WorldWideScience

Sample records for europe emissions long-range

  1. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: Influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.F.; Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Ma, N.; Wolke, R.; Wehner, B.; Sun, J.; Spindler, G.; Mu, Q.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather

  2. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elemental Carbon (EC has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF-Chem at a resolution of 2 km focusing on a region in Germany, in conjunction with a high-resolution EC emission inventory. The ground meteorology conditions, vertical structure and wind pattern were well reproduced by the model. The simulations of particle number and/or mass size distributions were evaluated with observations at the central European background site Melpitz. The fine mode particle concentration was reasonably well simulated, but the coarse mode was substantially overestimated by the model mainly due to the plume with high EC concentration in coarse mode emitted by a nearby point source. The comparisons between simulated EC and Multi-angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP measurements at Melpitz, Leipzig-TROPOS and Bösel indicated that the coarse mode EC (ECc emitted from the nearby point sources might be overestimated by a factor of 2–10. The fraction of ECc was overestimated in the emission inventory by about 10–30 % for Russia and 5–10 % for Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland and Belarus. This incorrect size-dependent EC emission results in a shorter atmospheric life time of EC particles and inhibits the long-range transport of EC. A case study showed that this effect caused an underestimation of 20–40 % in the EC mass concentration in Germany under eastern wind pattern.

  3. Incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long range transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be an important focus area for state, local, and federal : agencies. The transportation sector is the second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in the U.S., and : Texas contributes the highest emissions am...

  4. Impact of Emissions and Long-Range Transport on Multi-Decadal Aerosol Trends: Implications for Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian

    2012-01-01

    We present a global model analysis of the impact of long-range transport and anthropogenic emissions on the aerosol trends in the major pollution regions in the northern hemisphere and in the Arctic in the past three decades. We will use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to analyze the multi-spatial and temporal scale data, including observations from Terra, Aqua, and CALIPSO satellites and from the long-term surface monitoring stations. We will analyze the source attribution (SA) and source-receptor (SR) relationships in North America, Europe, East Asia, South Asia, and the Arctic at the surface and free troposphere and establish the quantitative linkages between emissions from different source regions. We will discuss the implications for regional air quality and climate change.

  5. Are changing emission patterns across the Northern Hemisphere influencing long-range transport contributions to background air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Kang, D.; Napelenok, S. L.; Xing, J.; Hogrefe, C.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution reduction strategies for a region are complicated not only by the interplay of local emissions sources and several complex physical, chemical, dynamical processes in the atmosphere, but also hemispheric background levels of pollutants. Contrasting changes in emission patterns across the globe (e.g. declining emissions in North America and Western Europe in response to implementation of control measures and increasing emissions across Asia due to economic and population growth) are resulting in heterogeneous changes in the tropospheric chemical composition and are likely altering long-range transport impacts and consequently background pollution levels at receptor regions. To quantify these impacts, the WRF-CMAQ model is expanded to hemispheric scales and multi-decadal model simulations are performed for the period spanning 1990-2010 to examine changes in hemispheric air pollution resulting from changes in emissions over this period. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations across the U.S. and the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades are compared with those inferred from available measurements during this period. Additionally, the decoupled direct method (DDM) in CMAQ, a first- and higher-order sensitivity calculation technique, is used to estimate the sensitivity of O3 to emissions from different source regions across the Northern Hemisphere. The seasonal variations in source region contributions to background O3 are then estimated from these sensitivity calculations and will be discussed. These source region sensitivities estimated from DDM are then combined with the multi-decadal simulations of O3 distributions and emissions trends to characterize the changing contributions of different source regions to background O3 levels across North America. This characterization of changing long-range transport contributions is critical for the design and implementation of tighter national air quality standards

  6. Organization of long range transport of air pollution monitoring in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynjulf Ottar

    1976-01-01

    In the 1950's a network of stations for observation of the chemical composition of air and precipitation was established in Europe. Analysing these data, Odén in 1968, was able to show that a central area in Europe with highly acid precipitation was expanding from year to year. This was further substantiated by Granat in 1972, and the explanation is the...

  7. Long range transport of air pollutants in Europe and acid precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Nordo

    1976-01-01

    Observations show that pollutants from large emission sources may cause significant air concentrations 500 to 1000 miles away. Very acid precipitation occurs in such periods. The scavenging is often intensified by the topography. Case studies will be presented, with special emphasis on acid precipitation in Scandinavia. Large scale dispersion models have been developed...

  8. Long range transport and air quality impacts of SO2 emissions from Holuhraun (Bárdarbunga, Iceland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Witham, Claire; Leadbetter, Susan; Theys, Nicholas; Hort, Matthew; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Stevenson, John; Shepherd, Janet; Sinnott, Richard; Kenny, Patrick; Barsotti, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Gas emissions from the Holuhraun eruption site in Iceland resulted in increases in observed ground level concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the UK and Ireland during two occasions in September 2014. We present data from the Irish and UK monitoring networks along with satellite imagery which describes the temporal and spatial evolution of these pollution episodes. During both events increases in concentration were significant compared to ambient levels. The peaks were short lived, 6-12 hours, and below the World Health Organisation's 10-minute air quality standard for SO2 of 500 µg/m3, but these events show that gas from relatively low altitude volcanic emissions in Iceland can pose a hazard to north west Europe. The two pollution events serve as excellent case studies and observations from the events provide us with a unique dataset for the verification of atmospheric dispersion models. We use the atmospheric dispersion model NAME to simulate the long-range transport, removal and chemical conversion of the volcanic SO2 during September 2014. We evaluate a range of model simulations, using varying model input and physical parameters, against ground based measurements and satellite retrievals of SO2. Simulations demonstrate that the long-range ground concentrations are strongly dependent on the emission flux and the height of emission at source. This relationship is well known from similar studies of other pollution events. However this work also demonstrates a dependence on the model's vertical turbulence parameterisation and the height of the boundary layer determined from the input Numerical Weather Prediction meteorological data. For the pollution events in September 2014, we find that using a mass flux of 40 kilotons per day of SO2 gives best agreement with vertical column retrievals of SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, which is in good agreement with initial estimates made by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. "This work is distributed under

  9. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 1: Short-term changes in ozone air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations and models demonstrate that ozone and its precursors can be transported between continents and across oceans. We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between all source-receptor pairs, for direct short-term ozone changes. We find that for population-weighted concentrations during the three-month "ozone-season", the strongest inter-regional influences are from Europe to the Former Soviet Union, East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for source regions in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, which we attribute mainly to greater sensitivity to changes in NOx in the lower troposphere, and secondarily to increased vertical convection to the free troposphere in tropical regions, allowing pollutants to be transported further. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are ~20% as effective per unit NOx in reducing ozone in Europe during summer, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. Reducing anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide (CO by 10% in selected regions, can have as large an impact on long-range ozone transport as NOx reductions, depending on the source region. We find that for many source-receptor pairs, the season of greatest long-range influence does not coincide with the season when ozone is highest in the receptor region. Reducing NOx emissions in most source regions causes a larger decrease in export of ozone from the source region than in ozone production outside of the source region.

  10. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2010. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond (ed.)

    2010-06-15

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency (Klif) and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emissions models like e.g. the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2010) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model, (Sandmo 2009), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from well testing of crude oil off shore have been included - these have previously not been estimated Emissions of CH{sub 4} from enteric fermentation have increased for the whole

  11. A strategy for systemic toxicity assessment based on non-animal approaches: The Cosmetics Europe Long Range Science Strategy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprez, Bertrand; Dent, Matt; Keller, Detlef; Klaric, Martina; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Cubberley, Richard; Duplan, Hélène; Eilstein, Joan; Ellison, Corie; Grégoire, Sébastien; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jacques-Jamin, Carine; Lange, Daniela; Roe, Amy; Rothe, Helga; Blaauboer, Bas J; Schepky, Andreas; Mahony, Catherine

    2018-03-02

    When performing safety assessment of chemicals, the evaluation of their systemic toxicity based only on non-animal approaches is a challenging objective. The Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Test programme (SEURAT-1) addressed this question from 2011 to 2015 and showed that further research and development of adequate tools in toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic are required for performing non-animal safety assessments. It also showed how to implement tools like thresholds of toxicological concern (TTCs) and read-across in this context. This paper shows a tiered scientific workflow and how each tier addresses the four steps of the risk assessment paradigm. Cosmetics Europe established its Long Range Science Strategy (LRSS) programme, running from 2016 to 2020, based on the outcomes of SEURAT-1 to implement this workflow. Dedicated specific projects address each step of this workflow, which is introduced here. It tackles the question of evaluating the internal dose when systemic exposure happens. The applicability of the workflow will be shown through a series of case studies, which will be published separately. Even if the LRSS puts the emphasis on safety assessment of cosmetic relevant chemicals, it remains applicable to any type of chemical. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 0-6696 : incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long-range transportation planning : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be : an important focus area for state, local, and : federal agencies. The transportation sector is the : second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in : the United States, and Texas contributes the : highe...

  13. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2012. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2012) for documentation on this topic.This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2011), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Minor NOx emissions from production of rock wool, which previously not have been estimated, have been included, Some factors for estimation of N2O from agriculture have been altered

  14. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2012. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond [ed.

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2012) for documentation on this topic.This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2011), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Minor NOx emissions from production of rock wool, which previously not have been estimated, have been included, Some factors for estimation of N2O from agriculture have been altered, The

  15. Atmospheric emissions and long-range transport of persistent organic chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheringer M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic chemicals include several groups of halogenated compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs, and polyfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs. These chemicals remain for long times (years to decades in the environment and cycle between different media (air, water, sediment, soil, vegetation, etc.. The environmental distribution of this type of chemicals can conveniently be analyzed by multimedia models. Multimedia models consist of a set of coupled mass balance equations for the environmental media considered; they can be set up at various scales from local to global. Two applications of multimedia models to airborne chemicals are discussed in detail: the day-night cycle of PCBs measured in air near the surface, and the atmospheric long-range transport of volatile precursors of PFCAs, formation of PFCAs by oxidation of these precursors, and subsequent deposition of PFCAs to the surface in remote regions such as the Arctic.

  16. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA

  17. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA) from

  18. Particulate monitoring, modeling, and management: natural sources, long-range transport, and emission control options: a case study of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleanthous, Savvas; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Christofides, Ioannis; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Achilleos, Constantia; Akylas, Evangelos; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Douros, Ioannis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Panayiotou, Charalambos; Gregoris, Charalambous; Fedra, Kurt; Kubat, Milan; Mihalopoulos, Nicolaos

    2013-08-01

    The LIFE+ Project PM3: Particulate Monitoring, Modeling, Management is coordinated by the Department of Labour Inspection in Cyprus and funded in part by LIFE+ Environment Policy & Governance. The project aims at the analysis of dust emissions, transport, and control options for Cyprus, as well as at the identification of "natural" contributions (Directive 2008/50/EC). The ultimate objective is to provide inputs for the design of a dust management plan to improve compliance to EC Directives and minimise impacts to human health and environment. This paper presents a short analysis of historical monitoring data and their patterns as well as a description of a dynamic dust entrainment model. The pyrogenic PM10 emissions combined with the wind driven emissions, are subject to a two phase non-linear multi-criteria emission control optimization procedure. The resulting emission scenarios with an hourly resolution provide input to the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) 3D fate and transport model, implemented for the 4,800 km master domain and embedded subdomains (270 km around the island of Cyprus and embedded smaller city domains of up to 30 km down to street canyon modeling). The models test the feasibility of candidate emission control solutions over a range of weather conditions. Model generated patterns of local emissions and long-range transport are discussed compared with the monitoring data, remote sensing (MODIS derived AOT), and the chemical analysis of dust samples.

  19. Long range transport of fine particle windblown soils and coal fired power station emissions into Hanoi between 2001 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Crawford, J.; Stelcer, E.; Vuong, T.B. [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC, NSW (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), source fingerprints and their contributions have been measured and reported previously at Hanoi, Vietnam, from 25 April 2001 to 31 December 2008. In this study back trajectories are used to identify long range transport into Hanoi for two of these sources, namely, windblown dust (Soil) from 12 major deserts in China and emissions from 33 coal fired power plants (Coal) in Vietnam and China. There were 28 days of extreme Soil events with concentrations greater than 6 {mu} g m{sup -3} and 25 days of extreme Coal with concentrations greater than 30 {mu} g m{sup -3} from a total of 748 sampling days during the study period. Through the use of back trajectories it was found that long range transport of soil from the Taklamakan and Gobi desert regions (more than 3000 km to the north west) accounted for 76% of the extreme events for Soil. The three local Vietnamese power stations contributed to 15% of the extreme Coal events, while four Chinese power stations between 300 km and 1700 km to the north-east of Hanoi contributed 50% of the total extreme Coal events measured at the Hanoi sampling site.

  20. Long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Shichang, K.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    An intensive measurement was conducted at a remote, background, and high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from April 12 to May 12, 2016 to chemically characterize high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the influence of biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas, frequently transported from south Asia during pre-monsoon season. Two high aerosol loading periods were observed during the study. Overall, the average (± 1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (± 4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosols (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3% of total PM1 mass on average) and its contribution increased with the increase of total PM1 mass loading. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode ( 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transportations. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a biomass burning related OA (BBOA, 43.7%) and two oxygenated OA (Local-OOA and LRT-OOA; 13.9% and 42.4%) represented sources from local emissions and long-range transportations, respectively. Two polluted air mass origins (generally from the west and southwest of QOMS) and two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions were observed, respectively, suggesting the important sources of wildfires from south Asia. One of polluted aerosol plumes was investigated in detail to illustrate the evolution of aerosol characteristics at QOMS driving by different impacts of wildfires, air mass origins, meteorological conditions and

  1. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 2: Steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would

  2. Long range transport of acidic and polluted events from eastern Europe to the remote regions of Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Davies, T.D.; Jickells, T.D.; Tranter, M.

    1991-01-01

    More than 60 daily snowfall samples were collected throughout a snow season at an altitude of 1,100 meters in Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland. Concentrations of major ions, trace metals, rare-earths, carbon and pH were measured in the aqueous and particulate phase. The techniques of neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography were employed. Factor analysis indicated a marine and a combined anthropogenic and crustal source. Classification of back-trajectories showed that the events are heavily sector dependent: Eastern Europe and the Baltic dominating the transport of the polluted events. A very strong correlation was observed between low pH and high carbon concentrations in the particulate matter

  3. Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport of biomass burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils and forests in the boreal region of the Northern Hemisphere are recognised as having a large capacity for storing air-borne Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Following reductions of primary emissions of various legacy POPs, there is an increasing interest and debate about the relative importance of secondary re-emissions on the atmospheric levels of POPs. In spring of 2006, biomass burning emissions from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe were transported to the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, where record-high levels of many air pollutants were recorded (Stohl et al., 2007. Here we report on the extremely high concentrations of PCBs that were also measured during this period. 21 out of 32 PCB congeners were enhanced by more than two standard deviations above the long-term mean concentrations. In July 2004, about 5.8 million hectare of boreal forest burned in North America, emitting a pollution plume which reached the Zeppelin station after a travel time of 3–4 weeks (Stohl et al., 2006. Again, 12 PCB congeners were elevated above the long-term mean by more than two standard deviations, with the less chlorinated congeners being most strongly affected. We propose that these abnormally high concentrations were caused by biomass burning emissions. Based on enhancement ratios with carbon monoxide and known emissions factors for this species, we estimate that 130 and 66 μg PCBs were released per kilogram dry matter burned, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating atmospheric PCB enhancements with biomass burning. The strong effects on observed concentrations far away from the sources, suggest that biomass burning is an important source of PCBs for the atmosphere.

  4. Injection in the lower stratosphere of biomass fire emissions followed by long-range transport: a MOZAIC case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Cammas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a stratospheric injection by deep convection of biomass fire emissions over North America (Alaska, Yukon and Northwest Territories on 24 June 2004 and its long-range transport over the eastern coast of the United States and the eastern Atlantic. The case study is based on airborne MOZAIC observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and water vapour during the crossing of the southernmost tip of an upper level trough over the Eastern Atlantic on 30 June and on a vertical profile over Washington DC on 30 June, and on lidar observations of aerosol backscattering at Madison (University of Wisconsin on 28 June. Attribution of the observed CO plumes to the boreal fires is achieved by backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART. A simulation with the Meso-NH model for the source region shows that a boundary layer tracer, mimicking the boreal forest fire smoke, is lofted into the lowermost stratosphere (2–5 pvu layer during the diurnal convective cycle at isentropic levels (above 335 K corresponding to those of the downstream MOZAIC observations. It is shown that the order of magnitude of the time needed by the parameterized convective detrainment flux to fill the volume of a model mesh (20 km horizontal, 500 m vertical above the tropopause with pure boundary layer air would be about 7.5 h, i.e. a time period compatible with the convective diurnal cycle. Over the area of interest, the maximum instantaneous detrainment fluxes deposited about 15 to 20% of the initial boundary layer tracer concentration at 335 K. According to the 275-ppbv carbon monoxide maximum mixing ratio observed by MOZAIC over Eastern Atlantic, such detrainment fluxes would be associated with a 1.4–1.8 ppmv carbon monoxide mixing ratio in the boundary layer over the source region.

  5. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the la......The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...

  6. Inventories of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France under the convention framework on the long range transboundary air pollution; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique tranfrontaliere a longue distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), on behalf of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Data are reported according to new specifications adopted in Autumn 2001 regarding substances and source coverage. Parties to the convention have to report annually emissions of these substances. (author)

  7. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2011 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU-27 as a whole, and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  8. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2010 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU.27 as a whole, and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  9. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2009 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU.27 as a whole (2), and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  10. Are Changing Emission Patterns Across the Northern Hemisphere Influencing Long-range Transport Contributions to Background Air Pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution reduction strategies for a region are complicated not only by the interplay of local emissions sources and several complex physical, chemical, dynamical processes in the atmosphere, but also hemispheric background levels of pollutants. Contrasting changes in emissio...

  11. The use of the long-range alpha detector (LRAD) for alpha emission surveys at active and inactive firing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.F.V.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Garner, S.E.; Walter, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Surveys were carried out at five different firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure residual alpha emissions in earth contaminated with natural and depleted uranium. This contamination is caused by controlled experimental explosions during testing of the non fissile components of nuclear weapons. Two conclusions were reached: the first is that post shot clearing of the experimental areas is effective at removing contamination and the second is that the diminution of alpha emissions due to aging is small

  12. Areal-averaged trace gas emission rates from long-range open-path measurements in stable boundary layer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schäfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of land-surface emission rates of greenhouse and other gases at large spatial scales (10 000 m2 are needed to assess the spatial distribution of emissions. This can be readily done using spatial-integrating micro-meteorological methods like flux-gradient methods which were evaluated for determining land-surface emission rates of trace gases under stable boundary layers. Non-intrusive path-integrating measurements are utilized. Successful application of a flux-gradient method requires confidence in the gradients of trace gas concentration and wind, and in the applicability of boundary-layer turbulence theory; consequently the procedures to qualify measurements that can be used to determine the flux is critical. While there is relatively high confidence in flux measurements made under unstable atmospheres with mean winds greater than 1 m s−1, there is greater uncertainty in flux measurements made under free convective or stable conditions. The study of N2O emissions of flat grassland and NH3 emissions from a cattle lagoon involves quality-assured determinations of fluxes under low wind, stable or night-time atmospheric conditions when the continuous "steady-state" turbulence of the surface boundary layer breaks down and the layer has intermittent turbulence. Results indicate that following the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST flux-gradient methods that assume a log-linear profile of the wind speed and concentration gradient incorrectly determine vertical profiles and thus flux in the stable boundary layer. An alternative approach is considered on the basis of turbulent diffusivity, i.e. the measured friction velocity as well as height gradients of horizontal wind speeds and concentrations without MOST correction for stability. It is shown that this is the most accurate of the flux-gradient methods under stable conditions.

  13. Decadal trends in atmospheric deposition in a high elevation station: Effects of climate and pollution on the long-range flux of metals and trace elements over SW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Lluís; Bacardit, Montserrat; de Diego, Alberto; Arana, Gorka

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric deposition collected at remote, high elevation stations is representative of long-range transport of elements. Here we present time-series of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb deposition sampled in the Central Pyrenees at 2240 m a.s.l, representative of the fluxes of these elements over South West Europe. Trace element deposition did not show a simple trend. Rather, there was statistical evidence of several underlying factors governing the variability of the time-series recorded: seasonal cycles, trends, the effects of the amount of precipitation, climate-controlled export of dust, and changes in anthropogenic emissions. Overall, there were three main modes of variation in deposition. The first mode was related to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and affected Al, Fe, Ti, Mn and Pb. We interpret this as changes in the dust export from Northern Africa under the different meteorological conditions that the NAO index indicates. The second mode was an upward trend related to a rise in the frequency of precipitation events (that also lead to an increase in the amount). More frequent events might cause a higher efficiency in the scavenging of aerosols. As, Cu and Ni responded to this. And finally, the third mode of variation was related to changes in anthropogenic emissions of Pb and Zn.

  14. Ozone measurements 2010. [EMEP Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjellbrekke, Anne-Gunn; Solberg, Sverre; Fjaeraa, Ann Mari

    2012-07-01

    From the Introduction: Ozone is a natural constituent of the atmosphere and plays a vital role in many atmospheric processes. However, man-made emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides have increased the photochemical formation of ozone in the troposphere. Until the end of the 1960s the problem was basically believed to be one of the big cities and their immediate surroundings. In the 1970s, however, it was found that the problem of photochemical oxidant formation is much more widespread. The ongoing monitoring of ozone at rural sites throughout Europe shows that episodes of high concentrations of ground-level ozone occur over most parts of the continent every summer. During these episodes the ozone concentrations can reach values above ambient air quality standards over large regions and lead to adverse effects for human health and vegetation. Historical records of ozone measurements in Europe and North America indicate that in the last part of the nineteenth century the values were only about half of the average surface ozone concentrations measured in the same regions during the last 10-15 years (Bojkov, 1986; Volz and Kley, 1988).The formation of ozone is due to a large number of photochemical reactions taking place in the atmosphere and depends on the temperature, humidity and solar radiation as well as the primary emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Together with the non-linear relationships between the primary emissions and the ozone formation, these effects complicates the abatement strategies for ground-level ozone and makes photochemical models crucial in addition to the monitoring data. The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol is designed for a joint abatement of acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. It has been estimated that once the Protocol is implemented, the number of days with excessive ozone levels will be halved and that the exposure of vegetation to excessive ozone levels will be 44% down on 1990

  15. Effects of emissions change, climate change and long-range transport on regional modeling of future U.S. particulate matter pollution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the future U.S. PM2.5 pollution under multiple emissions scenarios, climate states, and long-range transport (LRT) effects using the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model integrated with a regional climate model. CMAQ with fixed chemical lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) successfully reproduces the present-day PM2.5 pollution and its major species in rural and suburban areas, but has some discrepancies in urban areas such as the Los Angeles Basin, where detailed emissions and meteorology conditions cannot be resolved by the 30 km grid. Its performance is slightly worsened when using dynamic chemical LBCs from global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, which provide cleaner conditions into the CMAQ lateral boundaries. Under future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios, CMAQ projects large PM2.5 reductions (∼40% for A1B and ∼20% for A1Fi scenario) in the eastern United States, but slight to moderate increases (∼5% for A1B and ∼10% for A1Fi) in the western United States. The projected increases are particularly large (up to 30%) near the Mexico-U.S. border, suggesting that Mexico is a major source for future U.S. PM2.5 pollution. The effect from climate change alone is estimated to increase PM2.5 levels ubiquitously (∼5% for both A1B and A1Fi) over the United States, except for a small decrease in the Houston, Texas area, where anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions dominate. This climate penalty, however, is substantially smaller than effects of emissions change, especially in the eastern United States. Future PM2.5 pollution is affected substantially (up to -20%) by changes in SO2 emissions and moderately (3-5%) by changes in NOx and NH3 emissions. The long-range transport (LRT) effects, which are estimated by comparing CMAQ simulations with fixed and dynamic LBCs, are regional dependent, causing up to 10-20% decrease over the western United

  16. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  17. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  18. Modeling regional aerosol and aerosol precursor variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J. D.; Allan, J.; Bahreini, R.; Craven, J.; Emmons, L.; Ferrare, R.; Hayes, P. L.; Hodzic, A.; Holloway, J.; Hostetler, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jonsson, H.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Metcalf, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Nowak, J.; Pekour, M.; Perring, A.; Russell, L.; Sedlacek, A.; Seinfeld, J.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J.; Shrivastava, M.; Springston, S.; Song, C.; Subramanian, R.; Taylor, J. W.; Vinoj, V.; Yang, Q.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) in simulating the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol mass, composition, and size over California is quantified using the extensive meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected during the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) and the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted during May and June of 2010. The overall objective of the field campaigns was to obtain data needed to better understand processes that affect both climate and air quality, including emission assessments, transport and chemical aging of aerosols, aerosol radiative effects. Simulations were performed that examined the sensitivity of aerosol concentrations to anthropogenic emissions and to long-range transport of aerosols into the domain obtained from a global model. The configuration of WRF-Chem used in this study is shown to reproduce the overall synoptic conditions, thermally driven circulations, and boundary layer structure observed in region that controls the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols. Reducing the default emissions inventory by 50% led to an overall improvement in many simulated trace gases and black carbon aerosol at most sites and along most aircraft flight paths; however, simulated organic aerosol was closer to observed when there were no adjustments to the primary organic aerosol emissions. We found that sulfate was better simulated over northern California whereas nitrate was better simulated over southern California. While the overall spatial and temporal variability of aerosols and their precursors were simulated reasonably well, we show cases where the local transport of some aerosol plumes were either too slow or too fast, which adversely affects the statistics quantifying the differences between observed and simulated quantities. Comparisons with lidar and in situ measurements indicate

  19. Chemical characterization of the long-range transport of firework/firecracker emissions over the Korean Peninsula: A novel indicator of Asian continental outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinsang; Lee, Dahee; Jeong, Hyeonjin; Lee, Sangil; Oh, SangHyub

    2018-04-01

    The long-range transport (LRT) of pollutants between countries in Northeast Asia is a serious issue. However, reliable quantification of LRT pollutants has not been performed due to a lack of clear evidence of the transport between countries. Hourly chemical composition of PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter of ≤2.5 μm) was measured continuously at a suburban site in Daejeon, Korea during the Lunar New Year festival period to investigate the influence of firework/firecracker emissions from China over areas downwind subject to LRT. Elevated PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 μm) and PM2.5 mass concentrations were observed over the Korean Peninsula during the third day of the Lunar New Year festival (30 January 2017) when air masses originated from the northern part of China. Water-soluble potassium (K+), an indicator of both firework/firecracker and biomass burning, increased significantly during the third day of the Lunar New Year festival with an episode to non-episode ratio of 7.5, whereas no increase in levoglucosan, an indicator of biomass burning, was observed. Because firework/firecracker activities do not typically occur over the Korean Peninsula during the Lunar New Year festival, elevated K+ indicates that haze plumes mixed with firework/firecracker emissions in China impacted the Korean Peninsula through the LRT. This study finds, for the first time, clear evidence of the LRT of pollutants between source and receptor countries in Northeast Asia under Asian continental outflow.

  20. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  1. Chemical characterization of long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Xu, Jianzhong; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    An intensive field measurement was conducted at a remote, background, high-altitude site (Qomolangma Station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from 12 April to 12 May 2016 to chemically characterize the high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical evolution) of biomass burning (BB), frequently transported from South Asia to the Himalayas during pre-monsoon season. Overall, the average (±1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (±4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, which is comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosol (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3 % of total PM1 on average) followed by black carbon (BC) (25.0 %), sulfate (9.3 %), ammonium (5.8 %), nitrate (5.1 %), and chloride (0.4 %). The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode (˜ 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transport. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a BB-related OA (BBOA, 43.7 %), a nitrogen-containing OA (NOA, 13.9 %) and a more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA, 42.4 %). Two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions from the west and southwest of QOMS during the study were observed. A typical BB plume was investigated in detail to illustrate the chemical evolution of aerosol characteristics under distinct air mass origins, meteorological conditions, and atmospheric oxidation processes.

  2. Influence of long-range atmospheric transport pathways and climate teleconnection patterns on the variability of surface 210Pb and 7Be concentrations in southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C; Ballester, J; Serrano, I; Galmarini, S; Camacho, A; Curcoll, R; Morguí, J A; Rodò, X; Duch, M A

    2016-12-01

    The variability of the atmospheric concentration of the 7 Be and 210 Pb radionuclides is strongly linked to the origin of air masses, the strength of their sources and the processes of wet and dry deposition. It has been shown how these processes and their variability are strongly affected by climate change. Thus, a deeper knowledge of the relationship between the atmospheric radionuclides variability measured close to the ground and these atmospheric processes could help in the analysis of climate scenarios. In the present study, we analyze the atmospheric variability of a 14-year time series of 7 Be and 210 Pb in a Mediterranean coastal city using a synergy of different indicators and tools such as: the local meteorological conditions, global and regional climate indexes and a lagrangian atmospheric transport model. We particularly focus on the relationships between the main pathways of air masses and sun spots occurrence, the variability of the local relative humidity and temperature conditions, and the main modes of regional climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO). The variability of the observed atmospheric concentrations of both 7 Be and 210 Pb radionuclides was found to be mainly positively associated to the local climate conditions of temperature and to the pathways of air masses arriving at the station. Measured radionuclide concentrations significantly increase when air masses travel at low tropospheric levels from central Europe and the western part of the Iberian Peninsula, while low concentrations are associated with westerly air masses. We found a significant negative correlation between the WeMO index and the atmospheric variability of both radionuclides and no significant association was observed for the NAO index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...

  4. Chemical characterization of long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An intensive field measurement was conducted at a remote, background, high-altitude site (Qomolangma Station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l. in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from 12 April to 12 May 2016 to chemically characterize the high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1 and obtain the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical evolution of biomass burning (BB, frequently transported from South Asia to the Himalayas during pre-monsoon season. Overall, the average (±1σ PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (±4.54 µg m−3 for the entire study, which is comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosol (OA was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3 % of total PM1 on average followed by black carbon (BC (25.0 %, sulfate (9.3 %, ammonium (5.8 %, nitrate (5.1 %, and chloride (0.4 %. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode (∼ 500 nm, suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transport. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a BB-related OA (BBOA, 43.7 %, a nitrogen-containing OA (NOA, 13.9 % and a more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA, 42.4 %. Two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions from the west and southwest of QOMS during the study were observed. A typical BB plume was investigated in detail to illustrate the chemical evolution of aerosol characteristics under distinct air mass origins, meteorological conditions, and atmospheric oxidation processes.

  5. Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droesler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

  6. The impact of North American anthropogenic emissions and lightning on long-range transport of trace gases and their export from the continent during summers 2002 and 2004

    KAUST Repository

    Martini, Matus

    2011-04-07

    We analyze the contribution of North American (NA) lightning and anthropogenic emissions to ozone concentrations, radiative forcing, and export fluxes from North America during summers 2002 and 2004 using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 reanalysis. Reduced power plant emissions (NOx SIP Call) and cooler temperatures in 2004 compared to 2002 resulted in lower ambient ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Lightning flash rates in early summer 2004 were 50% higher than 2002 over the United States. Over the North Atlantic, changes in ozone column between early summer 2002 and 2004 due to changes in lightning and meteorology exceeded the change due to emission reductions by a factor of 7. Late summer changes in lightning had a much smaller impact on ozone columns. In summer 2004, net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to ozone produced from anthropogenic emissions ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 W m−2 across the North Atlantic, while that due to ozone produced from lightning NO emissions ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 W m−2. Enhanced lofting of polluted air followed by stronger westerly winds led to more net export of NOx, NOy, and ozone in early summer 2004 than 2002 despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Ozone export fluxes across the eastern NA boundary due to anthropogenic emissions were factors of 1.6 and 2 larger than those due to lightning in 2004 and 2002, respectively. Doubling the NA lightning NO source increased downwind ozone enhancements due to lightning NO emissions by one third.

  7. The impact of North American anthropogenic emissions and lightning on long-range transport of trace gases and their export from the continent during summers 2002 and 2004

    KAUST Repository

    Martini, Matus; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Richter, Andreas; Hyer, Edward J.; Loughner, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the contribution of North American (NA) lightning and anthropogenic emissions to ozone concentrations, radiative forcing, and export fluxes from North America during summers 2002 and 2004 using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 reanalysis. Reduced power plant emissions (NOx SIP Call) and cooler temperatures in 2004 compared to 2002 resulted in lower ambient ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Lightning flash rates in early summer 2004 were 50% higher than 2002 over the United States. Over the North Atlantic, changes in ozone column between early summer 2002 and 2004 due to changes in lightning and meteorology exceeded the change due to emission reductions by a factor of 7. Late summer changes in lightning had a much smaller impact on ozone columns. In summer 2004, net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to ozone produced from anthropogenic emissions ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 W m−2 across the North Atlantic, while that due to ozone produced from lightning NO emissions ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 W m−2. Enhanced lofting of polluted air followed by stronger westerly winds led to more net export of NOx, NOy, and ozone in early summer 2004 than 2002 despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Ozone export fluxes across the eastern NA boundary due to anthropogenic emissions were factors of 1.6 and 2 larger than those due to lightning in 2004 and 2002, respectively. Doubling the NA lightning NO source increased downwind ozone enhancements due to lightning NO emissions by one third.

  8. Heteronuclear Long-Range Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    The lecture will cover heteronuclear long-range correlation techniques like HMBC, H2BC, and HAT HMBC with the emphasis on determining the number of covalent bonds between two spins being correlated. H2BC and HMBC spectra are quite complementary as a peak can be strong in one of the two spectra...

  9. Long-range correlations from colour confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, J.; Zenczykowski, P.

    1979-01-01

    A class of independent parton emission models is generalized by the introduction of the colour degrees of freedom. In the proposed models colour confinement extorts strong long-range forward-backward correlations, the rise of one-particle inclusive distribution and the KNO scaling. It leads to the analytically calculable definite asymptotic predictions for the D/ ratio which depends only on the choice of the colour group. Multiplicity distribution develops a remarkably long tail. (author)

  10. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  11. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  12. Long-range correlated percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrib, A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a study of the percolation problem with long-range correlations in the site or bond occupations. An extension of the Harris criterion for the relevance of the correlations is derived for the case that the correlations decay as x/sup -a/ for large distances x. For a d the correlations are relevant if dν-2<0. Applying this criterion to the behavior that results when the correlations are relevant, we argue that the new behavior will have ν/sub long/ = 2/a. It is shown that the correlated bond percolation problem is equivalent to a q-state Potts model with quenched disorder in the limit q→1. With the use of this result, a renormalization-group study of the problem is presented, expanding in epsilon = 6-d and in delta = 4-a. In addition to the normal percolation fixed point, we find a new long-range fixed point. The crossover to this new fixed point follows the extended Harris criterion, and the fixed point has exponents ν/sub long/ = 2/a (as predicted) and eta/sub long/ = (1/11)(delta-epsilon). Finally, several results on the percolation properties of the Ising model at its critical point are shown to be in agreement with the predictions of this paper

  13. Long-range transport and deposition of sulfur in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.L.; Carmichael, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The long range transport of sulfur in Asia is analyzed through the use of a multi-dimensional acid deposition model. The air quality of this region is heavily influenced by the combination of Asia's growing population, its expanding economy, and the associated systems of energy consumption and production. These factors combined with a shift to using indigenous coal as the primary fuel source for the region, will result in increased emissions of pollutants into the environment. By the year 2020 sulfur emissions from Asia are projected to exceed the combined emissions from Europe and North America. The authors have estimated sulfur deposition in Asia on a one-by-one degree spatial resolution in the region from Pakistan to Japan and from Indonesia to Mongolia using a 3-layer Lagrangian model. Deposition in excess of 10 g S/m 2 is predicted in south-central China. The relationship between emission source and receptor has been developed into a deposition matrix and examples of the source-receptor relationship are presented. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  15. Long-Range Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Stromswold, D.C.; Hansen, R.R.; Reeder, P.L.; Barnett, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to 100 m has been constructed and tested. This detector has a large surface area (1 m 2 ) to enhance detection efficiency, and it contains a collimator and shielding to achieve direction sensitivity and reduce background. An unusual feature of the detector is that it contains no added moderator, such as polyethylene, to moderate fast neutrons before they reach the 3 He detector. As a result, the detector is sensitive mainly to thermal neutrons. The moderator-free design reduces the weight of the detector, making it more portable, and it also aids in achieving directional sensitivity and background reduction. Test results show that moderated fission-neutron sources of strength about 3 x 10 5 n/s can be detected at a distance out to 70 m in a counting time of 1000 s. The best angular resolution of the detector is obtained at distances of 30 m or less. As the separation .distance between the source and detector increases, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the measured signal increases with a resultant decrease in the ability to detect the direction to a distant source. Applications for which the long-range detector appears to be suitable include detecting remote neutron sources (including sources in moving vehicles) and monitoring neutron storage vaults for the intrusion of humans and the effects they make on the detected neutron signal. Also, the detector can be used to measure waste for the presence of transuranic material in the presence of high gamma-ray background. A test with a neutron source (3 x 10 5 n/s) in a vehicle showed that the detector could readily measure an increase in count rate at a distance of 10 m for vehicle speeds up to 35 mph (the highest speed tested). These results. indicate that the source should be detectable at this distance at speeds up to 55 mph

  16. Emissions of carbon tetrachloride from Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesco; Arduini, Jgor; Bonasoni, Paolo; Furlani, Francesco; Giostra, Umberto; Manning, Alistair J.; McCulloch, Archie; O'Doherty, Simon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Maione, Michela

    2016-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a long-lived radiatively active compound with the ability to destroy stratospheric ozone. Due to its inclusion in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MP), the last two decades have seen a sharp decrease in its large-scale emissive use with a consequent decline in its atmospheric mole fractions. However, the MP restrictions do not apply to the use of carbon tetrachloride as feedstock for the production of other chemicals, implying the risk of fugitive emissions from the industry sector. The occurrence of such unintended emissions is suggested by a significant discrepancy between global emissions as derived from reported production and feedstock usage (bottom-up emissions), and those based on atmospheric observations (top-down emissions). In order to better constrain the atmospheric budget of carbon tetrachloride, several studies based on a combination of atmospheric observations and inverse modelling have been conducted in recent years in various regions of the world. This study is focused on the European scale and based on long-term high-frequency observations at three European sites, combined with a Bayesian inversion methodology. We estimated that average European emissions for 2006-2014 were 2.2 (± 0.8) Gg yr-1, with an average decreasing trend of 6.9 % per year. Our analysis identified France as the main source of emissions over the whole study period, with an average contribution to total European emissions of approximately 26 %. The inversion was also able to allow the localisation of emission "hot spots" in the domain, with major source areas in southern France, central England (UK) and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg), where most industrial-scale production of basic organic chemicals is located. According to our results, European emissions correspond, on average, to 4.0 % of global emissions for 2006-2012. Together with other regional studies, our results allow a better constraint

  17. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This tenth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the eleventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 1 to 3 December 1993. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from 1980 to 2005 are presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the status of implementation of the sulphur and nitrogen oxides protocols on the basis of these data. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by the ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report that focuses on the reduction of air pollution from heat and electric energy production. It is based on discussion papers submitted to the fifth ECE Seminar on Emission Control Technology for Stationary Sources, held in Nuremberg (Germany) from 10 to 14 June 1991. This chapter presents the main control techniques to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, which is a major contribution in most ECE countries to air pollution by sulphur and nitrogen compounds, carbon oxides, organic compounds, as well as heavy metals. Three principal abatement options are reviewed: fuel cleaning and fuel conversion, low-emission combustion processes, and flue gas cleaning processes. Both technical and economic aspects of the different measures are discussed

  18. Deep greenhouse gas emission reductions in Europe: Exploring different options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetman, Sebastiaan; Hof, Andries F.; Pfluger, Benjamin; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Girod, Bastien; Ruijven, Bas J. van

    2013-01-01

    Most modelling studies that explore emission mitigation scenarios only look into least-cost emission pathways, induced by a carbon tax. This means that European policies targeting specific – sometimes relatively costly – technologies, such as electric cars and advanced insulation measures, are usually not evaluated as part of cost-optimal scenarios. This study explores an emission mitigation scenario for Europe up to 2050, taking as a starting point specific emission reduction options instead of a carbon tax. The purpose is to identify the potential of each of these policies and identify trade-offs between sectoral policies in achieving emission reduction targets. The reduction options evaluated in this paper together lead to a reduction of 65% of 1990 CO 2 -equivalent emissions by 2050. More bottom-up modelling exercises, like the one presented here, provide a promising starting point to evaluate policy options that are currently considered by policy makers. - Highlights: ► We model the effects of 15 climate change mitigation measures in Europe. ► We assess the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential in different sectors. ► The measures could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60% below 1990 levels in 2050. ► The approach allows to explore arguably more relevant climate policy scenarios

  19. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  20. Long range diffusion of hydrogen in yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.S.; Scherrer, P.; Ross, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    The diffusion of H in single crystals of YH 0.2 is investigated by means of Quasielastic neutron scattering between 593 K and 695 K. Individual jump rates giving rise to long range and local diffusion are determined. (orig.)

