likely to grow into a major new industry, employing millions of people in high quality employment - eventually much of it outside the Earth's eco-system. This is particularly important because, although the European “social-economic model” has greater popular support than the “USA model” (including among the general USA population), Europe today faces the major problem of high unemployment, which is imposing heavy social and economic costs. If Europe makes serious efforts soon to encourage the growth of passenger space travel, and of the many other economically and environmentally valuable space activities to which this will lead, then commercial space activities could become a major new axis of economic growth and employment-creation for Europe. Moreover, Europe has several advantages over the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India, and so could play a leading role in this field, if policy errors are corrected. The paper discusses the above possibilities, and the potential economic, environmental and other benefits for Europe in investing boldly in this fledgling industry.

  14. Pollen-related allergy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Spieksma, F T; Liccardi, G; Jäger, S; Russo, M; Kontou-Fili, K; Nikkels, H; Wüthrich, B; Bonini, S

    1998-06-01

    The increasing mobility of Europeans for business and leisure has led to a need for reliable information about exposure to seasonal airborne allergens during travel abroad. Over the last 10 years or so, aeropalynologic and allergologic studies have progressed to meet this need, and extensive international networks now provide regular pollen and hay-fever forecasts. Europe is a geographically complex continent with a widely diverse climate and a wide spectrum of vegetation. Consequently, pollen calendars differ from one area to another; however, on the whole, pollination starts in spring and ends in autumn. Grass pollen is by far the most frequent cause of pollinosis in Europe. In northern Europe, pollen from species of the family Betulaceae is a major cause of the disorder. In contrast, the mild winters and dry summers of Mediterranean areas favor the production of pollen types that are rarely found in central and northern areas of the continent (e.g., the genera Parietaria, Olea, and Cupressus). Clinical and aerobiologic studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (e.g., importation of plants for urban parklands) and greater international travel (e.g., the expansion of the ragweed genus Ambrosia in France, northern Italy, Austria, and Hungary). Studies on allergen-carrying paucimicronic or submicronic airborne particles, which penetrate deep into the lung, are having a relevant impact on our understanding of pollinosis and its distribution throughout Europe.

  15. Development of superconducting power devices in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, Pascal

    2010-11-01

    Europe celebrated last year (2008) the 100-year anniversary of the first liquefaction of helium by H. Kammerling Onnes in Leiden. It led to the discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Europe is still active in the development of superconducting (SC) devices. The discovery of high critical temperature materials in 1986, again in Europe, has opened a lot of opportunities for SC devices by broking the 4 K cryogenic bottleneck. Electric networks experience deep changes due to the emergence of dispersed generation (renewable among other) and to the advances in ICT (Information Communication Technologies). The networks of the future will be "smart grids". Superconductivity will offer "smart" devices for these grids like FCL (Fault Current Limiter) or VLI (Very Low Inductance) cable and would certainly play an important part. Superconductivity also will participate to the required sustainable development by lowering the losses and enhancing the mass specific powers. Different SC projects in Europe will be presented (Cable, FCL, SMES, Flywheel and Electrical Machine) but the description is not exhaustive. Nexans has commercialized the first two FCLs without public funds in the European grid (UK and Germany). The Amsterdam HTS cable is an exciting challenge in term of losses for long SC cables. European companies (Nexans, Air Liquide, Siemens, Converteam, …) are also very active for projects outside Europe (LIPA, DOE FCL, …).

  16. Making sense of Islamic creationism in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Salman

    2015-05-01

    Islamic creationism has been noted as a serious concern in Europe. There have been reports of boycotts of university evolution lectures and, in one extreme case, even a threat of violence. While religious objections are indeed at play in some cases, our understanding of the rise of Islamic creationism should also take into account socioeconomic disparities and its impact on education for Muslim minorities in Europe. Furthermore, the broader narrative of rejection of evolution in Europe, for some Muslims, may be bound up in reactions to the secular culture and in the formation of their own minority religious identity. On the other hand, the stories of Muslim rejection of evolution in media end up reinforcing the stereotype of Muslims as "outsiders" and a threat to the European education system. A nuanced understanding of this dynamic may benefit those who support both the propagation of good science and favor cultural pluralism. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Space Weather Research Towards Applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book shows the state of the art in Europe on a very new discipline, Space Weather. This discipline lies at the edge between science and industry. This book reflects such a position, with theoretic papers and applicative papers as well. It is divided into 5 chapters. Each chapter starts with a short introduction, which shows the coherence of a given domain. Then, 4 to 5 contributions written by the best specialists in Europe give detailed hints of a hot topic in space weather. From the reading of this book, it becomes evident that space weather is a living discipline, full of promises and already full of amazing realizations. The strength of Europe is clear through the book, but it is also clear that this discipline is world wide.

  18. The practice of travel medicine in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P

    2010-03-01

    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  19. Testing the Speed Limit for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gros, Daniel; Jimeno, Juan; Monticelli, Carlo

    While America has pushed the pedal to the metal and with alarming speed has accelerated its productivity growth, it would seem that Europe on the other hand is experiencing a lack of progress in its labour markets and a deceleration in labour productivity. In this third annual report by the CEPS...... Macroeconomic Policy Group (MPG), distinguished economists from across Europe consider the state of the European economy, particularly with respect to three main issues: 1) Has the ‘new economy' arrived in Europe? 2) What is the state of European labour markets? And 3) Was the ECB's policy stance appropriate...... and does it have a sensible strategy that can be communicated clearly to the markets?...

  20. Large wind turbine development in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Attikis (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    During the last few years we have witnessed in Europe the development of a new generation of wind turbines ranging from 1000-1500 kW size. They are presently being tested and they are scheduled to reach the market in late 1996 early 1997. The European Commission has played a key role by funding the research leading to the development of these turbines. The most visible initiative at present is the WEGA program - the development, together with Europe`s leading wind industry players of a new generation of turbines in the MW range. By the year 1997 different European manufacturers will have introduced almost a dozen new MW machine types to the international market, half of them rated at 1.5 MW. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. The Workshop on Animal Botulism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarin, Hanna; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Woudstra, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    A workshop on animal botulism was held in Uppsala, Sweden, in June 2012. Its purpose was to explore the current status of the disease in Europe by gathering the European experts in animal botulism and to raise awareness of the disease among veterinarians and others involved in biopreparedness....... Animal botulism is underreported and underdiagnosed, but an increasing number of reports, as well as the information gathered from this workshop, show that it is an emerging problem in Europe. The workshop was divided into 4 sessions: animal botulism in Europe, the bacteria behind the disease, detection...... conclusions drawn from these discussions were that there is an urgent need to replace the mouse bioassay for botulinum toxin detection with an in vitro test and that there is a need for a European network to function as a reference laboratory, which could also organize a European supply of botulinum antitoxin...

  2. Strategic resources - Europe and the World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godement, F

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the geopolitical aspects of the energy security policy of Europe, its vulnerability with respect to other regions of the world with strong economic development and consumption (North America and East Asia), the failures of the European energy policies, and the dangers for Europe of strong changes in the rest of the World: Middle East's geopolitical instabilities, increased consumption of energy and raw materials by emerging economies, general discontinuity for raw material prices, emergence of non-OPEC oil and gas producers, high import dependency ratios from non-OECD countries. Then it analyzes the global energy scarcity hypothesis according to different scenarios: resurgence of geopolitical conflicts around resources, geopolitical spill-over from increased scarcity of resources, or interplay of market forces and business strategy. Finally, it sounds two alarms regarding energy policy: the decline of active energy saving policies across Europe, and the threat of liberalization on energy security policy. (J.S.)

  3. Auditing HIV Testing Rates across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D; Mocroft, A; Rayment, M

    2015-01-01

    European guidelines recommend the routine offer of an HIV test in patients with a number of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS conditions believed to share an association with HIV; so called indicator conditions (IC). Adherence with this guidance across Europe is not known. We audited HIV testing behaviour...... candidiasis. Observed HIV-positive rates were applied by region and IC to estimate the number of HIV diagnoses potentially missed. Outcomes examined were: HIV test rate (% of total patients with IC), HIV test accepted (% of tests performed/% of tests offered) and new HIV diagnosis rate (%). There were 49...... audits from 23 centres, representing 7037 patients. The median test rate across audits was 72% (IQR 32-97), lowest in Northern Europe (median 44%, IQR 22-68%) and highest in Eastern Europe (median 99%, IQR 86-100). Uptake of testing was close to 100% in all regions. The median HIV+ rate was 0.9% (IQR 0...

  4. Emerging arboviral human diseases in Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Southern Europe is characterized by unique landscape and climate which attract tourists, but also arthropod vectors, some of them carrying pathogens. Among several arboviral diseases that emerged in the region during the last decade, West Nile fever accounted for high number of human cases and fatalities, while Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever expanded its geographic distribution, and is considered as a real threat for Europe. Viruses evolve rapidly and acquire mutations making themselves stronger and naive populations more vulnerable. In an effort to tackle efficiently the emerging arboviral diseases, preparedness and strategic surveillance are needed for the early detection of the pathogen and containment and mitigation of probable outbreaks. In this review, the main human arboviral diseases that emerged in Southern Europe are described. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Implementing Social Europe in Times of Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Vollaard, Hans

    2014-01-01

    policies to identify different institutional dynamics and actor behaviours at play. The individual contributions examine the transposition of the patients’ rights directive to the Europeanisation of pension reforms; the role of national parliaments in transposing social Europe; judicial Europeanisation...... of the EU tend to have a contradictory impact on the EU’s social policies and the national welfare systems. Second, crises influence the implementation of social Europe, at times leading to a modification of fundamental principles and content, but not across the board. Third, as a result, there is evidence...

  6. Word Exchange at the Gates of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, Adam

    that took place. By the time of arrival in Europe, the Indo-European and Uralic populations had already broken up and constituted a patchwork of languages and cultures that continued to converge and exchange. Whether contacts were connected to war or trade or exchange of inventions is revealed...... to Medieval times. The Indo-European tribes, shortly after their migrations into Europe, came to form part of new cultural communities, influenced by Uralic populations from the North. This had a significant impact on specific parts of the vocabulary, notably terms for religion and warfare. Many terms...

  7. Operational expert system applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    1992-01-01

    Operational Expert System Applications in Europe describes the representative case studies of the operational expert systems (ESs) that are used in Europe.This compilation provides examples of operational ES that are realized in 10 different European countries, including countries not usually examined in the standard reviews of the field.This book discusses the decision support system using several artificial intelligence tools; expert systems for fault diagnosis on computerized numerical control (CNC) machines; and expert consultation system for personal portfolio management. The failure prob

  8. Development of organic fruit in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Weibel, F.P.; Daniel, C.; Tamm, L.; Willer, H.; Schwartau, H.

    2013-01-01

    Europe is both a leading world market for and world producer of organic food. Growth of organically managed land and of domestic market values was strong in the past and continued during the financial recession, although at a slower rate. Many countries have specific plans for priority organic research and investment. Europe is a major producer of organic fruit crops, including a total of more than 900,000 ha consisting of 367,000 ha of olives, 92,700 ha of grapes, 187,000 ha of nuts, 94,800 ...

  9. Implementing Social Europe in Times of Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Vollaard, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This volume examines the state of social Europe when European Union principles and policies have to be implemented in the member states while the EU legitimacy crisis and the Great Recession prevail. The volume explores diverse processes, stages and subjects of implementation in a variety of social...... of the EU tend to have a contradictory impact on the EU’s social policies and the national welfare systems. Second, crises influence the implementation of social Europe, at times leading to a modification of fundamental principles and content, but not across the board. Third, as a result, there is evidence...

  10. Multiple Perspectives on Imprisonment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda; Schinkel, Marguerite; Beijersbergen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    At present, there are over 1.6 million prisoners in Europe and conditions in European prisons vary widely. In 2010, the European Society of Criminology’s Working Group on Prison Life and the Effects of Imprisonment was established. In this working group scholars from over 20 different countries aim...... to encourage prison research in Europe. These academics meet twice a year to discuss a variety of prison-related topics. This article brings together some of the contributions to its meeting in Denmark in April 2016. In this paper a selection of timely prison research from a variety of European countries, each...

  11. Media Discourse on Jihadist Terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille Reinke de Buitrago

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the manner in which European print media discuss jihadist terrorism in Europe. It presents key results from a qualitative analysis of media discourse following three selected attacks in seven European countries in 2010: the attack on the cartoonist Westergaard, the Yemen cargo plane plot, and the Stockholm suicide attack. The article finds that attack type is a factor shaping media discourse across different media in Europe. Considering that terrorists also aim to impact discourse for their own agenda, the article presents implications for policy reactions on the basis of attack type, and not as desired by terrorists.''

  12. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  13. Space station related investigations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienss, W.; Vallerain, E.

    1984-10-01

    Studies pertaining to the definition of Europe's role in the Space Station program are described, with consideration given to such elements as pressurized modules as laboratories for materials processing and life sciences, unpressurized elements, and service vehicles for on-orbit maintenance and repair activities. Candidate elements were selected against such criteria as clean interfaces, the satisfaction of European user needs, new technology items, and European financial capabilities; and their technical and programmatic implications were examined. Different scenarios were considered, ranging from a fully Space-Station-dependent case to a completely autonomous, free-flying man-tendable configuration. Recommendations on a collaboration between Europe and the United States are presented.

  14. From periphery to centre: the image of Europe at the Eastern Border of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin ŞIPOŞ; Gabriel MOISA; Cepraga, Dan Octavian; Brie, Mircea; Teodor MATEOC

    2013-01-01

    The volume From Periphery to Centre. The Image of Europe at the Eastern Border of Europe gathers the papers presented at the international symposium of the same name held in Oradea, Romania, on June 4-8, 2013. The studies aim to uncover distances between centre and periphery and their common traits as well, as they are revealed in the various images of Europe and of its Eastern border. The articles cover a time span that goes back to the early Middle Ages and reaches the present, increasi...

  15. Place branding and nonstandard regionalization in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boisen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Place branding might, could, and maybe even should play a central role in urban and regional governance. The vantage point of this chapter is that every place is a brand and that the processes of nonstandard regionalization that can be witnessed all over Europe create new places and, thus, new place

  16. Hadron therapy takes off in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A joint meeting of ULICE, ENLIGHT and PARTNER recently took place in Marburg (Germany). The three initiatives are shaping both the present and the future of hadron therapy in Europe, where new cutting-edge facilities have started to fight cancer with beams of protons and carbon ions.   A pictorial representation of a raster scan on a tumour. (Photo courtesy of HIT/GSI/Siemens.) Thanks to a very active multidisciplinary community consisting of physicists, biologists, radiobiologists, engineers, IT specialists and medical doctors, hadron therapy is taking off in Europe. Indeed, after a few decades during which the innovative technique was mainly used experimentally in Japan, the US and a couple of pioneering laboratory-based facilities in Europe, today an increasing number of hospitals are being equipped with synchrotrons and dedicated treatment rooms. “Asia and Europe are at the forefront of research and use of carbon ions in the treatment of some rare and radio-resistant t...

  17. Gender Inequality and Growth in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasen, S; Minasyan, A

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will briefly review the existing literature on the growth impacts of gender gaps and assess its relevance for the European situation. We will show that gender gaps in education in Europe are unlikely to play an important role for economic performance, but that gender gaps in

  18. Is biofuel policy harming biodiversity in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, J.; Tröltzsch, K.; Falcucci, A.; Verburg, P.H.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the potential impacts of land-use changes resulting from a change in the current biofuel policy on biodiversity in Europe. We evaluated the possible impact of both arable and woody biofuel crops on changes in distribution of 313 species pertaining to different taxonomic groups. Using

  19. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askling, Helena H.; Bruneel, Fabrice; Burchard, Gerd; Castelli, Francesco; Chiodini, Peter L.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Paul, Margaret; Petersen, Eskild; Popescu, Corneliu; Ramharter, Michael; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is

  20. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calhaz-Jorge, C.; De Geyter, C.; Kupka, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    : Since 1997, ART data in Europe have been collected and reported in 16 manuscripts, published in Human Reproduction. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Retrospective data collection of European ART data by the European IVF-monitoring Consortium for ESHRE. Data for cycles between 1 January and 31 December 2013...

  1. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  2. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led t...

  3. Schuman's Europe : his frame of reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijtenburg, Margriet

    2012-01-01

    Schuman’s Europe: His frame of reference provides an insight into the way European unification was envisioned by its founding father Robert Schuman. The thesis makes clear why Schuman can be considered the main architect of European unification because of his thoughts, his personality, his religious

  4. Careers research in Europe: Identity and contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khapova, S.N.; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Arnold, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This guest editorial introduces the special section of the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 'Careers research in Europe'. Contributing to the aim of the special section to highlight the value of the European careers research for the benefit of the global community of career

  5. Investing in space the challenge for Europe

    CERN Document Server

    European Space Agency. Noordwijk. Long-Term Space Policy Committee; Naja, G

    1999-01-01

    This is the second report of the European Space Agency's Long-term Space Policy Committee (LSPC). The report addresses three challenges that Europe faces at the turn of the century, challenges that will influence its future based on economic prosperity, quality of life, collective security and global solidarity.

  6. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, K.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of renal replacement therapy for end stage renal disease (ESRD) varies substantially at both the global and European level. If we can determine which factors cause these differences across Europe, this may lead to the identification of health care measures effective in reducing the

  7. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  8. Primary English Teacher Education in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enever, Janet

    2014-01-01

    While substantial attention has been given to the introduction of English from the very start of schooling in many European countries today, there remains an insufficient supply of motivated, well-prepared teachers available and willing to meet this demand. This article reviews current mechanisms in Europe aimed at supporting the provision of…

  9. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  10. Innovative and collaborative industrial mathematics in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of how industrial mathematics, inspired by the Oxford Study Group activity, organized itself in Europe, gave rise to the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry, the series of European Study Groups with Industry, and to new modes of productive contacts between industry and applied mathematicians in academia. PMID:28588414

  11. SCOPE: a scorecard for osteoporosis in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, J.A.; Borgstrom, F.; Compston, J.; Dreinhofer, K.; Nolte, E.; Jonsson, L.; Lems, W.F.; McCloskey, E.V.; Rizzoli, R.; Stenmark, J.

    2013-01-01

    The scorecard summarises key indicators of the burden of osteoporosis and its management in each of the member states of the European Union. The resulting scorecard elements were then assembled on a single sheet to provide a unique overview of osteoporosis in Europe. Introduction: The scorecard for

  12. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fietze, I; Penzel, T; Alonderis, A

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, the services provided for the investigation and management of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) varies from country to country. The aim of this questionnaire-based study was to investigate the current status of diagnostic pathways and therapeutic approaches applied in the treatment of OSA...

  13. Editorial : The GMO Stalemate in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresco, L.O.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, Europe was shocked by a publication, from Caen University in France, claiming that rats fed for 2 years with transgenic herbicide-resistant corn suffered from tumors. Even though the results have been criticized as flawed,* this research continues to be hailed as a confirmation

  14. Investigating road safety management processes in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice”

  15. Does Europe Need a Comprehensive Energy Policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear meltdown in Fukushima has given renewed momentum to the anti-nuclear power movement across Europe. However, the degree of momentum varies greatly from country to country, and considering the geographically widespread consequences of a nuclear accident, it hardly appears optimal for one

  16. Islamic Finance in Europe: Regulatory Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.; FinConf 2nd Annual Conference, dedicated to innovation in financial services, Sarajevo (2016-10-06)

    2016-01-01

    Islamic banking faces several hurdles that impede its take-off in Europe. One of these hurdles is the complex issue of how to adjust a jurisdiction's laws and regulations to accommodate Islamic banking. The paper studies this issue in some detail.

  17. Human resources for health in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKee, Martin; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; Nolte, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    ... systems in the field of personnel. The authors also identify which strategies are most likely to lead to the optimal management of health professionals in the future. Human Resources for Health in Europe is key reading for health policymakers and postgraduates taking courses in health services management, health policy and health economics. It is also ...

