WorldWideScience

Sample records for europe emissions long-range

  1. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elemental Carbon (EC has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF-Chem at a resolution of 2 km focusing on a region in Germany, in conjunction with a high-resolution EC emission inventory. The ground meteorology conditions, vertical structure and wind pattern were well reproduced by the model. The simulations of particle number and/or mass size distributions were evaluated with observations at the central European background site Melpitz. The fine mode particle concentration was reasonably well simulated, but the coarse mode was substantially overestimated by the model mainly due to the plume with high EC concentration in coarse mode emitted by a nearby point source. The comparisons between simulated EC and Multi-angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP measurements at Melpitz, Leipzig-TROPOS and Bösel indicated that the coarse mode EC (ECc emitted from the nearby point sources might be overestimated by a factor of 2–10. The fraction of ECc was overestimated in the emission inventory by about 10–30 % for Russia and 5–10 % for Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland and Belarus. This incorrect size-dependent EC emission results in a shorter atmospheric life time of EC particles and inhibits the long-range transport of EC. A case study showed that this effect caused an underestimation of 20–40 % in the EC mass concentration in Germany under eastern wind pattern.

  2. Long-Range Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A; Ek, Carl

    2007-01-01

    ...) in Europe to defend against an Iranian missile threat. The system would include 10 interceptors in Poland, and radar in the Czech Republic. Deployment of the European GMD capability is scheduled to be completed by 2013 at a cost of $4.04 billion.

  3. Impacts of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on air quality in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Keith; Johansson, Matti; Krzyzanowski, Michal

    2008-01-01

    The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution has been one of the main ways of protecting the environment in Europe from air pollution. This convention has successfully bridged different political systems even through times of political change, and is a prime example of what can be achieved through intergovernmental cooperation. Through creating an effective framework for controlling and reducing the damage to human health and the environment from transboundary air pollution, this convention has proved successful. This article considers the development of the convention and its work on adverse air pollution effects, in particular on activities related to quantifying effects on human health as carried out by the convention's joint (with WHO) Task Force on the Health Effects of Air Pollution (Task Force on Health), and concludes with some indications of the convention's future priorities.

  4. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-09-19

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application.

  5. Trends, Long-range Transport and Lifetime of DDT in and over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G.; Dvorská, A.; Stohl, A.; Klánová, J.; Ries, L.

    2009-04-01

    Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane, DDT, and its major metabolites dichlorophenyldichloroethylene, DDE, and dichlorophenyldichloroethane, DDD, are long-lived in the environment (persistent) and circulate since the 1950s. They accumulate along food chains, cause detrimental effects in marine and terrestrial wild life, and pose a hazard for human health. DDT is a multicompartmental substance with only a small mass fraction residing in air. Decreasing concentration trends are recorded in Europe, where the substance has not been used since ?1988 (Holoubek et al., 2007). Transport in the free troposphere is expected by models (Lammel & Semeena, 2005; Semeena et al., 2006), but no observations in the free troposphere had been reported in Europe. The degradation rates of DDT, DDE and DDD are uncertain. In particular, the hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients in air are unknown. DDT monitoring data in air at a central European continental background station, Kosetice, Czech Republic, were used in combination with back-trajectories (HYSPLIT model, NOAA) to localize DDT sources in central, western and northern Europe. The decreasing trend continued during recent years, 2004-06. During 2 campaigns at a high mountain site in the Alps (Zugspitze, 2650 m a.s.l.) mean concentrations of 0.23, 0.63 and 0.08 pg m-3 of DDT, DDE and DDD, respectively, were measured in summer and 0.73, 2.22, and 0.52 pg m-3, respectively, in winter. The levels were not lower in free tropospheric air than in boundary layer air. Transport and residence times in air were quantified using Lagrangian particle dispersion model retroplume analyses (FLEXPART model; Stohl et al., 1998). During a stable anti-cyclonic situation photochemical lifetimes corresponded to kOH climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants - examples of DDT and γ-HCH, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1231-1248 Stohl A., Hittenberger M., Wotawa G. (1998): Validation of the

  6. Long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierczyk-Michulec, J; Krysta, M; Kalinowski, M; Hoffmann, E; Baré, J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the transport of xenon emissions, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) operates an Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) system based on the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. The air mass trajectory ideally provides a "link" between a radionuclide release and a detection confirmed by radionuclide measurements. This paper investigates the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions, with special emphasis on evaluating the changes in the simulated activity concentration values due to the inclusion of the convective transport in the ATM simulations. For that purpose a series of 14 day forward simulations, with and without convective transport, released daily in the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 June 2013, were analysed. The release point was at the ANSTO facility in Australia. The simulated activity concentrations for the period January 2011 to February 2012 were calculated using the daily emission values provided by the ANSTO facility; outside the aforementioned period, the median daily emission value was used. In the simulations the analysed meteorological input data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used with the spatial resolution of 0.5°. It was found that the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective conditions, where convection was included in the ATM simulation, led to a small decrease in the activity concentration, as compared to transport without convection. In special cases related to deep convection, the opposite effect was observed. Availability of both daily emission values and measured Xe-133 activity concentration values was an opportunity to validate the simulations. Based on the paired t-test, a 95% confidence interval for the true mean difference between simulations without convective transport and measurements was constructed. It was estimated that the overall uncertainty lies between 0.08 and 0.25 mBq/m3

  7. Long range transport of air pollutants in Europe and acid precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Nordo

    1976-01-01

    Observations show that pollutants from large emission sources may cause significant air concentrations 500 to 1000 miles away. Very acid precipitation occurs in such periods. The scavenging is often intensified by the topography. Case studies will be presented, with special emphasis on acid precipitation in Scandinavia. Large scale dispersion models have been developed...

  8. Satellite observations of megacity air pollution, biomass burning emissions, and their long- range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, W. W.; Kollonige, D.; Yurganov, L.; Krueger, A.; Hoff, R.; Barnet, C.; Gleason, J.; Celarier, E.; Krotkov, N.; Liu, X.; Kurosu, T. P.; Osterman, G.; Torres, O.

    2008-12-01

    present satellite observations of long-range transport of air pollution and biomass burning emissions.

  9. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2012. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2012) for documentation on this topic.This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2011), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Minor NOx emissions from production of rock wool, which previously not have been estimated, have been included, Some factors for estimation of N2O from agriculture have been altered

  10. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA

  11. Using hydroponic biomass to regulate NOx emissions in long range space travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X.H.; Shi, Y.; Chang, S.G.; Fisher, J.; Pisharody, S.; Moran, M.; Wignarajah, K.

    2002-02-01

    The incineration of wastes is one of the most promising reclamation technologies being developed for life support in long range space travel. However, incineration in a closed environment will build up hazardous NOx if not regulated. A technology that can remove NOx under microgravity conditions without the need of expendables is required. Activated carbon prepared from inedible wheat straw and sweet potato stalk that were grown under hydroponic conditions has been demonstrated to be able to adsorb NO and reduce it to N{sub 2}. The high mineral content in the activated carbon prepared from hydroponic biomass prohibits high surface area production and results in inferior NO adsorption capacity. The removal of mineral from the carbon circumvents the aforementioned negative effect. The optimal production conditions to obtain maximum yield and surface area for the activated carbon have been determined. A parametric study on the NO removal efficiency by the activated carbon has been done. The presence of oxygen in flue gas is essential for effective adsorption of NO by the activated carbon. On the contrary, water vapor inhibits the adsorption efficiency of NO. The NO adsorption capacity and the duration before it exceeds the Space Maximum Allowable Concentration were determined. After the adsorption of NO, the activated carbon can be regenerated for reuse by heating the carbon bed under anaerobic conditions to above 500 C, when the adsorbed NO is reduced to N{sub 2}. The regenerated activated carbon exhibits improved NO adsorption efficiency. However, regeneration had burned off a small percentage of the activated carbon.

  12. Method for the control of NOx emissions in long-range space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X. H.; Shi, Y.; Liu, S. H.; Wang, H. P.; Chang, S. G.; Fisher, J. W.; Pisharody, S.; Moran, M.; Wignarajah, K.

    2003-01-01

    The wheat straw, an inedible biomass that can be continuously produced in a space vehicle has been used to produce activated carbon for effective control of NOx emissions from the incineration of wastes. The optimal carbonization temperature of wheat straw was found to be around 600 degrees C when a burnoff of 67% was observed. The BET surface area of the activated carbon produced from the wheat straw reached as high as 300 m2/g. The presence of oxygen in flue gas is essential for effective adsorption of NO by activated carbon. On the contrary, water vapor inhibits the adsorption efficiency of NO. Consequently, water vapor in flue gas should be removed by drying agents before adsorption to ensure high NO adsorption efficiency. All of the NO in the flue gas was removed for more than 2 h by the activated carbons when 10% oxygen was present and the ratio of carbon weight to the flue gas flow rate (W/F) was 30 g min/L, with a contact time of 10.2 s. All of NO was reduced to N2 by the activated carbon at 450 degrees C with a W/F ratio of 15 g min/L and a contact time of 5.1 s. Reduction of the adsorbed NO also regenerated the activated carbon, and the regenerated activated carbon exhibited an improved NO adsorption efficiency. However, the reduction of the adsorbed NO resulted in a loss of carbon which was determined to be about 0.99% of the activated carbon per cycle of regeneration. The sufficiency of the amount of wheat straw in providing the activated carbon based on a six-person crew, such as the mission planned for Mars, has been determined. This novel approach for the control of NOx emissions is sustainable in a closed system such as the case in space travel. It is simple to operate and is functional under microgravity environment.

  13. Effect of NOx emission controls from world regions on the long-range transport of ozone air pollution and human mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2007-12-01

    We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions, using the MOZART-2 model of tropospheric chemistry and transport. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between different world regions for ozone. We find that the strongest inter-regional influences are for Europe to the Former Soviet Union (FSU), East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for tropical source regions, due to greater sensitivity of ozone production to NOx emissions. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are about 20% as effective per ton at reducing ozone in Europe, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. In estimating the changes in cases of premature mortality associated with ozone, we find that NOx reductions in North America, Europe, and FSU reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, an average ton of NOx reduced in India causes the greatest number of avoided mortalities (mainly in India itself). We also assess the long-term increases in global ozone resulting from methane increases due to the regional NOx reductions. For many of the more distant source-receptor pairs, the long-term increase in ozone roughly negates the direct short-term ozone decrease. The increase in methane and long-term ozone per unit of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical source regions and varies among different regions by a factor of ten.

  14. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 2: Steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would

  15. Injection in the lower stratosphere of biomass fire emissions followed by long-range transport: a MOZAIC case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Cammas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a stratospheric injection by deep convection of biomass fire emissions over North America (Alaska, Yukon and Northwest Territories on 24 June 2004 and its long-range transport over the eastern coast of the United States and the eastern Atlantic. The case study is based on airborne MOZAIC observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and water vapour during the crossing of the southernmost tip of an upper level trough over the Eastern Atlantic on 30 June and on a vertical profile over Washington DC on 30 June, and on lidar observations of aerosol backscattering at Madison (University of Wisconsin on 28 June. Attribution of the observed CO plumes to the boreal fires is achieved by backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART. A simulation with the Meso-NH model for the source region shows that a boundary layer tracer, mimicking the boreal forest fire smoke, is lofted into the lowermost stratosphere (2–5 pvu layer during the diurnal convective cycle at isentropic levels (above 335 K corresponding to those of the downstream MOZAIC observations. It is shown that the order of magnitude of the time needed by the parameterized convective detrainment flux to fill the volume of a model mesh (20 km horizontal, 500 m vertical above the tropopause with pure boundary layer air would be about 7.5 h, i.e. a time period compatible with the convective diurnal cycle. Over the area of interest, the maximum instantaneous detrainment fluxes deposited about 15 to 20% of the initial boundary layer tracer concentration at 335 K. According to the 275-ppbv carbon monoxide maximum mixing ratio observed by MOZAIC over Eastern Atlantic, such detrainment fluxes would be associated with a 1.4–1.8 ppmv carbon monoxide mixing ratio in the boundary layer over the source region.

  16. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...... technology is adopted quicker and that the farm has the right location. It is concluded that the new application process so far has not lived up to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely...

  17. Inventories of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France under the convention framework on the long range transboundary air pollution; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique tranfrontaliere a longue distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), on behalf of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Data are reported according to new specifications adopted in Autumn 2001 regarding substances and source coverage. Parties to the convention have to report annually emissions of these substances. (author)

  18. European Union emission inventory report 1990-2008 : under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report describes the EU27 emission trends for : a number of air pollutants for the period 19902008. : An improved gap-filling methodology used in : compiling this year's EU27 emission inventory : means that for the first time a complete...

  19. The use of the long-range alpha detector (LRAD) for alpha emission surveys at active and inactive firing sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F.V.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Garner, S.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Walter, K.J. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Surveys were carried out at five different firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure residual alpha emissions in earth contaminated with natural and depleted uranium. This contamination is caused by controlled experimental explosions during testing of the non fissile components of nuclear weapons. Two conclusions were reached: the first is that post shot clearing of the experimental areas is effective at removing contamination and the second is that the diminution of alpha emissions due to aging is small.

  20. Areal-averaged trace gas emission rates from long-range open-path measurements in stable boundary layer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schäfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of land-surface emission rates of greenhouse and other gases at large spatial scales (10 000 m2 are needed to assess the spatial distribution of emissions. This can be readily done using spatial-integrating micro-meteorological methods like flux-gradient methods which were evaluated for determining land-surface emission rates of trace gases under stable boundary layers. Non-intrusive path-integrating measurements are utilized. Successful application of a flux-gradient method requires confidence in the gradients of trace gas concentration and wind, and in the applicability of boundary-layer turbulence theory; consequently the procedures to qualify measurements that can be used to determine the flux is critical. While there is relatively high confidence in flux measurements made under unstable atmospheres with mean winds greater than 1 m s−1, there is greater uncertainty in flux measurements made under free convective or stable conditions. The study of N2O emissions of flat grassland and NH3 emissions from a cattle lagoon involves quality-assured determinations of fluxes under low wind, stable or night-time atmospheric conditions when the continuous "steady-state" turbulence of the surface boundary layer breaks down and the layer has intermittent turbulence. Results indicate that following the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST flux-gradient methods that assume a log-linear profile of the wind speed and concentration gradient incorrectly determine vertical profiles and thus flux in the stable boundary layer. An alternative approach is considered on the basis of turbulent diffusivity, i.e. the measured friction velocity as well as height gradients of horizontal wind speeds and concentrations without MOST correction for stability. It is shown that this is the most accurate of the flux-gradient methods under stable conditions.

  1. Decadal trends in atmospheric deposition in a high elevation station: Effects of climate and pollution on the long-range flux of metals and trace elements over SW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Lluís; Bacardit, Montserrat; de Diego, Alberto; Arana, Gorka

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric deposition collected at remote, high elevation stations is representative of long-range transport of elements. Here we present time-series of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb deposition sampled in the Central Pyrenees at 2240 m a.s.l, representative of the fluxes of these elements over South West Europe. Trace element deposition did not show a simple trend. Rather, there was statistical evidence of several underlying factors governing the variability of the time-series recorded: seasonal cycles, trends, the effects of the amount of precipitation, climate-controlled export of dust, and changes in anthropogenic emissions. Overall, there were three main modes of variation in deposition. The first mode was related to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and affected Al, Fe, Ti, Mn and Pb. We interpret this as changes in the dust export from Northern Africa under the different meteorological conditions that the NAO index indicates. The second mode was an upward trend related to a rise in the frequency of precipitation events (that also lead to an increase in the amount). More frequent events might cause a higher efficiency in the scavenging of aerosols. As, Cu and Ni responded to this. And finally, the third mode of variation was related to changes in anthropogenic emissions of Pb and Zn.

  2. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  3. Ozone measurements 2010. [EMEP Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjellbrekke, Anne-Gunn; Solberg, Sverre; Fjaeraa, Ann Mari

    2012-07-01

    From the Introduction: Ozone is a natural constituent of the atmosphere and plays a vital role in many atmospheric processes. However, man-made emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides have increased the photochemical formation of ozone in the troposphere. Until the end of the 1960s the problem was basically believed to be one of the big cities and their immediate surroundings. In the 1970s, however, it was found that the problem of photochemical oxidant formation is much more widespread. The ongoing monitoring of ozone at rural sites throughout Europe shows that episodes of high concentrations of ground-level ozone occur over most parts of the continent every summer. During these episodes the ozone concentrations can reach values above ambient air quality standards over large regions and lead to adverse effects for human health and vegetation. Historical records of ozone measurements in Europe and North America indicate that in the last part of the nineteenth century the values were only about half of the average surface ozone concentrations measured in the same regions during the last 10-15 years (Bojkov, 1986; Volz and Kley, 1988).The formation of ozone is due to a large number of photochemical reactions taking place in the atmosphere and depends on the temperature, humidity and solar radiation as well as the primary emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Together with the non-linear relationships between the primary emissions and the ozone formation, these effects complicates the abatement strategies for ground-level ozone and makes photochemical models crucial in addition to the monitoring data. The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol is designed for a joint abatement of acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. It has been estimated that once the Protocol is implemented, the number of days with excessive ozone levels will be halved and that the exposure of vegetation to excessive ozone levels will be 44% down on 1990

  4. Effect of local and long-range transport emissions on the elemental composition of PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5 in Beirut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Najat A.; Kouyoumdjian, Hovig; Roumié, Mohamad

    The elemental composition of PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5 were studied in winter, summer, stormy and non-stormy dates during a period extending from February 2004 till January 2005, in a populated area of Beirut. Results of PIXE analysis and enrichment factor (E.F.) calculation, using Si as a reference of crustal material, showed that crustal elements (E.F.10) like S, Cu, Zn and Pb predominated in PM 2.5. In PM 10-2.5, concentrations of crustal elements increased during stormy episodes, all time high Ca concentrations were due to the abundance of calcite and limestone rocks in Lebanon, and increased Cl levels correlated with marine air masses. In PM 2.5, sulfur concentrations were more prominent in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions. Sources of sulfur were attributed to local, sea-water and long-range transport from Eastern Europe, with the latter being the most predominate. Anthropogenic elements like Cu and Zn were generated from worn brakes and tires in high traffic density area and spikes of Pb were directly linked to a southerly wind originated from Egypt and/or Israel as determined by the air trajectory HYSPLIT model. In brief, elemental variations depended on the regional variability of the transport pattern and the different removal rates of aerosols.

  5. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  6. Modeling regional aerosol variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J. D.; Allan, J.; Bahreini, R.; Craven, J.; Emmons, L.; Ferrare, R.; Hayes, P. L.; Hodzic, A.; Holloway, J.; Hostetler, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jonsson, H.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Metcalf, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Nowak, J.; Pekour, M.; Perring, A.; Russell, L.; Sedlacek, A.; Seinfeld, J.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J.; Shrivastava, M.; Springston, S.; Song, C.; Subramanian, R.; Taylor, J. W.; Vinoj, V.; Yang, Q.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-03-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) in simulating the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol mass, composition, and size over California is quantified using measurements collected during the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) and the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted during May and June of 2010. The extensive meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at surface sites and along aircraft and ship transects during CalNex and CARES were combined with operational monitoring network measurements to create a single dataset that was used to evaluate the one configuration of the model. Simulations were performed that examined the sensitivity of regional variations in aerosol concentrations to anthropogenic emissions and to long-range transport of aerosols into the domain obtained from a global model. The configuration of WRF-Chem used in this study is shown to reproduce the overall synoptic conditions, thermally-driven circulations, and boundary layer structure observed in region that controls the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols. However, sub-grid scale variability in the meteorology and emissions as well as uncertainties in the treatment of secondary organic aerosol chemistry likely contribute to errors at a primary surface sampling site located at the edge of the Los Angeles basin. Differences among the sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the aerosol layers over the central valley detected by lidar measurements likely resulted from lofting and recirculation of local anthropogenic emissions along the Sierra Nevada. Reducing the default emissions inventory by 50% led to an overall improvement in many simulated trace gases and black carbon aerosol at most sites and along most aircraft flight paths; however, simulated organic aerosol was closer to observed when there were no adjustments to the primary organic

  7. Modeling regional aerosol and aerosol precursor variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J. D.; Allan, J.; Bahreini, R.; Craven, J.; Emmons, L.; Ferrare, R.; Hayes, P. L.; Hodzic, A.; Holloway, J.; Hostetler, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jonsson, H.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Metcalf, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Nowak, J.; Pekour, M.; Perring, A.; Russell, L.; Sedlacek, A.; Seinfeld, J.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J.; Shrivastava, M.; Springston, S.; Song, C.; Subramanian, R.; Taylor, J. W.; Vinoj, V.; Yang, Q.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) in simulating the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol mass, composition, and size over California is quantified using the extensive meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected during the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) and the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted during May and June of 2010. The overall objective of the field campaigns was to obtain data needed to better understand processes that affect both climate and air quality, including emission assessments, transport and chemical aging of aerosols, aerosol radiative effects. Simulations were performed that examined the sensitivity of aerosol concentrations to anthropogenic emissions and to long-range transport of aerosols into the domain obtained from a global model. The configuration of WRF-Chem used in this study is shown to reproduce the overall synoptic conditions, thermally driven circulations, and boundary layer structure observed in region that controls the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols. Reducing the default emissions inventory by 50% led to an overall improvement in many simulated trace gases and black carbon aerosol at most sites and along most aircraft flight paths; however, simulated organic aerosol was closer to observed when there were no adjustments to the primary organic aerosol emissions. We found that sulfate was better simulated over northern California whereas nitrate was better simulated over southern California. While the overall spatial and temporal variability of aerosols and their precursors were simulated reasonably well, we show cases where the local transport of some aerosol plumes were either too slow or too fast, which adversely affects the statistics quantifying the differences between observed and simulated quantities. Comparisons with lidar and in situ measurements indicate

  8. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... and the article looks at the measures and costs involved. The conclusion is that the costs have been under 3 €/kg NH3-N. The findings suggest that the same measures might be cheaper in the Netherlands and Denmark than in the UK and the USA due to technology advances and stricter regulations in the past. The new...

  9. The impact of North American anthropogenic emissions and lightning on long-range transport of trace gases and their export from the continent during summers 2002 and 2004

    KAUST Repository

    Martini, Matus

    2011-04-07

    We analyze the contribution of North American (NA) lightning and anthropogenic emissions to ozone concentrations, radiative forcing, and export fluxes from North America during summers 2002 and 2004 using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 reanalysis. Reduced power plant emissions (NOx SIP Call) and cooler temperatures in 2004 compared to 2002 resulted in lower ambient ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Lightning flash rates in early summer 2004 were 50% higher than 2002 over the United States. Over the North Atlantic, changes in ozone column between early summer 2002 and 2004 due to changes in lightning and meteorology exceeded the change due to emission reductions by a factor of 7. Late summer changes in lightning had a much smaller impact on ozone columns. In summer 2004, net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to ozone produced from anthropogenic emissions ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 W m−2 across the North Atlantic, while that due to ozone produced from lightning NO emissions ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 W m−2. Enhanced lofting of polluted air followed by stronger westerly winds led to more net export of NOx, NOy, and ozone in early summer 2004 than 2002 despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Ozone export fluxes across the eastern NA boundary due to anthropogenic emissions were factors of 1.6 and 2 larger than those due to lightning in 2004 and 2002, respectively. Doubling the NA lightning NO source increased downwind ozone enhancements due to lightning NO emissions by one third.

  10. Changes in springtime tropospheric ozone observed at Mt. Happo, Japan: New insights for the roles of Asian emissions and long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Sachiko; Ikeda, Kohei; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    We revisited and updated the long-term trend of tropospheric ozone at Mt. Happo, Japan, based on continuous measurements for the period from 1998 to 2016. We focused on the springtime ozone concentration and possible influences by the continental outflow from East Asia. Since 1998 the springtime ozone concentration has shown a large increase until 2007, very likely caused by the increase in the emissions of ozone precursors associated with economic growth in eastern China, as evidenced from satellite observations of nitrogen dioxides. In 2008 and 2012, two large decreases in ozone were observed, followed by a stabilization until now. The residence time of air masses passed over central eastern China, which is the most polluted region in China, showed high levels during 2004-2007, and then decreased in 2008. Meteorological variability as well as emissions of ozone precursors are important factors controlling the ozone concentration at Mt. Happo.

  11. Temporal variations of flux and altitude of sulfur dioxide emissions during volcanic eruptions: implications for long-range dispersal of volcanic clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boichu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-rich degassing, which is mostly composed of sulfur dioxide (SO2, plays a major role in the overall impact of volcanism on the atmosphere and climate. The accurate assessment of this impact is currently hampered by the poor knowledge of volcanic SO2 emissions. Here, using an inversion procedure, we show how assimilating snapshots of the volcanic SO2 load derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI allows for reconstructing both the flux and altitude of the SO2 emissions with an hourly resolution. For this purpose, the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to describe the dispersion of SO2 when released in the atmosphere. As proof of concept, we study the 10 April 2011 eruption of the Etna volcano (Italy, which represents one of the few volcanoes instrumented on the ground for the continuous monitoring of SO2 degassing. We find that the SO2 flux time-series retrieved from satellite imagery using the inverse scheme is in agreement with ground observations during ash-poor phases of the eruption. However, large discrepancies are observed during the ash-rich paroxysmal phase as a result of enhanced plume opacity affecting ground-based ultraviolet (UV spectroscopic retrievals. As a consequence, the SO2 emission rate derived from the ground is underestimated by almost one order of magnitude. Altitudes of the SO2 emissions predicted by the inverse scheme are validated against an RGB image of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS capturing the near-source atmospheric pathways followed by Etna plumes, in combination with forward trajectories from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model. At a large distance from the source, modelled SO2 altitudes are compared with independent information on the volcanic cloud height. We find that the altitude predicted by the inverse scheme is in agreement with snapshots of the SO2 height retrieved from recent algorithms

  12. Twenty-five years of continuous sulphur dioxide emission reduction in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vestreng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty-five years European emission data have been compiled and reported under the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP as part of the work under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP. This paper presents emission trends of SO2 reported to EMEP and validated within the programme for the period 1980–2004. These European anthropogenic sulphur emissions have been steadily decreasing over the last twenty-five years, amounting from about 55 Tg SO2 in 1980 to 15 Tg SO2 in 2004. The uncertainty in sulphur emission estimates for individual countries and years are documented to range between 3% and 25%. The relative contribution of European emissions to global anthropogenic sulphur emissions has been halved during this period. Based on annual emission reports from European countries, three emission reduction regimes have been identified. The period 1980–1989 is characterized by low annual emission reductions (below 5% reduction per year and 20% for the whole period and is dominated by emission reductions in Western Europe. The period 1990–1999 is characterised by high annual emission reductions (up to 11% reduction per year and 54% for the whole period, most pronounced in Central and Eastern Europe. The annual emission reductions in the period 2000–2004 are medium to low (below 6% reduction per year and 17% for the whole period and reflect the unified Europe, with equally large reductions in both East and West. The sulphur emission reduction has been largest in the sector Combustion in energy and transformation industries, but substantial decreases are also seen in the Non-industrial combustion plants together with the sectors Industrial combustion and Industrial production processes. The majority of European countries have reduced their emissions by more than

  13. Vertical emission profiles for Europe based on plume rise calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieser, J.; Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Quante, M.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical allocation of emissions has a major impact on results of Chemistry Transport Models. However, in Europe it is still common to use fixed vertical profiles based on rough estimates to determine the emission height of point sources. This publication introduces a set of new vertical

  14. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  15. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.

    2003-01-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion....... ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidentalatmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making “ENSEMBLE” procedures...... and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecastsfrom meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national...

  16. An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, S.

    1996-01-01

    7.1 Introduction
    This study has examined the question of whether a system of tradeable emission permits can contribute to a cost-effective reduction of SO 2 emissions in Europe, taking into account

  17. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  18. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  19. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  20. SCIAMACHY formaldehyde observations: constraint for isoprene emission estimates over Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dufour

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the troposphere. Sources of HCHO are largely dominated by its secondary production from VOC oxidation, methane and isoprene being the main precursors in unpolluted areas. As a result of the moderate lifetime of HCHO, its spatial distribution is determined by reactive hydrocarbon emissions. We focus here on Europe and investigate the influence of the different emissions on HCHO tropospheric columns with the CHIMERE chemical transport model in order to interpret the comparisons between SCIAMACHY and simulated HCHO columns. Europe was never specifically studied before for these purposes using satellite observations. The bias between measurements and model is less than 20% on average. The differences are discussed according to the errors on the model and the observations and remaining discrepancies are attributed to a misrepresentation of biogenic emissions. This study requires the characterisation of: (1 the model errors and performances concerning formaldehyde. The errors on the HCHO columns, mainly related to chemistry and mixed emission types, are evaluated to 2×1015 molecule/cm2 and the model performances evaluated using surface measurements are satisfactory (~13%; (2 the observation errors that define the needs in spatial and temporal averaging for meaningful comparisons. Using SCIAMACHY observations as constraint for biogenic isoprene emissions in an inverse modelling scheme reduces their uncertainties by about a factor of two in region of intense emissions. The retrieved correction factors for the isoprene emissions range from a factor of 0.15 (North Africa to a factor of 2 (Poland, the United Kingdom depending on the regions.

  1. Long range electrostatic forces in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Smith, Alexander M; Dobbs, Howard A; Lee, Alpha A; Warr, Gregory G; Banquy, Xavier; Valtiner, Markus; Rutland, Mark W; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Perkin, Susan; Atkin, Rob

    2017-01-19

    Ionic liquids are pure salts that are liquid under ambient conditions. As liquids composed solely of ions, the scientific consensus has been that ionic liquids have exceedingly high ionic strengths and thus very short Debye screening lengths. However, several recent experiments from laboratories around the world have reported data for the approach of two surfaces separated by ionic liquids which revealed remarkable long range forces that appear to be electrostatic in origin. Evidence has accumulated demonstrating long range surface forces for several different combinations of ionic liquids and electrically charged surfaces, as well as for concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts in solvent. The original interpretation of these forces, that ionic liquids could be envisioned as "dilute electrolytes," was controversial, and the origin of long range forces in ionic liquids remains the subject of discussion. Here we seek to collate and examine the evidence for long range surface forces in ionic liquids, identify key outstanding questions, and explore possible mechanisms underlying the origin of these long range forces. Long range surface forces in ionic liquids and other highly concentrated electrolytes hold diverse implications from designing ionic liquids for energy storage applications to rationalizing electrostatic correlations in biological self-assembly.