  1. Long-range spin deformations around quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, M.; Gunn, M.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-particle formed by a hole in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet has an associated long-range spin distortion whose amplitude increases with the velocity of the hole. The authors show that the existence and properties of this distortion follow from simple classical arguments based on the long-wavelength equations of motion for the spin system. A similar long-range distortion is found in the quantum-mechanical problem of an electron exchange coupled to a Heisenberg antiferromagnet

  2. An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, S.

    1996-01-01

    7.1 Introduction
    This study has examined the question of whether a system of tradeable emission permits can contribute to a cost-effective reduction of SO 2 emissions in Europe, taking into account

  3. Carbon emissions mapping at Unilever Europe : implementing a structural method to map and reduce carbon emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the CEO of Unilever committed to a 25% reduction of CO2 emissions from global manufacturing operations in 2012. Unilever Europe Logistics has aligned to this target. To achieve this objective, the management of European logistics department decided to build a carbon emission estimation

  4. Long range correlations in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Off diagonal long range order (ODLRO) correlations are strongly related with the generalized Bose-Einstein condensation. Under certain boundary conditions, one implies the other. These phenomena are of great importance in the description of quantum situations with a macroscopic manifestation (superfluidity, superconductivity, etc.). Since ion pairs are not bosons, the definition of ODLRO is modified. The information contained with the 2-particle propagator (electron pairs) and the consequences that lead to pairs statistics are shown in this presentation. The analogy between long range correlations and fluids is also analyzed. (Author). 17 refs

  5. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  6. SCIAMACHY formaldehyde observations: constraint for isoprene emission estimates over Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dufour

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the troposphere. Sources of HCHO are largely dominated by its secondary production from VOC oxidation, methane and isoprene being the main precursors in unpolluted areas. As a result of the moderate lifetime of HCHO, its spatial distribution is determined by reactive hydrocarbon emissions. We focus here on Europe and investigate the influence of the different emissions on HCHO tropospheric columns with the CHIMERE chemical transport model in order to interpret the comparisons between SCIAMACHY and simulated HCHO columns. Europe was never specifically studied before for these purposes using satellite observations. The bias between measurements and model is less than 20% on average. The differences are discussed according to the errors on the model and the observations and remaining discrepancies are attributed to a misrepresentation of biogenic emissions. This study requires the characterisation of: (1 the model errors and performances concerning formaldehyde. The errors on the HCHO columns, mainly related to chemistry and mixed emission types, are evaluated to 2×1015 molecule/cm2 and the model performances evaluated using surface measurements are satisfactory (~13%; (2 the observation errors that define the needs in spatial and temporal averaging for meaningful comparisons. Using SCIAMACHY observations as constraint for biogenic isoprene emissions in an inverse modelling scheme reduces their uncertainties by about a factor of two in region of intense emissions. The retrieved correction factors for the isoprene emissions range from a factor of 0.15 (North Africa to a factor of 2 (Poland, the United Kingdom depending on the regions.

  7. Long-range terms in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.; Weaver, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Various separations, or ''gauge choices,'' are possible for the decomposition of the total Hamiltonian into electronic and internuclear terms. We show that, for one particular choice, all long-range Coulomb terms are associated with the internuclear motion. The potential then associated with electronic transitions is non-Coulombic. Some practical consequences of this gauge choice are discussed

  8. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  9. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  10. Long range diffusion of hydrogen in yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I S; Scherrer, P [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Ross, D K [Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics; Bonnet, J E [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE), Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1989-01-01

    The diffusion of H in single crystals of YH{sub 0.2} is investigated by means of Quasielastic neutron scattering between 593 K and 695 K. Individual jump rates giving rise to long range and local diffusion are determined. (orig.).

  11. Comparison of fission probabilities with emission of long range particles under the action of slow and fast neutrons on various materials; Probabilites comparees de fission avec emission de particules de long parcours pour divers materiaux sous l'action des neutrons lents et rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netter, F; Faraggi, H; Garin-Bonnet, A; Julien, J; Corge, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Turkiewicz, J [Institut de Recherches Nucleaire de Varsovie (Poland)

    1958-07-01

    The authors describe relative cross-section measurements of fission of the isotopes of uranium and plutonium (more particularly {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu), with emission of long range particles, under the action of neutrons of various energies: thermal neutrons, pile neutrons, neutrons produced with the Van de Graaff accelerator by reaction of protons on tritium. The measurements are carried out: 1) with the aid of photographic plates, by submitting to the action of the neutrons a layer of fissile material coupled with an Ilford nuclear emulsion of 200 microns; a tin sheet laying between the plate and the layer stops the {alpha} particles and the fission fragments. By an appropriate development the tracks of the long range particles can be distinguished in the emulsion, from the tracks of the recoil protons resulting of fission neutrons, or of the last primary neutrons. For neutrons of energy under 1 MeV, the compared frequency of the tracks of long range particles and of the recoils caused by the fission neutrons gives a measurement of the fission cross-section with emission of long range particles relative to the product of the fission cross-section by the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission. For neutrons of higher energy, one measures only the frequency of the tracks of long range particles, comparatively with the flux of primary neutrons. Some precautions are taken to eliminate the action of thermal neutrons in the measurements with fast neutrons. 2) with the aid of a system of ionization chamber and proportional counter, the rate of coincidence between the impulsions caused by the long range particles and the impulsions provided by one of the fission fragments is measured comparatively with the counting rate of fission fragme (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent des mesures relatives a la section efficace de fission des isotopes de l'uranium et du plutonium (notamment {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu) avec emission de particules de long

  12. Gauge hierarchy and long range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.B.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Chang, D.

    1990-01-01

    With the aid of simple examples, we show how a long range attractive force can arise in a gauge theory with a hierarchy. The force is due to the exchange of a Higgs boson whose mass and matter couplings are both naturally suppressed by the hierarchical mass ratio. Such bosons appear if there is an accidental global symmetry in the low-energy renormalizable Lagrangian after the high energy symmetry breaking. 6 refs

  13. Long-range interaction between spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.C.; Pradhan, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that invariance of Lagrangian field theory under a class of the coordinate-dependent Lorentz group of transformations requires the introduction of a massless axial vector gauge field which gives rise to a super-weak long-range spin-spin force between particles in vacuum. Recent experiments demonstrating repulsion and attraction between circularly polarised laser beams are interpreted to be due to such a force enhanced by spin polarisation of sodium vapour, through which these beams pass. (author)

  14. Rapidly solidified long-range-ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Koch, C.C.; Liu, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of rapid solidification processing on the microstructure of long-range-ordered alloys in the (Fe, Co, Ni) 3 V system has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The main microstructural feature of the as-quenched alloys was a fine cell structure (approx. 300 nm diameter) decorated with carbide particles. This structure was maintained aftr annealing treatments which develop the ordered crystal structure. Other features of the microstructures both before and after annealing are presented and discussed. 6 figures

  15. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine th...

  16. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probabil...

  17. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  18. Mott scattering as a probe of long range QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Balantekin, A.B.

    1993-12-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the Mott scattering between identical nuclei to assess the existence of long range QCD, e.g., a color Van der Waals interaction, as suggested recently. Among other effects which were not considered before, the tail of the nuclear potential, emission of radiation by Bremsstrahlung, atomic screening, emission of delta-electrons, and the quasi-molecule binding are included in our calculations. We show that the sum of these effects can explain the observed shift in the Mott oscillations in a recent experiment. (orig.)

  19. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, T; Galmarini, S; Bianconi, R; French, S [eds.

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  20. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; French, S. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  1. Emission trading in Europe with an exchange rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, G.A.J.; Amann, M.; Foersund, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    The analytical and empirical properties of a new method for emission trading according to a fixed exchange rate are explored. The exchange rate is based on the ratios of the marginal costs of abatement in the optimal solution in order to account for the impact of the location of emission sources on the deposition. It is shown that, generally, this system will not achieve the optimal solution and does not guarantee that environmental deposition constraints are not violated, although total abatement costs are always reduced. A routine was developed to mimic trading as a bilateral, sequential process, subject to an exchange rate. Use has been made of an adapted version of the optimization module in the RAINS (REgional Acidification INformation and Simulation) model. In the example used, results for SO 2 emissions in Europe show that, starting from a uniform reduction, exchange-rate trading achieves higher cost savings than one-to-one trading, without achieving the cost minimum. Sulfur deposition targets are not violated since the initial emission allocation overfulfilled targets at many places. The results are sensitive to: pre-trade emission levels, the transaction costs, the availability of information on potential cost savings and assumptions made on the behavior of trading partners. 6 figs., 3 tabs., 28 refs

  2. Evaluation of long-range transport models in NOVANA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohn, L.M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Geels, C.; Hertel, O.; Skjoeth, C.A.; Ellemann, T.

    2007-01-01

    The Lagrangian model ACDEP which has been applied in BOP/-NOVA/NOVANA during the period 1995-2004, has been replaced by the more modern Eulerian model DEHM. The new model has a number of advantages, such as a better description of the three-dimensional atmospheric transport, a larger domain, a possibility for high spatial resolution in the calculations and a more detailed description of photochemical processes and dry deposition. In advance of the replacement, the results of the two models have been compared and evaluated using European and Danish measurements. Calculations have been performed with both models applying the same meteorological and emission input, for Europe for the year 2000 as well as for Denmark for the period 2000-2003. The European measurements applied in the present evaluation are obtained through EMEP. Using these measurements DEHM and ACDEP have been compared with respect to daily and yearly mean concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), the sum of NH 3 and NH 4 + (SNH), nitric acid (HNO 3 ), nitrate (NO 3 - ), the sum of HNO 3 and NO 3 - (SNO 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and sulphate (SO 4 2- ) as well as the hourly mean and daily maximum concentrations of O 3 . Furthermore the daily and yearly total values of precipitation and wet deposition of NH 4 + , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- have been compared for the two models. The statistical parameters applied in the comparison are correlation, bias and fractional bias. The result of the comparison with the EMEP data is, that DEHM achieves better correlation coefficients for all chemical parameters (16 parameters in total) when the daily values are analysed, and for 15 out of 16 parameters when yearly values are taken into account. With respect to the fractional bias, the results obtained with DEHM are better than the corresponding results obtained with ACDEP for 11 out of 16 chemical parameters. In general the performance of the DEHM model is at least

  3. The 1979 convention on long range transfrontier air pollution; La convention sur la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere a longue distance de 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagusiewicz, A. [UNECE, Palais des Nations, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Applied in March 1983, the 1979 international Convention have induced five protocols related to sulfur, nitrogen oxide and VOC emissions. After 1994, three new protocols are under study, concerning the reduction of nitrogenous and related compounds, heavy metals and long-lasting organic pollutants. Works and organization of the European EMEP program for the continuous monitoring and evaluation of the long range air pollution transport in Europe, are presented

  4. Long-range order in canary song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  5. Long-range alpha detector (LRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 7 figs

  6. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  7. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  8. Long range inductive power transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver

  9. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This eleventh volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the twelfth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1994. Part one focuses on the possible impact of acid deposition on the quality of groundwater in the ECE region. The objective of this report is to present an updated review of available knowledge on the possible impact of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the status of groundwater, including a brief survey of recent research results in this field. It updates an earlier report on the effects of air pollutants on groundwater, prepared within the Convention (EB.AIR/WG.1/R.9). Part two is an executive summary of the 1993 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe (Forest Condition in Europe. Results of the 1993 Survey. 1994 Report, EC-UN/ECE, Brussels, Geneva, 1994). The report describes the results of both the national and the transnational surveys which are conducted annually within the International Cooperative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and under European Community Council Regulation (EEC) 3528/86 on the protection of the Community's Forests against Atmospheric Pollution. Part three is a summary report on the options for further reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from road heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). This report is primarily focused on reduction options for road HDVs, but some of the technical measures reviewed can, however, also be applied to some non-road diesel engines, such as machinery in construction, agriculture or forestry

  10. Stochastic processes and long range dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is a gateway for researchers and graduate students to explore the profound, yet subtle, world of long-range dependence (also known as long memory). The text is organized around the probabilistic properties of stationary processes that are important for determining the presence or absence of long memory. The first few chapters serve as an overview of the general theory of stochastic processes which gives the reader sufficient background, language, and models for the subsequent discussion of long memory. The later chapters devoted to long memory begin with an introduction to the subject along with a brief history of its development, followed by a presentation of what is currently the best known approach, applicable to stationary processes with a finite second moment. The book concludes with a chapter devoted to the author’s own, less standard, point of view of long memory as a phase transition, and even includes some novel results. Most of the material in the book has not previously been publis...

  11. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009 degrees(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions

  12. Long-range Rocky Flats utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this Study was to provide information concerning the Rocky Flats Plant and its operations that will be useful to the Nation's decision-makers in determining the long-range future of the Plant. This Study was conducted under the premise that national defense policy must be supported and, accordingly, the capabilities at Rocky Flats must be maintained there or at some other location(s). The Study, therefore, makes no attempt to speculate on how possible future changes in national defense policy might affect decisions regarding the utilization of Rocky Flats. Factors pertinent to decisions regarding Rocky Flats, which are included in the Study, are: physical condition of the Plant and its vulnerabilities to natural phenomena; risks associated with plutonium to Plant workers and the public posed by postulated natural phenomena and operational accidents; identification of alternative actions regarding the future use of the Rocky Flats Plant with associated costs and time scales; local socioeconomic impacts if Rocky Flats operations were relocated; and potential for other uses if Rocky Flats facilities were vacated. The results of the tasks performed in support of this Study are summarized in the context of these five factors

  13. Long range position and orientation tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The long range position and orientation tracking system (LRPOTS) will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the man-ways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the Content Mobilization System (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation

  14. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  15. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  16. Williamsport Area Community College Long Range Planning: The Long Range Plan, Update 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamsport Area Community Coll., PA.

    This update to Williamsport Area Community College's (WACC's) 1984-89 long-range plan offers a status report on each of the plan's 78 objectives, reassigns responsibility for specific objectives to make the plan responsive to the current organizational structure of the college, and offers 11 new objectives for the 1986-87 academic year. After…

  17. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: Estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1 x 1 km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered. - The amount of the biogenic VOCs emitted over the central Europe is comparable with the anthropogenic VOC emissions from this region.

  18. Continuous limit of discrete systems with long-range interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2006-01-01

    Discrete systems with long-range interactions are considered. Continuous medium models as continuous limit of discrete chain system are defined. Long-range interactions of chain elements that give the fractional equations for the medium model are discussed. The chain equations of motion with long-range interaction are mapped into the continuum equation with the Riesz fractional derivative. We formulate the consistent definition of continuous limit for the systems with long-range interactions. In this paper, we consider a wide class of long-range interactions that give fractional medium equations in the continuous limit. The power-law interaction is a special case of this class

  19. Long-range correlation and market segmentation in bond market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.

  20. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3–8 August 2003 showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9, the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat

  1. An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruitwagen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the analysis of the applicability of tradeable emission permits for cost-effective SO2 reduction in Europe. First, an economic theoretical background is presented based on a literature study. Second, integrated assessment models are presented and compared. One of these models is selected for simulation. Third, a new permit trading systems is developed and analysed by detailed simulations of trading schemes, including their economic and environmental implications. Chapter 2 discusses some general economic aspects of pollution control. Attention is paid to the cost effectiveness of pollution control, to the international dimension of acid rain policy and to the need for cooperation. Some general game theoretic concepts are reviewed. Also attention is paid to the alternative policy instruments for emission control, focusing on tradeable emission permits. The theory of tradeable emission permits is elaborated in Chapter 3. Permit trading for pollutants that are non-uniformly mixing is thoroughly discussed and illustrated by some empirical studies. After discussing both emission permit and deposition permit trading systems, alternative systems of tradeable permits for this kind of pollutants are examined. Two main aspects in examining permit trading systems concern (1) the kind of trading process assumed, involving the distinction between simultaneous multilateral permit trading versus bilateral sequential permit trading, and (2) the initial distribution of emission permits. The thorough discussion on tradeable permits contributes to a better understanding of this policy instrument and sheds light on the implications of permit trading for non-uniformly mixing pollutants. The findings of this chapter indicate that a new permit trading system has to be developed. Chapter 4 describes and compares integrated assessment models for simulation of acid rain control. First, three integrated assessment models for the European acid rain problem

  2. Anthropogenic vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.H.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Quass, U.

    2013-01-01

    An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were

  3. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; French, S.

    2003-01-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an a...

  4. Resonant long-range interactions between polar macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preto, Jordane; Pettini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by its prospective biological relevance, the issue of resonant long-range interactions between two molecules displaying oscillating dipole moments is reinvestigated within the framework of classical electrodynamics. In particular, our findings shed new light on Fröhlich's theory of selective long-range interactions between biomolecules. First, terms of a very long-range kind – which have never been reported so far – are found in the interaction potential, due to field retardation. Second, at variance with a long-standing belief, it is shown that sizable resonant long-range interactions may exist only if the interacting system is out of thermal equilibrium.

  5. A Model for Long Range Planning for Seminole Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Norris

    A model for long-range planning designed to maximize involvement of college personnel, to improve communication among various areas of the college, to provide a process for evaluation of long-range plans and the planning process, to adjust to changing conditions, to utilize data developed at a level useful for actual operations, and to have…

  6. Report of the Long-Range Planning Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of the Long-Range Planning Committee of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It describes the make-up, purpose, working assumptions, and activities of the Committee and discusses the work done by the Committee on defense matters, energy, a number of additional topics, and future long-range planning activities

  7. Down the Road...Long Range Planning for Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Library, Austin. Dept. of Library Development.

    The materials in this manual/workbook were prepared to assist participants in a workshop on long-range planning for library automation. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) "What Is Long-Range Planning?" (2) "Why Plan?" (3) "Who Needs to Participate?" (4) "Planning to Plan"; (5) "Determining Needs"; (6) "Description and Introduction"; (7)…

  8. Boundary layer parameterizations and long-range transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    A joint work group between the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and the EPA is perusing the construction of an air quality model that incorporates boundary layer parameterizations of dispersion and transport. This model could replace the currently accepted model, the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) model. The ISC model is a Gaussian-plume multiple point-source model that provides for consideration of fugitive emissions, aerodynamic wake effects, gravitational settling and dry deposition. A work group of several Federal and State agencies is perusing the construction of an air quality modeling system for use in assessing and tracking visibility impairment resulting from long-range transport of pollutants. The modeling system is designed to use the hourly vertical profiles of wind, temperature and moisture resulting from a mesoscale meteorological processor that employs four dimensional data assimilation (FDDA). FDDA involves adding forcing functions to the governing model equations to gradually ''nudge'' the model state toward the observations (12-hourly upper air observations of wind, temperature and moisture, and 3-hourly surface observations of wind and moisture). In this way it is possible to generate data sets whose accuracy, in terms of transport, precipitation, and dynamic consistency is superior to both direct interpolation of synoptic-scale analyses of observations and purely predictive mode model result. (AB) ( 19 refs.)

  9. Degeneracy and long-range correlation: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmelat Vivien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a simulation study that aimed at evidencing a causal relationship between degeneracy and long-range correlations. Long-range correlations represent a very specific form of fluctuations that have been evidenced in the outcomes time series produced by a number of natural systems. Long-range correlations are supposed to sign the complexity, adaptability and flexibility of the system. Degeneracy is defined as the ability of elements that are structurally different to perform the same function, and is presented as a key feature for explaining the robustness of complex systems. We propose a model able to generate long-range correlated series, and including a parameter that account for degeneracy. Results show that a decrease in degeneracy tends to reduce the strength of long-range correlation in the series produced by the model.

  10. Issues in the implementation of greenhouse gas emissions trading in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerman, D.

    2001-01-01

    Ironically, emissions trading proposals to implement the Kyoto Protocol are being proposed in Europe, not among the nations usually associated with such measures. This article identifies and discusses very briefly the main issues that will have to be considered in adopting a national system of CO 2 emissions trading. These issues are: allocation of permits and monitoring, penalties and liability for non-compliance, comprehensiveness of the emissions cap, integration with renewable energy certificates, integration of sinks and other gases with carbon trading, and cost caps and escape valves. Assuming the current proposals are adopted, Europe bids fair to become the test-bed in which the rules of an eventual international system will be developed in process not unlike that characterizing the development of the European Union. The European challenge is then both inward, to Europe, to go beyond proposals and to resolve the issues identified here, and outward, to other nations, to take similar steps in matching deed with advocacy. (author)

  11. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.; Menzi, H.; Pain, B.F.; Misselbrook, T.H.; Daemmgen, U.; Hendriks, H.; Doehler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH 3 . At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH 3 , and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH 3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH 3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH 3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH 3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH 3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  12. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  13. Barriers to reducing carbon emissions in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe accounted for 27% of global carbon emissions in 1986. Although the recent opening of the former planned economies offers numerous opportunities to improve energy use efficiency in these regions and reduce their energy-related carbon emissions, various barriers hinder changes in Eastern European energy use. These barriers include the following: lack of incentives; insufficient infrastructure; scarce human resources; and heavy reliance on low quality fuels. Energy intensity in these countries far surpasses the estimated energy intensity in the United States and Western Europe. However, substantial potential exists for improving the efficiency of energy use in these regions

  14. A carbon tax to reduce CO2 emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Paola; Botteon, Michele; Carraro, Carlo

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of introducing a tax on carbon dioxide emissions produced by combustion processes in OECD-European countries. A sectoral model of energy consumption is constructed to examine energy-saving and inter-fuel substitution effects induced by the introduction of various carbon taxes. The simulation period is 1989-94. Our results provide a mild support to the environmental role of a carbon tax. Energy-saving or inter-fuel substitution processes, that result from the introduction of environmental taxation, stabilize emissions at the 1988 level only in the electricity generation sector, and only if high tax rates are assumed ($100/ton.C). By contrast, total emissions (all sectors and all fuels) keep growing, and the implementation of a tax of $100/ton.C can only reduce the emission growth rate. (Author)

  15. Long range implantation by MEVVA metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Wu Yuguang; Ma Furong; Liang Hong

    2001-01-01

    Metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source ion implantation is a new technology used for achieving long range ion implantation. It is very important for research and application of the ion beam modification of materials. The results show that the implanted atom diffusion coefficient increases in Mo implanted Al with high ion flux and high dose. The implanted depth is 311.6 times greater than that of the corresponding ion range. The ion species, doses and ion fluxes play an important part in the long-range implantation. Especially, thermal atom chemistry have specific effect on the long-range implantation during high ion flux implantation at transient high target temperature

  16. Spectral long-range interaction of temporal incoherent solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Garnier, Josselin; Picozzi, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    We study the interaction of temporal incoherent solitons sustained by a highly noninstantaneous (Raman-like) nonlinear response. The incoherent solitons exhibit a nonmutual interaction, which can be either attractive or repulsive depending on their relative initial distance. The analysis reveals that incoherent solitons exhibit a long-range interaction in frequency space, which is in contrast with the expected spectral short-range interaction described by the usual approach based on the Raman-like spectral gain curve. Both phenomena of anomalous interaction and spectral long-range behavior of incoherent solitons are described in detail by a long-range Vlasov equation.

  17. Impact of the vertical emission profiles on background gas-phase pollution simulated from the EMEP emissions over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mailler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Five one-year air quality simulations over a domain covering Europe have been performed using the CHIMERE chemistry transport model and the EMEP emission dataset for Europe. These five simulations differ only by the representation of the effective emission heights for anthropogenic emissions: one has been run using the EMEP standard recommendations, three others with vertical injection profiles derived from the EMEP recommendations but multiplying the injection height by 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25, respectively, while the last one uses vertical profiles derived from the recent literature. It is shown that using injection heights lower than the EMEP recommendations leads to significantly improved simulation of background SO2, NO2 and O3 concentrations when compared to the Airbase station measurements.

  18. Long-Range Energy Propagation in Nanometer Arrays of Light Harvesting Antenna Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalantet, Maryana; Escalante Marun, M.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Zhao, Yiping; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Hunter, C. Neil; Subramaniam, Vinod; Otto, Cornelis

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the first observation of long-range transport of excitation energy within a biomimetic molecular nanoarray constructed from LH2 antenna complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Fluorescence microscopy of the emission of light after local excitation with a diffraction-limited light beam

  19. Scintillation mitigation for long-range surveillance video

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Delport, JP

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbulence is a naturally occurring phenomenon that can severely degrade the quality of long-range surveillance video footage. Major effects include image blurring, image warping and temporal wavering of objects in the scene. Mitigating...

  20. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  1. Interim report on long range plan for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The interim report on the updated NSAC Long Range Plan for Nuclear Physics will be presented to the community for discussion and comment before submission to the funding agencies. The presentation will be coordinated by E. Moniz chair of NSAC

  2. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  3. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  4. Testing for long-range dependence in world stock markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cajueiro, Daniel Oliveira; Tabak, Benjamin Miranda

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show a novel approach to rank stock market indices in terms of weak form efficiency using state of the art methodology in statistical physics. We employ the R/S and V/S methodologies to test for long-range dependence in equity returns and volatility. Empirical results suggests that although emerging markets possess stronger long-range dependence in equity returns than developed economies, this is not true for volatility. In the case of volatility, Hurst exponents...

  5. Mitigation of Nitrogen Emissions from Animal Agriculture in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenema, O.

    2011-12-01

    More than 70% of the utilized agricultural area (187 Mha) in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27) is used for animal production. In addition, a considerable amount of animal feed is imported. Dairy and beef cattle, pigs, and poultry are the dominant animal species. Total livestock density is highest in the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark and some regions in France, Germany and Italy. The mean nitrogen (N) retention in animal products in EU-27 in 2005 was 20% for milk, 8% for beef, 25% for pork, 38% for poultry and 28% for egg production. This indicates that dairy cows excreted on average 80% of the N intake, beef cattle 92%, pigs 75%, poultry 62% and layers 72%. There was a large variation in N retention between countries. Animal manures and nitrogen (N) fertilizers are main sources of N emissions. In 2005, mean N excretion by animals ranged from less than 25 kg per ha per year in Bulgaria to nearly 250 kg per ha in The Netherlands. On average 25% of the total amount of N excreted was lost as ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere, though with a considerable variation between countries. About 10% was lost as NH3-N from housing systems, 9% from manure application to land, 4% from manure storage and treatment facilities, and 3% from grazing. Nitrogen leaching was in the same order of magnitude. Animal production also had a considerable share in the total emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (range 5-25%). Especially dairy cattle and beef cattle contribute to the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Considerable efforts are being made to decrease N emissions from agriculture in EU-27. Good agricultural practices and mandatory emission mitigation measures are enforced through EU environmental policies, including Nitrates Directive, National Emissions Ceiling Directive, and Water Framework Directive. Some countries have succeeded to decrease the NH3 emissions to air and N leaching losses to groundwater and

  6. On-road emissions of light-duty vehicles in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Bonnel, Pierre; Hummel, Rudolf; Provenza, Alessio; Manfredi, Urbano

    2011-10-01

    For obtaining type approval in the European Union, light-duty vehicles have to comply with emission limits during standardized laboratory emissions testing. Although emission limits have become more stringent in past decades, light-duty vehicles remain an important source of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in Europe. Furthermore, persisting air quality problems in many urban areas suggest that laboratory emissions testing may not accurately capture the on-road emissions of light-duty vehicles. To address this issue, we conduct the first comprehensive on-road emissions test of light-duty vehicles with state-of-the-art Portable Emission Measurement Systems. We find that nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline vehicles as well as carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbon emissions of both diesel and gasoline vehicles generally remain below the respective emission limits. By contrast, nitrogen oxides emissions of diesel vehicles (0.93 ± 0.39 grams per kilometer [g/km]), including modern Euro 5 diesel vehicles (0.62 ± 0.19 g/km), exceed emission limits by 320 ± 90%. On-road carbon dioxide emissions surpass laboratory emission levels by 21 ± 9%, suggesting that the current laboratory emissions testing fails to accurately capture the on-road emissions of light-duty vehicles. Our findings provide the empirical foundation for the European Commission to establish a complementary emissions test procedure for light-duty vehicles. This procedure could be implemented together with more stringent Euro 6 emission limits in 2014. The envisaged measures should improve urban air quality and provide incentive for innovation in the automotive industry.

  7. Modelling the Contribution of Long-range Transport of Ammonium Nitrates to Urban Air Pollution and Human Exposure in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S.; Vieno, M.; Beck, R.; Ots, R.; Moring, A.; Steinle, S.; Heal, M. R.; Doherty, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution and its effects on human health remain to be a challenge in spite of substantial reductions in the emissions of air pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) over the past decades in Europe. While primary pollutants play a vital role in urban air pollution, recent model studies highlight and quantify the relevance of long-range transport of secondary pollution (e.g. secondary inorganic aerosols such as ammonium sulphates and nitrates, or ground level ozone) for the exceedance of local air quality limit values in urban areas across Europe. This contribution can be seen in recurring episodes, for instance in spring 2014, with very high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Paris, London and other European cities, as well as in elevated background levels throughout the year. While we will focus on the contribution to exceedances of PM2.5 limit values here, this transboundary transport has wider implications for the deposition of reactive nitrogen far from the source as well. As local authorities are tasked with ensuring the attainment of air quality limit values, exceedances caused by long-range transport, with emissions originating from sources outside of their jurisdiction present substantial challenges. Furthermore, while policy measures have successfully addressed emissions from large point sources in the past, and made progress towards reducing pollution from road vehicles, emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources - a key component for the long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosols - have remained relatively stable in Europe. Using the example of Europe and the UK, we demonstrate in our presentation how atmospheric chemistry transport modelling across different scales (from regional to local) can provide vital insight in the mechanisms of and relative contributions to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. In addition, we illustrate how this modelling capability can inform the design of efficient control

  8. Road traffic emissions - predictions of future contributions to regional ozone levels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, S.; Friedrich, R.; Obermeier, A.; Unger, S.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the European Commission research project 'Assessment of policy instruments for efficient ozone abatement strategies in Europe,' detailed emission projections have been developed for the year 2010 based upon currently adopted measures, and feasible reductions. For road-traffic emissions this projection considers passenger cars, light- and heavy-duty vehicles, mopeds and motorcycles. Here we present model calculations made with the EMEP 3-D Eulerian model to illustrate the relative contribution of each of these road-traffic sectors to ozone concentrations across Europe. The model is run for a six-month period, April-September 1996. The model results clearly suggest that further reduction in road-traffic emissions beyond currently planned measures would be beneficial in reducing ozone over Europe, particularly in the case of heavy-duty vehicles and evaporative emissions. These results do of course depend on the estimated emissions in each sector for the year 2010, and we show that this is a major source of uncertainty in such scenario calculations. (author)

  9. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.

    2003-01-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion...... emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly intooperational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development.......ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion....... ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidentalatmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making “ENSEMBLE” procedures...

  10. Application of the emission inventory model TEAM: Uncertainties in dioxin emission estimates for central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Kok, H.; Quass, U.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses an improved emission inventory model to assess the uncertainties in emissions of dioxins and furans associated with both knowledge on the exact technologies and processes used, and with the uncertainties of both activity data and emission factors. The annual total emissions for the

  11. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Dosio, Alessandro; Camia, Andrea; Hobourg, Rasmus; Houston-Durrant, Tracy; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Krasovskii, Andrey A.; Marcolla, Barbara; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Ward, Daniel S.; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  12. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  13. Draft protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    The draft Protocol to be tabled as item 2 of the seventeenth session of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, (29 November - 3 December 1999) has the objective of controlling and reducing emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds caused by anthropogenic activities and likely to cause adverse effects due to acidification, eutrophication or ground-level ozone as a result of long-range transboundary atmospheric transport and to ensure that atmospheric depositions or concentrations do not exceed, for Parties within the geographical scope of EMEP (the programme for monitoring and evaluation of long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe), and Canada, the critical loads of acidity for EMEP countries as described in Annex I of the document; the critical loads of nutrient nitrogen as described in Annex I, and, for ozone, the critical levels as described in Annex I for EMEP countries, for Canada, the Canada-wide Standard for ozone, and for the USA, the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone. It specifies limit values for boilers rated at {gt} 50 MW{sub th}. 9 apps.

  14. Memory and long-range correlations in chess games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaigorodsky, Ana L.; Perotti, Juan I.; Billoni, Orlando V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report the existence of long-range memory in the opening moves of a chronologically ordered set of chess games using an extensive chess database. We used two mapping rules to build discrete time series and analyzed them using two methods for detecting long-range correlations; rescaled range analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis. We found that long-range memory is related to the level of the players. When the database is filtered according to player levels we found differences in the persistence of the different subsets. For high level players, correlations are stronger at long time scales; whereas in intermediate and low level players they reach the maximum value at shorter time scales. This can be interpreted as a signature of the different strategies used by players with different levels of expertise. These results are robust against the assignation rules and the method employed in the analysis of the time series.

  15. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations.

  16. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations

  17. The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Skjøth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a dynamical method for modelling temporal and geographical variations in ammonia emissions in regional-scale chemistry transport models (CTMs and chemistry climate models (CCMs. The method is based on the meteorology in the models and gridded inventories. We use the dynamical method to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of ammonia emissions across part of Europe and study how these emissions are related to geographical and year-to-year variations in atmospheric temperature alone. For simplicity we focus on the emission from a storage facility related to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections from an ensemble of climate models. The results point towards four overall issues. (1 Emissions can easily vary by 20% for different geographical locations within a country due to overall variations in climate. The largest uncertainties are seen for large countries such as the UK, Germany and France. (2 Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20%. (3 Climate change may increase emissions by 0–40% in central to northern Europe. (4 Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK and France can be reduced by using a dynamical methodology for calculating emissions. Acting together these four factors can cause substantial uncertainties in emission. Emissions are generally considered among the largest uncertainties in the model calculations made with CTM and CCM models. Efforts to reduce uncertainties are therefore highly relevant. It is therefore recommended that both CCMs and CTMs implement a dynamical methodology for simulating ammonia emissions in a

  18. Netherlands Army Long Range Anti Armour Study - Status Report

    OpenAIRE

    Schagen, P.A.B. van

    1989-01-01

    At the end of the nineties the munition for the TOW weapon system in use at The Netherlands army, has to be replaced. The Life of Type of The Tow carrier ends in 2005. The long range anti armour study is to gain insight into the possibilities and limitations for the Netherlands army to deploy future (time period 1995-2000) weapon systems in the long range anti armour battle. The first study results are expected at the end of 1989. The study is sponsored by the Netherlands army and is carried ...

  19. Long-range interactions among three alkali-metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, M.; Starace, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The long-range asymptotic form of the interaction potential surface for three neutral alkali-metal atoms in their ground states may be expressed as an expansion in inverse powers of inter-nuclear distances. The first leading powers are proportional to the dispersion coefficients for pairwise atomic interactions. They are followed by a term responsible for a three body dipole interaction. The authors results consist in evaluation of the three body dipole interaction coefficient between three alkali-metal atoms. The generalization to long-range n atom interaction terms will be discussed qualitatively

  20. Study of beam-beam long range compensation with octupoles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Long range beam-beam effects are responsible for particle losses and define fundamental operational parameters of colliders (i.e. crossing angles, intensities, emittances, ${\\beta}$${^∗}$). In this study we propose octuple magnets as a possible scheme to efficiently compensate long-range beam-beam interactions with a global correction scheme. The impact and improvements on the dynamic aperture of colliding beams together with estimates of the luminosity potentials are dis- cussed for the HL-LHC upgrade and extrapolations made for the FCC project.

  1. Long-range correlations and asymmetry in the Bitcoin market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Rodriguez, E.; Ibarra-Valdez, C.

    2018-02-01

    This work studies long-range correlations and informational efficiency of the Bitcoin market for the period from June 30, 2013 to June 3rd, 2017. To this end, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was implemented over sliding windows to estimate long-range correlations for price returns. It was found that the Bitcoin market exhibits periods of efficiency alternating with periods where the price dynamics are driven by anti-persistence. The pattern is replicated by prices samples at day, hour and second frequencies. The Bitcoin market also presents asymmetric correlations with respect to increasing and decreasing price trending, with the former trend linked to anti-persistence of returns dynamics.

  2. Long-range correlation in cosmic microwave background radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, M Sadegh; Ghasemi, F; Rahvar, Sohrab; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the statistical anisotropy and gaussianity of temperature fluctuations of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe survey, using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Rescaled Range, and Scaled Windowed Variance methods. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis shows that CMB fluctuations has a long-range correlation function with a multifractal behavior. By comparing the shuffled and surrogate series of CMB data, we conclude that the multifractality nature of the temperature fluctuation of CMB radiation is mainly due to the long-range correlations, and the map is consistent with a gaussian distribution.

  3. Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions - a freely accessible model code for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Berge, H.

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates how local climate and local management can be accounted for in CTMs by applying a modular approach for deriving data as input to a dynamic ammonia emission model for Europe. Default data are obtained from information in the RAINS system, and it is demonstrated how this dynamic emission model based......Deriving a parameterisation of ammonia emissions for use in chemistry-transport models (CTMs) is a complex problem as the emission varies locally as a result of local climate and local agricultural management. In current CTMs such factors are generally not taken into account. This paper...... on these input data improves the NH3 calculations in a CTM model when the results are compared with calculations obtained by traditional methods in emission handling. It is also shown how input data can be modified over a specific target region resulting in even further improvement in performance over...

  4. Anthropogenic Vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visschedijk A. H. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were calculated bottom-up using energy use activity data and collected fuel and sector-specific emissions factors, taking into account various emission control measures. The NW European emissions were dominated by combustion of heavy fuel oil and petroleum cokes. Total emissions for 2005 amounted to 1569 tons/yr. The major sources are sea going ships (39%, petroleum refineries (35% and industry (19%. Emission is strongly concentrated at the densely populated cities with major sea ports. The location of sources at or near the major port cities was confirmed by observational data, as was the downward trend in emissions due to emission control, fuel switches in industry and fuel quality improvement. The results show the positive impact of lower sulphur fuels on other possible health relevant air pollutants such as particle bound Vanadium. The emission inventory can be expanded to the full European domain and can be used to for air quality modeling and particularly for the tracing of source contributions from certain types of fossil fuels (petroleum coke and residual fuel oil. Moreover, it will allow the monitoring of changes in fuel use over time.

  5. The state of transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This twelfth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the thirteenth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1995. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1994 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report on the development of a library of default values for each of the input variables to the simple mass balance equation for the calculation of critical loads of nitrogen and for a range of ecosystems. Part Four presents the modelling results of European sulphur and nitrogen emissions, depositions for 1980 and 1993, and export/import budgets

  6. Long-range plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    waveguides. We show that the proposed structures support long-range surface plasmon modes, which exist when the permittivity of the core matches the transverse effective permittivity component of the metamaterial cladding. In this regime, the surface plasmon polaritons of each cladding layer are strongly...

  7. Nanoimprinted reflecting gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Johansen, Dan Mario

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel design, fabrication, and characterization of reflecting gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) at telecom wavelengths. LR-SPP waveguides consisting of a thin (12 nm) gold film embedded in a thick (45 μm) layer of dielectric polymer cladding are structured...

  8. Force induced unzipping of DNA with long range correlated noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We derive and solve a Fokker–Planck equation for the stationary distribution of the free energy, in a model of unzipping of double-stranded DNA under external force. The autocorrelation function of the random DNA sequence can be of a general form, including long range correlations. In the case of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck noise, characterized by a finite correlation length, our result reduces to the exact result of Allahverdyan et al, with the average number of unzipped base pairs going as (X) ∼ 1/f 2 in the white noise limit, where f is the deviation from the critical force. In the case of long range correlated noise, where the integrated autocorrelation is divergent, we find that (X) is finite at f = 0, with its value decreasing as the correlations become of longer range. This shows that long range correlations actually stabilize the DNA sequence against unzipping. Our result is also in agreement with the findings of Allahverdyan et al obtained using numerical generation of the long range correlated noise

  9. Netherlands Army Long Range Anti Armour Study - Status Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, P.A.B. van

    1989-01-01

    At the end of the nineties the munition for the TOW weapon system in use at The Netherlands army, has to be replaced. The Life of Type of The Tow carrier ends in 2005. The long range anti armour study is to gain insight into the possibilities and limitations for the Netherlands army to deploy future

  10. Long range forces and limits on unparticle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Jiang Jing

    2008-01-01

    Couplings between standard model particles and unparticles from a nontrivial scale invariant sector can lead to long range forces. If the forces couple to quantities such as baryon or lepton (electron) number, stringent limits result from tests of the gravitational inverse square law. These limits are much stronger than from collider phenomenology and astrophysics

  11. Long range node-strut analysis of trabecular bone microarchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmah, Tanya; Marwan, Norbert; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We present a new morphometric measure of trabecular bone microarchitecture, called mean node strength (NdStr), which is part of a newly developed approach called long range node-strut analysis. Our general aim is to describe and quantify the apparent "latticelike" microarchitecture of th...

  12. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, I.; Panci, Paolo; Silk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from...

  13. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  14. Singularities of elastic scattering amplitude by long-range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitsinsky, A.A.; Komarov, I.V.; Merkuriev, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The angular peculiarities and the zero energy singularities of the elastic scattering amplitude by a long-range potential are described. The singularities of the elastic (2 → 2) scattering amplitude for a system of three Coulomb particles are considered [ru

  15. Long-range contributions to double beta decay revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helo, J.C. [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Centro-Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Avenida Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Hirsch, M. [HEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular,C.S.I.C./Universitat de València Edificio Institutos de Investigacion,Parc Cientific de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Ota, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University,Shimo-Okubo 255, 338-8570 Saitama-Sakura (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the systematic decomposition of all dimension-7 (d=7) lepton number violating operators. These d=7 operators produce momentum enhanced contributions to the long-range part of the 0νββ decay amplitude and thus are severely constrained by existing half-live limits. In our list of possible models one can find contributions to the long-range amplitude discussed previously in the literature, such as the left-right symmetric model or scalar leptoquarks, as well as some new models not considered before. The d=7 operators generate Majorana neutrino mass terms either at tree-level, 1-loop or 2-loop level. We systematically compare constraints derived from the mass mechanism to those derived from the long-range 0νββ decay amplitude and classify our list of models accordingly. We also study one particular example decomposition, which produces neutrino masses at 2-loop level, can fit oscillation data and yields a large contribution to the long-range 0νββ decay amplitude, in some detail.

  16. Strategic Long Range Planning for Universities. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael E.

    The use of strategic long-range planning at Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) is discussed. A structure for strategic planning analysis that integrates existing techniques is presented, and examples of planning activities at CMU are included. The key concept in strategic planning is competitive advantage: if a university has a competitive…

  17. Long range planning of radiotherapy facilities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, T.J.B.M.; Terpstra, S.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this paper is long range planning or policy development for healthcare in the Netherlands. Especially the co-ordinating function of planning will be discussed. In healthcare different actors or stakeholders are involved. Each of these actors may have their own interests, expectations,

  18. Impact of increasing ship emissions on air quality and deposition over Europe by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Bill; Sanderson, Michael G.; Johnson, Colin E. [Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    A global chemistry-transport model has been used to study the effect of shipping emissions on air quality and ecosystems over Europe, through changes in surface ozone and surface sulphate aerosols, and changes in the deposition of sulphur and oxidised nitrogen. Scenarios are chosen to determine the impact of current (2000) shipping emissions, and the combined impact of changes in land-based and shipping emissions by 2030. The effects of shipping on ozone are small, compared to land-based emissions changes, and can be both positive and negative. Due to the non-linear nature of ozone chemistry, the effects of shipping depend on the magnitude of the emission change, and on the choice of scenario for the land-based emissions. The effects on sulphate aerosol levels and deposition fluxes of sulphate aerosols and oxidised nitrogen species are larger, and are comparable to expected changes in land-based emissions. This is particularly true for SO{sub 2} emissions from shipping. SO{sub 2} has a sufficiently short lifetime that most of the impacts are felt within the European region, although much of that is over the sea. The increase in sulphate aerosols and sulphur deposition due to the SO{sub 2} from shipping will offset 75 % of the benefits in air quality that would be expect from land-based emission controls under the SRES A2 scenario. (orig.)