  18. Recent advances in soilless culture in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, Van E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Quantity and quality of water is one of the main issues in Europe. Southern countries with a warmer and drier climate are especially looking to enough quantity to increase production while north western European countries have to face the quality aspects of discharge water emitting to the

  19. Charactiristies of migrant entrepreneurship in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baycan, T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate and compare various modalities of migrant entrepreneurship in European countries in order to design a systematic classification of migrant entrepreneurship and to highlight key factors of migrant entrepreneurship in Europe. The paper is based on a comparative

  20. EUROPE 1992, PART OF A PROCESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUKKES, P

    1992-01-01

    'Europe 1992' is no more than one, although important, component of the rapid economic and political changes that take place in this part of the world. Therefore, overemphasizing its impact should be avoided. Perhaps the switch from EEC to EC is indicative for a shrinking importance of the

  1. Prison Education across Europe: Policy, Practice, Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Anne; Warner, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the education offered in prisons varies greatly. Provision can be focused narrowly on limited objectives, such as training for employment or seeking to "address offending behaviour." On the other hand, where prison education follows the policies of the Council of Europe or the European Union, which are drawn from the…

  2. Primary care workforce development in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.; Heinemann, S.; Gress, S.; Schäfer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a large variation in the organization of primary care in Europe. In some health care systems, primary care is the gatekeeper to more specialized care, whilst in others patients have the choice between a wide range of providers. Primary care has increasingly become teamwork.

  3. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  4. Public religion and urban space in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbaan, Martijn

    Conflicts related to demographic and cultural change in Europe regularly find their expression in struggles over the presence and visibility of religious buildings and groups. As this editorial argues, these conflicts can best be understood from a postsecular perspective that takes into account

  5. The diachronous Eemian (Last Interglacial) in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sier, M.J.; Peeters, J.; Cohen, K.M.; Dekkers, M.J.; Pares, J.M.; Roebroeks, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Eemian, first defined by Harting in 1874 in the Netherlands, is the term for the terrestrial Last Interglacial in Europe. Extensive research has been devoted to this period from a wide range of disciplines. Archaeologists have an interested in this period as it contains the Last Interglacial

  6. Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine; Hansen, Mette Weinreich

    2004-01-01

    Nielsen T, Kristensen NH, Hansen MW (2004): Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe. Chapter in: Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development. Volume 7, from the OMIaRD project. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. ISBN: 0-9543279-7-1...

  7. Rural areas under urban pressure in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this Introduction paper, I will describe the motivation behind this special issue on the role of rural-urban relationships in preserving the rural landscape in Europe. Based on the RURBAN project 'Building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure', the special issue aims to identify

  8. Developing curriculum in nursing informatics in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, J

    1998-06-01

    The NIGHTINGALE Project (NIGHTINGALE Project: HC1109 DGXIII Contract and Technical Annex, European Commission, December 1995) which started on the 1st of January, 1996, after the approval of the European Commission, has a 36 month duration. It is essential in planning and implementing a strategy in training the nursing profession in using and applying healthcare information systems. NIGHTINGALE contributes towards the appropriate use of the developed telematics infrastructure across Europe by educating and training nurses in a harmonious way across Europe in the upcoming field of nursing informatics. NIGHTINGALE develops courseware material based on the curriculum development process using multimedia technologies. Computer based training software packages in nursing informatics will be the basis of the training material and the corresponding courses. CD-ROM based training and reference material will also be provided in the courses whereas the traditional booklets, teaching material and textbooks can also play an adequate role in training. NIGHTINGALE will disseminate all information and courseware material freely to all interested parties through the publications of the proceedings of the conferences, through the establishment of the world wide web (WWW) server in nursing informatics for Europe (http://www.dn.uoa.gr/nightingale), which will become a depository of nursing information knowledge across Europe as well as a dissemination node of nursing informatics throughout the European members states for the benefit and welfare of the European citizen.

  9. Prehistoric archaeology in Central Europe: beyond diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosna, D.; Kolář, Jan; Květina, Petr; Trampota, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 123-130 ISSN 0323-1119. [ Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : archaeological theory * artefact * communication * environment * history of archaeology * reflexivity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  10. Patient education in Europe: united differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Adriaan; Deccache, A.; Bensing, J.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Patient Education and Counseling presents the state of the art of patient education in several European countries. It is based on papers presented at a meeting in Paris on the evolution and development of patient education in western, central and eastern Europe (May 1999). Also

  11. The incidence of narcolepsy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijnans, Leonoor; Lecomte, Coralie; de Vries, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    In August 2010 reports of a possible association between exposure to AS03 adjuvanted pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and occurrence of narcolepsy in children and adolescents emerged in Sweden and Finland. In response to this signal, the background rates of narcolepsy in Europe were assessed...

  12. Seasonality of Congenital Anomalies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Draper, Elizabeth; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; McDonnell, Bob; Nelen, Vera; O'Mahony, Mary; Mullaney, Carmel; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien; Yevtushok, Lyubov

    BackgroundThis study describes seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe to provide a baseline against which to assess the impact of specific time varying exposures such as the H1N1 pandemic influenza, and to provide a comprehensive and recent picture of seasonality and its possible relation to

  13. MOOCs in Europe: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Donovan, Maria Margaret O

    2015-01-01

    “MOOCS in Europe: A Literature Review” is an integrated part of the Exploitation work package of the HOME project: Higher education Online: MOOCs the European way. It has been carried out in order to compare the results from the HOME project with the ongoing European and International discussions...... on MOOCs....

  14. Teaching life writing texts in Europe : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mreijen, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Although courses on auto/biography and life writing are taught at different universities in Europe, and elements of contemporary life writing issues are addressed in different disciplines like sociology and history, life writing courses, as described in Teaching Life Writing Texts, are certainly not

  15. Progression of Alzheimer Disease in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellas, B; Hausner, L; Frolich, L

    2012-01-01

    /first year, -2.5 pts/second year; ADAScog: + 3.5 pts/first year, + 4.8 pts/second year), while the progression of behavioral disturbances (NPI scale) was linear. Neither scale showed regional differences, and progression of the disease was similar across Europe despite different health care systems...

  16. Accelerating the health literacy agenda in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Sørensen, Kristine; Rübig, Paul; Bertinato, Luigi; Brand, Helmut; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Dinca, Irina; Peetso, Terje; Kadenbach, Karin; Dario, Claudio

    2017-12-01

    Health literacy can be defined as the knowledge, motivation and competence to access, understand, appraise and apply information to make decisions in terms of healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. Health literacy is a European public health challenge that has to be taken seriously by policy-makers. It constitutes an emerging field for policy, research and practice. However, recent research has shown that health literacy advancement is still at its infancy in Europe, as reflected in the scarce scientific health literacy literature published by European authors. From a total of 569 articles published until 2011 on this subject, the first author of only 15% of them is from Europe. This article conveys recommendations of different European stakeholders on how to accelerate the health literacy agenda in Europe. A general introduction on the current status of health literacy is provided, followed by two cases applying health literacy in the areas of prevention of communicable diseases and promotion of digital health. The current EU strategies integrating health literacy are listed, followed by examples of challenges threatening the further development of health literacy in Europe. Recommendations as to how European stakeholders involved in research, policy, practice and education can promote health literacy are given. It is vital that the European Commission as well as European Union Member States take the necessary steps to increase health literacy at individual, organizational, community, regional and national levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Railway tunnels in Europe and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    This list of railway tunnels (longer than 1, 000 m) was compiled by the secretariat from various national and international sources. The list is intended to serve as a reference inventory for a long railway tunnels in Europe and North America. Tunnel...

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-06

    Aumasson Thermophysics Daniel Balageas Electronic Systems Gerard Gamier Optronic Systems Rene Jalin Systems Experimentation Jean-Claude Theodore...April 1988 54 WEST EUROPE physics laboratory at Cit Descartes , in cooperation with the College of France and the Paris-6, Paris-7 and Paris-12

  19. Young farmers in Europe: opting for innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de S.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Many young farmers in the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe are turning away from the risks and insecurity involved in committing themselves to the capital intensive industrial farming model. They are now looking for low input, economical and multifunctional ways of managing their farms. In this

  20. Young farmers in Europe: opting for innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de S.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Many young farmers in the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe are turning away from the risks and insecurity involved in committing themselves to the capital intensive industrial farming model. They are now looking for low input, economical and multifunctional ways of managing their farms. In this

  1. The new migratory deal in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, J

    1993-01-01

    "In this paper, we shall examine successively: A world map of current migration flows, 1950-1990, a regional analysis of external migration surplus in Europe, the number and situation of foreigners in the [European Community], East and South migration pressure,...[and] implications for European Community migration policy and Western security." excerpt

  2. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the

  3. ATM in Europe: analysis of current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of the European market for ATM services. The offer of ATM services by principal operators in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom is described. In addition, a number...... of international providers of ATM in Europe are presented....

  4. Europe after Empire: Decolonization, Society, and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buettner, E.

    2016-01-01

    Europe after Empire is a pioneering comparative history of European decolonization from the formal ending of empires to the postcolonial European present. Elizabeth Buettner charts the long-term development of post-war decolonization processes as well as the histories of inward and return migration

  5. Bluetongue in Europe: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony J.; Mellor, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    The recent arrival in Northern and Western (NW) Europe of bluetongue virus (BTV), which causes the ruminant disease ‘bluetongue’, has raised the profile of this vector-borne ruminant disease and sparked discussions on the reasons for its sudden emergence so far north. This expansion has not happened in isolation and the disease has been expanding into Southern and Eastern Europe for the last decade. This shifting disease distribution is being facilitated by a number of different introduction mechanisms including the movement of infected livestock, the passive movement of infected Culicoides on the wind and, in NW Europe, an unknown route of introduction. The expansion of BTV in Europe has forced a re-evaluation of the importance of Palaearctic Culicoides species in transmission, as well as the importance of secondary transmission routes, such as transplacental transmission, in facilitating the persistence of the virus. The current European outbreak of BTV-8 is believed to have caused greater economic damage than any previous single-serotype outbreak. Although attempts are being made to improve the capacity of European countries to cope with future BTV incursions, the options available are limited by a lack of basic entomological data and limited virological surveillance. PMID:19687037

  6. Key Data on Education in Europe 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranguelov, Stanislav; De Coster, Isabelle; Norani, Sogol; Paolini, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Key Data on Education in Europe 2012 is a Eurydice flagship publication tracing the main developments of European education systems over the last decade. The report combines statistical data with qualitative information to describe the organisation, management and functioning of 37 European education systems from pre-primary to higher education.…

  7. Innovative and collaborative industrial mathematics in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of how industrial mathematics, inspired by the Oxford Study Group activity, organized itself in Europe, gave rise to the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry, the series of European Study Groups with Industry, and to new modes of productive contacts...

  8. Spread of Measles Virus in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-06

    Dr. Paul Rota, team lead for the Measles Laboratory, Division of Viral Diseases, at CDC, talks about a measles virus survey in Europe, 2008-2011.  Created: 10/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/6/2011.

  9. Soils of volcanic regions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnalds, O.; Bartoli, F.; Buurman, P.; Oskarsson, H.; Stoops, G.; García-Rodeja, E.

    2007-01-01

    Soils of volcanic areas often exhibit unique properties differentiating them from other soils on Earth. This book gives comprehensive coverage of soils in volcanic regions within Europe, dealing with most aspects of modern day soil science. It covers a range of issues such as mineralogy, chemistry,

  10. Chechen refugees denied access to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rozumek

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A decade of conflict has forced an estimated 350,000 people to flee Chechnya. For Chechen asylum seekers Central Europe has become the transit point for those seeking entry to the EU. Expansion of the EU has failed to offer protection and imposed further burdens onasylum systems in new member states.

  11. Teaching about Western Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    Recent historical events have made it increasingly important to strengthen the study of Western Europe in U.S. schools. With full integration of the European Community after 1992, with the unification of the two Germanys, and with the newly democratic states of the old Soviet bloc seeking some form of association with the European Economic…

  12. AED in Europe. Report on a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahr, Jan; Bossaert, Leo; Handley, Anthony; Koster, Ruud; Vissers, Bart; Monsieurs, Koen

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on the strategies for community defibrillation defined by a joint policy conference of ESC and ERC, we have conducted a survey to identify the current status of AED programmes in Europe. METHODS: All registered visitors to the website of the ERC were contacted by e-mail and

  13. Community Languages in Europe : Challenges and Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McPake, J.; Martyniuk, W.; Aarts, R.; Broeder, Peter; Latomaa, Sirkku; Mijares, Laura; Tinsley, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews issues affecting school students’ learning of community languages across Europe, with the aim of identifying both challenges and opportunities inherent in the current context. Language education pol icy has become more inclusive of late, addressing the full range of languages

  14. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  15. Osmoderma eremita (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranius, T.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Research, monitoring and development of preservation strategies for threatened species are often limited by national borders even though a global perspective would be more appropriate. In this study, we collected data on the occurrence of a threatened beetle, Osmoderma eremita, associated with tree hollows in 2,142 localities from 33 countries in Europe where it is or has been present. The larvae develop in tree hollows and very few observations of larvae have been observed in dead logs on the ground. As long as there is a suitable tree hollow, it appears that O. eremita may use any tree species. Oaks (Quercus spp. are the trees mainly used by O. eremita, followed by lime (Tilia spp., willow (Salix spp., beech (Fagus sylvatica and fruit trees (Prunus spp., Pyrus spp., Malus domestica. O. eremita is still found in some remnants of natural forest, but is mainly observed on land that has long been used by man, such as pasture woodlands, hunting parks, avenues, city parks and trees around agricultural fields and along streams. The occurrence of O. eremita seems to have decreased in all European countries. Relatively high densities of O. eremita localities occur in Central Europe (northern Italy, Austria, Czechia, southern Poland and eastern Germany, some parts of Northern Europe (south-eastern Sweden, Latvia and France. In some regions in north-western Europe, the species is extinct or may occur at some single sites (Norway, Danish mainland, The Netherlands, Belgium, north-eastern France. There are few data from south-eastern Europe. Many local extinctions of O. eremita are to be expected in the near future, especially in regions with recent habitat loss and fragmentation. O. eremita is useful as an indicator and umbrella species for the preservation of the entire invertebrate community associated with hollow trees in Europe. A preservation plan for O. eremita should include three aspects that are of general importance in nature conservation in

  16. Trends in airline labor productivity and cost in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Following the liberalization of air services in Europe in 1988 and more liberal agreements with countries outside Europe, European air carriers have come under increasing pressure to reduce costs. This has been in response to growing competition in t...

  17. Providing and exporting grant data with Europe PMC

    OpenAIRE

    PMC, Europe

    2017-01-01

    Europe PMC provides a Grant Finder tool that allows to search through grants awarded by Europe PMC Funder's group.This presentation focuses on details of providing and exporting grant data for funders

  18. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Branicki, Wojciech; Jedrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Goszczyński, Jacek; Jedrzejewska, Bogumiła; Dykyy, Ihor; Shkvyrya, Maryna; Tsingarska, Elena

    2010-04-21

    While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  19. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykyy Ihor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. Results We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Conclusions Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  20. Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a hospital-based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martijn P; Notermans, Daan W; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the extent of Clostridium difficile infection in Europe. Our aim was to obtain a more complete overview of C difficile infection in Europe and build capacity for diagnosis and surveillance.......Little is known about the extent of Clostridium difficile infection in Europe. Our aim was to obtain a more complete overview of C difficile infection in Europe and build capacity for diagnosis and surveillance....

  1. Destination Europe: The political and economic growth of a continent

    OpenAIRE

    Torbiorn, Kjell M.

    2003-01-01

    Destination Europe interprets and interrelates the major political, economic and security developments in Europe - including transatlantic relations - from the end of the Second World War up until the present time, and looks ahead to how the continent may evolve politically in the future. The book fills a definite lacuna in the current literature on Europe, as most studies cover only specific aspects, such as the European Union. Destination Europe by contrast weaves all the different strands ...

  2. Earth Science Europe "Is Earth Science Europe an interesting and useful construct?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, John

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 we managed to have a group of earth scientists from across the spectrum: from academic, survey, industry and government, pull together to create the first output for Earth Science Europe http://www.bgs.ac.uk/earthScienceEurope/downloads/EarthScienceEuropeBrochure.pdf In this document we stated that Earth scientists need a united, authoritative voice to enhance the status and impact of Earth science across Europe. The feeling was that there were many diverse infrastructure and research initiatives spanning the terrestrial and oceanic realms and science ranged from historical geology to active dynamics on Earth, and that a level of coordination and mutual knowledge sharing was necessary. In addition to a better understanding of the Earth in general, we thought there was a need to have Earth Science Europe develop a strategic research capacity in geohazards, georesources and environmental earth sciences, through a roadmap addressing fundamental and societal challenges. This would involve a robust research infrastructure to deliver strategic goals, enabling inspirational research and promoting solutions to societal challenges. In this talk I will propose some next steps and discuss what this "authoritative voice" could look like and ask the question - "is Earth Science Europe and interesting and useful concept?"

  3. The Role of the Bologna Process in Defining Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The question of what Europe is remains under-explored in the literature on European matters, and this suggests a need to formulate a definition of "Europe". This paper suggests that it is not possible to resolve the problem of the meaning of Europe without considering its higher education developments. The Bologna Process is a recent…

  4. Overcoming obstacles to late presentation for HIV infection in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Jürgens, R; Weait, M

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of the HIV in Europe Initiative is to promote testing and treatment throughout Europe and Central Asia in order to decrease the number of people living with HIV presenting late for care. This article summarizes the results from the HIV in Europe 2009 Conference and the early...

  5. 25 tooli : Euroopa Nõukogu kohvik "Bar Europe" = 25 Chairs : Council of Europe Cafe "Bar Europe" / Maria Orlova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orlova, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu - Justus Lipsius - hoonest Brüsselis. Kohviku "Bar Europe" kujundusest, mille tegi Hollandi büroo Droog Design. Kohviku interjöör põhineb Hollandi 17. sajandi kultuuripärandi interpreteerimisel. Lisaks tavalistele toolidele on ruumi toodud 25 tooli 25 EL-i liikmesriigist. Eestit esindava tooli "John" autoriks on Toivo Raidmets. 5 värv. sisevaadet

  6. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid

  7. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareš Miroslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods. Focusing on events in both Western and Eastern Europe, the article analyses and compares the most significant terrorist acts against the Roma of recent years. It concludes that anti-Romani terrorism is heterogeneous in terms of tactics, strategies, and ideological justification, yet can usually be subsumed into the broadly conceived category of far-right terrorism. The variety of attacks suggests that terrorist acts are an offshoot of the broad spectrum of anti-Romani activity, and are influenced by contemporary trends in inter-ethnic violence.

  8. Mental health reforms in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, T

    2001-01-01

    To describe the background in general culture, public and professional discourse against which mental health care reform initiatives in Eastern Europe need to be seen. An account of some key aspects of sociopolitical and cultural transition in Eastern European countries is given, and core results of a research project on attitudes and needs assessment in psychiatry in six Eastern European countries are reported. In post-totalitarian cultures mental health reforms impinge on imagination in ways which are not easy to predict. Some of the reasons for this are traced to the psychiatric practices under the system of total control, e.g. dispensary care, political abuse, reification of classificatory terms. Data on a study of attitudes suggest that institutions had replaced community life in those parts of Europe. It is predicted that with time trust in the capacity of community to contain mental illness will be regained.

  9. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    . The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals......Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative......, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country....

  10. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states......’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect...