  2. Long-Range Persistence Techniques Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, A.; Malamud, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    Many time series in the Earth Sciences exhibit persistence (memory) where large values (small values) `cluster' together. Here we examine long-range persistence, where one value is correlated with all others in the time series. A time series is long-range persistent (a self-affine fractal) if the power spectral density scales with a power law. The scaling exponent beta characterizes the `strength' of persistence. We compare five common analysis techniques for quantifying long-range persistence: (a) Power-spectral analysis, (b) Wavelet variance analysis, (c) Detrended Fluctuation analysis, (d) Semivariogram analysis, and (e) Rescaled-Range (R/S) analysis. To evaluate these methods, we construct 26,000 synthetic fractional noises with lengths between 512 and 4096, different persistence strengths, different distributions (normal, log-normal, levy), and using different construction methods: Fourier filtering, discrete wavelets, random additions, and Mandelbrot `cartoon' Brownian motions. We find: (a) Power-spectral and wavelet analyses are the most robust for measuring long-range persistence across all beta, although `antipersistence' is over-estimated for non- Gaussian time series. (b) Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength beta between -0.2 and 2.8 and has very large 95% confidence intervals for non-Gaussian signals. (c) Semivariograms are appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength between 1.0 and 2.8; it has large confidence intervals and systematically underestimates log-normal noises in this range. (d) Rescaled- Range Analysis is only accurate for beta of about 0.7. We conclude some techniques are much better suited than others for quantifying long-range persistence, and the resultant beta (and associated error bars on them) are sensitive to the one point probability distribution, the length of the time series, and the techniques used.

  3. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from organic soils in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppelt, Thomas; Dechow, Rene; Gebbert, Sören; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    The greenhouse gas emission potential of peatland ecosystems are mandatory for a complete annual emission budget in Europe. The GHG-Europe project aims to improve the modelling capabilities for greenhouse gases, e.g., nitrous oxide. The heterogeneous and event driven fluxes of nitrous oxide are challenging to model on European scale, especially regarding the upscaling purpose and certain parameter estimations. Due to these challenges adequate techniques are needed to create a robust empirical model. Therefore a literature study of nitrous oxide fluxes from organic soils has been carried out. This database contains flux data from boreal and temperate climate zones and covers the different land use categories: cropland, grassland, forest, natural and peat extraction sites. Especially managed crop- and grassland sites feature high emission potential. Generally nitrous oxide emissions increases significantly with deep drainage and intensive application of nitrogen fertilisation. Whereas natural peatland sites with a near surface groundwater table can act as nitrous oxide sink. An empirical fuzzy logic model has been applied to predict annual nitrous oxide emissions from organic soils. The calibration results in two separate models with best model performances for bogs and fens, respectively. The derived parameter combinations of these models contain mean groundwater table, nitrogen fertilisation, annual precipitation, air temperature, carbon content and pH value. Influences of the calibrated parameters on nitrous oxide fluxes are verified by several studies in literature. The extrapolation potential has been tested by an implemented cross validation. Furthermore the parameter ranges of the calibrated models are compared to occurring values on European scale. This avoid unknown systematic errors for the regionalisation purpose. Additionally a sensitivity analysis specify the model behaviour for each alternating parameter. The upscaling process for European peatland

  4. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  5. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  6. Reticle level compensation for long range effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Thiago; Browning, Clyde; Thornton, Martin J.; Vannufel, Cyril; Schiavone, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Proximity Effects in electron beam lithography impact feature dimensions, pattern fidelity and uniformity. Electron scattering effects are commonly addressed using a mathematical model representing the radial exposure intensity distribution induced by a point electron source, commonly named Point Spread Function (PSF). PSF models are usually employed for correcting "short-range" and "long-range" backscattering effects up to 10μm to 15μm. It is well known that there are also some process related phenomena impacting pattern uniformity that have a wider range (fogging, chemical mechanical polishing -CMP- effects, etc.) which impacts up to a few millimeters or more. There are a number of commercial strategies for mitigating such long range effects based on data density. However, those traditional ones are usually performed within a single chip on a reticle field and ignore the presence of adjacent fields, neglecting their influence. Full field reticles can contain several different designs or arrayed chips in a multitude of layout placements. Reticle level jobdeck placing each design at specific sites, independent of each other can be used to account for the density of each pattern that has a relative impact on its neighbors, even if they are several millimeters away from offending data. Therefore, full field density analysis accounting for scribe frames and all neighboring patterns is required for reaching fidelity control requirements such as critical dimension (CD) and line end shortening (LES) on the full plate. This paper describes a technique to compensate long range effects going across chip boundaries to the full reticle exposure field. The extreme long range effects are also represented with a model that is calibrated according to the characteristics of the user's process. Data correction can be based on dose and geometry modulation. Uniform pattern dimensional control matching the user's specific process long range variability can be achieved with the

  7. G3E - Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe: mission concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Andre; Orphal, Johannes; Bovensmann, Heinrich; von Clarmann, Thomas; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Knigge, Thiemo; Muenzenmayer, Ralf; Schmuelling, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities release various gaseous and particulate substances into the Earth's atmosphere affecting air quality and climate. The greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are particularly important drivers of man-made climate change while ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosols are major players in tropospheric photochemistry controlling air quality. Once released to the atmosphere the fate of man-made pollutants and climate forcers is controlled by natural removal processes. We present the mission concept of the Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E). G3E primarily aims at accurately measuring CO2 and CH4 column-average concentrations across Europe with spatial and temporal resolution of a few kilometers and a few hours, respectively. Such spatiotemporally dense imaging of the greenhouse gas concentration fields above Europe is expected to boost our ability to disentangle anthropogenic emissions from natural source and sink processes and to impose unprecedented observational constraints on surface flux quantification. In support of the retrieval and interpretation of greenhouse gas concentrations, G3E's grating spectrometers cover a wide spectral range from the near infrared into the shortwave infrared. This facilitates estimates of column-average CO and aerosol abundances providing extra information on air-quality from a geostationary view. A flexible pointing design further allows for selecting focus regions beyond the European continent in order to address the surface flux budgets of other regions of interest such as tropical Africa. We demonstrate G3E's capabilities in terms of prospective instrument design, observation concept, and retrieval performance.

  8. Long-Range Order in β Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J.C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1970-01-01

    The long-range order parameter M of β brass has been determined from measurements of the intensity of superlattice reflections of Bragg-scattered neutrons. Over the whole temperature range T=300 °K to T=Tc=736 °K, the data are in remarkable agreement with the prediction for the compressible Ising...... bcc lattice with only nearest-neighbor interactions. © 1970 The American Physical Society...

  9. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; French, S. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  10. The 1979 convention on long range transfrontier air pollution; La convention sur la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere a longue distance de 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagusiewicz, A. [UNECE, Palais des Nations, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Applied in March 1983, the 1979 international Convention have induced five protocols related to sulfur, nitrogen oxide and VOC emissions. After 1994, three new protocols are under study, concerning the reduction of nitrogenous and related compounds, heavy metals and long-lasting organic pollutants. Works and organization of the European EMEP program for the continuous monitoring and evaluation of the long range air pollution transport in Europe, are presented

  11. Long-range order in canary song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  12. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  13. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Dämmgen, U; Döhler, H

    2008-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow...... a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled...

  14. Stochastic processes and long range dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is a gateway for researchers and graduate students to explore the profound, yet subtle, world of long-range dependence (also known as long memory). The text is organized around the probabilistic properties of stationary processes that are important for determining the presence or absence of long memory. The first few chapters serve as an overview of the general theory of stochastic processes which gives the reader sufficient background, language, and models for the subsequent discussion of long memory. The later chapters devoted to long memory begin with an introduction to the subject along with a brief history of its development, followed by a presentation of what is currently the best known approach, applicable to stationary processes with a finite second moment. The book concludes with a chapter devoted to the author’s own, less standard, point of view of long memory as a phase transition, and even includes some novel results. Most of the material in the book has not previously been publis...

  15. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  16. Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouliot, G.; Pierce, T.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.; Moran, M.; Nopmongcol, U.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We

  17. Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, George; Pierce, Thomas; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn; Moran, Michael; Nopmongcol, Uarporn

    2012-06-01

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We focus specifically on the creation of “model-ready” gridded emission datasets for 2006 across the two continental study domains. The practice of creating and processing the two inventories is discussed with a focus on emission factors, spatial allocation, temporal variability, speciation of PM and VOCs, and the mechanics of distributing the data and supporting emission algorithms to the modeling community. The spatial and temporal distribution on common scales is compared for the pollutants of primary concern: NOx, VOCs, SO2, PM2.5, CO, and NH3. Because of differences of population distribution, emissions across North America tend to be more heterogeneous in spatial coverage than in Europe. The temporal patterns in the estimated emissions are largely the result of assumptions used to characterize human activity, with the exception of “natural” emissions, which are modulated by meteorological variability, and emissions from large electric generating units in the U.S., which have the benefit of continuous emission monitors that provide hourly resolved profiles. Emission estimates in both study domains are challenged by several important but poorly characterized emission source sectors, notably road dust, agricultural operations, biomass burning, and road transport. Finally, this paper provides insight on the strengths and weaknesses of emission inventory preparation practices on both continents. One important outcome of this comparison of 2006 emissions between Europe and North America is the greater understanding provided into how the emission estimates developed for the AQMEII project impact regional air quality model performance.

  18. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3–8 August 2003 showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9, the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat

  19. Anthropogenic vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.H.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Quass, U.

    2013-01-01

    An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were

  20. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellarby, J.; Tirado, R.; Leip, A.; Weiss, F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also

  1. Evolution of NOx emissions in Europe with focus on road transport control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available European emission trends of nitrogen oxides since 1880 and up to present are presented here and are linked to the evolution of road transport emissions. Road transport has been the dominating source of NOx emissions since 1970, and contributes with 40% to the total emissions in 2005. Five trend regimes have been identified between 1880 and 2005. The first regime (1880–1950 is determined by a slow increase in fuel consumption all over Europe. The second regime (1950–1980 is characterized by a continued steep upward trend in liquid fuel use and by the introduction of the first regulations on road traffic emissions. Reduction in fuel consumption determines the emission trends in the third regime (1980–1990 that is also characterized by important differences between Eastern and Western Europe. Emissions from road traffic continue to grow in Western Europe in this period, and it is argued here that the reason for this continued NOx emission increase is related to early inefficient regulations for NOx in the transport sector. The fourth regime (1990–2000 involves a turning point for road traffic emissions, with a general decrease of emissions in Europe during that decade. It is in this period that we can identify the first emission reductions due to technological abatement in Western Europe. In the fifth regime (2000–2005, the economic recovery in Eastern Europe imposes increased emission from road traffic in this area. Western European emissions are on the other hand decoupled from the fuel consumption, and continue to decrease. The implementation of strict measures to control NOx emissions is demonstrated here to be a main reason for the continued Western European emission reductions. The results indicate that even though the effectiveness of European standards is hampered by a slow vehicle turnover, loopholes in the type-approval testing, and an increase in diesel consumption, the effect of such technical abatement measures is traceable

  2. Long-range correlation and market segmentation in bond market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.

  3. The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections....... (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20 %. (3) Climate change may increase emissions by 0–40% in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK......Abstract. We present here a dynamical method for modelling temporal and geographical variations in ammonia emissions in regional-scale chemistry transport models (CTMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs). The method is based on the meteorology in the models and gridded inventories. We use...

  4. Impact of the vertical emission profiles on background gas-phase pollution simulated from the EMEP emissions over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mailler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Five one-year air quality simulations over a domain covering Europe have been performed using the CHIMERE chemistry transport model and the EMEP emission dataset for Europe. These five simulations differ only by the representation of the effective emission heights for anthropogenic emissions: one has been run using the EMEP standard recommendations, three others with vertical injection profiles derived from the EMEP recommendations but multiplying the injection height by 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25, respectively, while the last one uses vertical profiles derived from the recent literature. It is shown that using injection heights lower than the EMEP recommendations leads to significantly improved simulation of background SO2, NO2 and O3 concentrations when compared to the Airbase station measurements.

  5. Coupling passive air sampling with emission estimates and chemical fate modeling for persistent organic pollutants (POPs): a feasibility study for Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2007-04-01

    Passive air samplers (polyurethane foam disks) were deployed at 23 background locations along a broadly west-east transect in 8 northern European countries and analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, PAHs, and a range of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDTs, and DDEs). PCBs and PAHs were highest at the center of the transect (Denmark) and lowest in northern Norway. HCB was relatively uniformly distributed, reflecting its persistence and high degree of mixing in air. Higher DDE and DDT levels occurred in Eastern Europe and at several sites in Central Europe. PBDE levels were generally similar at all sites, but lower for some locations in Eastern Europe and Ireland. Emissions information for PCBs, HCB, and PBDEs was used as input for a multi-media chemical fate model, to generate predicted air concentrations and compare with these measured values. Different scenarios were highlighted by this exercise: (i) country and compound combinations where the national inventory gave predicted air concentrations in close agreement with those measured (e.g., PCBs in the UK); (ii) country and compound combinations where predicted concentrations were well below those measured, but where advection of emissions from elsewhere is likely to be important (e.g., PCBs in Norway); (iii) consistent underestimation of compound concentrations by the emissions modeling (i.e., HCB); and (iv) general overestimation of ambient concentrations (i.e., PBDEs). Air mass trajectory analysis showed the likely role of long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) on national levels. In general, advection from the south and west of Europe appeared to contribute to ambient POPs levels for countries in the center and northeast of the transect. Guidelines are presented as to how countries that want to assess their POPs source inventories can do so with this relatively cheap initial screening approach.

  6. Mitigation of Nitrogen Emissions from Animal Agriculture in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenema, O.

    2011-12-01

    More than 70% of the utilized agricultural area (187 Mha) in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27) is used for animal production. In addition, a considerable amount of animal feed is imported. Dairy and beef cattle, pigs, and poultry are the dominant animal species. Total livestock density is highest in the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark and some regions in France, Germany and Italy. The mean nitrogen (N) retention in animal products in EU-27 in 2005 was 20% for milk, 8% for beef, 25% for pork, 38% for poultry and 28% for egg production. This indicates that dairy cows excreted on average 80% of the N intake, beef cattle 92%, pigs 75%, poultry 62% and layers 72%. There was a large variation in N retention between countries. Animal manures and nitrogen (N) fertilizers are main sources of N emissions. In 2005, mean N excretion by animals ranged from less than 25 kg per ha per year in Bulgaria to nearly 250 kg per ha in The Netherlands. On average 25% of the total amount of N excreted was lost as ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere, though with a considerable variation between countries. About 10% was lost as NH3-N from housing systems, 9% from manure application to land, 4% from manure storage and treatment facilities, and 3% from grazing. Nitrogen leaching was in the same order of magnitude. Animal production also had a considerable share in the total emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (range 5-25%). Especially dairy cattle and beef cattle contribute to the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Considerable efforts are being made to decrease N emissions from agriculture in EU-27. Good agricultural practices and mandatory emission mitigation measures are enforced through EU environmental policies, including Nitrates Directive, National Emissions Ceiling Directive, and Water Framework Directive. Some countries have succeeded to decrease the NH3 emissions to air and N leaching losses to groundwater and

  7. Emission trading beyond Europe: linking schemes in a post-Kyoto world

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the economic impacts of linking the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) to emerging schemes beyond Europe, in the presence of a post-Kyoto agreement in 2020. Simulations with a numerical multi-country model of the world carbon market show that linking the European ETS induces only marginal economic benefits: As trading is restricted to energy-intensive industries that are assigned generous initial emissions, the major compliance burden is carried by non-trading industries exc...

  8. Nanoimprinted Long-range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Dan Mario; Boltasseva, A.; Nielsen, Theodor

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and performance of metal stripe waveguides embedded in a polymer, capable of supporting long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) propagation.......We report on the fabrication by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and performance of metal stripe waveguides embedded in a polymer, capable of supporting long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) propagation....

  9. Quantum correlations in a long range interaction spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Yan-Shen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new type of long range interaction spin chain. The quantum correlations such as quantum discord, entanglement, and structure factor are investigated in the thermal state with considering them both in zero temperature and finite temperature. Based on our results, we compare the differences and show the relations between the three types of quantum correlations in this long range interaction model.

  10. Degeneracy and long-range correlation: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmelat Vivien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a simulation study that aimed at evidencing a causal relationship between degeneracy and long-range correlations. Long-range correlations represent a very specific form of fluctuations that have been evidenced in the outcomes time series produced by a number of natural systems. Long-range correlations are supposed to sign the complexity, adaptability and flexibility of the system. Degeneracy is defined as the ability of elements that are structurally different to perform the same function, and is presented as a key feature for explaining the robustness of complex systems. We propose a model able to generate long-range correlated series, and including a parameter that account for degeneracy. Results show that a decrease in degeneracy tends to reduce the strength of long-range correlation in the series produced by the model.

  11. Adaptive long-range migration promotes cooperation under tempting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Saito, Masaya; Sayama, Hiroki; Wilson, David Sloan

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a fundamental trait in humans and animals. Recent studies investigated the effect of migration on the evolution of cooperation, showing that contingent migration favors cooperation in spatial structures. In those studies, only local migration to immediate neighbors was considered, while long-range migration has not been considered yet, partly because the long-range migration has been generally regarded as harmful for cooperation as it would bring the population to a well-mixed state that favors defection. Here, we studied the effects of adaptive long-range migration on the evolution of cooperation through agent-based simulations of a spatial Prisoner's Dilemma game where individuals can jump to a farther site if they are surrounded by more defectors. Our results show that adaptive long-range migration strongly promotes cooperation, especially under conditions where the temptation to defect is considerably high. These findings demonstrate the significance of adaptive long-range migration for the evolution of cooperation.

  12. Application of the emission inventory model TEAM: Uncertainties in dioxin emission estimates for central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Kok, H.; Quass, U.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses an improved emission inventory model to assess the uncertainties in emissions of dioxins and furans associated with both knowledge on the exact technologies and processes used, and with the uncertainties of both activity data and emission factors. The annual total emissions for the

  13. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  14. Modelling the Contribution of Long-range Transport of Ammonium Nitrates to Urban Air Pollution and Human Exposure in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S.; Vieno, M.; Beck, R.; Ots, R.; Moring, A.; Steinle, S.; Heal, M. R.; Doherty, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution and its effects on human health remain to be a challenge in spite of substantial reductions in the emissions of air pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) over the past decades in Europe. While primary pollutants play a vital role in urban air pollution, recent model studies highlight and quantify the relevance of long-range transport of secondary pollution (e.g. secondary inorganic aerosols such as ammonium sulphates and nitrates, or ground level ozone) for the exceedance of local air quality limit values in urban areas across Europe. This contribution can be seen in recurring episodes, for instance in spring 2014, with very high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Paris, London and other European cities, as well as in elevated background levels throughout the year. While we will focus on the contribution to exceedances of PM2.5 limit values here, this transboundary transport has wider implications for the deposition of reactive nitrogen far from the source as well. As local authorities are tasked with ensuring the attainment of air quality limit values, exceedances caused by long-range transport, with emissions originating from sources outside of their jurisdiction present substantial challenges. Furthermore, while policy measures have successfully addressed emissions from large point sources in the past, and made progress towards reducing pollution from road vehicles, emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources - a key component for the long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosols - have remained relatively stable in Europe. Using the example of Europe and the UK, we demonstrate in our presentation how atmospheric chemistry transport modelling across different scales (from regional to local) can provide vital insight in the mechanisms of and relative contributions to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. In addition, we illustrate how this modelling capability can inform the design of efficient control

  15. Scintillation mitigation for long-range surveillance video

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Delport, JP

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbulence is a naturally occurring phenomenon that can severely degrade the quality of long-range surveillance video footage. Major effects include image blurring, image warping and temporal wavering of objects in the scene. Mitigating...

  16. Long-range patterns in Hindmarsh-Rose networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etémé, Armand Sylvin; Tabi, Conrad Bertrand; Mohamadou, Alidou

    2017-02-01

    Long-range diffusive effects are included in a discrete Hindmarsh-Rose neural network. Their impact on the emergence of nonlinear patterns is investigated via the modulational instability. The whole system is first shown to fully reduce to a single nonlinear differential-difference equation, which has plane wave solutions. The stability of such solutions is investigated and regions of instability are found to be importantly influenced by long-range parameters. The analytical results are confirmed through direct numerical simulations, where scattered and chaotic patterns illustrate the long-range effect. Synchronized states are described by quasi-periodic patterns for nearest-neighbor coupling. The external stimulus is also shown to efficiently control strong long-range effects via more regular spatiotemporal patterns.

  17. Chiral Topological Superconductors Enhanced by Long-Range Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyuela, Oscar; Fu, Liang; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    We study the phase diagram and edge states of a two-dimensional p -wave superconductor with long-range hopping and pairing amplitudes. New topological phases and quasiparticles different from the usual short-range model are obtained. When both hopping and pairing terms decay with the same exponent, one of the topological chiral phases with propagating Majorana edge states gets significantly enhanced by long-range couplings. On the other hand, when the long-range pairing amplitude decays more slowly than the hopping, we discover new topological phases where propagating Majorana fermions at each edge pair nonlocally and become gapped even in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, these nonlocal edge states are still robust, remain separated from the bulk, and are localized at both edges at the same time. The inclusion of long-range effects is potentially applicable to recent experiments with magnetic impurities and islands in 2D superconductors.

  18. Anthropogenic Vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visschedijk A. H. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were calculated bottom-up using energy use activity data and collected fuel and sector-specific emissions factors, taking into account various emission control measures. The NW European emissions were dominated by combustion of heavy fuel oil and petroleum cokes. Total emissions for 2005 amounted to 1569 tons/yr. The major sources are sea going ships (39%, petroleum refineries (35% and industry (19%. Emission is strongly concentrated at the densely populated cities with major sea ports. The location of sources at or near the major port cities was confirmed by observational data, as was the downward trend in emissions due to emission control, fuel switches in industry and fuel quality improvement. The results show the positive impact of lower sulphur fuels on other possible health relevant air pollutants such as particle bound Vanadium. The emission inventory can be expanded to the full European domain and can be used to for air quality modeling and particularly for the tracing of source contributions from certain types of fossil fuels (petroleum coke and residual fuel oil. Moreover, it will allow the monitoring of changes in fuel use over time.

  19. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  20. Variable Phase Propagation Velocity for Long Range Lightning Location System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Koh, K.; Mezentsev, A.; Enno, S. E.; Sugier, J.; Fullekrug, M.

    2016-12-01

    Lightning Location System (LLS) is of key importance to numerous meteorological, industrial and aviation systems worldwide. A crucial input parameter of a LLS which utilizes time-of-arrival (TOA) method is the wave propagation velocity at low frequencies. For example, the WWLLN network use group velocity approach, which is assumed to be constant near the speed of light [e.g. Dowden et al., 2002]. The detected lightning signals are normally a mixture of ground waves and sky waves (i.e. ionospheric hops), which are associated with different elevation angle of the incident wave [e.g., Fullekrug et al., 2015]. In this study, we introduce the new concept of "phase propagation velocity" as observed by the receiver considering the elevation angle. It is found that the radio waves from two submarine communication transmitters at 20.9 kHz and 23.4 kHz exhibit phase propagation velocities that are 0.51% slower and 0.64% faster than the speed of light as a result of sky wave contributions and ground effects. Here, we apply our new technique, using a variable phase propagation velocity, to the TOA method for the first time. This method was applied to electric field recordings from a long range LLS ( 500km) that consists of four radio receivers in Western Europe. The lightning locations inferred from variable velocities improve the accuracy of locations inferred from a fixed velocity by 0.89-1.06 km when compared to the lightning locations reported by the UK Met Office. The observed phase propagation velocities depend on the ground and ionosphere conditions along the propagation paths. The distribution of the observed phase propagation velocities in small geographic areas fit a normal distribution that is not centered at the speed of light. Consequently, representative velocities can be calculated for many small geographic areas to produce a velocity map over central France where numerous lightning discharges occurred. This map reflects the impact of sky waves and ground

  1. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Liquid manure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, B.; Dämmgen, U.; Döhler, H.; Eurich-Menden, B.; van Evert, F. K.; Hutchings, N. J.; Luesink, H. H.; Menzi, H.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Monteny, G.-J.; Webb, J.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH 3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH 3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH 3 emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard datasets. Two scenarios for slurry-based systems were run separately for dairy cattle and for pigs, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardised inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for EFs (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario showed very good agreement among models, indicating that the underlying N flows of the different models are highly similar. As a result of the different national EFs and N excretion rates, larger differences among the results were observed for the FN and the NN scenarios. Reasons for the differences were primarily attributed to differences in the agricultural practices and climatic factors reflected in the EFs and the N excretion rates. The scientific debate necessary to understand the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models.

  2. Impacts of climate and emission changes on nitrogen deposition in Europe: a multi-model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simpson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate and emissions changes on the deposition of reactive nitrogen (Nr over Europe was studied using four offline regional chemistry transport models (CTMs driven by the same global projection of future climate over the period 2000–2050. Anthropogenic emissions for the years 2005 and 2050 were used for simulations of both present and future periods in order to isolate the impact of climate change, hemispheric boundary conditions and emissions, and to assess the robustness of the results across the different models. The results from these four CTMs clearly show that the main driver of future N-deposition changes is the specified emission change. Under the specified emission scenario for 2050, emissions of oxidised nitrogen were reduced substantially, whereas emissions of NH3 increase to some extent, and these changes are largely reflected in the modelled concentrations and depositions. The lack of sulfur and oxidised nitrogen in the future atmosphere results in a much larger fraction of NHx being present in the form of gaseous ammonia. Predictions for wet and total deposition were broadly consistent, although the three fine-scale models resolve European emission areas and changes better than the hemispheric-scale model. The biggest difference in the models is for predictions of individual N compounds. One model (EMEP was used to explore changes in critical loads, also in conjunction with speculative climate-induced increases in NH3 emissions. These calculations suggest that the area of ecosystems that exceeds critical loads is reduced from 64% for year 2005 emissions levels to 50% for currently estimated 2050 levels. A possible climate-induced increase in NH3 emissions could worsen the situation, with areas exceeded increasing again to 57% (for a 30% NH3 emission increase.

  3. Estimation of volatile organic compound emissions for Europe using data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Koohkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs over western Europe for the year 2005 are estimated via inverse modelling by assimilation of in situ observations of concentration and then subsequently compared to a standard emission inventory. The study focuses on 15 VOC species: five aromatics, six alkanes, two alkenes, one alkyne and one biogenic diene. The inversion relies on a validated fast adjoint of the chemical transport model used to simulate the fate and transport of these VOCs. The assimilated ground-based measurements over Europe are provided by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP network. The background emission errors and the prior observational errors are estimated by maximum-likelihood approaches. The positivity assumption on the VOC emission fluxes is pivotal for a successful inversion, and this maximum-likelihood approach consistently accounts for the positivity of the fluxes. For most species, the retrieved emissions lead to a significant reduction of the bias, which underlines the misfit between the standard inventories and the observed concentrations. The results are validated through a forecast test and a cross-validation test. An estimation of the posterior uncertainty is also provided. It is shown that the statistically consistent non-Gaussian approach based on a reliable estimation of the errors offers the best performance. The efficiency in correcting the inventory depends on the lifetime of the VOCs and the accuracy of the boundary conditions. In particular, it is shown that the use of in situ observations using a sparse monitoring network to estimate emissions of isoprene is inadequate because its short chemical lifetime significantly limits the spatial radius of influence of the monitoring data. For species with a longer lifetime (a few days, successful, albeit partial, emission corrections can reach regions hundreds of kilometres away from the stations. Domain-wide corrections of the

  4. Long range transport of mercury to the Arctic and across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durnford

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is the most extensive study to date on the transport of mercury to the Arctic. Moreover, it is the first such study to use a fully-coupled, online chemical transport model, Environment Canada's Global/Regional Atmospheric Heavy Metals model (GRAHM, where the meteorology and mercury processes are fully integrated. It is also the only study to date on the transport of mercury across Canada. We estimated source attribution from Asia, North America, Russia and Europe at six arctic verification stations, as well as three subarctic and eight midlatitude Canadian stations.

    We have found that Asia, despite having transport efficiencies that were almost always lower than those of North America and often lower than those of Russia, was the dominant source of gaseous atmospheric mercury at all verification stations: it contributed the most mercury (29–37% at all stations, seasons and levels considered, its concentrations frequently explained nearly 100% of the variability in the concentrations produced by the simulation performed with full global emissions, particularly in the absence of local sources, and it generated the most long range transport (LRT events, causing 43%, 67% and 75% of the events at the arctic, subarctic and midlatitude stations, respectively. For the Arctic, Russian transport efficiencies tended to be the strongest, as expected, while European and Asian efficiencies were lower and higher, respectively, than those found in the literature. This disagreement is likely produced by mercury's long lifetime relative to that of other pollutants. The accepted springtime preference for the trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution was evident only in the midlatitude group of stations, being masked in the arctic and subarctic groups by the occurrence of atmospheric mercury depletion events. Some neighbouring arctic stations recorded dissimilar numbers of LRT events; despite their proximity, the behaviour of mercury at these

  5. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations.

  6. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects Nuclear magnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Gutteridge, S

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. Thes...

  7. Long-range beam–beam compensation using wires

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2015-01-01

    At the LHC, the effect of unavoidable long-range beam–beam collisions reduces the dynamic aperture, calling for a minimum crossing angle. A wire compensator partially cancels the effect of the long-range collisions, and may allow operation with reduced crossing angle or decreased beta function at the interaction point, thereby increasing the (virtual) peak luminosity. In this chapter, we describe the proposed compensation scheme, previous validation experiments with a single beam and multiple wires at the SPS, simulations for the LHC high-luminosity upgrade, a demonstrator project with real long-range encounters foreseen in the LHC proper, and the possible use of a low-energy electron beam as a future ultimate “wire”.

  8. Long range node-strut analysis of trabecular bone microarchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmah, Tanya; Marwan, Norbert; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We present a new morphometric measure of trabecular bone microarchitecture, called mean node strength (NdStr), which is part of a newly developed approach called long range node-strut analysis. Our general aim is to describe and quantify the apparent "latticelike" microarchitecture...... of the trabecular bone network. METHODS: Similar in some ways to the topological node-strut analysis introduced by Garrahan et al. [J. Microsc. 142, 341-349 (1986)], our method is distinguished by an emphasis on long-range trabecular connectivity. Thus, while the topological classification of a pixel (after...... method produces a continuous variable, node strength. The node strength is averaged over a region of interest to produce the mean node strength of the region. RESULTS: We have applied our long range node-strut analysis to a set of 26 high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (p...

  9. Long-range oil and gas forecasting methodologies: literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherniavsky, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    Performance of long-range energy system analyses requires the capability to project conventional domestic oil and gas supplies in the long term. The objective of the Long-range Forecasting Methodology project is to formulate an approach to this problem which will be compatible with the principal tool employed by the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy for long-range energy system analyses, the Long-term Energy Analysis Package (LEAP). This paper reports on projection methodologies that have appeared in the literature, evaluates them in terms of their applicability to the LEAP framework, and discusses the principal determinants of conventional domestic oil and gas supply in the long run.

  10. Light absorbing carbon in Europe - measurement and modelling, with a focus on residential wood combustion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Simpson, D.; Swietlicki, E.; Areskoug, H.; Beddows, D.; Ceburnis, D.; Fiebig, M.; Hansson, H. C.; Harrison, R. M.; Jennings, S. G.; Saarikoski, S.; Spindler, G.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Yttri, K. E.; Bergström, R.