  19. The Contribution from Shipping Emissions to Air Quality and Acid Deposition in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, Richard G.; Stevenson, David S.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Cofala, Janusz; Mechler, Reinhard; Amann, Markus; Dentener, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    A global three-dimensional Lagrangian chemistry-transport model STOCHEM is used to describe the European regional acid deposition and ozone air quality impacts along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard of Europe, from the SO 2 , NO x , VOCs and CO emissions from international shipping under conditions appropriate to the year 2000. Model-derived total sulfur deposition from international shipping reaches over 200 mg S m-2 yr-1 over the southwestern approaches to the British Isles and Brittany. The contribution from international shipping to surface ozone concentrations during the summertime, peaks at about 6 ppb over Ireland, Brittany and Portugal. Shipping emissions act as an external influence on acid deposition and ozone air quality within Europe and may require control actions in the future if strict deposition and air quality targets are to be met

  20. Studies for determining the optimum propulsion system characteristics for use in a long range transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brines, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of propulsion systems for the next generation of near-sonic long range transport aircraft indicates that socially responsive noise and emission goals can be achieved within the probable limits of acceptable airplane performance and economics. Technology advances needed in the 1975-1985 time period to support the development of these propulsion systems are identified and discussed. The single most significant result is the low noise, high performance potential of a low tip speed, spaced, two-stage fan.

  1. The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We present here a dynamical method for modelling temporal and geographical variations in ammonia emissions in regional-scale chemistry transport models (CTMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs). The method is based on the meteorology in the models and gridded inventories. We use...... to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections....... Finally, the climate penalty on ammonia emissions should be taken into account at the policy level such as the NEC and IPPC directives....

  2. Implications of CO2 Emissions Trading for Short-run Electricity Outcomes in Northwest Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Sijm, J.P.M.; Hobbs, B.F.; Lise, W.

    2008-02-01

    We examine the short-run implications of CO2 trading for power production, prices, emissions, and generator profits in northwest Europe in 2005. Simulation results from a transmission-constrained oligopoly model are compared with theoretical analyses to quantify price increases and windfall profits earned by generators. The analyses indicate that the rates at which CO2 costs are passed through to wholesale prices are affected by market competitiveness, merit order changes, and elasticities of demand and supply. Emissions trading results in large windfall profits, much but not all of which is due to free allocation of allowances. Profits also increase for some generators because their generation mix has low emissions, and so they benefit from electricity price increases. Most emission reductions appear to be due to demand response, not generation redispatch

  3. Implications of CO2 Emissions Trading for Short-run Electricity Outcomes in Northwest Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [School of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts and School of Engineering, Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California, Merced, 5200 N. Lake Rd., Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Sijm, J.P.M. [Policy Studies Unit, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 37154, 1020 Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hobbs, B.F. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St, Ames Hall, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lise, W. [IBS Research and Consultancy, Aga Hamami Caddesi, Aga Han 17/6, Cihangir, 34433 Beyoglu, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    We examine the short-run implications of CO2 trading for power production, prices, emissions, and generator profits in northwest Europe in 2005. Simulation results from a transmission-constrained oligopoly model are compared with theoretical analyses to quantify price increases and windfall profits earned by generators. The analyses indicate that the rates at which CO2 costs are passed through to wholesale prices are affected by market competitiveness, merit order changes, and elasticities of demand and supply. Emissions trading results in large windfall profits, much but not all of which is due to free allocation of allowances. Profits also increase for some generators because their generation mix has low emissions, and so they benefit from electricity price increases. Most emission reductions appear to be due to demand response, not generation redispatch.

  4. Probing the role of long-range interactions in the dynamics of a long-range Kitaev chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Dutta, Amit

    2017-09-01

    We study the role of long-range interactions (more precisely, the long-range superconducting gap term) on the nonequilibrium dynamics considering a long-range p -wave superconducting chain in which the superconducting term decays with distance between two sites in a power-law fashion characterized by an exponent α . We show that the Kibble-Zurek scaling exponent, dictating the power-law decay of the defect density in the final state reached following a slow (in comparison to the time scale associated with the minimum gap in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian) quenching of the chemical potential μ across a quantum critical point, depends nontrivially on the exponent α as long as α 2 , we find that the exponent saturates to the corresponding well-known value of 1 /2 expected for the short-range model. Furthermore, studying the dynamical quantum phase transitions manifested in the nonanalyticities in the rate function of the return possibility I (t ) in subsequent temporal evolution following a sudden change in μ , we show the existence of a new region; in this region, we find three instants of cusp singularities in I (t ) associated with a single sector of Fisher zeros. Notably, the width of this region shrinks as α increases and vanishes in the limit α →2 , indicating that this special region is an artifact of the long-range nature of the Hamiltonian.

  5. Estimation of volatile organic compound emissions for Europe using data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Koohkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs over western Europe for the year 2005 are estimated via inverse modelling by assimilation of in situ observations of concentration and then subsequently compared to a standard emission inventory. The study focuses on 15 VOC species: five aromatics, six alkanes, two alkenes, one alkyne and one biogenic diene. The inversion relies on a validated fast adjoint of the chemical transport model used to simulate the fate and transport of these VOCs. The assimilated ground-based measurements over Europe are provided by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP network. The background emission errors and the prior observational errors are estimated by maximum-likelihood approaches. The positivity assumption on the VOC emission fluxes is pivotal for a successful inversion, and this maximum-likelihood approach consistently accounts for the positivity of the fluxes. For most species, the retrieved emissions lead to a significant reduction of the bias, which underlines the misfit between the standard inventories and the observed concentrations. The results are validated through a forecast test and a cross-validation test. An estimation of the posterior uncertainty is also provided. It is shown that the statistically consistent non-Gaussian approach based on a reliable estimation of the errors offers the best performance. The efficiency in correcting the inventory depends on the lifetime of the VOCs and the accuracy of the boundary conditions. In particular, it is shown that the use of in situ observations using a sparse monitoring network to estimate emissions of isoprene is inadequate because its short chemical lifetime significantly limits the spatial radius of influence of the monitoring data. For species with a longer lifetime (a few days, successful, albeit partial, emission corrections can reach regions hundreds of kilometres away from the stations. Domain-wide corrections of the

  6. Long-Range Research Plan, FY 1985-FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The Long-Range Research Plan (LRRP) was prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to assist the NRC in coordinating its long-range research planning with the short-range budget cycles. The LRRP lays out programmatic approaches for research to help resolve regulatory issues. The plan will be updated annually. This document is divided into the following sections: operating reactor inspection, maintenance, and repair; equipment qualification; seismic research; reactor operations and risk; thermal-hydraulic transients; severe accidents; advanced concepts; radiation protection and health effects; and waste management. The following are also listed as appendices: unresolved safety issues and TMI action plan items, priorities for research program, research program outline, and research utilization report. A glossary of acronyms is included

  7. Conformal Invariance in the Long-Range Ising Model

    CERN Document Server

    Paulos, Miguel F; van Rees, Balt C; Zan, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  8. Efficient Long-Range Hole Transport Through G-Quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingyuan; Meng, Zhenyu; Lu, Yunpeng; Shao, Fangwei

    2017-10-09

    DNA offers a means of long-range charge transport for biology and electric nanodevices. Here, a series of tetra-stranded G-quadruplexes were assembled within a dendritic DNA architecture to explore oxidative charge transport (hole transport) through the G-quadruplex. Efficient charge transport was achieved over 28 Å upon UV irradiation. Over a longer G-quadruplex bridge, hole transport was escalated to a higher efficiency, which resulted in a higher yield than that of the optimal duplex DNA for charge transport, that is, the adenine tract. Efficient long-range hole transport suggests tetra-stranded G-quadruplexes, instead of an oxidation hotspot, hold better potential as an electron conduit than duplex DNA. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel F. Paulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  10. Long-range hybrid ridge and trench plasmonic waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Yusheng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-23

    We report a class of long-range hybrid plasmon polariton waveguides capable of simultaneously achieving low propagation loss and tight field localization at telecommunication wavelength. The symmetric (quasi-symmetric) hybrid configurations featuring high-refractive-index-contrast near the non-uniform metallic nanostructures enable significantly improved optical performance over conventional hybrid waveguides, exhibiting considerably longer propagation distances and dramatically enhanced figure of merits for similar degrees of confinement. Compared to their traditional long-range plasmonic counterparts, the proposed hybrid waveguides put much less stringent requirements on index-matching conditions, demonstrating nice performance under a wide range of physical dimensions and robust characteristics against certain fabrication imperfections. Studies concerning crosstalk between adjacent identical waveguides further reveal their potential for photonic integrations. In addition, alternative configurations with comparable guiding properties to the structures in our case studies are also proposed, which can potentially serve as attractive prototypes for numerous high-performance nanophotonic components.

  11. Long range order and giant components of quantum random graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Ioffe, D

    2006-01-01

    Mean field quantum random graphs give a natural generalization of classical Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi percolation model on complete graph $G_N$ with $p =\\beta /N$. Quantum case incorporates an additional parameter $\\lambda\\geq 0$, and the short-long range order transition should be studied in the $(\\beta ,\\lambda)$-quarter plane. In this work we explicitly compute the corresponding critical curve $\\gamma_c$, and derive results on two-point functions and sizes of connected components in both short and long range order regions. In this way the classical case corresponds to the limiting point $(\\beta_c ,0) = (1,0)$ on $\\gamma_c$.

  12. Long-range correlations and universality in plasma edge turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligen, B.Ph. van; Pedrosa, M.A.; Carreras, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range correlations in turbulence, associated with self-similarity of the fluctuations, are a signature of transport by avalanches as occurs in Self-Organized Critical systems. We have investigated long-range correlations in plasma edge fluctuations in a variety of fusion devices, using the Rescaled-Range and similar techniques. We find that the degree of self-similarity in confining devices is high and similar between devices, and much different from non-confining devices where it is low. Likewise, we find that turbulent spectra show a high degree of similarity between devices. These findings strongly indicate the existence of universality in plasma edge (ohmic) turbulence, and demonstrate its non-Gaussian character. (author)

  13. Long-range analysis of density fitting in extended systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Scarontefan

    Density fitting scheme is analyzed for the Coulomb problem in extended systems from the correctness of long-range behavior point of view. We show that for the correct cancellation of divergent long-range Coulomb terms it is crucial for the density fitting scheme to reproduce the overlap matrix exactly. It is demonstrated that from all possible fitting metric choices the Coulomb metric is the only one which inherently preserves the overlap matrix for infinite systems with translational periodicity. Moreover, we show that by a small additional effort any non-Coulomb metric fit can be made overlap-preserving as well. The problem is analyzed for both ordinary and Poisson basis set choices.

  14. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulos, Miguel F. [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Rychkov, Slava, E-mail: slava.rychkov@lpt.ens.fr [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l' École Normale Supérieure (LPTENS), Paris (France); Faculté de Physique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris (France); Rees, Balt C. van [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Zan, Bernardo [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  15. Travel: a long-range goal of retired women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Sara; Pierfelice, Loretta

    2003-09-01

    The authors surveyed retired persons (predominately women) with regard to their immediate, intermediate, and long-range activities following retirement. As predicted, leisure travel emerged as a frequent long-range goal for persons retired more than 5 years. The travel activity preferences of long-retired older women present challenges and opportunities to both researchers and marketers. Length of trips and frequency of trips have been predicted from regression models, with trip length in particular being well predicted by the problem of daily life hassles. A theoretical model of continued post-retirement travel is presented as a variant of Solomon's opponent process theory of affect (R. L. Solomon, 1980). The authors suggest that to the degree that places traveled to are varied and different, older people may remain stimulated and continue to enjoy retirement.

  16. SEGMENTATION AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LONG RANGE CAPTURED IRIS IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The iris segmentation plays a major role in an iris recognition system to increase the performance of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for segmentation of iris images to extract the iris part of long range captured eye image and an approach to select best iris frame from the iris polar image sequences by analyzing the quality of iris polar images. The quality of iris image is determined by the frequency components present in the iris polar images. The experiments are carried out on CASIA-long range captured iris image sequences. The proposed segmentation method is compared with Hough transform based segmentation and it has been determined that the proposed method gives higher accuracy for segmentation than Hough transform.

  17. Long-range correlation analysis of urban traffic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Sheng; Jun-Feng, Wang; Shu-Long, Zhao; Tie-Qiao, Tang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates urban traffic data by analysing the long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis. Through a large number of real data collected by the travel time detection system in Beijing, the variation of flow in different time periods and intersections is studied. According to the long-range correlation in different time scales, it mainly discusses the effect of intersection location in road net, people activity customs and special traffic controls on urban traffic flow. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the urban traffic flow represents three-phase characters similar to highway traffic. Moreover, compared by the two groups of data obtained before and after the special traffic restrictions (vehicles with special numbered plates only run in a special workday) enforcement, it indicates that the rules not only reduce the flow but also avoid irregular fluctuation. (general)

  18. Fast long-range connections in transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares Viana, Matheus; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional scaling is applied in order to visualize an analogue of the small-world effect implied by edges having different displacement velocities in transportation networks. Our findings are illustrated for two real-world systems, namely the London urban network (streets and underground) and the US highway network enhanced by some of the main US airlines routes. We also show that the travel time in these two networks is drastically changed by attacks targeting the edges with large displacement velocities. - Highlights: → Multidimensional scaling used to visualize the effects of fast long-range connections. → Fast long-range connections are important to decrease the average travel time. → The average travel time diverges quickly when the network is under target attacks.

  19. Long range correlations, event simulation and parton percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, C.

    2011-01-01

    We study the RHIC data on long range rapidity correlations, comparing their main trends with different string model simulations. Particular attention is paid to color percolation model and its similarities with color glass condensate. As both approaches corresponds, at high density, to a similar physical picture, both of them give rise to a similar behavior on the energy and the centrality of the main observables. Color percolation explains the transition from low density to high density.

  20. Long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model for prebiotic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nokura, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    I propose and discuss a fitness function for one-dimensional binary monomer sequences of macromolecules for prebiotic evolution. The fitness function is defined by the free energy of polymers in the high temperature random coil phase. With repulsive interactions among the same kind of monomers, the free energy in the high temperature limit becomes the energy function of the one-dimensional long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model, which is shown to have a dynamical phase transition and glassy states

  1. Regional and long-range transport of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandroni, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Course lectures presented are organised in four sections: atmospheric transport, conversion, deposition of atmospheric trace constituents and associated problems; conventional and sophisticated techniques for atmospheric sounding (e.g., Sodar, Lidar, Cospec, tetroons, instrument-carrying aircraft) and simulation techniques (non-reactive tracers); models available for various applications (long-range episodes, long-term averages, photochemical and deposition processes); a comparison of performances of different models and the linearity problem in the formation of acid deposition

  2. Laser long-range remote-sensing program experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Ronald G.; Shilko, Michael L.; Fox, Marsha J.; Gonglewski, John D.; Czyzak, Stanley R.; Dowling, James A.; Kelly, Brian; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Ruffatto, Donald; Loando, Sharon; Matsuura, Chris; Senft, Daniel C.; Finkner, Lyle; Rae, Joe; Gallegos, Joe

    1995-12-01

    A laser long range remote sensing (LRS) program is being conducted by the United States Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AF/PL). As part of this program, AF/PL is testing the feasibility of developing a long path CO(subscript 2) laser-based DIAL system for remote sensing. In support of this program, the AF/PL has recently completed an experimental series using a 21 km slant- range path (3.05 km ASL transceiver height to 0.067 km ASL target height) at its Phillips Laboratory Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility located on Maui, Hawaii. The dial system uses a 3-joule, (superscript 13)C isotope laser coupled into a 0.6 m diameter telescope. The atmospheric optical characterization incorporates information from an infrared scintillometer co-aligned to the laser path, atmospheric profiles from weather balloons launched from the target site, and meteorological data from ground stations at AMOS and the target site. In this paper, we report a description of the experiment configuration, a summary of the results, a summary of the atmospheric conditions and their implications to the LRS program. The capability of such a system for long-range, low-angle, slant-path remote sensing is discussed. System performance issues relating to both coherent and incoherent detection methods, atmospheric limitations, as well as, the development of advanced models to predict performance of long range scenarios are presented.

  3. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J.L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A.V.; Ivanov, P.Ch.; Carpena, P.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome. PMID:23645997

  4. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaola-Galván, P; Oliver, J L; Hackenberg, M; Coronado, A V; Ivanov, P Ch; Carpena, P

    2012-06-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome.

  5. Long-Range Piping Inspection by Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lim, Sa Hoe; Eom, Heung Seop; Kim, Jae Hee

    2005-01-01

    The ultrasonic guided waves are very promising for the long-range inspection of large structures because they can propagate a long distance along the structures such as plates, shells and pipes. The guided wave inspection could be utilized for an on-line monitoring technique when the transmitting and receiving transducers are positioned at a remote point on the structure. The received signal has the information about the integrity of the monitoring area between the transmitting and receiving transducers. On-line monitoring of a pipe line using an ultrasonic guided wave can detect flaws such as corrosion, erosion and fatigue cracking at an early stage and collect useful information on the flaws. However the guided wave inspection is complicated by the dispersive characteristics for guided waves. The phase and group velocities are a function of the frequency-thickness product. Therefore, the different frequency components of the guided waves will travel at different speeds and the shape of the received signal will changed as it propagates along the pipe. In this study, we analyze the propagation characteristics of guided wave modes in a small diameter pipe of nuclear power plant and select the suitable mode for a long-range inspection. And experiments will be carried out for the practical application of a long-range inspection in a 26m long pipe by using a high-power ultrasonic inspection system

  6. Metal Contamination of the Natural Environment in Norway from Long Range Atmospheric Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    2001-01-01

    Long range atmospheric transport is the most important source of contamination to the natural environment in Norway with many heavy metals. Investigations based on aerosol studies, bulk deposition measurements and moss analysis show that airborne transport from other parts of Europe is the major mode for supply of vanadium, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin,antimony, tellurium, thallium, lead, and bismuth, whereas metals such as chromium, nickel, and copper are mainly derived from point sources within Norway and in northwestern Russia close to the Norwegian border. Elements associated with long range transport show substantial enrichment in the humus horizon of natural soils in southern Norway, sometimes to levels suspected to cause effects on soil microbial processes. E.g. lead concentration values of 150-200 ppm are observed in the most contaminated areas in the south as compared to about 5 ppm in the far north. Elements such as lead and cadmium also show enrichment in some terrestrial food chains. These elements also show considerably elevated levels over background concentrations in the water and sediment of small lakes in the southern part of the country. Retrospective studies based on ombrogenous peatcores indicate that long range transport has been a significant source of heavy metal contamination in southern Norway for the last couple of centuries. The deposition of most heavy metals in Norway has been considerably reduced over the last 20 yr, with the exception of contributions in the north from Russian smelters

  7. Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Voilà deux militants de la cause européenne qui plaident, chacun à sa manière, pour un sursaut afin que renaisse ce « désir d’Europe » qui nous fait tant défaut. « Il n’est pas trop tard, mais il est temps… », écrit P. COLLOWALD dans ses mémoires préfacées par Jacques Delors. Constatant que, « dans les jugements hâtifs de notre époque, on manque souvent de discernement, par ignorance et par manque de recul historique », cet ancien responsable de l’information à la Commission et au Parlement e...

  8. Response of fine particulate matter concentrations to changes of emissions and temperature in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Megaritis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PMCAMx-2008, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, was applied in Europe to quantify the changes in fine particle (PM2.5 concentration in response to different emission reductions as well as to temperature increase. A summer and a winter simulation period were used, to investigate the seasonal dependence of the PM2.5 response to 50% reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, nitrogen oxides (NOx, anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs and anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA emissions and also to temperature increases of 2.5 and 5 K. Reduction of NH3 emissions seems to be the most effective control strategy for reducing PM2.5, in both periods, resulting in a decrease of PM2.5 up to 5.1 μg m−3 and 1.8 μg m−3 (5.5% and 4% on average during summer and winter respectively, mainly due to reduction of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 (20% on average in both periods. The reduction of SO2 emissions decreases PM2.5 in both periods having a significant effect over the Balkans (up to 1.6 μg m−3 during the modeled summer period, mainly due to decrease of sulfate (34% on average over the Balkans. The anthropogenic POA control strategy reduces total OA by 15% during the modeled winter period and 8% in the summer period. The reduction of total OA is higher in urban areas close to its emissions sources. A slight decrease of OA (8% in the modeled summer period and 4% in the modeled winter period is also predicted after a 50% reduction of VOCs emissions due to the decrease of anthropogenic SOA. The reduction of NOx emissions reduces PM2.5 (up to 3.4 μg m−3 during the summer period, due to a decrease of NH4NO3, causing although an increase of ozone concentration in major urban areas and over Western Europe. Additionally, the NOx control strategy actually increases PM2.5 levels during the winter period, due to more oxidants becoming available to react with SO2 and VOCs. The increase of temperature results in a decrease of PM2

  9. A ten year perspective on power balances and CO2 emissions in Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennbakk, Berit; Torgersen, Lasse

    2003-10-01

    The electric power balance and electricity trade will change a lot in Northern Europe over the next decade. Independent of the price of emission quotas, the balance will worsen, especially for Sweden and Germany, but the absolute numbers are strongly dependent on the demand growth. New production capacity will be built primarily in the Netherlands and Norway. Finland will also have a growing need of imported power until the new nuclear power plant is running, around 2012. Denmark will remain a net exporter. If the construction of new generating capacity is slowed down by economic or administrative reasons, the raising prices will lead to higher production in the Nordic coal fired plants. The CO 2 emissions will increase and the Nordic countries will become net importers of emission quotas, even at a quota price of 20 Euros per ton CO 2 , since new natural gas plants in Norway and Netherlands will outperform existing coal plants in Poland and Germany at high quota prices

  10. World CO_2-energy emissions balance and impacts of the Kyoto Protocol in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, Bertrand

    2005-01-01

    industrial sector and the other sectors do not emit more in 2003 than in 1990. All large countries and zones of the Annex B, except the CIS and Eastern Europe countries, resolutely deviate from the Kyoto objectives; relatively, the UE-15 performs better than the other zones. Despite the Russian hot air, global emissions from the Annex B countries are 1.5 GtCO_2 higher than the Kyoto objectives for 2003. Only 5 countries are less than 12% from the objective in 2003: Germany, France, Greece, UK, Sweden. 4 countries are more than 35% higher from the objective: Austria, Spain, Ireland, Luxemburg. There are 3 principal drivers explaining emissions dynamics: Economic and demographic growths generate higher emissions; Emissions/capita disparities are also linked to energy fuel mix, in particular for electricity generation: this fuel mix evolution partly explains the differences among countries performance vs. Kyoto; The various sectors emitting CO_2-energy weight unequally within total emissions: differences in dynamics by sector partly explain the evolutions observed. The natural gas penetration and relative coal receding slow the emissions increase and is even more accentuated in Europe. The electric sector and transport, main drivers of world emissions increase. Situations and evolutions are more contrasted in Europe for the energy sector. Contrasted positions in the industry sector vs. CO_2 emissions (including process) within the Annex B countries. A similar contrast is observed in the EU. Anticipation of carbon prices: a market simulated by the POLES model, based on carbon supply and offer. In particular, the POLES model assesses the effect of the USA withdrawal and Russian 'hot air' on the carbon market. The implementation of the EU ETS will lead to an increase in gas prices. Energy prices will be more affected by carbon price in the industry sector than in other sectors

  11. Modelling control of epidemics spreading by long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2009-10-06

    We have studied the spread of epidemics characterized by a mixture of local and non-local interactions. The infection spreads on a two-dimensional lattice with the fixed nearest neighbour connections. In addition, long-range dynamical links are formed by moving agents (vectors). Vectors perform random walks, with step length distributed according to a thick-tail distribution. Two distributions are considered in this paper, an alpha-stable distribution describing self-similar vector movement, yet characterized by an infinite variance and an exponential power characterized by a large but finite variance. Such long-range interactions are hard to track and make control of epidemics very difficult. We also allowed for cryptic infection, whereby an infected individual on the lattice can be infectious prior to showing any symptoms of infection or disease. To account for such cryptic spread, we considered a control strategy in which not only detected, i.e. symptomatic, individuals but also all individuals within a certain control neighbourhood are treated upon the detection of disease. We show that it is possible to eradicate the disease by using such purely local control measures, even in the presence of long-range jumps. In particular, we show that the success of local control and the choice of the optimal strategy depend in a non-trivial way on the dispersal patterns of the vectors. By characterizing these patterns using the stability index of the alpha-stable distribution to change the power-law behaviour or the exponent characterizing the decay of an exponential power distribution, we show that infection can be successfully contained using relatively small control neighbourhoods for two limiting cases for long-distance dispersal and for vectors that are much more limited in their dispersal range.

  12. INEL D&D long-range plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  13. DIII-D tokamak long range plan. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The DIII-D Tokamak Long Range Plan for controlled thermonuclear magnetic fusion research will be carried out with broad national and international participation. The plan covers: (1) operation of the DIII-D tokamak to conduct research experiments to address needs of the US Magnetic Fusion Program; (2) facility modifications to allow these new experiments to be conducted; and (3) collaborations with other laboratories to integrate DIII-D research into the national and international fusion programs. The period covered by this plan is 1 November 19983 through 31 October 1998

  14. Photonic bandgap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm......-size thickness variations result in the pronounced band gap effect, and obtain very good agreement between measured and simulated (transmission and reflection) spectra. This effect is exploited to realize a compact wavelength add-drop filter with the bandwidth of -20 nm centered at 1550 nm. The possibilities...

  15. Long-range interaction between dust grains in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Yu. Mishagli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of long-range interactions between dust grains in plasma is discussed. The dust grain interaction potential within a cell model of dusty plasma is introduced. The attractive part of inter-grain potential is described by multipole interaction between two electro-neutral cells. This allowed us to draw an analogy with molecular liquids where attraction between molecules is determined by dispersion forces. Also main ideas of the fluctuation theory for electrostatic field in cell model are formulated, and the dominating contribution to attractive part of inter-grain potential is obtained.

  16. INEL D ampersand D Long-Range Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D ampersand D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D ampersand D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D ampersand D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility

  17. INEL D ampersand D long-range plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D ampersand D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D ampersand D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D ampersand D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D ampersand D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D ampersand D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process

  18. Political Mechanisms for Long-Range Survival and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W.

    As the first species aware of extinction and capable of proactively ensuring our long-term survival and development, it is striking that we do not do so with the rigor, formality, and foresight it requires. Only from a reactive posture have we responded to the challenges of global warfare, human rights, environmental concerns, and sustainable development. Despite our awareness of the possibility for extinction and apocalyptic set-backs to our evolution, and despite the existence of long-range studies-which must still be dramatically increased-proactive global policy implementation regarding our long-term survival and development is arguably non-existent. This lack of long-term policy making can be attributed in part to the lack of formal political mechanisms to facilitate longer-range policy making that extends 30 years or more into the future. Political mechanisms for infusing long-range thinking, research, and strategic planning into the policy-making process can help correct this shortcoming and provide the motivation needed to adequately address long-term challenges with the political rigor required to effectively establish and implement long-term policies. There are some efforts that attempt to address longer-range issues, but those efforts often do not connect to the political process, do not extend 30 or more years into the future, are not well-funded, and are not sufficiently systemic. Political mechanisms for long-range survival and prosperity could correct these inadequacies by raising awareness, providing funding, and most importantly, leveraging political rigor to establish and enforce long-range strategic planning and policies. The feasibility of such mechanisms should first be rigorously studied and assessed in a feasibility study, which could then inform implementation. This paper will present the case for such a study and suggest some possible political mechanisms that should be investigated further in the proposed study. This work is being further

  19. Cross-correlation of long-range correlated series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna

    2009-01-01

    A method for estimating the cross-correlation C xy (τ) of long-range correlated series x(t) and y(t), at varying lags τ and scales n, is proposed. For fractional Brownian motions with Hurst exponents H 1 and H 2 , the asymptotic expression for C xy (τ) depends only on the lag τ (wide-sense stationarity) and scales as a power of n with exponent H 1 +H 2 for τ→0. The method is illustrated on: (i) financial series, to show the leverage effect; (ii) genomic sequences, to estimate the correlations between structural parameters along the chromosomes

  20. Finite temperature CPN-1 model and long range Neel order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Ikuo; Yamamoto, Hisashi.

    1989-09-01

    We study in d space-dimensions the finite temperature behavior of long range Neel order (LRNO) in CP N-1 model as a low energy effective field theory of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. For d≤1, or d≤2 at any nonzero temperature, LRNO disappears, in agreement with Mermin-Wagner-Coleman's theorem. For d=3 in the weak coupling region, LRNO exists below the critical temperature T N (Neel temperature). T N decreases as the interlayer coupling becomes relatively weak compared with that within Cu-O layers. (author)

  1. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded......), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-mm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0...

  2. Report on long range alpha detector (LRAD) performance tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hirohide; Unno, Motoyoshi; Ishikawa, Hisashi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi

    2002-10-01

    At present, alpha contamination measurement on objects is conducted with ZnS scintillation survey meter (direct method) and smear test (indirect method). But it is difficult to measure large and complicated objects by direct method. Long Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) was produced as a solution for this problem. We carried out performance tests of this LRAD. As a result of the performance tests, we confirmed the linear relation between the measurement values of LRAD and alpha-radioactivity on the surface of objects. (author)

  3. Long-range dependence and sea level forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Ercan, Ali; Abbasov, Rovshan K

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that the Caspian Sea level time series possess long range dependence even after removing linear trends, based on analyses of the Hurst statistic, the sample autocorrelation functions, and the periodogram of the series. Forecasting performance of ARMA, ARIMA, ARFIMA and Trend Line-ARFIMA (TL-ARFIMA) combination models are investigated. The forecast confidence bands and the forecast updating methodology, provided for ARIMA models in the literature, are modified for the ARFIMA models. Sample autocorrelation functions are utilized to estimate the differencing lengths of the ARFIMA

  4. Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 2: Numerical addendum to emissions, dispersion and trends of acidifying and eutrophying agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Erik [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report was prepared for the twenty first session of the Steering Body of EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe). It presents the numerical fields and budgets of the acidifying and eutrophying air pollution in the form of three appendices: annual average air concentrations of acidifying and eutrophying species, 1996; country-to-country deposition budgets for acidifying/eutrophying air pollutants, 1985-95; and grid square deposition of acidifying/eutrophying components allocated to emitting countries, mean 1985-95. 19 figs.

  5. Fluctuation-induced long-range interactions in polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A N; Obukhov, S P

    2005-01-01

    We discover a new universal long-range interaction between solid objects in polymer media. This polymer-induced interaction is directly opposite to the van der Waals attraction. The predicted effect is deeply related to the classical Casimir interactions, providing a unique example of universal fluctuation-induced repulsion rather than normal attraction. This universal repulsion comes from the subtracted soft fluctuation modes in the ideal counterpart of the real polymer system. The effect can also be interpreted in terms of subtracted (ghost) large-scale polymer loops. We establish the general expressions for the energy of polymer-induced interactions for arbitrary solid particles in a concentrated polymer system. We find that the correlation function of the polymer density in a concentrated solution of very long chains follows a scaling law rather than an exponential decay at large distances. These novel universal long-range interactions can be of importance in various polymer systems. We discuss the ways to observe/simulate these fluctuation-induced effects

  6. The Use of Principal Components in Long-Range Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jonq-Gong

    Large-scale modes of the global sea surface temperatures and the Northern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation are described by principal component analysis. The first and the second SST components well describe the El Nino episodes, and the El Nino index (ENI), suggested in this study, is consistent with the winter Southern Oscillation index (SOI), where this ENI is a composite component of the weighted first and second SST components. The large-scale interactive modes of the coupling ocean-atmosphere system are identified by cross-correlation analysis The result shows that the first SST component is strongly correlated with the first component of geopotential height in lead time of 6 months. In the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution, the El Nino mode strongly influences the winter tropospheric circulation in the mid -latitudes for up to three leading seasons. The regional long-range variation of climate is investigated with these major components of the SST and the tropospheric circulation. In the mid-latitude, the climate of the central United States shows a weak linkage with these large-scale circulations, and the climate of the western United States appears to be consistently associated with the ENSO modes. These El Nino modes also show a dominant influence on Eastern Asia as evidenced in Taiwan Mei-Yu patterns. Possible regional long-range forecasting schemes, utilizing the complementary characteristics of the winter El Nino mode and SST anomalies, are examined with the Taiwan Mei-Yu.

  7. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Ilídio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Panci, Paolo [CP3-Origins and DIAS, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense (Denmark); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@tecnico.ulisboa.pt, E-mail: panci@iap.fr, E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-11-10

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from helioseismology. Thanks to the explicit dependence on the exchanged momenta in the differential cross section (Rutherford-like scattering), we find that DM particles with a mass of ∼10 GeV, kinetic mixing parameter of the order of 10{sup –9}, and a mediator with a mass smaller than a few MeV improve the agreement between the best solar model and the helioseismic data without being excluded by direct detection experiments. In particular, the LUX detector will soon be able to either constrain or confirm our best-fit solar model in the presence of a dark sector with long-range interactions that reconcile helioseismology with thermal neutrino results.

  8. One-dimensional long-range percolation: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, G.; Michelangeli, M.; Defenu, N.; Trombettoni, A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study bond percolation on a one-dimensional chain with power-law bond probability C /rd +σ , where r is the distance length between distinct sites and d =1 . We introduce and test an order-N Monte Carlo algorithm and we determine as a function of σ the critical value Cc at which percolation occurs. The critical exponents in the range 0 values for Cc are compared with a known exact bound, while the critical exponent ν is compared with results from mean-field theory, from an expansion around the point σ =1 and from the ɛ -expansion used with the introduction of a suitably defined effective dimension deff relating the long-range model with a short-range one in dimension deff. We finally present a formulation of our algorithm for bond percolation on general graphs, with order N efficiency on a large class of graphs including short-range percolation and translationally invariant long-range models in any spatial dimension d with σ >0 .

  9. The Frontiers of Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    In a letter dated July 17, 2006, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science for Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate charged the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) to “conduct a study of the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research and recommend a long range plan that will provide a framework for coordinated advancement of the nation’s nuclear science research programs over the next decade.” This request set in motion a bottom-up review and forward look by the nuclear science community. With input from this community-wide process, a 59 member working group, which included the present NSAC members, gathered at the beginning of May, 2007, to develop guidance on how to optimize the future research directions for the field based on the projected resources outlined in the charge letter from DOE and NSF. A new long range plan—The Frontiers of Nuclear Science—grew out of this meeting. For the last decade, the top priority for nuclear science has been to utilize the flagship facilities that were built with investments by the nation in the 1980s and 1990s. Research with these facilities has led to many significant new discoveries that have changed our understanding of the world in which we live. But new discoveries demand new facilities, and the successes cannot continue indefinitely without new investment.

  10. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aksoyoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %, the English Channel and the North Sea (30–35 %, while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %, where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3 due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to

  11. Urban air quality in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Mar (ed.) [Spanish Research Council - CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. for Environmental Assessment and Water Research

    2013-07-01

    This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

  12. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Dobó, J. [Research Institute for Plastics, Budapest (Hungary)

    1968-10-15

    The preparation of wood-plastic combinations can be regarded as a special field of graft-copolymerization. It is therefore quite understandable why this idea was first introduced by graft-copolymerization specialists. On the basis of the theory and technique of radiation-induced graft- copolymerization, which has been greatly developed since 1950, wood-plastic combinations appeared simultaneously in the United States of America and in Europe. As is known, intensive American research on wood-plastic combinations is based on four patents by Kenaga from 1958, which were published in 1963. The worldwide interest in the matter was initiated, however, by Karpov's paper of 1960 based on Soviet patents from 1958 and 1960.

  13. Long-range alpha detector for contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 6 figs

  14. Position-insensitive long range inductive power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Christopher H; Lawson, James; Yates, David C; Mitcheson, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of an improved inductive wireless power transfer system for reliable long range powering of sensors with milliwatt-level consumption. An ultra-low power flyback impedance emulator operating in open loop is used to present the optimal load to the receiver's resonant tank. Transmitter power modulation is implemented in order to maintain constant receiver power and to prevent damage to the receiver electronics caused by excessive received voltage. Received power is steady up to 3 m at around 30 mW. The receiver electronics and feedback system consumes 3.1 mW and so with a transmitter input power of 163.3 W the receiver becomes power neutral at 4.75 m. Such an IPT system can provide a reliable alternative to energy harvesters for supplying power concurrently to multiple remote sensors

  15. Long-Range Big Quantum-Data Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerger, M.; Pirker, A.; Dunjko, V.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an alternative type of quantum repeater for long-range quantum communication with improved scaling with the distance. We show that by employing hashing, a deterministic entanglement distillation protocol with one-way communication, one obtains a scalable scheme that allows one to reach arbitrary distances, with constant overhead in resources per repeater station, and ultrahigh rates. In practical terms, we show that, also with moderate resources of a few hundred qubits at each repeater station, one can reach intercontinental distances. At the same time, a measurement-based implementation allows one to tolerate high loss but also operational and memory errors of the order of several percent per qubit. This opens the way for long-distance communication of big quantum data.

  16. Pad A treatability study long-range project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.D.

    1991-06-01

    This plan addresses the work to be accomplished by the Pad A Treatability Study Project. The purpose of this project is to investigate potential treatment and separation technologies, identify the best technologies, and to demonstrate by both lab- and pilot-scale demonstration, the most applicable remedial technologies for treating plutonium-contaminated salts at the Pad A site located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) a the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The conduct of this project will be supported by other DOE laboratories, universities, and private industries, who will provide support for near-term demonstrations of treatment and separation technologies. The purpose of this long-range planning document is to present the detailed plan for the implementation of the Pad A Treatability Study Project

  17. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  18. Long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    An interim report on the long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies in Japan as prepared by an ad hoc committee, Advisory Committee for Energy was given for the period up to the year 2000. As the energy demands in terms of crude oil, the following figures are set: 460 million kl for 1990, 530 million kl for 1995, and 600 million kl for 2000. In Japan, without domestic energy resources, over 80% of the primary energy has been imported; the reliance on Middle East where political situation is unstable, for petroleum is very large. The following things are described. Background and policy; energy demands in industries, transports, and people's livelihood; energy supplies by coal, nuclear energy, petroleum, etc.; energy demand/supply outlook for 2000. (Mori, K.)

  19. Short, intermediate and long range order in amorphous ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovanbattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    Water exhibits polyamorphism, i.e., it exists in more than one amorphous state. The most common forms of glassy water are the low-density amorphous (LDA) and the high-density amorphous (HDA) ices. LDA, the most abundant form of ice in the Universe, transforms into HDA upon isothermal compression. We model the transformation of LDA into HDA under isothermal compression with classical molecular dynamics simulations. We analyze the molecular structures with a recently introduced scalar order metric to measure short and intermediate range order. In addition, we rank the structures by their degree of hyperuniformity, i.e.,the extent to which long range density fluctuations are suppressed. F.M. and R.C. acknowledge support from the Department of Energy (DOE) under Grant No. DE-SC0008626.

  20. Sensor Control And Film Annotation For Long Range, Standoff Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas G.; Peters, Owen L.; Post, Lawrence H.

    1984-12-01

    This paper describes a Reconnaissance Data Annotation System that incorporates off-the-shelf technology and system designs providing a high degree of adaptability and interoperability to satisfy future reconnaissance data requirements. The history of data annotation for reconnaissance is reviewed in order to provide the base from which future developments can be assessed and technical risks minimized. The system described will accommodate new developments in recording head assemblies and the incorporation of advanced cameras of both the film and electro-optical type. Use of microprocessor control and digital bus inter-face form the central design philosophy. For long range, high altitude, standoff missions, the Data Annotation System computes the projected latitude and longitude of central target position from aircraft position and attitude. This complements the use of longer ranges and high altitudes for reconnaissance missions.

  1. Long-range interactions in antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, B.; Cabra, D. C.; Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Rossini, G. L.

    2017-08-01

    We study the role of long-range dipolar interactions on antiferromagnetic spin chains, from the classical S →∞ limit to the deep quantum case S =1 /2 , including a transverse magnetic field. To this end, we combine different techniques such as classical energy minima, classical Monte Carlo, linear spin waves, bosonization, and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). We find a phase transition from the already reported dipolar ferromagnetic region to an antiferromagnetic region for high enough antiferromagnetic exchange. Thermal and quantum fluctuations destabilize the classical order before reaching magnetic saturation in both phases, and also close to zero field in the antiferromagnetic phase. In the extreme quantum limit S =1 /2 , extensive DMRG computations show that the main phases remain present with transition lines to saturation significatively shifted to lower fields, in agreement with the bosonization analysis. The overall picture maintains a close analogy with the phase diagram of the anisotropic XXZ spin chain in a transverse field.

  2. Radiation protection criteria in the long-range view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Bergman, C.

    1989-01-01

    The report presents by way of introduction radiation protection criteria applied to radiological activities and to disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. In these cases it is primarily short-range views that are relevant, up to a few thousand years as a maximum. In the case of high-level wastes where the views may extend to more than hundreds of thousands years, there are not for the present any equally well stablished criteria. Based upon preliminary results from a Nordic team for criteria for high-level radioactive wastes, dose estimates in the long-range view and alternative assessment criteria are discussed. Proposals are also presented for 12 criteria that may be applicable. As the work is not yet finshed, the criteria are however merely preliminary

  3. On the origin of long-range correlations in texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Esposti, Mirko Degli

    2012-07-17

    The complexity of human interactions with social and natural phenomena is mirrored in the way we describe our experiences through natural language. In order to retain and convey such a high dimensional information, the statistical properties of our linguistic output has to be highly correlated in time. An example are the robust observations, still largely not understood, of correlations on arbitrary long scales in literary texts. In this paper we explain how long-range correlations flow from highly structured linguistic levels down to the building blocks of a text (words, letters, etc..). By combining calculations and data analysis we show that correlations take form of a bursty sequence of events once we approach the semantically relevant topics of the text. The mechanisms we identify are fairly general and can be equally applied to other hierarchical settings.