  11. Five challenges for public administrations in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongaro Edoardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines five ‘challenges’ facing most administrative systems across Europe. The first challenge stems from the increasingly asymmetric nature of European multilevel governance; the second challenge arises from the missed opportunity of reforming in the absence of a dominant administrative paradigm; the third challenge lies in rescuing and transforming the welfare state; the fourth challenge is concerned with making the most of the knowledge generated in the field of strategic management for strategically managing public services; the fifth challenge lies in staff (demotivation. These challenges are pitched at very different levels: some are related to issues of public governance, some to issues of scholarly and practitioners’ collective understandings of public administration in Europe, and some to trends in the global economy, and notably the financial, economic and fiscal ‘crises’.

  12. Europe's oldest jaw: evidence of oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valverde, A; López-Cristiá, M; Gómez de Diego, R

    2012-03-09

    Atapuerca, in the north of Spain, is the archaeological site where the oldest hominid remains within Europe have been found. In 2008 a jaw fragment, corresponding to the symphyseal area, was discovered in the area called the 'Elephant's pit'. Its age has been estimated at 1.2 million years and it is considered to be the oldest human fossil found in Europe and is from the lower Pleistocene. This work analyses the dental and skeletal damage to the specimen, detected in a macroscopic study of possible horizontal and vertical bone loss at the level of support of the remaining teeth. The limited presence of dental scale, the pattern of destruction and the decreased bone density due to increased marrow spaces suggest the presence of possible periodontal disease.

  13. Expansion of museums in Central Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagodzińska, Katarzyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents reflections on the specificity of collections and museums of contemporary art in Central Europe and considers a possibility of creating a regional alternative for the West. The analysis is conducted in the context of the expansionist policy of contemporary museums – notably the Louvre, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the Hermitage – whose numerous new development projects gave rise to a number of dilemmas in the museological world. The author discusses global "museum brands" that invest in Central Europe and addresses the possible profits of the expansion of such "concerns" for culture in the region, as well as emphasises the potential of the region itself, which may be used for its development without the avail of the internationally renowned collectors' names.

  14. EUROPE 2020 DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Cosmin GLODEANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the Europe 2020 development strategy, from Romania, trough qualitative methods and the corelation analysis trough quantitative methods of the European Funds present in Romania in the period 2007-2010 with the strategy's indicators. From the indicators presented by the European Uniun for the Europe 2020 development strategy,t the following indicators were chosen: "Total expenses for Research and Development as % of GDP", "Renewable energy share of the total energy consumption", "Early school leavers rate" and an alaysis of the correlation with the "Total available allocated budget of the European Union financed projects, arithmetic mean per project" indicator, using Pearson's correlation coefficient and determining also the algebraic average, range, absolute deviation, mean absolute deviation, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis.

  15. La microfinanza in Europa (Microfinance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Botti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available So far, the lack of consistent and reliable data on microfinance in Europe prevented the conduct a comprehensive analysis of the performance of Microfinance institutions (MFIs, especially their capacity to meet policy expectation in terms of social objectives and financial sustainability in the long term. We constructed an original longitudinal dataset of 357 European MFIs observed between 2006 and 2015, based on raw data from the European Microfinance Network (EMN overview survey. We use this data to carry out the first in-depth analysis of trends in European microfinance and the interaction between social and financial performance during the period 2006-2013. It emerges that microfinance in Europe is a highly segmented and heterogeneous industry, both in terms of providers’ institutional characteristics and regional business models.JEL codes: G21; A13

  16. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  17. Consumer research on fish in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    2003-01-01

    . The various material and research results show that research on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to fish in Europe is fragmented, carried out at country-level, and that results are to difficult to compare. Despite of the fragmented nature of research and statistical material, a number of important......Based on input received from participants in the EU FAIR PL 98- 4174 Concerted Action programme "Fish Quality Labelling and Monitoring" (CA-FQLM), and on published research results, an overview is given of the recent findings on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to fish in Europe...... generic and cross-cultural conclusions on consumer behaviour and attitudes in relation to fish can be drawn....

  18. Boundaries, political systems and fertility in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, J; Grasland, C

    1993-01-01

    "We propose considering cross-border discontinuities in the context of homogeneous regions, that is, focusing on the detection and explanation of significant levels of organization of space by societies [in Europe]....We attempt to isolate macro-structures, which will provide us with an intermediary or systemic explanation for the behaviour observed....Our preoccupation here is whether countries or political blocs constitute levels of spatial organization. We can pose the question this way: do different areas in a same country show behavioural patterns which are, on average, more similar than those of areas in different countries?...We shall examine the distribution of total fertility (TFRs) in 724 areas of Europe in 1980 and 1988." excerpt

  19. L'EUROPE SAINT-SIMONIENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people have been preoccupied with Europe ever since the beginnings of time. Their ideas can be traced back as far as ancient mythology, as attempts to explain the world. But as of the 18th century, they looked at it differently, as an organized, unified, political institution. Numerous essays have influenced the history of the European idea, among them the work of Saint-Simon who, in 1814, thought of a European Parliament governing the national parliaments. In his essay on reorganizing the European society he brought forth ideas such as Europe rebuilt as a confederation, the establishment of a general parliament responsible for making decisions concerning the common interests of the whole European society. He strongly believed that putting the great political issues to the test is the aim of all contemporary efforts. If the previous century's philosophy was revolutionary, the 19ths centurys philosophy had to be organizing.

  20. Late presentation for HIV care across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens; Antinori, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Late presentation (LP) for HIV care across Europe remains a significant issue. We provide a cross-European update from 34 countries on the prevalence and risk factors of LP for 2010-2013. People aged ≥ 16 presenting for HIV care (earliest of HIV-diagnosis, first clinic visit or cohort enrollment......) after 1 January 2010 with available CD4 count within six months of presentation were included. LP was defined as presentation with a CD4 count HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression investigated changes in LP over time. A total.......02-1.32), and a significant decline in LP in northern Europe (aOR/year later 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.94). Further improvements in effective HIV testing strategies, with a focus on vulnerable groups, are required across the European continent....

  1. Pharmacogenetics in Europe: barriers and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwitz, D; Zika, E; Hopkins, M M; Gaisser, S; Ibarreta, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation in the field of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics (PGx) in Europe. High expectations surrounding the clinical application of PGx remain largely unmet, as only a limited number of such applications have actually reached the market and clinical practice. Thus, the potential impact of PGx-based diagnostics on healthcare and its socio-economic implications are still unclear. With the aim of shedding some light on these uncertainties, the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has conducted a review of the 'state of the art' and a further analysis on the use of pharmacogenetics diagnostics for preventing toxic drug reactions and improving drug efficacy in Europe. The paper presents highlights from the JRC-IPTS studies and discusses possibilities for improving translation of PGx research in Europe by comparing some experiences in the USA. We also illustrate the related barriers for the clinical uptake of PGx in Europe with specific case-studies. Most of the barriers identified extend beyond the European context. This reflects the global problems of scarcity of data demonstrating proven clinical validity or utility and favorable cost-effectiveness studies to support the clinical application of PGx diagnostic tests in the clinical setting. Another key barrier is the lack of incentives for the private sector to invest in the development and licensing of PGx diagnostic tests for improving the safety and efficacy of out-of-patent drugs. It therefore seems that one key aspect where policy can affect the clinical uptake of PGx is via sustaining large-scale industry-academia collaborations for developing and proving the utility of PGx diagnostics. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The diffusion of information technology in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Europe, as all modern economies, is shifting towards an information-based society, where Information Technology (IT) is dramatically modifying patterns of production and consumption and the modern way of life. Low-cost data processing and transmission technologies are leading the way not only in a technological revolution, but also in an economic and social revolution. The main drivers for these trends are technology and market liberalisation. Technological advances, in particular in microele...

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    integration task and they will find it easier to conform to the standards -Establish manual interfaces which, whenever a prob- once they come into effect...exists a huge JPRS-ELS-87-056 31 December 1987 28 EAST EUROPE volume of manually maintained card files, for example: The mentioned computers’ areas of...espaciales]. [sentence as decree regarding the linking of the Argentine Aerospace received]. Material Company [Fabrica Argentina de Materiales

  4. Emi Teacher Training Courses in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available English-medium instruction has seen growth over the past 10 years in European non-English speaking countries. This phenomenon is nowadays taken for granted even though many issues are to be taken into account when a university course is delivered through English by non-native speakers. This is why some universities have started providing lecturer training all over Europe. This article seeks to give an overview of both linguistic and methodological EMI training in European countries.

  5. Marketing of library services in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Enache

    2007-01-01

    This paper, based on a few articles written by specialists from different European countries, contains an objective analysis of the way the marketing techniques and instruments are implemented in libraries. In Europe, we can see that library marketing is present in different forms; in some countries it is more intense and in others it is less strong. We will surprisingly discover manifestations of marketing in unexpected places, in less developed countries, with few financial possibilities bu...

  6. Post-national Citizenship in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Som et resultat af udviklingen i den Europæiske Union har regeringerne ikke længere eksklusiv kontrol over hvem der kan arbejde og opholde sig på deres territorier. Heller ikke over hvem, der kan få de social velfærdsydelser, der normalt er øremærket til statsborgere. EF-domstolen har de seneste ...

  7. Fahrplanabstimmung auf europäischen Bahnkorridoren

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, Bernard; Giampiero, Garavagno

    2005-01-01

    Das Projekt Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) hat das Ziel, eine neuen Weg der Trassenvergabe und Konstruktion entlang europäischer Bahnkorridore aufzuzeigen. Damit soll vor allem ein schneller und besser koordinierter Planungsprozess zum Verwalten der Infrastrukturkapazität erreicht werden. PARTNER hilft benachbarten Infrastrukturmanagern dabei, ein gemeinsames Verständnis für die Belange des jeweiligen Partners bei der Planung einer interna...

  8. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Katsa M.E; Adamopoulou A; Saridi M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Me...

  9. Wind resource assessment in Europe using emergy

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, S Subodh; Santarelli, M.; Martin, V.; Lacarriere, B.; Corre, le, O

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess the sustainability of wind energy resource in Europe. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (EIS) and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) are used to analyze 90 stations of European reg...

  10. Unexpected flood loss correlations across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Naomi; Boyd, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Floods don't observe country borders, as highlighted by major events across Europe that resulted in heavy economic and insured losses in 1999, 2002, 2009 and 2013. Flood loss correlations between some countries occur along multi-country river systems or between neighbouring nations affected by the same weather systems. However, correlations are not so obvious and whilst flooding in multiple locations across Europe may appear independent, for a re/insurer providing cover across the continent, these unexpected correlations can lead to high loss accumulations. A consistent, continental-scale method that allows quantification and comparison of losses, and identifies correlations in loss between European countries is therefore essential. A probabilistic model for European river flooding was developed that allows estimation of potential losses to pan-European property portfolios. By combining flood hazard and exposure information in a catastrophe modelling platform, we can consider correlations between river basins across Europe rather than being restricted to country boundaries. A key feature of the model is its statistical event set based on extreme value theory. Using historical river flow data, the event set captures spatial and temporal patterns of flooding across Europe and simulates thousands of events representing a full range of possible scenarios. Some known correlations were identified, such as between neighbouring Belgium and Luxembourg where 28% of events that affect either country produce a loss in both. However, our model identified some unexpected correlations including between Austria and Poland, and Poland and France, which are geographically distant. These correlations in flood loss may be missed by traditional methods and are key for re/insurers with risks in multiple countries. The model also identified that 46% of European river flood events affect more than one country. For more extreme events with a return period higher than 200 years, all events

  11. Exmoor - Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, S.

    2011-12-01

    On 2011 October 9 Exmoor National Park in the southwest of England was designated as Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve by the International Dark Skies Association. This is a huge achievement, and follows three years of work by park authorities, local astronomers, lighting engineers and the resident community. Exmoor Dark Sky Reserve follows in the footsteps of Galloway Forest Dark Sky Park, set up in 2009, and Sark Dark Sky Island, established in January 2011.

  12. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Olle

    2012-01-01

    High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by mea...

  13. Handbook on Tolerance & Cultural Diversity In Europe

    OpenAIRE

    TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Work Package 2: Concepts and Theories on Tolerance and Cultural Diversity Geared toward teacher-trainers, this Handbook is intended primarily for use in programmes that prepare teachers to serve in high schools in Europe. While it could be beneficial for teachers of any subject, the Handbook may be most useful to those who are preparing to deliver courses on European civics and citizenship education. The Handbook’s targeted readers are high school students and undergraduate University stud...

  14. Update on HIV in Western Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, F.; Phillips, A N; Lundgren, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. Th...

  15. Overview on Smart Work Centres in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ādamsone, L; Baltiņa, I; Judrupa, I; Šenfelde, M; Vītola, A

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of rural population is decreasing all over Europe; young and qualified people are the first to leave because of the lack of challenging jobs in the countryside. The in-migration of qualified professionals, which have good market-contacts with the core regions, only to a small extent mitigates the decrees of socioeconomic activity in the periphery (Grimes, 2000). However, the establishment of smart work centres relying on networks and market contacts can help repopulate rural co...

  16. Melanoma prognosis in Europe: far from equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsea, A M; Del Marmol, V; Stratigos, A; Geller, A C

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive, population-based analysis of melanoma survival throughout Europe is hindered by the uneven coverage and quality of European cancer registries, and by logistical and financial shortcomings. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) have been used as a proxy for estimating survival for multiple cancers and to model melanoma prognosis, higher MIR values reflecting poorer prognosis. Updated and improved pan-European estimates of mortality and incidence rates for melanoma have become available through the International Agency for Research of Cancer project Globocan 2008, showing marked differences among European countries. To analyse MIRs for melanoma across Europe and their relationship with national health expenditures, aiming to identify countries and regions with disproportionately poor prognosis. Estimated age-standardized rates of melanoma incidence and mortality provided by Globocan 2008 were used to calculate the MIR for each European country and region. Total health expenditures per capita in European countries for 2008 were provided by the World Health Organization/Global Health Observatory. The potential correlation between MIR and total health expenditure per capita was analysed through Pearson's correlation. Mortality-to-incidence ratios for melanoma ranged between 0·09 in Switzerland and 0·44 in Latvia. The regional average MIR was the highest in Central and Eastern Europe at 0·35; the lowest was in Western Europe, at 0·13. We found a strong inverse correlation between the individual nation's total health expenditure per capita and the calculated melanoma MIR (r = -0·76, P < 0·05). While further improvement of melanoma registration is necessary, our findings reveal sharp disparities in the prognosis of melanoma across the Continent, correlated with significant differences in health care expenditures. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Kant and Eastern Europe in Vienna 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zákutná

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with the theme of Kant and Eastern Europe at the University of Vienna in 2015. Except the section of contributions to the theme “Kant and Eastern Europe” at the 12th International Kant Congress, it focuses on other activities of the organizers connected with the theme, namely the exhibition and publication “Detours. Approaches to Immanuel Kant in Vienna, in Austria, and in Eastern Europe”.

  18. Britain and Europe: what ways forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold James

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed some of the reasons why Britain participated only half-way in the European Union and ended up voting for Bremen on 23 June 2016. It also examines the options open to the European Union and Great Britain. Europe must show that it can work by showing results. In Britain it is necessary to break the established molds of thought and reshape the structure of political parties

  19. Cardiovascular Disease in Central and East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kozela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD contributes greatly to inequalities in health in Europe. The CVD death rate in Ukraine (the highest is seven fold higher than in France (the lowest. There is also a striking difference in CVD mortality between European Union (EU members before the enlargement in 2004 and Central and East European (CEE countries that joined the EU in 2004 and non-EU countries. The difference in CVD mortality between West and East Europe grew during the 1970s and 1980s when rates declined in the West and either remained the same or rose in the CEE countries. Political reforms at the beginning of the 1990s, which were followed by great socio-economic changes coincided with further diversification in CVD mortality in CEE countries. Diverse trends in CVD mortality were followed by larger gaps in life expectancy between West and East Europe and within the CEE.Rapid development of high technology treatment procedures, which followed the economic recovery of the CEE countries, would have only limited influence on the overall control of CVD. Exposure to classic risk factors might largely explain the longitudinal trend in falling CVD mortality in some countries, but it is unlikely that it could explain rapid changes in the others. Still, large potential to control the disease lies in developing effective preventive policies with targets to lower exposure to the classic CVD risk factors. The recent history of CVD in CEE countries makes the “alcohol hypothesis” less convincing as an explanation for CVD mortality trends and differences between East and West Europe. The hypothesis that dynamic changes in CVD mortality in CEE countries are triggered and explained largely by psychosocial factors is attractive. However, if confirmed, transforming such knowledge into a practical health policy would be a great challenge.

  20. Migratory Prostitution with Emphasis on Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M&oring;rdh; Genç

    1995-03-01

    In many European countries, foreigners constitute the majority of certain groups of prostitutes, e.g., approximately 90% of the window prostitutes in the red light district of Amsterdam are not native to the Netherlands. The same is true for prostitutes working in bars in Vienna. In cities where registered prostitution is legal, unregistered prostitutes, most of whom are foreigners, often outnumber the registered ones. Central European countries often receive "sex workers" from eastern Europe, e.g., from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, whereas the majority of migratory prostitutes in Great Britain and continental western Europe come from Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. In northern Europe, women from Russia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and the Baltic states are prostituting themselves in increasing numbers. Scandinavia has so far been affected relatively less by this mobility. In Spain, France, and Italy, women from Arabic and subSaharan countries are common among prostitutes. Foreign prostitutes move into Turkey along two main routes: women from the Balkan countries come to the western part of the country, whereas those from the former Soviet Union cross the border from Georgia, where they usually operate at resorts along the eastern Black Sea coast. Prostitutes are also mobile within the former communist bloc. For instance, women from Russia prostitute themselves in Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. the customers are locals, particularly those with "hard currency", such as businessmen and "sex tourists" from the West. Following the outbreak of civil war in the former Yugoslavia, women from that country are now more frequently seen among the population of migratory prostitutes in Europe.

  1. Improving Europe’s Conventional Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    pictured as offensive, it helps to penetrate such justifications The more clearly defensive the NATO military posture, the harder it is for the...able to avoid such messy questions as how to conduct a fighting withdrawal through Nürnberg or a meeting engagement on the plains of Lower Saxony ...NATO Europe to prepare to fight if it wants to deter, to address such messy questions as Nürnberg and Lower Saxony . Yet, even serious war fighting

  2. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-06

    which is based on CNR [National Research Council] statistics, is accompanied by a somewhat discouraging picture on R&D invest- ments in Italy: Among...third parties, IBM head Henkel sees a black picture for Europe’s microelec- tronics. "If we miss a technological step now, the pro- duction of storage... Saxony —which gives high priority to saving industrial locations, but does not wish to take on the role of stockholder—is securing their risk with

  3. Careers, Connections and Corruption Risks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Dahlström, Carl; Fazekas, Mihály

    the interplay between politics and bureaucracy. It suggests that corruption risks are minimized when the two groups involved in decision-making on public contracts—politicians and bureau-crats—have known different interests. This is institutionalized when politicians are accountable to the electorate, while.......4 million procurement contracts. Both show a remarkable sub-national variation across Europe. The study finds corruption risks significantly lower where bureau-crats’ careers do not depend on political connections....

  4. Urban history and modernity in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klautke, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    This historiographical review discusses recent literature on cities in modern Central Europe – mainly on Berlin and Vienna – which reflects the great variety of approaches to urban history and underlines the importance of urban history for the study of modernity. The history of urbanisation was a central event in the history of modernity. Especially in the Central European capitals of Berlin and Vienna, where modernisation and urban growth started later and then advanced quicker than in West ...

  5. SOLAR ENERGY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in Europe offering new possibilities to generate electricity and heat. In this context, the study provides accurate information about researches that characterize the solar resource and investigates the potential of solar energy in European countries. The analysis is also focused on the current status of market development including photovoltaic capacity, electricity production from solar photovoltaic power, solar thermal capa...