    2013-04-01

    The atmospheric concentration of elemental carbon (EC) in Europe during the six-year period 2005-2010 has been simulated with the EMEP MSC-W model. The model bias compared to EC measurements is less than 20% for most of the examined sites. The model results suggest that fossil fuel combustion is the dominant source of EC in most of Europe but there are important contributions also from residential wood burning during the cold seasons and, during certain episodes, also from open biomass burning (wildfires and agricultural fires). The modelled contributions from open biomass fires to ground level concentrations of EC is small at the sites included in the present study, wood combustion has been applied. For some countries the new inventory has substantially different EC emissions compared to earlier estimates. For Northern Europe the most significant changes are much lower emissions in Norway and higher emissions in neighbouring Sweden and Finland. For Norway and Sweden, comparison to source-apportionment data from winter campaigns indicate that the new inventory may improve model calculated EC from wood burning. Finally, three different model setups were tested with variable atmospheric lifetimes of EC in order to evaluate the model sensitivity to the assumptions regarding hygroscopicity and atmospheric ageing of EC. The standard ageing scheme leads to a rapid transformation of the emitted hydrophobic EC to hygroscopic particles and generates similar results as assuming that all EC is aged at the point of emission. Assuming hydrophobic emissions and no ageing leads to higher EC concentrations. For the more remote sites, the observed EC concentration was in between the modelled EC using standard ageing and the scenario treating EC as hydrophobic. This could indicate too rapid EC ageing in the model in relatively clean parts of the atmosphere.

  11. Study of beam-beam long range compensation with octupoles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Long range beam-beam effects are responsible for particle losses and define fundamental operational parameters of colliders (i.e. crossing angles, intensities, emittances, ${\\beta}$${^∗}$). In this study we propose octuple magnets as a possible scheme to efficiently compensate long-range beam-beam interactions with a global correction scheme. The impact and improvements on the dynamic aperture of colliding beams together with estimates of the luminosity potentials are dis- cussed for the HL-LHC upgrade and extrapolations made for the FCC project.

  12. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, I.; Panci, Paolo; Silk, J.

    2014-01-01

    the agreement between the best solar model and the helioseismic data without being excluded by direct detection experiments. In particular, the LUX detector will soon be able to either constrain or confirm our best-fit solar model in the presence of a dark sector with long-range interactions that reconcile......Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from...

  13. Long-range correlations and asymmetry in the Bitcoin market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Rodriguez, E.; Ibarra-Valdez, C.

    2018-02-01

    This work studies long-range correlations and informational efficiency of the Bitcoin market for the period from June 30, 2013 to June 3rd, 2017. To this end, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was implemented over sliding windows to estimate long-range correlations for price returns. It was found that the Bitcoin market exhibits periods of efficiency alternating with periods where the price dynamics are driven by anti-persistence. The pattern is replicated by prices samples at day, hour and second frequencies. The Bitcoin market also presents asymmetric correlations with respect to increasing and decreasing price trending, with the former trend linked to anti-persistence of returns dynamics.

  14. Design of a high capacity long range cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.

    1994-01-01

    This report examines the design of a long range cargo transport to attempt to reduce ton-mile shipping costs and to stimulate the air cargo market. This design effort involves the usual issues but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; cargo loading and unloading; and defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This report reviews the long range transport design problem and several solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University. The results show that it will be difficult to build large transports unless the infrastructure is changed and unless the basic form of the airplane changes so that aerodynamic and structural efficiencies are employed.

  15. Response of fine particulate matter concentrations to changes of emissions and temperature in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Megaritis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PMCAMx-2008, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, was applied in Europe to quantify the changes in fine particle (PM2.5 concentration in response to different emission reductions as well as to temperature increase. A summer and a winter simulation period were used, to investigate the seasonal dependence of the PM2.5 response to 50% reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, nitrogen oxides (NOx, anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs and anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA emissions and also to temperature increases of 2.5 and 5 K. Reduction of NH3 emissions seems to be the most effective control strategy for reducing PM2.5, in both periods, resulting in a decrease of PM2.5 up to 5.1 μg m−3 and 1.8 μg m−3 (5.5% and 4% on average during summer and winter respectively, mainly due to reduction of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 (20% on average in both periods. The reduction of SO2 emissions decreases PM2.5 in both periods having a significant effect over the Balkans (up to 1.6 μg m−3 during the modeled summer period, mainly due to decrease of sulfate (34% on average over the Balkans. The anthropogenic POA control strategy reduces total OA by 15% during the modeled winter period and 8% in the summer period. The reduction of total OA is higher in urban areas close to its emissions sources. A slight decrease of OA (8% in the modeled summer period and 4% in the modeled winter period is also predicted after a 50% reduction of VOCs emissions due to the decrease of anthropogenic SOA. The reduction of NOx emissions reduces PM2.5 (up to 3.4 μg m−3 during the summer period, due to a decrease of NH4NO3, causing although an increase of ozone concentration in major urban areas and over Western Europe. Additionally, the NOx control strategy actually increases PM2.5 levels during the winter period, due to more oxidants becoming available to react with SO2 and VOCs. The increase of temperature results in a decrease of PM2

  16. Nanoimprinted reflecting gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Johansen, Dan Mario

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel design, fabrication, and characterization of reflecting gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) at telecom wavelengths. LR-SPP waveguides consisting of a thin (12 nm) gold film embedded in a thick (45 μm) layer of dielectric polymer cladding are structured...

  17. Compact Bragg Gratings for Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Nikolajsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    By introducing periodic thickness-modulation of thin metal stripes embedded in a dielectric, we realize compact and efficient Bragg gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) operating around 1550 nm. We measure reflection and transmission spectra of the gratings having different...

  18. Photonic bandgap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm...... of achieving a full bandgap (in the surface plane) for LR-SPPs are also discussed....

  19. Long range prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 1. Long range prediction of Indian summer monsoon ... In recent years NCEP/NCAR reanalysis has improved the geographical coverage and availability of the data and this can be easily updated. In this study using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data on ...

  20. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  1. Long-range plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    waveguides. We show that the proposed structures support long-range surface plasmon modes, which exist when the permittivity of the core matches the transverse effective permittivity component of the metamaterial cladding. In this regime, the surface plasmon polaritons of each cladding layer are strongly...

  2. Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2006-01-01

    We present an experimental study of guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along the nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded in a polymer via excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) in a very broad wavelength range from 1000 to 1650 mn. For straight...

  3. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded...

  4. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulos, M.F.; Rychkov, S.; van Rees, B.C.; Zan, B.

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to

  5. The long-range electromobility; Die Langstrecken-Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The recent advances in the fuel cell technology prompted the automotive developers to bring to design hybrid electric vehicles with a fuel cell and a lithium-ion battery. Thus, the long-range electric mobility is possible at a short refueling time simultaneously. In addition, the lithium battery is suitable for preconditioning of the hydrogen fuel cell.

  6. Long range prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The search for new parameters for predicting the all India summer monsoon rainfall (AISMR) has been an important aspect of long range prediction of AISMR. In recent years NCEP/NCAR reanalysis has improved the geographical coverage and availability of the data and this can be easily updated. In this study using ...

  7. Perspectives for Social Relevance in Long-Range Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James M., Ed; Shultz, James, Ed.

    Twenty-three interviews are compiled to assist the formulation of operational goals as part of the long-range planning of the YMCA. Basic assumptions about social relevance in YMCA planning and suggestions for YMCA planners in utilizing this monograph are provided in an introduction. A summary of each individual's interview is presented along with…

  8. Netherlands Army Long Range Anti Armour Study - Status Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, P.A.B. van

    1989-01-01

    At the end of the nineties the munition for the TOW weapon system in use at The Netherlands army, has to be replaced. The Life of Type of The Tow carrier ends in 2005. The long range anti armour study is to gain insight into the possibilities and limitations for the Netherlands army to deploy future

  9. Long-Range Correlations in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chung-Kang

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis, I explore a wide variety of physical and biological systems without any temporal (or spatial) characteristic scale. These systems are usually associated with the terms "fractal," "scale free," "1/f noise" and "long-range correlations." In the first part of the thesis, I discuss some general concepts of scale-free systems and introduce several useful analytic and numerical tools to describe and analyze them. In the second part, I study simple physical models that exhibit long-range correlations in their spatial or temporal sequences. Two concrete examples are the one -dimensional diffusion of hard-core particles and the diffusion of particles in a random velocity field. Although, both examples exhibit power-law behavior in their velocity auto -correlation function, higher order correlations are completely different. Furthermore, I apply a novel numerical algorithm for generating correlated stochastic variables to study numerically the behavior of a dynamical system in the presence of long-range correlated noise. In the last part, I present two biological systems with long-range correlations: The DNA sequences and the human heartbeat time series. Two observations are made: (1) By constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk--called a "DNA walk," one can show that long -range correlations exist in non-coding nucleotide sequences but not in cDNA (protein coding) sequences. (2) Under healthy conditions, cardiac interbeat interval dynamics exhibit long-term correlations; with severe pathology this correlation behavior breaks down. For both systems, I discuss possible origins of these correlations and their biological implications.

  10. Urban eddy covariance measurements reveal significant missing NOx emissions in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T; Graus, M; Striednig, M; Lamprecht, C; Hammerle, A; Wohlfahrt, G; Held, A; von der Heyden, L; Deventer, M J; Krismer, A; Haun, C; Feichter, R; Lee, J

    2017-05-30

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution is emerging as a primary environmental concern across Europe. While some large European metropolitan areas are already in breach of EU safety limits for NO2, this phenomenon does not seem to be only restricted to large industrialized areas anymore. Many smaller scale populated agglomerations including their surrounding rural areas are seeing frequent NO2 concentration violations. The question of a quantitative understanding of different NOx emission sources is therefore of immanent relevance for climate and air chemistry models as well as air pollution management and health. Here we report simultaneous eddy covariance flux measurements of NOx, CO2, CO and non methane volatile organic compound tracers in a city that might be considered representative for Central Europe and the greater Alpine region. Our data show that NOx fluxes are largely at variance with modelled emission projections, suggesting an appreciable underestimation of the traffic related atmospheric NOx input in Europe, comparable to the weekend-weekday effect, which locally changes ozone production rates by 40%.

  11. Probing the role of long-range interactions in the dynamics of a long-range Kitaev chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Dutta, Amit

    2017-09-01

    We study the role of long-range interactions (more precisely, the long-range superconducting gap term) on the nonequilibrium dynamics considering a long-range p -wave superconducting chain in which the superconducting term decays with distance between two sites in a power-law fashion characterized by an exponent α . We show that the Kibble-Zurek scaling exponent, dictating the power-law decay of the defect density in the final state reached following a slow (in comparison to the time scale associated with the minimum gap in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian) quenching of the chemical potential μ across a quantum critical point, depends nontrivially on the exponent α as long as α 2 , we find that the exponent saturates to the corresponding well-known value of 1 /2 expected for the short-range model. Furthermore, studying the dynamical quantum phase transitions manifested in the nonanalyticities in the rate function of the return possibility I (t ) in subsequent temporal evolution following a sudden change in μ , we show the existence of a new region; in this region, we find three instants of cusp singularities in I (t ) associated with a single sector of Fisher zeros. Notably, the width of this region shrinks as α increases and vanishes in the limit α →2 , indicating that this special region is an artifact of the long-range nature of the Hamiltonian.

  12. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aksoyoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %, the English Channel and the North Sea (30–35 %, while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %, where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3 due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to

  13. Global methane emission estimates for 2000-2012 from CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 v1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuruta, Aki; Aalto, Tuula; Backman, Leif; Hakkarainen, Janne; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Krol, Maarten C.; Spahni, Renato; Houweling, Sander; Laine, Marko; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Gomez-Pelaez, Angel J.; Van Der Schoot, Marcel; Langenfelds, Ray; Ellul, Raymond; Arduini, Jgor; Apadula, Francesco; Gerbig, Christoph; Feist, DIetrich G.; Kivi, Rigel; Yoshida, Yukio; Peters, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    We present a global distribution of surface methane (CH4) emission estimates for 2000-2012 derived using the CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 (CTE-CH4) data assimilation system. In CTE-CH4, anthropogenic and biospheric CH4 emissions are simultaneously estimated based on constraints of global atmospheric in

  14. Optical measurements of long-range protein vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acbas, Gheorghe; Niessen, Katherine A.; Snell, Edward H.; Markelz, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Protein biological function depends on structural flexibility and change. From cellular communication through membrane ion channels to oxygen uptake and delivery by haemoglobin, structural changes are critical. It has been suggested that vibrations that extend through the protein play a crucial role in controlling these structural changes. While nature may utilize such long-range vibrations for optimization of biological processes, bench-top characterization of these extended structural motions for engineered biochemistry has been elusive. Here we show the first optical observation of long-range protein vibrational modes. This is achieved by orientation-sensitive terahertz near-field microscopy measurements of chicken egg white lysozyme single crystals. Underdamped modes are found to exist for frequencies >10 cm-1. The existence of these persisting motions indicates that damping and intermode coupling are weaker than previously assumed. The methodology developed permits protein engineering based on dynamical network optimization.

  15. SEGMENTATION AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LONG RANGE CAPTURED IRIS IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The iris segmentation plays a major role in an iris recognition system to increase the performance of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for segmentation of iris images to extract the iris part of long range captured eye image and an approach to select best iris frame from the iris polar image sequences by analyzing the quality of iris polar images. The quality of iris image is determined by the frequency components present in the iris polar images. The experiments are carried out on CASIA-long range captured iris image sequences. The proposed segmentation method is compared with Hough transform based segmentation and it has been determined that the proposed method gives higher accuracy for segmentation than Hough transform.

  16. Sirius: a long-range infrared search and track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sirius is a long range infra red search and track system (LR- IRST) and intended to be used in an anti air warfare (AAW) multisensor suite on board of modern frigates. This Dutch/Canadian development program started 1/1/95 and includes also the evaluation of the system in warm and cold water scenarios. The operational requirements were drafted by both the national navies. The primary task is automatic detection, tracking and reporting of seaskimming missiles at long range. The design is based on recent experiences with IRSTs and the latest technological achievements in the areas of processing capabilities and IR-detectors. In this presentation design drivers and main technical choices are discussed.

  17. Entropy and long-range correlations in random symbolic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Melnik, S S

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the entropy of random long-range correlated symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. As a plausible model, we use the high-order additive stationary ergodic Markov chain. Supposing that the correlations between random elements of the chain are weak we express the differential entropy of the sequence by means of the symbolic pair correlation function. We also examine an algorithm for estimating the differential entropy of finite symbolic sequences. We show that the entropy contains two contributions, the correlation and fluctuation ones. The obtained analytical results are used for numerical evaluation of the entropy of written English texts and DNA nucleotide sequences. The developed theory opens the way for constructing a more consistent and sophisticated approach to describe the systems with strong short- and weak long-range correlations.

  18. Reaching for the Horizon: The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald

    2015-10-01

    In April 2014, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee was charged to conduct a new study of the opportunities and priorities for United States nuclear physics research and to recommend a long range plan for the coordinated advancement of the Nation's nuclear science program over the next decade. The entire community actively contributed to developing this plan. Ideas and goals, new and old, were examined and community priorities were established. The Long Range Plan Working Group gathered at Kitty Hawk, NC to converge on the recommendations. In this talk I will discuss the vision for the future that has emerged from this process. The new plan, ``Reaching for the Horizon,'' offers the promise of great leaps forward in our understanding of nuclear science and new opportunities for nuclear science to serve society. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  19. Conformal Invariance in the Long-Range Ising Model

    CERN Document Server

    Paulos, Miguel F; van Rees, Balt C; Zan, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  20. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel F. Paulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  1. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulos, Miguel F. [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Rychkov, Slava, E-mail: slava.rychkov@lpt.ens.fr [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l' École Normale Supérieure (LPTENS), Paris (France); Faculté de Physique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris (France); Rees, Balt C. van [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Zan, Bernardo [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  2. Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 2: Numerical addendum to emissions, dispersion and trends of acidifying and eutrophying agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Erik [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report was prepared for the twenty first session of the Steering Body of EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe). It presents the numerical fields and budgets of the acidifying and eutrophying air pollution in the form of three appendices: annual average air concentrations of acidifying and eutrophying species, 1996; country-to-country deposition budgets for acidifying/eutrophying air pollutants, 1985-95; and grid square deposition of acidifying/eutrophying components allocated to emitting countries, mean 1985-95. 19 figs.

  3. On the search for new long-range forces

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1980-01-01

    The hypothesis is discussed of the existence of new long-range forces in addition to gravitational and electromagnetic forces. It is assumed that the forces act between massive elementary particles of a new type which have not been observed hitherfore experimentally. A search for such particles could be carried out by means of exact and systematic gravimetric measurements on the surface of the Earth as well as in the solar system. (11 refs).

  4. Emergent long-range couplings in arrays of fluid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Douglas Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-07

    We present a system exhibiting extraordinarily long-range cooperative effects, on a length scale far exceeding the bulk correlation length. We give a theoretical explanation of these phenomena based on the mesoscopic picture of phase coexistence in finite systems, which is confirmedly Monte Carlo (MC) simulation studies. Our work demonstrates that such action-at-a-distance can occur in classical systems involving simple or complex fluids, such as colloid-polymer mixtures, or ferromagnets.

  5. Futures/Long-Range Planning Group. Periodic Report 7,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    27 interface for 21st century travelers. In a cashless , checkless society , Asimov envisages that travelers will have plastic devices (similar to...are: Antarctica, America’s aging population, divided societies , American-English, ethnotronics, and long-range planning. An introductory page presents...States can be reasonably projected for the next 50 years because projections depend on death rates and not on birth rates.󈧐 Increasingly, US society will

  6. Long Range Microimage Transmission Techniques Study for AFMPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    of MIT Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, and EPSCO Laboratories ( now defunct) in Wilton, Connecticut. Their results indicate that the long range... EPSCO Laboratories (now defunrt) in Wilton, Connecticut. The NOSC effort was sponsored by the Bureau of Naval Personnel, the ESL effort was conducted...in support of the Library of Congress and the EPSCO Laboratory effort was sponsored by RADC in support of the Foreign Technology Division at Wright

  7. Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Dobbs, Howard A; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-06-16

    Electrolyte solutions with high concentrations of ions are prevalent in biological systems and energy storage technologies. Nevertheless, the high interaction free energy and long-range nature of electrostatic interactions makes the development of a general conceptual picture of concentrated electrolytes a significant challenge. In this work, we study ionic liquids, single-component liquids composed solely of ions, in an attempt to provide a novel perspective on electrostatic screening in very high concentration (nonideal) electrolytes. We use temperature-dependent surface force measurements to demonstrate that the long-range, exponentially decaying diffuse double-layer forces observed across ionic liquids exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence: Increasing the temperature decreases the measured exponential (Debye) decay length, implying an increase in the thermally driven effective free-ion concentration in the bulk ionic liquids. We use our quantitative results to propose a general model of long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids, where thermally activated charge fluctuations, either free ions or correlated domains (quasiparticles), take on the role of ions in traditional dilute electrolyte solutions. This picture represents a crucial step toward resolving several inconsistencies surrounding electrostatic screening and charge transport in ionic liquids that have impeded progress within the interdisciplinary ionic liquids community. More broadly, our work provides a previously unidentified way of envisioning highly concentrated electrolytes, with implications for diverse areas of inquiry, ranging from designing electrochemical devices to rationalizing electrostatic interactions in biological systems.

  8. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J. L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A. V.; Ivanov, P. Ch.; Carpena, P.

    2012-06-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome.

  9. Energy transport in the presence of long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Debarshee

    2017-10-01

    We study energy transport in the paradigmatic Hamiltonian mean-field (HMF) model and other related long-range interacting models using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that energy diffusion in the HMF model is subdiffusive in nature, which confirms a recently obtained intriguing result that, despite being globally interacting, this model is a thermal insulator in the thermodynamic limit. Surprisingly, when additional nearest-neighbor interactions are introduced to the HMF model, an energy superdiffusion is observed. We show that these results can be consistently explained by studying energy localization due to thermally generated intrinsic localized excitation modes (discrete breathers) in nonlinear discrete systems. Our analysis for the HMF model can also be readily extended to more generic long-range interacting models where the interaction strength decays algebraically with the (shortest) distance between two lattice sites. This reconciles many of the apparently counterintuitive results presented recently [C. Olivares and C. Anteneodo, Phys. Rev. E 94, 042117 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.042117; D. Bagchi, Phys. Rev. E 95, 032102 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.032102] concerning energy transport in two such long-range interacting models.

  10. Observation of prethermalization in long-range interacting spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyenhuis, Brian; Zhang, Jiehang; Hess, Paul W.; Smith, Jacob; Lee, Aaron C.; Richerme, Phil; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Monroe, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Although statistical mechanics describes thermal equilibrium states, these states may or may not emerge dynamically for a subsystem of an isolated quantum many-body system. For instance, quantum systems that are near-integrable usually fail to thermalize in an experimentally realistic time scale, and instead relax to quasi-stationary prethermal states that can be described by statistical mechanics, when approximately conserved quantities are included in a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). We experimentally study the relaxation dynamics of a chain of up to 22 spins evolving under a long-range transverse-field Ising Hamiltonian following a sudden quench. For sufficiently long-range interactions, the system relaxes to a new type of prethermal state that retains a strong memory of the initial conditions. However, the prethermal state in this case cannot be described by a standard GGE; it rather arises from an emergent double-well potential felt by the spin excitations. This result shows that prethermalization occurs in a broader context than previously thought, and reveals new challenges for a generic understanding of the thermalization of quantum systems, particularly in the presence of long-range interactions. PMID:28875166

  11. Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions – a freely accessible model code for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Skjøth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Deriving a parameterisation of ammonia emissions for use in chemistry-transport models (CTMs is a complex problem as the emission varies locally as a result of local climate and local agricultural management. In current CTMs such factors are generally not taken into account. This paper demonstrates how local climate and local management can be accounted for in CTMs by applying a modular approach for deriving data as input to a dynamic ammonia emission model for Europe. Default data are obtained from information in the RAINS system, and it is demonstrated how this dynamic emission model based on these input data improves the NH3 calculations in a CTM model when the results are compared with calculations obtained by traditional methods in emission handling. It is also shown how input data can be modified over a specific target region resulting in even further improvement in performance over this domain. The model code and the obtained default values for the modelling experiments are available as supplementary information to this article for use by the modelling community on similar terms as the EMEP CTM model: the GPL licencse v3.

  12. Long-Range Weather Forecasting In The Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martazinova, V. F.; Ivanova, E. K.

    2004-12-01

    The operational system for long range weather forecasting (LRF) was developed by Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute (UHMI) in the result of studies of general circulation and on the long-range weather forecasting which were began in 1975 by research group leaded by Prof. V. Martazinova. Three key approaches are used in the operational system LRF of UHMI: (1) Floating analog method (FAM); (2) Two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes in the troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere; (3)Ethalon-field approach. The based on the pattern recognition technique FAM is the continuation of the ideas of former Soviet Union school of long-range forecasting. The traditional method of analog was generalized and advanced as the method of "floating analog" (Martazinova and Sologub, 1986; Martazinova, 1989; 2001). FAM requires only geometrical similarity of the planetary high-level frontal zone and surface pressure on the Northern Hemisphere. The limiting conditions of the coincidence in time and space are lifted. The use of FAM made it possible to reveal the two-month quasi-periodicity of synoptic situation in the Northern Hemisphere. The strong changes of weather within month are predicted using statistical "ethalon field" approach that was developed for classification of meteorological fields in the climate research and the long-range forecasting (Martazinova and Prokhorenko, 1991). The meteorological information for the forecast is used only for the last two months before the target month. The fields of geopotential and pressure are recognized by the "ethalon-field-analog" which corresponds to two-month quasi-periodicity of the ethalon-fields. The forecast for days the strong changes of weather over the territory of Ukraine in next two months. Recognition of daily synoptic situations of last two months by the synoptic situation of two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes for ethalons when there are waves of cold and heat, strong precipitation, strong

  13. Impact of excess NOx emissions from diesel cars on air quality, public health and eutrophication in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Jonson; J. Borken-Kleefeld; Simpson, D.; Nyiri, A.; Posch, M.; Heyes, C.

    2017-01-01

    Diesel cars have been emitting four to seven times more NOx in on-road driving than in type approval tests. These ‘excess emissions’ are a consequence of deliberate design of the vehicle’s after-treatment system, as investigations during the ‘Dieselgate’ scandal have revealed. Here we calculate health and environmental impacts of these excess NOx emissions in all European countries for the year 2013. We use national emissions reported officially under the UNECE Convention for Long-range Trans...

  14. Evaluation of long-range transport models in NOVANA; Evaluering af langtransportmodeller i NOVANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohn, L.M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Geels, C.; Hertel, O.; Skjoeth, C.A.; Ellemann, T.

    2007-06-15

    The Lagrangian model ACDEP which has been applied in BOP/-NOVA/NOVANA during the period 1995-2004, has been replaced by the more modern Eulerian model DEHM. The new model has a number of advantages, such as a better description of the three-dimensional atmospheric transport, a larger domain, a possibility for high spatial resolution in the calculations and a more detailed description of photochemical processes and dry deposition. In advance of the replacement, the results of the two models have been compared and evaluated using European and Danish measurements. Calculations have been performed with both models applying the same meteorological and emission input, for Europe for the year 2000 as well as for Denmark for the period 2000-2003. The European measurements applied in the present evaluation are obtained through EMEP. Using these measurements DEHM and ACDEP have been compared with respect to daily and yearly mean concentrations of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}), the sum of NH{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} (SNH), nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}), the sum of HNO{sub 3} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (SNO{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), ozone (O{sub 3}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and sulphate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) as well as the hourly mean and daily maximum concentrations of O{sub 3}. Furthermore the daily and yearly total values of precipitation and wet deposition of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} have been compared for the two models. The statistical parameters applied in the comparison are correlation, bias and fractional bias. The result of the comparison with the EMEP data is, that DEHM achieves better correlation coefficients for all chemical parameters (16 parameters in total) when the daily values are analysed, and for 15 out of 16 parameters when yearly values are taken into account. With respect to the fractional bias, the results obtained with DEHM are better than the corresponding results

  15. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oikonomakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of the ozone–temperature correlation for the summer of 2010 and to analyze its sensitivity to precursor emissions and meteorology by using the regional air quality model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx. The results show that the model significantly underestimates the observed high afternoon surface ozone mixing ratios (≥  60 ppb by 10–20 ppb and overestimates the lower ones (<  40 ppb by 5–15 ppb, resulting in a misleading good agreement with the observations for average ozone. The model also underestimates the ozone–temperature regression slope by about a factor of 2 for most of the measurement stations. To investigate the impact of emissions, four scenarios were tested: (i increased volatile organic compound (VOC emissions by a factor of 1.5 and 2 for the anthropogenic and biogenic VOC emissions, respectively, (ii increased nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions by a factor of 2, (iii a combination of the first two scenarios and (iv increased traffic-only NOx emissions by a factor of 4. For southern, eastern, and central (except the Benelux area Europe, doubling NOx emissions seems to be the most efficient scenario to reduce the underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios without significant degradation of the model performance for the lower ozone mixing ratios. The model performance for ozone–temperature correlation is also better when NOx emissions are doubled. In the Benelux area, however, the third scenario

  16. Estimates of common ragweed pollen emission and dispersion over Europe using RegCM-pollen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Solmon, F.; Vautard, R.; Hamaoui-Laguel, L.; Torma, Cs. Zs.; Giorgi, F.

    2015-11-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In the online model environment where climate is integrated with dispersion and vegetation production, pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to ragweed density distribution on pollen emission, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger. From these simulations health risks associated common ragweed pollen spread are then evaluated through calculation of exposure time above health

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions in Europe: a retrospective trend analysis for the period 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgan, A.; Gugele, B.; Haider, S. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    This report presents a retrospective overview of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in Europe from 1990 to 2008, with a particular focus on the underpinning drivers and the influence of EU policies. The analysis is based on the combination of decomposition analyses to identify the respective influence of each identified driver and an overview of the main EU policies and their likely effects on these drivers. The period covered by the analysis stops in 2008. As a result, the analysis avoids the effects of the recent economic crisis on GHG emissions. This reinforces the conclusion on long-term emission drivers. The report covers the EU-27 and presents results for the other EEA member countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and Croatia (EU candidate country together with Turkey) as far as data is available. The results can be summarized as: 1) Overall GHG emission trends. EU GHG emissions were reduced between 1990 and 2008. Most of the reductions took place in the 1990s, but emissions have also been decreasing every year from 2003 until the last year considered in this report, 2008. 2) Predominant drivers. For the most part, the GHG emission trends observed in the EU between 1990 and 2008 resulted from economic factors. However, EU policies, some of which were not directly targeting GHG emissions, as well as national policies by some front runner countries, also played a role in these trends. 3) Impacts of EU policies. Between 2000 and 2008, emission trends were more directly targeted by a range of energy and climate policies, e.g. the implementation of the European Climate Change programme. However, the steady increase in energy demand during this period - particularly electricity - outweighed the considerable EU-wide savings generated by energy efficiency improvements and the development of renewable energy. 4) Co-benefits. Taking example from the positive benefits on GHG emissions that resulted from the implementation of non

  18. Long-range dependence and sea level forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Ercan, Ali; Abbasov, Rovshan K

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that the Caspian Sea level time series possess long range dependence even after removing linear trends, based on analyses of the Hurst statistic, the sample autocorrelation functions, and the periodogram of the series. Forecasting performance of ARMA, ARIMA, ARFIMA and Trend Line-ARFIMA (TL-ARFIMA) combination models are investigated. The forecast confidence bands and the forecast updating methodology, provided for ARIMA models in the literature, are modified for the ARFIMA models. Sample autocorrelation functions are utilized to estimate the differencing lengths of the ARFIMA

  19. Air Force B-21 Long Range Strike Bomber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    go.usa.gov/cswxQ. 3 The other top priorities, as enunciated by Air Force officials on many occasions, are the F-35A Lightning II fighter and the KC-46A...concept of large aircraft carrying long-range weaponry has resurfaced as DOD’s proposed “Arsenal Plane .” See, inter alia, James Drew, “USAF flaunts...arsenal plane ’ concept at Air Warfare Symposium,” FlightGlobal.com, February 26, 2016, https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/usaf-flaunts-arsenal

  20. ATHLETE Mobility Performance in Long-Range Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a modular mobility and manipulation platform being developed to support NASA operations in a variety of missions, including exploration of planetary surfaces. The agile system consists of a symmetrical arrangement of six limbs, each with seven articulated degrees of freedom and a powered wheel. This design enables transport of bulky payloads over a wide range of terrains and is envisioned as a tool to mobilize habitats, power-generation equipment, and other supplies for long-range exploration and outpost construction.