  4. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oikonomakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of the ozone–temperature correlation for the summer of 2010 and to analyze its sensitivity to precursor emissions and meteorology by using the regional air quality model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx. The results show that the model significantly underestimates the observed high afternoon surface ozone mixing ratios (≥  60 ppb by 10–20 ppb and overestimates the lower ones (<  40 ppb by 5–15 ppb, resulting in a misleading good agreement with the observations for average ozone. The model also underestimates the ozone–temperature regression slope by about a factor of 2 for most of the measurement stations. To investigate the impact of emissions, four scenarios were tested: (i increased volatile organic compound (VOC emissions by a factor of 1.5 and 2 for the anthropogenic and biogenic VOC emissions, respectively, (ii increased nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions by a factor of 2, (iii a combination of the first two scenarios and (iv increased traffic-only NOx emissions by a factor of 4. For southern, eastern, and central (except the Benelux area Europe, doubling NOx emissions seems to be the most efficient scenario to reduce the underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios without significant degradation of the model performance for the lower ozone mixing ratios. The model performance for ozone–temperature correlation is also better when NOx emissions are doubled. In the Benelux area, however, the third scenario

  5. The European tracer experiment ETEX: a real-time long range atmospheric dispersion model exercise in different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; )

    1998-01-01

    Two long-range tracer experiments were conducted. An inert, non-depositing tracer was being released at Rennes in France for 12 hours. The 168 sampling ground stations were run by the National Meteorological Services. Twenty-four institutions took part in the real-time forecasting of the cloud evolution using 28 long-range dispersion models. The horizontal projection of the cloud evolution over Europe was combined with real-time aerial chemical analysis. The results of the comparison indicate that a limited group of models (7-8) were capable of obtaining a good reproduction of the cloud movement throughout Europe for the first release. Large differences were, however, found in the predicted tracer concentration at a particular location. For the second release, there were large differences between the measured and calculated cloud, particularly after a front passage, which indicates that some efforts have still to be spent before consensus on the model reliability is achieved. (P.A.)

  6. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions in Europe: a retrospective trend analysis for the period 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgan, A.; Gugele, B.; Haider, S. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    This report presents a retrospective overview of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in Europe from 1990 to 2008, with a particular focus on the underpinning drivers and the influence of EU policies. The analysis is based on the combination of decomposition analyses to identify the respective influence of each identified driver and an overview of the main EU policies and their likely effects on these drivers. The period covered by the analysis stops in 2008. As a result, the analysis avoids the effects of the recent economic crisis on GHG emissions. This reinforces the conclusion on long-term emission drivers. The report covers the EU-27 and presents results for the other EEA member countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and Croatia (EU candidate country together with Turkey) as far as data is available. The results can be summarized as: 1) Overall GHG emission trends. EU GHG emissions were reduced between 1990 and 2008. Most of the reductions took place in the 1990s, but emissions have also been decreasing every year from 2003 until the last year considered in this report, 2008. 2) Predominant drivers. For the most part, the GHG emission trends observed in the EU between 1990 and 2008 resulted from economic factors. However, EU policies, some of which were not directly targeting GHG emissions, as well as national policies by some front runner countries, also played a role in these trends. 3) Impacts of EU policies. Between 2000 and 2008, emission trends were more directly targeted by a range of energy and climate policies, e.g. the implementation of the European Climate Change programme. However, the steady increase in energy demand during this period - particularly electricity - outweighed the considerable EU-wide savings generated by energy efficiency improvements and the development of renewable energy. 4) Co-benefits. Taking example from the positive benefits on GHG emissions that resulted from the implementation of non

  8. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Effective quantum theories with short- and long-range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    At low energies, nonrelativistic quantum systems are essentially governed by their wave functions at large distances. For this reason, it is possible to describe a wide range of phenomena with short- or even finite-range interactions. In this thesis, we discuss several topics in connection with such an effective description and consider, in particular, modifications introduced by the presence of additional long-range potentials. In the first part we derive general results for the mass (binding energy) shift of bound states with angular momentum L ≥ 1 in a periodic cubic box in two and three spatial dimensions. Our results have applications to lattice simulations of hadronic molecules, halo nuclei, and Feshbach molecules. The sign of the mass shift can be related to the symmetry properties of the state under consideration. We verify our analytical results with explicit numerical calculations. Moreover, we discuss the case of twisted boundary conditions that arise when one considers moving bound states in finite boxes. The corresponding finite-volume shifts in the binding energies play an important role in the study of composite-particle scattering on the lattice, where they give rise to topological correction factors. While the above results are derived under the assumption of a pure finite-range interaction - and are still true up to exponentially small correction in the short-range case - in the second part we consider primarily systems of charged particles, where the Coulomb force determines the long-range part of the potential. In quantum systems with short-range interactions, causality imposes nontrivial constraints on low-energy scattering parameters. We investigate these causality constraints for systems where a long-range Coulomb potential is present in addition to a short-range interaction. The main result is an upper bound for the Coulomb-modified effective range parameter. We discuss the implications of this bound to the effective feld theory (EFT) for

  10. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Catlett, M.M.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique depends on the detection of ion pairs generated by alpha particles losing energy in air rather than on detection of the alpha particles themselves. Typical alpha particles generated by uranium will travel less than 3 cm in air. In contrast, the ions have been successfully detected many inches or feet away from the contamination. Since LRAD detection systems are sensitive to all ions simultaneously, large LRAD soil surface monitors (SSMS) can be used to collect all of the ions from a large sample. The LRAD SSMs are designed around the fan-less LRAD detector. In this case a five-sided box with an open bottom is placed on the soil surface. Ions generated by alpha decays on the soil surface are collected on a charged copper plate within the box. These ions create a small current from the plate to ground which is monitored with a sensitive electrometer. The current measured is proportional to the number of ions in the box, which is, in turn, proportional to the amount of alpha contamination on the surface of the soil. This report includes the design and construction of a 1-m by 1-m SSM as well as the results of a study at Fernald, OH, as part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

  11. Functional Sites Induce Long-Range Evolutionary Constraints in Enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Jack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional residues in proteins tend to be highly conserved over evolutionary time. However, to what extent functional sites impose evolutionary constraints on nearby or even more distant residues is not known. Here, we report pervasive conservation gradients toward catalytic residues in a dataset of 524 distinct enzymes: evolutionary conservation decreases approximately linearly with increasing distance to the nearest catalytic residue in the protein structure. This trend encompasses, on average, 80% of the residues in any enzyme, and it is independent of known structural constraints on protein evolution such as residue packing or solvent accessibility. Further, the trend exists in both monomeric and multimeric enzymes and irrespective of enzyme size and/or location of the active site in the enzyme structure. By contrast, sites in protein-protein interfaces, unlike catalytic residues, are only weakly conserved and induce only minor rate gradients. In aggregate, these observations show that functional sites, and in particular catalytic residues, induce long-range evolutionary constraints in enzymes.

  12. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs

  13. Measured long-range repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies1–3. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces4. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz5–7, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long-range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies8–11. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction12, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction13–15. PMID:19129843

  14. Measured long-range repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J N; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2009-01-08

    Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long-range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction.

  15. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.

  16. Long-range goal setting in the nuclear utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's (INPO's) programs support the industry's efforts to improve performance in nuclear plant safety and reliability. The success of these programs can best be measured by the progress of the industry. As utilities focused their attention on nuclear plant performance, the Institute's goal was to make sure its programs and activities provided the best possible support for these efforts. INPO continues to coordinate an industry-wide plant performance indicator program to assist member utilities in assessing station performance. Closely related to this effort is the nuclear industry's establishment of long-range plant performance goals. The US nuclear utility industry currently sends INPO quarterly data on 28 key performance indicators. INPO analyzes these data and provides periodic reports to its members and participants. Selected highlights of INPO's Performance Indicators for the US Nuclear Utility, dated June 1986, are discussed. Throughout 1985, INPO interacted with members, participants, and three external ad hoc review groups to refine the overall performance indicators and to develop background for each unit. By April 1986, each utility had developed long-term goals for each unit. By April 1986, each utility had developed long-term goals for most of the overall indicators. These goals represent a commitment to achievement of excellence when applied to the day-to-day conduct of plant operations, and provide a framework for action

  17. Examples and applications in long-range ocean acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, M D

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic energy propagates effectively to long ranges in the ocean interior because of the physical properties of the marine environment. Sound propagation in the ocean is relevant to a variety of studies in communication, climatology and marine biology. Examples drawn from ocean acoustics, therefore, are compelling to students with a variety of interests. The dependence of sound speed on depth results in a waveguide that permits the detection of acoustic energy at ranges, in some experiments, of thousands of kilometres. This effect serves as an illustration of Snell's law with a continuously variable index of refraction. Acoustic tomography also offers a means for imaging the ocean's thermal structure, because of the dependence of sound speed on temperature. The ability to perform acoustic thermometry for large transects of the ocean provides an effective means of studying climate change. This application in an area of substantial popular attention allows for an effective introduction to concepts in ray propagation. Aspects of computational ocean acoustics can be productive classroom examples in courses ranging from introductory physics to upper-division mathematical methods courses

  18. Individual differences in long-range time representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Camila S; Caetano, Marcelo S; Balci, Fuat; Claessens, Peter M E; Zana, Yossi

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of experimental data, long-range time representation has been proposed to follow a highly compressed power function, which has been hypothesized to explain the time inconsistency found in financial discount rate preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well linear and power function models explain empirical data from individual participants tested in different procedural settings. The line paradigm was used in five different procedural variations with 35 adult participants. Data aggregated over the participants showed that fitted linear functions explained more than 98% of the variance in all procedures. A linear regression fit also outperformed a power model fit for the aggregated data. An individual-participant-based analysis showed better fits of a linear model to the data of 14 participants; better fits of a power function with an exponent β > 1 to the data of 12 participants; and better fits of a power function with β discount rates in intertemporal choice to the compressed nature of subjective time must entail the characterization of subjective time on an individual-participant basis.

  19. Research on long-range grating interferometry with nanometer resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Xingchun; Zhao, Shanghong; Lü, Haibao

    2008-01-01

    Grating interferometry that features long range and nanometer resolution is presented. The optical system was established based on a single long metrology grating. The large fringe multiplication was achieved by properly selecting two high-order diffraction beams to form a fringe pattern. The fringe pattern collected by a linear array was first tailored to a few multiples of fringes in order to suppress the effect of the energy leakage on phase-extracting precision when the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm was used to calculate its phase. Thus, the phase-extracting precision of a tailored fringe pattern by FFT was greatly improved. Based on this, a novel subdividing method, which exploited the time-shift property of FFT, was developed to subdivide the fringe with large multiple and high accuracy. Numerical results show that the system resolution reaches 1 nm. The experimental results obtained against a capacitive sensor in the sub-mm range show that the measurement precision of the system is less than 10 nm. (technical design note)

  20. Long-range position and orientation tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The long-range position and orientation tracking system will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the manways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the content mobilization system (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation

  1. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of systems with long-range interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Yan, E-mail: levin@if.ufrgs.br; Pakter, Renato, E-mail: pakter@if.ufrgs.br; Rizzato, Felipe B., E-mail: rizzato@if.ufrgs.br; Teles, Tarcísio N., E-mail: tarcisio.teles@fi.infn.it; Benetti, Fernanda P.C., E-mail: fbenetti@if.ufrgs.br

    2014-02-01

    Systems with long-range (LR) forces, for which the interaction potential decays with the interparticle distance with an exponent smaller than the dimensionality of the embedding space, remain an outstanding challenge to statistical physics. The internal energy of such systems lacks extensivity and additivity. Although the extensivity can be restored by scaling the interaction potential with the number of particles, the non-additivity still remains. Lack of additivity leads to inequivalence of statistical ensembles. Before relaxing to thermodynamic equilibrium, isolated systems with LR forces become trapped in out-of-equilibrium quasi-stationary states (qSSs), the lifetime of which diverges with the number of particles. Therefore, in the thermodynamic limit LR systems will not relax to equilibrium. The qSSs are attained through the process of collisionless relaxation. Density oscillations lead to particle–wave interactions and excitation of parametric resonances. The resonant particles escape from the main cluster to form a tenuous halo. Simultaneously, this cools down the core of the distribution and dampens out the oscillations. When all the oscillations die out the ergodicity is broken and a qSS is born. In this report, we will review a theory which allows us to quantitatively predict the particle distribution in the qSS. The theory is applied to various LR interacting systems, ranging from plasmas to self-gravitating clusters and kinetic spin models.

  2. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory long-range alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesJardin, R.; Machanik, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Long-Range Alarm System is described. The last few years have brought significant changes in the Department of Energy regulations for protection of classified documents and special nuclear material. These changes in regulations have forced a complete redesign of the LASL security alarm system. LASL covers many square miles of varying terrain and consists of separate technical areas connected by public roads and communications. A design study over a period of 2 years produced functional specifications for a distributed intelligence, expandable alarm system that will handle 30,000 alarm points from hundreds of data concentrators spread over a 250-km 2 area. Emphasis in the design was on nonstop operation, data security, data communication, and upward expandability to incorporate fire alarms and the computer-aided dispatching of security and fire vehicles. All aspects of the alarm system were to be fault tolerant from the central computer system down to but not including the individual data concentrators. Redundant communications lines travel over public domain from the alarmed area to the central alarm station

  3. Long-range epidemic spreading in a random environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Róbert; Kovács, István A; Iglói, Ferenc

    2015-03-01

    Modeling long-range epidemic spreading in a random environment, we consider a quenched, disordered, d-dimensional contact process with infection rates decaying with distance as 1/rd+σ. We study the dynamical behavior of the model at and below the epidemic threshold by a variant of the strong-disorder renormalization-group method and by Monte Carlo simulations in one and two spatial dimensions. Starting from a single infected site, the average survival probability is found to decay as P(t)∼t-d/z up to multiplicative logarithmic corrections. Below the epidemic threshold, a Griffiths phase emerges, where the dynamical exponent z varies continuously with the control parameter and tends to zc=d+σ as the threshold is approached. At the threshold, the spatial extension of the infected cluster (in surviving trials) is found to grow as R(t)∼t1/zc with a multiplicative logarithmic correction and the average number of infected sites in surviving trials is found to increase as Ns(t)∼(lnt)χ with χ=2 in one dimension.

  4. Two general models that generate long range correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaocong; Han, Zhangang

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we study two models that generate sequences with LRC (long range correlation). For the IFT (inverse Fourier transform) model, our conclusion is the low frequency part leads to LRC, while the high frequency part tends to eliminate it. Therefore, a typical method to generate a sequence with LRC is multiplying the spectrum of a white noise sequence by a decaying function. A special case is analyzed: the linear combination of a smooth curve and a white noise sequence, in which the DFA plot consists of two line segments. For the patch model, our conclusion is long subsequences leads to LRC, while short subsequences tend to eliminate it. Therefore, we can generate a sequence with LRC by using a fat-tailed PDF (probability distribution function) of the length of the subsequences. A special case is also analyzed: if a patch model with long subsequences is mixed with a white noise sequence, the DFA plot will consist of two line segments. We have checked known models and actual data, and found they are all consistent with this study.

  5. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Impacts of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This eighth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the ninth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 18 to 22 November 1991. Part one is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. Part two describes the critical load concept and the role of the best available technology and other approaches in air pollution abatement strategies. The report analyses the aim, elements and examples of the use of the receptor-oriented or effect-based critical load approach. It also evaluates the role of the source-oriented or technology-based approach as a supplement, rather than an alternative, to the critical load approach. The report contains a table with examples of national target loads for acidity or sulphur as well as preliminary European maps of critical loads of actual acidity, sulphur, present load computation of sulphur and the exceedance of the critical load of sulphur. Part three is an executive summary of the 1990 Forest Damage Survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. Part four is an executive summary of the interim report on cause/effect relationships in forest decline. Part five reviews recent research results on effects of acid deposition on atmospheric corrosion of materials

  7. Future emissions and atmospheric fate of HFC-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Stephan; Shallcross, Dudley E; Reimann, Stefan; Xiao, Ping; Brunner, Dominik; O'Doherty, Simon; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2012-02-07

    HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) is under discussion for replacing HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) as a cooling agent in mobile air conditioners (MACs) in the European vehicle fleet. Some HFC-1234yf will be released into the atmosphere, where it is almost completely transformed to the persistent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Future emissions of HFC-1234yf after a complete conversion of the European vehicle fleet were assessed. Taking current day leakage rates and predicted vehicle numbers for the year 2020 into account, European total HFC-1234yf emissions from MACs were predicted to range between 11.0 and 19.2 Gg yr(-1). Resulting TFA deposition rates and rainwater concentrations over Europe were assessed with two Lagrangian chemistry transport models. Mean European summer-time TFA mixing ratios of about 0.15 ppt (high emission scenario) will surpass previously measured levels in background air in Germany and Switzerland by more than a factor of 10. Mean deposition rates (wet + dry) of TFA were estimated to be 0.65-0.76 kg km(-2) yr(-1), with a maxium of ∼2.0 kg km(-2) yr(-1) occurring in Northern Italy. About 30-40% of the European HFC-1234yf emissions were deposited as TFA within Europe, while the remaining fraction was exported toward the Atlantic Ocean, Central Asia, Northern, and Tropical Africa. Largest annual mean TFA concentrations in rainwater were simulated over the Mediterranean and Northern Africa, reaching up to 2500 ng L(-1), while maxima over the continent of about 2000 ng L(-1) occurred in the Czech Republic and Southern Germany. These highest annual mean concentrations are at least 60 times lower than previously determined to be a safe level for the most sensitive aquatic life-forms. Rainwater concentrations during individual rain events would still be 1 order of magnitude lower than the no effect level. To verify these results future occasional sampling of TFA in the atmospheric environment should be considered. If future HFC-1234yf

  8. Sensitivity of electrospray molecular dynamics simulations to long-range Coulomb interaction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil A; Levin, Deborah A

    2018-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) electrospray simulations of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIM-BF_{4}) ion liquid were performed with the goal of evaluating the influence of long-range Coulomb models on ion emission characteristics. The direct Coulomb (DC), shifted force Coulomb sum (SFCS), and particle-particle particle-mesh (PPPM) long-range Coulomb models were considered in this work. The DC method with a sufficiently large cutoff radius was found to be the most accurate approach for modeling electrosprays, but, it is computationally expensive. The Coulomb potential energy modeled by the DC method in combination with the radial electric fields were found to be necessary to generate the Taylor cone. The differences observed between the SFCS and the DC in terms of predicting the total ion emission suggest that the former should not be used in MD electrospray simulations. Furthermore, the common assumption of domain periodicity was observed to be detrimental to the accuracy of the capillary-based electrospray simulations.

  9. The feasibility of long range battery electric cars in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Mike; Andrews, Deborah; Anderson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand transport accounts for over 40% of the carbon emissions with private cars accounting for 25%. In the Ministry of Economic Development's recently released 'New Zealand Energy Strategy to 2050', it proposed the wide scale deployment of electric vehicles as a means of reducing carbon emissions from transport. However, New Zealand's lack of public transport infrastructure and its subsequent reliance on private car use for longer journeys could mean that many existing battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will not have the performance to replace conventionally fuelled cars. As such, this paper discusses the potential for BEVs in New Zealand, with particular reference to the development of the University of Waikato's long-range UltraCommuter BEV. It is shown that to achieve a long range at higher speeds, BEVs should be designed specifically rather than retrofitting existing vehicles to electric. Furthermore, the electrical energy supply for a mixed fleet of 2 million BEVs is discussed and conservatively calculated, along with the number of wind turbines to achieve this. The results show that approximately 1350 MW of wind turbines would be needed to supply the mixed fleet of 2 million BEVs, or 54% of the energy produced from NZ's planned and installed wind farms.

  10. The state of transboundary air pollution 1992 update. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This ninth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains documents reviewed and approved for publication at the tenth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 17 to 19 November 1992. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. It is compiled on the basis of national data and reports received up to 31 December 1992. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from 1980 to the year 2005 is presented. Part Two contains results of scenario analysis for sulphur abatement strategies. It is concluded, inter alia, that strategies can be found which, by differentiating emission reductions, provide greater environmental benefit than a uniform reduction at the same cost. It is also shown that a small number of high-emitting countries in Central Europe have significant impact on deposition of sulphur throughout Europe, and that emission reduction in these countries proves to be a cost-effective way of moving towards critical loads in Europe as a whole. Most of the scenarios analysed are based on reductions of current deposition in relation to critical loads, i.e., a decrease in the exceedances of critical loads. Part Three is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on Forest Condition in Europe, carried out under the International Cooperative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. The full report has been jointly published by ECE and the Commission of the European Communities. It summarizes the results of surveys carried out in 1991 in 28 European countries and in several additional regions, conducted in accordance with common guidelines. Of 214 million hectares of forest in Europe (including major parts of the forests in the western part of the

  11. Epidemic spreading in networks with nonrandom long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Kalala-Mutombo, Franck; Valverde-Colmeiro, Alba

    2011-09-01

    An “infection,” understood here in a very broad sense, can be propagated through the network of social contacts among individuals. These social contacts include both “close” contacts and “casual” encounters among individuals in transport, leisure, shopping, etc. Knowing the first through the study of the social networks is not a difficult task, but having a clear picture of the network of casual contacts is a very hard problem in a society of increasing mobility. Here we assume, on the basis of several pieces of empirical evidence, that the casual contacts between two individuals are a function of their social distance in the network of close contacts. Then, we assume that we know the network of close contacts and infer the casual encounters by means of nonrandom long-range (LR) interactions determined by the social proximity of the two individuals. This approach is then implemented in a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model accounting for the spread of infections in complex networks. A parameter called “conductance” controls the feasibility of those casual encounters. In a zero conductance network only contagion through close contacts is allowed. As the conductance increases the probability of having casual encounters also increases. We show here that as the conductance parameter increases, the rate of propagation increases dramatically and the infection is less likely to die out. This increment is particularly marked in networks with scale-free degree distributions, where infections easily become epidemics. Our model provides a general framework for studying epidemic spreading in networks with arbitrary topology with and without casual contacts accounted for by means of LR interactions.

  12. Epidemic spreading in networks with nonrandom long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Kalala-Mutombo, Franck; Valverde-Colmeiro, Alba

    2011-09-01

    An "infection," understood here in a very broad sense, can be propagated through the network of social contacts among individuals. These social contacts include both "close" contacts and "casual" encounters among individuals in transport, leisure, shopping, etc. Knowing the first through the study of the social networks is not a difficult task, but having a clear picture of the network of casual contacts is a very hard problem in a society of increasing mobility. Here we assume, on the basis of several pieces of empirical evidence, that the casual contacts between two individuals are a function of their social distance in the network of close contacts. Then, we assume that we know the network of close contacts and infer the casual encounters by means of nonrandom long-range (LR) interactions determined by the social proximity of the two individuals. This approach is then implemented in a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model accounting for the spread of infections in complex networks. A parameter called "conductance" controls the feasibility of those casual encounters. In a zero conductance network only contagion through close contacts is allowed. As the conductance increases the probability of having casual encounters also increases. We show here that as the conductance parameter increases, the rate of propagation increases dramatically and the infection is less likely to die out. This increment is particularly marked in networks with scale-free degree distributions, where infections easily become epidemics. Our model provides a general framework for studying epidemic spreading in networks with arbitrary topology with and without casual contacts accounted for by means of LR interactions.

  13. Autonomous long-range open area fire detection and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.; Reardon, Patrick J.; Blackwell, Lisa; Warden, Lance; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2005-03-01

    Approximately 5 billion dollars in US revenue was lost in 2003 due to open area fires. In addition many lives are lost annually. Early detection of open area fires is typically performed by manned observatories, random reporting and aerial surveillance. Optical IR flame detectors have been developed previously. They typically have experienced high false alarms and low flame detection sensitivity due to interference from solar and other causes. Recently a combination of IR detectors has been used in a two or three color mode to reduce false alarms from solar, or background sources. A combination of ultra-violet C (UVC) and near infra-red (NIR) detectors has also been developed recently for flame discrimination. Relatively solar-blind basic detectors are now available but typically detect at only a few tens of meters at ~ 1 square meter fuel flame. We quantify the range and solar issues for IR and visible detectors and qualitatively define UV sensor requirements in terms of the mode of operation, collection area issues and flame signal output by combustion photochemistry. We describe innovative flame signal collection optics for multiple wavelengths using UV and IR as low false alarm detection of open area fires at long range (8-10 km/m2) in daylight (or darkness). A circular array detector and UV-IR reflective and refractive devices including cylindrical or toroidal lens elements for the IR are described. The dispersion in a refractive cylindrical IR lens characterizes the fire and allows a stationary line or circle generator to locate the direction and different flame IR "colors" from a wide FOV. The line generator will produce spots along the line corresponding to the fire which can be discriminated with a linear detector. We demonstrate prototype autonomous sensors with RF digital reporting from various sites.

  14. Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwetter, Ph.; Stelmaszczyk, K.; Woeste, L.; Ackermann, R.; Mejean, G.; Salmon, E.; Kasparian, J.; Yu, J.; Wolf, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate laser induced ablation and plasma line emission from a metallic target at distances up to 180 m from the laser, using filaments (self-guided propagation structures ∼ 100 μm in diameter and ∼ 5 x 10 13 W/cm 2 in intensity) appearing as femtosecond and terawatt laser pulses propagating in air. The remarkable property of filaments to propagate over a long distance independently of the diffraction limit opens the frontier to long range operation of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We call this special configuration of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy 'remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy'. Our results show main features of filament-induced ablation on the surface of a metallic sample and associated plasma emission. Our experimental data allow us to estimate requirements for the detection system needed for kilometer-range remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

  15. Four decades of gasoline lead emissions and control policies in Europe. A retrospective assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Storch, Hans; Costa-Cabral, Mariza; Hagner, Charlotte; Feser, Frauke [Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Pacyna, Jozef; Pacyna, Elisabeth [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) (Norway); Kolb, Steffen [Institute for Journalism and Communication Research, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-07-20

    Over decades, large amounts of the neurotoxin lead were released into the European environment, mostly from gasoline lead additives. Emissions were growing unabatedly until the 1970s, when a series of regulations on the allowed gasoline lead content were adopted. As a result, in the 1990s most gasoline contained only small amounts of lead. We have examined this case of environmental pollution and regulation, and performed a retrospective assessment of the extent of regional-scale lead pollution and the effects of gasoline lead regulations in Europe. With the help of a regional climate model, NCEP re-analyses, spatially disaggregated lead emissions from road traffic and point sources, and various local data, the airborne pathways and depositions of gasoline lead in Europe since 1958 were reconstructed. It turns out that this approach is successful in describing the time-variable, spatially disaggregated deposition of gasoline lead. Additional data from analyses of concentrations in biota, including plant leaves, mussels and human blood, allows an assessment about the impact of the lead phase-out on the quality of the environment. Demonstrating the success of the lead policies, concentrations in leaves and human blood have steadily declined since the early 1980s. At the same time, the economic repercussions that had been feared did not emerge. Instead, the affected mineral oil and car manufacturing industries in Germany (our case-study) were able to deal with the effort without incurring significant extra costs. We suggest that our method of quantitatively reconstructing and anticipating fluxes and depositions of substances can be applied to other relevant substances as well, such as, for example, Persistent Organic Pollutants, radioactive substances or pollens.

  16. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakis, Emmanouil; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2018-02-01

    High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of the ozone-temperature correlation for the summer of 2010 and to analyze its sensitivity to precursor emissions and meteorology by using the regional air quality model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). The results show that the model significantly underestimates the observed high afternoon surface ozone mixing ratios (≥ 60 ppb) by 10-20 ppb and overestimates the lower ones (degradation of the model performance for the lower ozone mixing ratios. The model performance for ozone-temperature correlation is also better when NOx emissions are doubled. In the Benelux area, however, the third scenario (where both NOx and VOC emissions are increased) leads to a better model performance. Although increasing only the traffic NOx emissions by a factor of 4 gave very similar results to the doubling of all NOx emissions, the first scenario is more consistent with the uncertainties reported by other studies than the latter, suggesting that high uncertainties in NOx emissions might originate mainly from the road-transport sector rather than from other sectors. The impact of meteorology was examined with three sensitivity tests: (i) increased surface temperature by 4 °C, (ii) reduced wind speed by 50 % and (iii) doubled wind speed. The first two scenarios led to a consistent increase in all surface ozone mixing ratios, thus improving the model performance for the high ozone values but significantly degrading it for the low ozone values, while the third scenario had exactly the

  17. RETADDII: modeling long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    A versatile model is described which estimates atmospheric dispersion based on plume trajectories calculated for the mixed layer. This model allows the treatment of the dispersal from a source at an arbitrary height while taking account of plume depletion by dry and wet deposition together with the decay of material to successor species. The plume depletion, decay and growth equations are solved in an efficient manner which can accommodate up to eight pollutants (i.e. a parent and seven serial decay products). The code is particularly suitable for applications involving radioactive chain decay or for cases involving chemical species with successor decay products. Arbitrary emission rates can be specified for the members of the chain or, as is commonly the case, a sole emission rate can be specified for the first member. The code, in its current configuration, uses readily available upper-air wind data for the North American continent

  18. The importance of long range atmospheric transport in probabilistic accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ApSimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Wilson, J.J.N.

    1988-01-01

    The disaster at the Chernobyl-4 reactor has demonstrated that severe nuclear accidents can give rise to significant radiological consequences several thousand kilometres from the source. The subsequent dispersion of the release over much of Western Europe further demonstrated the importance of synoptic scale weather patterns in determining the magnitude of the consequences of such accidents. A version of the MESOS-II European scale trajectory model, which is able to simulate large scale variations in weather conditions through the use of spatially and temporally variable meteorological input data, has been used to simulate the pattern of dispersion from Chernobyl with some success. This paper presents the results of probabilistic consequence assessments for a number of West European sites, made using the MESOS-II model. The results illustrate the effects, on probabilistic assessments, of using a more realistic treatment of long range atmospheric transport than the Gaussian plume model and also the spatial variation in the distributions of consequences arising from the variation in synoptic scale weather conditions across Western Europe

  19. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-22

    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been

  20. Simulating the integrated summertime Δ14CO2 signature from anthropogenic emissions over Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bozhinova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dioxide (14CO2, reported in Δ14CO2 can be used to determine the fossil fuel CO2 addition to the atmosphere, since fossil fuel CO2 no longer contains any 14C. After the release of CO2 at the source, atmospheric transport causes dilution of strong local signals into the background and detectable gradients of Δ14CO2 only remain in areas with high fossil fuel emissions. This fossil fuel signal can moreover be partially masked by the enriching effect that anthropogenic emissions of 14CO2 from the nuclear industry have on the atmospheric Δ14CO2 signature. In this paper, we investigate the regional gradients in 14CO2 over the European continent and quantify the effect of the emissions from nuclear industry. We simulate the emissions and transport of fossil fuel CO2 and nuclear 14CO2 for Western Europe using the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF-Chem for a period covering 6 summer months in 2008. We evaluate the expected CO2 gradients and the resulting Δ14CO2 in simulated integrated air samples over this period, as well as in simulated plant samples. We find that the average gradients of fossil fuel CO2 in the lower 1200 m of the atmosphere are close to 15 ppm at a 12 km × 12 km horizontal resolution. The nuclear influence on Δ14CO2 signatures varies considerably over the domain and for large areas in France and the UK it can range from 20 to more than 500% of the influence of fossil fuel emissions. Our simulations suggest that the resulting gradients in Δ14CO2 are well captured in plant samples, but due to their time-varying uptake of CO2, their signature can be different with over 3‰ from the atmospheric samples in some regions. We conclude that the framework presented will be well-suited for the interpretation of actual air and plant 14CO2 samples.

  1. UN ECE-Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematic cost-benefit analysis of mitigation measures for agricultural ammonia emissions, supporting national costing analysis; UN ECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematische Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse von Minderungsmassnahmen fuer Ammoniakemissionen in der Landwirtschaft fuer nationale Kostenabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Roessler, Regina; Vandre, Robert; Wulf, Sebastian [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this project, the methods for the determination of the expenses for the reduction of agricultural ammonia emissions were updated, and the costs of selected, representative mitigation measures suitable for Germany's agriculture were newly calculated. The reduction costs are determined based on the ratio of the extra costs for the reduction measure and the emission reduction in comparison with a reference system. Protein-adapted feeding in pig fattening generally leads to lower expenses for feedstuff, which provides negative reduction costs (- Euro 3.5 to - Euro 13.5 per kg of NH{sub 3} depending on the reference system). Pig fattening in naturally ventilated housing causes reduction costs of Euro 9.2 per kg of NH{sub 3} as compared with forced-ventilated animal houses. However, this amount cannot always be exclusively attributed to ammonia emission reduction (allocation) because naturally ventilated houses are generally built for the improvement of animal welfare and animal health. Single and multiple-stage air purification techniques in forced-ventilated pig fattening houses are a technically efficient, though costintensive reduction measure (Euro 4,6 - Euro 8,6 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Solid covers for pig slurry stores (concrete ceiling, tent) are characterized by high investment expenses and a long service life causes moderate reduction costs (Euro 1.1 - Euro 2.5 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Floating covers (plastic sheet, granules) are almost cost-neutral given reduction costs of Euro 0.3 to Euro 0.9 per kg of NH{sub 3} (pig slurry) if the fertilizer value of the conserved nitrogen is included in the calculation. Cattle slurry requires significantly higher extra costs for the covering of slurry stores because the natural floating cover itself reduces emissions (Euro 1.3 to Euro 12 per kg of NH{sub 3}). If annual spreading performances are low (1,000 to 3,000 m{sup 3}/a), only promptly incorporation of cattle and pig slurry is cost-effective. If spreading

  2. 25 CFR 170.410 - What is the purpose of tribal long-range transportation planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.410 What is the purpose of tribal long-range... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the purpose of tribal long-range transportation planning? 170.410 Section 170.410 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND...

  3. Moving boundaries in transboundary air pollution co-production of science and policy under the convention on long range transboundary air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, W.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the science-policy interaction in international negotiations in the context of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention for Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). It addresses the question how participants in the assessment process divide and

  4. Development and application of methods and models for the calculation of spatially and temporally highly resolved emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruchittampalam, Balendra

    2014-01-01

    High spatial and temporal resolution models are essential for answering many questions of air quality management and climate modeling. High-resolution emission models are required to determine the concentration of pollutants using chemical transport models, and to quantify the impacts on health and environment and in particular to develop adequate countermeasures. The aim of this work is to develop methods for the calculation of spatially and temporally high-resolved emissions and to apply these exemplarily on a 1 km x 1 km and hourly resolution for the year 2008 in the EU-27 and EFTA countries. The derivation of methods for the spatial and temporal resolution of emissions with corresponding detailed equations is one of the major improvements that have been carried out in the course of this work. The improvement of the spatial distribution of emissions from the point source relevant sectors like energy supply, industry and waste management is achieved by considering sector specific diffuse emission shares. The progress of the spatial distribution of emissions from households is in particular the development of a fuel type weighted distribution over Europe. Another main focus is the development of the spatial distribution of road transport emissions. Due to the restricted access to traffic count data at the European level, methods have been established to provide reliable emissions on grid level for Europe. The progress in the spatial distribution of agricultural emissions is achieved by the consideration of diffuse shares similar to the other point source relevant sectors like energy supply or industry. In addition to the spatial distribution of the emissions the temporal resolution is a main focus of this work, since the state of knowledge of the temporal resolution of emissions in Europe is still rudimentary. Therefore, it was necessary to develop in particular time curves for the hourly resolution of emissions for the main sectors, namely electricity and heat

  5. Trace gas composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia: Examining the influence of long-range transport and convection of local pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Traud, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Hoor, P. M.; Neumaier, M.; Oram, D.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schloegl, S.; Sprung, D.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Wernli, H.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2013-12-01

    Between May 2005 and March 2008 the CARIBIC observatory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) was deployed to make atmospheric observations during 21 round-trip flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Manila, the Philippines with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. This nearly 3 year flight series provides us with information about atmospheric composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia during all seasons and was used to investigate seasonal and regional differences in trace gas distributions and the relative influences of long range transport and convected local air masses on composition. The flight route was separated into three different regions having unique characteristics in transport and composition; these were Western Asia (5°E to 70°E), Central Asia (70°E to 100°E) and East Asia (100°E to 125°E). The region over Western Asia was heavily influenced by long range transport of air masses from North America and had elevated levels of NOy and acetone, while the region over East Asia was mostly influenced by convected local (South East Asian) pollution, particularly from biomass/biofuel burning as indicated by high levels of acetonitrile and carbon monoxide. Air masses over Central Asia were found to be influenced by both recently convected air masses from the Indian subcontinent and mid-range transport from Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Elevated levels of propane and other non-methane hydrocarbons, both with and without concommitant elevations in other trace gases (i.e. carbon monoxide, acetonitrile) were a persisent feature of this region in all seasons except summer, and were particularly prominent in fall. Influences on composition over Central Asia were investigated more thoroughly in a case study from a series of flights in October 2006, and elevated levels of pollutants were found to be the result of convective transport of both biomass/biofuel burning and urban emissions from

  6. The case for infrasound as the long-range map cue in avian navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Of the various 'map' and 'compass' components of Kramer's avian navigational model, the long-range map component is the least well understood. In this paper atmospheric infrasounds are proposed as the elusive longrange cues constituting the avian navigational map. Although infrasounds were considered a viable candidate for the avian map in the 1970s, and pigeons in the laboratory were found to detect sounds at surprisingly low frequencies (0.05 Hz), other tests appeared to support either of the currently favored olfactory or magnetic maps. Neither of these hypotheses, however, is able to explain the full set of observations, and the field has been at an impasse for several decades. To begin, brief descriptions of infrasonic waves and their passage through the atmosphere are given, followed by accounts of previously unexplained release results. These examples include 'release-site biases' which are deviations of departing pigeons from the homeward bearing, an annual variation in homing performance observed only in Europe, difficulties orienting over lakes and above temperature inversions, and the mysterious disruption of several pigeon races. All of these irregularities can be consistently explained by the deflection or masking of infrasonic cues by atmospheric conditions or by other infrasonic sources (microbaroms, sonic booms), respectively. A source of continuous geographic infrasound generated by atmosphere-coupled microseisms is also proposed. In conclusion, several suggestions are made toward resolving some of the conflicting experimental data with the pigeons' possible use of infrasonic cues.

  7. Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in daily atmospheric temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cuomo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law persistence in atmospheric temperature fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA carried out on twenty-two historical daily time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates temperature variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of temperature time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.

  8. Long-range transport of radioisotopes in the atmosphere and the calculation of collective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Wrigley, J.

    1980-01-01

    In estimating the long range (up to 1000 km) transport and dispersal of atmospheric pollutants, the meteorological conditions at the source become less relevant as the distance from the source increases, making it difficult to extrapolate to larger distances using short range modelling techniques. The MESOS model has therefore been developed to take into account the temporal and spatial changes in the atmospheric boundary layer along the trajectory of a pollutant release, including the effects of diurnal cycle and lateral dispersion in the synoptic scale windfield. The model is described together with the associated data base incorporating a year's meteorological data from synoptic stations and ships across Western Europe. A simulation of dispersal following the Windscale release of 1957 is compared with measurements. The use of the model is further illustrated by application to a hypothetical site both for routine continuous releases and short term accidental releases. This work has been carried out within the framework of a research contract between the EURATOM-CEA Association and Imperial College. (H.K.)

  9. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by Guenther et al. (1995) and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1x1km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An End-to-End Model of Plant Pheromone Channel for Long Range Molecular Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unluturk, Bige D; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2017-01-01

    A new track in molecular communication is using pheromones which can scale up the range of diffusion-based communication from μm meters to meters and enable new applications requiring long range. Pheromone communication is the emission of molecules in the air which trigger behavioral or physiological responses in receiving organisms. The objective of this paper is to introduce a new end-to-end model which incorporates pheromone behavior with communication theory for plants. The proposed model includes both the transmission and reception processes as well as the propagation channel. The transmission process is the emission of pheromones from the leaves of plants. The dispersion of pheromones by the flow of wind constitutes the propagation process. The reception process is the sensing of pheromones by the pheromone receptors of plants. The major difference of pheromone communication from other molecular communication techniques is the dispersion channel acting under the laws of turbulent diffusion. In this paper, the pheromone channel is modeled as a Gaussian puff, i.e., a cloud of pheromone released instantaneously from the source whose dispersion follows a Gaussian distribution. Numerical results on the performance of the overall end-to-end pheromone channel in terms of normalized gain and delay are provided.

  11. NKS NordRisk. Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Lauritzen, Bent; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2008-07-01

    Within the NKS NordRisk project, 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe', the NKS NordRisk Atlas has been developed. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected nuclear risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere. A number of case studies of long-term long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides has been developed, based on two years of meteorological data. Radionuclide concentrations in air and radionuclide depositions have been evaluated and examples of long-term averages of the dispersion and deposition and of the variability around these mean values are provided. (au)

  12. NKS NordRisk. Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A. (Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Lauritzen, Bent; Mikkelsen, Torben (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    Within the NKS NordRisk project, 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe', the NKS NordRisk Atlas has been developed. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected nuclear risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere. A number of case studies of long-term long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides has been developed, based on two years of meteorological data. Radionuclide concentrations in air and radionuclide depositions have been evaluated and examples of long-term averages of the dispersion and deposition and of the variability around these mean values are provided. (au)

  13. Long-range beam-beam experiments in the relativistic heavy ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calaga, R; Fischer, W; Milas, N; Robert-Demolaize, G

    2014-01-01

    Long-range beam-beam effects are a potential limit to the LHC performance with the nominal design parameters, and certain upgrade scenarios under discussion. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed and space is reserved in the LHC for such wires. Two current carrying wires were installed in RHIC to study the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects in a collider, as well as test the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The experimental data were used to benchmark simulations. We summarize this work

  14. Processor for Real-Time Atmospheric Compensation in Long-Range Imaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-range imaging is a critical component to many NASA applications including range surveillance, launch tracking, and astronomical observation. However,...

  15. Long-range terrain characterization for productive regolith excavation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research will develop long-range terrain characterization technologies for autonomous excavation in planetary environments. This work will develop a...