  6. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  7. SOCIAL POLICIES AND STRUCTURAL REFORMS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Brunet Cid

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and structural policies in contemporary Europe. The presentation is organized in four sections. First, we discuss the emerging Europe, the new unity based on democracy and the market economy, the special European Union formula, and comparisons with America. Second, we analyze the dynamics of the European economy, the convergence process, the gaps between United States in productivity and standard of living, competitiveness issues, and the emergence of a new European economy and new European policy mix.Third, we consider European social conditions, the stationary and aging population, Europe’s low employment rate and permanently high unemployment. European economic growth could draw on two major sources: the labor reserves and reforms in factor, product and service markets. In a monetary union, advanced industrial relations should promote labor mobility and salary flexibility. The social security systems permit the redistribution and cohesion which defines the European model.Fourth, for the new Europe, the structural reform strategy is the way forward for the challenge of European economic policy and social policy: more and better jobs thanks to sustainable growth in a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy, favoring greater social cohesion.

  8. How many marine aliens in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN; http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu/, an inventory of marine alienspecies in Europe was created by critically reviewing existing information in 34 global, European, regional and national databases. In total, 1369 marine alien species have been reported in the European seas (including 110 cryptogenic and 139 questionable species; this is a substantial increase from the 737 species previously reported in 2009 based on the DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe; http://www.europe-aliens.org dataset. Most of the reported species were invertebrates (63.3%, followed by chromists (13.7%, vertebrates (11.6%, and plants (10.1%. Mollusca is the most numerous phylum, followed by Arthropoda, Chordata, and Annelida. Thecountries with the highest reported numbers of marine alien species were Israel, Turkey, Italy, France, Egypt and Greece. A reporting bias is evident as efforts for monitoring and reporting alien species vary among countries.

  9. The future role for colposcopy in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leeson, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of cervical screening may be limited by the diagnostic performance of colposcopy. Nonetheless, colposcopy remains the best available tool to assess women considered at high risk for having or developing cervical cancer. The provision and role of colposcopy across Europe is variable. Introduction of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 as well as the possible switch to HPV-based screening is likely to change the profiles of women presenting to colposcopy services and provide management difficulties for the colposcopist.The standard of colposcopy in Europe can be maintained or improved despite a variable availability of screening. The prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 may decrease for women having had HPV vaccination. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and cervical cancer in second and subsequent rounds of HPV-based screening are likely to decrease compared to cytology-based screening. In HPV-based screening, the numbers of women with no detectable or minor abnormalities at colposcopy and with screen-detected glandular disease are likely to increase. We have considered how these issues will affect states that have varying implementation of organized cervical screening programs and varying degrees of implementation of HPV testing or vaccination.The development of quality assurance across Europe accompanying these program changes is discussed.

  10. What Is Europe? The Greek Beginnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jaroszyński

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the statement that there are three concepts of Europe historically significant. The first concept of Europe looms out in the context of the clash between the ancient Greeks and the Persians, the second one is induced by Christianity and Islam meeting head-on whereas the third concept results from the European civilization confronting the cultures of the newly discovered peoples inhabiting other continents. It is just in the context of the indicated clashes that the concept of Europe is shaped as a phenomenon diversified not only geographically but also in terms of civilization as regards other cultures or civilizations. The article then concerns with the concept of Europeanism which in the cultural sense was crystallized in Greece at the turn of the fifth and fourth centuries before Christ. It emerged on the background of the opposition between the Greeks and Asians as well as other peoples, which were referred to as barbarians by the Greeks. The article concludes that it was culture and freedom which constituted two arms of Europeanness shaped by the ancient Greeks.

  11. Section level search functionality in Europe PMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Pi, Xingjun; Marinos, Nikos; Talo', Francesco; Morrison, Andrew; McEntyre, Johanna R

    2015-01-01

    As the availability of open access full text research articles increases, so does the need for sophisticated search services that make the most of this new content. Here, we present a new feature available in Europe PMC that allows selected sections of full text articles to be searched, including figures and reference lists. Users can now search particular parts of an article, reducing noise and allowing fine-tuning of searches. To the best of our knowledge, Europe PMC is the first service that provides a granular literature search by allowing users to target their search to particular sections of articles. This new functionality is based on a heuristic algorithm that identifies and categorises article sections into 17 pre-defined categories based on the section heading. The tagger's performance is measured against a manually curated dataset consisting of 100 full text articles with an F-score of 98.02%. The section search is available from the advanced search within Europe PMC (http://europepmc.org). The source code is freely available from http://europepmc.org/ftp/oa/SectionTagger/.

  12. Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagger, P J

    2004-06-01

    With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy.

  13. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The advance of Islamism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kalmar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Según la tesis central del ensayo en 1989 y en los años siguientes los analizadores políticos concentraron en los cambios de régimen en Europa Oriental y sus efectos mundiales y no prestaron bastante atención al giro importante que tenía lugar desde 1989 en la relación entre los países de Europa Occidental y los inmigrantes muslímicos. La profecía famosa hecha en tiempo de descomposición de la Unión Sovietica por Francis Fukuyama que la democracia liberal será un ejemplo a seguir para el mundo no se realizó. Al mismo tiempo Europa en estos tiempos tenía que hacer cara a la presencia del islam en Europa Occidental y al efecto político del islam.Palabras clave: dinastía Pahlavi, Ruhollah Jomeini, revolución iraní, islamismo, Salman Rushdie, Los versos satánicos, fatwa, Islam en Europa________________________________Abstract:The basic statement of the paper is that in 1989 and the subsequent years political analysts concentrated their attention on the changes of Eastern European régimes and the worldwide impact of these events while they neglected the major turn that took place in the relationship between Western European countries and Muslim immigrants in 1989. Francis Fukuyama’s famous prophecy delivered at the time of the Soviet Union’s demise, declaring that liberal democracy will become a worldwide blueprint for societies, did not hold. On the contrary, this was the first time when Europe truly had to face the presence of Islam in Western Europe and the effects of political Islam.Keywords: Pahlavi dynasty, Ruhollah Khomeini, Iranian Revolution, Islamism, Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, fatwa, Islam in Europe

  16. Climate and Dirofilaria infection in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Claudio; Rinaldi, Laura; Mortarino, Michele; Genchi, Marco; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2009-08-26

    Climatic changes, together with an increase in the movement of cats and dogs across Europe, have caused an increase in the geographical range of several vector borne parasites like Dirofilaria, and in the risk of infection for animals and humans. The present paper reviews the effects of climate and other global drivers on Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens infections in Europe and the possible implications on the transmission and control of these mosquito-borne nematodes. In the last several years, growing degree day (GDD)-based forecast models, which use wide or local scale temperature data, have been developed to predict the occurrence and seasonality of Dirofilaria in different parts of the world. All these models are based on the fact that: there is a threshold of 14 degrees C below which Dirofilaria development will not proceed; and there is a requirement of 130 GDD for larvae to reach infectivity and a maximum life expectancy of 30 days for a vector mosquito. The output of these models predicts that the summer temperatures (with peaks in July) are sufficient to facilitate extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria even at high latitudes. The global warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that warm summers suitable for Dirofilaria transmission in Europe will be the rule in the future decades and if the actual trend of temperature increase continues, filarial infection should spread into previously infection-free areas. These factors not only favour incubation of Dirofilaria, but also impact on mosquito species. Recent findings have also demonstrated that Aedes albopictus is now considered to be an important, competent vector of Dirofilaria infections. This mosquito species could spread from southern to northern European countries in the near future, changing the epidemiological patterns of dirofilariosis both in humans and animals.

  17. Exploring Health Impact Assessment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wismar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Health impact assessment (HIA prospectively judges the potential health impacts of pending decisions and feeds the assessment back into the decision making process. HIA is considered as a key tool for intersectoral collaboration. This article presents selected results of a mapping exercise on HIA in Europe. The mapping exercise is complemented by the presentation of a conceptual framework on the effectiveness of HIA and illustrative examples.

    Method: Two methodologies are employed in this article: First, the use of HIA across Europe is based on a survey conducted by 21 teams in 19 countries. A semi standardized questionnaire was employed, using a wide variety of sources. Second, for the discussion on the effectiveness of HIA, a conceptual framework using four types of effectiveness was employed. Results: HIA is a common practice only in a handful of European countries. In most of Europe, HIA is at an early developmental stage. The mapping exercise, however, provides evidence that HIA can work across all sectors and at all political level, although there is currently a focus on the local level. HIA is conducted in different countries by different sets of actors and organizations, reflecting the existing setup. The evidence on the effectiveness of HIA is still inconclusive. However, single case studies and upcoming evidence suggests that HIA has the capacity to inform and influence the decision making process.

    Conclusions: HIA can work and deliver. The variations in context across European countries have resulted in different forms of implementation and different dynamics of developing HIA.

  18. Peasant seeds in Europe: stakes and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bocci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The myth of technological progress in agriculture and then modern plant breeding have resulted in a separation of farming from breeding activities. Seed laws have also contributed to this outcome (e.g. by imposing strict rules for the entry of varieties in the official catalogue. Nowadays, some pioneers, among them farmers rejecting industrialized agriculture and more often practising organic agriculture, are proposing a different option. In Europe, since the beginning of this century, they have been organizing themselves in networks: the Réseau Semences Paysannes in France, the Red de Semillas in Spain and the Rete Semi Rurali in Italy. Their members are farmers, consumers and scientists working together in order to reconsider the scientific, technical and legal aspects of seed production. These new varieties are designated ‘peasant varieties’, a concept that encompasses two main aspects: the seed, the reproductive part of the plant linked to its terroir, and the variety, shaped by history and coevolved with farmers. Scientists working with these networks are developing participatory plant breeding projects, which aim to broaden agrobiodiversity by creating so called new peasant varieties. The basis of these projects comes from old local varieties and landraces conserved in seed banks. In Europe, the legal framework has evolved since the establishment of ‘conservation varieties’ by directive 98/95. The European research project Farm Seed Opportunities is under way to support new seed policies, in the light also of the different national contexts. The debate in Europe now offers a range of seed systems models. It is time to enlarge this debate to southern countries through the sharing of knowledge between farmers of the North and the South, aiming at conserving agrobiodiversity and promoting rural innovation.

  19. Pathways to stepfamily formation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing proportions of couples are making childbearing decisions in stepfamilies but there has been no general comparative picture across European countries on stepfamily formation. The present paper aims to fill this gap and provides a comparison of European countries using macro-level indicators that describe union formation and dissolution and childbearing. We use the individual-level data files (standard recode files of Fertility and Family Surveys from 19 European countries. Our results highlight the different pathways to a stepfamily in Europe, and show that in most European countries a considerable proportion of women form a stepfamily in childbearing ages, which needs to be considered in studies of fertility.

  20. Spain in Europe 1996-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Barbé, Esther

    2004-01-01

    “Thinking globally, acting locally" is an essential slogan in the current political discourse. Yet, in view of the policies on the European Union carried out by the two governments of the People’s Party (PP) headed by José María Aznar between 1996 and 2004, we could coin a quite different slogan: "thinking locally, acting in Europe". Indeed, José María Aznar’s policy-making during the last eight years has been characterised by turning his domestic concerns into the ‘exclusive factor’ of his E...

  1. The epidemiology of anaphylaxis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panesar, S S; Javad, S; de Silva, D

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal, multi-organ system, allergic reaction caused by the release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils. Uncertainty exists around epidemiological measures of incidence and prevalence, risk factors, risk of recurrence, and death due......: Anaphylaxis is a common problem, affecting an estimated 1 in 300 of the European population at some time in their lives. Future research needs to focus on better understanding of the trends across Europe and identifying those most likely to experience fatal reactions....

  2. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, E. [Fachverband Biogas, Obermarchtat (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  3. Postgraduate studies in radiation biology in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, K.R. [Department of Radiation Biology, Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Lohmann, P.H.M.; Zeeland, A.A. van [Institute of Radiation Genetics and Environmental Mutagenesis, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Natarajan, A.T. [Institute of Radiation Genetics and Environmental Mutagenesis, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)]|[Interuniversity Research Inst. for Radiopathology and Radiation Protection (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], [Leiden Univ., Leiden (Netherlands); Schibilla, H.; Chadwick, K. [European Commission, ERPET Action, Brussels (Belgium); Kellerer, A.M. [Institute of Radiobiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Steinhaeusler, F. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Univ. of Salzburg (Austria)

    1998-10-01

    The present system of radiobiological research in universities and research centres is no longer able to train radiobiologists who have a comprehensive understanding of the entire field of radiation biology including both `classical` and molecular radiation biology. However, such experts are needed in view of the role radiation protection plays in our societies. No single institution in Europe could now run a 1-year, full-time course which covers all aspects of the radiobiological basis of radiation protection. Therefore, a cooperative action of several universities from different EU member states has been developed and is described herein. (orig.) With 1 tab.

  4. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...

  5. The epidemiology of food allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    for the development or resolution of FA identified, but sex, age, country of residence, familial atopic history, and the presence of other allergic diseases seem to be important. Food allergy is a significant clinical problem in Europe. The evidence base in this area would benefit from additional studies using...... studies published from 1 January 2000 to 30 September 2012. Two independent reviewers appraised the studies and qualified the risk of bias using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Seventy-five eligible articles (comprising 56 primary studies) were included in a narrative synthesis, and 30...

  6. Multiple Perspectives on Imprisonment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda; Schinkel, Marguerite; Beijersbergen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    At present, there are over 1.6 million prisoners in Europe and conditions in European prisons vary widely. In 2010, the European Society of Criminology’s Working Group on Prison Life and the Effects of Imprisonment was established. In this working group scholars from over 20 different countries a...... with their own specific prison context, is presented. The contributions included highlight a range of opportunities to improve the conditions of confinement and rehabilitative efforts, and to reduce recidivism after release from prison....

  7. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans Peter; Havill, N.P.; Akbulut, S.

    2013-01-01

    , with the purpose of selecting agents for classical biological control in Europe. The literature review suggested that the most promising agent was the Chamaemyiidae fly, Leucopis hennigrata. A new survey in D. nordmannianae's area of origin – Turkey, Georgia and Russia – showed that L. hennigrata was present...... in all localities. It was particularly abundant in Turkey, where its impact on populations of D. nordmannianae appears to be high. Its use as a biological control agent is discussed, as well as other biological control strategies...

  8. Witch trials: Discontent in early modern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between income and witch trials in early modern Europe. We start by using climate data to proxy for income levels. This builds on previous work by exploiting a far richer panel dataset covering 356 regions and 260 years, including both seasonal temperature and rainfall, as well as over 30,036 witch trials newly documented for this study. We find that a one degree temperature shock leads to a near quadrupling in witch trials in any given year. The second pa...

  9. Den Europæiske Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Malte Frøslee

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the recent debate between Jürgen Habermas and Wolfgang Streeck on the relationship between capitalism and democracy in Europe. The article recounts Streeck’s analysis of the financial crisis, the transformation of the tax state into the debt state, and the development...... for a reconstitution of the EU as a supranational democracy is motivated by foundational concerns in his critical theory of society. Finally, the article argues that the debate results in an unresolved dilemma: while only a democratized EU can reestablish the supremacy of politics over globalized markets, the EU...

  10. Progression of Alzheimer Disease in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellas, B; Hausner, L; Frolich, L

    2012-01-01

    The clinical progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) was studied in European subjects under treatment with AChE inhibitors (AChE-I) in relation to geographical location over a 2-years period. One thousand three hundred and six subjects from 11 European countries were clustered into 3 regions (North....../first year, -2.5 pts/second year; ADAScog: + 3.5 pts/first year, + 4.8 pts/second year), while the progression of behavioral disturbances (NPI scale) was linear. Neither scale showed regional differences, and progression of the disease was similar across Europe despite different health care systems...

  11. Data security breaches and privacy in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Data Security Breaches and Privacy in Europe aims to consider data protection and cybersecurity issues; more specifically, it aims to provide a fruitful discussion on data security breaches. A detailed analysis of the European Data Protection framework will be examined. In particular, the Data Protection Directive 95/45/EC, the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications and the proposed changes under the Data Protection Regulation (data breach notifications) and its implications are considered. This is followed by an examination of the Directive on Attacks against information systems a

  12. The rare Chrysopidae (Neuroptera) of southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canard, Michel; Letardi, Agostino; Thierry, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative surveys of the chrysopid fauna from southwestern Europe, namely the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, France south of 46° N, and the west-Mediterranean Islands, were analysed. A total of 56 species of Chrysopidae were reported, of which three species were abundant. These, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens, 1836) sensu lato, Dichochrysa prasina (Burmeister, 1839) and D. flavifrons (Brauer, 1850), comprised a large percentage of the specimens. For the rarer species, comments are made on their distributions, the enhanced geographic range of exotic ones, and on levels of endemism and stenotopy.

  13. Palaeogeography: Devonian tetrapod from western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gaël; Ahlberg, Per E; Blieck, Alain; Blom, Henning; Clack, Jennifer A; Poty, Edouard; Thorez, Jacques; Janvier, Philippe

    2004-01-29

    Several discoveries of Late Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) have been made during the past two decades, but each has been confined to one locality. Here we describe a tetrapod jaw of about 365 million years (Myr) old from the Famennian of Belgium, which is the first from western continental Europe. The jaw closely resembles that of Ichthyostega, a Famennian tetrapod hitherto known only from Greenland. The environment of this fossil provides information about the conditions that prevailed just before the virtual disappearance of tetrapods from the fossil record for 20 Myr.

  14. Food consumption: A Europe of regions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Madsen, Tage Koed

    1993-01-01

    Introduction: In spite of what may on the face of it seem like an increasing internationalisation of consumer patterns within the food area it is relatively clear that major national and regional differences persist. In the light of the establishment of the European Single Market from 1993 and its...... links to the markets of the EFTA countries the relative importance of the national boundaries must be expected to diminish whereas other boundaries will become more apparent. The latter boundaries which are of vital importance to international marketing are the cultural boundaries dividing Europe...

  15. Statues and Status: Lincoln in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Clinton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lincoln’s ascension to the status of icon was not smooth and steady. Journalist Horace Greeley predicted in April of 1865 that the sixteenth President’s reputation would grow proportionate to the distance from his own era, and it grew steadily from his death in 1865, but soared dramatically following his Centennial in 1909. The exponential growth of his popularity built into a memorial crescendo with the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington in 1922 and his likeness carved onto Mt. Rushmore in 1937. This phenomenon extended to Europe.

  16. Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Colom, M Francisca; Swinne, Daniëlle; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Iatta, Roberta; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Torres-Rodriguez, Josep M; Cogliati, Massimo; Velegraki, Aristea; Burggraaf, Arjan; Kamermans, Alwin; Sweere, Johanna M; Meis, Jacques F; Klaassen, Corné H W; Boekhout, Teun

    2012-10-01

    Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Europe were acquired from an autochthonous source or associated with travel, we used multilocus sequence typing to compare 100 isolates from Europe (57 from 40 human patients, 22 from the environment, and 21 from animals) with 191 isolates from around the world. Of the 57 human patient isolates, 47 (83%) were obtained since 1995. Among the 40 patients, 24 (60%) probably acquired the C. gattii infection outside Europe; the remaining 16 (40%) probably acquired the infection within Europe. Human patient isolates from Mediterranean Europe clustered into a distinct genotype with animal and environmental isolates. These results indicate that reactivation of dormant C. gattii infections can occur many years after the infectious agent was acquired elsewhere.

  17. Europe wants to be the leader; L'Europe veut etre leader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-05-15

    The European governments want to obtain an agreement on the debated laws relating to the CO{sub 2} abatement and the renewable energies before the end of the year 2008. Europe wants to be the leader in the international negotiations on the climatic change. (O.M.)