  1. Political Mechanisms for Long-Range Survival and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W.

    As the first species aware of extinction and capable of proactively ensuring our long-term survival and development, it is striking that we do not do so with the rigor, formality, and foresight it requires. Only from a reactive posture have we responded to the challenges of global warfare, human rights, environmental concerns, and sustainable development. Despite our awareness of the possibility for extinction and apocalyptic set-backs to our evolution, and despite the existence of long-range studies-which must still be dramatically increased-proactive global policy implementation regarding our long-term survival and development is arguably non-existent. This lack of long-term policy making can be attributed in part to the lack of formal political mechanisms to facilitate longer-range policy making that extends 30 years or more into the future. Political mechanisms for infusing long-range thinking, research, and strategic planning into the policy-making process can help correct this shortcoming and provide the motivation needed to adequately address long-term challenges with the political rigor required to effectively establish and implement long-term policies. There are some efforts that attempt to address longer-range issues, but those efforts often do not connect to the political process, do not extend 30 or more years into the future, are not well-funded, and are not sufficiently systemic. Political mechanisms for long-range survival and prosperity could correct these inadequacies by raising awareness, providing funding, and most importantly, leveraging political rigor to establish and enforce long-range strategic planning and policies. The feasibility of such mechanisms should first be rigorously studied and assessed in a feasibility study, which could then inform implementation. This paper will present the case for such a study and suggest some possible political mechanisms that should be investigated further in the proposed study. This work is being further

  2. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourasseau, E; Malfreyt, P; Ghoufi, A

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  3. Long-range synchrony and emergence of neural reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Hanna; Marom, Shimon

    2016-11-01

    Neural synchronization across long distances is a functionally important phenomenon in health and disease. In order to access the basis of different modes of long-range synchrony, we monitor spiking activities over centimetre scale in cortical networks and show that the mode of synchrony depends upon a length scale, λ, which is the minimal path that activity should propagate through to find its point of origin ready for reactivation. When λ is larger than the physical dimension of the network, distant neuronal populations operate synchronously, giving rise to irregularly occurring network-wide events that last hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds. In contrast, when λ approaches the dimension of the network, a continuous self-sustained reentry propagation emerges, a regular seizure-like mode that is marked by precise spatiotemporal patterns (‘synfire chains’) and may last many minutes. Termination of a reentry phase is preceded by a decrease of propagation speed to a halt. Stimulation decreases both propagation speed and λ values, which modifies the synchrony mode respectively. The results contribute to the understanding of the origin and termination of different modes of neural synchrony as well as their long-range spatial patterns, while hopefully catering to manipulation of the phenomena in pathological conditions.

  4. The Use of Principal Components in Long-Range Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jonq-Gong

    Large-scale modes of the global sea surface temperatures and the Northern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation are described by principal component analysis. The first and the second SST components well describe the El Nino episodes, and the El Nino index (ENI), suggested in this study, is consistent with the winter Southern Oscillation index (SOI), where this ENI is a composite component of the weighted first and second SST components. The large-scale interactive modes of the coupling ocean-atmosphere system are identified by cross-correlation analysis The result shows that the first SST component is strongly correlated with the first component of geopotential height in lead time of 6 months. In the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution, the El Nino mode strongly influences the winter tropospheric circulation in the mid -latitudes for up to three leading seasons. The regional long-range variation of climate is investigated with these major components of the SST and the tropospheric circulation. In the mid-latitude, the climate of the central United States shows a weak linkage with these large-scale circulations, and the climate of the western United States appears to be consistently associated with the ENSO modes. These El Nino modes also show a dominant influence on Eastern Asia as evidenced in Taiwan Mei-Yu patterns. Possible regional long-range forecasting schemes, utilizing the complementary characteristics of the winter El Nino mode and SST anomalies, are examined with the Taiwan Mei-Yu.

  5. The ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program Long Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 76 individual surplus facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. The ORNL SFMP has prepared this Long Range Plan to outline the long-term management strategy for those facilities included in the program. The primary objective of this plan are to: (1) develop a base of information for each ORNL SFMP facility, (2) conduct preliminary decommissioning analyses to identify feasible alternatives, (3) assess the current and future risk of each facility, (4) establish a priority list for the decommissioning projects, and (5) integrate the individual project costs and schedules into an overall program schedule and cost estimate for the ORNL site. The Long Range Plan also provides an overview of the ORNL SFMP management structure, specifies the decommissioning criteria to be employed, and identifies special technical problems, research and development needs, and special facilities and equipment that may be required for decommissioning operations.

  6. Many-Body Localization with Long-Range Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandkishore, Rahul M.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2017-10-01

    Many-body localization (MBL) has emerged as a powerful paradigm for understanding nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. Folklore based on perturbative arguments holds that MBL arises only in systems with short-range interactions. Here, we advance nonperturbative arguments indicating that MBL can arise in systems with long-range (Coulomb) interactions, through a mechanism we dub "order enabled localization." In particular, we show using bosonization that MBL can arise in one-dimensional systems with ˜r interactions, a problem that exhibits charge confinement. We also argue that (through the Anderson-Higgs mechanism) MBL can arise in two-dimensional systems with log r interactions, and speculate that our arguments may even extend to three-dimensional systems with 1 /r interactions. Our arguments are asymptotic (i.e., valid up to rare region corrections), yet they open the door to investigation of MBL physics in a wide array of long-range interacting systems where such physics was previously believed not to arise.

  7. Many-Body Localization with Long-Range Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Nandkishore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many-body localization (MBL has emerged as a powerful paradigm for understanding nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. Folklore based on perturbative arguments holds that MBL arises only in systems with short-range interactions. Here, we advance nonperturbative arguments indicating that MBL can arise in systems with long-range (Coulomb interactions, through a mechanism we dub “order enabled localization.” In particular, we show using bosonization that MBL can arise in one-dimensional systems with ∼r interactions, a problem that exhibits charge confinement. We also argue that (through the Anderson-Higgs mechanism MBL can arise in two-dimensional systems with logr interactions, and speculate that our arguments may even extend to three-dimensional systems with 1/r interactions. Our arguments are asymptotic (i.e., valid up to rare region corrections, yet they open the door to investigation of MBL physics in a wide array of long-range interacting systems where such physics was previously believed not to arise.

  8. The Frontiers of Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    In a letter dated July 17, 2006, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science for Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate charged the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) to “conduct a study of the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research and recommend a long range plan that will provide a framework for coordinated advancement of the nation’s nuclear science research programs over the next decade.” This request set in motion a bottom-up review and forward look by the nuclear science community. With input from this community-wide process, a 59 member working group, which included the present NSAC members, gathered at the beginning of May, 2007, to develop guidance on how to optimize the future research directions for the field based on the projected resources outlined in the charge letter from DOE and NSF. A new long range plan—The Frontiers of Nuclear Science—grew out of this meeting. For the last decade, the top priority for nuclear science has been to utilize the flagship facilities that were built with investments by the nation in the 1980s and 1990s. Research with these facilities has led to many significant new discoveries that have changed our understanding of the world in which we live. But new discoveries demand new facilities, and the successes cannot continue indefinitely without new investment.

  9. On the origin of long-range correlations in texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Esposti, Mirko Degli

    2012-07-17

    The complexity of human interactions with social and natural phenomena is mirrored in the way we describe our experiences through natural language. In order to retain and convey such a high dimensional information, the statistical properties of our linguistic output has to be highly correlated in time. An example are the robust observations, still largely not understood, of correlations on arbitrary long scales in literary texts. In this paper we explain how long-range correlations flow from highly structured linguistic levels down to the building blocks of a text (words, letters, etc..). By combining calculations and data analysis we show that correlations take form of a bursty sequence of events once we approach the semantically relevant topics of the text. The mechanisms we identify are fairly general and can be equally applied to other hierarchical settings.

  10. Ising model with long range correlated disorder on hierarchical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberto F. S.; Cason, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A next-neighbor Ising model with disordered but long range correlated coupling constants is investigated. The model is built on a hierarchical lattice and the correlation strength depends on a tuning parameter α . The results are obtained within a transfer-matrix framework, which allows for the evaluation of the properties of individual samples. Collective behavior is computed by averaging over a large number of independent realizations. The dependence of the thermodynamic and magnetic functions with respect to the temperature is investigated for each value of α . Phase diagrams in the (α,T) plane are constructed for two distinct versions of the model, indicating the existence of regions of paramagnetic and ordered phases. Critical values αc , below which the system always assumes the paramagnetic phase, are found for both versions.

  11. Cruise Report: Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Long-range Owan ACoustic Propagation EXpewbitent LOAPEX L ý ý . OPXSRO So0 SVLAMVLA 40 KAA 20 M0 1 10 170 IN ISO 140 30 1010 Figure 1.2. LOAPEX assets...4.64 4.65 4.66 4.67 4.68 5000 > -5000 4.6 4.61 4.62 4.63 4.64 4.65 4.66 4.67 4.68 20 0 -I -20 4.6 4.61 4.62 4.63 4.64 4.65 4.66 4.67 4.68 .• 50001 1 1 1

  12. Fractional dynamics of coupled oscillators with long-range interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E; Zaslavsky, George M

    2006-06-01

    We consider a one-dimensional chain of coupled linear and nonlinear oscillators with long-range powerwise interaction. The corresponding term in dynamical equations is proportional to 1//n-m/alpha+1. It is shown that the equation of motion in the infrared limit can be transformed into the medium equation with the Riesz fractional derivative of order alpha, when 0coupled oscillators and show how their synchronization can appear as a result of bifurcation, and how the corresponding solutions depend on alpha. The presence of a fractional derivative also leads to the occurrence of localized structures. Particular solutions for fractional time-dependent complex Ginzburg-Landau (or nonlinear Schrodinger) equation are derived. These solutions are interpreted as synchronized states and localized structures of the oscillatory medium.

  13. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  14. Relation between properties of long-range diatomic bound states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirko, Vladimir; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Long-range states of diatomic molecules have average values of internuclear separations at least one order of magnitude larger than the equilibrium value of R. For example, the helium dimer 4He2 has a single bound state with of about 50 Å. We show that the properties of these states, such as ...>, the dissociation energy, or the s-wave scattering length, can be related by simple, yet very accurate formulas if a potential energy curve is known. By examining a range of ab initio and empirical helium dimer potentials, as well as scaling these potentials, we found that the formulas remain accurate even if very...

  15. Effective field theory for long-range properties of bottomonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, Gastão

    2017-03-01

    In this communication we present selected results from a recent study [N. Brambilla, G. Krein, J. Tarrús Castellà and A. Vairo, Phys. Rev. D 93, 054002 (2016)] of long-range properties of bottomonium. An analytical expression for the chromopolarizability of 1S bottomonium states is derived within the framework of potential nonrelativistic QCD (pNRQCD). Next, after integrating out the ultrasoft scale associated with the binding energy of bottomonium, the QCD trace anomaly is used to obtain the two-pion production amplitude for the chromopolarizability operator and the result is matched to a chiral effective field theory having bottomonium states and pions as degrees of freedom. We present results for the leading chiral logarithm correction to the mass of the 1S bottomonium and the van der Waals potential between two bottomonium states.

  16. Long-Range Big Quantum-Data Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerger, M.; Pirker, A.; Dunjko, V.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an alternative type of quantum repeater for long-range quantum communication with improved scaling with the distance. We show that by employing hashing, a deterministic entanglement distillation protocol with one-way communication, one obtains a scalable scheme that allows one to reach arbitrary distances, with constant overhead in resources per repeater station, and ultrahigh rates. In practical terms, we show that, also with moderate resources of a few hundred qubits at each repeater station, one can reach intercontinental distances. At the same time, a measurement-based implementation allows one to tolerate high loss but also operational and memory errors of the order of several percent per qubit. This opens the way for long-distance communication of big quantum data.

  17. Stable swarming using adaptive long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbonos, Dan; Gov, Nir S.

    2017-04-01

    Sensory mechanisms in biology, from cells to humans, have the property of adaptivity, whereby the response produced by the sensor is adapted to the overall amplitude of the signal, reducing the sensitivity in the presence of strong stimulus, while increasing it when it is weak. This property is inherently energy consuming and a manifestation of the nonequilibrium nature of living organisms. We explore here how adaptivity affects the effective forces that organisms feel due to others in the context of a uniform swarm, in both two and three dimensions. The interactions between the individuals are taken to be attractive and long-range and of power-law form. We find that the effects of adaptivity inside the swarm are dramatic, where the effective forces decrease (or remain constant) with increasing swarm density. Linear stability analysis demonstrates how this property prevents collapse (Jeans instability), when the forces are adaptive. Adaptivity therefore endows swarms with a natural mechanism for self-stabilization.

  18. On the origin of long-range correlations in texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Esposti, Mirko Degli

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interactions with social and natural phenomena is mirrored in the way we describe our experiences through natural language. In order to retain and convey such a high dimensional information, the statistical properties of our linguistic output has to be highly correlated in time. An example are the robust observations, still largely not understood, of correlations on arbitrary long scales in literary texts. In this paper we explain how long-range correlations flow from highly structured linguistic levels down to the building blocks of a text (words, letters, etc..). By combining calculations and data analysis we show that correlations take form of a bursty sequence of events once we approach the semantically relevant topics of the text. The mechanisms we identify are fairly general and can be equally applied to other hierarchical settings. PMID:22753514

  19. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility, practicability, and potential advantages/disadvantages of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in long range, subsonic transport aircraft of advanced design were studied. Both passenger and cargo-type aircraft were investigated. To provide a valid basis for comparison, conventional hydrocarbon (Jet A) fueled aircraft were designed to perform identical missions using the same advanced technology and meeting the same operational constraints. The liquid hydrogen and Jet A fueled aircraft were compared on the basis of weight, size, energy utilization, cost, noise, emissions, safety, and operational characteristics. A program of technology development was formulated.

  20. Long-Range Plasmon Assisted Energy Transfer Between Two Fluorescent Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, D; Carminati, R; De Wilde, Y; Krachmalnicoff, V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmon assisted energy transfer between two fluorophores located at distances up to $7\\; \\mu$m on the top of a thin silver film. Thanks to the strong confinement and large propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons, the range of the energy transfer is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the values reported in the literature so far. The parameters driving the energy transfer range are thoroughly characterized and are in very good agreement with theoretically expected values. This work shows the potential of plasmonic structures for efficient long-range energy transfer and opens rich perspectives for the study of collective emission phenomena.

  1. Four decades of gasoline lead emissions and control policies in Europe. A retrospective assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Storch, Hans; Costa-Cabral, Mariza; Hagner, Charlotte; Feser, Frauke [Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Pacyna, Jozef; Pacyna, Elisabeth [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) (Norway); Kolb, Steffen [Institute for Journalism and Communication Research, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-07-20

    Over decades, large amounts of the neurotoxin lead were released into the European environment, mostly from gasoline lead additives. Emissions were growing unabatedly until the 1970s, when a series of regulations on the allowed gasoline lead content were adopted. As a result, in the 1990s most gasoline contained only small amounts of lead. We have examined this case of environmental pollution and regulation, and performed a retrospective assessment of the extent of regional-scale lead pollution and the effects of gasoline lead regulations in Europe. With the help of a regional climate model, NCEP re-analyses, spatially disaggregated lead emissions from road traffic and point sources, and various local data, the airborne pathways and depositions of gasoline lead in Europe since 1958 were reconstructed. It turns out that this approach is successful in describing the time-variable, spatially disaggregated deposition of gasoline lead. Additional data from analyses of concentrations in biota, including plant leaves, mussels and human blood, allows an assessment about the impact of the lead phase-out on the quality of the environment. Demonstrating the success of the lead policies, concentrations in leaves and human blood have steadily declined since the early 1980s. At the same time, the economic repercussions that had been feared did not emerge. Instead, the affected mineral oil and car manufacturing industries in Germany (our case-study) were able to deal with the effort without incurring significant extra costs. We suggest that our method of quantitatively reconstructing and anticipating fluxes and depositions of substances can be applied to other relevant substances as well, such as, for example, Persistent Organic Pollutants, radioactive substances or pollens.

  2. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Classical investigation of long-range coherence in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preto, Jordane

    2016-12-01

    Almost five decades ago, H. Fröhlich [H. Fröhlich, "Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2(5), 641-649 (1968)] reported, on a theoretical basis, that the excitation of quantum modes of vibration in contact with a thermal reservoir may lead to steady states, where under high enough rate of energy supply, only specific low-frequency modes of vibration are strongly excited. This nonlinear phenomenon was predicted to occur in biomolecular systems, which are known to exhibit complex vibrational spectral properties, especially in the terahertz frequency domain. However, since the effects of terahertz or lower-frequency modes are mainly classical at physiological temperatures, there are serious doubts that Fröhlich's quantum description can be applied to predict such a coherent behavior in a biological environment, as suggested by the author. In addition, a quantum formalism makes the phenomenon hard to investigate using realistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD) as they are usually based on the classical principles. In the current paper, we provide a general classical Hamiltonian description of a nonlinear open system composed of many degrees of freedom (biomolecular structure) excited by an external energy source. It is shown that a coherent behaviour similar to Fröhlich's effect is to be expected in the classical case for a given range of parameter values. Thus, the supplied energy is not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. The connection between our Hamiltonian description, carried out in the space of normal modes, and a more standard treatment in the physical space is emphasized in order to facilitate the prediction of the effect from MD simulations. It is shown how such a coherent phenomenon may induce long-range resonance effects that could be of critical importance at the biomolecular level. The present work is motivated by recent experimental evidences of long-lived excited low

  4. Impact of Long-Range Dust Transport on Northern California in Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Bergmann, D; Chuang, C; Bench, G; Cliff, S; Kelly, P; Perry, K; VanCuren, T

    2005-02-10

    It has been well documented that spectacular dust storms in Asia (e.g. the events in 1998 and 2001) can affect the USA through long-range transport of dust across the Pacific. However, our observations and modeling show that the majority of dust at sites in Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps (Northern California) in spring 2002 (a year with no spectacular Asian dust events) is still from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. We implemented the interactive dust emission algorithm of Ginoux et al. (2004) into the LLNL 3-D global atmospheric chemistry and aerosol transport model (IMPACT), then ran the model using a separate tracer for each dust emission region, using hi-resolution (1 x 1 degree) meteorological data from the NASA GMAO GEOS-3 assimilation system for 2001 and 2002. We also experimentally analyzed size- and time-resolved aerosol samples at Lassen National Park and Trinity Alps in the spring of 2002, which were taken as part of NOAA's ITCT 2k2 measurement campaign. The model-predicted time-series of soil dust over Northern California agrees remarkably well with our measurements, with a strong temporal correlation between the observations and intercontinental transport of dust across the Pacific in the model. Hence, we conclude that the majority of dust we sampled in Northern California in spring 2002, with aerodynamic diameters of 0.56-5 microns, is from long-range intercontinental transport across the Pacific. The strong correlations also strongly validate atmospheric transport in the IMPACT model over the Northern Pacific in spring.

  5. Long-range RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into long-range RNA–RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. PMID:26554032

  6. Record length requirement of long-range dependent teletraffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2017-04-01

    This article contributes the highlights mainly in two folds. On the one hand, it presents a formula to compute the upper bound of the variance of the correlation periodogram measurement of teletraffic (traffic for short) with long-range dependence (LRD) for a given record length T and a given value of the Hurst parameter H (Theorems 1 and 2). On the other hand, it proposes two formulas for the computation of the variance upper bound of the correlation periodogram measurement of traffic of fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) type and the generalized Cauchy (GC) type, respectively (Corollaries 1 and 2). They may constitute a reference guideline of record length requirement of traffic with LRD. In addition, record length requirement for the correlation periodogram measurement of traffic with either the Schuster type or the Bartlett one is studied and the present results about it show that both types of periodograms may be used for the correlation measurement of traffic with a pre-desired variance bound of correlation estimation. Moreover, real traffic in the Internet Archive by the Special Interest Group on Data Communication under the Association for Computing Machinery of US (ACM SIGCOMM) is analyzed in the case study in this topic.

  7. Long Range Chiral Imprinting of Cu(110) by Tartaric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, T J; Pushkarev, V; Wei, D; Lucci, F R; Sholl, D S; Gellman, A J; Sykes, E C. H.

    2013-10-31

    Restructuring of metals by chiral molecules represents an important route to inducing and controlling enantioselective surface chemistry. Tartaric acid adsorption on Cu(110) has served as a useful system for understanding many aspects of chiral molecule adsorption and ordering on a metal surface, and a number of chiral and achiral unit cells have been reported. Herein, we show that given the appropriate annealing treatment, singly deprotonated tartaric acid monolayers can restructure the Cu metal itself, and that the resulting structure is both highly ordered and chiral. Molecular resolution scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that singly deprotonated tartaric acid extracts Cu atoms from the Cu(110) surface layer and incorporates them into highly ordered, chiral adatom arrays capped by a continuous molecular layer. Further evidence for surface restructuring comes from images of atom-deep trenches formed in the Cu(110) surface during the process. These trenches also run in low symmetry directions and are themselves chiral. Simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images are consistent with the appearance of the added atom rows and etched trenches. The chiral imprinting results in a long-range, highly ordered unit cell covering the whole surface as confirmed by low energy electron diffraction. Details of the restructuring mechanism were further investigated via time-lapse imaging at elevated temperature. This work reveals the stages of nanoscale surface restructuring and offers an interesting method for chiral modification of an achiral metal surface.

  8. Scaffolding of long read assemblies using long range contact information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghurye, Jay; Pop, Mihai; Koren, Sergey; Bickhart, Derek; Chin, Chen-Shan

    2017-07-12

    Long read technologies have revolutionized de novo genome assembly by generating contigs orders of magnitude longer than that of short read assemblies. Although assembly contiguity has increased, it usually does not reconstruct a full chromosome or an arm of the chromosome, resulting in an unfinished chromosome level assembly. To increase the contiguity of the assembly to the chromosome level, different strategies are used which exploit long range contact information between chromosomes in the genome. We develop a scalable and computationally efficient scaffolding method that can boost the assembly contiguity to a large extent using genome-wide chromatin interaction data such as Hi-C. we demonstrate an algorithm that uses Hi-C data for longer-range scaffolding of de novo long read genome assemblies. We tested our methods on the human and goat genome assemblies. We compare our scaffolds with the scaffolds generated by LACHESIS based on various metrics. Our new algorithm SALSA produces more accurate scaffolds compared to the existing state of the art method LACHESIS.

  9. Long-range spin Seebeck effect and acoustic spin pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Adachi, H; An, T; Ota, T; Toda, M; Hillebrands, B; Maekawa, S; Saitoh, E

    2011-10-01

    Imagine that a metallic wire is attached to a part of a large insulator, which itself exhibits no magnetization. It seems impossible for electrons in the wire to register where the wire is positioned on the insulator. Here we found that, using a Ni₈₁Fe₁₉/Pt bilayer wire on an insulating sapphire plate, electrons in the wire recognize their position on the sapphire. Under a temperature gradient in the sapphire, surprisingly, the voltage generated in the Pt layer is shown to reflect the wire position, although the wire is isolated both electrically and magnetically. This non-local voltage is due to the coupling of spins and phonons: the only possible carrier of information in this system. We demonstrate this coupling by directly injecting sound waves, which realizes the acoustic spin pumping. Our finding provides a persuasive answer to the long-range nature of the spin Seebeck effect, and it opens the door to 'acoustic spintronics' in which sound waves are exploited for constructing spin-based devices.

  10. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.

  11. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Long-range RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into long-range RNA-RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. © 2015 Yue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Methane emission estimates at northern high latitudes for 2004-2014 from CarbonTracker Europe-CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Aki; Aalto, Tuula; Backman, Leif; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Krol, Maarten; Houweling, Sander; Spahni, Renato; Lienert, Sebastian; Dlugokencky, Edward; Laurila, Tuomas; Hatakka, Juha; Worthy, Doug; Sasakawa, Motoki; Peltola, Olli; Mauranen, Aleksateri; Heiman, Martin; Kozlova, Lena; Crotwell, Andrew; Peters, Wouter

    2017-04-01

    Northern high latitudes (NHL) are covered by permafrost and peatlands, and store much of global soil carbon. As global warming proceeds, methane (CH4) emissions from the Arctic and northern boreal regions are assumed to increase due to thawing of permafrost and shortening of soil freeze and snow cover periods. In addition, several large cities and industrial areas including oil and gas fields also contribute significantly to CH4 emissions from NHL. Together, both biospheric and anthropogenic activities contribute to changes in atmospheric CH4, but current understanding is still insufficient to quantify their contributions to the NHL and global CH4 budget. In this study, we present CH4 emission estimates for NHL for 2004-2014 from the CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 (CTE-CH4) data assimilation system. CTE-CH4 is based on ensemble Kalman filter, and optimises biospheric and anthropogenic emissions simultaneously, constrained by global atmospheric CH4 observations, which includes newly assimilated sites from NHL. The inversion results show that the contribution from NHL to global CH4 emissions is higher than previously thought. Posterior total CH4 emissions from 50°N-90°N are higher than prior estimates mainly from the EDGAR v4.2 FT2010 inventory and LPX-Bern dyptop ecosystem model. Much of the increase from the prior is found in anthropogenic emissions from central Russia, and in biospheric emissions from both North American and Eurasian boreal regions. In addition, the increase in the biospheric emissions resulted in stronger dependency of the CH4 emissions to temperature than in prior, particularly in autumn. For northern Europe, anthropogenic emissions are estimated to be smaller than the EDGAR inventory, and the inversions suggest that the emission distribution may need to be revised.

  14. Long range transport of nitrate in the low atmosphere over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jikang; Xu, Jun; He, Youjiang; Chen, Yunbo; Meng, Fan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the source-relationships were established for surface nitrate concentrations in Northeast Asia, using the Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the CAMx (a regional chemical transport model). Both of the local emissions and Chinese emissions were important among the sources of the particle nitrate in Japan and South Korea, accounting for 27.9-62.9% and 22.9-50.5% respectively. The local contributions of nitrate were 4-20% higher than the figures of sulfate, and this was caused by the different chemical processes and emissions involved. The seasonal variation of the nitrate concentration in East Asia led to different amounts of nitrate being attributed to long-range transport, and was higher in winter (>53%) than in summer (Japan and some regions of South Korea. And that was different in most parts of East Asia, where there were large quantities of ammonia. The ammonia from local emissions were most likely responsible for some particulate nitrate being transformed from trans-boundary gaseous nitric, which signified that local emissions of ammonia increased the contribution of China to the nitrate concentrations in Japan and South Korea.

  15. Airmass Trajectories and Long Range Transport of Pollutants: Review of Wet Deposition Scenario in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kulshrestha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of airmass trajectories and their role in air pollution transport. It describes the concept, history, and basic calculation of air trajectories citing various trajectory models used worldwide. It highlights various areas of trajectory applications and errors associated with trajectory calculations. South Asian region receives airmasses from Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Indian Ocean, and so forth, depending upon the season. These airmasses are responsible for export and import of pollutants depositing in nearby states. Trajectory analysis revealed that soil is contributed by the dust storms coming from Oman through Gulf and Iran, while most of black carbon (BC sources are located in India. A detailed review of trajectories associated with wet deposition events indicated that airmasses coming from Europe and Middle East carry high concentration of acidic pollutants which are deposited in Himalayan ranges. Similarly, trajectory analysis revealed that acidic pollutants from continental anthropogenic sources are transported to an ecosensitive site in Western Ghats in India and the outward fluxes of anthropogenic activities of Indo-Gangetic region are transported towards Bay of Bengal. Hence, transboundary and long range transport of pollutants are very important issues in South Asia which need immediate attention of scientists and policy makers.

  16. Multifractal Geophysical Extremes: Nonstationarity and Long Range Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    Throughout the world, extremes in environmental sciences are of prime importance. They are key variables not only for risk assessments and engineering designs (e.g. of dams and bridges), but also for resource management (e.g. water and energy) and for land use. A better understanding of them is more and more indispensable in settling the debate on their possible climatological evolution. Whereas it took decades before a uniform technique for estimating flow frequencies within a stationary framework, it is often claimed that « stationarity is dead ! ». The fact that geophysical and environmental fields are variable over a wider range of scales than previously thought require to go beyond the limits of the (classical) Extreme Value Theory (EVT). Indeed, long-range correlations are beyond the scope of the classical EVT theory. We show that multifractal concepts and techniques are particularly appealing because they can effectively deal with a cascade of interactions concentrating for instance energy, liquid water, etc. into smaller and smaller space-time domains. Furthermore, a general outcome of these cascade processes -which surprisingly was realized only rather recently- is that rather independently of their details they yield probability distributions with power-law fall-offs, often called (asymptotic) Pareto or Zipf laws. We discuss the corresponding probability distributions of their maxima and its relationship with the Frechet law. We use these multifractal techniques to investigate the possibility of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we assess the multifractal parameter uncertainty with the help of long synthetic multifractal series and their sub-samples, in particular to obtain an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of this approach with its application to

  17. Matrix methods to analyze long-range transport of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R H

    1981-01-01

    To assess air quality constraints and impacts of energy activities, models that account for long-range transport processes, as well as for local effects of meteorological dispersion, are required. At the present state of the art of modeling, separate models are used to estimate the detailed, rapidly varying effects of local sources and the long-term average effects of distant sources. Development of the air transport matrix method was undertaken to provide a simpler, faster method of analysis. The method represents results of comprehensive longrange transport models in a simple, easy to use form. The present report is a description of the concept and methodologies used in developing matrices, a preliminary analysis of those matrices and their properties, and a guide to the types of applications they can serve. Matrices have been generated by BNL for transport of sulfur oxide emissions among the 238 Air Quality Control Regions in the conterminous United States, using their AIRSOX model. PNL has used their long-range transport model and a streamlined calculation method to generate matrices for sulfur oxides and for emitted fine particulates. Matrices have been completed for 4 months of meterological data (one in each season) from 1974. BNL further separates matrices according to three categories of sources: utility, industrial, and area sources. They differ in terms of effective stack heights and detailed distribution of source locations within each AQCR. Matrices have also been calculated at the more aggregated levels of state and Federal region boundaries.

  18. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-22

    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been

  19. UN ECE-Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematic cost-benefit analysis of mitigation measures for agricultural ammonia emissions, supporting national costing analysis; UN ECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematische Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse von Minderungsmassnahmen fuer Ammoniakemissionen in der Landwirtschaft fuer nationale Kostenabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Roessler, Regina; Vandre, Robert; Wulf, Sebastian [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this project, the methods for the determination of the expenses for the reduction of agricultural ammonia emissions were updated, and the costs of selected, representative mitigation measures suitable for Germany's agriculture were newly calculated. The reduction costs are determined based on the ratio of the extra costs for the reduction measure and the emission reduction in comparison with a reference system. Protein-adapted feeding in pig fattening generally leads to lower expenses for feedstuff, which provides negative reduction costs (- Euro 3.5 to - Euro 13.5 per kg of NH{sub 3} depending on the reference system). Pig fattening in naturally ventilated housing causes reduction costs of Euro 9.2 per kg of NH{sub 3} as compared with forced-ventilated animal houses. However, this amount cannot always be exclusively attributed to ammonia emission reduction (allocation) because naturally ventilated houses are generally built for the improvement of animal welfare and animal health. Single and multiple-stage air purification techniques in forced-ventilated pig fattening houses are a technically efficient, though costintensive reduction measure (Euro 4,6 - Euro 8,6 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Solid covers for pig slurry stores (concrete ceiling, tent) are characterized by high investment expenses and a long service life causes moderate reduction costs (Euro 1.1 - Euro 2.5 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Floating covers (plastic sheet, granules) are almost cost-neutral given reduction costs of Euro 0.3 to Euro 0.9 per kg of NH{sub 3} (pig slurry) if the fertilizer value of the conserved nitrogen is included in the calculation. Cattle slurry requires significantly higher extra costs for the covering of slurry stores because the natural floating cover itself reduces emissions (Euro 1.3 to Euro 12 per kg of NH{sub 3}). If annual spreading performances are low (1,000 to 3,000 m{sup 3}/a), only promptly incorporation of cattle and pig slurry is cost-effective. If spreading

  20. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    that introducing bioenergy to the energy mix could reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions by about 6 million tonnes CO2e by 2030, equivalent to a 14% reduction in a business-as-usual scenario. This paper advocates the use of second generation ethanol for transport, to the extent that it is economically exploitable......As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework...... biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate...