  16. Implementation of Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) for the Real-driving Emissions (RDE) Regulation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giechaskiel, Barouch; Vlachos, Theodoros; Riccobono, Francesco; Forni, Fausto; Colombo, Rinaldo; Montigny, Francois; Le-Lijour, Philippe; Carriero, Massimo; Bonnel, Pierre; Weiss, Martin

    2016-12-04

    Vehicles are tested in controlled and relatively narrow laboratory conditions to determine their official emission values and reference fuel consumption. However, on the road, ambient and driving conditions can vary over a wide range, sometimes causing emissions to be higher than those measured in the laboratory. For this reason, the European Commission has developed a complementary Real-Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedure using the Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) to verify gaseous pollutant and particle number emissions during a wide range of normal operating conditions on the road. This paper presents the newly-adopted RDE test procedure, differentiating six steps: 1) vehicle selection, 2) vehicle preparation, 3) trip design, 4) trip execution, 5) trip verification, and 6) calculation of emissions. Of these steps, vehicle preparation and trip execution are described in greater detail. Examples of trip verification and the calculations of emissions are given.

  17. Interannual variability of long-range transport as seen at the Mt. Bachelor observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Reidmiller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variations in background tropospheric trace gases (such as carbon monoxide, CO are largely driven by variations in emissions (especially wildfires and transport pathways. Understanding this variability is essential to quantify the intercontinental contribution to US air quality. We investigate the interannual variability of long-range transport of Asian pollutants to the Northeast Pacific via measurements from the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO: 43.98° N, 121.69° W; 2.7 km a.s.l. and GEOS-Chem chemical transport model simulations in spring 2005 vs. the INTEX-B campaign during spring 2006. Measurements of CO at MBO were significantly enhanced during spring 2005 relative to the same time in 2006 (the INTEX-B study period; a decline in monthly mean CO of 41 ppbv was observed between April 2005 and April 2006. A backtrajectory-based meteorological index shows that long-range transport of CO from the heavily industrialized region of East Asia was significantly greater in early spring 2005 than in 2006. In addition, spring 2005 was an anomalously strong biomass burning season in Southeast Asia. Data presented by Yurganov et al. (2008 using MOPITT satellite retrievals from this area reveal an average CO burden anomaly (referenced to March 2000–February 2002 mean values between October 2004 through April 2005 of 2.6 Tg CO vs. 0.6 Tg CO for the same period a year later. The Naval Research Laboratory's global aerosol transport model, as well as winds from NCEP reanalysis, show that emissions from these fires were efficiently transported to MBO throughout April 2005. Asian dust transport, however, was substantially greater in 2006 than 2005, particularly in May. Monthly mean aerosol light scattering coefficient at 532 nm (σsp at MBO more than doubled from 2.7 Mm−1 in May 2005 to 6.2 Mm−1 in May 2006. We also evaluate CO interannual variability throughout the western US via Earth System

  18. Modification of Local Urban Aerosol Properties by Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona S. Stachlewska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During August 2016, a quasi-stationary high-pressure system spreading over Central and North-Eastern Europe, caused weather conditions that allowed for 24/7 observations of aerosol optical properties by using a complex multi-wavelength PollyXT lidar system with Raman, polarization and water vapour capabilities, based at the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET network urban site in Warsaw, Poland. During 24–30 August 2016, the lidar-derived products (boundary layer height, aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, depolarization ratio were analysed in terms of air mass transport (HYSPLIT model, aerosol load (CAMS data and type (NAAPS model and confronted with active and passive remote sensing at the ground level (PolandAOD, AERONET, WIOS-AQ networks and aboard satellites (SEVIRI, MODIS, CATS sensors. Optical properties for less than a day-old fresh biomass burning aerosol, advected into Warsaw’s boundary layer from over Ukraine, were compared with the properties of long-range transported 3–5 day-old aged biomass burning aerosol detected in the free troposphere over Warsaw. Analyses of temporal changes of aerosol properties within the boundary layer, revealed an increase of aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent accompanied by an increase of surface PM10 and PM2.5. Intrusions of advected biomass burning particles into the urban boundary layer seem to affect not only the optical properties observed but also the top height of the boundary layer, by moderating its increase.

  19. Long range order in the ground state of two-dimensional antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, E.J.; Perez, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The existence of long range order is shown in the ground state of the two-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet for S >= 3/2. The method yields also long range order for the ground state of a larger class of anisotropic quantum antiferromagnetic spin systems with or without transverse magnetic fields. (Author) [pt

  20. The third stage of hospital long-range planning: the marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, T J

    1980-01-01

    Today most hospital administrators are convinced they should implement long-range planning. The marketing approach to long-range planning is an effective strategy that is consumer oriented. It starts the planning process with the consumer, letting the consumer's needs and wants guide the organization's planning.

  1. Evidence for the 'grasshopper' effect and fractionation during long-range atmospheric transport of organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouin, T.; Mackay, D.; Jones, K.C.; Harner, T.; Meijer, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is indisputable evidence that long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of organic contaminants occurs on a global scale, uncertainties remain about the detailed mechanism and extent of this phenomenon as well as the physical-chemical properties which facilitate LRAT. In this study, we discuss how mass balance models and monitoring data can contribute to a fuller understanding of the mechanism and extent of LRAT. Specifically we address the issues of 'grasshopping' or 'hopping' (the extent to which molecules are subject to multiple hops as distinct from a single emission-deposition event) and 'global fractionation' (the differing behavior of chemicals as they are transported). It is shown that simple mass balance models can be used to assist the interpretation of monitoring data while also providing an instrument that can be used to assess the LRAT potential and the extent of hopping that organic substances may experience. The available evidence supports the notion that many persistent organic pollutants experience varying degrees of 'hopping' during their environmental journey and as a consequence become fractionated with distance from source. - Evidence for global scale fractionation and hopping of POPs is reviewed

  2. Strong asymmetry for surface modes in nonlinear lattices with long-range coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alejandro J.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Molina, Mario I.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the formation of localized surface modes on a nonlinear cubic waveguide array in the presence of exponentially decreasing long-range interactions. We find that the long-range coupling induces a strong asymmetry between the focusing and defocusing cases for the topology of the surface modes and also for the minimum power needed to generate them. In particular, for the defocusing case, there is an upper power threshold for exciting staggered modes, which depends strongly on the long-range coupling strength. The power threshold for dynamical excitation of surface modes increases (decreases) with the strength of long-range coupling for the focusing (defocusing) cases. These effects seem to be generic for discrete lattices with long-range interactions.

  3. Impact of excess NOx emissions from diesel cars on air quality, public health and eutrophication in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson, J. E.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Simpson, D.; Nyíri, A.; Posch, M.; Heyes, C.

    2017-09-01

    Diesel cars have been emitting four to seven times more NOx in on-road driving than in type approval tests. These ‘excess emissions’ are a consequence of deliberate design of the vehicle’s after-treatment system, as investigations during the ‘Dieselgate’ scandal have revealed. Here we calculate health and environmental impacts of these excess NOx emissions in all European countries for the year 2013. We use national emissions reported officially under the UNECE Convention for Long-range Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants and employ the EMEP MSC-W Chemistry Transport Model and the GAINS Integrated Assessment Model to determine atmospheric concentrations and resulting impacts. We compare with impacts from hypothetical emissions where light duty diesel vehicles are assumed to emit only as much as their respective type approval limit value or as little as petrol cars of the same age. Excess NO2 concentrations can also have direct health impacts, but these overlap with the impacts from particulate matter (PM) and are not included here. We estimate that almost 10 000 premature deaths from PM2.5 and ozone in the adult population (age >30 years) can be attributed to the NOx emissions from diesel cars and light commercial vehicles in EU28 plus Norway and Switzerland in 2013. About 50% of these could have been avoided if diesel limits had been achieved also in on-road driving; and had diesel cars emitted as little NOx as petrol cars, 80% of these premature deaths could have been avoided. Ecosystem eutrophication impacts (critical load exceedances) from the same diesel vehicles would also have been reduced at similar rates as for the health effects.

  4. Long-range transmission of pollutants simulated by a two-dimensional pseudospectral dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahm, L.P.; Christensen, O.

    1977-01-01

    The pseudospectral dispersion model (Christensen and Prahm, 1976) is adapted for simulation of the long-range transmission of sulphur pollutants in the European region, covering an area of about 4000 km x 4000 km. Regional ''background'' concentrations of sulphur oxides are found to be highly dependent on distant sources and to correlate poorly with local source strength during the considered three- and four-day episodes. The simulation is based on emission data, given in squares of about 50 km x 50 km and on synoptic wind fields derived from observed wind velocities of the 850 mb level and the surface level. The two-dimensional model includes a constant vertical mixing depth. Appropriate values for the deposition and the transformation rates of SO 2 and SO/sup 4 are used. The concentration of pollutants computed from the two-dimensional pseudospectral dispersion model reflects the variable meteorological conditions. Computed concentrations are compared with measurements, giving spatial correlations between 0.4 and 0.8 for more than 400 ground-based 24 h mean values, and a spatial correlation of 0.9 for eight aircraft samples averaged over approx.30 min. A discussion of the influence of different sources of error in the model simulation is given. The high numerical accuracy of the pseudospectral model is combined with a modest consumption of CPU computer time. This study is the first application of the pseudospectral dispersion model which compares computed concentrations with measured field data. The model has possible applications as a tool for assessment of the impact of both national and international emission regulation strategies

  5. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Dämmgen, U; Döhler, H

    2008-01-01

    and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH3 emissions from agriculture...... the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models...

  6. Sulfur Emissions, Abatement Technologies and Related Costs for Europe in the RAINS Model Database

    OpenAIRE

    Cofala, J.; Syri, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the part of the Regional Pollution Information and Simulation (RAINS) model dealing with the potential and costs controlling emissions of sulfur dioxide. The paper describes the selected aggregation level of the emission generating activities and reviews the major options for controlling SO2 emissions. An algorithm for estimating emission control costs is presented. The cost calculation distinguishes 'general'(i.e., valid for all countries) and 'country-specific' paramete...

  7. Secondary inorganic aerosols in Europe: sources and the significant influence of biogenic VOC emissions, especially on ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Contributions of various anthropogenic sources to the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in Europe as well as the role of biogenic emissions on SIA formation were investigated using the three-dimensional regional model CAMx (comprehensive air quality model with extensions). Simulations were carried out for two periods of EMEP field campaigns, February-March 2009 and June 2006, which are representative of cold and warm seasons, respectively. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are known mainly as precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but their role on inorganic aerosol formation has not attracted much attention so far. In this study, we showed the importance of the chemical reactions of BVOCs and how they affect the oxidant concentrations, leading to significant changes, especially in the formation of ammonium nitrate. A sensitivity test with doubled BVOC emissions in Europe during the warm season showed a large increase in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations (by about a factor of two), while particulate inorganic nitrate concentrations decreased by up to 35 %, leading to a better agreement between the model results and measurements. Sulfate concentrations decreased as well; the change, however, was smaller. The changes in inorganic nitrate and sulfate concentrations occurred at different locations in Europe, indicating the importance of precursor gases and biogenic emission types for the negative correlation between BVOCs and SIA. Further analysis of the data suggested that reactions of the additional terpenes with nitrate radicals at night were responsible for the decline in inorganic nitrate formation, whereas oxidation of BVOCs with OH radicals led to a decrease in sulfate. Source apportionment results suggest that the main anthropogenic source of precursors leading to formation of particulate inorganic nitrate is road transport (SNAP7; see Table 1 for a description of the categories), whereas combustion in energy and

  8. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment DCE at Aarhus University annually reports heavy metals (HM) emissions to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). This report presents updated heavy metal emission factors......-2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...

  9. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith Korsholm, Ulrik; Astrup, Poul; Lauritzen, Bent

    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project "Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe". The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere...... spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion....

  10. Long-range Transport of Aerosol at a Mountain Site in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Véronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Dulac, François

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  11. Contribution of long-range transport to the ozone levels recorded in the Northeast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, C.; Nunes, T.; Marques, M. C.; Ferreira, F.

    2009-04-01

    levels were calculated for each cluster and the differences between the groups were validated using the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test. The results have shown a significant influence of the transport path on ozone concentrations, which is more noticeable when the probability of occurring photochemical pollution phenomena is higher. Air masses from Europe (Spain, France, United Kingdom, etc.) generally originate higher ozone levels than the ones arriving from the Atlantic Ocean. This feature shows the role of photochemical production along long-range transport phenomena, and the input of pollutants into air masses, along their path. A more detailed analysis at local/regional scale, supported mainly by an intensive field campaign performed during spring/summer of 2006 in the vicinity of Alvão Natural Park (FOTONET Project), at different altitudes, together with pollutant measurements from rural air quality stations in the north of Portugal and one from Spain (Peñausende) was carried out in order to evaluate the extension of photochemical pollution in the Northeast of Portugal. Ozone concentrations measurements in the region showed a noticeable decrease with altitude, mainly at night. In resume back trajectories based analysis has demonstrated that other countries, mainly Spain, contribute decisively to the ozone levels registered in the station used for this study. Backed on this knowledge we point out towards the need of considering common international policies when dealing with controlling ozone levels in the environment. References: Monks, P. (2000): A review of the observations and origins of the spring ozone maximum. Atmospheric Environment 34, 3545-3561. Vingarzan, R., Taylor, B. (2003): Trend analysis of ground level ozone in the greater Vancouver / Fraser Valley area of British Columbia. Atmospheric Environment 37, 2159-2171. EMPA (2008): Air mass trajectory clustering. Retrieved 01 November 2008 from: http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/*/63288/—/l=1

  12. A methodology for the economic assessment of material damage caused by SO2 and NOx emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayerhofer, P.; Weltschev, M.; Trukenmueller, A.; Friedrich, R.

    1995-01-01

    Damage to materials causes high economic losses in Europe. A large part of this damage can be attributed to the emissions caused by the energy and the transport sector. In the paper, the procedure for the economic assessment of material damages caused by SO 2 and NO x emissions in Europe is described. Model and data requirements are outlined, and gaps and uncertainties of the quantification are discussed. Two types of results are presented. First, the marginal (additional) costs of damage to material caused by an additional power plant are assessed. The analysis covers plants with different technologies. Results for the fossil power plants are in the range of 0.0062 to 0.12 mECU/kWh. In addition, the total economic material damage due to the present air pollution was assessed. It is in the range of 2.9 to 5.3 x 10 9 ECU/year. However, the analysis has many uncertainties. Most noteworthy are the material inventories and partially the damage functions and input data. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. van der Waals forces in density functional theory: Perturbational long-range electron-interaction corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angyan, Janos G.; Gerber, Iann C.; Savin, Andreas; Toulouse, Julien

    2005-01-01

    Long-range exchange and correlation effects, responsible for the failure of currently used approximate density functionals in describing van der Waals forces, are taken into account explicitly after a separation of the electron-electron interaction in the Hamiltonian into short- and long-range components. We propose a 'range-separated hybrid' functional based on a local density approximation for the short-range exchange-correlation energy, combined with a long-range exact exchange energy. Long-range correlation effects are added by a second-order perturbational treatment. The resulting scheme is general and is particularly well adapted to describe van der Waals complexes, such as rare gas dimers

  14. Testing for long-range dependence in the Brazilian term structure of interest rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence of fractional dynamics in interest rates for different maturities for Brazil. A variation of a newly developed test for long-range dependence, the V/S statistic, with a post-blackening bootstrap is employed. Results suggest that Brazilian interest rates possess strong long-range dependence in volatility, even when considering the structural break in 1999. These findings imply that the development of policy models that give rise to long-range dependence in interest rates' volatility could be very useful. The long-short-term interest rates spread has strong long-range dependence, which suggests that traditional tests of expectation hypothesis of the term structure of interest rates may be misspecified.

  15. What moves you Arizona : long-range transportation plan : 2010-2035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "What Moves You Arizona is the Arizona Department of Transportations (ADOT) Long-Range Transportation Plan (LRTP). The LRTP, or Plan, defines visionary, yet pragmatic, investment choices Arizona will make over the next 25 years to maintain a...

  16. A Study on Techniques for Focusing Circumferential Array Guided Waves for Long Range Inspection of Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, To; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Cho, Young Do; Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hyun Joon

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely utilized for long range inspection of structures. Especially, development of array guided waves techniques and its application for long range gas pipe lines(length of from hundreds meters to few km) were getting increased. In this study, focusing algorithm for array guided waves was developed in order to improve long range inspectability and accuracy of the array guided waves techniques for long range inspection of gas pipes, and performance of the developed techniques was verified by experiments using the developed array guided wave system. As a result, S/N ratio of array guided wave signals obtained with the focusing algorithm was increased higher than that of signals without focusing algorithm

  17. Relationships Between Long-Range Lightning Networks and TRMM/LIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudlosky, Scott D.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chris J.; Bateman, Monte; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in long-range lightning detection technologies have improved our understanding of thunderstorm evolution in the data sparse oceanic regions. Although the expansion and improvement of long-range lightning datasets have increased their applicability, these applications (e.g., data assimilation, atmospheric chemistry, and aviation weather hazards) require knowledge of the network detection capabilities. The present study intercompares long-range lightning data with observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite. The study examines network detection efficiency and location accuracy relative to LIS observations, describes spatial variability in these performance metrics, and documents the characteristics of LIS flashes that are detected by the long-range networks. Improved knowledge of relationships between these datasets will allow researchers, algorithm developers, and operational users to better prepare for the spatial and temporal coverage of the upcoming GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM).

  18. Force-induced unzipping of DNA with long-range correlated sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Gevorkian, Zh. S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider force-induced unzipping transition for a heterogeneous DNA model with a long-range correlated base-sequence. It is shown that as compared to the uncorrelated situation, long-range correlations smear the unzipping phase-transition, change its universality class and lead to non-self-averaging: the averaged behavior strongly differs from the typical ones. Several basic scenarios for this typical behavior are revealed and explained. The results can be relevant for explaining the biolo...

  19. Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of Central European Stock Indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-19 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long-range dependence * rescaled range * modified rescaled range * bootstrapping Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/kristoufek-long-range dependence in returns and volatility of central european stock indices.pdf

  20. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework combined with increasing demand for energy has created an opportunity for dramatic changes in the way energy is generated in Ghana. However, the impending changes and their implication remain uncertain. This paper examines the extent to which future energy scenarios in Ghana could rely on energy from biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate that introducing bioenergy to the energy mix could reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions by about 6 million tonnes CO_2e by 2030, equivalent to a 14% reduction in a business-as-usual scenario. This paper advocates the use of second generation ethanol for transport, to the extent that it is economically exploitable. Resorting to first generation ethanol would require the allocation of over 580,000 ha of agricultural land for ethanol production. - Highlights: • This paper examines modern bioenergy contribution to Ghana's future energy mix. • Three scenarios are developed and analysed. • Opportunities exist for modern bioenergy to replace carbon intensive fuels. • Introducing modern bioenergy to the mix could result in a 14% reduction in GHG.

  1. Long-range volcanic ash transport and fallout during the 2008 eruption of Chaiten volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, A. J.; Prata, A. J.; Villarosa, G.; Rose, W. I.; Delmelle, P.; Viramonte, J.

    2012-04-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, provided a rare opportunity to measure the long-range transport of volcanic emissions and characteristics of a widely-dispersed terrestrial ash deposit. Airborne ash mass, quantified using thermal infrared satellite remote sensing, ranged between 0.2-0.4 Tg during the period 3-7 May 2008. A high level of spatiotemporal correspondence was observed between cloud trajectories and changes in surface reflectivity, which was inferred to indicate ash deposition. The evolution of the deposit was mapped for the first time using satellite-based observations of surface reflectivity. The distal (>80 km) ash deposit was poorly sorted and fine grained, and mean particle size varied very little beyond a distance >300 km. There were 3 consistent particle size subpopulations in fallout at distances >300 km which suggests that aggregation influenced particle settling. Discrete temporal sampling and characterisation of fallout demonstrated contributions from specific eruptive phases. Some evidence for winnowing was identified through comparison of samples collected at the time of deposition to bulk samples collected months after deposition. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed surface enrichments in Ca, Na and Fe and the presence of coatings of mixed Ca-, Na- and Fe-rich salts on ash particles prior to deposition. XPS analyses revealed strong surface Fe enrichments (in contrast to the results from bulk leachate analyses), which indicates that surface analysis techniques should be applied to investigate potential influences on ocean productivity in response to volcanic ash fallout over oceans. Low S:Cl ratios in leachates indicate that the eruption had a low S content, and high Cl:F ratios imply gas-ash interaction within a Cl-rich environment. We estimate that ash fallout had potential to scavenge ~42 % of total S released into the atmosphere prior to deposition.

  2. A better understanding of long-range temporal dependence of traffic flow time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Wang, Xingmin; Sun, Haowei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    Long-range temporal dependence is an important research perspective for modelling of traffic flow time series. Various methods have been proposed to depict the long-range temporal dependence, including autocorrelation function analysis, spectral analysis and fractal analysis. However, few researches have studied the daily temporal dependence (i.e. the similarity between different daily traffic flow time series), which can help us better understand the long-range temporal dependence, such as the origin of crossover phenomenon. Moreover, considering both types of dependence contributes to establishing more accurate model and depicting the properties of traffic flow time series. In this paper, we study the properties of daily temporal dependence by simple average method and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based method. Meanwhile, we also study the long-range temporal dependence by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). The results show that both the daily and long-range temporal dependence exert considerable influence on the traffic flow series. The DFA results reveal that the daily temporal dependence creates crossover phenomenon when estimating the Hurst exponent which depicts the long-range temporal dependence. Furthermore, through the comparison of the DFA test, PCA-based method turns out to be a better method to extract the daily temporal dependence especially when the difference between days is significant.

  3. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, J.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    At the end of 2010, the EU-15 was on track to achieve its Kyoto target but three EU-15 Member States (Austria, Italy and Luxembourg) were not on track to meet their burden-sharing targets. These countries must therefore seriously consider further action to ensure compliance, in particular revising their plans on using flexible mechanisms. Among the EEA member countries outside the EU, Liechtenstein and Switzerland were not on track to achieve their Kyoto target at the end of 2009. All other European countries are on track to meet their targets, either based on domestic emissions only or with the assistance of Kyoto mechanisms. The economic recession had a significant impact on the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends but a more limited effect on progress towards Kyoto targets. This is because emissions in the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which were most affected by the crisis, do not affect Kyoto compliance once ETS caps have been set. With existing national measures, Member States do not project enough emission reductions for the EU to meet its unilateral 20 % reduction commitment in 2020. Additional measures currently planned by Member States will help further reduce emissions but will be insufficient to achieve the important emission cuts needed in the longer term. By 2020 Member States must enhance their efforts to reduce emissions in non-EU ETS sectors, such as the residential, transport or agriculture sectors, where legally binding national targets have been set under the EU's 2009 climate and energy package. (Author)

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central Europe between 1995 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlčková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and environmental policies are widely discussed, but much less is known about emissions embodied in goods traded internationally, and the distinction between emission producers and consumers. The carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central European countries are subject to examination in this paper. As a result of industrial restructuring and environmental legislation, air pollution has improved significantly in Central European countries since the 1989 transition. On the other hand, economic growth has been accompanied by a rise in consumerism. Despite the increasing role of exports, the Visegrad group countries have become net importers of carbon dioxide emissions between 1995 and 2008. This seems to be the ‘standard trajectory’ of a country’s transition toward a more developed and consumption-oriented economy. The global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in manufacturing exports are also mapped, using network analysis and constructing ‘product space’. The analysis confirms that industrial re-structuring played an important role in lowering the production of carbon dioxide emissions in the Visegrad countries.

  5. Long-range transport and global fractionation of POPs: insights from multimedia modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheringer, M.; Salzmann, M.; Stroebe, M.; Wegmann, F.; Fenner, K.; Hungerbuehler, K.

    2004-01-01

    The long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is investigated with two multimedia box models of the global system. ChemRange is a purely evaluative, one-dimensional steady-state (level III) model; CliMoChem is a two-dimensional model with different temperatures, land/water ratios and vegetation types in different latitudinal zones. Model results are presented for three case studies: (i) the effect of atmospheric aerosol particles on the long-range transport of POPs, (ii) the effect of oceanic deposition on the long-range transport of different PCB congeners, (iii) the global fractionation of different PCB congeners. The model results for these case studies show: (i) the low atmospheric half-lives estimated for several organochlorine pesticides are likely to be inconsistent with the observed long-range transport of these compounds; (ii) export to the deep sea reduces the potential for long-range transport of highly hydrophobic compounds (but does not remove these chemicals from the biosphere); (iii) there are different meanings of the term global fractionation that refer to different aspects of the fractionation process and need to be distinguished. The case-study results further indicate that the influences of varying environmental conditions on the physicochemical properties and the degradation rate constants of POPs need to be determined. - Multimedia box models are applied to case studies of the behavior of POPs

  6. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2016-01-01

    135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. - Highlights: • 135 Cs/ 137 Cs useful for tracking anthropogenic environmental radiocesium releases. • European surface soils/vegetation have uniform ratio consistent with Chernobyl. • 135 Cs/ 137 Cs in Irish sea represents thermal fission ratio distinct from Chernobyl. • Can distinguish between major source terms in Europe based on 135 Cs/ 137 Cs.

  7. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gores, S.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    At the end of 2011, almost all European countries were on track towards their Kyoto targets for 2008-2012. The EU-15 also remained on track to achieve its Kyoto target. Italy, however, was not on track. Spain plans to acquire a large quantity of Kyoto units through the KP's flexible mechanisms to achieve its target. With emission caps already set for the economic sectors under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), emissions reductions during 2012 in the sectors outside the EU ETS together with reductions by carbon sinks will set the frame for how many Kyoto units Member States need to acquire to reach their individual targets. Hence, both the development and delivery of adequate plans to acquire enough Kyoto credits is becoming increasingly important. ETS emissions from 2008 to 2011 were on average 5 % below these caps, which results in an oversupply of allowances. The EU ETS is undergoing important changes in view of the third trading phase from 2013 to 2020. Most EU Member States project that in 2020, their emissions outside the EU ETS will be lower than their national targets set under the Climate and Energy Package. However, further efforts will be necessary to achieve longer term reductions. (Author)

  8. On the relationship between energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acaravci, Ali [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya-Hatay (Turkey); Ozturk, Ilhan [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cag University, 33800, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth by using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration for nineteen European countries. The bounds F-test for cointegration test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between carbon emissions per capita, energy consumption per capita, real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the square of per capita real GDP only for Denmark, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Portugal and Switzerland. The cumulative sum and cumulative sum of squares tests also show that the estimated parameters are stable for the sample period. We found a positive long-run elasticity estimate of emissions with respect to energy consumption at 1% significant level in Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy and Portugal. Positive long-run elasticity estimates of carbon emissions with respect to real GDP and the negative long-run elasticity estimates of carbon emissions with respect to the square of per capita real GDP at 1% significance level in Denmark and 5% significant level in Italy are also found. These results support that the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Denmark and Italy. This study also explores causal relationship between the variables by using error-correction based Granger causality models. (author)

  9. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Webb, J; Misselbrook, T H

    2009-01-01

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model...... of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) (±6% of the mean total), but large differences in NH3 emissions (±24% of the mean). These differences arose from the different approaches to TAN immobilization in litter, other N losses and mineralization in the models. As a result of those differences estimates of TAN available...... at spreading differed by a factor of almost 3. Results of the FF scenario for broilers produced a range of estimates of total changes in TAN (±9% of the mean total), and larger differences in the estimate of NH3 emissions (±17% of the mean). The different approaches among the models to TAN immobilization...

  10. Dazzled by diesel? The impact on carbon dioxide emissions of the shift to diesels in Europe through 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, Lee; Fulton, Lew

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies trends in new gasoline and diesel passenger car characteristics in the European Union between 1995 and 2009. By 2009 diesels had captured over 55% of the new vehicle market. While the diesel version of a given car model may have as much as 35% lower fuel use/km and 25% lower CO 2 emissions than its gasoline equivalent, diesel buyers have chosen increasingly large and more powerful cars than the gasoline market. As a result, new diesels bought in 2009 had only 2% lower average CO 2 emissions than new gasoline cars, a smaller advantage than in 1995. A Laspeyres decomposition investigates which factors were important contributors to the observed emission reductions and which factors offset savings in other areas. More than 95% of the reduction in CO 2 emissions per km from new vehicles arose because both diesel and gasoline new vehicle emissions/km fell, and only 5% arose because of the shift from gasoline to diesel technology. Increases in vehicle mass and power for both gasoline and diesel absorbed much of the technological efficiency improvements offered by both technologies. We also observe changes in the gasoline and diesel fleets in eight EU countries and find changes in fuel and emissions intensities consistent with the changes in new vehicles reported. While diesel cars continue to be driven far farther than gasoline cars, we attribute only some of this difference to a “rebound effect”. We conclude that while diesel technology has permitted significant fuel savings, the switch from gasoline to diesel in the new vehicle market contributed little itself to the observed reductions in CO 2 emissions from new vehicles. - Highlights: ► By 2009 diesels had captured over 55% of the new car market in the EU. ► New diesels in 2009 emitted only 2% lower average CO 2 than new gasoline cars. ► Diesel cars continue to be driven farther than gasoline cars. ► Overall there has been little net CO 2 reduction from the switch to diesels in

  11. The influence of long-range links on spiral waves and their application for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yu

    2012-01-01

    The influence of long-range links on spiral waves in an excitable medium has been investigated. Spatiotemporal dynamics in an excitable small-world network transform remarkably when we increase the long-range connection probability P. Spiral waves with few perturbations, broken spiral waves, pseudo spiral turbulence, synchronous oscillations, and homogeneous rest state are discovered under different network structures. Tip number is selected to detect non-equilibrium phase transition between different spatiotemporal patterns. The Kuramoto order parameter is used to identify these patterns and explain the emergence of the rest state. Finally, we use long-range links to successfully control spiral waves and spiral turbulence. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Long-Range Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Wu, ChengYin; Gong, QiHuang; He, XianTu; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2016-06-03

    In strong field atomic physics community, long-range Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of long-range Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the long-range tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends.

  13. Density of states and magnetotransport in Weyl semimetals with long-range disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesin, D. A.; Mishchenko, E. G.; Levchenko, A.

    2015-11-01

    We study the density of states and magnetotransport properties of disordered Weyl semimetals, focusing on the case of a strong long-range disorder. To calculate the disorder-averaged density of states close to nodal points, we treat exactly the long-range random potential fluctuations produced by charged impurities, while the short-range component of disorder potential is included systematically and controllably with the help of a diagram technique. We find that, for energies close to the degeneracy point, long-range potential fluctuations lead to a finite density of states. In the context of transport, we discuss that a self-consistent theory of screening in magnetic field may conceivably lead to nonmonotonic low-field magnetoresistance.

  14. Testing Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T L

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its minimum crossing angle are limited by the effect of long-range beam-beam collisions. A wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects and may allow for smaller crossing angles, or higher beam intensity. A prototype long-range wire compensator could be installed in the LHC by 2014/15. Since the originally reserved position for such a wire compensator is not available for this first step, we explore other possible options. Our investigations consider various longitudinal and transverse locations, different wire shapes, different optics configurations and several crossing angles between the two colliding beams. Simulations are carried out with the weak-strong code BBtrack. New postprocessing tools are introduced to analyse tune footprints and particle stability. In particular, a new method for the Lyapunov coefficient calculation is implemented. Submitted as "Tesi di laurea" at the University of Milano, 2012.

  15. Effect of disorder with long-range correlation on transport in graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G P; Gao, M; Shangguan, M H; Zhang, Y Y; Liu, N; Qin, Z J

    2012-01-01

    Transport in disordered armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGR) with long-range correlation between quantum wire contacts is investigated by a transfer matrix combined with Landauer’s formula. The metal-insulator transition is induced by disorder in neutral AGR. Therein, the conductance is one conductance quantum for the metallic phase and exponentially decays otherwise, when the length of AGR approaches infinity and far longer than its width. Similar to the case of long-range disorder, the conductance of neutral AGR first increases and then decreases while the conductance of doped AGR monotonically decreases, as the disorder strength increases. In the presence of strong disorder, the conductivity depends monotonically and non-monotonically on the aspect ratio for heavily doped and slightly doped AGR, respectively. For edge disordered graphene nanoribbon, the conductance increases with the disorder strength of long-range correlated disordered while no delocalization exists, since the edge disorder induces localization. (paper)

  16. Fractality Evidence and Long-Range Dependence on Capital Markets: a Hurst Exponent Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprean, Camelia; Tănăsescu, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Since the existence of market memory could implicate the rejection of the efficient market hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to find any evidence that selected emergent capital markets (eight European and BRIC markets, namely Hungary, Romania, Estonia, Czech Republic, Brazil, Russia, India and China) evince long-range dependence or the random walk hypothesis. In this paper, the Hurst exponent as calculated by R/S fractal analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is our measure of long-range dependence in the series. The results reinforce our previous findings and suggest that if stock returns present long-range dependence, the random walk hypothesis is not valid anymore and neither is the market efficiency hypothesis.

  17. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  18. The topological long range order in QCD. Applications to heavy ion collisions and cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitnitsky Ariel R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the local violation of P invariance in heavy ion collisions is a consequence of the long range topological order which is inherent feature of strongly coupled QCD. A similar phenomenon is known to occur in some topologically ordered condensed matter systems with a gap. We also discuss possible cosmological applications of this long range order in strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we argue that the de Sitter behaviour might be dynamically generated as a result of the long range order. In this framework the inflaton is an auxiliary field which effectively describes the dynamics of topological sectors in a gauge theory in the expanding universe, rather than a new dynamical degree of freedom.

  19. Long-range Coulomb interactions in low energy (e,2e) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proper treatment of long-range Coulomb interactions has confounded atomic collision theory since Schrodinger first presented a quantum-mechanical model for atomic interactions. The long-range Coulomb interactions are difficult to include in models in a way that treats the interaction sufficiently well but at the same time ensures the calculation remains tractable. An innovative application of an existing multi-parameter (e,2e) data acquisition system will be described. To clarify the effects of long-range Coulomb interactions, we will report the correlations and interactions that occur at low energy, observed by studying the energy sharing between outgoing electrons in the electron-impact ionisation of krypton

  20. A comprehensive emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Oderbolz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC emitted from vegetation are important for the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA in the atmosphere. Therefore, BVOC emission are an important input for air quality models. To model these emissions with high spatial resolution, the accuracy of the underlying vegetation inventory is crucial. We present a BVOC emission model that accommodates different vegetation inventories and uses satellite-based measurements of greenness instead of pre-defined vegetation periods. This approach to seasonality implicitly treats effects caused by water or nutrient availability, altitude and latitude on a plant stand. Additionally, we test the influence of proposed seasonal variability in enzyme activity on BVOC emissions. In its present setup, the emission model calculates hourly emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and acetic acid. In this study, emissions based on three different vegetation inventories are compared with each other and diurnal and seasonal variations in Europe are investigated for the year 2006. Two of these vegetation inventories require information on tree-cover as an input. We compare three different land-cover inventories (USGS GLCC, GLC2000 and Globcover 2.2 with respect to tree-cover. The often-used USGS GLCC land-cover inventory leads to a severe reduction of BVOC emissions due to a potential miss-attribution of broad-leaved trees and reduced tree-cover compared to the two other land-cover inventories. To account for uncertainties in the land-cover classification, we introduce land-cover correction factors for each relevant land-use category to adjust the tree-cover. The results are very sensitive to these factors within the plausible range. For June 2006, total monthly BVOC emissions decreased up to −27% with

  1. On discriminating between long-range dependence and changes in mean

    OpenAIRE

    Berkes, István; Horváth, Lajos; Kokoszka, Piotr; Shao, Qi-Man

    2006-01-01

    We develop a testing procedure for distinguishing between a long-range dependent time series and a weakly dependent time series with change-points in the mean. In the simplest case, under the null hypothesis the time series is weakly dependent with one change in mean at an unknown point, and under the alternative it is long-range dependent. We compute the CUSUM statistic Tn, which allows us to construct an estimator k̂ of a change-point. We then compute the statistic Tn,1 based on the observa...

  2. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westereng, Bjorge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane

    2015-01-01

    in biological systems are only partly understood. We show here that insoluble high molecular weight lignin functions as a reservoir of electrons facilitating LPMO activity. The electrons are donated to the enzyme by long-range electron transfer involving soluble low molecular weight lignins present in plant...... cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds...

  3. Long-range airplane study: The consumer looks at SST travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, K. H.; Matter, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The attitudes of long-range air travelers toward several basic air travel decisions, were surveyed. Of interest were tradeoffs involving time versus comfort and time versus cost as they pertain to supersonic versus conventional wide-body aircraft on overseas routes. The market focused upon was the segment of air travelers most likely to make that type of tradeoff decision: those having flown overseas routes for business or personal reasons in the recent past. The information generated is intended to provide quantifiable insight into consumer demand for supersonic as compared to wide-body aircraft alternatives for long-range overseas air travel.

  4. Long-range research plan. FY 1987-FY 1991. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The Long-Range Research Plan (LRRP) was prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to assist the NRC in coordinating its long-range research planning with the short-range budget cycles. The LRRP lays out programmatic approaches for research to help resolve regulatory issues. The plan will be updated annually. It covers: operating reactor inspection, maintenance, and repair; equipment qualification; seismic research; reactor operations and risk; thermal-hydraulic transients; severe accidents; radiation protection and health effects; and waste management

  5. Long-Range Research Plan, FY 1986-FY 1990. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The Long-Range Research Plan (LRRP) was prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to assist the NRC in coordinating its long-range research planning with the short-range budget cycles. The LRRP lays out programmatic approaches for research to help resolve regulatory issues. The plan will be updated annually. It covers: operating reactor inspection, maintenance, and repair; equipment qualification; seismic research; reactor operations and risk; thermal-hydraulic transients; severe accidents; radiation protection and health effects; and waste management

  6. The 120° Ordered Phase of Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Model with Long Range Couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan-Hai, Dong

    2009-01-01

    In order to look for the 120° order phase of triangular lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long range couplings, the Hamiltonian is diagonalized with the Bogoliubov transformation within linear spin-wave approximation. It is found that when the long range spin couplings are taken into account, the transformation is valid only for certain regions in the spin coupling parameter space. These regions just correspond to the 120° (or Néel) ordered phase, which is very different from square lattice in terms of shape, size and topological property

  7. Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of Central European Stock Indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 27 (2010), s. 50-67 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 5183/2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long-range dependence * bootstrapping * rescaled range analysis * rescaled variance analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/kristoufek-long-range dependence in returns and volatility of central european stock indices bces.pdf

  8. Long-range correlations in PbPb collisions at 158 a *GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alt, C; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csato, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Farantatos, G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gal, J; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Hohne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; van Leeuwen, M; Levai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnar, J; Mrowczynski, S; Palla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Puhlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Sikler, F; Sitar, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Strobele, H; Susa, T; Szentpetery, I; Sziklai, J; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G l; Vesztergombi, G; Vranie, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, l K; Zaranek, J; Zimanyi, J; Feofilov, G; Kolevatov, R; Kondratiev, V; Naumenko, P; Vechernin, V

    2005-01-01

    We present the 1st results of the event-by-event study of long-range correlations between event mean Pt and charged particle multiplicity using NA49 experimental data in two separated rapidity intervals in 158 A *Ge V Pb Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. Noticeable long range correlations are found. The most striking feature is the negative Prn correlation observed for the central PbPb collisions. Results are compared to the predictions of the HIJING event generator and of the String Fusion Model favoring a string fusion hypothesis.

  9. Impacts of controlling biomass burning emissions on wintertime carbonaceous aerosol in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M.G.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Charalampidis, P.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    We use a 3-D regional chemical transport model, with the latest advancements in the organic aerosol (OA) treatment, and an updated emission inventory for wood combustion to study the organic aerosol change in response to the replacement of current residential wood combustion technologies with pellet

  10. Nitrous oxide emission budgets and land-use-driven hotspots for organic soils in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppelt, T; Dechow, R; Gebbert, S

    2014-01-01

    from organic soils represent up to 13% of total European N2O emissions reported in the European Union (EU) greenhouse gas inventory of 2011 from only 7% of the EU area. Thereby the model demonstrated that the major part (85%) of the inventory is induced by anthropogenic management, which shows...

  11. Scaling up methodology for CO2 emissions in ICT applications in traffic and transport in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, D.; Jonkers, E.; Giannelos, I.; Palanciuc, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Amitran project aims to define a reference methodology for evaluating the effects of ICT measures in trafäc and transport on energy efficiency and consequently CO2 emissions. This methodology can be used as a reference by future projects and will address different modes for both passenger and

  12. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauen Ausilio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy

  13. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  14. Impact of Atmospheric Long Range Transport of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium on the Swedish Forest Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.; Bergbaeck, B.; Tyler, G.

    2001-01-01

    Emissions of Hg, Pb, and Cd to air are transported over wide areas in Europe and deposited far away from their sources. About 80% of the atmospheric deposition of these metals in south Sweden originate from emissions in other countries. As a result of the increased anthropogenic deposition the concentrations of Hg, Pb, and Cd in the morlayer of forest soils have increased considerably, mainly during the 20th century. Although the atmospheric deposition of these elements has declined during the most recent decades, the reduction of the input of Hg and Pb is not sufficient to prevent a further accumulation. The concentrations of Hg and Pb are still increasing by ca. 0.5and ca. 0.2% annually in the surface layer of forest soils.In contrast, the Cd concentration is currently decreasing in a large part of Sweden as a result of both deposition decreases and enhanced leaching induced by soil acidification. The accumulation factors of Hg and Pb, especially in the forest topsoils of south Sweden, are already above those at which adverse effects on soil biological processes and organisms have been demonstrated in studies of gradients from local emission sources and laboratory assessment. There are also indications of such effects at the current regional concentrations of Hg and Pbin mor layers from south Sweden, judging from observations in field and laboratory studies. There is an apparent risk of Pb induced reduction in microbial activity over parts of south Sweden. This might cause increased accumulation of organic matter and a reduced availability of soil nutrients. At current concentrations of Hg in Swedish forest soils,effects similar to those of Pb are likely. Increased concentrations of these elements in organs of mammals and birds have also been measured, though decreases have been demonstrated in recent years, related to changes in atmospheric deposition rates. As a result of current and past deposition in south Sweden, concentrations of Hg in fish have increased

  15. Driving to destruction. The impacts of Europe's biofuel plans on carbon emissions and land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novis, J.