  18. Move Europe: a campaign for the improvement of lifestyle-related workplace health promotion in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breucker, G.; Sochert, R.; Kiesewetter, E.; Broek, K. van den; Gründemann, R.; Dijkman, A.; Haratau, T.; Leitgöb, H.; Sebinger, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since its formal founding in 1996, the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) has become one of leading European institutions in the field of Workplace Health Promotion (WHP) in Europe and can be characterised as an informal network consisting of national occupational health and

  19. The Political Economy of Trade Regimes in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Csaba, László

    1994-01-01

    This paper evaluates the robustness of trade liberalization in Central Europe and the role of the Europe Agreements (EAs) in institutionalizing this process. It finds a) that institutions are still fragile in Central Europe; b) that the EAs are not a great force for liberalism (on either side); and c) that there is a danger that trade policy will become submerged by other, apparently more important, issues. In this context abolition of governmental agencies with a stake in free trade is seen ...

  20. [Emigration from Central and Eastern Europe: trends and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, J

    1991-10-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of recent trends in emigration from Central and Eastern Europe, including the former USSR. Based on his analysis of the main causes of such emigration, the author considers five alternative scenarios concerning future migration prospects. He concludes that future pressures on Western Europe will be dependent on the success or failure of the countries of Eastern Europe and the former USSR in solving their economic and political problems.

  1. Eastern Europe. On the centenary of the political project

    OpenAIRE

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the characteristics of Eastern Europe as a political pro-ject. The author considers the genesis of Eastern Europe as a political region and identifies several periods in its history. The author analyses key features of sover-eignization- desovereignization of the region and examines geopolitical projects of Intermarium. It is shown that Eastern Europe as such is an objective reality, whose history has not ended. At the same time, the author advances and proves the thesi...

  2. Theater nuclear weapons in Europe the contemporary debate

    OpenAIRE

    Polser, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Are U.S. nuclear weapons still needed in Europe now that the threat that brought them there is gone? This thesis examines whether basing theater nuclear weapons in Europe is useful, irrelevant or counterproductive for maintaining European security. U.S. and NATO policymakers adhere to political and military utility arguments, while others argue TNWs in Europe are irrelevant-their utility has been supplanted by political, cultural and e...

  3. Introduction : irregular migrant domestic workers in Europe : who cares?

    OpenAIRE

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    International migration in the last two decades has been increasingly gendered. Women have become important components of international migration flows both within Europe (from East to West) and from developing countries in Asia and Africa to Europe. Female migration has been encouraged by both push and pull factors. On the push side, the implosion of Communist regimes in central eastern Europe and the former Soviet republics has left women unemployed, without a welfare state to rely on and/o...

  4. Ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil compared with Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Freeman, Katherine; Lago, Eleonor G; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Buffolano, Wilma; Stanford, Miles R; Petersen, Eskild

    2008-01-01

    .... We compared prospective cohorts of children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by universal neonatal screening in Brazil and neonatal or prenatal screening in Europe between 1992 and 2003...

  5. John Considine: Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. John Considine. Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage. 2008, xiv + 393 pp. ISBN: 9780521886741. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Price: £55 / $99.

  6. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  7. Postgraduate education in internal medicine in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Mark; Slee-Valentijn, Monique; Davidson, Christopher; Lindgren, Stefan; Semple, Colin; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-10-01

    Limited information exists on the framework and content of postgraduate education in internal medicine in Europe. This report describes the results of a survey of postgraduate training in internal medicine in the European countries. Two online questionnaire-based surveys were carried out by the European Board of Internal Medicine, one on the practice of internists and the other on postgraduate training in internal medicine. The national internal medicine societies of all 30 member countries of the European Federation of Internal Medicine were invited to participate. The responses were reviewed by internal medicine residents from the respective countries and summaries of the data were sent to the national societies for approval. Descriptive analysis of the data on postgraduate training in internal medicine was performed. Twenty-seven countries (90%) completed the questionnaire and approved their datasets. The length of training ranged from four to six years and was commonly five years. The majority of countries offered training in internal medicine and a subspecialty. A common trunk of internal medicine was frequently a component of subspecialty training programmes. Hospital inpatient service was the predominant setting used for training. A final certifying examination was in place in 14 countries. Although some similarities exists, there appear to be significant differences in the organisation, content and governance of postgraduate training in internal medicine between the European countries. Our findings will prove invaluable for harmonisation of training and qualification in internal medicine in Europe. © 2013.

  8. The Bioeconomy in Europe: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kes McCormick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A bioeconomy can be defined as an economy where the basic building blocks for materials, chemicals and energy are derived from renewable biological resources. This paper provides an overview of the bioeconomy in Europe, examining it from a policy framework and concept perspective. The role of bioenergy in the bioeconomy is discussed particularly through biofuels for transport and biorefineries. The study finds that the definitions of the bioeconomy are evolving and vary depending on the actor, but display similarities such as the emphasis on economic output and a broad, cross-sectoral focus. While there is great optimism about the benefits and opportunities associated with developing an advanced bioeconomy in Europe, significant risks and trade-offs are also expressed. Furthermore, the bioeconomy concept has been criticised for presenting a technical fix and pre-empting alternative visions. To advance a competitive and sustainable bioeconomy, this paper calls for attention on two important themes: participatory governance that engages the general public and key stakeholders in an open and informed dialogue as well as a commitment by government and industry to innovation that drives concerted efforts on sustainable development of the bioeconomy.

  9. The last sunset on mainland Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents the places in mainland Europe at which the sun sets latest, by Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), on any given day (distortion due to differences in local standard times is ignored). In contradiction to the na\\"ive assumption that the sun always sets latest at the westernmost point, the point of last sunset changes cyclically over the course of a year due to the changing orientation of the axis of the Earth with respect to the sun. Specifically, between the winter and summer solstices the last sunset shifts successively from Cabo de Sao Vicente (Portugal) to Cabo da Roca (Portugal) to Cabo Tourinan (Spain) to a site near Aglapsvik (Norway) to a location in the Norwegian municipality of Masoy south of Havoysund; and it shifts back again between the summer and winter solstices. There are two days in the year (April 24th and August 18th) on which the last sunset of mainland Europe (shared in those days effectively by Cabo Tourinan and the Aglapsvik area) coincides with the last sunset of main...

  10. Anesthesia Practices for Interventional Radiology in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vari, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.vari@uniroma1.it [University La Sapienza, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine (Italy); Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Les Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Chef de Pôle, Imagerie (France)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeThe Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) prompted an initiative to frame the current European status of anesthetic practices for interventional radiology, in consideration of the current variability of IR suite settings, staffing and anesthetic practices reported in the literature and of the growing debate on sedation administered by non-anesthesiologists, in Europe.MethodsAnonymous online survey available to all European CIRSE members to assess IR setting, demographics, peri-procedural care, anesthetic management, resources and staffing, pain management, data collection, safety, management of emergencies and personal opinions on the role CIRSE should have in promoting anesthetic care for interventional radiology.ResultsPredictable differences between countries and national regulations were confirmed, showing how significantly many “local” factors (type and size of centers, the availability of dedicated inpatient bed, availability of anesthesia staff) can affect the routine practice and the expansion of IR as a subspecialty. In addition, the perception of the need for IR to acquire more sedation-related skills is definitely stronger for those who practice with the lowest availability of anesthesia care.ConclusionSignificant country variations and regulations along with a controversial position of the anesthesia community on the issue of sedation administered by non-anesthesiologists substantially represent the biggest drawbacks for the expansion of peri-procedural anesthetic care for IR and for potential initiatives at an European level.

  11. EAVI Studies on Media Literacy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Celot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is predicted that media, in all its forms, will grow between ten and one hundred times its current volume over the next decade. Therefore, over time the three basic literacy skills of reading, writing and arithmetic will no longer be sufficient. People are also increasingly required to develop advanced skills in critical thinking, in order to decode the messages delivered by media. This type of new literacy is called media literacy (ML. The article presents a brief description of the results of wide comparative studies covering all 27 European Union Member States, conducted by the author in consortium with other partners for the European Commission. The results served as a basis to draw up future scenarios and perspectives for media literacy in Europe, outline emerging trends, and propose international expert recommendations which indicate priorities to develop new, concrete initiatives. The European Association for Viewers’ Interests (EAVI studies are some of the most comprehensive across Europe to date in terms of their purpose and scope. They highlight that the ultimate focus of media literacy is the development of individual critical understanding and the acquisition of skills sufficient to participate in social and political life, fostering active citizenship and a full democracy.

  12. New times for migrants' health in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Reyes-Uruena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  13. Public Health in Europe : 10 years EUPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kirch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    What is Public Health (PH? What are the links between Public Health research and policy in Europe? Where is PH coming from in the 20th century and where is it directed to?

    These are some of the questions addressed by Public Health in Europe – 10 years EUPHA, the volume, edited by Prof.W. Kirch and published by Springer in 2004, that presents a selection of the manuscripts from the 10th Annual Congress of EUPHA, held in Dresden in 2002.

    Gunnar Tellness, the President of EUPHA, reminds us what PH is, or what it should be: the science devoted to reduce in the population the amount of disease, premature death and disease-related discomfort, sickness and disability.

    In addressing these themes,Tellness suggests to improve PH by employing healthpromoting and cultural activities, in order to establish strong collaborations between public agencies, private business, organisations and pioneers.

  14. New times for migrants' health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Uruena, J M; Noori, T; Pharris, A; Jansà, J M

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  15. Some observations on pharmacoepidemiology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, C J; Wang, G

    1997-12-01

    The need for pharmacoepidemiology, defined as the study of the use of and the effects of drugs in large numbers of people, will increase exponentially in the next decade both in developed and in developing countries. Within Europe, a common market of over 350 million consumers, regulations and guidelines related to drug use were formulated, especially with respect to post-marketing surveillance and the detection, interpretation and management of rare but serious drug related adverse events. The activities of international organizations like the World Health Organization in this context are briefly addressed. In the European Union a choice has been made by the regulatory authorities for spontaneous reporting systems as a minimal requirement for post marketing surveillance in all member states. The French pharmacovigilance system has to some extend functioned as a blueprint for a common European post marketing surveillance system. Therefore the organization of this French system is explained in some detail. Also in this context the need for drug utilization studies to get quantitative information about drug use is stressed. For the creation of the databases needed for case control and cohort studies a variety of approaches is used in different countries, all with their own advantages and shortcomings. Some examples from England and the Netherlands are given. The efforts of the European Commission and various scientific organizations aiming to promote the harmonization of pharmacovigilance actions in Europe are discussed. Finally, some guidelines for good pharmacovigilance practice are suggested.

  16. Individual placement and support in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioritti, Angelo; Burns, Tom; Hilarion, Pilar; van Weeghel, Jaap; Cappa, Corrado; Suñol, Rosa; Otto, Ellen

    2014-06-01

    Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is a psychosocial intervention with a considerable body of evidence for its effectiveness in helping people with severe psychiatric disorders to obtain and maintain competitive jobs. In the last decades several European studies have replicated earlier American outcomes, generating widespread interest about its implementation in Europe. This article describes and compares details about achievements and challenges of IPS in 4 European countries: the United Kingdom, Italy, The Netherlands, and Spain. This description draws from published and nonpublished material about policy, development of services, and services evaluation. In the United Kingdom and in The Netherlands, empirical studies exploring the consistency of results over time and the effectiveness of IPS adaptations to local needs and special population are in course. In the United Kingdom, IPS has become national policy, as well as in some regions of Italy and Spain. Training is quite extensive in the United Kingdom and in The Netherlands, developing well in Italy and Spain. Implementation seems to be less straightforward, mostly because of deeply rooted cultural values regarding both work and mental health care. Strong local leadership is still required. In all countries contingencies related to the current economic crisis seems to have increased interest in IPS. With the converging forces of strong local leadership, rapid economic changes, and slow cultural shifts, IPS may soon become a priority intervention in Europe for ensuring that people living with serious mental illnesses are able to obtain competitive employment.

  17. Cigarette smuggling in Europe: who really benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1998-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling, now on the increase, is so widespread and well organised that it poses a serious threat to public health. This threat comes from two principal directions. First, smuggling makes cigarettes available cheaply, thereby increasing consumption. A third of annual global exports go to the contraband market, representing an enormous impact on consumption, and thus causing an increase in the burden of disease, especially in poorer countries. It is also costing government treasuries thousands of millions of dollars in lost tax revenue. Second, the tobacco industry uses smuggling politically, lobbying governments to lower tax, arguing that smuggling is caused by price differences. This paper shows that the claimed correlation between high prices and high levels of smuggling does not exist in western Europe. In fact, countries such as Norway and Sweden, with expensive cigarettes, do not have a large smuggling problem, whereas countries in the south of Europe do. Cigarette smuggling is not caused principally by "market forces". It is mainly caused by fraud, by the illegal evasion of import duty. The cigarettes involved are not the cheap brands from southern European countries, for which there is no international market. It is the well-known international brands such as Marlboro and Winston. We propose much tighter regulation of cigarette trade, including an international transport convention, and a total ban on transit trade-sale by the manufacturers to dealers, who sell on to smugglers.

  18. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  19. How unusual was autumn 2006 in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, G. J.

    2007-06-01

    The temperatures in large parts of Europe have been record high during the meteorological autumn of 2006. Compared to the 1961-1990 normals it was more than three degrees Celsius warmer from the North side of the Alps to southern Norway. This made it by far the warmest autumn on record in the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, with the records in Central England going back to 1659, in the Netherlands to 1706 and in Denmark to 1768. Also in most of Austria, southern Sweden, southern Norway and parts of Ireland the autumn was the warmest on record. Under the obviously false assumption that the climate does not change, the observed temperatures for 2006 would occur with a probability of less than once every 10 000 years in a large part of Europe, given the distribution defined by the temperatures in the autumn 1901-2005. However, even taking global warming linearly into account the event was still very unusual, with return times of 200 years or more in most of this region using the most conservative extrapolation. Global warming and a southerly circulation were found to give the largest contributions to the anomalous temperature, with minor contributions of more sunshine and SST anomalies in the North Sea. Climate models that simulate the current circulation well do not simulate an increasing probability of warm events in autumn under global warming, implying that it either was a very rare coincidence or some non-linear physics is missing from these models.

  20. Interactive map of refugee movement in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calka, Beata; Cahan, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    Considering the recent mass movement of people fleeing war and oppression, an analysis of changes in migration, in particular an analysis of the final destination refugees choose, seems to be of utmost importance. Many international organisations like UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) or EuroStat gather and provide information on the number of refugees and the routes they follow. What is also needed to study the state of affairs closely is a visual form presenting the rapidly changing situation. An analysis of the problem together with up-to-date statistical data presented in the visual form of a map is essential. This article describes methods of preparing such interactive maps displaying movement of refugees in European Union countries. Those maps would show changes taking place throughout recent years but also the dynamics of the development of the refugee crisis in Europe. The ArcGIS software was applied to make the map accessible on the Internet. Additionally, online sources and newspaper articles were used to present the movement of migrants. The interactive map makes it possible to watch spatial data with an opportunity to navigate within the map window. Because of that it is a clear and convenient tool to visualise such processes as refugee migration in Europe.

  1. Interactive map of refugee movement in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calka Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the recent mass movement of people fleeing war and oppression, an analysis of changes in migration, in particular an analysis of the final destination refugees choose, seems to be of utmost importance. Many international organisations like UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees or EuroStat gather and provide information on the number of refugees and the routes they follow. What is also needed to study the state of affairs closely is a visual form presenting the rapidly changing situation. An analysis of the problem together with up-to-date statistical data presented in the visual form of a map is essential. This article describes methods of preparing such interactive maps displaying movement of refugees in European Union countries. Those maps would show changes taking place throughout recent years but also the dynamics of the development of the refugee crisis in Europe. The ArcGIS software was applied to make the map accessible on the Internet. Additionally, online sources and newspaper articles were used to present the movement of migrants. The interactive map makes it possible to watch spatial data with an opportunity to navigate within the map window. Because of that it is a clear and convenient tool to visualise such processes as refugee migration in Europe.

  2. PESI - a taxonomic backbone for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenberg, Juliana; Boumans, Louis; Hussey, Charles; Hyam, Roger; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Paton, Alan; Michel, Ellinor; Guiry, Michael D.; Boegh, Phillip S.; Pedersen, Henrik Ærenlund; Enghoff, Henrik; von Raab-Straube, Eckhard; Güntsch, Anton; Geoffroy, Marc; Müller, Andreas; Kohlbecker, Andreas; Berendsohn, Walter; Appeltans, Ward; Arvanitidis, Christos; Vanhoorne, Bart; Declerck, Joram; Vandepitte, Leen; Hernandez, Francisco; Nash, Róisín; Costello, Mark John; Ouvrard, David; Bezard-Falgas, Pascale; Bourgoin, Thierry; Wetzel, Florian Tobias; Glöckler, Falko; Korb, Günther; Ring, Caroline; Hagedorn, Gregor; Häuser, Christoph; Aktaç, Nihat; Asan, Ahmet; Ardelean, Adorian; Borges, Paulo Alexandre Vieira; Dhora, Dhimiter; Khachatryan, Hasmik; Malicky, Michael; Ibrahimov, Shaig; Tuzikov, Alexander; De Wever, Aaike; Moncheva, Snejana; Spassov, Nikolai; Chobot, Karel; Popov, Alexi; Boršić, Igor; Sfenthourakis, Spyros; Kõljalg, Urmas; Uotila, Pertti; Olivier, Gargominy; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Tarkhnishvili, David; Chaladze, Giorgi; Tuerkay, Michael; Legakis, Anastasios; Peregovits, László; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Ólafsson, Erling; Lysaght, Liam; Galil, Bella Sarah; Raimondo, Francesco M.; Domina, Gianniantonio; Stoch, Fabio; Minelli, Alessandro; Spungis, Voldermars; Budrys, Eduardas; Olenin, Sergej; Turpel, Armand; Walisch, Tania; Krpach, Vladimir; Gambin, Marie Therese; Ungureanu, Laurentia; Karaman, Gordan; Kleukers, Roy M.J.C.; Stur, Elisabeth; Aagaard, Kaare; Valland, Nils; Moen, Toril Loennechen; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Tykarski, Piotr; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Kędra, Monika; M. de Frias Martins, Antonio; Abreu, António Domingos; Silva, Ricardo; Medvedev, Sergei; Ryss, Alexander; Šimić, Smiljka; Marhold, Karol; Stloukal, Eduard; Tome, Davorin; Ramos, Marian A.; Valdés, Benito; Pina, Francisco; Kullander, Sven; Telenius, Anders; Gonseth, Yves; Tschudin, Pascal; Sergeyeva, Oleksandra; Vladymyrov, Volodymyr; Rizun, Volodymyr Bohdanovych; Raper, Chris; Lear, Dan; Stoev, Pavel; Penev, Lyubomir; Rubio, Ana Casino; Backeljau, Thierry; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Ulenberg, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Reliable taxonomy underpins communication in all of biology, not least nature conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem resources. The flexibility of taxonomic interpretations, however, presents a serious challenge for end-users of taxonomic concepts. Users need standardised and continuously harmonised taxonomic reference systems, as well as high-quality and complete taxonomic data sets, but these are generally lacking for non-specialists. The solution is in dynamic, expertly curated web-based taxonomic tools. The Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure (PESI) worked to solve this key issue by providing a taxonomic e-infrastructure for Europe. It strengthened the relevant social (expertise) and information (standards, data and technical) capacities of five major community networks on taxonomic indexing in Europe, which is essential for proper biodiversity assessment and monitoring activities. The key objectives of PESI were: 1) standardisation in taxonomic reference systems, 2) enhancement of the quality and completeness of taxonomic data sets and 3) creation of integrated access to taxonomic information. New information This paper describes the results of PESI and its future prospects, including the involvement in major European biodiversity informatics initiatives and programs. PMID:26491393

  3. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Origins of Anti-Americanism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Eremin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Article is devoted to analyzing the origin of a phenomenon known as Anti-Americanism among the countries of Europe, which are considered the most loyal allies of the United States of America today. The origins of European Anti-Americanism go back to the very early ages of the existence of the first thirteen colonies. The second stage of development of anti-Americanism began with attempt of the first thirteen colonies to overthrow the tyranny of the British. Another reason for the lack of faith in the United States was that European elite was very much concerned with its lack of culture. Another reason for worries in Europe was the war between the United States and the Spanish. In the beginning of the XX century, Americans were not active enough in the sphere of international relations to give many reasons for hatred to the world. The roots of modern anti-Americanism have emerged mostly from this point - when USA became a superpower and was following the rules of the Cold War. Author concludes that anti-Americanism is a big obstacle in the way of successful interaction with the United States.