  1. Mitigating and monitoring flight crew fatigue on a westward ultra-long-range flight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signal, T Leigh; Mulrine, Hannah M; van den Berg, Margo J; Smith, Alexander A T; Gander, Philippa H; Serfontein, Wynand

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the uptake and effectiveness of fatigue mitigation guidance material including sleep recommendations for a trip with a westward ultra-long-range flight and return long-range flight...

  2. Long-range transport of sulfur in the western United States. [Projections for 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W. F.; Eadie, W. J.; Drewes, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Pollutants, such as SO/sub 2/ and sulfate, emitted from both utility and industrial coal burning processes have long residence time in the atmosphere. Therefore, the long-range atmospheric transport and diffusion of these pollutants must be considered in any environmental assessment of proposed plant operation. The most useful tool in predicting the long-range transport of pollutants is a computer simulation technique for the Gaussian diffusion equation. Information produced by the model includes: SO/sub 2/ and sulfate ground-level air concentrations, the amount of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate deposited on the ground surface, the minimum pH value in the rainfall, and the budget of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate material over the diffusion grid. Information on siting and emissions is also required. For this study, siting was based on projected coal use in 1985 and 1990 based on a two-thirds increase in coal production. Results of the modeling for the western United States indicate that the maximum incremental ground-level air concentrations for SO/sub 2/ are 8.4 and 14 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for utility and industrial sources, respectively. Maximum predicted incremental ground-level sulfate concentrations for utility and industrial sources are 0.8 and 1.2 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, respectively. The minimum calculated pH values for both utility and industrial sulfur emission were 5.3. Maximum SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts range from 0.5 to 0.8 gm/m/sup 2/ for both the utility and industrial coal use scenarios. The largest sulfate deposition amounts range from a factor of 55 to 24 smaller than SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts. (ERB)

  3. Analysis of the emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets of Europe and North America for phase 2 of the AQMEII project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, George; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Kuenen, Jeroen; Zhang, Junhua; Moran, Michael D.; Makar, Paul A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper highlights the development of the emission inventories and emission processing for Europe (EU) and North America (NA) in the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project. The main purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII project is to understand the importance of coupled meteorological-chemical models in our understanding of the feedback of chemistry on the meteorology. A second purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII project is to explore the differences between EU and NA in a dynamic evaluation of two modeling years (2006 and 2010). The first phase of AQMEII also considered the modeling year 2006. Comparing the two AQMEII phases, for the EU domain, there were substantial decreases in CO (-19%), NH3 (-11%), and SO2 (-12%) emissions between the phase 2 and phase 1 emissions used for 2006. For the NA domain, there were decreases in CO (-10%), non-methane hydrocarbons (-5%), PM2.5 (-8%), PM10 (-18%), SO2 (-12%), with an increase of 4% in NOx. For the 2010 modeling year, 2009 emissions were used as a proxy for 2010 emissions in the EU domain. Between 2006 and 2009, considerable emission reductions were achieved for 17 EU countries, Norway and Switzerland as well as EU-Non-Member States, for all emitted species aside from NH3, which remained almost stable. Non-EU countries showed little change in emissions levels, though this may be a result of poor data quality. Shipping emissions decreased for PM and SO2 due to Sulfur Emission Control Areas on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, while increasing for other species. Overall for the EU domain between 2006 and 2009, estimated NOx emissions decreased by 10%, SO2 by 18%, CO by 12%, PM2.5 by 5%, PM10 by 6%, NMVOC by 11%, and NH3 by 1%. Between the 2006 and 2010 modeling years, estimated US NOx emissions decreased by 17%, SO2 by 29%, CO by 21%, PM2.5 by 12%, PM10 by 7%, NMHC by 4% and NH3 by 2% while Canadian and Mexican emissions were assumed to remain constant

  4. Trace gas composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia: Examining the influence of long-range transport and convection of local pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Traud, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Hoor, P. M.; Neumaier, M.; Oram, D.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schloegl, S.; Sprung, D.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Wernli, H.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2013-12-01

    Between May 2005 and March 2008 the CARIBIC observatory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) was deployed to make atmospheric observations during 21 round-trip flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Manila, the Philippines with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. This nearly 3 year flight series provides us with information about atmospheric composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia during all seasons and was used to investigate seasonal and regional differences in trace gas distributions and the relative influences of long range transport and convected local air masses on composition. The flight route was separated into three different regions having unique characteristics in transport and composition; these were Western Asia (5°E to 70°E), Central Asia (70°E to 100°E) and East Asia (100°E to 125°E). The region over Western Asia was heavily influenced by long range transport of air masses from North America and had elevated levels of NOy and acetone, while the region over East Asia was mostly influenced by convected local (South East Asian) pollution, particularly from biomass/biofuel burning as indicated by high levels of acetonitrile and carbon monoxide. Air masses over Central Asia were found to be influenced by both recently convected air masses from the Indian subcontinent and mid-range transport from Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Elevated levels of propane and other non-methane hydrocarbons, both with and without concommitant elevations in other trace gases (i.e. carbon monoxide, acetonitrile) were a persisent feature of this region in all seasons except summer, and were particularly prominent in fall. Influences on composition over Central Asia were investigated more thoroughly in a case study from a series of flights in October 2006, and elevated levels of pollutants were found to be the result of convective transport of both biomass/biofuel burning and urban emissions from

  5. Light-absorbing carbon in Europe - measurement and modelling, with a focus on residential wood combustion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Simpson, D.; Swietlicki, E.; Areskoug, H.; Beddows, D.; Ceburnis, D.; Fiebig, M.; Hansson, H. C.; Harrison, R. M.; Jennings, S. G.; Saarikoski, S.; Spindler, G.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Yttri, K. E.; Bergström, R.

    2013-09-01

    The atmospheric concentration of elemental carbon (EC) in Europe during the six-year period 2005-2010 has been simulated with the EMEP MSC-W model. The model bias compared to EC measurements was less than 20% for most of the examined sites. The model results suggest that fossil fuel combustion is the dominant source of EC in most of Europe but that there are important contributions also from residential wood burning during the cold seasons and, during certain episodes, also from open biomass burning (wildfires and agricultural fires). The modelled contributions from open biomass fires to ground level concentrations of EC were small at the sites included in the present study, wood combustion has been applied. For some countries the new inventory has substantially different EC emissions compared to earlier estimates. For northern Europe the most significant changes are much lower emissions in Norway and higher emissions in neighbouring Sweden and Finland. For Norway and Sweden, comparisons to source-apportionment data from winter campaigns indicate that the new inventory may improve model-calculated EC from wood burning. Finally, three different model setups were tested with variable atmospheric lifetimes of EC in order to evaluate the model sensitivity to the assumptions regarding hygroscopicity and atmospheric ageing of EC. The standard ageing scheme leads to a rapid transformation of the emitted hydrophobic EC to hygroscopic particles, and generates similar results when assuming that all EC is aged at the point of emission. Assuming hydrophobic emissions and no ageing leads to higher EC concentrations. For the more remote sites, the observed EC concentration was in between the modelled EC using standard ageing and the scenario treating EC as hydrophobic. This could indicate too-rapid EC ageing in the model in relatively clean parts of the atmosphere.

  6. Enhanced SO2 Concentrations Observed over Northern India: Role of Long-range Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, C.; Lal, S.; Naja, M.; Chand, Duli; Venkataramani, S.; Joshi, H.; Pant, P.

    2013-01-17

    Volcanic emissions and coal burning are among the major sources of SO2 over the continental environment. In this study, we show episodes of long-range transport of volcanic SO2 from Africa to Northern India using satellite observations. Monthly averaged SO2 from OMI were of the order of 0.6-0.9 DU during November, 2008 over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), which far exceeded background values (<0.3 DU) retrieved from observations across different locations over North India during 2005-2010. The columnar SO2 loadings were much higher on November 6 over most of the IGP and even exceeded 6 DU, a factor of 10 higher than background levels at some places. These enhanced SO2 levels were, however, not reciprocated in satellite derived NO2 or CO columns, indicating transport from a non-anthropogenic source of SO2. Backward trajectory analysis revealed strong winds in the free troposphere, which originated from the Dalaffilla volcanic eruption over the Afar region of Ethiopia during November 4-6, 2008. Wind streams and stable atmospheric conditions were conducive to the long-range transport of volcanic plume into the IGP. As most of the local aerosols over IGP region are below 3 km, a well separated layer at 4-5 km is observed from CALIPSO, most likely as a result of this transport. Apart from known anthropogenic sources, the additional transport of volcanic SO2 over the IGP region would have implications to air quality and radiation balance over this region.

  7. Modeling of long range transport pathways for radionuclides to Korea during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident and their association with meteorological circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hong; Yun, Ju-Yong; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-10-01

    The Lagrangian FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Global Forecast System (NCEP/GFS) meteorological data were used to simulate the long range transport pathways of three artificial radionuclides: (131)I, (137)Cs, and (133)Xe, coming into Korean Peninsula during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Using emission rates of these radionuclides estimated from previous studies, three distinctive transport routes of these radionuclides toward the Korean Peninsula for a period from 10 March to 20 April 2011 were exploited by three spatial scales: 1) intercontinental scale - plume released since mid-March 2011 and transported to the North to arrive Korea on 23 March 2011, 2) global (hemispherical) scale - plume traveling over the whole northern hemisphere passing through the Pacific Ocean/Europe to reach the Korean Peninsula with relatively low concentrations in late March 2011 and, 3) regional scale - plume released on early April 2011 arrived at the Korean Peninsula via southwest sea of Japan influenced directly by veering mesoscale wind circulations. Our identification of these transport routes at three different scales of meteorological circulations suggests the feasibility of a multi-scale approach for more accurate prediction of radionuclide transport in the study area. In light of the fact that the observed arrival/duration time of peaks were explained well by the FLEXPART model coupled with NCEP/GFS input data, our approach can be used meaningfully as a decision support model for radiation emergency situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of urban emission on air-quality over central Europe: present day and future emissions perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Karlicky, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the impact of present-day and future urban emission from central European cities on the regional air-quality (AQ), based on a modeling couple of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 and the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the present (2001-2010) decade and two future decades (2026-2035 and 2046-2055) either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. As we are interested on the impact of emission changes only, the impact of different driving meteorological conditions in the future (due to climate change) are not considered. The emissions used is the TNO MEGAPOLI European emission database that includes country/sector based scenarios for years 2030 and 2050, which were used for the encompassing decades. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The model was also validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas further from, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. The future urban emission AQ fingerprint is, in general, slightly smaller than in

  9. NKS NordRisk. Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A. (Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Lauritzen, Bent; Mikkelsen, Torben (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    Within the NKS NordRisk project, 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe', the NKS NordRisk Atlas has been developed. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected nuclear risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere. A number of case studies of long-term long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides has been developed, based on two years of meteorological data. Radionuclide concentrations in air and radionuclide depositions have been evaluated and examples of long-term averages of the dispersion and deposition and of the variability around these mean values are provided. (au)

  10. Impact of excess NOx emissions from diesel cars on air quality, public health and eutrophication in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson, J. E.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Simpson, D.; Nyíri, A.; Posch, M.; Heyes, C.

    2017-09-01

    Diesel cars have been emitting four to seven times more NOx in on-road driving than in type approval tests. These ‘excess emissions’ are a consequence of deliberate design of the vehicle’s after-treatment system, as investigations during the ‘Dieselgate’ scandal have revealed. Here we calculate health and environmental impacts of these excess NOx emissions in all European countries for the year 2013. We use national emissions reported officially under the UNECE Convention for Long-range Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants and employ the EMEP MSC-W Chemistry Transport Model and the GAINS Integrated Assessment Model to determine atmospheric concentrations and resulting impacts. We compare with impacts from hypothetical emissions where light duty diesel vehicles are assumed to emit only as much as their respective type approval limit value or as little as petrol cars of the same age. Excess NO2 concentrations can also have direct health impacts, but these overlap with the impacts from particulate matter (PM) and are not included here. We estimate that almost 10 000 premature deaths from PM2.5 and ozone in the adult population (age >30 years) can be attributed to the NOx emissions from diesel cars and light commercial vehicles in EU28 plus Norway and Switzerland in 2013. About 50% of these could have been avoided if diesel limits had been achieved also in on-road driving; and had diesel cars emitted as little NOx as petrol cars, 80% of these premature deaths could have been avoided. Ecosystem eutrophication impacts (critical load exceedances) from the same diesel vehicles would also have been reduced at similar rates as for the health effects.

  11. Secondary inorganic aerosols in Europe: sources and the significant influence of biogenic VOC emissions, especially on ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Contributions of various anthropogenic sources to the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in Europe as well as the role of biogenic emissions on SIA formation were investigated using the three-dimensional regional model CAMx (comprehensive air quality model with extensions). Simulations were carried out for two periods of EMEP field campaigns, February-March 2009 and June 2006, which are representative of cold and warm seasons, respectively. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are known mainly as precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but their role on inorganic aerosol formation has not attracted much attention so far. In this study, we showed the importance of the chemical reactions of BVOCs and how they affect the oxidant concentrations, leading to significant changes, especially in the formation of ammonium nitrate. A sensitivity test with doubled BVOC emissions in Europe during the warm season showed a large increase in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations (by about a factor of two), while particulate inorganic nitrate concentrations decreased by up to 35 %, leading to a better agreement between the model results and measurements. Sulfate concentrations decreased as well; the change, however, was smaller. The changes in inorganic nitrate and sulfate concentrations occurred at different locations in Europe, indicating the importance of precursor gases and biogenic emission types for the negative correlation between BVOCs and SIA. Further analysis of the data suggested that reactions of the additional terpenes with nitrate radicals at night were responsible for the decline in inorganic nitrate formation, whereas oxidation of BVOCs with OH radicals led to a decrease in sulfate. Source apportionment results suggest that the main anthropogenic source of precursors leading to formation of particulate inorganic nitrate is road transport (SNAP7; see Table 1 for a description of the categories), whereas combustion in energy and

  12. Processor for Real-Time Atmospheric Compensation in Long-Range Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-range imaging is a critical component to many NASA applications including range surveillance, launch tracking, and astronomical observation. However,...

  13. Long-range beam-beam experiments in the relativistic heavy ion collider

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Milas, N; Robert-Demolaize, G

    2014-01-01

    Long-range beam-beam effects are a potential limit to the LHC performance with the nominal design parameters, and certain upgrade scenarios under discussion. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed and space is reserved in the LHC for such wires. Two current carrying wires were installed in RHIC to study the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects in a collider, as well as test the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The experimental data were used to benchmark simulations. We summarize this work.

  14. Calculation of air pollutant emissions for episodes in Europe. Final report; Ermittlung von Luftschadstoffemissionen fuer Episoden in Europa. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, R.; Lenhart, L.; Heck, T.

    1996-11-01

    For the further investigation of the large scale transport and chemical transformation of air pollutants with atmospheric models reliable emission data with a high temporal, spatial and species resolution are required for Europe. Within the GENEMIS project methods and models have been developed to generate such data, starting from annual emission data of the CORINAIR and LOTOS inventories. The main objective of converting annual emission data into reliable hourly values has been reached on the basis of numerous socio-economical, meteorological and technical indicator data. The models which were developed within this framework have been used to generate european emission inventories for different base years and selected episods. The analysis of the results showed significant spatial and large temporal variations of the emissions. It has been shown that former simplifying assumptions concerning the temporal behaviour of emissions were not sufficient to describe real situations. The emission data calculated within GENEMIS have been used directly as an input for air quality modeling purposes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur weiteren Erforschung des grossraeumigen atmosphaerischen Transports und der chemischen Umwandlung von Luftverunreinigungen mit Hilfe von entsprechenden Simulationsmodellen werden zeitlich, raeumlich und stofflich hochaufgeloeste Emissionsdaten fuer Europa benoetigt. Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens GENEMIS wurden Methoden und Modelle entwickelt, mit denen - ausgehend von den jaehrlichen Emissionskatastern von CORINAIR und LOTOS - hochaufgeloeste Emissionsdaten in Europa ermittelt werden koennen. Die im Vordergrund stehende zeitliche Disaggregierung in stuendliche Emissionswerte wurde dabei auf der Grundlage zahlreicher sozio-oekonomischer, meteorologischer und technischer Indikatordaten vorgenommen. Die entwickelten Modelle wurden zur Erstellung von hochaufgeloesten Emissionsdatensaetzen fuer verschiedene Bezugsjahre und -zeitraeume angewendet. In der

  15. Nitrous oxide emission budgets and land-use-driven hotspots for organic soils in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppelt, T; Dechow, R; Gebbert, S

    2014-01-01

    relating the upscaling process to a priori-identified key drivers by using available N2O observations from plot scale in empirical approaches. We used the empirical fuzzy modelling approach MODE to identify main drivers for N2O and utilize them to predict the spatial emission pattern of European organic......Organic soils are a main source of direct emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas (GHG). Observed N2O emissions from organic soils are highly variable in space and time, which causes high uncertainties in national emission inventories. Those uncertainties could be reduced when...

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions - a freely accessible model code for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Berge, H.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving a parameterisation of ammonia emissions for use in chemistry-transport models (CTMs) is a complex problem as the emission varies locally as a result of local climate and local agricultural management. In current CTMs such factors are generally not taken into account. This paper demonstra......Deriving a parameterisation of ammonia emissions for use in chemistry-transport models (CTMs) is a complex problem as the emission varies locally as a result of local climate and local agricultural management. In current CTMs such factors are generally not taken into account. This paper...

  17. Long-range wetting transparency on top of layered metal-dielectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noginov, M. A.; Barnakov, Yuri A.; Liberman, Vladimir; Prayakarao, Srujana; Bonner, Carl E.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently shown that scores of physical and chemical phenomena (including spontaneous emission, scattering and Förster energy transfer) can be controlled by nonlocal dielectric environments provided by metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion and simpler metal/dielectric structures. At this time, we have researched van der Waals interactions and experimentally studied wetting of several metallic, dielectric and composite multilayered substrates. We have found that the wetting angle of water on top of MgF2 is highly sensitive to the thickness of the MgF2 layer and the nature of the underlying substrate that could be positioned as far as ~100 nm beneath the water/MgF2 interface. We refer to this phenomenon as long range wetting transparency. The latter effect cannot be described in terms of the most basic model of dispersion van der Waals-London forces based on pair-wise summation of dipole-dipole interactions across an interface or a gap separating the two media. We infer that the experimentally observed gradual change of the wetting angle with increase of the thickness of the MgF2 layer can possibly be explained by the distance dependence of the Hamaker function (describing the strength of interaction), which originates from retardation of electromagnetic waves at the distances comparable to a wavelength.

  18. HAMP – the microwave package on the High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft (HALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An advanced package of microwave remote sensing instrumentation has been developed for the operation on the new German High Altitude LOng range research aircraft (HALO. The HALO Microwave Package, HAMP, consists of two nadir-looking instruments: a cloud radar at 36 GHz and a suite of passive microwave radiometers with 26 frequencies in different bands between 22.24 and 183.31 ± 12.5 GHz. We present a description of HAMP's instrumentation together with an illustration of its potential. To demonstrate this potential, synthetic measurements for the implemented passive microwave frequencies and the cloud radar based on cloud-resolving and radiative transfer model calculations were performed. These illustrate the advantage of HAMP's chosen frequency coverage, which allows for improved detection of hydrometeors both via the emission and scattering of radiation. Regression algorithms compare HAMP retrieval with standard satellite instruments from polar orbiters and show its advantages particularly for the lower atmosphere with a root-mean-square error reduced by 5 and 15% for temperature and humidity, respectively. HAMP's main advantage is the high spatial resolution of about 1 km, which is illustrated by first measurements from test flights. Together these qualities make it an exciting tool for gaining a better understanding of cloud processes, testing retrieval algorithms, defining future satellite instrument specifications, and validating platforms after they have been placed in orbit.

  19. Long-ranged interactions in bcc NbMoTaW high-entropy alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormann, F.H.W.; Ruban, A.V.; Sluiter, M.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    We reveal that in a prototypical bcc high-entropy alloy NbMoTaW chemical interactions are long ranged and highly frustrated. We show that this is the reason that bcc solid solutions in NbMoTaW can persist to low temperatures. The ab initio-computed long-ranged interactions strongly impact

  20. Photoluminescence polarization anisotropy for studying long-range structural ordering within semiconductor multi-atomic alloys and organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prutskij, T.; Percino, J. [Instituto de Ciencias, BUAP, Privada 17 Norte, No 3417, col. San Miguel Huyeotlipan, 72050, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Orlova, T. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Vavilova, L. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-04

    Long-range structural ordering within multi-component semiconductor alloys and organic crystals leads to significant optical anisotropy and, in particular, to anisotropy of the photoluminescence (PL) emission. The PL emission of ternary and quaternary semiconductor alloys is polarized if there is some amount of the atomic ordering within the crystal structure. We analyze the polarization of the PL emission from the quaternary GaInAsP semiconductor alloy grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) and conclude that it could be caused by low degree atomic ordering within the crystal structure together with the thermal biaxial strain due to difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the layer and the substrate. We also study the state of polarization of the PL from organic crystals in order to identify different features of the crystal PL spectrum.

  1. Quantification of carbon dioxide emissions of Ciomadul, the youngest volcano of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (Eastern-Central Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Boglarka; Ionescu, Artur; Cardellini, Carlo; Harangi, Szabolcs; Baciu, Călin; Caracausi, Antonio; Viveiros, Fatima

    2017-04-01

    In our study we provide the first high resolution CO2 flux data in the youngest volcanic region of the Eastern-Central Europe, Carpathian-Pannonian Region and estimate the CO2 emission of the seemingly inactive Ciomadul volcanic complex. Our estimate includes data from focused emissions and diffuse CO2 emissions from soil. The CO2 fluxes of focused emissions range between 277 and 8172 g d-1, corresponding to a CO2 output into the atmosphere between 0.1 and 2.98 tons per year. The investigated areas for diffuse soil gas emissions were characterized by wide range of CO2 flux values, at Apor Baths, ranging from 1.7 to 82000 g m-2 d-1, while at Lăzărești ranging between 1.43 and 38000 g m-2 d-1. The highest CO2 focused gas fluxes at Ciomadul were found at the periphery of the youngest volcanic complex, which could be explained either by tectonic control across the brittle older volcanoes or by degassing from a deeper crustal zone resulting in CO2 flux at the periphery of the supposed melt-bearing magma body beneath Ciomadul. The estimate of the total CO2 output in the area is 8700 t y-1, and it is consistent with other volcanoes with similar age in Italy and USA. Taking into account the isotopic composition of the gases that indicate magmatic component, the CO2 emissions yield further support that Ciomadul may be considered a dormant volcano or PAMS (volcanoes with potentially active magma storage) rather than inactive and emphasize that CO2 output of such volcanic systems has to be accounted in the estimation of the global volcanic CO2 budget.

  2. Cost-effective emission abatement in Europe considering interrelations in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, C.; Ierland, van E.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture is an important source of ammonia (NH3), which contributes to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Controlling emissions of one of these pollutants through application of technical measures might have an

  3. Fuel consumption and emissions from navigation in Denmark from 1990-2005 - and projections from 2006-2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten

    Convention of Climate Changes), and the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention of Long Range Transboundary Air Pollutants) convention rules. The emission components considered are SO2, NOX, VOC (NMVOC and CH4) CO, CO2, N2O and particulates (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5). International...

  4. Sustainability analysis of the electric vehicle use in Europe for CO2 emissions reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Amante García, Beatriz; Nieto, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles are considered the most promising alternative to internal combustion engine vehicles towards a cleaner transportation sector. Having null tailpipe emissions, electric vehicles contribute to fight localized pollution, which is particularly important in overpopulated urban areas. However, the electric vehicle implies greenhouse gas emissions related to its production and to the electricity generation needed to charge its batteries. This study focuses the analysis on how the el...

  5. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, J.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    At the end of 2010, the EU-15 was on track to achieve its Kyoto target but three EU-15 Member States (Austria, Italy and Luxembourg) were not on track to meet their burden-sharing targets. These countries must therefore seriously consider further action to ensure compliance, in particular revising their plans on using flexible mechanisms. Among the EEA member countries outside the EU, Liechtenstein and Switzerland were not on track to achieve their Kyoto target at the end of 2009. All other European countries are on track to meet their targets, either based on domestic emissions only or with the assistance of Kyoto mechanisms. The economic recession had a significant impact on the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends but a more limited effect on progress towards Kyoto targets. This is because emissions in the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which were most affected by the crisis, do not affect Kyoto compliance once ETS caps have been set. With existing national measures, Member States do not project enough emission reductions for the EU to meet its unilateral 20 % reduction commitment in 2020. Additional measures currently planned by Member States will help further reduce emissions but will be insufficient to achieve the important emission cuts needed in the longer term. By 2020 Member States must enhance their efforts to reduce emissions in non-EU ETS sectors, such as the residential, transport or agriculture sectors, where legally binding national targets have been set under the EU's 2009 climate and energy package. (Author)

  6. Carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central Europe between 1995 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlčková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and environmental policies are widely discussed, but much less is known about emissions embodied in goods traded internationally, and the distinction between emission producers and consumers. The carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central European countries are subject to examination in this paper. As a result of industrial restructuring and environmental legislation, air pollution has improved significantly in Central European countries since the 1989 transition. On the other hand, economic growth has been accompanied by a rise in consumerism. Despite the increasing role of exports, the Visegrad group countries have become net importers of carbon dioxide emissions between 1995 and 2008. This seems to be the ‘standard trajectory’ of a country’s transition toward a more developed and consumption-oriented economy. The global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in manufacturing exports are also mapped, using network analysis and constructing ‘product space’. The analysis confirms that industrial re-structuring played an important role in lowering the production of carbon dioxide emissions in the Visegrad countries.

  7. A Bayesian inversion estimate of N2O emissions for western and central Europe and the assessment of aggregation errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gerbig

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian inversion approach was used to retrieve temporally and spatially resolved N2O fluxes for western and central Europe using in-situ atmospheric observations from the tall tower site at Ochsenkopf, Germany (50°01' N, 11°48' E. For atmospheric transport, the STILT (Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model was employed, which was driven with ECMWF analysis and short term forecast fields. The influence of temporal aggregation error, as well as the choice of spatial and temporal correlation scale length, on the retrieval was investigated using a synthetic dataset consisting of mixing ratios generated for the Ochsenkopf site. We found that if the aggregation error is ignored, then a significant bias error in the retrieved fluxes ensues. However, by estimating this error and projecting it into the observation space, it was possible to avoid bias errors in the retrieved fluxes. Using the real observations from the Ochsenkopf site, N2O fluxes were retrieved every 7 days for 2007 at 2 by 2 degrees spatial resolution. Emissions of N2O were strongest during the summer and autumn months, with peak emissions in August and September, while the regions of Benelux and northern United Kingdom had strongest annual mean emissions.

  8. Research on risk long range identification for vessel traffic dynamic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Guo, Ruijuan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Hainan

    2017-09-01

    Vessel Long-range identification and tracking system has already been widely installed and applied in vessel. In this paper AIS system, vessel reporting system and LRIT in China are compared and analyzed based on the coverage area, confidentiality and accuracy of the LRIT information. Vessel Long-range identification and tracking model is established through a combination of AIS with LRIT system, which is applied to the research of vessel traffic dynamic system risk long range identification. Finally, the application of LRIT in the maritime field is discussed.

  9. Ising-model description of long-range correlations in DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliva, A; Pellegrini, R; Testori, A; Caselle, M

    2015-05-01

    We model long-range correlations of nucleotides in the human DNA sequence using the long-range one-dimensional (1D) Ising model. We show that, for distances between 10(3) and 10(6) bp, the correlations show a universal behavior and may be described by the non-mean-field limit of the long-range 1D Ising model. This allows us to make some testable hypothesis on the nature of the interaction between distant portions of the DNA chain which led to the DNA structure that we observe today in higher eukaryotes.

  10. European and Mediterranean mercury modelling: Local and long-range contributions to the deposition flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencarelli, Christian N.; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sprovieri, Francesca; Yang, Xin; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is known to have adverse effects on human health, and most human exposure to toxic methylmercury is through fish consumption. Soluble Hg compounds in the marine environment can be methylated in the water column and enter the base of the food chain. Atmospheric deposition is the most important pathway by which Hg enters marine ecosystems. The atmospheric chemistry of Hg has been simulated over Europe and the Mediterranean for the year 2009, using the WRF/Chem model and employing two different gas phase Hg oxidation mechanisms. The contributions to the marine deposition flux from dry deposition, synoptic scale wet deposition and convective wet deposition have been determined. The Hg deposition fluxes resulting from transcontinental transport and local/regional emission sources has been determined using both Br/BrO and O3/OH atmospheric oxidation mechanisms. The two mechanisms give significantly different annual deposition fluxes (129 Mg and 266 Mg respectively) over the modelling domain. Dry deposition is more significant using the O3/OH mechanism, while proportionally convective wet deposition is enhanced using the Br/BrO mechanism. The simulations using the Br/BrO oxidation compared best with observed Hg fluxes in precipitation. Local/regional Hg emissions have the most impact within the model domain during the summer. A comparison of simulations using the 2005 and 2010 AMAP/UNEP Hg emission inventories show that although there is a decrease of 33% in anthropogenic emissions between the two reference years, the total simulated deposition in the regions diminishes by only 12%. Simulations using the 2010 inventory reproduce observations somewhat better than those using the 2005 inventory for 2009.

  11. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gores, S.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    At the end of 2011, almost all European countries were on track towards their Kyoto targets for 2008-2012. The EU-15 also remained on track to achieve its Kyoto target. Italy, however, was not on track. Spain plans to acquire a large quantity of Kyoto units through the KP's flexible mechanisms to achieve its target. With emission caps already set for the economic sectors under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), emissions reductions during 2012 in the sectors outside the EU ETS together with reductions by carbon sinks will set the frame for how many Kyoto units Member States need to acquire to reach their individual targets. Hence, both the development and delivery of adequate plans to acquire enough Kyoto credits is becoming increasingly important. ETS emissions from 2008 to 2011 were on average 5 % below these caps, which results in an oversupply of allowances. The EU ETS is undergoing important changes in view of the third trading phase from 2013 to 2020. Most EU Member States project that in 2020, their emissions outside the EU ETS will be lower than their national targets set under the Climate and Energy Package. However, further efforts will be necessary to achieve longer term reductions. (Author)

  12. Long Range Forecast Possibilities for X-Band Radar Construction on Shemya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroeder, Brian

    2002-01-01

    .... The goal of this research was to explore the possibilities of long-range forecasts to determine the feasibility of predicting any upcoming two-week windows of opportunity, well in advance, that will...

  13. An algorithm for determination of geodetic path for application in long-range acoustic propagation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sivakholundu, K.M.; Navelkar, G.S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    A computer program has been developed for the construction of geodetic path between two points on the spheroidal surface for application in long range acoustic propagation in the ocean. Geodetic equations have integrated numerically upto...

  14. Trends in statewide long-range transportation plans : core and emerging topics in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report synthesizes key findings and trends from the 2017 Statewide Long-Range Transportation Plan (SLRTP) Database, which represents key observations identified through a review of all 52 SLRTPs and Statewide Transportation Improvement Programs ...