    2010-11-01

    A new study analyses the likely impacts on land use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biofuel use by 2020, as projected in recently published National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs) in 23 EU member states. The analysis includes evidence on size and impacts of 'indirect land use change' (ILUC) resulting from biofuel use. It is the most comprehensive study to date to quantify these effects. Previous attempts were not based on projections from NREAPs and in most cases excluded the effects of indirect land use change. The assessment comes at a key time for EU biofuel policy, with the European Commission due to report on how to address and minimise these emissions by the end of this year. The study reveals that the EU's plans for biofuels will result in the conversion of up to 69,000 square kilometres of land to agricultural use due to ILUC. This will potentially put forests, other natural ecosystems, and poor communities at risk. Land conversion on such a scale will lead to the release of carbon emissions from vegetation and soil, making biofuels more damaging to the climate than the fossil fuels they are designed to replace.

  16. Long-Range Correlations in Sentence Series from A Story of the Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianguang; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A sentence is the natural unit of language. Patterns embedded in series of sentences can be used to model the formation and evolution of languages, and to solve practical problems such as evaluating linguistic ability. In this paper, we apply de-trended fluctuation analysis to detect long-range correlations embedded in sentence series from A Story of the Stone, one of the greatest masterpieces of Chinese literature. We identified a weak long-range correlation, with a Hurst exponent of 0.575±0.002 up to a scale of 104. We used the structural stability to confirm the behavior of the long-range correlation, and found that different parts of the series had almost identical Hurst exponents. We found that noisy records can lead to false results and conclusions, even if the noise covers a limited proportion of the total records (e.g., less than 1%). Thus, the structural stability test is an essential procedure for confirming the existence of long-range correlations, which has been widely neglected in previous studies. Furthermore, a combination of de-trended fluctuation analysis and diffusion entropy analysis demonstrated that the sentence series was generated by a fractional Brownian motion.

  17. Quantum transport with long-range steps on Watts-Strogatz networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2016-07-01

    We study transport dynamics of quantum systems with long-range steps on the Watts-Strogatz network (WSN) which is generated by rewiring links of the regular ring. First, we probe physical systems modeled by the discrete nonlinear schrödinger (DNLS) equation. Using the localized initial condition, we compute the time-averaged occupation probability of the initial site, which is related to the nonlinearity, the long-range steps and rewiring links. Self-trapping transitions occur at large (small) nonlinear parameters for coupling ɛ=-1 (1), as long-range interactions are intensified. The structure disorder induced by random rewiring, however, has dual effects for ɛ=-1 and inhibits the self-trapping behavior for ɛ=1. Second, we investigate continuous-time quantum walks (CTQW) on the regular ring ruled by the discrete linear schrödinger (DLS) equation. It is found that only the presence of the long-range steps does not affect the efficiency of the coherent exciton transport, while only the allowance of random rewiring enhances the partial localization. If both factors are considered simultaneously, localization is greatly strengthened, and the transport becomes worse.

  18. Long-range dispersion interactions. III: Method for two homonuclear atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; Zhang, J.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for systematically evaluating the long-range dispersion interaction between two homonuclear atoms in arbitrary LS coupled states is outlined. The method is then used to generate dispersion coefficients for a number of the low-lying states of the Na and Mg dimers

  19. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westereng, Bjorge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane

    2015-01-01

    cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds...

  20. Efficient Long - Range Electron Transfer Processes in Polyfluorene – Perylene Diimide Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Isakova, Anna

    2018-05-17

    In bulk heterojunction donor-acceptor (D-A) blends, high photovoltaic yields require charge carrier separation to outcompete geminate recombination. Recently, evidence for long-range electron transfer mechanisms has been presented, avoiding strongly-bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states. However, due to the lack of specific optical probes at the D-A interface, a detailed quantification of the long-range processes has not been feasible, until now. Here, we present a transient absorption study of long-range processes in a unique phase consisting of perylene diimide (PDI) crystals intercalated with polyfluorene (PFO), as widely used non-fullerene electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The intercalated PDI:PFO phase possesses specific well-separated spectral features for the excited states at the D-A interface. By use of femtosecond spectroscopy we reveal the excitation dynamics in this blend. PDI excitons undergo a clear symmetry-breaking charge separation in the PDI bulk, which occurs within several hundred femtoseconds, thus outcompeting excimer formation, known to limit charge separation yields when PDI is used as an acceptor. In contrast, PFO excitons are dissociated with very high yields in a one-step long-range process, enabled by large delocalization of the PFO exciton wavefunction. Moreover, both scenarios circumvent the formation of strongly-bound interfacial CT states and enable a targeted interfacial design for bulk heterojunction blends with near unity charge separation yields.

  1. Short versus long range interactions and the size of two-body weakly bound objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, R.J.; Volpe, C.

    2003-01-01

    Very weakly bound systems may manifest intriguing ''universal'' properties, independent of the specific interaction which keeps the system bound. An interesting example is given by relations between the size of the system and the separation energy, or scaling laws. So far, scaling laws have been investigated for short-range and long-range (repulsive) potentials. We report here on scaling laws for weakly bound two-body systems valid for a larger class of potentials, i.e. short-range potentials having a repulsive core and long-range attractive potentials. We emphasize analogies and differences between the short- and the long-range case. In particular, we show that the emergence of halos is a threshold phenomenon which can arise when the system is bound not only by short-range interactions but also by long-range ones, and this for any value of the orbital angular momentum l. These results enlarge the image of halo systems we are accustomed to. (orig.)

  2. 25 CFR 170.411 - What may a long-range transportation plan include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Social and economic development planning to identify transportation improvements or needs to accommodate... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What may a long-range transportation plan include? 170.411 Section 170.411 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN...

  3. Current transport properties and phase diagram of a Kitaev chain with long-range pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Paganelli, Simone; Lepori, Luca

    2018-04-01

    We describe a method to probe the quantum phase transition between the short-range topological phase and the long-range topological phase in the superconducting Kitaev chain with long-range pairing, both exhibiting subgap modes localized at the edges. The method relies on the effects of the finite mass of the subgap edge modes in the long-range regime (which survives in the thermodynamic limit) on the single-particle scattering coefficients through the chain connected to two normal leads. Specifically, we show that, when the leads are biased at a voltage V with respect to the superconducting chain, the Fano factor is either zero (in the short-range correlated phase) or 2 e (in the long-range correlated phase). As a result, we find that the Fano factor works as a directly measurable quantity to probe the quantum phase transition between the two phases. In addition, we note a remarkable "critical fractionalization effect" in the Fano factor, which is exactly equal to e along the quantum critical line. Finally, we note that a dual implementation of our proposed device makes it suitable as a generator of large-distance entangled two-particle states.

  4. Flexible long-range surface plasmon polariton single-mode waveguide for optical interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernoux, Christian; Chen, Yiting; Markey, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide arrays with materials, mainly silicones, carefully selected with the aim to be used as mechanically flexible single-mode optical interconnections, the socalled "plasmonic arc" working at 1.55μm...

  5. Data transmission in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharitonov, S.; Kiselev, R.; Kumar, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the data transmission of 10 Gbit/s on-off keying modulated 1550 nm signal through a long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide structure with negligible signal degradation. In the experiment the bit error rate penalties do not exceed 0.6 dB over the 15 nm...

  6. Free cooling of hard-spheres with short and long range interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Briones, Sebastián; Thornton, Anthony Richard; Luding, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We study the stability, the clustering and the phase-diagram of free cooling granular gases. The systems consist of mono-disperse particles with additional non-contact (long-range) interactions, and are simulated here by the event-driven molecular dynamics algorithm with discrete (short-range

  7. Memory traces of long-range coordinated oscillations in the sleeping human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, Giovanni; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Jensen, Ole; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2015-01-01

    Cognition involves coordinated activity across distributed neuronal networks. Neuronal activity during learning triggers cortical plasticity that allows for reorganization of the neuronal network and integration of new information. Animal studies have shown post-learning reactivation of learning-elicited neuronal network activity during subsequent sleep, supporting consolidation of the reorganization. However, no previous studies, to our knowledge, have demonstrated reactivation of specific learning-elicited long-range functional connectivity during sleep in humans. We here show reactivation of learning-induced long-range synchronization of magnetoencephalography power fluctuations in human sleep. Visuomotor learning elicited a specific profile of long-range cortico-cortical synchronization of slow (0.1 Hz) fluctuations in beta band (12-30 Hz) power. The parieto-occipital part of this synchronization profile reappeared in delta band (1-3.5 Hz) power fluctuations during subsequent sleep, but not during the intervening wakefulness period. Individual differences in the reactivated synchronization predicted postsleep performance improvement. The presleep resting-state synchronization profile was not reactivated during sleep. The findings demonstrate reactivation of long-range coordination of neuronal activity in humans, more specifically of reactivation of coupling of infra-slow fluctuations in oscillatory power. The spatiotemporal profile of delta power fluctuations during sleep may subserve memory consolidation by echoing coordinated activation elicited by prior learning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Long-Range Correlations in Sentence Series from A Story of the Stone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianguang Yang

    Full Text Available A sentence is the natural unit of language. Patterns embedded in series of sentences can be used to model the formation and evolution of languages, and to solve practical problems such as evaluating linguistic ability. In this paper, we apply de-trended fluctuation analysis to detect long-range correlations embedded in sentence series from A Story of the Stone, one of the greatest masterpieces of Chinese literature. We identified a weak long-range correlation, with a Hurst exponent of 0.575±0.002 up to a scale of 104. We used the structural stability to confirm the behavior of the long-range correlation, and found that different parts of the series had almost identical Hurst exponents. We found that noisy records can lead to false results and conclusions, even if the noise covers a limited proportion of the total records (e.g., less than 1%. Thus, the structural stability test is an essential procedure for confirming the existence of long-range correlations, which has been widely neglected in previous studies. Furthermore, a combination of de-trended fluctuation analysis and diffusion entropy analysis demonstrated that the sentence series was generated by a fractional Brownian motion.

  9. The long-range correlation and evolution law of centennial-scale temperatures in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohui; Lian, Yi; Wang, Qiguang

    2018-01-01

    This paper applies the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method to investigate the long-range correlation of monthly mean temperatures from three typical measurement stations at Harbin, Changchun, and Shenyang in Northeast China from 1909 to 2014. The results reveal the memory characteristics of the climate system in this region. By comparing the temperatures from different time periods and investigating the variations of its scaling exponents at the three stations during these different time periods, we found that the monthly mean temperature has long-range correlation, which indicates that the temperature in Northeast China has long-term memory and good predictability. The monthly time series of temperatures over the past 106 years also shows good long-range correlation characteristics. These characteristics are also obviously observed in the annual mean temperature time series. Finally, we separated the centennial-length temperature time series into two time periods. These results reveal that the long-range correlations at the Harbin station over these two time periods have large variations, whereas no obvious variations are observed at the other two stations. This indicates that warming affects the regional climate system's predictability differently at different time periods. The research results can provide a quantitative reference point for regional climate predictability assessment and future climate model evaluation.

  10. Switching between bistable states in a discrete nonlinear model with long-range dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Magnus; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of a discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with long-range dispersion, we propose a general mechanism for obtaining a controlled switching between bistable localized excitations. We show that the application of a spatially symmetric kick leads to the excitation of an internal...

  11. Library Services and Construction Act. Long Range Plan, 1982-1986 Updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Edward

    This 1982-86 update to long-range planning designed to continue the improvement of library facilities and services in Texas includes a review of how the plan developed, the various environmental factors affecting library operations, the present development of libraries, information needs and approaches to satisfying those needs, and methods for…

  12. Comparative analysis of long-range calls in equid stallions (Equidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accordingly to its harem social system (type I), the pattern of long-range call in Grant's zebra deviates from that of its relatives in the direction of horses. Frequency of the first dominant band that was associated with body size separated modern horses from the archaic breed and Przewalski's horse. Playback experiments ...

  13. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate...

  14. Long-range carbon-proton spin-spin coupling constants in conformational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoormaker, T.

    1979-01-01

    The author has collected a reliable set of data on long range 13 C- 1 H coupling constants in aliphatic compounds and developed the use of long range 13 C- 1 H coupling constants as a tool in the conformational analysis of aliphatic compounds. An empirical determination of the torsion angle dependence of the vicinal 13 C- 1 H coupling constant for model compounds is described and the dependence of long range 13 C- 1 H coupling constants on the electronegativity of substituents attached to the coupling pathway reported for the monohalogen substituted ethanes and propanes. The electronegativity dependence of the vicinal 13 C- 1 H coupling was studied in monosubstituted propanes whose substituents are elements from the first row of the periodic table and it is shown that the vicinal 13 C- 1 H coupling constant in aliphatic systems is a constitutive property. The geminal 13 C- 1 H coupling constants in ethyl, isopropyl and tert-butyl compounds, which have been substituted by an element of the first row of the periodic table or a haline atom, are reported and the influence of electronegative substituents on the vicinal 13 C- 1 H coupling constants in the individual rotamers of 13 CH 3 -C(X)H-C(Y)H- 1 H fragments discussed. The application of long range 13 C- 1 H coupling constants to the conformational analysis of CMP-N-Acetylneuraminic acid and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-oxathiane is described. (Auth.)

  15. Analysing the origin of long-range interactions in proteins using lattice models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Ron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-range communication is very common in proteins but the physical basis of this phenomenon remains unclear. In order to gain insight into this problem, we decided to explore whether long-range interactions exist in lattice models of proteins. Lattice models of proteins have proven to capture some of the basic properties of real proteins and, thus, can be used for elucidating general principles of protein stability and folding. Results Using a computational version of double-mutant cycle analysis, we show that long-range interactions emerge in lattice models even though they are not an input feature of them. The coupling energy of both short- and long-range pairwise interactions is found to become more positive (destabilizing in a linear fashion with increasing 'contact-frequency', an entropic term that corresponds to the fraction of states in the conformational ensemble of the sequence in which the pair of residues is in contact. A mathematical derivation of the linear dependence of the coupling energy on 'contact-frequency' is provided. Conclusion Our work shows how 'contact-frequency' should be taken into account in attempts to stabilize proteins by introducing (or stabilizing contacts in the native state and/or through 'negative design' of non-native contacts.

  16. Addressing Spatial Variability of Surface-Layer Wind with Long-Range WindScanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    of the WindScanner data is high, although the fidelity of the estimated vertical velocity component is significantly limited by the elevation angles of the scanner heads. The system of long-range WindScanners presented in this paper is close to being fully operational, with the pilot study herein serving...

  17. The dielectric constant and its role in the long range coherence in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.; Chatterjee, R.

    1984-01-01

    An expression for the dielectric constant has been derived, for the Froehlich model of long-range coherence in biological cells. These theoretical expressions are employed to interpret the observed rouleaux formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is concluded that this unusual behaviour of the erythrocytes can be interpreted satisfactorilly by the extended Froehlich model developed by us. (Author) [pt

  18. Long-range interactions of excited He atoms with ground-state noble-gas atoms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Qian, Ying; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Yan, Z.-C.

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion coefficients C6, C8, and C10 for long-range interactions of He(n1,3S) and He(n1,3P), 2≤n≤10, with the ground-state noble-gas atoms Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are calculated by summing over the reduced matrix elements of multipole transition

  19. Policy Directions for U. S. Agriculture; Long-Range Choices in Farming and Rural Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Marion

    A comprehensive view of agriculture is presented in this volume written to aid critical re-examination of long-range agricultural policy. Farm people, rural institutions and services, rural towns, the spatial organization of agriculture, and its capital structure, in addition to the usual subjects of agricultural output, demand, trade, price, and…

  20. Long-range surface polaritons in thin layers of absorbing materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Long-range surface polaritons (LRSPs) are electromagnetic surface modes confined at the interfaces of an thin film surrounded by a homogeneous dielectric. These modes are generally characterized by the subwavelength confinement and the long propagation length. In case of a metallic thin film, the

  1. Mechatronic design of a fast and long range 4 degrees of freedom humanoid neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Bennik, J.; Leideman, J.; Soemers, Herman; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the mechatronic design of a humanoid neck. To research human machine interaction, the head and neck combination should be able to approach the human behavior as much as possible. We present a novel humanoid neck concept that is both fast, and has a long range of motion in 4

  2. Efficient Long - Range Electron Transfer Processes in Polyfluorene – Perylene Diimide Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Isakova, Anna; Karuthedath, Safakath; Arnold, Thomas; Howse, Jonathan; Topham, Paul D.; Toolan, Daniel Thomas William; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Lü er, Larry

    2018-01-01

    In bulk heterojunction donor-acceptor (D-A) blends, high photovoltaic yields require charge carrier separation to outcompete geminate recombination. Recently, evidence for long-range electron transfer mechanisms has been presented, avoiding strongly-bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states. However, due to the lack of specific optical probes at the D-A interface, a detailed quantification of the long-range processes has not been feasible, until now. Here, we present a transient absorption study of long-range processes in a unique phase consisting of perylene diimide (PDI) crystals intercalated with polyfluorene (PFO), as widely used non-fullerene electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The intercalated PDI:PFO phase possesses specific well-separated spectral features for the excited states at the D-A interface. By use of femtosecond spectroscopy we reveal the excitation dynamics in this blend. PDI excitons undergo a clear symmetry-breaking charge separation in the PDI bulk, which occurs within several hundred femtoseconds, thus outcompeting excimer formation, known to limit charge separation yields when PDI is used as an acceptor. In contrast, PFO excitons are dissociated with very high yields in a one-step long-range process, enabled by large delocalization of the PFO exciton wavefunction. Moreover, both scenarios circumvent the formation of strongly-bound interfacial CT states and enable a targeted interfacial design for bulk heterojunction blends with near unity charge separation yields.

  3. Long-range prospects of world energy demands and future energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Yasuji

    1998-01-01

    The long-range prospects for world energy demands are reviewed, and the major factors which are influential in relation to energy demands are discussed. The potential for various kinds of conventional and new energy sources such as fossil fuels, solar energies, nuclear fission, and fusion energies to need future energy demands is also discussed. (author)

  4. Effective theory and breakdown of conformal symmetry in a long-range quantum chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, L.; Vodola, D.; Pupillo, G.; Gori, G.; Trombettoni, A.

    2016-11-01

    We deal with the problem of studying the symmetries and the effective theories of long-range models around their critical points. A prominent issue is to determine whether they possess (or not) conformal symmetry (CS) at criticality and how the presence of CS depends on the range of the interactions. To have a model, both simple to treat and interesting, where to investigate these questions, we focus on the Kitaev chain with long-range pairings decaying with distance as power-law with exponent α. This is a quadratic solvable model, yet displaying non-trivial quantum phase transitions. Two critical lines are found, occurring respectively at a positive and a negative chemical potential. Focusing first on the critical line at positive chemical potential, by means of a renormalization group approach we derive its effective theory close to criticality. Our main result is that the effective action is the sum of two terms: a Dirac action SD, found in the short-range Ising universality class, and an "anomalous" CS breaking term SAN. While SD originates from low-energy excitations in the spectrum, SAN originates from the higher energy modes where singularities develop, due to the long-range nature of the model. At criticality SAN flows to zero for α > 2, while for α limit α → ∞ the ELI is restored. In order to test the validity of the determined effective theory, we compared the two-fermion static correlation functions and the von Neumann entropy obtained from them with the ones calculated on the lattice, finding agreement. These results explain two observed features characteristic of long-range models, the hybrid decay of static correlation functions within gapped phases and the area-law violation for the von Neumann entropy. The proposed scenario is expected to hold in other long-range models displaying quasiparticle excitations in ballistic regime. From the effective theory one can also see that new phases emerge for α model, are not altered. This also shows

  5. Intrinsic vs. spurious long-range memory in high-frequency records of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, R.V.; Potirakis, S.M.; Barbosa, S.M.; Matos, J.A.O.; Pereira, A.J.S.C.; Neves, L.J.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in the environmental radioactivity fluctuations has recently attracted considerable interest. Among a multiplicity of practically relevant applications, identifying and disentangling the environmental factors controlling the variable concentrations of the radioactive noble gas radon is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we present a critical re-assessment of a multiplicity of complementary methods that have been previously applied for evaluating the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling in environmental radon variations with a particular focus on the specific properties of the underlying time series. As an illustrative case study, we subsequently re-analyze two high-frequency records of indoor radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several weeks of continuous measurements at a high temporal resolution of five minutes. Our results reveal that at the study site, radon concentrations exhibit complex multi-scale dynamics with qualitatively different properties at different time-scales: (i) essentially white noise in the high-frequency part (up to time-scales of about one hour), (ii) spurious indications of a non-stationary, apparently long-range correlated process (at time scales between some hours and one day) arising from marked periodic components, and (iii) low-frequency variability indicating a true long-range dependent process. In the presence of such multi-scale variability, common estimators of long-range memory in time series are prone to fail if applied to the raw data without previous separation of time-scales with qualitatively different dynamics. (authors)

  6. Long-range GABAergic connections distributed throughout the neocortex and their possible function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki eTamamaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Features and functions of long range GABAergic projection neurons in the developing cerebral cortex have been reported previously, although until now their significance in the adult cerebral cortex has remained uncertain. The septo-hippocampal circuit is one exception – in this system, long range mature GABAergic projection neurons have been well analyzed and their contribution to the generation of theta-oscillatory behavior in the hippocampus has been documented. To have a clue to the function of the GABAergic projection neurons in the neocortex, we view the long range GABAergic projections those participating in the cortico-cortical, cortico-fugal, and afferent projections in the cerebral cortex. Then, we consider the possibility that the GABAergic projection neurons are involved in the generation, modification, and/or synchronization of oscillations in mature neocortical neuron activity. When markers that identify the GABAergic projection neurons are examined in anatomical and developmental studies, it is clear that neuronal NO synthetase (nNOS-immunoreactivity can readily identify GABAergic projection fibers (i.e. those longer than 1.5 mm. To elucidate the role of the GABAergic projection neurons in the neocortex, it will be necessary to clarify the network constructed by nNOS-positive GABAergic projection neurons and their postsynaptic targets. Thus, our long-range goals will be to label and manipulate (including deleting the GABAergic projection neurons using genetic tools driven by a nNOS promoter. We recognize that this may be a complex endeavor, as most excitatory neurons in the murine neocortex express nNOS transiently. Nevertheless, additional studies characterizing long range GABAergic projection neurons will have great value to the overall understanding of mature cortical function.

  7. Exchanges in boundary layer and low troposphere and consequences on pollution of Fos-Berre-Marseille area (ESCOMPTE experiment); Les aerosols: emissions, formation d'aerosols organiques secondaires, transport longue distance. Zoom sur les aerosols carbones en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, B

    2006-01-15

    There are two types of 'carbonaceous aerosols': 'black carbon' (BC) and 'organic carbon'(OC). BC is directly emitted in the atmosphere while OC is either directly emitted (primary OC, OCp) or secondarily formed through oxidation processes in the atmosphere (secondary organic aerosols, SOA). Complexity of carbonaceous aerosols is still poorly represented in existing aerosol models and uncertainties appear mainly both in their emission inventories and in their complex atmospheric evolution (transport, gas-particle interactions, dry/wet deposition), making difficult the estimation of their radiative impact. In this framework, I developed during my PhD at Laboratoire d'Aerologie, a new approach to deal with this complexity, with implementation of both a new carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory and a new aerosol modelling tool at global scale. My work is divided in 5 different tasks: - better characterisation of BC and OCp emissions, achieved through the development of a new emission inventory from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion sources (industrial, domestic and mobile sources). This inventory provides BC and OCp emissions for Europe at 25 km * 25 km resolution for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010, with two additional regional zooms: on France, at 10 km * 10 km resolution for the years 2000 and 2010 with improved road traffic, and in Marseille region (Escompte campaign, 1999,-2001) at 1 km * 1 km resolution for the year 1999; - better modelling of carbonaceous aerosol complex atmospheric evolution, through coupling of a global scale gas transport/chemistry model (TM4) with an aerosol module (ORISAM) featuring size-distributed aerosols (on 8 diameter sections from 40 nm to 10 {mu}m) organic/inorganic chemical composition and explicit treatment of SOA formation; - simulations with this new aerosol model ORISAM-TM4 and model/measurements comparisons to study BC and OC long-range transport; - sensitivity tests on SOA

  8. 25 CFR 170.413 - What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Roads Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.413 What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? BIA or the tribe must solicit public involvement. If there are... newspapers when the draft long-range transportation plan is complete. In the absence of local public...

  9. Wine ethanol 14C as a tracer for fossil fuel CO2 emissions in Europe: Measurements and model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Karstens, Ute; Streurman, Harm-Jan; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2008-11-01

    14C (radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 is the most direct tracer for the presence of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 (CO2-ff). We demonstrate the 14C measurement of wine ethanol as a way to determine the relative regional atmospheric CO2-ff concentration compared to a background site ("regional CO2-ff excess") for specific harvest years. The carbon in wine ethanol is directly back traceable to the atmospheric CO2 that the plants assimilate. An important advantage of using wine is that the atmosphere can be monitored annually back in time. We have analyzed a total of 165 wines, mainly from harvest years 1990-1993 and 2003-2004, among which is a semicontinuous series (1973-2004) of wines from one vineyard in southwest Germany. The results show clear spatial and temporal variations in the regional CO2-ff excess values. We have compared our measured regional CO2-ff excess values of 2003 and 2004 with those simulated by the REgional MOdel (REMO). The model results show a bias of almost +3 parts per million (ppm) CO2-ff compared with those of the observations. The modeled differences between 2003 and 2004, however, which can be used as a measure for the variability in atmospheric mixing and transport processes, show good agreement with those of the observations all over Europe. Correcting for interannual variations using modeled data produces a regional CO2-ff excess signal that is potentially useful for the verification of trends in regional fossil fuel consumption. In this fashion, analyzing 14C from wine ethanol offers the possibility to observe fossil fuel emissions back in time on many places in Europe and elsewhere.

  10. Ships going slow in reducing their NOx emissions: changes in 2005-2012 ship exhaust inferred from satellite measurements over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkert Boersma, K.; Vinken, Geert C. M.; Tournadre, Jean

    2015-07-01

    We address the lack of temporal information on ship emissions, and report on rapid short-term variations of satellite-derived ship NOx emissions between 2005 and 2012 over European seas. Our inversion is based on OMI observed tropospheric NO2 columns and GEOS-Chem simulations. Average European ship NOx emissions increased by ˜15% from 2005 to 2008. This increase was followed by a reduction of ˜12% in 2009, a direct result of the global economic downturn in 2008-2009, and steady emissions from 2009 to 2012. Observations of ship passages through the Suez Canal and satellite altimeter derived ship densities suggests that ships in the Mediterranean Sea have reduced their speed by more than 30% since 2008. This reduction in ship speed is accompanied by a persistent 45% reduction of average, per ship NOx emission factors. Our results indicate that the practice of ‘slow steaming’, i.e. the lowering of vessel speed to reduce fuel consumption, has indeed been implemented since 2008, and can be detected from space. In spite of the implementation of slow steaming, one in seven of all NOx molecules emitted in Europe in 2012 originated from the shipping sector, up from one in nine in 2005. The growing share of the shipping contributions to the overall European NOx emissions suggests a need for the shipping sector to implement additional measures to reduce pollutant emissions at rates that are achieved by the road transport and energy producing sectors in Europe.

  11. Constraints on long-range spin-gravity and monopole-dipole couplings of the proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F.; Dudley, Jordan; Li, Yan; Patel, Dilan; Valdez, Julian

    2017-10-01

    Results of a search for a long-range monopole-dipole coupling between the mass of the Earth and rubidium (Rb) nuclear spins are reported. The experiment simultaneously measures the spin precession frequencies of overlapping ensembles of 85Rb and 87Rb atoms contained within an evacuated, antirelaxation-coated vapor cell. The nuclear structure of the Rb isotopes makes the experiment particularly sensitive to spin-dependent interactions of the proton. The spin-dependent component of the gravitational energy of the proton in the Earth's field is found to be smaller than 3 ×10-18 eV , improving laboratory constraints on long-range monopole-dipole interactions by over 3 orders of magnitude.

  12. Short-range/Long-range Integrated Target (SLIT) for Video Guidance Sensor Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Fred D. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A laser target reflector assembly for mounting upon spacecraft having a long-range reflector array formed from a plurality of unfiltered light reflectors embedded in an array pattern upon a hemispherical reflector disposed upon a mounting plate. The reflector assembly also includes a short-range reflector array positioned upon the mounting body proximate to the long-range reflector array. The short-range reflector array includes three filtered light reflectors positioned upon extensions from the mounting body. The three filtered light reflectors retro-reflect substantially all incident light rays that are transmissive by their monochromatic filters and received by the three filtered light reflectors. In one embodiment the short-range reflector array is embedded within the hemispherical reflector,

  13. Multifractal analysis of the long-range correlations in the cardiac dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Yankulova, Elka D.

    2006-01-01

    By means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) we investigate long-range correlations in the interbeat time series of heart activity of Drosophila melanogaster-the classical object of research in genetics. Our main investigation tool are the fractal spectra f(α) and h(q) by means of which we trace the correlation properties of Drosophila heartbeat dynamics for three consequent generations of species. We observe that opposite to the case of humans the time series of the heartbeat activity of healthy Drosophila do not have scaling properties. Time series from species with genetic defects can be long-range correlated. Different kinds of genetic heart defects lead to different shape of the fractal spectra. The fractal heartbeat dynamics of Drosophila is transferred from generation to generation

  14. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A P; Mateos, José L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.

  15. Search for Long-Range Correlations in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions at SPS Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range correlations are searched for by analysing the experimental data on 16O-AgBr and 32S-AgBr collisions at 200 A GeV/c and the results are compared with the predictions of a multi phase transport (AMPT model. The findings reveal that the observed forward-backward (F-B multiplicity correlations are mainly of short range in nature. The range of F-B correlations are observed to extend with increasing projectile mass. The observed extended range of F-B correlations might be due to overall multiplicity fluctuations arising because of nuclear geometry. The findings are not sufficient for making any definite conclusions regarding the presence of long-range correlations.

  16. Long-range effect in nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budzynski, P., E-mail: p.budzynski@pollub.pl

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on AISI 316L stainless steel was investigated. The microstructure and composition of an N implanted layer were studied by RBS, GIXRD, SEM, and EDX measurements. Friction and wear tests were also performed. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated stopped ion maximum range does not exceed 0.03 μm. After nitrogen implantation with a fluence of 5 × 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}, additional phases of expanded austenite were detected. At a 5-fold larger depth than the maximum ion range, improvement in the coefficient of friction and wear was detected. We have shown, for the first time, the long-range effect in tribological investigations. The long-range effect is caused by movement of not only defects along the depth of the sample, as assumed so far, but also nitrogen atoms.

  17. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevy, Juliette, E-mail: juliette.chevy@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)] [Laboratoire Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, Grenoble INP-CNRS-UJF, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz/CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Bastie, Pierre [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)] [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Duval, Paul [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-03-15

    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  18. Self-organized molecular films with long-range quasiperiodic order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournée, Vincent; Gaudry, Émilie; Ledieu, Julian; de Weerd, Marie-Cécile; Wu, Dongmei; Lograsso, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    Self-organized molecular films with long-range quasiperiodic order have been grown by using the complex potential energy landscape of quasicrystalline surfaces as templates. The long-range order arises from a specific subset of quasilattice sites acting as preferred adsorption sites for the molecules, thus enforcing a quasiperiodic structure in the film. These adsorption sites exhibit a local 5-fold symmetry resulting from the cut by the surface plane through the cluster units identified in the bulk solid. Symmetry matching between the C60 fullerene and the substrate leads to a preferred adsorption configuration of the molecules with a pentagonal face down, a feature unique to quasicrystalline surfaces, enabling efficient chemical bonding at the molecule-substrate interface. This finding offers opportunities to investigate the physical properties of model 2D quasiperiodic systems, as the molecules can be functionalized to yield architectures with tailor-made properties.

  19. Note: long range and accurate measurement of deep trench microstructures by a specialized scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Wule; Jin, Chao; Fang, F Z

    2012-05-01

    A compact but practical scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high aspect ratio and high depth capability has been specially developed. Long range scanning mechanism with tilt-adjustment stage is adopted for the purpose of adjusting the probe-sample relative angle to compensate the non-parallel effects. A periodical trench microstructure with a pitch of 10 μm has been successfully imaged with a long scanning range up to 2.0 mm. More innovatively, a deep trench with depth and step height of 23.0 μm has also been successfully measured, and slope angle of the sidewall can approximately achieve 67°. The probe can continuously climb the high step and exploring the trench bottom without tip crashing. The new STM could perform long range measurement for the deep trench and high step surfaces without image distortion. It enables accurate measurement and quality control of periodical trench microstructures.

  20. Chiral d -wave superconductivity in a triangular surface lattice mediated by long-range interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaodong; Ayral, Thomas; Zhong, Zhicheng; Parcollet, Olivier; Manske, Dirk; Hansmann, Philipp

    2018-04-01

    Adatom systems on the Si(111) surface have recently attracted an increasing attention as strongly correlated systems with a rich phase diagram. We study these materials by a single band model on the triangular lattice, including 1 /r long-range interaction. Employing the recently proposed TRILEX method, we find an unconventional superconducting phase of chiral d -wave symmetry in hole-doped systems. Contrary to usual scenarios where charge and spin fluctuations are seen to compete, here the superconductivity is driven simultaneously by both charge and spin fluctuations and crucially relies on the presence of the long-range tail of the interaction. We provide an analysis of the relevant collective bosonic modes and predict how a cumulative charge and spin paring mechanism leads to superconductivity in doped silicon adatom materials.

  1. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A

    1978-01-01

    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  2. UMER: An analog computer for dynamics of swarms interacting via long-range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishek, R.A.; Bai, G.; Bernal, S.; Feldman, D.; Godlove, T.F.; Haber, I.; O'Shea, P.G.; Quinn, B.; Papadopoulos, C.; Reiser, M.; Stratakis, D.; Tian, K.; Tobin, C.J.; Walter, M.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the most challenging and interesting problems in nature involve large numbers of objects or particles mutually interacting through long-range forces. Examples range from galaxies and plasmas to flocks of birds and traffic flow on a highway. Even in cases where the form of the interacting force is precisely known, such as the 1/r 2 -dependent Coulomb and gravitational forces, such problems present a formidable theoretical and modeling challenge for large numbers of interacting bodies. This paper reports on a newly constructed, scaled particle accelerator that will serve as an experimental testbed for the dynamics of swarms interacting through long-range forces. Primarily designed for intense beam dynamics studies for advanced accelerators, the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) design is described in detail and an update on commissioning is provided. An example application to a system other than a charged particle beam is discussed

  3. Mechanobiological induction of long-range contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The long-range nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to long-range “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development.

  4. FY 1991--FY 1995 Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Department of Energy has consolidated its plans for Information Systems, Computing Resources, and Telecommunications into a single document, the Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan. The consolidation was done as a joint effort by the Office of ADP Management and the Office of Computer Services and Telecommunications Management under the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Administration, Information, and Facilities Management. This Plan is the product of a long-range planning process used to project both future information technology requirements and the resources necessary to meet those requirements. It encompasses the plans of the various organizational components within the Department and its management and operating contractors over the next 5 fiscal years, 1991 through 1995.

  5. Long-range effect in nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, P.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on AISI 316L stainless steel was investigated. The microstructure and composition of an N implanted layer were studied by RBS, GIXRD, SEM, and EDX measurements. Friction and wear tests were also performed. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated stopped ion maximum range does not exceed 0.03 μm. After nitrogen implantation with a fluence of 5 × 1017 ion/cm2, additional phases of expanded austenite were detected. At a 5-fold larger depth than the maximum ion range, improvement in the coefficient of friction and wear was detected. We have shown, for the first time, the long-range effect in tribological investigations. The long-range effect is caused by movement of not only defects along the depth of the sample, as assumed so far, but also nitrogen atoms.

  6. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevy, Juliette; Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent; Bastie, Pierre; Duval, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  7. Yangian symmetry of long-range gl(N) integrable spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beisert, Niklas; Erkal, Denis

    2008-01-01

    An interesting type of spin chain has appeared in the context of the planar AdS/CFT correspondence: it is based on an integrable nearest-neighbor spin chain, and it is perturbatively deformed by long-range interactions which apparently preserve the integrable structure. Similar models can be constructed by demanding the existence of merely one conserved local charge. Although the latter is not a sufficient integrability condition in general, the models often display convincing signs of full integrability. Here we consider a class of long-range spin chains with spins transforming in the fundamental representation of gl(N). For the most general such model with one conserved local charge we construct a conserved Yangian generator and show that it obeys the Serre relations. We thus provide a formal proof of integrability for this class of models

  8. Entropy and long-range memory in random symbolic additive Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, S S; Usatenko, O V

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the entropy of random symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. As a plausible model, we use the high-order additive stationary ergodic Markov chain with long-range memory. Supposing that the correlations between random elements of the chain are weak, we express the conditional entropy of the sequence by means of the symbolic pair correlation function. We also examine an algorithm for estimating the conditional entropy of finite symbolic sequences. We show that the entropy contains two contributions, i.e., the correlation and the fluctuation. The obtained analytical results are used for numerical evaluation of the entropy of written English texts and DNA nucleotide sequences. The developed theory opens the way for constructing a more consistent and sophisticated approach to describe the systems with strong short-range and weak long-range memory.

  9. Common long-range dependence in a panel of hourly Nord Pool electricity prices and loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Haldrup, Niels; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    to strong seasonal periodicity, and along the cross-sectional dimension, i.e. the hours of the day, there is a strong dependence which necessarily has to be accounted for in order to avoid spurious inference when focusing on the time series dependence alone. The long-range dependence is modelled in terms...... of a fractionally integrated panel data model and it is shown that both prices and loads consist of common factors with long memory and with loadings that vary considerably during the day. Due to the competitiveness of the Nordic power market the aggregate supply curve approximates well the marginal costs...... data approaches to analyse the time series and the cross-sectional dependence of hourly Nord Pool electricity spot prices and loads for the period 2000-2013. Hourly electricity prices and loads data are characterized by strong serial long-range dependence in the time series dimension in addition...

  10. Acoustically mediated long-range interaction among multiple spherical particles exposed to a plane standing wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shenwei; Qiu, Chunyin; Wang, Mudi; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the acoustically mediated interaction forces among multiple well-separated spherical particles trapped in the same node or antinode plane of a standing wave. An analytical expression of the acoustic interaction force is derived, which is accurate even for the particles beyond the Rayleigh limit. Interestingly, the multi-particle system can be decomposed into a series of independent two-particle systems described by pairwise interactions. Each pairwise interaction is a long-range interaction, as characterized by a soft oscillatory attenuation (at the power exponent of n  = −1 or −2). The vector additivity of the acoustic interaction force, which is not well expected considering the nonlinear nature of the acoustic radiation force, is greatly useful for exploring a system consisting of a large number of particles. The capability of self-organizing a big particle cluster can be anticipated through such acoustically controllable long-range interaction. (paper)

  11. Information resources management long-range plan, FY1994--1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This document describes IRM activities and the information technology resources and capabilities of the Department, the future requirements, and the strategies and plans to satisfy the identified requirements. The long-range planning process provides the systematic means to meet this objective and assists the Department in assuring that information technology (IT) support is provided in an efficient, effective, and timely manner so that its programmatic missions can be accomplished. Another important objective of the Plan is to promote better understanding, both within and external to the Department, of its IT environment, requirements, issues, and recommended solutions. This DOE IRM Plan takes into consideration the IRM requirements of approximately 50 different sites. The annual long-range planning cycle for supporting this Plan was initiated by a Call in August 1991 for site plans to be submitted in February 1992 by those Departmental components and contractors with major IRM requirements.

  12. Information resources management long-range plan, FY1994--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This document describes IRM activities and the information technology resources and capabilities of the Department, the future requirements, and the strategies and plans to satisfy the identified requirements. The long-range planning process provides the systematic means to meet this objective and assists the Department in assuring that information technology (IT) support is provided in an efficient, effective, and timely manner so that its programmatic missions can be accomplished. Another important objective of the Plan is to promote better understanding, both within and external to the Department, of its IT environment, requirements, issues, and recommended solutions. This DOE IRM Plan takes into consideration the IRM requirements of approximately 50 different sites. The annual long-range planning cycle for supporting this Plan was initiated by a Call in August 1991 for site plans to be submitted in February 1992 by those Departmental components and contractors with major IRM requirements

  13. Boosting nearest-neighbour to long-range integrable spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargheer, Till; Beisert, Niklas; Loebbert, Florian

    2008-01-01

    We present an integrability-preserving recursion relation for the explicit construction of long-range spin chain Hamiltonians. These chains are generalizations of the Haldane–Shastry and Inozemtsev models and they play an important role in recent advances in string/gauge duality. The method is based on arbitrary nearest-neighbour integrable spin chains and it sheds light on the moduli space of deformation parameters. We also derive the closed chain asymptotic Bethe equations. (letter)

  14. TRADOS - an air trajectory dose model for long range transport of radioactive release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Valkama, I.

    1985-01-01

    A model for estimating radiation doses resulting from long range atmospheric transport of released radionuclides in accidents is precented. The model (TRADOS) is able to treat changing diffusion conditions. For example the plume can be exposed to temporary rain, changes in turbulence and mixing depth. This can result in considerable changes in individual doses. The method is applied to an example trajectory and the doses caused by a serious reactor accident are calculated

  15. Sampling and instrumentation requirements for long-range D and D activities at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Assistance was requested to help determine sampling and instrumentation requirements for the long-range decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Through a combination of literature review, visits to other DOE contractors, and a determination of the needs for the INEL program, a draft report has been prepared that is now under review. The final report should be completed in FY 84

  16. Perfomance of a high purity germanium multi-detector telescope for long range particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepe, G.; Protic, D.; Suekoesd, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Frascaria, N.; Gerlic, E.; Hourani, E.; Morlet, M.

    1980-01-01

    A telescope of stacked high purity germanium detectors designed for long range charged particles was tested using medium energy protons. Particle identification and the rejection of the low energy tail could be accomplished on-line allowing the measurement of complex spectra. The efficiency of the detector stack for protons was measured up to 156 MeV incoming energy. The various factors affecting the energy resolution are discussed and their estimated contributions are compared with the experimental results

  17. An Energy-Efficient Link with Adaptive Transmit Power Control for Long Range Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, P.; Blaszczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research is carried out to develop a reliable smart sensor system with high energy efficiency for battery operated wireless IoT devices in the agriculture sector. However, only a limited amount of research has covered automatic transmission power adjustment schemes...... and algorithms which are essential for deployment of wireless IoT nodes. This paper presents an adaptive link algorithm for farm applications with emphasis on power adjustment for long range communication networks....