  5. Defense Cooperation in Europe: Subregional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury I. Nadtochey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of subregional cooperation among European nations in security and defense area is the topic of the article. It describes sub-regionalism as a phenomenon and explains the reasons why small states of Europe are eager to cooperate in defense area after the end of the Cold War. Such cooperation is analyzed within the broader context of European integration - a trend which still has a great impact on sub-regional cooperation in certain parts of a common EU and NATO space. According to the article former socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe as well as some European neutral states viewed sub-regional groupings as means of security enhancement in a period of transition - a time when these countries were getting ready for fully-fledged integration into European or Euro-Atlantic organizations. Nevertheless, subregional groupings have become even more relevant while EU and NATO enlargements were slowing down. So called threat perception gap among individual members of the EU and NATO contributed to forming of small subregional groupings based on members' security common vision and their aspiration to reach common goals. These groupings estimated as marginal by pan -European organizations, are extremely important for the grouped countries themselves. For European Union and the North Atlantic Alliance it is not easy to govern these subregional trends of multinational cooperation and synchronize them with European and Euro-Atlantic integration as such.

  6. Radiological research in Europe: a bibliometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mela, G.S. [Department of Internal Medicine, DIMI, University of Genoa, Largo R. Benzi, 8, 16132 Genova (Italy); Martinoli, C.; Poggi, E.; Derchi, L.E. [Department of Radiology, DICMI, University of Genoa, Largo R. Benzi, 8, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    We performed a bibliometric search to evaluate number and scientific ''weight'' of papers written by European radiologists, as compared with colleagues from other countries, to measure the contribution of European researchers to radiology journals, and to correlate bibliometric parameters with some socio-economic factors of the different European nations. We considered all peer-reviewed articles published by radiologists in biomedical journals quoted by ISI over the 1995-2000 period. To identify authors as radiologists, the string ''radiol'' had to appear in the address of the corresponding author, and his country was considered as the country of origin of the paper. The definition of Europe included the 15 countries of the European Union, plus Norway and Switzerland. The scientific ''weight'' of the paper was assumed to be the impact factor of the journal of the publication in that given year. Then, we considered the annual indexes number of papers/population and number of papers/Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in each country. Data were retrieved from the Eurostat annual statistic reviews. From these bases, we obtained a comparison of the scientific production among European radiologists, those from the U.S. and those from the rest of the world. European radiological research is responsible of almost 40% of the world scientific production in our field, and Germany, UK and France are the leading publishers in Europe. An increase of the number of papers written by European radiologists was noted in the 1995-2000 period, whereas the production from the U.S. had a slight decrease. The mean concentration indexes papers/inhabitants and papers/GDP were significantly lower in Europe than in the U.S., even if some small European countries had higher values than the U.S. As a mean, European research received a lower impact factor than that from the U.S. The assessment of research output has progressively developed as

  7. Women, Migration and Activism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Freedman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous mettons en évidence l'activisme des femmes migrantes en Europe. Nous analysons la façon dont les formes genrées des migrations ont placé les femmes migrantes dans des situations particulières par rapport à l'immigration et à l'intégration dans les sociétés européennes. Nous étudions également la manière dont les femmes migrantes se sont mobilisées, pour réclamer leurs droits au sein des différents Etats européens. Plus spécifiquement, nous analysons les luttes des femmes « sans-papières » et les difficultés qu'elles rencontrent pour obtenir les droits que leur reconnaissent en théorie les sociétés d'accueil. Ces obstacles peuvent être très différents de ceux auxquels sont confrontés les hommes migrants. C'est le cas par exemple dans le domaine de l'emploi, en particulier dans les services d'entretien, où la présence des femmes est bien souvent « invisible ». Les femmes migrantes peuvent par ailleurs se retrouver face à l'opposition des hommes dans leur mobilisation, opposition qui surgit quand ils estiment que les femmes remettent en question leur rôle traditionnel, en s'engageant activement dans les activités politiques. L'article traite enfin des interactions entre les mobilisations des femmes migrantes et l'activisme des féministes européennes. Ainsi, il aborde la question suivante : comment les droits des femmes migrantes ont-ils été pris en compte dans les mobilisations « nationales » des féministes européennes ?Este artículo analiza el activismo de las mujeres migrantes en Europa y en particular la influencia que ejercen los patrones genéricos sobre las mujeres en cuanto a la migración y a la integración en las sociedades europeas. Estudia también cómo las migrantes se han movilizado para conseguir sus derechos en las dichas sociedades. Se toma el ejemplo de las indocumentadas, que se enfrentan a barreras específicas y a dificultades importantes en el momento de

  8. Iron status of young children in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Liandré F; Eussen, Simone R

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in young children aged 6-36 mo. Although the hazards associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are well known, concerns about risks associated with excess iron intake in young children are emerging. To characterize iron status in Europe, we describe the prevalence of ID, IDA, iron repletion, and excess stores with the use of published data from a systematic review on iron intake and deficiency rates, combined with other selected iron status data in young European children. Various definitions for ID and IDA were applied across studies. ID prevalence varied depending on socioeconomic status and type of milk fed (i.e., human or cow milk or formula). Without regard to these factors, ID was reported in 3-48% of children aged ≥12 mo across the countries. For 6- to 12-mo-old infants, based on studies that did not differentiate these factors, ID prevalence was 4-18%. IDA was Europe but was considerably higher in Eastern Europe (9-50%). According to current iron status data from a sample of healthy Western European children aged 12-36 mo, 69% were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for serum ferritin (SF) was 64.3 μg/L. In another sample, 79% of 24-mo-old children were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for SF was 57.3 μg/L. Average iron intake in most countries studied was close to or below the UK's Recommended Dietary Allowance. In conclusion, even in healthy European children aged 6-36 mo, ID is still common. In Western European populations for whom data were available, approximately three-quarters of children were found to be iron replete, and excess iron stores (SF >100 μg/L) did not appear to be a concern. Consensus on the definitions of iron repletion and excess stores, as well as on ID and IDA, is needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  10. Trends of tropospheric ozone over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, M.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the study on the title subject is to investigate the phenomena which have contributed to the observed trends of surface concentrations of ozone (O{sub 3}) and related species in The Netherlands and nearby countries. The presence in the European troposphere of relatively high concentrations of so-called ozone precursors establish a net chemical production of ozone. Since the atmospheric residence time of methane (CH{sub 4}) is much longer than that of all other VOC-species the rest is often referred to as non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The photo-stationary state relations are a set of three chemical reactions which rapidly converts ozone and nitrogen monoxide (NO) into nitrogen dioxide and oxygen (O{sub 2}) and vice versa. In NO{sub x}-rich environments such as in The Netherlands, this set of reactions transforms much of the ozone into NO{sub 2} which therefore can be regarded as potential ozone. Under such conditions it is convenient to use oxidant which is a conserved quantity for the photo-stationary state relations. The combination of NO{sub x} and VOCs produces ozone, but also other secondary species such as peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN). There are, however, a few differences between the formation of ozone and PAN and there are differences in their background levels as well. PAN concentrations in Europe are strongly determined by local (European) production, much more than the ozone concentrations in Europe. Therefore, studying trends of PAN concentrations is useful in distinguishing the contributions of different processes to the trends of ozone. Important aspects which possibly have contributed to trends of ozone concentrations are mentioned and discussed. Several aspects concerning the quantitative analysis of trends of surface concentrations of ozone, oxidant, PAN, NOX and NMVOS were investigated. The emphasis in this study is on the contribution of European emission changes since 1980 to the trends of ozone and oxidant

  11. Geometrid outbreak waves travel across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenow, Olle; Nilssen, Arne C; Bylund, Helena; Pettersson, Rickard; Battisti, Andrea; Bohn, Udo; Caroulle, Fabien; Ciornei, Constantin; Csóka, György; Delb, Horst; De Prins, Willy; Glavendekić, Milka; Gninenko, Yuri I; Hrašovec, Boris; Matošević, Dinka; Meshkova, Valentyna; Moraal, Leen; Netoiu, Constantin; Pajares, Juan; Rubtsov, Vasily; Tomescu, Romica; Utkina, Irina

    2013-01-01

    We show that the population ecology of the 9- to 10-year cyclic, broadleaf-defoliating winter moth (Operophtera brumata) and other early-season geometrids cannot be fully understood on a local scale unless population behaviour is known on a European scale. Qualitative and quantitative data on O. brumata outbreaks were obtained from published sources and previously unpublished material provided by authors of this article. Data cover six decades from the 1950s to the first decade of twenty-first century and most European countries, giving new information fundamental for the understanding of the population ecology of O. brumata. Analyses on epicentral, regional and continental scales show that in each decade, a wave of O. brumata outbreaks travelled across Europe. On average, the waves moved unidirectionally ESE-WNW, that is, toward the Scandes and the Atlantic. When one wave reached the Atlantic coast after 9-10 years, the next one started in East Europe to travel the same c. 3000 km distance. The average wave speed and wavelength was 330 km year(-1) and 3135 km, respectively, the high speed being incongruous with sedentary geometrid populations. A mapping of the wave of the 1990s revealed that this wave travelled in a straight E-W direction. It therefore passed the Scandes diagonally first in the north on its way westward. Within the frame of the Scandes, this caused the illusion that the wave moved N-S. In analogy, outbreaks described previously as moving S-N or occurring contemporaneously along the Scandes were probably the result of continental-scale waves meeting the Scandes obliquely from the south or in parallel. In the steppe zone of eastern-most and south-east Europe, outbreaks of the winter moth did not participate in the waves. Here, broadleaved stands are small and widely separated. This makes the zone hostile to short-distance dispersal between O. brumata subpopulations and prevents synchronization within meta-populations. We hypothesize that hostile

  12. Final report on unconventional gas in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The main purpose of the study on the title subject is to analyse how the relevant applicable European legal framework, including environmental law, is applied to the licensing/authorisation and operational permitting for prospection, exploration and production/exploitation of shale gas based on a sample of four Member States, i.e. Poland, France, Germany and Sweden. It is, however, not purpose of the study to assess whether Member State legislation based on EU legislation has been properly transposed. This study focuses on shale gas exploration, because shale gas is the type of unconventional gas most discussed and contentious currently. Also, compared to tight gas and coal bed methane, relatively less experience exists in Europe for shale formations as new source of natural gas. The focus on exploration is due to the stage of projects in Europe. No commercial scale shale gas exploitation has taken place yet and it is only expected in a few years time. Nevertheless, this study also takes into account a possible future production phase and especially analyses legal issues especially related to the transfer from exploration to production stage. As regards areas of law to be studied, the focus is the 'core' licensing and permitting process. Given the importance of environmental law in the area of shale gas exploration and production, it is included as an integral part of the study. However, within the scope of this study it is not possible to perform a thorough assessment of the appropriateness of the EU environmental legislation. Nevertheless, the present report describes and analyses EU environmental legislation which was assumed to be of most relevance for shale gas projects, especially as regards its interface with the 'core' licensing and permitting processes. Thereby it contributes to further efforts to assess the appropriateness of the EU legal framework especially with a view to a future production phase and the challenge to ensure a high

  13. Advances in wind erosion modelling in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Lugato, Emanuele; Alewell, Christine; Montanarella, Luca; Panagos, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious environmental problem often resulting in severe forms of soil degradation. Wind erosion is also a phenomenon relevant for Europe, although this land degradation process has been overlooked until very recently. The state-of-the-art literature presents wind erosion as a process that locally affects the semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean region as well as the temperate climate areas of the northern European countries. Actual observations, field measurements and modelling assessments, however, are all extremely limited and highly unequally distributed across Europe. As a result, we currently lack comprehensive understanding about where and when wind erosion occurs in Europe, and the intensity of erosion that poses a threat to agricultural productivity. Today's challenge is to integrate the insights of local experiments and field-scale models into a new generation of large-scale wind erosion models. While naturally being less accurate than field-scale models, these large-scale modelling approaches still provide essential knowledge about where and when wind erosion occurs and can disclose the level of risk for agricultural productivity in specific areas. Here, we present a geographic information system (GIS) version of the RWEQ (named GIS-RWEQ) to quantitatively assess soil loss by wind over large study areas (Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2588). The model designed to predict the daily soil loss potential at a ca. 1 km2 spatial resolution shows high consistency with local measurements reported in literature. The average soil loss predicted by GIS-RWEQ for the European arable land totals 62 million Mg yr-1, with an average area-specific soil loss of 0.53 Mg yr-1. The JRC model RUSLE2015, for the same area estimates 295 million Mg yr-1 of soil loss due to water erosion. Notably, soil loss by wind erosion in the European arable land could be as high as 20% of water erosion, even though the areas affected are mainly

  14. Den Europæiske Union som liberalistisk medborgerprojekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2005-01-01

    Den Europæiske Union (EU) befinder sig i en ufrivillig tænkepause efter den franske afvisning af Traktaten om en forfatning for Europa ved folkeafstemningen den 20. maj 2005. Det er således tid til at reflektere over, hvori det europæiske samarbejde består i dag, og over, hvorledes det kan eller ...

  15. The Forte Kreis : an Attempt to Spiritual Leadership over Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Just before the outbreak of World War 1, a group of writers, artists and philosophers decided to establish a spiritual rule over Europe, the Forte Kreis. The group aimed at a reconciliation in Europe, by establishing pacifism, but also between East and West by creating a new language. Their thoughts

  16. Forest fires and air quality issues in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Enrico Marchi; Marco Ferretti; Millán M. Millán

    2009-01-01

    Each summer forest fires in southern Europe emit large quantities of pollutants to the atmosphere. These fires can generate a number of air pollution episodes as measured by air quality monitoring networks. We analyzed the impact of forest fires on air quality of specific regions of southern Europe. Data from several summer seasons were studied with the aim of...

  17. Cross-border Insurance in Europe : Challenges for Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); J. Sass (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAt the start of Solvency II in January 2016, there is no overview of the insurance market in Europe. This paper develops a methodology to link various data sets on foreign branches and subsidiaries. The result is a new and comprehensive data set of cross-border insurance in Europe.

  18. Ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil compared with Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Freeman, Katherine; Lago, Eleonor G; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Buffolano, Wilma; Stanford, Miles R; Petersen, Eskild

    2008-08-13

    Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis appears to be more severe in Brazil, where it is a leading cause of blindness, than in Europe, but direct comparisons are lacking. Evidence is accumulating that more virulent genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii predominate in South America. We compared prospective cohorts of children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by universal neonatal screening in Brazil and neonatal or prenatal screening in Europe between 1992 and 2003, using the same protocol in both continents. Three hundred and eleven (311) children had congenital toxoplasmosis: 30 in Brazil and 281 in Europe, where 71 were identified by neonatal screening. Median follow up was 4.1 years in Europe and 3.7 years in Brazil. Relatively more children had retinochoroiditis during the first year in Brazil than in Europe (15/30; 50% versus 29/281; 10%) and the risk of lesions by 4 years of age was much higher: the hazard ratio for Brazil versus Europe was 5.36 (95%CI: 3.17, 9.08). Children in Brazil had larger lesions, which were more likely to be multiple and to affect the posterior pole (pBrazil, visual impairment (congenitally infected children in Brazil compared with Europe. The marked differences in the frequency, size and multiplicity of retinochoroidal lesions may be due to infection with more virulent genotypes of the parasite that predominate in Brazil but are rarely found in Europe.

  19. A first look for parameters of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, A.A.; Vercic, D.; Buetschi, G.; Flodin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Teaching of public relations in Europe is largely U.S. oriented. A study has been conducted to determine whether this also applies to the practical and academic approaches in this area. A Delphi panel, consisting of experts in research, education, or both from countries in Europe, identified four

  20. Reforms and Collaborations in Europe--China Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Cai, Yuzhuo; Shen, Wen-Qin; François, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This special issue focuses on the reforms and collaborations in Europe--China doctoral education. The articles in this special issue provide an insightful picture of the recent reforms in doctoral education in China and EU countries. Next to the structural reforms in Europe and China, the special issue papers have also specifically focused on…

  1. Modelling West Nile virus transmission risk in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, Chantal B.F.; Hartemink, Nienke; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which has caused repeated outbreaks in humans in southern and central Europe, but thus far not in northern Europe. The main mosquito vector for WNV, Culex pipiens, consists of two behaviourally distinct biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can

  2. EU online Trustmarks Building Digital Confidence in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remotti, L.; Veenstra, A.F.E.; Lieshout, M. van; Kool, L.; Rumpf, G.; Ipektsidis, b.; Damvakeraki, T.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study shows that Europe is the largest eCommerce market in the world, overtaking North America in 2011. The total value of the European market was estimated at €246bn, and online retail sales account for around 5.1% of the total value of the retail market in Europe. Still, cross-border

  3. The Dutch revolt and Catholic exile in Reformation Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch revolt of the sixteenth century sparked one of the largest refugee crises of Reformation Europe. This book explores the flight, exile and eventual return of Catholic men and women during the war. By mapping the Catholic diaspora across northern Europe, Geert H. Janssen explains how exile

  4. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe : population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Joan K.; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J.; O'Mahony, Mary T.; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European

  5. Home care in Europe: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genet, Nadine; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; Kringos, Dionne S.; Bouman, Ans; Francke, Anneke L.; Fagerström, Cecilia; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Greco, Cosetta; Devillé, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the

  6. Home care in Europe: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genet, N.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Bouman, A.; Francke, A.L.; Fagerstrom, C.; Melchiorre, M.G.; Greco, C.; Devillé, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe

  7. Home care in Europe: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genet, N.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Bouman, A.; Francke, A.L.; Fagerström, C.; Melchiorre, M.G.; Greco, C.; Devillé, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in

  8. Energy use reduction potential of passenger transport in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, ME; Moll, HC

    2000-01-01

    To contribute to a sustainable society, considerable reduction in energy use and CO2 emissions should be achieved. This paper presents the results of calculations exploring the energy use reduction potential of passenger transport for Western Europe (OECD Europe minus Turkey). For these

  9. Sustainable energy successes in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Oesterfelt, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The publication describes more than 20 `good practices` in energy conservation in Central and Eastern Europe: successful campaigns and projects for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. The cases are collected mainly by NGO-organisations in INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy) - Europe as part of their contributions to the ECO-Forum Energy and Climate Group. (LN)

  10. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  11. Challenges of urbanization and peri-urban development in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Urbanisation has arguably been the most significant process of land use change in Europe since Second World War. Over 70% of Europe's population now lives in urban areas, which in turn, have grown in area by almost 80% over the last fifty years (EEA 2006). Urban areas cover approximately five...

  12. Captive rhinoceroses in Europe from 1500 until 1810

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, L.C.

    1973-01-01

    Between 1500 and 1810 ten rhinoceroses have been recorded in Europe, while two others died on their way to Europe. The history of these animals is given here. Eleven specimens belonged to Rhinoceros unicornis, one to Rhinoceros sondaicus. Two doubtful reports are also on record.