  15. Report of findings: Contaminant study of the environment surrounding the Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site (Cape Romanzof) contains many petroleum-related spills and hazardous substances. Therefore, in 1987 and 1988 a field study...

  16. High-Counting Rate Photon Detectors for Long-Range Space Optical Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long range, RF space communications do not meet anymore the bandwidth requirements or power constraints of future NASA missions. Optical communications offer the...

  17. Modeling of Long-Range Atmospheric Lasercom Links Between Static and Mobile Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharlemann, E T; Breitfeller, E F; Henderson, J R; Kallman, J S; Morris, J R; Ruggiero, A J

    2003-07-29

    We describe modeling and simulation of long-range terrestrial laser communications links between static and mobile platforms. Atmospheric turbulence modeling, along with pointing, tracking and acquisition models are combined to provide an overall capability to estimate communications link performance.

  18. Relationships Between Long-Range Lightning Networks and TRMM/LIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudlosky, Scott D.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chris J.; Bateman, Monte; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in long-range lightning detection technologies have improved our understanding of thunderstorm evolution in the data sparse oceanic regions. Although the expansion and improvement of long-range lightning datasets have increased their applicability, these applications (e.g., data assimilation, atmospheric chemistry, and aviation weather hazards) require knowledge of the network detection capabilities. The present study intercompares long-range lightning data with observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite. The study examines network detection efficiency and location accuracy relative to LIS observations, describes spatial variability in these performance metrics, and documents the characteristics of LIS flashes that are detected by the long-range networks. Improved knowledge of relationships between these datasets will allow researchers, algorithm developers, and operational users to better prepare for the spatial and temporal coverage of the upcoming GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM).

  19. Analysis of the exactness of mean-field theory in long-range interacting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Relationships between general long-range interacting classical systems on a lattice and the corresponding mean-field models (infinitely long-range interacting models) are investigated. We study systems in arbitrary dimension d for periodic boundary conditions and focus on the free energy for fixed value of the total magnetization. As a result, it is shown that the equilibrium free energy of the long-range interacting systems are exactly the same as that of the corresponding mean-field models (exactness of the mean-field theory). Moreover, the mean-field metastable states can be also preserved in general long-range interacting systems. It is found that in the case that the magnetization is conserved, the mean-field theory does not give correct property in some parameter region.

  20. System Estimation of Panel Data Models under Long-Range Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre

    A general dynamic panel data model is considered that incorporates individual and interactive fixed effects allowing for contemporaneous correlation in model innovations. The model accommodates general stationary or nonstationary long-range dependence through interactive fixed effects and innovat...

  1. Distinct synoptic patterns and air masses responsible for long-range desert dust transport and sea spray in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, K.; Paschalidou, A. K.; Kassomenos, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Undoubtedly, anthropogenic emissions carry a large share of the risk posed on public health by particles exposure in urban areas. However, natural emissions, in the form of desert dust and sea spray, are well known to contribute significantly to the PM load recorded in many Mediterranean environments, posing an extra risk burden on public health. In the present paper, we examine the synoptic climatology in a background station in Palermo, Italy, through K-means clustering of the mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) maps, in an attempt to associate distinct synoptic patterns with increased PM10 levels. Four-day backward trajectory analysis is then applied, in order to study the origins and pathways of air masses susceptible of PM10 episodes. It is concluded that a number of atmospheric patterns result in several kind of flows, namely south, west, and slow-moving/stagnant flows, associated with long-range dust transport and sea spray.

  2. Photonic bandgap structures for guiding of long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, K.; Nikolajsen, T.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    We present the first observations of long-range plasmon polariton guiding in photonic bandgap structures. The transmission of waveguide structures is characterized at telecommunication wavelengths and a propagation loss below 4 dB/mm is determined.......We present the first observations of long-range plasmon polariton guiding in photonic bandgap structures. The transmission of waveguide structures is characterized at telecommunication wavelengths and a propagation loss below 4 dB/mm is determined....

  3. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transition metal oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Stojkovic, Branko P.; Yu, Z. G.; Bishop, A. R.; Neto, A. H. Castro; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

    1998-01-01

    We study the competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes within the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. We focus on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram. We show that the main interactions are the long-range Coulomb interaction and a dipolar short-range interaction generated by the short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations. We find four different phases depending on the strength of the dipolar interaction and the de...

  4. The NuPECC long range plan 2017: perspectives in nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Angela

    2017-10-01

    The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) is an independent Committee associated to European Science Foundation (ESF). Its mission is "to provide advice and make recommendations on the development, organisation, and support of European nuclear research and of particular projects". The delivery of long range plans represents thus the core of the NuPECC's activities. In the past four long-range plans (LRPs) were issued in 1991, 1997, 2004 and 2010.

  5. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Current fluctuations in stochastic systems with long-range memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.

    2009-08-01

    We propose a method to calculate the large deviations of current fluctuations in a class of stochastic particle systems with history-dependent rates. Long-range temporal correlations are seen to alter the speed of the large deviation function in analogy with long-range spatial correlations in equilibrium systems. We give some illuminating examples and discuss the applicability of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem.

  6. Damage assessment of long-range rocket system by electromagnetic pulse weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lingyu; Liu, Guoqing; Li, Jinming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyzes the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, establishes the index system of survivability of long-range rocket launcher system, and uses AHP method to establish the combat effectiveness model of long-range rocket missile system. According to the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, the damage effect of the remote rocket system is established by using the exponential method to realize the damage efficiency of the remote rocket system.

  7. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic long-range order in Tb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    and implies no change in the long-range order. In the close vicinity of the Neacuteel temperature TN = 226deg K the spiral magnetic long-range order varies as (TN-T)0.25plusmn 0.01, whereas the total order within a wider temperature range roughly follows (TN-T)1/3. The turn angle per layer varies from 16.5deg...

  8. Motion planning in unstructured road for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chaoxia; Wang, Yanqing; Yang, Jingyu; Liu, Hanxiang

    2011-10-01

    We present a novel motion planning method for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception under the uncertain constraints of unstructured road boundary on the basis of obstacle roadside fusion strategy and beam curvature method . Not only does this method inherit the advantages of reliability, smoothness and speediness from LCM, but also it can produce more reasonable path than traditional LCM does by virtue of the global information acquired by long-range sensors.

  9. Impact of emissions and +2 °C climate change upon future ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laura; Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Gauss, Michael; Engardt, Magnuz; Andersson, Camilla; Josse, Béatrice; Marécal, Virginie; Nyiri, Agnes; Sobolowski, Stefan; Siour, Guillaume; Szopa, Sophie; Vautard, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe between the present day and a future period with a +2 °C global warming relative to the pre-industrial climate was studied using four offline chemistry transport models, each driven by a different climate model. Given the recent outcome of the COP21 negotiations, understanding the implications of climate change around the +2 °C threshold has never been more pressing or relevant. One of the objectives of this study was to show how changes in anthropogenic emissions and +2 °C climate change are expected to affect future air quality, which may have important implications upon human health. It was found that a +2 °C climate change alone was responsible for a modest, and not statistically significant, increase in surface O3 concentrations (of between -0.1-0.8 ppb in the summer averaged over the European domain) compared to the present climate. Two different emission scenarios were used for the future time period in order to provide an estimate of the extent of air pollution reductions that could occur if (a) all currently planned air quality legislation is implemented and (b) all maximum technologically feasible emission reductions are implemented. The results showed that summer O3 could be reduced by between 4 and 5 ppb under a current legislation scenario, with at least 3 ppb of further reductions under the maximum mitigated scenario. Calculations of summer ozone enhancement were used as a metric to analyse the results after having removed background ozone level changes. In conclusion it was found that future air quality on a regional scale will depend upon the implementation of effective emission reduction policy; the positive effects of which should not be hindered by a +2 °C global warming.

  10. A novel approach to emission modelling of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderbolz, D. C.; Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Barmpadimos, I.; Steinbrecher, R.; Skjøth, C. A.; Plaß-Dülmer, C.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2012-08-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted from vegetation are important for the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Therefore, BVOC emission are an important input for air quality models. To model these emissions with high spatial resolution, the accuracy of the underlying vegetation inventory is crucial. We present a BVOC emission model that accommodates different vegetation inventories and uses satellite-based measurements of greenness instead of pre-defined vegetation periods. This approach to seasonality implicitly treats effects caused by water or nutrient availability, altitude and latitude on a plant stand. Additionally, we test the influence of proposed seasonal variability in enzyme activity on BVOC emissions. In its present setup, the emission model calculates hourly emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and acetic acid. In this study, emissions based on three different vegetation inventories are compared with each other and diurnal and seasonal variations in Europe are investigated for the year 2006. Two of these vegetation inventories require information on tree-cover as an input. We compare three different land-cover inventories (USGS GLCC, GLC2000 and Globcover 2.2) with respect to tree-cover. The often-used USGS GLCC land-cover inventory leads to a severe reduction of BVOC emissions due to a potential miss-attribution of broad-leaved trees and reduced tree-cover compared to the two other land-cover inventories. To account for uncertainties in the land-cover classification, we introduce land-cover correction factors for each relevant land-use category to adjust the tree-cover. The results are very sensitive to these factors within the plausible range. For June 2006, total monthly BVOC emissions decreased up to -27% with minimal and increased

  11. A comprehensive emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderbolz, D. C.; Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Barmpadimos, I.; Steinbrecher, R.; Skjøth, C. A.; Plaß-Dülmer, C.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2013-02-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted from vegetation are important for the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Therefore, BVOC emission are an important input for air quality models. To model these emissions with high spatial resolution, the accuracy of the underlying vegetation inventory is crucial. We present a BVOC emission model that accommodates different vegetation inventories and uses satellite-based measurements of greenness instead of pre-defined vegetation periods. This approach to seasonality implicitly treats effects caused by water or nutrient availability, altitude and latitude on a plant stand. Additionally, we test the influence of proposed seasonal variability in enzyme activity on BVOC emissions. In its present setup, the emission model calculates hourly emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and acetic acid. In this study, emissions based on three different vegetation inventories are compared with each other and diurnal and seasonal variations in Europe are investigated for the year 2006. Two of these vegetation inventories require information on tree-cover as an input. We compare three different land-cover inventories (USGS GLCC, GLC2000 and Globcover 2.2) with respect to tree-cover. The often-used USGS GLCC land-cover inventory leads to a severe reduction of BVOC emissions due to a potential miss-attribution of broad-leaved trees and reduced tree-cover compared to the two other land-cover inventories. To account for uncertainties in the land-cover classification, we introduce land-cover correction factors for each relevant land-use category to adjust the tree-cover. The results are very sensitive to these factors within the plausible range. For June 2006, total monthly BVOC emissions decreased up to -27% with minimal and increased

  12. A comprehensive emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Oderbolz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC emitted from vegetation are important for the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA in the atmosphere. Therefore, BVOC emission are an important input for air quality models. To model these emissions with high spatial resolution, the accuracy of the underlying vegetation inventory is crucial. We present a BVOC emission model that accommodates different vegetation inventories and uses satellite-based measurements of greenness instead of pre-defined vegetation periods. This approach to seasonality implicitly treats effects caused by water or nutrient availability, altitude and latitude on a plant stand. Additionally, we test the influence of proposed seasonal variability in enzyme activity on BVOC emissions. In its present setup, the emission model calculates hourly emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and acetic acid. In this study, emissions based on three different vegetation inventories are compared with each other and diurnal and seasonal variations in Europe are investigated for the year 2006. Two of these vegetation inventories require information on tree-cover as an input. We compare three different land-cover inventories (USGS GLCC, GLC2000 and Globcover 2.2 with respect to tree-cover. The often-used USGS GLCC land-cover inventory leads to a severe reduction of BVOC emissions due to a potential miss-attribution of broad-leaved trees and reduced tree-cover compared to the two other land-cover inventories. To account for uncertainties in the land-cover classification, we introduce land-cover correction factors for each relevant land-use category to adjust the tree-cover. The results are very sensitive to these factors within the plausible range. For June 2006, total monthly BVOC emissions decreased up to −27% with

  13. Statistical mechanics in biology: how ubiquitous are long-range correlations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Goldberger, Z. D.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Ossadnik, S. M.; Peng, C.-K.; Simons, M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this opening talk is to describe examples of recent progress in applying statistical mechanics to biological systems. We first briefly review several biological systems, and then focus on the fractal features characterized by the long-range correlations found recently in DNA sequences containing non-coding material. We discuss the evidence supporting the finding that for sequences containing only coding regions, there are no long-range correlations. We also discuss the recent finding that the exponent α characterizing the long-range correlations increases with evolution, and we discuss two related models, the insertion model and the insertion-deletion model, that may account for the presence of long-range correlations. Finally, we summarize the analysis of long-term data on human heartbeats (up to 10 4 heart beats) that supports the possibility that the successive increments in the cardiac beat-to-beat intervals of healthy subjects display scale-invariant, long-range “anti-correlations” (a tendency to beat faster is balanced by a tendency to beat slower later on). In contrast, for a group of subjects with severe heart disease, long-range correlations vanish. This finding suggests that the classical theory of homeostasis, according to which stable physiological processes seek to maintain “constancy,” should be extended to account for this type of dynamical, far from equilibrium, behavior.

  14. A better understanding of long-range temporal dependence of traffic flow time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Wang, Xingmin; Sun, Haowei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    Long-range temporal dependence is an important research perspective for modelling of traffic flow time series. Various methods have been proposed to depict the long-range temporal dependence, including autocorrelation function analysis, spectral analysis and fractal analysis. However, few researches have studied the daily temporal dependence (i.e. the similarity between different daily traffic flow time series), which can help us better understand the long-range temporal dependence, such as the origin of crossover phenomenon. Moreover, considering both types of dependence contributes to establishing more accurate model and depicting the properties of traffic flow time series. In this paper, we study the properties of daily temporal dependence by simple average method and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based method. Meanwhile, we also study the long-range temporal dependence by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). The results show that both the daily and long-range temporal dependence exert considerable influence on the traffic flow series. The DFA results reveal that the daily temporal dependence creates crossover phenomenon when estimating the Hurst exponent which depicts the long-range temporal dependence. Furthermore, through the comparison of the DFA test, PCA-based method turns out to be a better method to extract the daily temporal dependence especially when the difference between days is significant.

  15. Sub-Seasonal Predictability And Dynamical Processes: Long-Range Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, G.

    2016-12-01

    . In this talk we will do an overview of the different long range interactions that could be exploited for increasing the skill of sub-seasonal prediction.

  16. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Webb, J; Misselbrook, T H

    2009-01-01

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model...... concentrations in litter-based manures and further validation of model outputs...

  17. Scaling up methodology for CO2 emissions in ICT applications in traffic and transport in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, D.; Jonkers, E.; Giannelos, I.; Palanciuc, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Amitran project aims to define a reference methodology for evaluating the effects of ICT measures in trafäc and transport on energy efficiency and consequently CO2 emissions. This methodology can be used as a reference by future projects and will address different modes for both passenger and

  18. Impacts of controlling biomass burning emissions on wintertime carbonaceous aerosol in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M.G.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Charalampidis, P.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    We use a 3-D regional chemical transport model, with the latest advancements in the organic aerosol (OA) treatment, and an updated emission inventory for wood combustion to study the organic aerosol change in response to the replacement of current residential wood combustion technologies with pellet

  19. Reducing nitrate emissions from Europe's dairy production. The contribution of efficient farming systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Frauke

    2006-01-01

    High nitrate loads in Europe’s ground and surface water have hazardous effects on ecosystems and public health. The main share of the European nitrate emissions has its origin in agriculture, where nitrogen is used in fertilizers. Realizing the severi

  20. A comparison of sea salt emission parameterizations in northwestern Europe using a chemistry transport model setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric sea salt particles affect chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. These particles provide surface area for condensation and reaction of nitrogen, sulfur, and organic species and are a vehicle for the transport of these species. Additionally, HCl is released from sea salt. Hence, sea salt has a relevant impact on air quality, particularly in coastal regions with high anthropogenic emissions, such as the North Sea region. Therefore, the integration of sea salt emissions in modeling studies in these regions is necessary. However, it was found that sea salt concentrations are not represented with the necessary accuracy in some situations.In this study, three sea salt emission parameterizations depending on different combinations of wind speed, salinity, sea surface temperature, and wave data were implemented and compared: GO03 (Gong, 2003, SP13 (Spada et al., 2013, and OV14 (Ovadnevaite et al., 2014. The aim was to identify the parameterization that most accurately predicts the sea salt mass concentrations at different distances to the source regions. For this purpose, modeled particle sodium concentrations, sodium wet deposition, and aerosol optical depth were evaluated against measurements of these parameters. Each 2-month period in winter and summer 2008 were considered for this purpose. The shortness of these periods limits generalizability of the conclusions on other years.While the GO03 emissions yielded overestimations in the PM10 concentrations at coastal stations and underestimations of those at inland stations, OV14 emissions conversely led to underestimations at coastal stations and overestimations at inland stations. Because of the differently shaped particle size distributions of the GO03 and OV14 emission cases, the deposition velocity of the coarse particles differed between both cases which yielded this distinct behavior at inland and coastal stations. The PM10 concentrations produced by the SP13 emissions

  1. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauen Ausilio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy

  2. Assessment of EDGAR emission inventory using carbon monoxide (CO) MOZAIC/IAGOS airborne measurements over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Fabio; Chen, Huilin; Marshall, Julia; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Nedelec, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The main advantage of using airborne data is their ability to collect mole fraction measurements covering most of the troposphere. However, mainly due to the cost of rental aircraft, the number of flights is usually quite limited, with direct consequences on measurement availability. Making use of commercial airliners, the MOZAIC/IAGOS program provides CO mole fraction measurements on a regular basis, avoiding this disadvantage. In this study MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements have been used together with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (STILT) to evaluate the representativeness of the EDGAR version-4.2 emission inventory at 3 different locations (Frankfurt, Paris and Vienna) for the time frame 2004-2011. We make use of the concept of the mixed layer, where signals resulting from CO emissions are reasonable well mixed, and lead to an enhancement of CO within the mixed layer. We investigate the CO enhancement relative to values in the free troposphere (specifically at two km above the mixing height), for both the upper and lower half of the mixed layer. The hypothesis is that the CO enhancement in the upper half of the mixed layer is more representative for larger spatial scales, as the vertical distance to the surface and its emission sources is increased compared to that of the lower half. CO enhancements calculated from CO mole fractions modeled by STILT coupled with the emission inventory at 10 km horizontal resolution are compared with the corresponding values from observed CO mole fractions for both the lower and the upper half of the mixed layer. The transport model domain is roughly coincident with the EU territory; simulations show that most of the Lagrangian particles exit the domain to the north and to the west. On these sides of the domain, boundaries are represented by oceans, characterized by small CO vertical gradients. Modeled global CO fields from the MACC project will be used in this study as lateral boundary conditions. We found that the simulation

  3. Global methane emission estimates for 2000-2012 from CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Aki; Aalto, Tuula; Backman, Leif; Hakkarainen, Janne; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Krol, Maarten C.; Spahni, Renato; Houweling, Sander; Laine, Marko; Dlugokencky, Ed; Gomez-Pelaez, Angel J.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Langenfelds, Ray; Ellul, Raymond; Arduini, Jgor; Apadula, Francesco; Gerbig, Christoph; Feist, Dietrich G.; Kivi, Rigel; Yoshida, Yukio; Peters, Wouter

    2017-03-01

    We present a global distribution of surface methane (CH4) emission estimates for 2000-2012 derived using the CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 (CTE-CH4) data assimilation system. In CTE-CH4, anthropogenic and biospheric CH4 emissions are simultaneously estimated based on constraints of global atmospheric in situ CH4 observations. The system was configured to either estimate only anthropogenic or biospheric sources per region, or to estimate both categories simultaneously. The latter increased the number of optimizable parameters from 62 to 78. In addition, the differences between two numerical schemes available to perform turbulent vertical mixing in the atmospheric transport model TM5 were examined. Together, the system configurations encompass important axes of uncertainty in inversions and allow us to examine the robustness of the flux estimates. The posterior emission estimates are further evaluated by comparing simulated atmospheric CH4 to surface in situ observations, vertical profiles of CH4 made by aircraft, remotely sensed dry-air total column-averaged mole fraction (XCH4) from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), and XCH4 from the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The evaluation with non-assimilated observations shows that posterior XCH4 is better matched with the retrievals when the vertical mixing scheme with faster interhemispheric exchange is used. Estimated posterior mean total global emissions during 2000-2012 are 516 ± 51 Tg CH4 yr-1, with an increase of 18 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 2000-2006 to 2007-2012. The increase is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from South American temperate, Asian temperate and Asian tropical TransCom regions. In addition, the increase is hardly sensitive to different model configurations ( < 2 Tg CH4 yr-1 difference), and much smaller than suggested by EDGAR v4.2 FT2010 inventory (33 Tg CH4 yr-1), which was used for prior anthropogenic emission estimates. The result is in good agreement with other

  4. Aberrant long-range functional connectivity density in generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Li, Yibo; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Rong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2016-06-01

    Studies in generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) have reported both structural and functional alterations in the brain. However, changes in spontaneous neuronal functional organization in GTCS remain largely unknown.In this study, 70 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by tonic-clonic seizures and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Here, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, an ultrafast data-driven method based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was applied for the first time to investigate the changes of spontaneous functional brain activity caused by epilepsy.The results showed significantly decreased long-range FCD in the middle and inferior temporal, prefrontal, and inferior parietal cortices as well as increased long-range FCD in the cerebellum anterior lobe and sensorimotor areas. Negative correlation between duration of disease and reduced long-range FCD was found. In addition, most regions with reduced long-range FCD showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within default mode network.Negative correlation between duration of disease and long-range FCD may reflect an adverse consequence eventually from original. Furthermore, the observed FCD and rsFC alterations have been speculated to be associated with the social-cognitive impairments as well as motor control. Our study provided novel evidences to look into neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying GTCS.

  5. Long-Range Epistasis Mediated by Structural Change in a Model of Ligand Binding Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D Nelson

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of amino acid mutations in proteins reveal that mutations at many pairs of sites are epistatic-i.e., their effects on fitness are non-additive-the combined effect of two mutations being significantly larger or smaller than the sum of their effects considered independently. Interestingly, epistatic sites are not necessarily near each other in the folded structure of a protein, and may even be located on opposite sides of a molecule. However, the mechanistic reasons for long-range epistasis remain obscure. Here, we study long-range epistasis in proteins using a previously developed model in which off-lattice polymers are evolved under ligand binding constraints. Epistatic effects in the model are qualitatively similar to those recently reported for small proteins, and many are long-range. We find that a major reason for long-range epistasis is conformational change-a recurrent theme in both positive and negative epistasis being the transfer, or exchange of material between the ordered nucleus, which supports the binding site, and the liquid-like surface of a folded molecule. These local transitions in phase and folded structure are largely responsible for long-range epistasis in our model.

  6. Autonomic imbalance induced breakdown of long-range dependence in healthy heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, N; Struzik, Z R; Kiyono, K; Yamamoto, Y

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the relation between the long-range correlation property of heart rate and autonomic balance. An investigation of the fractal scaling properties of heart rate variability was carried out by using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Eleven healthy subjects were examined for two consecutive days, which included usual daily activity, strenuous prolonged experimental exercise, and sleep. We also considered two patient groups with autonomic dysfunction characterized by selective sympathetic and parasympathetic dominance. Robust long-range dependence in heart rate is observed only in the state of usual daily activity, characterized by normal heart rate typical of balanced autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation. This confirms the previously postulated behavioral independence of heart rate regulation, but reveals that the occurrence of 1/f, long-range dependence is restricted to only the state of autonomic balance. Both the sympathetic dominant high heart rate state, realized during strenuous experimental exercise, and the parasympathetic dominant low heart rate state, prevalent in (deep) sleep, are characterized by uncorrelated, near white-noise-like scaling, lacking long-range dependence. Remarkably, the breakdown of the long-range correlations observed in healthy heart rate in the states of sympathetic and parasympathetic dominance is in stark contrast to the increased correlations which have previously been observed in neurogenic parasympathetic and sympathetic dominance in patients suffering from primary autonomic failure and congestive heart failure, respectively. Our findings further reveal the diagnostic capabilities of heart rate dynamics, by differentiating physiological healthy states from pathology.

  7. Long-Range Epistasis Mediated by Structural Change in a Model of Ligand Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik D; Grishin, Nick V

    2016-01-01

    Recent analyses of amino acid mutations in proteins reveal that mutations at many pairs of sites are epistatic-i.e., their effects on fitness are non-additive-the combined effect of two mutations being significantly larger or smaller than the sum of their effects considered independently. Interestingly, epistatic sites are not necessarily near each other in the folded structure of a protein, and may even be located on opposite sides of a molecule. However, the mechanistic reasons for long-range epistasis remain obscure. Here, we study long-range epistasis in proteins using a previously developed model in which off-lattice polymers are evolved under ligand binding constraints. Epistatic effects in the model are qualitatively similar to those recently reported for small proteins, and many are long-range. We find that a major reason for long-range epistasis is conformational change-a recurrent theme in both positive and negative epistasis being the transfer, or exchange of material between the ordered nucleus, which supports the binding site, and the liquid-like surface of a folded molecule. These local transitions in phase and folded structure are largely responsible for long-range epistasis in our model.

  8. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  9. Testing long range beam-beam compensation for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, Tatiana; Caracciolo, Sergio

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its minimum crossing angle are limited by long-range beam-beam collisions. A wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects and may allow for smaller crossing angles, or higher beam intensity. A prototype long-range wire compensator should be installed in the LHC by 2014/15. The originally reserved position for the wire compensator (named BBC) seems not available in this first step, we need so to test other possibilities. The performed tests consider various longitudinal and transverse locations, different wire shapes, different optics configuration and trying several crossing angles between the beam. Simulation are done with the weak-strong code BBtrack developed by U. Dorda. New postprocessing tools were used to analyse tune footprints and particle stability In particular for particle stability was implemented a new method for the Lyapunov coefficient calculation.

  10. Testing Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T L

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its minimum crossing angle are limited by the effect of long-range beam-beam collisions. A wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects and may allow for smaller crossing angles, or higher beam intensity. A prototype long-range wire compensator could be installed in the LHC by 2014/15. Since the originally reserved position for such a wire compensator is not available for this first step, we explore other possible options. Our investigations consider various longitudinal and transverse locations, different wire shapes, different optics configurations and several crossing angles between the two colliding beams. Simulations are carried out with the weak-strong code BBtrack. New postprocessing tools are introduced to analyse tune footprints and particle stability. In particular, a new method for the Lyapunov coefficient calculation is implemented. Submitted as "Tesi di laurea" at the University of Milano, 2012.

  11. Emergent long-range synchronization of oscillating ecological populations without external forcing described by Ising universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E; Machta, Jonathan; Hastings, Alan

    2015-04-08

    Understanding the synchronization of oscillations across space is fundamentally important to many scientific disciplines. In ecology, long-range synchronization of oscillations in spatial populations may elevate extinction risk and signal an impending catastrophe. The prevailing assumption is that synchronization on distances longer than the dispersal scale can only be due to environmental correlation (the Moran effect). In contrast, we show how long-range synchronization can emerge over distances much longer than the length scales of either dispersal or environmental correlation. In particular, we demonstrate that the transition from incoherence to long-range synchronization of two-cycle oscillations in noisy spatial population models is described by the Ising universality class of statistical physics. This result shows, in contrast to all previous work, how the Ising critical transition can emerge directly from the dynamics of ecological populations.

  12. Mobile network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per

    In this report we have presented the network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system that allows utilization of mobile network connections without the use of static public IP addresses. The architecture mitigates the issues of additional fees and contractual obligations that are linked...... to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki with additional 3G or 4G dongles. With the presented network architecture and appropriate configuration, we fulfill...... the requirements of running the long-range WindScanner system using a mobile network such as 3G. This architecture allows us to have the WindScanners and the master computer in different geographical locations, and in general facilitates deployments of the long-range WindScanner system....

  13. Hidden long-range order in a two-dimensional spin-orbit coupled Bose gas

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Shih-Wei; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Liao, Renyuan; Fialko, Oleksandr; Brand, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional spin-orbit coupled Bose gas is shown to simultaneously possess quasi and true long-range orders in the total and relative phases, respectively. The total phase undergoes a conventional Berenzinskii- Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, where an quasi long-range order is expected. Additionally, the relative phase undergoes an Ising-type transition building up true long-range order, which is induced by the anisotropic spin- orbit coupling. Based on the Bogoliubov approach, expressions for the total- and relative-phase fluctuations are derived analytically for the low temperature regime. Numerical simulations of the stochastic projected Gross- Pitaevskii equation give a good agreement with the analytical predictions.

  14. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  15. Emergent long-range synchronization of oscillating ecological populations without external forcing described by Ising universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E.; Machta, Jonathan; Hastings, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the synchronization of oscillations across space is fundamentally important to many scientific disciplines. In ecology, long-range synchronization of oscillations in spatial populations may elevate extinction risk and signal an impending catastrophe. The prevailing assumption is that synchronization on distances longer than the dispersal scale can only be due to environmental correlation (the Moran effect). In contrast, we show how long-range synchronization can emerge over distances much longer than the length scales of either dispersal or environmental correlation. In particular, we demonstrate that the transition from incoherence to long-range synchronization of two-cycle oscillations in noisy spatial population models is described by the Ising universality class of statistical physics. This result shows, in contrast to all previous work, how the Ising critical transition can emerge directly from the dynamics of ecological populations. PMID:25851364

  16. Robustness of Estimators of Long-Range Dependence and Self-Similarity under non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Franzke, Christian L E; Watkins, Nicholas W; Gramacy, Robert B; Hughes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Long-range dependence and non-Gaussianity are ubiquitous in many natural systems like ecosystems, biological systems and climate. However, it is not always appreciated that both phenomena usually occur together in natural systems and that the superposition of both phenomena constitute the self-similarity of a system. These features, which are common in complex systems, impact the attribution of trends and the occurrence and clustering of extremes. The risk assessment of systems with these properties will lead to different outcomes (e.g. return periods) than the more common assumption of independence of extremes. Two paradigmatic models are discussed which can simultaneously account for long-range dependence and non-Gaussianity: Autoregressive Fractional Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) and Linear Fractional Stable Motion (LFSM). Statistical properties of estimators for long-range dependence and self-similarity are critically assessed. It is found that the most popular estimators are not robust. In particula...

  17. Fractality Evidence and Long-Range Dependence on Capital Markets: a Hurst Exponent Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprean, Camelia; Tănăsescu, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Since the existence of market memory could implicate the rejection of the efficient market hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to find any evidence that selected emergent capital markets (eight European and BRIC markets, namely Hungary, Romania, Estonia, Czech Republic, Brazil, Russia, India and China) evince long-range dependence or the random walk hypothesis. In this paper, the Hurst exponent as calculated by R/S fractal analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is our measure of long-range dependence in the series. The results reinforce our previous findings and suggest that if stock returns present long-range dependence, the random walk hypothesis is not valid anymore and neither is the market efficiency hypothesis.