  18. Long-range dispersion interactions. I. Formalism for two heteronuclear atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Mitroy, J.

    2007-01-01

    A general procedure for systematically evaluating the long-range dispersion interaction between two heteronuclear atoms in arbitrary states is outlined. The C 6 dispersion parameter can always be written in terms of sum rules involving oscillator strengths only and formulas for a number of symmetry cases are given. The dispersion coefficients for excited alkali-metal atoms interacting with the ground-state H and He are tabulated

  19. Detecting long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis: Application to BWR stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Vazquez, Alejandro [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to explore the application of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study boiling water reactor stability. DFA is a scaling method commonly used for detecting long-range correlations in non-stationary time series. This method is based on the random walk theory and was applied to neutronic power signal of Forsmark stability benchmark. Our results shows that the scaling properties breakdown during unstable oscillations.

  20. Real-space, mean-field algorithm to numerically calculate long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhe, A.; Costa, B. V.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range interactions are known to be of difficult treatment in statistical mechanics models. There are some approaches that introduce a cutoff in the interactions or make use of reaction field approaches. However, those treatments suffer the illness of being of limited use, in particular close to phase transitions. The use of open boundary conditions allows the sum of the long-range interactions over the entire system to be done, however, this approach demands a sum over all degrees of freedom in the system, which makes a numerical treatment prohibitive. Techniques like the Ewald summation or fast multipole expansion account for the exact interactions but are still limited to a few thousands of particles. In this paper we introduce a novel mean-field approach to treat long-range interactions. The method is based in the division of the system in cells. In the inner cell, that contains the particle in sight, the 'local' interactions are computed exactly, the 'far' contributions are then computed as the average over the particles inside a given cell with the particle in sight for each of the remaining cells. Using this approach, the large and small cells limits are exact. At a fixed cell size, the method also becomes exact in the limit of large lattices. We have applied the procedure to the two-dimensional anisotropic dipolar Heisenberg model. A detailed comparison between our method, the exact calculation and the cutoff radius approximation were done. Our results show that the cutoff-cell approach outperforms any cutoff radius approach as it maintains the long-range memory present in these interactions, contrary to the cutoff radius approximation. Besides that, we calculated the critical temperature and the critical behavior of the specific heat of the anisotropic Heisenberg model using our method. The results are in excellent agreement with extensive Monte Carlo simulations using Ewald summation.

  1. Release of long-range tertiary interactions potentiates aggregation of natively unstructured α-synuclein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Jung, Young-Sang; Fernandez, Claudio O.; Hoyer, Wolfgang; Griesinger, Christian; Jovin, Thomas M.; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2005-01-01

    In idiopathic Parkinson's disease, intracytoplasmic neuronal inclusions (Lewy bodies) containing aggregates of the protein α-synuclein (αS) are deposited in the pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. The mechanisms underlying the structural transition of innocuous, presumably natively unfolded, αS to neurotoxic forms are largely unknown. Using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement and NMR dipolar couplings, we show that monomeric αS assumes conformations that are stabilized by long-range interactio...

  2. Experiments of Long-range Inspection Method in Straight Pipes using Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Lim, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Joo, Y.S.

    2006-02-01

    This report describes experimental results of a long-range inspection method of pipes using ultrasonic guided waves. In chapter 2, theory of guided wave was reviewed. In chapter 3, equipment and procedures which were used in the experiments were described. Detailed specifications of the specimens described in chapter 4. In chapter 5, we analyzed characteristics of guided wave signals according to shapes and sizes of defects and presents results of various signal processing methods

  3. Long-Range Planning Can Improve the Efficiency of Agricultural Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-24

    planning is not done » Conclusions Recommendat ion Agency comments ADVISORY BODIES HAVE HAD MIXED SUCCESS IN AFFECTING LONG-RANGE PLANNING... kfc r Their efforts have more impact on determining priorities for the short-range budgeting cycle rather than influencing development of long...cultural products, (2) developing an efficient marketing and processing system, (3) conserving natural resources, and (4) im- proving the well-being of

  4. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    A long range ordered alloy composition is described consisting essentially of iron, nickel, cobalt, vanadium and a ductility enhancing metal, having the nominal composition (Fe, Ni,Co)/sub 3/(V,M) where M is the ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof. Effective amounts of creep property enhance elements selected from the group cerium, niobium and mixtures thereof sufficient to enhance creep properties in the resulting alloy without adversely affecting the fabrication of the alloy

  5. Enss' theory in long range scattering: Second order hyperbolic and parabolic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthuramalingam, P.

    1984-01-01

    We prove asymptotic completeness using Enss' method for h 0 (P)+Wsub(S)(Q)+Wsub(L)(Q) where h 0 :Rsup(n) -> R is a polynomial of degree 2 with lim vertical strokeh 0 (zeta)vertical stroke +/nabla h 0 (zeta)vertical stroke = infinite, Wsub(S) a short range potential and Wsub(L) a smooth long range potential. (orig.)

  6. Simulation of wire-compensation of long range beam beam interaction in high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda, U.; )

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We present weak-strong simulation results for the effect of long-range beam-beam (LRBB) interaction in LHC as well as for proposed wire compensation schemes or wire experiments, respectively. In particular, we discuss details of the simulation model, instability indicators, the effectiveness of compensation, the difference between nominal and PACMAN bunches for the LHC, beam experiments, and wire tolerances. The simulations are performed with the new code BBTrack. (author)

  7. Possible biomechanical origins of the long-range correlations in stride intervals of walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Deanna H.; Su, Jimmy L.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2007-07-01

    When humans walk, the time duration of each stride varies from one stride to the next. These temporal fluctuations exhibit long-range correlations. It has been suggested that these correlations stem from higher nervous system centers in the brain that control gait cycle timing. Existing proposed models of this phenomenon have focused on neurophysiological mechanisms that might give rise to these long-range correlations, and generally ignored potential alternative mechanical explanations. We hypothesized that a simple mechanical system could also generate similar long-range correlations in stride times. We modified a very simple passive dynamic model of bipedal walking to incorporate forward propulsion through an impulsive force applied to the trailing leg at each push-off. Push-off forces were varied from step to step by incorporating both “sensory” and “motor” noise terms that were regulated by a simple proportional feedback controller. We generated 400 simulations of walking, with different combinations of sensory noise, motor noise, and feedback gain. The stride time data from each simulation were analyzed using detrended fluctuation analysis to compute a scaling exponent, α. This exponent quantified how each stride interval was correlated with previous and subsequent stride intervals over different time scales. For different variations of the noise terms and feedback gain, we obtained short-range correlations (α1.0). Our results indicate that a simple biomechanical model of walking can generate long-range correlations and thus perhaps these correlations are not a complex result of higher level neuronal control, as has been previously suggested.

  8. Long-range transport of air pollution under light gradient wind conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, H.; Sasaki, K.; Muroga, H.; Ueda, H.; Wakamatsu, S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-range transport of air pollution on clear days under light gradient wind conditions is investigated from an analysis of all days with high oxidant concentrations in 1979 at locations in central Japan that are far from pollutant sources. Surface-level wind and pressure distributions over a 300 x 300 km area were analyzed, together with concentration isopleths of oxidants and suspended particles produced by photochemical reactions

  9. Mobile network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per; Jensen, Henrik M.

    2016-01-01

    In this report we have presented the network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system that allows utilization of mobile network connections without the use of static public IP addresses. The architecture mitigates the issues of additional fees and contractual obligations that are linked to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki...

  10. Structure factor of 36Ar and long range pair-potential properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barocchi, F.; Chieux, P.; Fredrikze, H.; Magli, R.

    1992-01-01

    Recent diffraction data on low density Ar have been analyzed with the aim of determining the low k behaviour of the structure factor and from that the long range dipole-dipole interaction strength. The results are compared with the presently best known estimates of the van der Waals C 6 coefficient and with a previous analysis of neutron diffraction data on liquid Ar. (orig.)

  11. Thermodynamics and Long-Range Order of Nitrogen in γ'-Fe4N1-x

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Bart J.; Somers, Marcel A.J.; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    Models are given for the description of the chemical potential of nitrogen in γ'-Fe4N1-x. In previous work, γ'-Fe4N1-x was treated as a (sub)regular solution, thereby assuming that the N atoms are distributed randomly on the sites of their own sublattice. However, in γ'-Fe4N1-x, long-range ordering

  12. Detecting long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis: Application to BWR stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Vazquez, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the application of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study boiling water reactor stability. DFA is a scaling method commonly used for detecting long-range correlations in non-stationary time series. This method is based on the random walk theory and was applied to neutronic power signal of Forsmark stability benchmark. Our results shows that the scaling properties breakdown during unstable oscillations

  13. Rolling estimations of long range dependence volatility for high frequency S&P500 index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Chin Wen; Pei, Tan Pei

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the time-varying long range dependence behaviors of the S&P500 volatility index using the modified rescaled adjusted range (R/S) statistic. For better computational result, a high frequency rolling bipower variation realized volatility estimates are used to avoid possible abrupt jump. The empirical analysis findings allow us to understand better the informationally market efficiency before and after the subprime mortgage crisis.

  14. Identification of long-range transport of aerosols over Austria using EARLINET lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelia, Talianu

    2018-04-01

    The aims of the study is to identify the paths of the long-range transported aerosols over Austria and their potential origin, and to estimate their properties, using lidar measurements from EARLINET stations closest to Austria from Germany and Romania and aerosol transport models. As of now, there is no lidar station in Austria. The study is part of a project to estimate the usefulness of a lidar station located in Vienna, Austria.

  15. Enhancing Transportation Equity Analysis for Long Range Planning and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Bills, Tierra Suzan

    2013-01-01

    Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) regularly perform equity analyses for their long-range transportation plans, as this is required by Environmental Justice regulations. These regional-level plans may propose hundreds of transportation infrastructure and policy changes (e.g. highway and transit extensions, fare changes, pricing schemes, etc.) as well as land-use policy changes. The challenge is to assess the distribution of impacts from all the proposed changes across different popula...

  16. Exploring flavor-dependent long-range forces in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabya Sachi; Dasgupta, Arnab; Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The Standard Model gauge group can be extended with minimal matter content by introducing anomaly free U(1) symmetry, such as L e - L μ or L e - L τ . If the neutral gauge boson corresponding to this abelian symmetry is ultra-light, then it will give rise to flavor-dependent long-range leptonic force, which can have significant impact on neutrino oscillations. For an instance, the electrons inside the Sun can generate a flavor-dependent long-range potential at the Earth surface, which can suppress the ν μ → ν e appearance probability in terrestrial experiments. The sign of this potential is opposite for anti-neutrinos, and affects the oscillations of (anti-)neutrinos in different fashion. This feature invokes fake CP-asymmetry like the SM matter effect and can severely affect the leptonic CP-violation searches in long-baseline experiments. In this paper, we study in detail the possible impacts of these long-range flavor-diagonal neutral current interactions due to L e - L μ symmetry, when (anti-)neutrinos travel from Fermilab to Homestake (1300 km) and CERN to Pyhäsalmi (2290 km) in the context of future high-precision superbeam facilities, DUNE and LBNO respectively. If there is no signal of long-range force, DUNE (LBNO) can place stringent constraint on the effective gauge coupling α eμ < 1.9 × 10-53 (7.8 × 10-54) at 90% C.L., which is almost 30 (70) times better than the existing bound from the Super-Kamiokande experiment. We also observe that if α eμ ≥ 2 × 10-52, the CP-violation discovery reach of these future facilities vanishes completely. The mass hierarchy measurement remains robust in DUNE (LBNO) if α eμ < 5 × 10-52 (10-52).

  17. System Estimation of Panel Data Models under Long-Range Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre

    A general dynamic panel data model is considered that incorporates individual and interactive fixed effects allowing for contemporaneous correlation in model innovations. The model accommodates general stationary or nonstationary long-range dependence through interactive fixed effects...... and innovations, removing the necessity to perform a priori unit-root or stationarity testing. Moreover, persistence in innovations and interactive fixed effects allows for cointegration; innovations can also have vector-autoregressive dynamics; deterministic trends can be featured. Estimations are performed...

  18. Multi-scale variability and long-range memory in indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios; Barbosa, Susana

    2014-05-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in the variations of indoor Radon concentrations has recently attracted considerable interest. As a radioactive gas naturally emitted from the ground in certain geological settings, understanding environmental factors controlling Radon concentrations and their dynamics is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we re-analyze two high-resolution records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements. In order to evaluate the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling, we utilize a multiplicity of complementary methods, including power spectral analysis, ARFIMA modeling, classical and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis, and two different estimators of the signals' fractal dimensions. Power spectra and fluctuation functions reveal some complex behavior with qualitatively different properties on different time-scales: white noise in the high-frequency part, indications of some long-range correlated process dominating time scales of several hours to days, and pronounced low-frequency variability associated with tidal and/or meteorological forcing. In order to further decompose these different scales of variability, we apply two different approaches. On the one hand, applying multi-resolution analysis based on the discrete wavelet transform allows separately studying contributions on different time scales and characterize their specific correlation and scaling properties. On the other hand, singular system analysis (SSA) provides a reconstruction of the essential modes of variability. Specifically, by considering only the first leading SSA modes, we achieve an efficient de-noising of our environmental signals, highlighting the low-frequency variations together with some distinct scaling on sub-daily time-scales resembling

  19. Impact of shipping emissions on ozone levels over Europe: assessing the relative importance of the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP) categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Stergiou, Ioannis; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P

    2017-06-01

    The impact of shipping emissions on ozone mixing ratio over Europe is assessed for July 2006 using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research anthropogenic emission inventory. Results suggest that ship-induced ozone contribution to the total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline, while an increase up to 5% is simulated over a large portion of the European land. The largest impact (i.e., an increase up to 30%) is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, shipping emissions are simulated to increase NO 2 mixing ratio more than 90%, locally, and to modify the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere through hydroxyl radical formation (increase by 20-60% over the sea along the European coasts and near the coastal zone). Therefore, emissions from ships may counteract the benefits derived from the anthropogenic emissions reduction strategies over the continent. Simulations suggest regions where shipping emissions have a major impact on ozone mixing ratio compared to individual anthropogenic emission sector categories. Shipping emissions are estimated to play an important role on ozone levels compared to road transport sector near the coastal zone. The impact of shipping emissions on ozone formation is also profound over a great part of the European land compared to the rest of anthropogenic emission categories.

  20. The long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy in response to tensile and compressive stress gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammenzind, B.F.; Berquist, B.M.; Bajaj, R.; Kreyns, P.H.; Franklin, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Zircaloy-4, which is used widely as a core structural material in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), picks up hydrogen during service. Hydrogen solubility in Zircaloy-4 is low and zirconium hydride phases precipitate after the Zircaloy-4 lattice becomes supersaturated with hydrogen. These hydrides embrittle the Zircaloy-4, degrading its mechanical performance as a structural material. Because hydrogen can move rapidly through the Zircaloy-4 lattice, the potential exists for large concentrations of hydride to accumulate in local regions of a Zircaloy component remote from its point of entry into the component. Much has been reported in the literature regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy under concentration gradients and temperature gradients. Relatively little has been reported, however, regarding the long range migration of hydrogen under stress gradients. This paper presents experimental results regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy in response to both tensile and compressive stress gradients. The importance of this driving force for hydrogen migration relative to concentration and thermal gradients is discussed

  1. Long-range spatial dependence in fractured rock. Empirical evidence and implications for tracer transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, S.

    1999-02-01

    Nonclassical stochastic continuum models incorporating long-range spatial dependence are evaluated as models for fractured crystalline rock. Open fractures and fracture zones are not modeled explicitly in this approach. The fracture zones and intact rock are modeled as a single stochastic continuum. The large contrasts between the fracture zones and unfractured rock are accounted for by making use of random field models specifically designed for highly variable systems. Hydraulic conductivity data derived from packer tests in the vicinity of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory form the basis for the evaluation. The Aespoe log K data were found to be consistent with a fractal scaling model based on bounded fractional Levy motion (bfLm), a model that has been used previously to model highly variable sedimentary formations. However, the data are not sufficient to choose between this model, a fractional Brownian motion model for the normal-score transform of log K, and a conventional geostatistical model. Stochastic simulations conditioned by the Aespoe data coupled with flow and tracer transport calculations demonstrate that the models with long-range dependence predict earlier arrival times for contaminants. This demonstrates the need to evaluate this class of models when assessing the performance of proposed waste repositories. The relationship between intermediate-scale and large-scale transport properties in media with long-range dependence is also addressed. A new Monte Carlo method for stochastic upscaling of intermediate-scale field data is proposed

  2. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-07

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  4. Tensorial analysis of the long-range interaction between metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Robin; Greene, Chris H.

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline-earth-metal atoms in their lowest (nsnp) 3 P 2 state are exceptionally long lived and can be trapped magnetically. The nonspherical atomic structure leads to anisotropic long-range interactions between two metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms. The anisotropy affects the rotational motion of the diatomic system and couples states of different rotational quantum numbers. This paper develops a tensorial decomposition of the most important long-range interaction operators, and a systematic inclusion of molecular rotations, in the presence of an external magnetic field. This analysis illuminates the nature of the coupling between the various degrees of freedom. The consequences are illustrated by application to a system of practical interest: metastable 88 Sr. Using atomic parameters determined in a nearly ab initio calculation, we compute adiabatic potential-energy curves. The anisotropic interatomic interaction, in combination with the applied magnetic field, is demonstrated to induce the formation of a long-range molecular potential well. This curve correlates to two fully polarized, low-field seeking atoms in a rotational s-wave state. The coupling among molecular rotational states controls the existence of the potential well, and its properties vary as a function of magnetic-field strength, thus allowing the scattering length in this state to be tuned. The scattering length of metastable 88 Sr displays a resonance at a field of 339 G

  5. Reaction energetics on long-range corrected density functional theory: Diels-Alder reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman K; Tsuneda, Takao

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of quantitative reaction analysis on the orbital energies of long-range corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) is presented. First, we calculated the Diels-Alder reaction enthalpies that have been poorly given by conventional functionals including B3LYP functional. As a result, it is found that the long-range correction drastically improves the reaction enthalpies. The barrier height energies were also computed for these reactions. Consequently, we found that dispersion correlation correction is also crucial to give accurate barrier height energies. It is, therefore, concluded that both long-range exchange interactions and dispersion correlations are essentially required in conventional functionals to investigate Diels-Alder reactions quantitatively. After confirming that LC-DFT accurately reproduces the orbital energies of the reactant and product molecules of the Diels-Alder reactions, the global hardness responses, the halves of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy gaps, along the intrinsic reaction coordinates of two Diels-Alder reactions were computed. We noticed that LC-DFT results satisfy the maximum hardness rule for overall reaction paths while conventional functionals violate this rule on the reaction pathways. Furthermore, our results also show that the HOMO-LUMO gap variations are close to the reaction enthalpies for these Diels-Alder reactions. Based on these results, we foresee quantitative reaction analysis on the orbital energies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Viability of long range dragonfly migration across the Indian Ocean: An energetics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sandeep; Nirwal, Satvik

    2016-11-01

    Recently Pantala flavescens (dragonflies) have been reported to migrate in millions from India to Eastern Africa on a multigenerational migratory circuit of length 14000-18000 kms. We attempt to understand the ability of dragonflies to perform long range migration by examining the energetics using computer simulations. In absence of a theory for long range insect migrations, we resort to the extensive literature on long range bird migration from the energetics perspective. The flight energetics depends upon instantaneous power and velocity. The mechanical flight power is computed from the power curve which is then converted to mass depletion using Brequet's equation. However, the mechanical flight power itself depends upon the instantaneous velocity which can vary depending upon the current mass. In order to predict the range in our simulations, we assume that the insect progressively tries to achieve the maximum range velocity. The results indicate that the migration range is approximately 1260 kms in 70 hours based on the true airspeed. However, our analysis is restricted by the lack of data and certain caveats in drag prediction and basal metabolism rate.

  7. Contribution of long-range interactions to the secondary structure of an unfolded globin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyukina, Daria V; Rajagopalan, Senapathy; Sekhar, Ashok; Fulmer, Eric C; Eun, Ye-Jin; Cavagnero, Silvia

    2010-09-08

    This work explores the effect of long-range tertiary contacts on the distribution of residual secondary structure in the unfolded state of an alpha-helical protein. N-terminal fragments of increasing length, in conjunction with multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, were employed. A protein representative of the ubiquitous globin fold was chosen as the model system. We found that, while most of the detectable alpha-helical population in the unfolded ensemble does not depend on the presence of the C-terminal region (corresponding to the native G and H helices), specific N-to-C long-range contacts between the H and A-B-C regions enhance the helical secondary structure content of the N terminus (A-B-C regions). The simple approach introduced here, based on the evaluation of N-terminal polypeptide fragments of increasing length, is of general applicability to identify the influence of long-range interactions in unfolded proteins. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-range tactile masking occurs in the postural body schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2016-02-01

    Long-range tactile masking has been reported between mirror symmetric body locations. This suggests a general principle of contralateral inhibition between corresponding points on each side of the body that may serve to enhance distinguishing touches on the two halves of the body. Do such effects occur before or after posture is added to the body schema? Here, we address this question by exploring the effect of arm position on long-range tactile masking. The influence of arm position was investigated using different positions of both the test and masking arms. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile-masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm or to a control site on the shoulder. No difference was found in sensitivity when test arm position was varied. Physical contact between the arms significantly increased the effectiveness of a masking stimulus applied to the other arm. Long-range masking between the arms was strongest when the arms were held parallel to each other and was abolished if the position of either the test arm or the masking arm was moved from this position. Modulation of the effectiveness of masking by the position of both the test and masking arms suggests that these effects occur after posture information is added to the body's representation in the brain.

  9. Long-range correlations of electroencephalogram in rats irradiated by millimeter wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Taorong; Pei Jian; Li Fen; Zhang Jie; Qi Hongxing; Chen Shude; Qiao Dengjiang

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative study was conducted on stress reaction in rat induced by 35 GHz millimeter wave. Long-range correlations analysis of the rat electroencephalogram(EEG) was investigated. The scaling exponents α 1 and α 2 were calculated by de-trended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The exponent α 1 shows that the high frequency EEG component is characterized by Brownian noise before irradiated by 35 GHz millimeter wave while it has long-range correlations during irradiation. The exponent α 2 shows that the low frequency EEG component has long-range correlations before irradiation while it is characterized by Brownian noise during irradiation. Introducing stress parameter k(k=α 2 /α 1 ), the average change rate of k was used to evaluate the intensity of stress in rat evoked by 35 GHz millimeter wave. The k increases 49.9%±13.6% during irradiation, which indicates that the high frequency EEG component becomes more ordered and the low frequency EEG component becomes more disordered, showing the acute stress in rat induced by 35 GHz millimeter wave. (authors)

  10. Laser diode stack beam shaping for efficient and compact long-range laser illuminator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Y.; Poyet, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Laser diode stacks are interesting laser sources for active imaging illuminators. They allow the accumulation of large amounts of energy in multi-pulse mode, which is best suited for long-range image recording. Even when the laser diode stacks are equipped with fast-axis collimation (FAC) and slow-axis collimation (SAC) micro-lenses, their beam parameter products BPP are not compatible with direct use in highly efficient and compact illuminators. This is particularly true when narrow divergences are required such as for long-range applications. A solution to overcome these difficulties is to enhance the poor slow-axis BPP by virtually restacking the laser diode stack. We present a beam shaping and homogenization method that is low-cost and efficient and has low alignment sensitivity. After conducting simulations, we have realized and characterized the illuminator. A compact long-range laser illuminator has been set up with a divergence of 3.5×2.6 mrad and a global efficiency of 81%. Here, a projection lens with a clear aperture of 62 mm and a focal length of 571 mm was used.

  11. Effect of simple solutes on the long range dipolar correlations in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baul, Upayan, E-mail: upayanb@imsc.res.in; Anishetty, Ramesh, E-mail: ramesha@imsc.res.in; Vemparala, Satyavani, E-mail: vani@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India); Kanth, J. Maruthi Pradeep, E-mail: jmpkanth@gmail.com [Vectra LLC, Mount Road, Chennai 600006 (India)

    2016-03-14

    Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions. Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exist considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl), and magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) have a long range effect on the dipolar correlations, which cannot be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions and their long range coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of long range orientational correlations in liquid water, contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.

  12. Describing long-range charge-separation processes with subsystem density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyeva, Alisa; Neugebauer, Johannes, E-mail: j.neugebauer@uni-muenster.de [Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut and Center for Multiscale Theory and Simulation, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 40, 48149 Münster (Germany); Pavanello, Michele, E-mail: m.pavanello@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, 73 Warren St., Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Long-range charge-transfer processes in extended systems are difficult to describe with quantum chemical methods. In particular, cost-effective (non-hybrid) approximations within time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) are not applicable unless special precautions are taken. Here, we show that the efficient subsystem DFT can be employed as a constrained DFT variant to describe the energetics of long-range charge-separation processes. A formal analysis of the energy components in subsystem DFT for such excitation energies is presented, which demonstrates that both the distance dependence and the long-range limit are correctly described. In addition, electronic couplings for these processes as needed for rate constants in Marcus theory can be obtained from this method. It is shown that the electronic structure of charge-separated states constructed by a positively charged subsystem interacting with a negatively charged one is difficult to converge — charge leaking from the negative subsystem to the positive one can occur. This problem is related to the delocalization error in DFT and can be overcome with asymptotically correct exchange–correlation (XC) potentials or XC potentials including a sufficiently large amount of exact exchange. We also outline an approximate way to obtain charge-transfer couplings between locally excited and charge-separated states.

  13. Local thermodynamics and the generalized Gibbs-Duhem equation in systems with long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín

    2013-10-01

    The local thermodynamics of a system with long-range interactions in d dimensions is studied using the mean-field approximation. Long-range interactions are introduced through pair interaction potentials that decay as a power law in the interparticle distance. We compute the local entropy, Helmholtz free energy, and grand potential per particle in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles, respectively. From the local entropy per particle we obtain the local equation of state of the system by using the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium. This local equation of state has the form of the ideal gas equation of state, but with the density depending on the potential characterizing long-range interactions. By volume integration of the relation between the different thermodynamic potentials at the local level, we find the corresponding equation satisfied by the potentials at the global level. It is shown that the potential energy enters as a thermodynamic variable that modifies the global thermodynamic potentials. As a result, we find a generalized Gibbs-Duhem equation that relates the potential energy to the temperature, pressure, and chemical potential. For the marginal case where the power of the decaying interaction potential is equal to the dimension of the space, the usual Gibbs-Duhem equation is recovered. As examples of the application of this equation, we consider spatially uniform interaction potentials and the self-gravitating gas. We also point out a close relationship with the thermodynamics of small systems.

  14. Linear response theory for long-range interacting systems in quasistationary states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelli, Aurelio; Gupta, Shamik; Nardini, Cesare; Ruffo, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Long-range interacting systems, while relaxing to equilibrium, often get trapped in long-lived quasistationary states which have lifetimes that diverge with the system size. In this work, we address the question of how a long-range system in a quasistationary state (QSS) responds to an external perturbation. We consider a long-range system that evolves under deterministic Hamilton dynamics. The perturbation is taken to couple to the canonical coordinates of the individual constituents. Our study is based on analyzing the Vlasov equation for the single-particle phase-space distribution. The QSS represents a stable stationary solution of the Vlasov equation in the absence of the external perturbation. In the presence of small perturbation, we linearize the perturbed Vlasov equation about the QSS to obtain a formal expression for the response observed in a single-particle dynamical quantity. For a QSS that is homogeneous in the coordinate, we obtain an explicit formula for the response. We apply our analysis to a paradigmatic model, the Hamiltonian mean-field model, which involves particles moving on a circle under Hamiltonian dynamics. Our prediction for the response of three representative QSSs in this model (the water-bag QSS, the Fermi-Dirac QSS, and the Gaussian QSS) is found to be in good agreement with N-particle simulations for large N. We also show the long-time relaxation of the water-bag QSS to the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium state. © 2012 American Physical Society

  15. Structure function analysis of long-range correlations in plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.X.; Gilmore, M.; Peebles, W.A.; Rhodes, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Long-range correlations (temporal and spatial) have been predicted in a number of different turbulence models, both analytical and numerical. These long-range correlations are thought to significantly affect cross-field turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The Hurst exponent, H - one of a number of methods to identify the existence of long-range correlations in experimental data - can be used to quantify self-similarity scalings and correlations in the mesoscale temporal range. The Hurst exponent can be calculated by several different algorithms, each of which has particular advantages and disadvantages. One method for calculating H is via structure functions (SFs). The SF method is a robust technique for determining H with several inherent advantages that has not yet been widely used in plasma turbulence research. In this article, the SF method and its advantages are discussed in detail, using both simulated and measured fluctuation data from the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. In addition, it is shown that SFs used in conjunction with rescaled range analysis (another method for calculating H) can be used to mitigate the effects of coherent modes in some cases

  16. Describing long-range charge-separation processes with subsystem density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyeva, Alisa; Neugebauer, Johannes; Pavanello, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Long-range charge-transfer processes in extended systems are difficult to describe with quantum chemical methods. In particular, cost-effective (non-hybrid) approximations within time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) are not applicable unless special precautions are taken. Here, we show that the efficient subsystem DFT can be employed as a constrained DFT variant to describe the energetics of long-range charge-separation processes. A formal analysis of the energy components in subsystem DFT for such excitation energies is presented, which demonstrates that both the distance dependence and the long-range limit are correctly described. In addition, electronic couplings for these processes as needed for rate constants in Marcus theory can be obtained from this method. It is shown that the electronic structure of charge-separated states constructed by a positively charged subsystem interacting with a negatively charged one is difficult to converge — charge leaking from the negative subsystem to the positive one can occur. This problem is related to the delocalization error in DFT and can be overcome with asymptotically correct exchange–correlation (XC) potentials or XC potentials including a sufficiently large amount of exact exchange. We also outline an approximate way to obtain charge-transfer couplings between locally excited and charge-separated states

  17. Improving estimates of N2O emissions for western and central Europe using a Bayesian inversion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Gerbig, C.; Roedenbeck, C.; Heimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) mixing ratio has been increasing in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution, from 270 ppb in 1750 to 320 ppb in 2007 with a steady growth rate of around 0.26% since the early 1980's. The increase in N2O is worrisome for two main reasons. First, it is a greenhouse gas; this means that its atmospheric increase translates to an enhancement in radiative forcing of 0.16 ± 0.02 Wm-2 making it currently the fourth most important long-lived greenhouse gas and is predicted to soon overtake CFC's to become the third most important. Second, it plays an important role in stratospheric ozone chemistry. Human activities are the primary cause of the atmospheric N2O increase. The largest anthropogenic source of N2O is from the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture but fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes, such as adipic and nitric acid production, are also important. We present a Bayesian inversion approach for estimating N2O fluxes over central and western Europe using high frequency in-situ concentration data from the Ochsenkopf tall tower (50 °01′N, 11 °48′, 1022 masl). For the inversion, we employ a Lagrangian-type transport model, STILT, which provides source-receptor relationships at 10 km using ECMWF meteorological data. The a priori flux estimates used were from IER, for anthropogenic, and GEIA, for natural fluxes. N2O fluxes were retrieved monthly at 2 x 2 degree spatial resolution for 2007. The retrieved N2O fluxes showed significantly more spatial heterogeneity than in the a priori field and considerable seasonal variability. The timing of peak emissions was different for different regions but in general the months with the strongest emissions were May and August. Overall, the retrieved flux (anthropogenic and natural) was lower than in the a priori field.

  18. Long-range correlations in rectal temperature fluctuations of healthy infants during maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette Stern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature are interdependent in infants, where instabilities in thermoregulation can contribute to apneas or even life-threatening events. Identifying abnormalities in thermoregulation is particularly important in the first 6 months of life, where autonomic regulation undergoes critical development. Fluctuations in body temperature have been shown to be sensitive to maturational stage as well as system failure in critically ill patients. We thus aimed to investigate the existence of fractal-like long-range correlations, indicative of temperature control, in night time rectal temperature (T(rec patterns in maturing infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured T(rec fluctuations in infants every 4 weeks from 4 to 20 weeks of age and before and after immunization. Long-range correlations in the temperature series were quantified by the correlation exponent, alpha using detrended fluctuation analysis. The effects of maturation, room temperature, and immunization on the strength of correlation were investigated. We found that T(rec fluctuations exhibit fractal long-range correlations with a mean (SD alpha of 1.51 (0.11, indicating that T(rec is regulated in a highly correlated and hence deterministic manner. A significant increase in alpha with age from 1.42 (0.07 at 4 weeks to 1.58 (0.04 at 20 weeks reflects a change in long-range correlation behavior with maturation towards a smoother and more deterministic temperature regulation, potentially due to the decrease in surface area to body weight ratio in the maturing infant. alpha was not associated with mean room temperature or influenced by immunization CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the quantification of long-range correlations using alpha derived from detrended fluctuation analysis is an observer-independent tool which can distinguish developmental stages of night time T(rec pattern in young infants, reflective of maturation of

  19. Statistical mechanics and dynamics of solvable models with long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Dauxois, Thierry; Ruffo, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    For systems with long-range interactions, the two-body potential decays at large distances as V(r)∼1/r α , with α≤d, where d is the space dimension. Examples are: gravitational systems, two-dimensional hydrodynamics, two-dimensional elasticity, charged and dipolar systems. Although such systems can be made extensive, they are intrinsically non additive: the sum of the energies of macroscopic subsystems is not equal to the energy of the whole system. Moreover, the space of accessible macroscopic thermodynamic parameters might be non convex. The violation of these two basic properties of the thermodynamics of short-range systems is at the origin of ensemble inequivalence. In turn, this inequivalence implies that specific heat can be negative in the microcanonical ensemble, and temperature jumps can appear at microcanonical first order phase transitions. The lack of convexity allows us to easily spot regions of parameter space where ergodicity may be broken. Historically, negative specific heat had been found for gravitational systems and was thought to be a specific property of a system for which the existence of standard equilibrium statistical mechanics itself was doubted. Realizing that such properties may be present for a wider class of systems has renewed the interest in long-range interactions. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the recent advances on the statistical mechanics and out-of-equilibrium dynamics of solvable systems with long-range interactions. The core of the review consists in the detailed presentation of the concept of ensemble inequivalence, as exemplified by the exact solution, in the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, of mean-field type models. Remarkably, the entropy of all these models can be obtained using the method of large deviations. Long-range interacting systems display an extremely slow relaxation towards thermodynamic equilibrium and, what is more striking, the convergence towards quasi-stationary states. The

  20. Empirical mode decomposition and long-range correlation analysis of sunspot time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yu; Leung, Yee

    2010-01-01

    Sunspots, which are the best known and most variable features of the solar surface, affect our planet in many ways. The number of sunspots during a period of time is highly variable and arouses strong research interest. When multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is employed to study the fractal properties and long-range correlation of the sunspot series, some spurious crossover points might appear because of the periodic and quasi-periodic trends in the series. However many cycles of solar activities can be reflected by the sunspot time series. The 11-year cycle is perhaps the most famous cycle of the sunspot activity. These cycles pose problems for the investigation of the scaling behavior of sunspot time series. Using different methods to handle the 11-year cycle generally creates totally different results. Using MF-DFA, Movahed and co-workers employed Fourier truncation to deal with the 11-year cycle and found that the series is long-range anti-correlated with a Hurst exponent, H, of about 0.12. However, Hu and co-workers proposed an adaptive detrending method for the MF-DFA and discovered long-range correlation characterized by H≈0.74. In an attempt to get to the bottom of the problem in the present paper, empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a data-driven adaptive method, is applied to first extract the components with different dominant frequencies. MF-DFA is then employed to study the long-range correlation of the sunspot time series under the influence of these components. On removing the effects of these periods, the natural long-range correlation of the sunspot time series can be revealed. With the removal of the 11-year cycle, a crossover point located at around 60 months is discovered to be a reasonable point separating two different time scale ranges, H≈0.72 and H≈1.49. And on removing all cycles longer than 11 years, we have H≈0.69 and H≈0.28. The three cycle-removing methods—Fourier truncation, adaptive detrending and the

  1. Form and function of long-range vocalizations in a Neotropical fossorial rodent: the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Amaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground environment poses particular communication challenges for subterranean rodents. Some loud and low-pitched acoustic signals that can travel long distances are appropriate for long-range underground communication and have been suggested to be territorial signals. Long-range vocalizations (LRVs are important in long-distance communication in Ctenomys tuco-tucos. We characterized the LRV of the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp. using recordings from free-living individuals and described the behavioral context in which this vocalization was produced during laboratory staged encounters between individuals of both sexes. Long-range calls of Anillaco tuco-tucos are low-frequency, broad-band, loud, and long sounds composed by the repetition of two syllable types: series (formed by notes and soft-notes and individual notes. All vocalizations were initiated with series, but not all had individual notes. Males were heavier than females and gave significantly lower-pitched vocalizations, but acoustic features were independent of body mass in males. The pronounced variation among individuals in the arrangement and number of syllables and the existence of three types of series (dyads, triads, and tetrads, created a diverse collection of syntactic patterns in vocalizations that would provide the opportunity to encode multiple types of information. The existence of complex syntactic patterns and the description of soft-notes represent new aspects of the vocal communication of Ctenomys. Long-distance vocalizations by Anillaco Tuco-Tucos appear to be territorial signals used mostly in male-male interactions. First, emission of LRVs resulted in de-escalation or space-keeping in male-male and male-female encounters in laboratory experiments. Second, these vocalizations were produced most frequently (in the field and in the lab by males in our study population. Third, males produced LRVs with greater frequency during male-male encounters compared to

  2. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Alaskan Forest Fires Plumes during Long-Range Transport over the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, E.; Law, K. S.; Wienzierl, B.; Fiebig, M.; Petzold, A.; Wild, O.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S.; Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    A case of long-range transport of a biomass burning plume from Alaska to Europe is analyzed using a Lagrangian approach. This plume was sampled several times in the free troposphere over North America, the North Atlantic and Europe by 3 different aircraft during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4 experiment which was part of the ICARTT/ITOP measurement intensive in summer 2004. Measurements in the plume showed enhanced values of CO, VOCs and NOy, mainly in form of PAN. Observed O3 levels increased by 17 ppbv over 5 days. A photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, is used to examine processes responsible for the chemical evolution of the plume. The model was initialized with upwind data, and compared with downwind measurements. The influence of high aerosol loading on photolysis rates in the plume is investigated using in-situ aerosol measurements in the plume and lidar retrievals of optical depth as input into a photolysis code (Fast-J), run in the model. Significant impacts on photochemistry are found with a decrease of 18 percent in O3 production and 24 percent in O3 destruction over 5 days when including aerosols. The plume is found to be chemically active with large O3 increases attributed primarily to PAN decomposition during descent of the plume towards Europe. The predicted O3 changes are very dependent on temperature changes during transport, and also, on water vapor levels in the lower troposphere which can lead to O3 destruction. Simulation of mixing/dilution was necessary to reproduce observed pollutants level in the plume. Mixing was simulated using background concentrations from measurements in air masses in close proximity to the plume, and mixing timescales (averaging 6.25 days) were derived from CO changes. Observed and simulated O3/CO correlations in the plume are also compared in order to evaluate the photochemistry in the model. Observed slopes changed from negative to positive over 5 days. This change, which can be attributed largely to photochemistry, is

  3. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Tian, Lide; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH_4"+ in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L"−"1, with an average of 12.5 ng L"−"1. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH_4"+. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH_4"+ was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  4. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  5. Long-range gap junctional signaling controls oncogene-mediated tumorigenesis in Xenopus laevis embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook T Chernet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the immediate microenvironment, long-range signaling may be an important component of cancer. Molecular-genetic analyses have implicated gap junctions – key mediators of cell-cell communication – in carcinogenesis. We recently showed that the resting voltage potential of distant cell groups is a key determinant of metastatic transformation and tumor induction. Here, we show in the Xenopus laevis model that gap junctional communication (GJC is a modulator of the long-range bioelectric signaling that regulates tumor formation. Genetic disruption of GJC taking place within tumors, within remote host tissues, or between the host and tumors – significantly lowers the incidence of tumors induced by KRAS mutations. The most pronounced suppression of tumor incidence was observed upon GJC disruption taking place farther away from oncogene-expressing cells, revealing a role for GJC in distant cells in the control of tumor growth. In contrast, enhanced GJC communication through the overexpression of wild-type connexin Cx26 increased tumor incidence. Our data confirm a role for GJC in tumorigenesis, and reveal that this effect is non-local. Based on these results and on published data on movement of ions through GJs, we present a quantitative model linking the GJC coupling and bioelectrical state of cells to the ability of oncogenes to initiate tumorigenesis. When integrated with data on endogenous bioelectric signaling during left-right patterning, the model predicts differential tumor incidence outcomes depending on the spatial configurations of gap junction paths relative to tumor location and major anatomical body axes. Testing these predictions, we found that the strongest influence of GJ modulation on tumor suppression by hyperpolarization occurred along the embryonic left-right axis. Together, these data reveal new, long-range aspects of cancer control by the host’s physiological parameters.