  13. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  14. Access to diagnostic evaluation and treatment for dementia in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldemar, G.; Phung, K.T.; Burns, A.; Georges, J.; Hansen, F.R.; Iliffe, S.; Marking, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Selmes, J.; Stoppe, G.; Sartorius, N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses existing barriers to diagnosis and treatment for patients with dementia in Europe as well as approaches to overcome these barriers. The barriers to care are manifold, being present at all levels in each society and between countries in Europe. Multilevel and

  15. Specialisation and specialist education in prosthetic dentistry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owall, B.; Welfare, R.; Garefis, P.; Hedzelek, W.; Hobkirk, J.; Isidor, F.; Jerolimov, V.; Jokstad, A.; Kalk, W.; Kronstrom, M.; van der Kuij, P.; Mericske-Stern, R.; Naert, I.; Narhi, T.; Nilner, K.; Polyzois, G.; Setz, J.; User, A.; Zonnenberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reports on the results of a meeting of prosthodontists from selected European countries. The aim of the meeting was to analyse and promote specialisation and specialist education in Prosthetic Dentistry in Europe. Representatives for Europe were selected from the European

  16. Paediatric primary care in Europe: variation between countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Esso, Diego; del Torso, Stefano; Hadjipanayis, Adamos

    2010-01-01

    Although it is known that differences in paediatric primary care (PPC) are found throughout Europe, little information exists as to where, how and who delivers this care. The aim of this study was to collect information on the current existing situation of PPC in Europe....

  17. Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, F.; Colom, M.F.; Swinne, D.; Tintelnot, K.; Iatta, R.; Montagna, M.T.; Torres-Rodriguez, J.M.; Cogliati, M.; Velegraki, A.; Burggraaf, A.; Kamermans, A.; Sweere, J.M.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Klaassen, C.H.; Boekhout, T.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Europe were acquired from an autochthonous source or

  18. Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe is based on a particular, positivtic model. Other approaches are largely neglected.......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe is based on a particular, positivtic model. Other approaches are largely neglected....

  19. Tracking Europe: Mobility, Diaspora, and the Politics of Location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, G.E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tracking Europe is a bold interdisciplinary critique of claims regarding the free movement of goods, people, services, and capital throughout Europe. Ginette Verstraete interrogates European discourses on unlimited movement for everyone and a utopian unity-in-diversity in light of contemporary

  20. Characteristics and Conditions of Entrepreneurship in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2017-01-01

    Establishing of new small businesses is an intensive process in the whole of Eastern Europe. As they are new, most of them are in the introductory phases of their existence (survival, consolidation and control). Contemporary industrial and market structure in the countries of Eastern Europe provi...

  1. [African refugees and migrants: "invasion of welfare-state Europe"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, D

    1993-06-01

    Migration and refugee movements from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe are analyzed. Topics discussed include the volume of migration, countries of destination, the relationship of this migration to movements from other third world countries and Eastern Europe and to migration within Africa, causes of migration, major paths of migrants, costs and benefits of migration, and policy aspects.

  2. Multiculturalism in Central and Eastern Europe: The Hungarian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csereklye, Erzsebet

    2014-01-01

    The European discourse of multicultural education almost exclusively addresses the experiences of Western Europe. Countries in Eastern and Central Europe have experienced not only different ways of economic and political development in the 20th century, but also different constructs of social, especially ethnic diversity. In the CEE region the…

  3. Editorial: Modern Challenges for International Business in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek KLICH

    2013-01-01

    Globalisation,  integration,  regionalisation  or  integration  processes  are  indeed  very crucial for local businesses, which more and more often think globally and act locally (Kefalas, 1998), especially in Europe, thus globalisation and Europeanisation processes are currently key contemporary challenges for international businesses in Europe.

  4. Coping with shrinkage in Europe's cities and towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of cities and towns in Europe are facing population decline. In this article we focus on the challenges of this urban shrinkage process from a policy perspective. After a short review of the main causes and consequences of urban shrinkage in Europe, two common public policy

  5. Generational Solidarity in Europe and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ruth; Lowenstein, Ariela; Halperin, Dafna; Tur-Sinai, Aviad

    2015-09-01

    This study explored various dimensions of generational relationships between older parents and their adult children using the second wave of SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe), comparing it to Dykstra's and Fokkema's (2011) analyses of the first wave. Results were further compared to the OASIS study (Old Age and Autonomy: The Role of Service Systems and Intergenerational Solidarity). The intergenerational solidarity model served as the main conceptual framework. Analyses yielded four family relationship types present in all countries, albeit with different frequencies. Around half of the respondents in the 11 countries were identified with close ties and flow of support. Four conclusions were drawn: (1) importance of personal resources; (2) cultural differences and meanings for families; (3) highlighting within-country difference; and (4) strength of intergenerational solidarity. The importance of understanding generational relationships in the current era with higher longevity and changing family structures is emphasized and explicated.

  6. Risques de concurrence fiscale en Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hugounenq, Réjane; Le Cacheux, Jacques; Madiès, Thierry

    1999-01-01

    Les efforts de convergence nominale réalisés, pendant plusieurs années, en vue du passage à la monnaie unique, ont longtemps fait de la réduction des déficits budgétaires et de la maîtrise de l’endettement public les préoccupations quasi obsessionnelles des gouvernements européens. La Commission elle-même, qui, à la fin des années quatre-vingt, avait fait de l’harmonisation fiscale une priorité en vue de l’achèvement du Marché unique, avait fini par se résigner à quelques aménagements, somme ...

  7. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabio, C; Meusburger, K; Klik, A

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly...... events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be applied in different seasons of the year....... to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive...

  8. Towards low carbon transport in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    The ambitious target of 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 requires transformation of the transport system in Europe. Decarbonising transport calls for the use of less and cleaner energy, and more efficient use of modern transport infrastructure and services. These strategic targets in EU policy are supported by substantial investment in research to develop innovative and sustainable solutions in efficient use of transport infrastructure and services, more energy-efficient transport, and use of alternative fuels and propulsion systems. This Policy Brochure, which is produced by the Transport Research and Innovation Portal (TRIP), highlights the contribution of research and innovation in meeting the EU targets on CO2 emission reduction in the transport system.

  9. Expert services for rare anaemias across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Gulbis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New challenges and priorities are given in the EU Health programme 2007-2013. The objectives of the programme are to improve citizens’ health security, to promote health to improve prosperity and solidarity, and to generate and disseminate health knowledge. If challenges and priorities have been defined globally for rare diseases by the European Commission, persons involved in rare anaemias have taken the opportunity to contribute to the empowerment of patients with rare anaemias. One of the ENERCA partners objectives was the mapping of existing centres that take care of patients with rare anaemias in Europe. Another goal was to obtain a directory of facilities available per centre for patients with rare anaemias. We thought that with those results it could realistically help to define a consensus regarding the criteria to be recognised as a centre of expertise for haemoglobinopathies and very rare anaemias.

  10. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  11. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present......HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people...... to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some...

  12. XI AUTISM-EUROPE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina TROSHANSKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 16th to 18th September 2016 in the historic city of Edinburgh the 11th International Congress of Autism Europe organized by the National Organization for Autism from the UK will be held. Theme of the Congress in 2016 will be "happy, healthy and empowered". The Congress will focus on the most recent developments in the field of autism, including causes, genetics, diagnosis, early intervention, treatments, education, support, employment, rights and policies, and many more. The improvement of the science, the rights and services for autistic people will be presented, and an insight into future developments of the events, knowledge and technologies for autistic people that may soon become a part of everyday life will be provided.

  13. The Youth and Europe: Fears and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Blanuša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a content analysis of directed associations on fears and hopes about Europe among the youth in Croatia, this paper analyses their attitude towards Croatia’s admission to the European Union. It also analyses the evaluative complexity and inner structure of this attitude. Research findings show that more than 20% of young people have no explicit attitude towards Croatia’s admission to the European Union. The explored attitude, among those who have it, is predominantly based on three hopes, i.e. expectations: economic progress, achievement of accountable governance and implementation of European values and standards in Croatia, but also on two fears: of economic colonisation and of political changes. Substantially, these hopes and fears comprise the utilitarian, value-related and political dimensions of transformation which are expected from the admission of a country to the European Union.

  14. Changing land use intensity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Sluis, Theo; Pedroli, Bas; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    . Logistic regression highlighted the importance of farm size and farmer type in understanding changes in land use intensity. The dominant pattern of stabilisation which has occurred over the past 10 years may also partly be a result of effective EU and national environmental and agricultural policies, which......In recent decades the intensification of agricultural production in many European countries has been one of the key components of land-use change. The impact of agricultural intensification varies according to national and local contexts and a greater understanding of the drivers of intensification...... will help to mitigate against its negative impacts and harness potential benefits. This paper analyses changes in land use intensity in six case studies in Europe. A total of 437 landowners were interviewed and their responses were analysed in relation to changes in land use intensity and agricultural...

  15. EUROPE WITHIN THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC REGIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Richard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The economists have thoroughly studied the relations between economic globalization and the regionalization of international trade exchanges. Geographers have started studying the process of regionalization in the 1990s. Nevertheless, most of their studies are based on the row value of trade exchanges of goods. This indicator is quite useful but it suffers from major shortcomings. For instance, it is biased by the size of the economies involved in these exchanges. In order to display a more nuanced picture of globalization, it is necessary to combine it with another indicator: the bilateral intensity of trade exchanges. Both indicators are applied to Europe in order to see to which extent it is concerned by the regionalization of the global economy, especially since the end of the cold war and the end of the ideological blocs.

  16. Electronic Signatures for Public Procurement across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ølnes, Jon; Andresen, Anette; Arbia, Stefano; Ernst, Markus; Hagen, Martin; Klein, Stephan; Manca, Giovanni; Rossi, Adriano; Schipplick, Frank; Tatti, Daniele; Wessolowski, Gesa; Windheuser, Jan

    The PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project is a large scale pilot under the CIP programme of the EU, exploring electronic public procurement in a unified European market. An important element is interoperability of electronic signatures across borders, identified today as a major obstacle to cross-border procurement. PEPPOL will address use of signatures in procurement processes, in particular tendering but also post-award processes like orders and invoices. Signature policies, i.e. quality requirements and requirements on information captured in the signing process, will be developed. This as well as technical interoperability of e-signatures across Europe will finally be piloted in demonstrators starting late 2009 or early 2010.

  17. The GM foods debate in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The debate on genetically modified (GM) foods has been led on multiple levels in Europe, including such diverse frames of reference as economic policy and international trade, environmental risk, bioethics, consumer protection and food safety. The shifting frames of reference are traced over...... the past three decades, focusing on events leading up to the five year quasi-moratorium on GM foods and its final lifting in 2004. While regulatory problems have been resolved, commercial actors in the food chain have done little to prepare themselves for the actual marketing of GM foods to European...... consumers. Relevant consumer research is reviewed, and a potential way forward for commercial actors is outlined. It is concluded that the conceptualization of GM foods should be turned back on its feet, understanding them as foods and not just as embodiments of technology....

  18. Maternal Mortality Among Migrants in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population....... Compared with indigenous born women, the pooled risk estimate (RR) was 2.00 with 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 1.72, 2.33. Migrant women had a non-significantly higher risk of dying from direct than indirect death causes; pooled RRs of 2.65 CI 1.88, 3.74 and 1.83 CI 1.37, 2.45. This meta......-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality....

  19. Update on HIV in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-06-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some regions and urgently need to be addressed.

  20. Sprawl and sustainable urban development in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50 years urban development in Europe has been affected by extensive urban sprawl. Environmental, economic and social impacts of long lasting sprawl are threatening urban identity, urban culture and cultural identity of European territory. Last two decades the main concept in European planning and governance system has been the sustainable development, namely sustainable urban development and its implementation. We ought to be realistic about the possibilities to counter sprawl. Realistic seams to steer sprawling tendencies in more suitable and sustainable manner, so called smart urban sprawl. This paper analyses the planning concepts and gives the brief review of current policies for steering the urban sprawl in EU, which are considered to be of importance in achieving more sustainable urban development and efficient urban management in Serbia.

  1. Smoke free policies in Europe. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Florence Berteletti

    2009-01-01

    This article is an overview of the current status of implementation of smoke free legislation in Europe and particularly in Romania. It overviews mostly how these laws are put to work. Comments are made on the scientific evidence of the harm induced by second-hand smoking, well known cause of lung cancer, cardiac disease, low birth weight and chronic respiratory diseases like bronchitis and asthma, especially in children. In the countries where the smoke free legislation was successfully implemented (Ireland, Italy, Scotland) there is evidence of reduced prevalence of the smoking induced diseases, especially acute coronary attacks. The article emphasizes on the major role of healthcare professionals in reducing the smoking level, but also on the involvement of politicians, especially the newly elected Romanians in the European political organisms.

  2. Aircraft induced contrail cirrus over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Condensation trails (contrails) and aircraft induced cirrus are nowadays a common feature at the mid latitude skies. Previously the impact of aircraft induced cirrus changes has been roughly estimated from observed decadal trends in cirrus cover but the direct attribution of observed cirrus changes to changes in aviation activity remains uncertain. In this paper the amount of additional cirrus induced from spreading contrails in humid air is estimated from the direct correlation between observed cirrus cover derived with suitable methods from METEOSAT data and aviation flight density reported by EUROCONTROL at high spatial and temporal resolution from June 22 to July 27, 1998 and September 27 to October 21, 2000. The results indicate that the aircraft induced cirrus cover over Europe is about ten times larger than that of linear contrails in the same region. Radiative forcing from the additional cirrus may be more than 10 times higher than that of linear contrails and aviation induced CO{sub 2} increases. (orig.)

  3. Seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    with influenza. RESULTS: We detected statistically significant seasonality in prevalence of anomalies previously associated with influenza, but the conception peak was in June (2.4% excess). We also detected seasonality in congenital cataract (April conceptions, 27%), hip dislocation and/or dysplasia (April, 12......BACKGROUND: This study describes seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe to provide a baseline against which to assess the impact of specific time varying exposures such as the H1N1 pandemic influenza, and to provide a comprehensive and recent picture of seasonality and its possible relation...... to etiologic factors. METHODS: Data on births conceived in 2000 to 2008 were extracted from 20 European Surveillance for Congenital Anomalies population-based congenital anomaly registries in 14 European countries. We performed Poisson regression analysis encompassing sine and cosine terms to investigate...

  4. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis......Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...

  5. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people...... living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present...... to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some...

  6. Multidisciplinary training of cancer specialists in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benstead, Kim; Turhal, Nazim Serdar; O'Higgins, Niall

    2017-01-01

    . Questionnaires were sent to National Societies of Radiation Oncology and Medical Oncology concerning similarities and differences in training programs and multidisciplinary care in member states in Europe. Results indicated wide variation in training systems and practice. Data were lacking for Surgery because...... Surgical Oncology is not recognised as a speciality in the EU and most specialist training in cancer surgery is organ based. A period of time in cross-disciplinary training in each of the other two disciplines for all trainees in Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology and Surgical Oncology (including all...... surgeons training in cancer surgery) is recommended. This is likely to improve the value of multidisciplinary meetings and may result in improved patient care. The Expert Group on Cancer Control of the European Commission has endorsed this recommendation....

  7. Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Jeppe Damgaard; Pedersen, Jonas Gejl; Götz, Karl Elias Immanuel

    2015-01-01

    Da Institut for Statskundskab på Aarhus Universitet afholdt konferencen ”Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis”, blev der præsenteret en række forskellige forklaringer på, hvorfor forholdet mellem Rusland og Vesten har udviklet sig, som det er tilfældet samt, hvordan Vesten fremadrettet på...... intelligent vis kan håndtere den store nabo mod øst. Således ønsker artiklen, udfra tre overordnede analyserammer, at belyse: (1) Hvad er de centrale årsager bag Ruslands adfærd i Ukraine? (2) Hvor farlig er Rusland? Skal Rusland betragtes som en revisionistisk eller en status quo-søgende aktør? (3) Hvordan...

  8. How is agroforestry perceived in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García de Jalón, Silvestre; Burgeaa, Paul J.; Graves, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Whilst the benefits of agroforestry are widely recognised in tropical latitudes few studies have assessed how agroforestry is perceived in temperate latitudes. This study evaluates how stakeholders and key actors including farmers, landowners, agricultural advisors, researchers...... and environmentalists perceive the implementation and expansion of agroforestry in Europe. Meetings were held with 30 stakeholder groups covering different agroforestry systems in 2014 in eleven EU countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom......). In total 344 valid responses were received to a questionnaire where stakeholders were asked to rank the positive and negative aspects of implementing agroforestry in their region. Improved biodiversity and wildlife habitats, animal health and welfare, and landscape aesthetics were seen as the main positive...

  9. 3-DTV research and development in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Ruediger

    1991-08-01

    An overview on the state of the art of 3-DTV in Europe is given, and the new European Co- operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) project and its objectives are described. The paper starts with a report on 3-DTV broadcast transmissions in 1982 using the simple anaglyph technique, which in many European countries found enthusiastic public interest. Following that, in three international audio and video fairs in 1983, 1985, and 1987 in Berlin, presentations of a high-quality two-channel 3-DTV system using large screen projection, showing professionally produced demonstration programs, attracted about 50,000 visitors. Meanwhile, several 3-DTV activities for advertising, information, and special applications such as medical imaging are to be found. In the broadcast domain, research and development aim to transmit 3-DTV within a high-definition TV channel.

  10. The future of astroparticle physics in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The European network ASPERA, which provides a structure for astroparticle physics in Europe and the planning of its long-term future, is going from strength to strength. A year after its launch, ASPERA has published an inventory of European activities in the astroparticle physics field. ASPERA has published a roadmap that describes Europe’s role in the field of astroparticle physics, including contributions made by Member States. ASPERA is a network of scientific agencies in 12 different European countries responsible for coordinating and funding astroparticle physics research. CERN also forms part of the network. The goal of the network, which has secured funding from the European Commission for a three-year period, is to define a common European strategy or "roadmap" for astroparticle physics. The inventory it has just published is an important step in the roadmap as it describes the role tha...

  11. Disparities in HIV clinic care across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffery V.; Laut, Kamilla Grønborg; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although advances in HIV medicine have yielded increasingly better treatment outcomes in recent years, HIV-positive people with access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) still face complex health challenges. The EuroSIDA Study Group surveyed its clinics to explore regional differences...... in clinic services. Methods: The EuroSIDA study is a prospective observational cohort study that began enrolling patients in 1994. In early 2014, we conducted a 59-item survey of the 98 then-active EuroSIDA clinics. The survey covered HIV clinical care and other aspects of patient care. The EuroSIDA East...... tuberculosis/HIV treatment integration in the East Europe group (27% versus 84% p

  12. Beveridge Curve Shifts – Europe 2020 Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferent-Pipas Marina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aligns to the economic policy body of research granting intensive efforts to the sphere of analysing the unemployment rate’s evolution as well as its primary drivers and effects in the context of the Europe 2020 strategy. Considering one of the agenda’s main targets – increasing employability among the European Union’s states, this paper analyses the areas funded by the European Social Fund as well as the country policy specifics in deriving the behaviour of the Beveridge curve associated with the EU-13 countries given the shift of European Union’s funds from old member states to newer ones. As such, the study employs the tools of Simultaneous Equations Systems and examines the impact of four categories of components on the Beveridge curve’s behaviour - structure of the unemployed, labour market and business environment factors as well as business cycles.

  13. Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, J S; Burney, P; Jarvis, D

    2016-01-01

    . Questionnaires including questions about age, gender, presence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status, and history of NSAID-induced hypersensitivity reactions were sent to participants by mail. Totally, 62 737 participants completed the questionnaires. RESULTS: The mean......BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper...... prevalence of NSAID-induced dyspnea was 1.9% and was highest in the three Polish centers [Katowice (4.9%), Krakow (4.8%), and Lodz (4.4%)] and lowest in Skopje, (0.9%), Amsterdam (1.1%), and Umea (1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of respiratory reactions to NSAIDs was higher in participants...