  18. Long-range forecasts for the energy market - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Otto; Mäkelä, Antti; Kämäräinen, Matti; Gregow, Hilppa

    2017-04-01

    We examined the feasibility of long-range forecasts of temperature for needs of the energy sector in Helsinki, Finland. The work was done jointly by Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and Helen Ltd, the main Helsinki metropolitan area energy provider, and especially provider of district heating and cooling. Because temperatures govern the need of heating and cooling and, therefore, the energy demand, better long-range forecasts of temperature would be highly useful for Helen Ltd. Heating degree day (HDD) is a parameter that indicates the demand of energy to heat a building. We examined the forecasted monthly HDD values for Helsinki using UK Met Office seasonal forecasts with the lead time up to two months. The long-range forecasts of monthly HDD showed some skill in Helsinki in winter 2015-2016, especially if the very cold January is excluded.

  19. Cross-Sensor Calibration of the GAI Long Range Detection Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Boeck, William; Goodman, Steven J.; Cummins, K.; Cramer, J.

    1999-01-01

    The long range component of the North American Lightning Detection Network has been providing experimental data products since July 1996, offering cloud-to-ground lightning coverage throughout the Atlantic and Western Pacific oceans, as well as south to the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The network experiences a strong decrease in detection efficiency with range, which is also significantly modulated by differential propagation under day, night and terminator-crossing conditions. A climatological comparison of total lightning data observed by the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and CG lightning observed by the long range network is conducted, with strict quality control and allowance for differential network performance before and after the activation of the Canadian Lightning Detection Network. This yields a first-order geographic estimate of long range network detection efficiency and its spatial variability. Intercomparisons are also performed over the continental US, allowing large scale estimates of the midlatitude climatological IC:CG ratio and its possible dependence on latitude.

  20. Phase model analysis of the long-range excitation in the hippocampal CA1 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Gui [Nonlinear and Complex Systems Lab., Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung-Kee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Hyung-Tae [Kyungwon University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    The synchronization of rhythms in various frequency ranges over participating cortical areas is one of the important issues in neuroscience. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that rhythms of the beta frequency range have a dynamical structure distinct from that of the gamma rhythms. To elucidate the mechanism of synchronization, the role of the long-range excitatory connection which is incorporated with finite conduction delay time needs to be analyzed. This work attempts such analysis, utilizing the reduced phase oscillator model. It is shown that the long-range gamma rhythm remains unstable, regardless of the presence of the excitatory connection. However, the beta rhythm is stable over a broad range of conduction time delay, which cannot apparently be tolerated by the long-range gamma rhythm. These synchronization features are consistent with experimental observations which imply that gamma rhythms are used for local computations, whereas beta rhythms are used for higher level interactions involving more distant structures.

  1. Long-range Interactions, Stochasticity and Fractional Dynamics Dedicated to George M Zaslavsky (1935–2008)

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2011-01-01

    In memory of Dr. George Zaslavsky, "Long-range Interactions, Stochasticity and Fractional Dynamics" covers the recent developments of long-range interaction, fractional dynamics, brain dynamics and stochastic theory of turbulence, each chapter was written by established scientists in the field. The book is dedicated to Dr. George Zaslavsky, who was one of three founders of the theory of Hamiltonian chaos. The book discusses self-similarity and stochasticity and fractionality for discrete and continuous dynamical systems, as well as long-range interactions and diluted networks. A comprehensive theory for brain dynamics is also presented. In addition, the complexity and stochasticity for soliton chains and turbulence are addressed. The book is intended for researchers in the field of nonlinear dynamics in mathematics, physics and engineering. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, USA. Dr. Valentin Afraimovich is a Professor at San Luis Potosi University, Mexico.

  2. Edge insulating topological phases in a two-dimensional superconductor with long-range pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, L.; Giuliano, D.; Paganelli, S.

    2018-01-01

    We study the zero-temperature phase diagram of a two-dimensional square lattice loaded by spinless fermions, with nearest-neighbor hopping and algebraically decaying pairing. We find that for sufficiently long-range pairing, new phases occur, not continuously connected with any short-range phase and not belonging to the standard families of topological insulators/superconductors. These phases are signaled by the violation of the area law for the von Neumann entropy, by semi-integer Chern numbers, and by edge modes with nonzero mass. The latter feature results in the absence of single-fermion edge conductivity, present instead in the short-range limit. The definition of a bulk-topology and the presence of a bulk-boundary correspondence is suggested also for the long-range phases. Recent experimental proposals and advances open the possibility to probe the described long-range effects in near-future realistic setups.

  3. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment DCE at Aarhus University annually reports heavy metals (HM) emissions to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). This report presents updated heavy metal emission factors...... for stationary combustion plants and the corresponding improved emission inventories for the following HMs: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn). The report presents data for the year 2009 and time series for 1990...

  4. A New Technique to Compute Long-Range Wakefields in Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Raguin, J Y; Wuensch, Walter

    2002-01-01

    A new technique is proposed to compute the coupling impedances and the long-range wakefields based on a scattering-matrix formalism which relies heavily upon post-processed data from the commercial finite-element code HFSS. To illustrate the speed of this technique, the procedures to compute the long-range wakefields of conventional constant-impedance structures and of structures damped with waveguides are presented. The efficiency and accuracy of the technique is achieved because the characteristics of periodic structures can be computed using single-cell data. Damping and synchronism effects are determined from such a computation.

  5. OBSERVATION OF LONG-RANGE BEAM-BEAM EFFECT IN RHIC AND PLANS FOR COMPENSATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER, W.; CALAGA, R.; DORDA, U.; DOUTCHOUK, J.-P.; ZIMMERMANN, F.; RANJBAR, V.; SEN, T.; SHI, J.; QIANG, J.; KABEL, A.

    2006-06-23

    At large distances the electromagnetic field of a wire is the same as the field produced by a bunch. Such a long-range beam-beam wire compensator was proposed for the LHC, and single beam tests with wire compensators were successfully done in the SPS. RHIC offers the possibility to test the compensation scheme with colliding beams. We report on measurements of beam losses as a function of transverse separation in RHIC at 100 GeV, and comparisons with simulations. We present a design for a long-range wire compensator in RHIC.

  6. Long-range correlations in PbPb collisions at 158 a *GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alt, C; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csato, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Farantatos, G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gal, J; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Hohne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; van Leeuwen, M; Levai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnar, J; Mrowczynski, S; Palla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Puhlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Sikler, F; Sitar, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Strobele, H; Susa, T; Szentpetery, I; Sziklai, J; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G l; Vesztergombi, G; Vranie, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, l K; Zaranek, J; Zimanyi, J; Feofilov, G; Kolevatov, R; Kondratiev, V; Naumenko, P; Vechernin, V

    2005-01-01

    We present the 1st results of the event-by-event study of long-range correlations between event mean Pt and charged particle multiplicity using NA49 experimental data in two separated rapidity intervals in 158 A *Ge V Pb Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. Noticeable long range correlations are found. The most striking feature is the negative Prn correlation observed for the central PbPb collisions. Results are compared to the predictions of the HIJING event generator and of the String Fusion Model favoring a string fusion hypothesis.

  7. Fidelity susceptibility study of quantum long-range antiferromagnetic Ising chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gaoyong

    2017-10-01

    We study the fidelity susceptibility of a quantum antiferromagnetic Ising chain with a long-range power-law interaction 1 /rα using the large-scale density matrix renormalization group method. We find that the critical adiabatic dimension μ =2 and the critical exponent of the correlation length ν =1 for arbitrary α >0 , indicating all quantum phase transitions are second-order Ising transitions. In addition, we numerically determine the complete phase diagram for 0 work will shed light on the nature of phase transitions in the quantum long-range antiferromagnetic Ising chain from a quantum information perspective.

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Pulses in Gold Strip Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Olivier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The nonlinear absorption of the plasmonic modes in the waveguides is measured with femtosecond pulses revealing a strong dependence of the third-order nonl......We study experimentally and theoretically nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The nonlinear absorption of the plasmonic modes in the waveguides is measured with femtosecond pulses revealing a strong dependence of the third...

  9. Impact of shipping emissions on ozone levels over Europe: assessing the relative importance of the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP) categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Stergiou, Ioannis; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P

    2017-06-01

    The impact of shipping emissions on ozone mixing ratio over Europe is assessed for July 2006 using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research anthropogenic emission inventory. Results suggest that ship-induced ozone contribution to the total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline, while an increase up to 5% is simulated over a large portion of the European land. The largest impact (i.e., an increase up to 30%) is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, shipping emissions are simulated to increase NO2 mixing ratio more than 90%, locally, and to modify the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere through hydroxyl radical formation (increase by 20-60% over the sea along the European coasts and near the coastal zone). Therefore, emissions from ships may counteract the benefits derived from the anthropogenic emissions reduction strategies over the continent. Simulations suggest regions where shipping emissions have a major impact on ozone mixing ratio compared to individual anthropogenic emission sector categories. Shipping emissions are estimated to play an important role on ozone levels compared to road transport sector near the coastal zone. The impact of shipping emissions on ozone formation is also profound over a great part of the European land compared to the rest of anthropogenic emission categories.

  10. Improving estimates of N2O emissions for western and central Europe using a Bayesian inversion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Gerbig, C.; Roedenbeck, C.; Heimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) mixing ratio has been increasing in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution, from 270 ppb in 1750 to 320 ppb in 2007 with a steady growth rate of around 0.26% since the early 1980's. The increase in N2O is worrisome for two main reasons. First, it is a greenhouse gas; this means that its atmospheric increase translates to an enhancement in radiative forcing of 0.16 ± 0.02 Wm-2 making it currently the fourth most important long-lived greenhouse gas and is predicted to soon overtake CFC's to become the third most important. Second, it plays an important role in stratospheric ozone chemistry. Human activities are the primary cause of the atmospheric N2O increase. The largest anthropogenic source of N2O is from the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture but fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes, such as adipic and nitric acid production, are also important. We present a Bayesian inversion approach for estimating N2O fluxes over central and western Europe using high frequency in-situ concentration data from the Ochsenkopf tall tower (50 °01′N, 11 °48′, 1022 masl). For the inversion, we employ a Lagrangian-type transport model, STILT, which provides source-receptor relationships at 10 km using ECMWF meteorological data. The a priori flux estimates used were from IER, for anthropogenic, and GEIA, for natural fluxes. N2O fluxes were retrieved monthly at 2 x 2 degree spatial resolution for 2007. The retrieved N2O fluxes showed significantly more spatial heterogeneity than in the a priori field and considerable seasonal variability. The timing of peak emissions was different for different regions but in general the months with the strongest emissions were May and August. Overall, the retrieved flux (anthropogenic and natural) was lower than in the a priori field.

  11. Data transmission in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharitonov, S.; Kiselev, R.; Kumar, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the data transmission of 10 Gbit/s on-off keying modulated 1550 nm signal through a long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide structure with negligible signal degradation. In the experiment the bit error rate penalties do not exceed 0.6 dB over the 15 nm...

  12. Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas; Nikolajsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study the interaction of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs), excited at telecommunication wavelengths, with photonic crystals (PCs) formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film embedded...

  13. Photonic band gap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm...... of achieving a full bandgap (in the surface plane) for LR-SPPs are also discussed....

  14. The pluripotent regulatory circuitry connecting promoters to their long-range interacting elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Furlan-Magaril, Mayra; Mifsud, Borbala; Tavares-Cadete, Filipe; Sugar, Robert; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Nagano, Takashi; Katsman, Yulia; Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Wingett, Steven W; Dimitrova, Emilia; Dimond, Andrew; Edelman, Lucas B; Elderkin, Sarah; Tabbada, Kristina; Darbo, Elodie; Andrews, Simon; Herman, Bram; Higgs, Andy; LeProust, Emily; Osborne, Cameron S; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Fraser, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The mammalian genome harbors up to one million regulatory elements often located at great distances from their target genes. Long-range elements control genes through physical contact with promoters and can be recognized by the presence of specific histone modifications and transcription factor binding. Linking regulatory elements to specific promoters genome-wide is currently impeded by the limited resolution of high-throughput chromatin interaction assays. Here we apply a sequence capture approach to enrich Hi-C libraries for >22,000 annotated mouse promoters to identify statistically significant, long-range interactions at restriction fragment resolution, assigning long-range interacting elements to their target genes genome-wide in embryonic stem cells and fetal liver cells. The distal sites contacting active genes are enriched in active histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy, whereas inactive genes contact distal sites with repressive histone marks, demonstrating the regulatory potential of the distal elements identified. Furthermore, we find that coregulated genes cluster nonrandomly in spatial interaction networks correlated with their biological function and expression level. Interestingly, we find the strongest gene clustering in ES cells between transcription factor genes that control key developmental processes in embryogenesis. The results provide the first genome-wide catalog linking gene promoters to their long-range interacting elements and highlight the complex spatial regulatory circuitry controlling mammalian gene expression. © 2015 Schoenfelder et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Energy funneling in a bent chain of Morse oscillators with long-range coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Ulrik Vingaard; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Bang, Ole

    2004-01-01

    A bent chain of coupled Morse oscillators with long-range dispersive interaction is considered. Moving localized excitations may be trapped in the bending region. Thus chain geometry acts like an impurity. An energy funneling effect is observed in the case of random initial conditions....

  16. A Long Range Plan for Improving Education and Urban Life in St. Paul Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    Recommendations for overhauling the educational facilities in St. Paul, Minnesota, envision an overhauling of the structure of the community itself. Of the 200 recommendations made, two stand out. One calls for the establishment of a nerve center for the school system in the downtown area, and the second calls for a long-range (30-year) plan to…

  17. Addressing Spatial Variability of Surface-Layer Wind with Long-Range WindScanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of mean wind measurements from a coordinated system of long-range WindScanners. From individual scan patterns the mean wind field was reconstructed over a large area, and hence it highlights the spatial variability. From comparison with sonic anemometers, the quality...

  18. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westereng, Bjorge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane

    2015-01-01

    cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds...

  19. Longe-Range Order in beta-Brass Studied by Neutron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1974-01-01

    The long-range order, M(T), in β-brass has been measured by neutron diffraction from a small extinction-free crystal. The results agree with those obtained recently by x-ray diffraction. Near Tc our data are in accordance with a power law M(T)=D(1-T/Tc)β with the critical exponent β=0...

  20. Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in photonic band gap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas; Nikolajsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We study the interaction of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs), excited at telecommunication wavelengths, with photonic crystals (PCs) formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold fil embedded ...

  1. Analysing the origin of long-range interactions in proteins using lattice models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Ron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-range communication is very common in proteins but the physical basis of this phenomenon remains unclear. In order to gain insight into this problem, we decided to explore whether long-range interactions exist in lattice models of proteins. Lattice models of proteins have proven to capture some of the basic properties of real proteins and, thus, can be used for elucidating general principles of protein stability and folding. Results Using a computational version of double-mutant cycle analysis, we show that long-range interactions emerge in lattice models even though they are not an input feature of them. The coupling energy of both short- and long-range pairwise interactions is found to become more positive (destabilizing in a linear fashion with increasing 'contact-frequency', an entropic term that corresponds to the fraction of states in the conformational ensemble of the sequence in which the pair of residues is in contact. A mathematical derivation of the linear dependence of the coupling energy on 'contact-frequency' is provided. Conclusion Our work shows how 'contact-frequency' should be taken into account in attempts to stabilize proteins by introducing (or stabilizing contacts in the native state and/or through 'negative design' of non-native contacts.

  2. Codebook Selection Strategies in Long-range Sub-1 GHz WLANs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aust, S.; Venkatesha Prasad, R.R.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    The new long-range WLANs will enable a simple and cost-efficient setup of wireless ambient systems, including smart city and smart grid communication networks. The emerging IEEE 802.11ah WLAN standard utilizes carrier frequencies at 900 MHz in the ISM-band and facilitates multi-antenna MIMO-OFDM. In

  3. Study of Long-range Collisions and Wire Compensation for Tevatron Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; Erdelyi, B; Boocha, V

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes studies of long-range collisions and their compensation by current carrying wires for the Tevatron Run-II, which were performed during a two-week stay at Fermilab, February 22 to March 8, 2004. The weak-strong code WSDIFF was significantly extended to simulate the actual long-range encounters at the Tevatron for different antiproton bunches in the train at injection and in collision. Tune footprints and diffusive apertures simulated by this code are presented for various cases, differing in the bunch position, the energy, the number of long-range and head-on collisions, the presence of additional compensating wires and the momentum deviation. It is confirmed that the solution of 4 wires for injection, previously found by B. Erdelyi, raises the dynamic aperture, by about 1.0-1.5sigma. For both injection and collision an ideal compensation of the 6 or 3 closest long-range encounters was modeled, by removing these collisions altogether. At collision, an improvement in the dynamic aperture ...

  4. Long-range regulation of alpha globin gene expression during erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Douglas R; Wood, William G

    2008-05-01

    The analysis of globin gene expression during erythropoiesis has established many principles underlying normal mammalian gene expression. New aspects of gene regulation have been revealed by natural mutations that downregulate globin gene expression and cause thalassemia. Deletions involving sequences upstream of the alpha and beta clusters suggested that the globin genes might be controlled by remote regulatory elements. This was demonstrated experimentally and suggested that many mammalian genes may be controlled in a similar manner. Completion of the Human Genome Project and the associated encyclopaedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project confirmed that human gene expression is commonly controlled by long-range, cis-acting elements. The development of chromatin immunoprecipitation has allowed us to identify binding of transcription factors and chromatin modifications at the key cis-acting sequences in vivo. In addition, chromosome conformation capture has enabled us to address the topological models proposed to mediate long-range interactions. Together, these methods have given us some insight into how long-range elements may influence gene expression and how this process may be subverted in thalassemia. The review asks how remote elements regulate alpha globin expression and how natural mutations interfere with this mechanism to cause alpha thalassemia. We also speculate as to why long-range control of gene expression may have evolved in higher organisms.

  5. Theoretical study of loss compensation in long-range dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Blanco, Sonia Maria; Pollnau, Markus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    In this paper, a theoretical study of loss compensation in long-range dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides (LR-DLSPPs) is presented. Although extendable to other gain materials, rare-earth doped double tungstates are used as gain material in this work. Two different structures are studied

  6. Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Blanco, Sonia Maria; Pollnau, Markus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2011-01-01

    Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides is theoretically analyzed when rare-earth-doped double tungstate crystalline material is used as the gain medium in three different waveguide configurations. We study the effect of waveguide geometry on loss

  7. Loss compensation in long-range dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Blanco, Sonia Maria; Zouhdi, Said; Begaud, Xavier; Pollnau, Markus; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.

    Loss compensation in long-range dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton (LR-DLSPP) waveguides has been theoretically studied. Rare-earth-ion-doped potassium double tungstates have been proposed as gain materials because of the elevated gain that they can provide, together with a favorable

  8. Mechatronic design of a fast and long range 4 degrees of freedom humanoid neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Bennik, J.; Leideman, J.; Soemers, Herman; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the mechatronic design of a humanoid neck. To research human machine interaction, the head and neck combination should be able to approach the human behavior as much as possible. We present a novel humanoid neck concept that is both fast, and has a long range of motion in 4

  9. Long-range correlations in high multiplicity pp and pA collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... ... long-range azimuthal correlations in high multiplicity collisions. These correlations, which resemble those seen in ultrarelativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions, provide a unique window into the physics of the very early collision stage in high energy nuclear interactions. Here we present a compilation of the ...

  10. Long-Range Excitation of Collective Modes in Mesoscopic Metal Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, M. S.; Kharchenko, V; Canto, L. F.; Donangelo, R.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a semiclassical theory for the long range excitation of plasmon resonances in atomic clusters, based on the doorway hypothesis. The effect of the width of the plasmon resonance is fully taken into account. As an application we study plasmon excitation in small Sodium clusters, in collisions with electrons and protons.

  11. Advanced Tactical Booster Technologies: Applications for Long-Range Rocket Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRC 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7680 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY...include area code ) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 ADVANCED TACTICAL BOOSTER TECHNOLOGIES Applications for Long-Range

  12. Bounds on Correlation Decay for Long-Range Vector Spin Glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, Aernout C.D. van

    1985-01-01

    We give upper bounds on the decay of correlation functions for long-range SO(N)-symmetric spin-glass models in one and two dimensions using McBryan-Spencer techniques. In doing so we extend other's recent results.

  13. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe to the Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution using the EVA Model System - an integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Hansen, Ayoe B.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Kaas, Eigil; Frohn, Lise M.

    2013-04-01

    We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system. The conclusions in the paper are sensitive to the toxicity of the different types of atmospheric particles, and therefore the existing knowledge of health impacts from particles is reviewed. We conclude that with our present knowledge we are not able to distinguish between the impacts from different particle types and therefore the toxicity of the particles is handled equally in the overall results. The main conclusion from the analysis of the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. The major power plants in Europe contribute with around 25% of the total health related external costs relative to all sources in Europe, while the Danish power plants only contribute with less than 10% relative to all Danish sources. Our results suggest that the agricultural sector contributes with 25% to health impacts and related external costs. We conclude

  14. 25 CFR 170.413 - What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Roads Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.413 What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? BIA or the tribe must solicit public involvement. If there are... newspapers when the draft long-range transportation plan is complete. In the absence of local public...

  15. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westereng, Bjørge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Jørgensen, Henning; Larsen Andersen, Mogens; Eijsink, Vincent G.H.; Felby, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic oxidation of cell wall polysaccharides by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) plays a pivotal role in the degradation of plant biomass. While experiments have shown that LPMOs are copper dependent enzymes requiring an electron donor, the mechanism and origin of the electron supply in biological systems are only partly understood. We show here that insoluble high molecular weight lignin functions as a reservoir of electrons facilitating LPMO activity. The electrons are donated to the enzyme by long-range electron transfer involving soluble low molecular weight lignins present in plant cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds new light on how oxidative enzymes present in plant degraders may act in concert. PMID:26686263

  16. Rational synthesis of organic thin films with exceptional long-range structural integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiki, Noriya; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Kajitani, Takashi; Ishiwari, Fumitaka; Kosaka, Atsuko; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Someya, Takao; Fukushima, Takanori

    2015-06-01

    Highly oriented, domain-boundary-free organic thin films could find use in various high-performance organic materials and devices. However, even with state-of-the-art supramolecular chemistry, it is difficult to construct organic thin films with structural integrity in a size regime beyond the micrometer length scale. We show that a space-filling design, relying on the two-dimensional (2D) nested hexagonal packing of a particular type of triptycene, enables the formation of large-area molecular films with long-range 2D structural integrity up to the centimeter length scale by vacuum evaporation, spin-coating, and cooling from the isotropic liquid of the triptycene. X-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic observations reveal that triptycene molecules form a completely oriented 2D (hexagonal triptycene array) + 1D (layer stacking) structure, which is key for the long-range propagation of structural order.

  17. Charge Ordering and Long-Range Interactions in Layered Transition Metal Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, B.P.; Yu, Z.G.; Bishop, A.R.; Gro/nbech-Jensen, N. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Neto, A.H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    1999-06-01

    We study the competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes within a continuum formulation of the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. We focus on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram. The main interactions are the long-range Coulomb interaction and a magnetic dipolar short-range interaction generated by short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations. Four different phases depending on the strength of the dipolar interaction and the density of holes exist: Wigner crystal, diagonal stripes, horizontal-vertical stripes (loops). and a glassy-clumped phase. The effect of temperature, disorder, and lattice effects on these phases are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Long-range interactions, wobbles, and phase defects in chains of model cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Douglas R.; Bruot, Nicolas; Kotar, Jurij; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Cicuta, Pietro; Polin, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are chemo-mechanical oscillators capable of generating long-range coordinated motions known as metachronal waves. Pair synchronization is a fundamental requirement for these collective dynamics, but it is generally not sufficient for collective phase-locking, chiefly due to the effect of long-range interactions. Here we explore experimentally and numerically a minimal model for a ciliated surface: hydrodynamically coupled oscillators rotating above a no-slip plane. Increasing their distance from the wall profoundly affects the global dynamics, due to variations in hydrodynamic interaction range. The array undergoes a transition from a traveling wave to either a steady chevron pattern or one punctuated by periodic phase defects. Within the transition between these regimes the system displays behavior reminiscent of chimera states.

  19. Evaluation of Long-Range Lightning Detection Networks Using TRMM/LIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudlosky, Scott D.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chris J.; Bateman, Monte; Cecil, Daniel J.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in long-range lightning detection technologies have improved our understanding of thunderstorm evolution in the data sparse oceanic regions. Although the expansion and improvement of long-range lightning datasets have increased their applicability, these applications (e.g., data assimilation, atmospheric chemistry, and aviation weather hazards) require knowledge of the network detection capabilities. Toward this end, the present study evaluates data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) using observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite. The study documents the WWLLN detection efficiency and location accuracy relative to LIS observations, describes the spatial variability in these performance metrics, and documents the characteristics of LIS flashes that are detected by WWLLN. Improved knowledge of the WWLLN detection capabilities will allow researchers, algorithm developers, and operational users to better prepare for the spatial and temporal coverage of the upcoming GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM).

  20. Equilibrium properties of quantum spin systems with nonadditive long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    We study equilibrium states of quantum spin systems with nonadditive long-range interactions by adopting an appropriate scaling of the interaction strength, i.e., the so-called Kac prescription. In classical spin systems, it is known that the equilibrium free energy is obtained by minimizing the free-energy functional over the coarse-grained magnetization. Here we show that it is also true for quantum spin systems. From this observation, it is found that when the canonical ensemble and the microcanonical ensemble are not equivalent in some parameter region, it is not necessarily justified to replace the actual long-range interaction by the infinite-range interaction (Curie-Weiss-type interaction). On the other hand, in the parameter region where the two ensembles are equivalent, this replacement is always justified. We examine the Heisenberg XXZ model as an illustrative example and discuss the relation to experiments.

  1. Long-Range GABAergic Inputs Regulate Neural Stem Cell Quiescence and Control Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hechen; Asrican, Brent; Li, Weidong; Gu, Bin; Wen, Zhexing; Lim, Szu-Aun; Haniff, Issac; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Philpot, Benjamin; Song, Juan

    2017-11-02

    The quiescence of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is regulated by local parvalbumin (PV) interneurons within the dentate gyrus (DG). Little is known about how local PV interneurons communicate with distal brain regions to regulate NSCs and hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we identify GABAergic projection neurons from the medial septum (MS) as the major afferents to dentate PV interneurons. Surprisingly, dentate PV interneurons are depolarized by GABA signaling, which is in sharp contrast to most mature neurons hyperpolarized by GABA. Functionally, these long-range GABAergic inputs are necessary and sufficient to maintain adult NSC quiescence and ablating them leads to NSC activation and subsequent depletion of the NSC pool. Taken together, these findings delineate a GABAergic network involving long-range GABAergic projection neurons and local PV interneurons that couples dynamic brain activity to the neurogenic niche in controlling NSC quiescence and hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A

    1978-01-01

    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  3. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A P; Mateos, José L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.

  4. Distortion-triggered loss of long-range order in solids with bonding energy hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobov, A V; Krbal, M; Fons, P; Tominaga, J; Uruga, T

    2011-04-01

    An amorphous-to-crystal transition in phase-change materials like Ge-Sb-Te is widely used for data storage. The basic principle is to take advantage of the property contrast between the crystalline and amorphous states to encode information; amorphization is believed to be caused by melting the materials with an intense laser or electrical pulse and subsequently quenching the melt. Here, we demonstrate that distortions in the crystalline phase may trigger a collapse of long-range order, generating the amorphous phase without going through the liquid state. We further show that the principal change in optical properties occurs during the distortion of the still crystalline structure, upsetting yet another commonly held belief that attributes the change in properties to the loss of long-range order. Furthermore, our results suggest a way to lower energy consumption by condensing phase change inducing energy into shorter pulses or through the use of coherent phonon excitation.

  5. Characteristics in the atmosphere of long-range transport aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillefond, H; Fourn, P; Auffret, R

    1977-06-01

    In the long run, the fatigue in aircrews performing frequent, long-range flights is linked to factors connected to the aircraft, such as noise, temperature, cabin pressure, atmosphere quality, and flight characteristics. These are the factors inherent to the aircraft which we have investigated during six long-range flights without time zone changes in DC-8 and DC-10 aircraft of the U.T.A. Cie. The results show that none of the pollutants researched reach doses considered hazardous by FAR 25 or by French legislation. This fact is due to the effective ventilation in the cabins. In flight, thermal comfort is limited by a too-low hygrometry RH = 12%. Even in a modern aircraft, the noise level remains high, but acoustical energy is spread over the less detrimental frequencies.

  6. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A. P.; Mateos, José L.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.

  7. Analysis of long-range wakefields in CLIC main Linac Accelerating Structures with Damping Loads

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G

    2012-01-01

    The baseline design of the CLIC accelerating structure foresees a moderate detuning and heavy damping of high order modes (HOMs), which are the source of long-range transverse wakefields. Such unwanted fields produce bunch-to-bunch instabilities so the HOMs must be suppressed. In order to damp these modes, the CLIC RF structure is equipped with lossy material inserted into four rectangular waveguides coupled to each accelerating cell. The lossy material absorbs EM (electromagnetic) wave energy with little reflection back to the accelerating cells. In the past, computations of the long-range wake of CLIC accelerating modes have been done using perfectly absorbing boundaries to terminate the damping waveguides. In this paper, 3D EM simulations of CLIC baseline accelerating structure with HOMs damping loads will be presented. A comparison between different EM codes (GdfidL, CST PARTICLE STUDIO®) will be discussed as well as the analysis of different types of absorbing materials with respect to the wakefields da...

  8. Constraints on long-range spin-gravity and monopole-dipole couplings of the proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F.; Dudley, Jordan; Li, Yan; Patel, Dilan; Valdez, Julian

    2017-10-01

    Results of a search for a long-range monopole-dipole coupling between the mass of the Earth and rubidium (Rb) nuclear spins are reported. The experiment simultaneously measures the spin precession frequencies of overlapping ensembles of 85Rb and 87Rb atoms contained within an evacuated, antirelaxation-coated vapor cell. The nuclear structure of the Rb isotopes makes the experiment particularly sensitive to spin-dependent interactions of the proton. The spin-dependent component of the gravitational energy of the proton in the Earth's field is found to be smaller than 3 ×10-18 eV , improving laboratory constraints on long-range monopole-dipole interactions by over 3 orders of magnitude.

  9. A Long-Range Directional Wake-Up Radio for Wireless Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chan Shih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a long-range directional wake-up radio (LDWuR for wireless mobile networks. In contrast to most wake-up radios (WuR to date, which are short range, ours is applicable to long-range deployments. Existing studies achieve long distance by using modulation and coding schemes or by directional antennas, though the latter require exploring the direction of the transmitter. To address this issue, our LDWuR adopts both static and dynamic antennas, where the static ones are directional, while the dynamic ones are omnidirectional for beamforming. We present our LDWuR prototype and design principle. Simulation results show that our LDWuR and event-driven MAC protocol suppress the idle-listening of Wi-Fi stations in a wireless network, thereby enhancing the Wi-Fi power savings.

  10. FY 1991--FY 1995 Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Department of Energy has consolidated its plans for Information Systems, Computing Resources, and Telecommunications into a single document, the Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan. The consolidation was done as a joint effort by the Office of ADP Management and the Office of Computer Services and Telecommunications Management under the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Administration, Information, and Facilities Management. This Plan is the product of a long-range planning process used to project both future information technology requirements and the resources necessary to meet those requirements. It encompasses the plans of the various organizational components within the Department and its management and operating contractors over the next 5 fiscal years, 1991 through 1995.