  6. The phase transition in the anisotropic Heisenberg model with long range dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mól, L.A.S.; Costa, B.V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have used extensive Monte Carlo calculations to study the planar to paramagnetic phase transition in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model with dipolar interactions (AHd) considering the true long-range character of the dipolar interactions by means of the Ewald summation. Our results are consistent with an order–disorder phase transition with unusual critical exponents in agreement with our previous results for the Planar Rotator model with dipolar interactions. Nevertheless, our results disagree with the Renormalization Group results of Maier and Schwabl [Phys. Rev. B, 70, 134430 (2004)] [13] and the results of Rapini et al. [Phys. Rev. B, 75, 014425 (2007)] [12], where the AHd was studied using a cut-off in the evaluation of the dipolar interactions. We argue that besides the long-range character of dipolar interactions their anisotropic character may have a deeper effect in the system than previously believed. Besides, our results show that the use of a cut-off radius in the evaluation of dipolar interactions must be avoided when analyzing the critical behavior of magnetic systems, since it may lead to erroneous results. - Highlights: • The anisotropic Heisenberg model with dipolar interactions is studied. • True long-range interactions were considered by means of Ewald summation. • We found an order–disorder phase transition with unusual critical exponents. • Previous results show a different behavior when a cut-off radius is introduced. • The use of a cut-off radius must be avoided when dealing with dipolar systems

  7. Influence of long-range Coulomb interaction in velocity map imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, T; Brédy, R; Celep, G; Cohen, S; Compagnon, I; Concina, B; Constant, E; Danakas, S; Kalaitzis, P; Karras, G; Lépine, F; Loriot, V; Marciniak, A; Predelus-Renois, G; Schindler, B; Bordas, C

    2017-07-07

    The standard velocity-map imaging (VMI) analysis relies on the simple approximation that the residual Coulomb field experienced by the photoelectron ejected from a neutral or ion system may be neglected. Under this almost universal approximation, the photoelectrons follow ballistic (parabolic) trajectories in the externally applied electric field, and the recorded image may be considered as a 2D projection of the initial photoelectron velocity distribution. There are, however, several circumstances where this approximation is not justified and the influence of long-range forces must absolutely be taken into account for the interpretation and analysis of the recorded images. The aim of this paper is to illustrate this influence by discussing two different situations involving isolated atoms or molecules where the analysis of experimental images cannot be performed without considering long-range Coulomb interactions. The first situation occurs when slow (meV) photoelectrons are photoionized from a neutral system and strongly interact with the attractive Coulomb potential of the residual ion. The result of this interaction is the formation of a more complex structure in the image, as well as the appearance of an intense glory at the center of the image. The second situation, observed also at low energy, occurs in the photodetachment from a multiply charged anion and it is characterized by the presence of a long-range repulsive potential. Then, while the standard VMI approximation is still valid, the very specific features exhibited by the recorded images can be explained only by taking into consideration tunnel detachment through the repulsive Coulomb barrier.

  8. Long-range-corrected Rung 3.5 density functional approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Proynov, Emil; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    Rung 3.5 functionals are a new class of approximations for density functional theory. They provide a flexible intermediate between exact (Hartree-Fock, HF) exchange and semilocal approximations for exchange. Existing Rung 3.5 functionals inherit semilocal functionals' limitations in atomic cores and density tails. Here we address those limitations using range-separated admixture of HF exchange. We present three new functionals. LRC-ωΠLDA combines long-range HF exchange with short-range Rung 3.5 ΠLDA exchange. SLC-ΠLDA combines short- and long-range HF exchange with middle-range ΠLDA exchange. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC incorporates a combination of HF, semilocal, and Rung 3.5 exchange in the short range, based on an adiabatic connection. We test these in a new Rung 3.5 implementation including up to analytic fourth derivatives. LRC-ωΠLDA and SLC-ΠLDA improve atomization energies and reaction barriers by a factor of 8 compared to the full-range ΠLDA. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC brings further improvement approaching the accuracy of standard long-range corrected schemes LC-ωPBE and SLC-PBE. The new functionals yield highest occupied orbital energies closer to experimental ionization potentials and describe correctly the weak charge-transfer complex of ethylene and dichlorine and the hole-spin distribution created by an Al defect in quartz. This study provides a framework for more flexible range-separated Rung 3.5 approximations.

  9. Pivotal role of hMT+ in long-range disambiguation of interhemispheric bistable surface motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João Valente; Costa, Gabriel Nascimento; Martins, Ricardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding. Our fMRI study (n = 30) revealed a close relation between activity in hMT+ and perceptual switches involving interhemispheric segregation/integration of motion signals, crucially under nonlocal conditions where components do not overlap and belong to distinct hemispheres. Higher signal changes were found in hMT+ in response to spatially segregated component (incoherent) percepts than to pattern (coherent) percepts. This did not occur in early visual cortex, unlike apparent motion, which does not entail surface segmentation. We also identified a role for top-down mechanisms in state transitions. Deconvolution analysis of switch-related changes revealed prefrontal, insula, and cingulate areas, with the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) being particularly involved. We observed that directed influences could emerge either from left or right hMT+ during bistable motion integration/segregation. SPL also exhibited significant directed functional connectivity with hMT+, during perceptual state maintenance (Granger causality analysis). Our results suggest that long-range interhemispheric binding of ambiguous motion representations mainly reflect bottom-up processes from hMT+ during perceptual state maintenance. In contrast, state transitions maybe influenced by high-level regions such as the SPL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4882-4897, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  10. Long-Range Electron Effects upon Irradiation of Molecular Solids and Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Long-range electron effects are responsible for specific localization and selectivity of the radiation-induced chemical transformations occurring in molecular solids and polymers, when the classic diffusion mobility is essentially restricted. In particullar, understanding of the effects of this kind may be of key significance for establishing new ways to control the radiation sensitivity of macromolecules and organized polymeric systems, nanomaterials and biopolymers. This talk will present an overview of model studies of the long-range electron effects with the characteristic scale from several angstroms to ten nanometers. The following aspects of the problem will be analyzed: (1) Positive hole delocalization in ionized molecules. This phenomenon has been demonstrated experimentally and confirmed by quantum chemical calculations for a number of various-type molecules (alkanes, conjugated polyenes, bifunctional compounds). The effective delocalization length was found to be up to 2 nm (or even larger). The role of this effect in site-selective radiation chemistry will be discussed in the frame of concepts of distributed reactivity and 'switching' between delocalized and localized states. (2) Trap-to-trap positive hole and electron migration between isolated molecules or functional groups. The characteristic distance for this process was estimated to be 2 to 4 nm. Special impact will be made on the possible role of this process in selection of specific isomers or conformers upon irradiation of complex systems and macromolecules. (3) The effects of long-range scavenging of low-energy secondary electrons in polymers and organized polymeric systems. As revealed by model experiments, the radius of electron capture in solid polymers may be in the range of 1 to 10 nm. Possible implications of scavenging effects for controlling the radiation chemistry of polymers and organized polymeric systems will be considered

  11. An evaluation of dry deposition from the long range atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.S.; Kim, E.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Han, M.H.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    The dry deposition of pollutants released into the atmosphere must be evaluated to estimate the radiological dose of terrestrial plants and foodstuffs in the ecosystem. Especially, the atmospheric dispersion and dry deposition models have been widely developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment after the TMI-2 and the Chernobyl accidents. A Lagrangian particle model for the evaluation the long-range dispersion has been firstly developed in Korea since 2001. The particle tracking method was used for the estimation of the concentration distribution of the radioactive materials released into the atmosphere. The model is designed to estimate air concentration and ground deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in the horizontal direction. The turbulent motion is considered to separate the treatment of particles within the mixing layer and above the mixing layer. Also, the dispersion model is designed to receive the results of the MM5 model being operated by KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). The test run of the long-range dispersion model has been performed in the area which covered extends from 102.47deg E to 173.34deg E and from 12.27deg N to 53.72deg N in Northeast Asia. The release point of Cs-137 assumed in the east part of the China. The long range dispersion model has been firstly developed to estimate the radiological consequences against a nuclear accident. The model will be supplemented by the comparative study using the data of the ETEX experiments. (author)

  12. Improvement of linear reactivity methods and application to long range fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehlke, R.A.; Quan, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The original development of the linear reactivity theory assumes flat burnup, batch by batch. The validity of this assumption is explored using multicycle burnup data generated with a detailed 3-D SIMULATE model. The results show that the linear reactivity method can be improved by correcting for batchwise power sharing. The application of linear reactivity to long range fuel management is demonstrated in several examples. Correcting for batchwise power sharing improves the accuracy of the analysis. However, with regard to the sensitivity of fuel cost to changes in various parameters, the corrected and uncorrected linear reactivity theories give remarkably similar results

  13. Transverse magneto-optical anisotropy in bidisperse ferrofluids with long range particle correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfimova, E.A.; Ivanov, A.O. [Ural Federal University, ul. Lenina 51, Yekaterinburg 620000 (Russian Federation); Popescu, L.B. [Institute for Space Sciences, Atomistilor 409, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Socoliuc, V., E-mail: vsocoliuc@acad-tim.tm.edu.ro [Romanian Academy-Timisoara Branch, Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Lab. Magnetic Fluids, Bv.M. Viteazu 24, Timisoara RO-300223 (Romania)

    2017-06-01

    A comparative study between experiment and the predictions of a theoretical model developed for the description of magnetically induced dichroism in ferrofluids with long range interacting bidisperse spherical nanoparticles is presented. Magnetically induced dichroism in dilution series of two ferrofluids with different surfactant thickness was measured. Both ferrofluids show a concave solid volume fraction dependence of the specific dichroism, whose characteristics are very well qualitatively explained by the theoretical model. The theory fails to satisfactorily explain the magnetic field dependence of the highly concentrated samples specific dichroism, due to inherent approximations in the virial expansion of the pair correlation function.

  14. Simulation of the flow past a long-range artillery projectile

    OpenAIRE

    Kaurinkoski, Petri

    2000-01-01

    In this work, an eddy breakup model for chemical reactions is implemented to an existing multi-block Navier-Stokes solver, which is then used to solve the flow past a supersonic long-range base-bleed projectile. The new scheme is validated by simulating an axisymmetric bluff-body stabilized flame, which has been measured in a wind tunnel and simulated numerically by other work groups. Comparison of the numerical results for the projectile shows the importance of the chemistry modelling fo...

  15. Long-range inverse two-spin correlations in one-dimensional Potts lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero, C.F.; Cuesta, J.A.; Brito, R.

    1989-01-01

    The inverse two-spin correlation function of a one-dimensional three-state Potts lattice with constant nearest-neighbor interactions in a uniform external field is derived exactly. It is shown that the external field induces long-range correlations. The inverse two-spin correlation function decays in a monotonic exponential fashion for a ferromagnetic lattice, while it decays in an oscillatory exponential fashion for an antiferromagnetic lattice. With no external field the inverse two-spin correlation function has a finite range equal to that of the interactions

  16. Photonic band gap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm......-size thickness variations result in the pronounced band gap effect, and obtain very good agreement between measured and simulated (transmission and reflection) spectra. This effect is exploited to realize a compact wavelength add-drop filter with the bandwidth of ~20 nm centered at 1550 nm. The possibilities...

  17. Note: long-range scanning tunneling microscope for the study of nanostructures on insulating substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J; Rodrigo, José G; Island, Joshua; Burzuri, Enrique; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; van der Zant, Herre S J; Agraït, Nicolás

    2014-02-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful tool for studying the electronic properties at the atomic level, however, it is of relatively small scanning range and the fact that it can only operate on conducting samples prevents its application to study heterogeneous samples consisting of conducting and insulating regions. Here we present a long-range scanning tunneling microscope capable of detecting conducting micro and nanostructures on insulating substrates using a technique based on the capacitance between the tip and the sample and performing STM studies.

  18. Note: Long-range scanning tunneling microscope for the study of nanostructures on insulating substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J., E-mail: aday.molina@uam.es [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, José G.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Island, Joshua; Burzuri, Enrique; Zant, Herre S. J. van der [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Agraït, Nicolás [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful tool for studying the electronic properties at the atomic level, however, it is of relatively small scanning range and the fact that it can only operate on conducting samples prevents its application to study heterogeneous samples consisting of conducting and insulating regions. Here we present a long-range scanning tunneling microscope capable of detecting conducting micro and nanostructures on insulating substrates using a technique based on the capacitance between the tip and the sample and performing STM studies.

  19. Surface Roughness Measurements Utilizing Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    8217 The theory dealt only with the depen- modes, one symmetric and one antisymmetric, dence of the real wave vector on the real part of that propagate...quantity, while the wave vector is complex. It is shown that for both the supported and unsup- From Eqs. (1) and (2) one obtains the real implic- ported...Opt. Soc. sabbatical leave from the University of Toledo. Am.). Optical feild enhancemeft by long-range surface- I" ouT In O’ in OUT way@, plasma waves

  20. Generalized Efficient Inference on Factor Models with Long-Range Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre

    . Short-memory dynamics are allowed in the common factor structure and possibly heteroskedastic error term. In the estimation, a generalized version of the principal components (PC) approach is proposed to achieve efficiency. Asymptotics for efficient common factor and factor loading as well as long......A dynamic factor model is considered that contains stochastic time trends allowing for stationary and nonstationary long-range dependence. The model nests standard I(0) and I(1) behaviour smoothly in common factors and residuals, removing the necessity of a priori unit-root and stationarity testing...

  1. A long-range attractive interaction of rotons in superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Toshiyuki; Sai, Shunkichi

    1974-01-01

    With the use of the method of the collective description developed by one of the authors (N) for superfluid 4 He, it is shown that a long-range interaction of rotons transmitted by phonons is attractive and yields a resonance state of a roton pair with the binding energy of the order of magnitude 0.12 K which is relevant to the recent experimental results of the Raman scattering. The effect of the short-range mutual interaction of rotons is also discussed. Some comments on the relationship to the other theories of the collective description are made in appendices. (author)

  2. Solvent extraction treatment of PCB contaminated soil at Sparrevohn Long Range Radar Station, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, L. D.

    1999-01-01

    On-site soil treatment at a long range radar station in Alaska, which was contaminated with between 50 and 350 mg/kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is described. The stock-piled soil was treated by the Terra Kleen Response Group, using a solvent extraction process. After the treatment, PCB concentrations in the treated soil were found to have been reduced to less than the target treatment level of 15 mg/kg. Not only was the process successful, it also saved the government about $ 1 million over what hauling and off-site treatment and disposal would have cost. 1 tab

  3. Surface enhanced raman scattering at Ag-Pyridine interface by use of long range surface plasmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Moon Gu; Ko, Eu; Kwan, Do Kyeong; Lee, Ja Hyung; Chang, Joon Sung

    1990-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiment of pyridine (C 5 H 5 N) has been performed at silverpyridine interface by use of long range surface plasmon (LRSP) which is generated in the Sarid-type attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure consisting of prism, dielectic, metal and dielectic media. Generation of LRSP has been confirmed by observing the propagation of the LRSP. Raman signal of pyridine adsorbed on the silver surface in the above layered structure has been observed and compared with the bulk Raman signal and SERS signal from the chemically adsorbed pyridine. SERS experiment by use of LRSP has not yet reported to the best of our knowledge. (Author)

  4. Polariton Chimeras: Bose-Einstein Condensates with Intrinsic Chaoticity and Spontaneous Long-Range Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The system of cavity polaritons driven by a plane electromagnetic wave is found to undergo the spontaneous breaking of spatial symmetry, which results in a lifted phase locking with respect to the driving field and, consequently, in the possibility of internal ordering. In particular, periodic spin and intensity patterns arise in polariton wires; they exhibit strong long-range order and can serve as media for signal transmission. Such patterns have the properties of dynamical chimeras: they are formed spontaneously in perfectly homogeneous media and can be partially chaotic. The reported new mechanism of chimera formation requires neither time-delayed feedback loops nor nonlocal interactions.

  5. Heteronuclear long-range correlation, what’s new and how far can it take us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    : A novel experiment for small-molecule and biomolecular NMR at natural isotopic abundance. Sebastian Meier, Andrew J. Benie, Jens Ø. Duus and Ole W. Sørensen, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, in press, doi:10.1016/j.jmr.2009.06.017 Recent progress in heteronuclear long-range NMR of complex carbohydrates: 3D...... H2BC and clean HMBC. Sebastian Meier, Bent O. Petersen, Jens Ø. Duus, Ole W. Sørensen. Carbohydrate Research, in press, doi:10.1016/j.carres.2009.08.013...

  6. Two-dimensional angular momentum in the presence of long-range magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Redlich, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that eigenvalues of two-dimensional angular momentum remain integer valued in the magnetic field of a solenoid, contrary to published assertions that they are modified by the flux. For a vortex, flux does contribute, and the angular momentum can fractionize, as asserted in the literature, provided phases of wave functions are chosen consistently with the solenoid problem. Long-range effects of flux, the distinction between orbital and canonical angular momentum, and interactions with Cooper pairs are essential to this argument

  7. Sandia National Laboratories land use permit for operations at Oliktok Alaska Long Range Radar Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-02-01

    The property subject to this Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) is located at the Oliktok Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). The Oliktok LRRS is located at 70À 30 W latitude, 149À 53 W longitude. It is situated at Oliktok Point on the shore of the Beaufort Sea, east of the Colville River. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  8. Time delays of supernova neutrinos from new long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaney, R.A.; Starkman, G.D.; Tremaine, S.

    1995-01-01

    A new long-range interaction between heavy neutrinos may solve some current problems in large-scale structure, if the new interaction mimics gravity. Assuming that the dark matter is dominated by ∼100 eV τ neutrinos, we investigate whether time delay measurements on supernova neutrinos can test this possibility. We find that such experiments can rule out or detect specific forms of the new interaction potential. In addition, we find the exact dispersive nature of the interacting medium to be critical in determining the time delay: even small corrections to the potential can dramatically alter the magnitude of the effect

  9. Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas; Nikolajsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study the interaction of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs), excited at telecommunication wavelengths, with photonic crystals (PCs) formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film embedded...... structures, is rather weak, so that the photonic bandgap effect might be expected to take place only for some particular propagation directions. Preliminary experiments on LR-SPP bending and splitting at large angles are reported, and further research directions are discussed....

  10. Neutrino-Pair Exchange Long-Range Force Between Aggregate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the long-range force arising between two neutral---of electric charge---aggregates of matter due to a neutrino-pair exchange, in the limit of zero neutrino mass. The conceptual basis for the construction of the effective potential comes from the coherent scattering amplitude at low values of t. This amplitude is obtained using the methodology of an unsubtracted dispersion relation in t at threshold for s, where (s, t) are the Lorentz invariant scattering variables. The ultraviolet be...

  11. Meromorphic extension of the scattering matrix for long range two-body problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, C.; Martinez, A.

    1989-01-01

    We prove the existence of a meromorphic extension of the scattering matrix for long range potentials analytic at infinity. This extension exists as a bounded operator on some Gevrey spaces on S n-1 , with critical depending on the rate of decay of the potential at infinity. We use a semi-stationary definition of the scattering operator due to Isozaki-Kitada, using time independent modifiers. We show that the poles of the scattering matrix coincide with the resonances of the Hamiltonian [fr

  12. Realtime identification of the propagation direction of received echoes in long range ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung Seon; Heo, Won Nyoung

    2013-01-01

    In long range ultrasonic testing, a phased array probe composed of multiple identical transducers with an uniform interval of one quarter wavelength is usually used for the transmission or reception directivity control. This paper shows that the propagation directions of individual echoes can be identified in real time by displaying the inputs of a process for summing the constitution reception signals after compensating the phase difference due to the transducer interval, together with the output of the process. A constructive interference of the constitution echoes indicates a forward direction echo propagating along an intended direction while a destructive interference implies a reverse direction echo propagating along the direction opposite to the intended one

  13. Long-range effects of direct-hit ultraviolet and particle radiation in oncogene activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladik, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    A simple statistical analysis shows that the oncogene-activation effect of chemical carcinogens cannot be explained if one takes into account only short-range effects. As one of the most probable solid state physical long-range effects, the generation at the site of carcinogen binding of travelling solitary waves, which can interfere with DNA-blocking protein interactions, is discussed. It has been shown that the direct hit carcinogenic effects on DNA by ultraviolet--or particle radiation can also be explained by the generation of solitary waves (in the latter case the first step is a collective plasma oscillation which decays to individual local excitations and ionizations)

  14. A Potential Tool for Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) Conservation: Individuality of Long-Range Barking Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2003-01-01

    Vocal individuality has been found in a number canid species. This natural variation can have applications in several aspects of species conservation, from behavioral studies to estimating population density or abundance. The swift fox (Vulpes velox) is a North American canid listed as endangered...... in Canada and extirpated, endangered, or threatened in parts of the United States. The barking sequence is a long-range vocalization in the species' vocal repertoire. It consists of a series of barks and is most common during the mating season. We analyzed barking sequences recorded in a standardized...

  15. Spontaneous Lorentz violation and the long-range gravitational preferred-frame effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesser, Michael L.; Jenkins, Alejandro; Wise, Mark B.

    2005-01-01

    Lorentz-violating operators involving Standard Model fields are tightly constrained by experimental data. However, bounds are more model-independent for Lorentz violation appearing in purely gravitational couplings. The spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance by the vacuum expectation value of a vector field selects a universal rest frame. This affects the propagation of the graviton, leading to a modification of Newton's law of gravity. We compute the size of the long-range preferred-frame effect in terms of the coefficients of the two-derivative operators in the low-energy effective theory that involves only the graviton and the Goldstone bosons

  16. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic long-range order in Tb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    Like other heavy rare-earth metals, Tb exhibits a magnetic phase with a spiral structure. This appears within the temperature region from 216 to 226deg K between the ferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase. The transition between ferromagnetic and spiral structure is of first order and imp...... at 216deg K to 20.7deg at 226deg K. The temperature variation of the transverse magnetostriction has also been measured and was found to vary approximately in proportion to the square of the magnetic long-range order....

  17. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U.; Levin, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y 1 , y 2 ) ≥ 1, which is independent of y 1 and y 2 . Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  18. Worldwide status of long range atmospheric transportation models for use in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the results of the work of a working group put together in order to summarize the status of long range atmospheric transportation models for use in an emergency situation in real-time mode. The most important characteristics of the various models are summarized. The models in use in the Nordic countries as well as a couple of non-Nordic models are presented in more detail. A discussion of the desired characteristics of real-time models (also referred to as Emergency Response Assisting Systems) is included

  19. Long range order and hydrogen bonding in liquid methanol: A Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilov, I.Y.; Rode, B.M. [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Durov, V.A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of liquid methanol was performed in NVT ensemble at 298 K using a cubic simulation box containing 500 molecules. Long-range correlations in the liquid are discussed on the basis of site-site radial distribution functions. Hydrogen bonding and topological structure of the methanol aggregates were evaluated in detail, namely the number of linked molecules, formation of branches and cyclic structures. The necessity of larger simulation boxes for a full structural description and thermodynamic characterization of hydrogen-bonded liquids is clearly established by the results. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Information content of long-range NMR data for the characterization of conformational heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrałojć, Witold [University of Florence, Center for Magnetic Resonance (CERM) (Italy); Berlin, Konstantin; Fushman, David, E-mail: fushman@umd.edu [University of Maryland, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Biomolecular Structure and Organization (United States); Luchinat, Claudio, E-mail: luchinat@cerm.unifi.it; Parigi, Giacomo; Ravera, Enrico [University of Florence, Center for Magnetic Resonance (CERM) (Italy); Sgheri, Luca [CNR, Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo, Sezione di Firenze (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Long-range NMR data, namely residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) from external alignment and paramagnetic data, are becoming increasingly popular for the characterization of conformational heterogeneity of multidomain biomacromolecules and protein complexes. The question addressed here is how much information is contained in these averaged data. We have analyzed and compared the information content of conformationally averaged RDCs caused by steric alignment and of both RDCs and pseudocontact shifts caused by paramagnetic alignment, and found that, despite the substantial differences, they contain a similar amount of information. Furthermore, using several synthetic tests we find that both sets of data are equally good towards recovering the major state(s) in conformational distributions.

  1. Mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wang Yugang; Xue Jianming; Wang Sixue; Du Guanghua; Yan Sha; Zhao Weijiang

    2002-01-01

    The authors present experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples. In the 100 keV Ar + ion transmission measurement, the result confirmed that low-energy ions could penetrate at least 60 μm thick kidney bean slices with the probability of about 1.0 x 10 -5 . The energy spectrum of 1 MeV He + ions penetrating botanic samples has shown that there is a peak of the count of ions with little energy loss. The probability of the low-energy ions penetrating the botanic sample is almost the same as that of the high-energy ions penetrating the same samples with little energy loss. The results indicate that there are some micro-regions with mass thickness less than the projectile range of low-energy ions in the botanic samples and they result in the long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

  2. Long-range PCR facilitates the identification of PMS2-specific mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenning, Mark; Hampel, Heather; LaJeunesse, Jennifer; Lindblom, Annika; Lockman, Jan; Nilbert, Mef; Senter, Leigha; Sotamaa, Kaisa; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2006-05-01

    Mutations within the DNA mismatch repair gene, "postmeiotic segregation increased 2" (PMS2), have been associated with a predisposition to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; Lynch syndrome). The presence of a large family of highly homologous PMS2 pseudogenes has made previous attempts to sequence PMS2 very difficult. Here, we describe a novel method that utilizes long-range PCR as a way to preferentially amplify PMS2 and not the pseudogenes. A second, exon-specific, amplification from diluted long-range products enables us to obtain a clean sequence that shows no evidence of pseudogene contamination. This method has been used to screen a cohort of patients whose tumors were negative for the PMS2 protein by immunohistochemistry and had not shown any mutations within the MLH1 gene. Sequencing of the PMS2 gene from 30 colorectal and 11 endometrial cancer patients identified 10 novel sequence changes as well as 17 sequence changes that had previously been identified. In total, putative pathologic mutations were detected in 11 of the 41 families. Among these were five novel mutations, c.705+1G>T, c.736_741del6ins11, c.862_863del, c.1688G>T, and c.2007-1G>A. We conclude that PMS2 mutation detection in selected Lynch syndrome and Lynch syndrome-like patients is both feasible and desirable. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Long-range Coulomb interaction effects on the topological phase transitions between semimetals and insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, SangEun; Moon, Eun-Gook

    2018-06-01

    Topological states may be protected by a lattice symmetry in a class of topological semimetals. In three spatial dimensions, the Berry flux around gapless excitations in momentum space concretely defines a chirality, so a protecting symmetry may be referred to as a chiral symmetry. Prime examples include a Dirac semimetal (DSM) in a distorted spinel, BiZnSiO4, protected by a mirror symmetry, and a DSM in Na3Bi , protected by a rotational symmetry. In these states, topology and chiral symmetry are intrinsically tied. In this Rapid Communication, the characteristic interplay between a chiral symmetry order parameter and an instantaneous long-range Coulomb interaction is investigated with the standard renormalization group method. We show that a topological transition associated with chiral symmetry is stable under the presence of a Coulomb interaction and the electron velocity always becomes faster than the one of a chiral symmetry order parameter. Thus, the transition must not be relativistic, which implies that supersymmetry is intrinsically forbidden by the long-range Coulomb interaction. Asymptotically exact universal ratios of physical quantities such as the energy gap ratio are obtained, and connections with experiments and recent theoretical proposals are also discussed.

  4. Cubic–quintic long-range interactions with double well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsilifis, Panagiotis A; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Rothos, Vassilis M

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we examine the combined effects of cubic and quintic terms of the long-range type in the dynamics of a double well potential. Employing a two-mode approximation, we systematically develop two cubic–quintic ordinary differential equations and assess the contributions of the long-range interactions in each of the relevant prefactors, gauging how to simplify the ensuing dynamical system. Finally, we obtain a reduced canonical description for the conjugate variables of relative population imbalance and relative phase between the two wells and proceed to a dynamical systems analysis of the resulting pair of ordinary differential equations. While in the case of cubic and quintic interactions of the same kind (e.g. both attractive or both repulsive), only a symmetry-breaking bifurcation can be identified, a remarkable effect that emerges e.g. in the setting of repulsive cubic but attractive quintic interactions is a ‘symmetry-restoring’ bifurcation. Namely, in addition to the supercritical pitchfork that leads to a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the antisymmetric state, there is a subcritical pitchfork that eventually reunites the asymmetric daughter branch with the antisymmetric parent one. The relevant bifurcations, the stability of the branches and their dynamical implications are examined both in the reduced (ODE) and in the full (PDE) setting. The model is argued to be of physical relevance, especially so in the context of optical thermal media. (paper)

  5. Long-range Transport Modeling System and its Application over the Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Soo Park

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Comprehensive Acid Deposition Modeling (CADM was developed at the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER and Yonsei University in South Korea in order to simulate the long-range transboundary air pollutants and regional acid deposition processes over the Northeast Asia. The modeling system CADM is composed of a real-time numerical weather forecasting model (RAMS and an Eulerian air pollution transport/dispersion/deposition model including gas- and aqueous-phase atmospheric chemical processes for the real-time acquisition of model results and prediction of acidic pollutants. The main objective of CADM is to facilitate an efficient assessment tools by providing the explicit information on the acidic deposition processes. This paper introduces the components of CADM, and describes the comprehensive atmospheric modeling system including atmospheric chemistry for the simulation of acidic processes over the Eastern Asia. The presently developed modeling system CADM has been used to simulate long-range transport over the Northeast Asian region during the spring season from March 5 to 15 2002. For the model validation, the simulated results are compared with both aircraft measurements and surface monitoring observations, and discussed for its operational consideration in Korea

  6. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070952; Valishev, Aleksander; Shatilov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical β∗ values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  7. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartoukh, Stephane [CERN; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Shatilov, Dmitry [BINP, Novosibirsk

    2015-06-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical $\\beta^{\\ast}$values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  8. Proper construction of ab initio global potential surfaces with accurate long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2000-01-01

    An efficient procedure based on the reproducing kernel Hilbert space interpolation method is presented for constructing intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PES) using not only calculated ab initio data but also a priori information on long-range interactions. Explicitly, use of the reciprocal power reproducing kernel on the semiinfinite interval [0,∞) yields a set of exact linear relations between dispersion (multipolar) coefficients and PES data points at finite internuclear separations. Consequently, given a combined set of ab initio data and the values of dispersion (multipolar) coefficients, the potential interpolation problem subject to long-range interaction constraints can be solved to render globally smooth, asymptotically accurate ab initio potential energy surfaces. Very good results have been obtained for the one-dimensional He-He potential curve and the two-dimensional Ne-CO PES. The construction of the Ne-CO PES was facilitated by invoking a new reproducing kernel for the angular coordinate based on the optimally stable and shape-preserving Bernstein basis functions. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Long-range psu(2,2|4) Bethe ansatze for gauge theory and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beisert, Niklas; Staudacher, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We generalize various existing higher-loop Bethe ansatze for simple sectors of the integrable long-range dynamic spin chain describing planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory to the full psu(2,2|4) symmetry and, asymptotically, to arbitrary loop order. We perform a large number of tests of our conjectured equations, such as internal consistency, comparison to direct three-loop diagonalization and expected thermodynamic behavior. In the special case of the su(1|2) subsector, corresponding to a long-range t-J model, we are able to derive, up to three loops, the S-matrix and the associated nested Bethe ansatz from the gauge theory dilatation operator. We conjecture novel all-order S-matrices for the su(1|2) and su(1,1|2) subsectors, and show that they satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation. Throughout the paper, we muse about the idea that quantum string theory on AdS 5 xS 5 is also described by a psu(2,2|4) spin chain. We propose asymptotic all-order Bethe equations for this putative ''string chain'', which differ in a systematic fashion from the gauge theory equations

  10. Long-range Self-interacting Dark Matter in the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing; Liang, Zheng-Liang; Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the implications of the long-rang self-interaction on both the self-capture and the annihilation of the self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) trapped in the Sun. Our discussion is based on a specific SIDM model in which DM particles self-interact via a light scalar mediator, or Yukawa potential, in the context of quantum mechanics. Within this framework, we calculate the self-capture rate across a broad region of parameter space. While the self-capture rate can be obtained separately in the Born regime with perturbative method, and in the classical limits with the Rutherford formula, our calculation covers the gap between in a non-perturbative fashion. Besides, the phenomenology of both the Sommerfeld-enhanced s- and p-wave annihilation of the solar SIDM is also involved in our discussion. Moreover, by combining the analysis of the Super-Kamiokande (SK) data and the observed DM relic density, we constrain the nuclear capture rate of the DM particles in the presence of the dark Yukawa potential. The consequence of the long-range dark force on probing the solar SIDM turns out to be significant if the force-carrier is much lighter than the DM particle, and a quantitative analysis is provided

  11. Quantifying indices of short- and long-range white matter connectivity at each cortical vertex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmela Padula

    Full Text Available Several neurodevelopmental diseases are characterized by impairments in cortical morphology along with altered white matter connectivity. However, the relationship between these two measures is not yet clear. In this study, we propose a novel methodology to compute and display metrics of white matter connectivity at each cortical point. After co-registering the extremities of the tractography streamlines with the cortical surface, we computed two measures of connectivity at each cortical vertex: the mean tracts' length, and the proportion of short- and long-range connections. The proposed measures were tested in a clinical sample of 62 patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS and 57 typically developing individuals. Using these novel measures, we achieved a fine-grained visualization of the white matter connectivity patterns at each vertex of the cortical surface. We observed an intriguing pattern of both increased and decreased short- and long-range connectivity in 22q11DS, that provides novel information about the nature and topology of white matter alterations in the syndrome. We argue that the method presented in this study opens avenues for additional analyses of the relationship between cortical properties and patterns of underlying structural connectivity, which will help clarifying the intrinsic mechanisms that lead to altered brain structure in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. Surface and finite size effect on fluctuations dynamics in nanoparticles with long-range order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.

    2010-02-01

    The influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations and critical phenomena in the three-dimensional (3D)-confined systems with long-range order was not considered theoretically. In this paper, we study the influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations in the particles of arbitrary shape. We consider concrete examples of the spherical and cylindrical ferroic nanoparticles within Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach. Allowing for the strong surface energy contribution in micro and nanoparticles, the analytical expressions derived for the Ornstein-Zernike correlator of the long-range order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations, dynamic generalized susceptibility, relaxation times, and correlation radii discrete spectra are different from those known for bulk systems. Obtained analytical expressions for the correlation function of the order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations in micro and nanosized systems can be useful for the quantitative analysis of the dynamical structural factors determined from magnetic resonance diffraction and scattering spectra. Besides the practical importance of the correlation function for the analysis of the experimental data, derived expressions for the fluctuations strength determine the fundamental limits of phenomenological theories applicability for 3D-confined systems.

  13. R-matrix-valued Lax pairs and long-range spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechin, I.; Zotov, A.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we discuss R-matrix-valued Lax pairs for slN Calogero-Moser model and their relation to integrable quantum long-range spin chains of the Haldane-Shastry-Inozemtsev type. First, we construct the R-matrix-valued Lax pairs for the third flow of the classical Calogero-Moser model. Then we notice that the scalar parts (in the auxiliary space) of the M-matrices corresponding to the second and third flows have form of special spin exchange operators. The freezing trick restricts them to quantum Hamiltonians of long-range spin chains. We show that for a special choice of the R-matrix these Hamiltonians reproduce those for the Inozemtsev chain. In the general case related to the Baxter's elliptic R-matrix we obtain a natural anisotropic extension of the Inozemtsev chain. Commutativity of the Hamiltonians is verified numerically. Trigonometric limits lead to the Haldane-Shastry chains and their anisotropic generalizations.

  14. ANL site response for the DOE FY1994 information resources management long-range plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, L.M.

    1992-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's ANL Site Response for the DOE FY1994 Information Resources Management (IRM) Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 500) is one of many contributions to the DOE information resources management long-range planning process and, as such, is an integral part of the DOE policy and program planning system. The Laboratory has constructed this response according to instructions in a Call issued in September 1991 by the DOE Office of IRM Policy, Plans and Oversight. As one of a continuing series, this Site Response is an update and extension of the Laboratory's previous submissions. The response contains both narrative and tabular material. It covers an eight-year period consisting of the base year (FY1991), the current year (FY1992), the budget year (FY1993), the plan year (FY1994), and the out years (FY1995-FY1998). This Site Response was compiled by Argonne National Laboratory's Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD), which has the responsibility to provide leadership in optimizing computing and information services and disseminating computer-related technologies throughout the Laboratory. The Site Response consists of 5 parts: (1) a site overview, describes the ANL mission, overall organization structure, the strategic approach to meet information resource needs, the planning process, major issues and points of contact. (2) a software plan for DOE contractors, Part 2B, Software Plan FMS plan for DOE organizations, (3) computing resources telecommunications, (4) telecommunications, (5) printing and publishing.

  15. ANL site response for the DOE FY1994 information resources management long-range plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, L.M.

    1992-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s ANL Site Response for the DOE FY1994 Information Resources Management (IRM) Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 500) is one of many contributions to the DOE information resources management long-range planning process and, as such, is an integral part of the DOE policy and program planning system. The Laboratory has constructed this response according to instructions in a Call issued in September 1991 by the DOE Office of IRM Policy, Plans and Oversight. As one of a continuing series, this Site Response is an update and extension of the Laboratory`s previous submissions. The response contains both narrative and tabular material. It covers an eight-year period consisting of the base year (FY1991), the current year (FY1992), the budget year (FY1993), the plan year (FY1994), and the out years (FY1995-FY1998). This Site Response was compiled by Argonne National Laboratory`s Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD), which has the responsibility to provide leadership in optimizing computing and information services and disseminating computer-related technologies throughout the Laboratory. The Site Response consists of 5 parts: (1) a site overview, describes the ANL mission, overall organization structure, the strategic approach to meet information resource needs, the planning process, major issues and points of contact. (2) a software plan for DOE contractors, Part 2B, ``Software Plan FMS plan for DOE organizations, (3) computing resources telecommunications, (4) telecommunications, (5) printing and publishing.

  16. Long Range Dependence Prognostics for Bearing Vibration Intensity Chaotic Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the chaotic features and typical fractional order characteristics of the bearing vibration intensity time series, a forecasting approach based on long range dependence (LRD is proposed. In order to reveal the internal chaotic properties, vibration intensity time series are reconstructed based on chaos theory in phase-space, the delay time is computed with C-C method and the optimal embedding dimension and saturated correlation dimension are calculated via the Grassberger–Procaccia (G-P method, respectively, so that the chaotic characteristics of vibration intensity time series can be jointly determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent and phase plane trajectory of vibration intensity time series, meanwhile, the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated by the Wolf method and phase plane trajectory is illustrated using Duffing-Holmes Oscillator (DHO. The Hurst exponent and long range dependence prediction method are proposed to verify the typical fractional order features and improve the prediction accuracy of bearing vibration intensity time series, respectively. Experience shows that the vibration intensity time series have chaotic properties and the LRD prediction method is better than the other prediction methods (largest Lyapunov, auto regressive moving average (ARMA and BP neural network (BPNN model in prediction accuracy and prediction performance, which provides a new approach for running tendency predictions for rotating machinery and provide some guidance value to the engineering practice.

  17. Induction of early long-range epigenetic changes by α-irradiation in arabidopsis thaliana plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shuyan; Li Fanghua; Wang Ting; Bian Po; Wu Yuejin

    2011-01-01

    Along the way, the mutagenic mechanism of low-energy ions irradiation is a debatable issue. Recently, the existence of radiation induced long-range (mutagenic) effects in vivo in plants has been performed in a series of studies of our group, which account for the mutagenesis of low-energy ions irradiation in a new perspective. However, numerous distinct biology phenomena remain to be addressed, which bear obvious characteristics to epigenetic.In the present study, using the expression of methylation-related AtDML3 gene and methylation level of specific gene segments as end points, the methylation of cytosine, the most important feature of epigenetic,was investigated. It was shown that, in A. thaliana, root-localized α-irradiation could induce epigenetic changes in aerial parts which avoided the direct irradiation. The radiation induced long-range epigenetic changes were confirmed in this study, which supplied innovative ideas for the further investigation of the mutagenetic mechanism of low-energy ions irradiation. (authors)

  18. Relative phase asynchrony and long-range correlation of long-term solar magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhua

    2017-07-01

    Statistical signal processing is one of the most important tasks in a large amount of areas of scientific studies, such as astrophysics, geophysics, and space physics. Phase recurrence analysis and long-range persistence are the two dynamical structures of the underlying processes for the given natural phenomenon. Linear and nonlinear time series analysis approaches (cross-correlation analysis, cross-recurrence plot, wavelet coherent transform, and Hurst analysis) are combined to investigate the relative phase interconnection and long-range correlation between solar activity and geomagnetic activity for the time interval from 1932 January to 2017 January. The following prominent results are found: (1) geomagnetic activity lags behind sunspot numbers with a phase shift of 21 months, and they have a high level of asynchronous behavior; (2) their relative phase interconnections are in phase for the periodic scales during 8-16 years, but have a mixing behavior for the periodic belts below 8 years; (3) both sunspot numbers and geomagnetic activity can not be regarded as a stochastic phenomenon because their dynamical behaviors display a long-term correlation and a fractal nature. We believe that the presented conclusions could provide further information on understanding the dynamical coupling of solar dynamo process with geomagnetic activity variation, and the crucial role of solar and geomagnetic activity in the long-term climate change.

  19. Gating of hippocampal activity, plasticity, and memory by entorhinal cortex long-range inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Jayeeta; Zaremba, Jeffrey D; Cheung, Stephanie K; Hitti, Frederick L; Zemelman, Boris V; Losonczy, Attila; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2016-01-08

    The cortico-hippocampal circuit is critical for storage of associational memories. Most studies have focused on the role in memory storage of the excitatory projections from entorhinal cortex to hippocampus. However, entorhinal cortex also sends inhibitory projections, whose role in memory storage and cortico-hippocampal activity remains largely unexplored. We found that these long-range inhibitory projections enhance the specificity of contextual and object memory encoding. At the circuit level, these γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing projections target hippocampal inhibitory neurons and thus act as a disinhibitory gate that transiently promotes the excitation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by suppressing feedforward inhibition. This enhances the ability of CA1 pyramidal neurons to fire synaptically evoked dendritic spikes and to generate a temporally precise form of heterosynaptic plasticity. Long-range inhibition from entorhinal cortex may thus increase the precision of hippocampal-based long-term memory associations by assessing the salience of mnemonormation to the immediate sensory input. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Boundary Associated Long Noncoding RNA Mediates Long-Range Chromosomal Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma Jane Nwigwe

    Full Text Available CCCTC binding factor (CTCF is involved in organizing chromosomes into mega base-sized, topologically associated domains (TADs along with other factors that define sub-TAD organization. CTCF-Cohesin interactions have been shown to be critical for transcription insulation activity as it stabilizes long-range interactions to promote proper gene expression. Previous studies suggest that heterochromatin boundary activity of CTCF may be independent of Cohesin, and there may be additional mechanisms for defining topological domains. Here, we show that a boundary site we previously identified known as CTCF binding site 5 (CBS5 from the homeotic gene cluster A (HOXA locus exhibits robust promoter activity. This promoter activity from the CBS5 boundary element generates a long noncoding RNA that we designate as boundary associated long noncoding RNA-1 (blncRNA1. Functional characterization of this RNA suggests that the transcript stabilizes long-range interactions at the HOXA locus and promotes proper expression of HOXA genes. Additionally, our functional analysis also shows that this RNA is not needed in the stabilization of CTCF-Cohesin interactions however CTCF-Cohesin interactions are critical in the transcription of blncRNA1. Thus, the CTCF-associated boundary element, CBS5, employs both Cohesin and noncoding RNA to establish and maintain topologically associated domains at the HOXA locus.