  14. 'FIFA 11 for Health' for Europe. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Colin W; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Larsen, Malte Nejst

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To modify the 'FIFA 11 for Health' programme to the European situation, and to assess its effects on health knowledge and well-being in Danish school children. METHOD: A two-cohort study with seven intervention and two control schools. Of the 546 Danish children (boys 269; girls 277) of mean...... age 11.1 (±0.4) years from five city and four country-side schools, 402 undertook the 'FIFA 11 for Health' programme and 144 acted as controls. As part of each school's PE curriculum, seven intervention schools received a 45 min Play Football period (football skills and 3 vs 3 games) and a 45 min Play...... negatively. CONCLUSIONS: The 'FIFA 11 for Health' programme modified for Europe demonstrated positive effects on children's health knowledge and social dimension of well-being, thereby providing evidence that the football-based health education programme can be used effectively within a European school...

  15. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, S.; Alhroub, Y.; Best, C.; Caboche, S.; Conroy, M. J.; Dana, J. M.; Fernandez Montecelo, M. A.; van Ginkel, G.; Golovin, A.; Gore, S. P.; Gutmanas, A.; Haslam, P.; Hendrickx, P. M. S.; Heuson, E.; Hirshberg, M.; John, M.; Lagerstedt, I.; Mir, S.; Newman, L. E.; Oldfield, T. J.; Patwardhan, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Sahni, G.; Sanz-García, E.; Sen, S.; Slowley, R.; Suarez-Uruena, A.; Swaminathan, G. J.; Symmons, M. F.; Vranken, W. F.; Wainwright, M.; Kleywegt, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe; pdbe.org) is a partner in the Worldwide PDB organization (wwPDB; wwpdb.org) and as such actively involved in managing the single global archive of biomacromolecular structure data, the PDB. In addition, PDBe develops tools, services and resources to make structure-related data more accessible to the biomedical community. Here we describe recently developed, extended or improved services, including an animated structure-presentation widget (PDBportfolio), a widget to graphically display the coverage of any UniProt sequence in the PDB (UniPDB), chemistry- and taxonomy-based PDB-archive browsers (PDBeXplore), and a tool for interactive visualization of NMR structures, corresponding experimental data as well as validation and analysis results (Vivaldi). PMID:22110033

  16. Locating Science in Society across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlgaard, Niels; Bloch, Carter Walter; Degn, Lise

    2012-01-01

    -level and individual-level data, we further show a connection between national differences and the public’s satisfaction with their own role as participants in science and technology. In countries where science communication culture is weak, where science plays a minor role in policy-making, and where institutions......In search of differences and similarities in relation to the role and location of science in European societies, we use empirical information from 37 countries as a platform for developing typologies concerning dimensions of science in society. These capture clusters of countries and reveal...... significant heterogeneity across Europe, providing a point of departure for international learning, while also demonstrating the challenges that the European institutions face in their promotion of a European Research Area, shared priorities and a common model of science in society. Combining national...

  17. Syllabic patterns in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sawicka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Syllabic patterns in South-Eastern Europe Whereas in most of the world’s languages syllable patterns are built according to the principles of sonority theory (they have the one-peak syllable pattern, in some Balkan languages, there occur deviations from the one-peak syllable pattern of a systemic nature. Such deviations occur also in the northern Slavic languages. They mainly concern the distribution of nasal consonants and appear either in the onset (Albanian or coda (Romanian. At the very south of Europe the open syllable pattern occurs.   Struktury sylabiczne południowo-wschodniej Europy Podczas gdy zdecydowana większość języków świata preferuje tzw. sonorycznościowy (jednoszczytowy model sylaby, to południowo-wschodnia Europa jest pod tym względem dość zróżnicowana. Odstępstwa od zasady jednoszczytowości występują w językach północnosłowiańskich. Na Bałkanach natomiast odstępstwa takie dotyczą głównie dystrybucji sonantów nosowych i występują albo w nagłosie, albo w wygłosie. Samo południe Europy (dialekty występujące na południowych częściach półwyspów Morza Śródziemnego ma natomiast niesymetryczny model sylaby – w wygłosie wyrazów występują głównie sylaby otwarte.

  18. Zika Virus, a New Threat for Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Jupille

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in 2007 in Micronesia and Polynesia, the arthropod-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV has spread in the Americas and the Caribbean, following first detection in Brazil in May 2015. The risk of ZIKV emergence in Europe increases as imported cases are repeatedly reported. Together with chikungunya virus (CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV, ZIKV is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Any countries where these mosquitoes are present could be potential sites for future ZIKV outbreak. We assessed the vector competence of European Aedes mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV.Two populations of Ae. aegypti from the island of Madeira (Funchal and Paul do Mar and two populations of Ae. albopictus from France (Nice and Bar-sur-Loup were challenged with an Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Fully engorged mosquitoes were then maintained in insectary conditions (28°±1°C, 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 16-24 mosquitoes from each population were examined at 3, 6, 9 and 14 days post-infection to estimate the infection rate, disseminated infection rate and transmission efficiency. Based on these experimental infections, we demonstrated that Ae. albopictus from France were not very susceptible to ZIKV.In combination with the restricted distribution of European Ae. albopictus, our results on vector competence corroborate the low risk for ZIKV to expand into most parts of Europe with the possible exception of the warmest regions bordering the Mediterranean coastline.

  19. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  20. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems. © 2014 John Wiley

  1. A survey on gastroenterology training in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschops, R; Wilmer, A; Tack, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: Specialist training in gastroenterology and hepatology is not standardised in different European countries. Aim: The aim of this survey was to assess the different teaching and socioeconomic aspects of training programmes in Europe. Methods: Seventy questionnaires were distributed to last year trainees or newly graduated gastroenterologists. Forty two respondents (60%) from 34 major training centres in 10 different European countries replied. Results: Overall, the data revealed major diversity for all aspects analysed, between and within the different European countries. Both the duration of training (range 4–10.4 years) and workload (range 48.5–89.2 hours per week) differed markedly between countries. The average number of endoscopic procedures (gastroscopies, range 300–2600; colonoscopies, range 73–550; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies, range 1–385) differed also. One third of last year trainees reported that they felt uncertain in some endoscopic procedure. The European trainee was on call for 5–6 nights a month on average (range 1–8). Monthly wages differed considerably between countries, ranging from 767 to 2180 Euro. Conclusion: We found major differences in the professional aspects and socioeconomic conditions of gastroenterologist/hepatologist training in 10 different European countries, probably leading to differences in quality of training. In several countries or centres the average number of procedures was below the threshold issued by the European Board of Gastroenterlogy or the American Gastroenterological Association. Issuing a European diploma for gastroenterology is a valuable effort towards meeting this problem. Further studies are needed to re-evaluate the training programmes in Europe and to define threshold numbers and technical end points for assessment of endoscopic skills. PMID:11950824

  2. Preventable spina bifida and anencephaly in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Pietrzik, Klaus; Oakley, Godfrey P; Kancherla, Vijaya; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Wieser, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Promotion of voluntary folic acid supplement use among women of reproductive age has been proven to be ineffective in lowering the risk of neural tube defects in Europe. Using surveillance data from all births covered by the full member countries of the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT), we estimated the total prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly per 10,000 births between 2000 and 2010. We also estimated additional lifetime direct medical costs among individuals with spina bifida, compared with those without, in Germany for the year 2009. During the study period, there were 7478 documented cases of spina bifida and anencephaly among the 9,161,189 births, with an estimated average combined prevalence of 8.16 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval, 7.98 - 8.35). For the 241 spina bifida-affected live births in 2009 in Germany, the estimated additional lifetime direct medical costs compared with non-spina bifida affected births were €65.5 million. Assuming a 50% reduction in the prevalence if folic acid has been provided to all women before pregnancy, 293 spina bifida cases could have been prevented in Germany in 2009. The estimated lifetime direct medical cost saving for the live births in 2009 was €32.9 million assuming a 50% reduction, or €26.1 million assuming a 40% risk reduction. Europe has an epidemic of spina bifida and anencephaly compared with countries with mandatory folic acid fortification policy. Primary prevention through mandatory folic acid fortification would considerably reduce the number of affected pregnancies, and associated additional costs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  4. AED in Europe. Report on a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Jan; Bossaert, Leo; Handley, Anthony; Koster, Ruud; Vissers, Bart; Monsieurs, Koen

    2010-02-01

    Based on the strategies for community defibrillation defined by a joint policy conference of ESC and ERC, we have conducted a survey to identify the current status of AED programmes in Europe. All registered visitors to the website of the ERC were contacted by e-mail and invited to participate in a web-based survey. Of the 983 usable responses, 899 came from 36 European countries, representing a total of 748 million inhabitants. In 11 countries AED use by non-physicians has been implemented partially. All but 3 countries reported that first-tier ambulances are equipped with defibrillators. In 13 countries everybody is allowed to use an AED and in 11 countries anybody who has been trained. In 14 countries there are a few community responder programmes, in 14 countries there are hardly any, and in 7 countries there are none. Thirteen countries have implemented a few on-site responder programmes; in 16 countries there are hardly any such programmes, and in 7 countries none. Programmes for home responders can hardly be found in 19 countries; in-hospital programmes exist in 7 countries nearly everywhere. Only 1 country reported that epidemiologic and/or economic evaluations are carried out nearly everywhere when planning AED programmes. Nationwide registries to collect data from resuscitation attempts have been set up in 4 countries. In 27 countries inventories for AEDs can be found here and there. Much has been achieved concerning the provision and use of AEDs in Europe, but there is still a long way to go. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

    2013-04-01

    Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related

  6. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized

  7. Europe in Movement: Migration from and into Eastern and Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Okólski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two historical events have had a fundamental importance in shaping the new migration trends in Eastern and Central Europe (ECE: the collapse of the Soviet block and the region’s return to Europe, when the first eight countries became full members of the European Unionon 1 May 2004 as a point of inflection. Before 1990, and for several decades, international migration was contained by the totalitarian regimes of the ECE. Based on this scenario, the study describes the different kinds of migration movements that have taken place inthe region since 1989; it analyses migration processes from and into the ECE following its incorporation into the European Union, as well as examining the possible causes for the size, dynamics and geographic direction of the migration flows that took place between EU-8 and EU-15, since the EU carried out its eastward enlargement.

  8. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling

  9. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  10. Instruments for the Financing Investment Opportunities in Post-Crisis Europe: The Investment Plan for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Trandafir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on an analysis of the opportunities provided by The Investment Plan for Europe. The Plan, launched in December 2014, aims at stimulating additional investment at least EUR 315 billion in real economy in the 2015-2017 period and making the most of every public euro mobilized through both new and existing instrument, in order to achieve the high multiplier effect. The challenge for the Member States is to put the funds made available by these instruments to productive use in order to support sustainable jobs and growth in Europe. In this context, Romania is facing a major challenge: to promote projects of interest to investors, economically viable, sufficiently mature and consistent with EU policy priorities. According official sources, until the mid - March 2016, only two projects was selected for financing through The Investment Plan for Europe. The study contributes to the identification of the new innovative financial instruments that could improve the access to finance in general and to Romanian projects especially. The analysis uses the most recent official data, official documents published by the European Commission and other institutions in the field.

  11. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America.

    OpenAIRE

    Podlekareva, D.N.; Schultze, A; Panteleev, A; Skrahina, A.M.; Miro, J.M.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Rakhmanova, A; Miller, R.F.; Efsen, A.M.W.; Losso, M.H.; Toibaro, J; Vassilenko, A; Girardi, E; Lundgren, J.D.; Mocroft, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those in Western Europe or Latin America. METHODS One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analys...

  12. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Smart materials and structures based on electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) represent a fast growing and stimulating field of research and development. EAPs are materials capable of changing dimensions and/or shape in response to suitable electrical stimuli. They are commonly classified in two major families: ionic EAPs (activated by an electrically induced transport of ions and/or solvent) and electronic EAPs (activated by electrostatic forces). These polymers show interesting properties, such as sizable active strains and/or stresses in response to electrical driving, high mechanical flexibility, low density, structural simplicity, ease of processing and scalability, no acoustic noise and, in most cases, low costs. Since many of these characteristics can also describe natural muscle tissues from an engineering standpoint, it is not surprising that EAP transducers are sometimes also referred to as 'muscle-like smart materials' or 'artificial muscles'. They are used not only to generate motion, but also to sense or harvest energy from it. In particular, EAP electromechanical transducers are studied for applications that can benefit from their 'biomimetic' characteristics, with possible usages from the micro- to the macro-scale, spanning several disciplines, such as mechatronics, robotics, automation, biotechnology and biomedical engineering, haptics, fluidics, optics and acoustics. Currently, the EAP field is just undergoing its initial transition from academic research into commercialization, with companies starting to invest in this technology and the first products appearing on the market. This focus issue is intentionally aimed at gathering contributions from the most influential European groups working in the EAP field. In fact, today Europe hosts the broadest EAP community worldwide. The rapid expansion of the EAP field in Europe, where it historically has strong roots, has stimulated the creation of the 'European Scientific Network for Artificial

  13. Transgenres thaïlandaises en Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheera Thongkrajai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comme beaucoup de leurs compatriotes en Thaïlande, les personnes transgenres/transsexuelles male-to-female (MTF, désignées par le terme de kathoey, souhaitent partir à l’étranger en espérant trouver une vie meilleure. Dans leur cas, cette quête ne renvoie pas seulement à une amélioration économique de leur situation et de celle de leur famille, mais tout autant à la possibilité de vivre pleinement en femme et notamment d’engager, comme telle, des relations affectives et/ou sexuelles durables avec des hommes. Les kathoey migrantes en Europe cherchent à entretenir plusieurs relations sexuelles et/ou affectives pour maintenir et améliorer leur situation. Pour elles, avoir un « mari » farang (occidental, représente à la fois une chance de réussite économique et sociale capable de dépasser les stéréotypes négatifs et l’exclusion sociale dont elles sont l’objet en Thaïlande.Thai male-to-female transgenders in EuropeLike many of their Thai compatriots, Thai male-to-female transgenders (MTF, also known as kathoey wish to go abroad, seeking for a better life. It is not only a quest for a better economic situation for themselves and their families, but also the possibility to live completely as women, and as such to get engaged in emotional and / or sexual relationships with men. The kathoey who migrate to Europe are looking for various sexual / emotional relationships in order to maintain or improve their situation. For them, to have a farang (western “husband” represents a chance for an economic as well as a social success which could help them overcome the negative stereotypes and social exclusion to which they are subjected to in Thailand.Tailandés transexuales male-to-females en EuropaComo muchos emigrantes de Tailandia, los transexuales male-to-females (MTF, llamados kathoey en tailandés, desean partir al extranjero en busca de una vida mejor. En su caso, esta búsqueda remite ya no a una mejora econ

  14. Overview on artificial reefs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Fabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs in Europe have been developed over the last 40 yrs. Most of these reefs have been placed in the Mediterranean Sea, but there is an increasing interest on the part of northern European countries. Fish stock enhancement and fishery management are the main purposes of reef construction in the Mediterranean Sea and on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, while nature conservation/restoration, research, and recreation have been the main purposes served in the other European regions to date. Artificial reef deployment falls under some general regulations concerning the protection of the sea against pollution due to the dumping of unsuitable materials. Specific Regional Plans relating to the use of artificial reefs in the marine environment and Guidelines for reef construction have been derived from these general regulations. In spite of recent developments, national and/or regional programs for the deployment of artificial reefs and/or their inclusion in overall management plans for integrated management of coastal zones are in force only in the majority of Mediterranean countries, while only a few projects have, to date, been undertaken in the other European Regions. Moreover, there is a noteworthy lack of plans, in many countries, for the management of the reefs after their deployment.Os recifes artificiais, na Europa, foram desenvolvidos nos últimos 40 anos. A maioria desses recifes foram instalados no Mar Mediterrâneo, mas despertam um interesse crescente por parte dos paises do norte europeu. O incentivo aos estoques pesqueiros e o manejo da pesca são os principais objetivos da construção de recifes no Mar Mediterrâneo e na costa Atlântica da Península Ibérica, enquanto a preservação / recuperação da natureza, a pesquisa e a recreação tem sido os principais objetivos das demais regiões européias até hoje. A implantação de recifes artificiais está submetida a algumas regulamentações básicas quanto

  15. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askling Helena H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the

  16. Management of imported malaria in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askling, Helena H; Bruneel, Fabrice; Burchard, Gerd; Castelli, Francesco; Chiodini, Peter L; Grobusch, Martin P; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Paul, Margaret; Petersen, Eskild; Popescu, Corneliu; Ramharter, Michael; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2012-09-17

    In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms.Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily) until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the absorption of anti

  17. How unusual was autumn 2006 in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. van Oldenborgh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperatures in large parts of Europe have been record high during the meteorological autumn of 2006. Compared to 1961–1990, the 2 m temperature was more than three degrees Celsius above normal from the North side of the Alps to southern Norway. This made it by far the warmest autumn on record in the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, with the records in Central England going back to 1659, in the Netherlands to 1706 and in Denmark to 1768. The deviations were so large that under the obviously false assumption that the climate does not change, the observed temperatures for 2006 would occur with a probability of less than once every 10 000 years in a large part of Europe, given the distribution defined by the temperatures in the autumn 1901–2005.

    A better description of the temperature distribution is to assume that the mean changes proportional to the global mean temperature, but the shape of the distribution remains the same. This includes to first order the effects of global warming. Even under this assumption the autumn temperatures were very unusual, with estimates of the return time of 200 to 2000 years in this region. The lower bound of the 95% confidence interval is more than 100 to 300 years.

    Apart from global warming, linear effects of a southerly circulation are found to give the largest contributions, explaining about half of the anomalies. SST anomalies in the North Sea were also important along the coast.

    Climate models that simulate the current atmospheric circulation well underestimate the observed mean rise in autumn temperatures. They do not simulate a change in the shape of the distribution that would increase the probability of warm events under global warming. This implies that the warm autumn 2006 either was a very rare coincidence, or the local temperature rise is much stronger than modelled, or non-linear physics that is missing from these models

  18. Uranium deposits of the world. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlkamp, Franz J.

    2016-07-01

    Uranium Deposits of the World, in three volumes, comprises an unprecedented compilation of data and descriptions of the uranium regions in Asia, USA, Latin America and Europe structured by countries. With this third, the Europe volume, Uranium Deposits of the World presents the most extensive data collection of the set. It covers about 140 uranium regions in more than 20 European countries with nearly 1000 mentioned uranium deposits. Each country and region receives an analytical overview followed by the geologically- and economically-relevant synopsis of the individual regions and fields. The presentations are structured in three major sections: (a) location and magnitude of uranium regions, districts, and deposits, (b) principal features of regions and districts, and (c) detailed characteristics of selected ore fields and deposits. This includes sections on geology, alteration, mineralization, shape and dimensions of deposits, isotopes data, ore control and recognition criteria, and metallogenesis. Beside the main European uranium regions, for example in the Czech Republic, Eastern Germany, France, the Iberian Peninsula or Ukraine, also small regions an districts to the point of singular occurrences of interest are considered. This by far the most comprehensive presentation of European uranium geology and mining would not be possible without the author's access to extensive information covering the countries of the former Eastern Bloc states, which was partly not previously available. Abundantly illustrated with information-laden maps and charts throughout, this reference work is an indispensable tool for geologists, mining companies, government agencies, and others with an interest in European key natural resources. A great help for the reader's orientation are the substantial bibliography of uranium-related publications and the indices, latter containing about 3900 entries in the geographical part alone. The three volumes of Uranium Deposits of the

  19. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily) until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the absorption of anti

  20. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and migration to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, S; Lönnroth, K; Nellums, L B; Olaru, I D; Nathavitharana, R R; Norredam, M; Friedland, J S

    2017-03-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in low-incidence countries in Europe is more prevalent among migrants than the native population. The impact of the recent increase in migration to EU and EEA countries with a low incidence of TB (Europe. An evidence-base is urgently needed to inform guidelines for effective approaches for MDR-TB management in migrant populations in Europe. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.