  11. Low-frequency source for very long-range underwater communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Frédéric; Matte, Guillaume; Shimura, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    Very long-range underwater acoustic communication (UAC) is crucial for long cruising (>1000 km) autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Very long-range UAC source for AUV must exhibit high electro-acoustic efficiency (>60%) and compactness. This paper describes the Janus-Hammer Bell (JHB) transducer that has been designed for this purpose and meets those requirements. The transducer works on the 450-550 Hz bandwidth and reaches source level above 200 dB (ref. 1 μPa at 1 m) with 1 kW excitation and full immersion capability. JHB source has been used for communication experiments by the Japanese institute for marine technology (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) achieving a baud rate of 100 bits/s at 1000 km.

  12. Roughness at the depinning threshold for a long-range elastic string.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Alberto; Krauth, Werner

    2002-02-01

    In this paper, we compute to high precision the roughness exponent zeta of a long-range elastic string, at the depinning threshold, in a random medium. Our numerical method exploits the analytic structure of the problem ("no-passing" theorem), but avoids direct simulation of the evolution equations. The roughness exponent has recently been studied by simulations, functional renormalization-group calculations, and by experiments (fracture of solids, liquid meniscus in 4He). Our result zeta=0.388 +/- 0.002 is significantly larger than what was stated in previous simulations, which were consistent with a one-loop renormalization-group calculation. Furthermore, the data are incompatible with the experimental results for crack propagation in solids and for a 4He contact line on a rough substrate. This implies that the experiments cannot be described by pure harmonic long-range elasticity in the quasistatic limit.

  13. Information resources management long-range plan, FY1994--1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This document describes IRM activities and the information technology resources and capabilities of the Department, the future requirements, and the strategies and plans to satisfy the identified requirements. The long-range planning process provides the systematic means to meet this objective and assists the Department in assuring that information technology (IT) support is provided in an efficient, effective, and timely manner so that its programmatic missions can be accomplished. Another important objective of the Plan is to promote better understanding, both within and external to the Department, of its IT environment, requirements, issues, and recommended solutions. This DOE IRM Plan takes into consideration the IRM requirements of approximately 50 different sites. The annual long-range planning cycle for supporting this Plan was initiated by a Call in August 1991 for site plans to be submitted in February 1992 by those Departmental components and contractors with major IRM requirements.

  14. ATCOM: accelerated image processing for terrestrial long-range imaging through atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curt, Petersen F.; Paolini, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Long-range video surveillance performance is often severely diminished due to atmospheric turbulence. The larger apertures typically used for video-rate operation at long-range are particularly susceptible to scintillation and blurring effects that limit the overall diffraction efficiency and resolution. In this paper, we present research progress made toward a digital signal processing technique which aims to mitigate the effects of turbulence in real-time. Our previous work in this area focused on an embedded implementation for portable applications. Our more recent research has focused on functional enhancements to the same algorithm using general-purpose hardware. We present some techniques that were successfully employed to accelerate processing of high-definition color video streams and study performance under nonideal conditions involving moving objects and panning cameras. Finally, we compare the real-time performance of two implementations using a CPU and a GPU.

  15. Dark matter, long-range forces, and large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1992-01-01

    If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. We discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter and find rather tight constraints on its strength. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). We explore the consequent effects on the two-point correlation function, large-scale velocity flows, and microwave background anisotropies, for models with initial scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations and cold dark matter.

  16. A concept design for an ultra-long-range survey class AUV

    OpenAIRE

    Furlong, Maaten E.; McPhail, Stephen D.; Stevenson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Gliders and flight-style Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are used to perform perform autonomous surveys of large areas of open ocean. Glider missions are characterized by their profiling flight pattern, slow speed, long range (1000s of km) and many month mission duration. Flight-style AUV missions are faster, of shorter range (100s of km) and multi day duration. An AUV combining many aspects of both vehicle classes would be of considerable value. This paper investigates the factors ...

  17. The long-range interaction in the scattering of positronium by hydrogen atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, D. G.; Fraser, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    Elastic scattering of positronium by hydrogen atoms is investigated. A method is devised wherein the effects of the long-range van der Waals attraction between the two atoms are accurately incorporated into a trial wave function in the form of a pseudo-state. The properly adjusted trial function yields a van der Waals coefficient that is within 0.03% of the known value. Improved phase shifts in the absence of exchange are reported.

  18. Detecting long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis: Application to BWR stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Vazquez, Alejandro [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to explore the application of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study boiling water reactor stability. DFA is a scaling method commonly used for detecting long-range correlations in non-stationary time series. This method is based on the random walk theory and was applied to neutronic power signal of Forsmark stability benchmark. Our results shows that the scaling properties breakdown during unstable oscillations.

  19. Long-Range Navigation on Complex Networks using L\\'evy Random Walks

    OpenAIRE

    Riascos, A. P.; Mateos, José L.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a strategy of navigation in undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, that is inspired by L\\'evy random walks, generalizing previous navigation rules. We obtained exact expressions for the stationary probability distribution, the occupation probability, the mean first passage time, and the average time to reach a node on the network. We found that the long-range navigation using the L\\'evy random walk strategy, compared with the normal random walk stra...

  20. Multi-scale variability and long-range memory in indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios; Barbosa, Susana

    2014-05-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in the variations of indoor Radon concentrations has recently attracted considerable interest. As a radioactive gas naturally emitted from the ground in certain geological settings, understanding environmental factors controlling Radon concentrations and their dynamics is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we re-analyze two high-resolution records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements. In order to evaluate the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling, we utilize a multiplicity of complementary methods, including power spectral analysis, ARFIMA modeling, classical and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis, and two different estimators of the signals' fractal dimensions. Power spectra and fluctuation functions reveal some complex behavior with qualitatively different properties on different time-scales: white noise in the high-frequency part, indications of some long-range correlated process dominating time scales of several hours to days, and pronounced low-frequency variability associated with tidal and/or meteorological forcing. In order to further decompose these different scales of variability, we apply two different approaches. On the one hand, applying multi-resolution analysis based on the discrete wavelet transform allows separately studying contributions on different time scales and characterize their specific correlation and scaling properties. On the other hand, singular system analysis (SSA) provides a reconstruction of the essential modes of variability. Specifically, by considering only the first leading SSA modes, we achieve an efficient de-noising of our environmental signals, highlighting the low-frequency variations together with some distinct scaling on sub-daily time-scales resembling

  1. Long-Range Charge Order in the Extended Holstein-Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the extended Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling as a model for describing the interplay of electron-electron and electron-phonon couplings. When the electron-phonon and nearest-neighbor electron-electron interactions are strong, we prove the existence of long-range charge order in three or more dimensions at a sufficiently low temperature. As a result, we rigorously justify the phase competition between the antiferromagnetism and charge orders.

  2. Long-range crystalline nature of the skyrmion lattice in MnSi

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, T.; Mühlbauer, S.; Pfleiderer, C.; Jonietz, F.; Bauer, A.; Neubauer, A.; Georgii, R.; Böni, P.; Keiderling, U.; Everschor, K.; Garst, M.; Rosch, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report small angle neutron scattering of the skyrmion lattice in MnSi using an experimental set-up that minimizes the effects of demagnetizing fields and double scattering. Under these conditions the skyrmion lattice displays resolution-limited Gaussian rocking scans that correspond to a magnetic correlation length in excess of several hundred {\\mu}m. This is consistent with exceptionally well-defined long-range order. We further establish the existence of higher-order scattering, discrimi...

  3. An Energy-Efficient Link with Adaptive Transmit Power Control for Long Range Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszczyk, Tomasz; Lynggaard, Per

    2016-01-01

    — A considerable amount of research is carried out to develop a reliable smart sensor system with high energy efficiency for battery operated wireless IoT devices in the agriculture sector. However, only a limited amount of research has covered automatic transmission power adjustment schemes...... and algorithms which are essential for deployment of wireless IoT nodes. This paper presents an adaptive link algorithm for farm applications with emphasis on power adjustment for long range communication networks....

  4. An Energy-Efficient Link with Adaptive Transmit Power Control for Long Range Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, P.; Blaszczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research is carried out to develop a reliable smart sensor system with high energy efficiency for battery operated wireless IoT devices in the agriculture sector. However, only a limited amount of research has covered automatic transmission power adjustment schemes...... and algorithms which are essential for deployment of wireless IoT nodes. This paper presents an adaptive link algorithm for farm applications with emphasis on power adjustment for long range communication networks....

  5. Roughness at the depinning threshold for a long-range elastic string

    OpenAIRE

    Rosso, Alberto; Krauth, Werner

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we compute the roughness exponent zeta of a long-range elastic string, at the depinning threshold, in a random medium with high precision, using a numerical method which exploits the analytic structure of the problem (`no-passing' theorem), but avoids direct simulation of the evolution equations. This roughness exponent has recently been studied by simulations, functional renormalization group calculations, and by experiments (fracture of solids, liquid meniscus in 4He). Our re...

  6. A convection-driven long-range linear gradient generator with dynamic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Chia-Hung; Xiang, Zhuolin; Wang, Ming; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-03-21

    We developed a novel gradient generator to achieve long range and linear chemical gradients with a dynamic control function. The length of the gradient can be on the centimetre scale. The gradient profile can be tuned by changing the flow rates. The device can work in both high flow rate regimes with large shear stress and low flow rate regimes with minimum shear stress. The drug screening function was demonstrated by the viability test of PC-9 cancer cells.

  7. Possible biomechanical origins of the long-range correlations in stride intervals of walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Deanna H.; Su, Jimmy L.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2007-07-01

    When humans walk, the time duration of each stride varies from one stride to the next. These temporal fluctuations exhibit long-range correlations. It has been suggested that these correlations stem from higher nervous system centers in the brain that control gait cycle timing. Existing proposed models of this phenomenon have focused on neurophysiological mechanisms that might give rise to these long-range correlations, and generally ignored potential alternative mechanical explanations. We hypothesized that a simple mechanical system could also generate similar long-range correlations in stride times. We modified a very simple passive dynamic model of bipedal walking to incorporate forward propulsion through an impulsive force applied to the trailing leg at each push-off. Push-off forces were varied from step to step by incorporating both “sensory” and “motor” noise terms that were regulated by a simple proportional feedback controller. We generated 400 simulations of walking, with different combinations of sensory noise, motor noise, and feedback gain. The stride time data from each simulation were analyzed using detrended fluctuation analysis to compute a scaling exponent, α. This exponent quantified how each stride interval was correlated with previous and subsequent stride intervals over different time scales. For different variations of the noise terms and feedback gain, we obtained short-range correlations (α1.0). Our results indicate that a simple biomechanical model of walking can generate long-range correlations and thus perhaps these correlations are not a complex result of higher level neuronal control, as has been previously suggested.

  8. First Test of Long-Range Collisional Drag via Plasma Wave Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    In magnetized plasmas, the rate of particle collisions is enhanced over classical predictions when the cyclotron radius rc is less than the Debye length λD. Classical theories describe local velocity scattering collisions with impact parameters ρ theory have shown that these long-range collisions enhance cross-field diffusion, heat transport, and viscosity by orders of magnitude over classical predictions. Here, we present the first experimental confirmation of a new theory, which predicts enhanced parallel velocity slowing due to these long-range collisions. These experiments measure the damping of Trivelpiece-Gould waves in a multispecies pure ion plasma. The damping is dominated by interspecies collisional drag when Landau damping is weak. In this ``drag damping'' regime, the measured damping rates exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agree with the new long-range enhanced collision theory. The enhanced slowing is most significant for strong magnetization and low temperatures. For example, the slowing of anti-protons at a density of 107 cm-3 and a temperature of 10 K in a 6 T trap is enhanced by a factor of 30. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570 and DOE Grant DE-SC0002451. In collaboration with F. Anderegg, D.H.E. Dubin, and C.F. Driscoll.

  9. Short- and long-range neural synchrony in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volberg, Gregor; Karmann, Anna; Birkner, Stefanie; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-07-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon where single graphemes (e.g., the letter "E") induce simultaneous sensations of colors (e.g., the color green) that were not objectively shown. Current models disagree as to whether the color sensations arise from increased short-range connectivity between anatomically adjacent grapheme- and color-processing brain structures or from decreased effectiveness of inhibitory long-range connections feeding back into visual cortex. We addressed this issue by examining neural synchrony obtained from EEG activity, in a sample of grapheme-color synesthetes that were presented with color-inducing versus non-color-inducing graphemes. For color-inducing graphemes, the results showed a decrease in the number of long-range couplings in the theta frequency band (4-7 Hz, 280-540 msec) and a concurrent increase of short-range phase-locking within lower beta band (13-20 Hz, 380-420 msec at occipital electrodes). Because the effects were both found in long-range synchrony and later within the visual processing stream, the results support the idea that reduced inhibition is an important factor for the emergence of synesthetic colors.

  10. Understanding Local Structure versus Long-Range Structure: The Case of UO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Lionel; Ma, Yue; Garcia, Philippe; Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Siméone, David; Fischer, Henry E

    2018-02-09

    A recent trend in the development of new optimized materials makes use of crystalline domains having nanometer sizes for which characterization methods at the atomic scale are mandatory. Amongst them is pair-distribution function analysis (PDF-analysis), a diffraction technique that has already shown that a short-range or "local" atomic structure of a given domain, having a lower symmetry than the average long-range structure, often exists in many compounds having valuable properties for industrial applications, such as pyrochlores, spinels, and doped ceria among others. However, the manner by which these domains are arranged to produce the average long-range structure is still an open question. Herein, the first structural model that accounts for both the local structure (inside a given domain) and the long-range structure (averaged over all domains) that is observed in the PDF of uranium dioxide is presented. The structural model describes domain walls in such a way as to preserve the uranium coordination polyhedron and to obey the needed symmetry rules. The proper description of domain walls is an important step in the understanding and the modelling of nanostructured materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Long-range spontaneous droplet self-propulsion on wettability gradient surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoran; Sun, Jing; Li, Jing; Xiang, Chenghao; Che, Lufeng; Wang, Zuankai; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-08-08

    The directional and long-range droplet transportation is of great importance in microfluidic systems. However, it usually requires external energy input. Here we designed a wettability gradient surface that can drive droplet motion by structural topography. The surface has a wettability gradient range of over 150° from superhydrophobic to hydrophilic, which was achieved by etching silicon nanopillars and adjusting the area of hydrophilic silicon dioxide plane. We conducted force analysis to further reveal the mechanism for droplet self-propulsion, and found that the nanostructures are critical to providing a large driving force and small resistance force. Theoretical calculation has been used to analyze the maximal self-propulsion displacement on different gradient surfaces with different volumes of droplets. On this basis, we designed several surfaces with arbitrary paths, which achieved directional and long-range transportation of droplet. These results clarify a driving mechanism for droplet self-propulsion on wettability gradient surfaces, and open up new opportunities for long-range and directional droplet transportation in microfluidic system.

  12. Experimental Demonstration of Long-Range Underwater Acoustic Communication Using a Vertical Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Anbang; Zeng, Caigao; Hui, Juan; Ma, Lin; Bi, Xuejie

    2017-06-27

    This paper proposes a composite channel virtual time reversal mirror (CCVTRM) for vertical sensor array (VSA) processing and applies it to long-range underwater acoustic (UWA) communication in shallow water. Because of weak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it is unable to accurately estimate the channel impulse response of each sensor of the VSA, thus the traditional passive time reversal mirror (PTRM) cannot perform well in long-range UWA communication in shallow water. However, CCVTRM only needs to estimate the composite channel of the VSA to accomplish time reversal mirror (TRM), which can effectively mitigate the inter-symbol interference (ISI) and reduce the bit error rate (BER). In addition, the calculation of CCVTRM is simpler than traditional PTRM. An UWA communication experiment using a VSA of 12 sensors was conducted in the South China Sea. The experiment achieves a very low BER communication at communication rate of 66.7 bit/s over an 80 km range. The results of the sea trial demonstrate that CCVTRM is feasible and can be applied to long-range UWA communication in shallow water.

  13. Floquet engineering of long-range p -wave superconductivity: Beyond the high-frequency limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng-Zhao; Lam, Chi-Hang; You, J. Q.

    2017-10-01

    It has been shown that long-range p -wave superconductivity in a Kitaev chain can be engineered via an ac field with a high frequency [M. Benito et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 205127 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.205127]. For its experimental realization, however, theoretical understanding of Floquet engineering with a broader range of driving frequencies becomes important. In this paper, focusing on the ac-driven tunneling interactions of a Kitaev chain, we investigate effects from the leading correction to the high-frequency limit on the emergent p -wave superconductivity. Importantly, we find new engineered long-range p -wave pairing interactions that can significantly alter the ones in the high-frequency limit at long interaction ranges. We also find that the leading correction additionally generates nearest-neighbor p -wave pairing interactions with a renormalized pairing energy, long-range tunneling interactions, and, in particular, multiple pairs of Floquet Majorana edge states that are destroyed in the high-frequency limit.

  14. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  15. Local but not long-range microstructural differences of the ventral temporal cortex in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunbin; Garrido, Lúcia; Nagy, Zoltan; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Steel, Adam; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Ray J; Duchaine, Bradley; Furl, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) experience face recognition impairments despite normal intellect and low-level vision and no history of brain damage. Prior studies using diffusion tensor imaging in small samples of subjects with DP (n=6 or n=8) offer conflicting views on the neurobiological bases for DP, with one suggesting white matter differences in two major long-range tracts running through the temporal cortex, and another suggesting white matter differences confined to fibers local to ventral temporal face-specific functional regions of interest (fROIs) in the fusiform gyrus. Here, we address these inconsistent findings using a comprehensive set of analyzes in a sample of DP subjects larger than both prior studies combined (n=16). While we found no microstructural differences in long-range tracts between DP and age-matched control participants, we found differences local to face-specific fROIs, and relationships between these microstructural measures with face recognition ability. We conclude that subtle differences in local rather than long-range tracts in the ventral temporal lobe are more likely associated with developmental prosopagnosia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous Symmetry Breaking in 1D Long-Range Interacting Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2017-07-01

    Continuous symmetry breaking (CSB) in low-dimensional systems, forbidden by the Mermin-Wagner theorem for short-range interactions, may take place in the presence of slowly decaying long-range interactions. Nevertheless, there is no stringent bound on how slowly interactions should decay to give rise to CSB in 1D quantum systems at zero temperature. Here, we study a long-range interacting spin chain with U (1 ) symmetry and power-law interactions V (r )˜1 /rα. Using a number of analytical and numerical techniques, we find CSB for α smaller than a critical exponent αc(≤3 ) that depends on the microscopic parameters of the model. Furthermore, the transition from the gapless X Y phase to the gapless CSB phase is mediated by the breaking of conformal and Lorentz symmetries due to long-range interactions, and is described by a universality class akin to, but distinct from, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Signatures of the CSB phase should be accessible in existing trapped-ion experiments.

  17. Long-range correlations and trends in Colombian seismic time series

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Montoya, L A; Quimbay, C J

    2014-01-01

    We detect long-range correlations and trends in time series extracted from the data of seismic events occurred since 1973 until 2011 in a rectangular region that contain mainly all the continental part of Colombia. The long-range correlations are detected by the calculation of the Hurst exponents for the time series of interevent intervals, separation distances, depth differences and magnitude differences. By using a geometrical modification of the classical R/S method that has been developed to detect long-range correlations in short time series, we find the existence of persistence for all the time series considered. We find also, by using the DFA until the third order, that the time series of interevent intervals, separation distances and depth differences are influenced by quadratic trends, while the time series of magnitude differences is influenced by a linear trend. Finally, for the time series of interevent intervals, we present an analysis of the Hurst exponent as a function of the time and the minim...

  18. Form and function of long-range vocalizations in a Neotropical fossorial rodent: the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Amaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground environment poses particular communication challenges for subterranean rodents. Some loud and low-pitched acoustic signals that can travel long distances are appropriate for long-range underground communication and have been suggested to be territorial signals. Long-range vocalizations (LRVs are important in long-distance communication in Ctenomys tuco-tucos. We characterized the LRV of the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp. using recordings from free-living individuals and described the behavioral context in which this vocalization was produced during laboratory staged encounters between individuals of both sexes. Long-range calls of Anillaco tuco-tucos are low-frequency, broad-band, loud, and long sounds composed by the repetition of two syllable types: series (formed by notes and soft-notes and individual notes. All vocalizations were initiated with series, but not all had individual notes. Males were heavier than females and gave significantly lower-pitched vocalizations, but acoustic features were independent of body mass in males. The pronounced variation among individuals in the arrangement and number of syllables and the existence of three types of series (dyads, triads, and tetrads, created a diverse collection of syntactic patterns in vocalizations that would provide the opportunity to encode multiple types of information. The existence of complex syntactic patterns and the description of soft-notes represent new aspects of the vocal communication of Ctenomys. Long-distance vocalizations by Anillaco Tuco-Tucos appear to be territorial signals used mostly in male-male interactions. First, emission of LRVs resulted in de-escalation or space-keeping in male-male and male-female encounters in laboratory experiments. Second, these vocalizations were produced most frequently (in the field and in the lab by males in our study population. Third, males produced LRVs with greater frequency during male-male encounters compared to

  19. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  20. Evaluation of long range transport of fossil fuel originated organic aerosol at a background site in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jin; Lee, Ji Yi; Park, Jin Soo; Lee, Seok Jo; Kim, Hyun Jae; Jeon, Ha Eun; Sung, Min Young

    2013-04-01

    Northeast Asia is heavy air pollution region due to usage of large amounts of fossil fuel. In addition, meteorological conditions represented as prevailing westerlies in Northeast Asia region causes long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants emitted from China to Korea and Japan and even the United States across the Pacific Ocean (Bey et al., 2001). The Baengnyeong Island of Korea is located at the northwestern part of the Korean peninsula and close by North Korea and China, thus this site is regarded as an ideal place for background air measurements in Northeast Asia. Also, it has low local anthropogenic emissions and is frequently influenced by various air masses from China and North Korea in the Island. In this study, we performed intensive sampling during summer and winter in the Baengnyeong Island and analyzed various organic compounds including fossil fuel originated organic markers such as hopanes and PAHs using thermal desorption two dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOFMS). We also analyzed ~20 urban aerosol samples collected at Seoul, a representative urban site in Northeast Asia region to compare organic compounds distributions of aerosol samples at the Baengnyeong Island. By applying air mass back trajectory analysis and comparing organic compounds distributions in aerosol samples of the Baengnyeong Island and Seoul, the impact of long-range transport of fossil fuel originated organic pollutants at a background site in Northeast Asia were evaluated. (References) Bey, I., Jacob, D.J., Logan, J.A., Yantosca, R.M., 2001. Asian chemical outflow to the Pacific in spring: origins, pathways, and budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 106, 23097-23113.

  1. Long-range interactions of hydrogen atoms in excited states. III. n S -1 S interactions for n ≥3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, C. M.; Debierre, V.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2017-09-01

    The long-range interaction of excited neutral atoms has a number of interesting and surprising properties such as the prevalence of long-range oscillatory tails and the emergence of numerically large van der Waals C6 coefficients. Furthermore, the energetically quasidegenerate n P states require special attention and lead to mathematical subtleties. Here we analyze the interaction of excited hydrogen atoms in n S states (3 ≤n ≤12 ) with ground-state hydrogen atoms and find that the C6 coefficients roughly grow with the fourth power of the principal quantum number and can reach values in excess of 240 000 (in atomic units) for states with n =12 . The nonretarded van der Waals result is relevant to the distance range R ≪a0/α , where a0 is the Bohr radius and α is the fine-structure constant. The Casimir-Polder range encompasses the interatomic distance range a0/α ≪R ≪ℏ c /L , where L is the Lamb shift energy. In this range, the contribution of quasidegenerate excited n P states remains nonretarded and competes with the 1 /R2 and 1 /R4 tails of the pole terms, which are generated by lower-lying m P states with 2 ≤m ≤n -1 , due to virtual resonant emission. The dominant pole terms are also analyzed in the Lamb shift range R ≫ℏ c /L . The familiar 1 /R7 asymptotics from the usual Casimir-Polder theory is found to be completely irrelevant for the analysis of excited-state interactions. The calculations are carried out to high precision using computer algebra in order to handle a large number of terms in intermediate steps of the calculation for highly excited states.

  2. Effective theory and breakdown of conformal symmetry in a long-range quantum chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, L.; Vodola, D.; Pupillo, G.; Gori, G.; Trombettoni, A.

    2016-11-01

    We deal with the problem of studying the symmetries and the effective theories of long-range models around their critical points. A prominent issue is to determine whether they possess (or not) conformal symmetry (CS) at criticality and how the presence of CS depends on the range of the interactions. To have a model, both simple to treat and interesting, where to investigate these questions, we focus on the Kitaev chain with long-range pairings decaying with distance as power-law with exponent α. This is a quadratic solvable model, yet displaying non-trivial quantum phase transitions. Two critical lines are found, occurring respectively at a positive and a negative chemical potential. Focusing first on the critical line at positive chemical potential, by means of a renormalization group approach we derive its effective theory close to criticality. Our main result is that the effective action is the sum of two terms: a Dirac action SD, found in the short-range Ising universality class, and an "anomalous" CS breaking term SAN. While SD originates from low-energy excitations in the spectrum, SAN originates from the higher energy modes where singularities develop, due to the long-range nature of the model. At criticality SAN flows to zero for α > 2, while for α theory, we compared the two-fermion static correlation functions and the von Neumann entropy obtained from them with the ones calculated on the lattice, finding agreement. These results explain two observed features characteristic of long-range models, the hybrid decay of static correlation functions within gapped phases and the area-law violation for the von Neumann entropy. The proposed scenario is expected to hold in other long-range models displaying quasiparticle excitations in ballistic regime. From the effective theory one can also see that new phases emerge for α 2). Close to this line, where the minimum of the spectrum coincides with the momentum where singularities develop, the critical exponents

  3. Long-range correlations in rectal temperature fluctuations of healthy infants during maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette Stern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature are interdependent in infants, where instabilities in thermoregulation can contribute to apneas or even life-threatening events. Identifying abnormalities in thermoregulation is particularly important in the first 6 months of life, where autonomic regulation undergoes critical development. Fluctuations in body temperature have been shown to be sensitive to maturational stage as well as system failure in critically ill patients. We thus aimed to investigate the existence of fractal-like long-range correlations, indicative of temperature control, in night time rectal temperature (T(rec patterns in maturing infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured T(rec fluctuations in infants every 4 weeks from 4 to 20 weeks of age and before and after immunization. Long-range correlations in the temperature series were quantified by the correlation exponent, alpha using detrended fluctuation analysis. The effects of maturation, room temperature, and immunization on the strength of correlation were investigated. We found that T(rec fluctuations exhibit fractal long-range correlations with a mean (SD alpha of 1.51 (0.11, indicating that T(rec is regulated in a highly correlated and hence deterministic manner. A significant increase in alpha with age from 1.42 (0.07 at 4 weeks to 1.58 (0.04 at 20 weeks reflects a change in long-range correlation behavior with maturation towards a smoother and more deterministic temperature regulation, potentially due to the decrease in surface area to body weight ratio in the maturing infant. alpha was not associated with mean room temperature or influenced by immunization CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the quantification of long-range correlations using alpha derived from detrended fluctuation analysis is an observer-independent tool which can distinguish developmental stages of night time T(rec pattern in young infants, reflective of maturation of

  4. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Alaskan Forest Fires Plumes during Long-Range Transport over the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, E.; Law, K. S.; Wienzierl, B.; Fiebig, M.; Petzold, A.; Wild, O.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S.; Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    A case of long-range transport of a biomass burning plume from Alaska to Europe is analyzed using a Lagrangian approach. This plume was sampled several times in the free troposphere over North America, the North Atlantic and Europe by 3 different aircraft during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4 experiment which was part of the ICARTT/ITOP measurement intensive in summer 2004. Measurements in the plume showed enhanced values of CO, VOCs and NOy, mainly in form of PAN. Observed O3 levels increased by 17 ppbv over 5 days. A photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, is used to examine processes responsible for the chemical evolution of the plume. The model was initialized with upwind data, and compared with downwind measurements. The influence of high aerosol loading on photolysis rates in the plume is investigated using in-situ aerosol measurements in the plume and lidar retrievals of optical depth as input into a photolysis code (Fast-J), run in the model. Significant impacts on photochemistry are found with a decrease of 18 percent in O3 production and 24 percent in O3 destruction over 5 days when including aerosols. The plume is found to be chemically active with large O3 increases attributed primarily to PAN decomposition during descent of the plume towards Europe. The predicted O3 changes are very dependent on temperature changes during transport, and also, on water vapor levels in the lower troposphere which can lead to O3 destruction. Simulation of mixing/dilution was necessary to reproduce observed pollutants level in the plume. Mixing was simulated using background concentrations from measurements in air masses in close proximity to the plume, and mixing timescales (averaging 6.25 days) were derived from CO changes. Observed and simulated O3/CO correlations in the plume are also compared in order to evaluate the photochemistry in the model. Observed slopes changed from negative to positive over 5 days. This change, which can be attributed largely to photochemistry, is

  5. Future Premature Mortality Due to O3, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and Primary PM in Europe — Sensitivity to Changes in Climate, Anthropogenic Emissions, Population and Building Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Camilla; Andersson, Camilla; Hänninen, Otto; Lansø, Anne Sofie; Schwarze, Per E.; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000–2009, 2050–2059 and 2080–2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future. PMID:25749320

  6. Future Premature Mortality Due to O3, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and Primary PM in Europe — Sensitivity to Changes in Climate, Anthropogenic Emissions, Population and Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Geels

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000–2009, 2050–2059 and 2080–2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future.

  7. Ammonia abatement and its impact on emissions of nitrous oxide and methane - Part 2: application for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, C.; Kroeze, C.; Klimont, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural emissions of NH3, N2O, and CH4 come, to a large extent, from common sources. It has been demonstrated that controlling NH3 emissions through application of technical measures might have an impact on emissions of N2O and CH4. This paper presents estimates of NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions

  8. Long-range synchrony in the gamma band: role in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, J; Petsche, H; Pereda, E

    2001-08-15

    Synchronization seems to be a central mechanism for neuronal information processing within and between multiple brain areas. Furthermore, synchronization in the gamma band has been shown to play an important role in higher cognitive functions, especially by binding the necessary spatial and temporal information in different cortical areas to build a coherent perception. Specific task-induced (evoked) gamma oscillations have often been taken as an indication of synchrony, but the presence of long-range synchrony cannot be inferred from spectral power in the gamma range. We studied the usefulness of a relatively new measure, called similarity index to detect asymmetric interdependency between two brain regions. Spontaneous EEG from two groups-musicians and non-musicians-were recorded during several states: listening to music, listening to text, and at rest (eyes closed and eyes open). While listening to music, degrees of the gamma band synchrony over distributed cortical areas were found to be significantly higher in musicians than non-musicians. Yet no differences between these two groups were found at resting conditions and while listening to a neutral text. In contrast to the degree of long-range synchrony, spectral power in the gamma band was higher in non-musicians. The degree of spatial synchrony, a measure of signal complexity based on eigen-decomposition method, was also significantly increased in musicians while listening to music. As compared with non-musicians, the finding of increased long-range synchrony in musicians independent of spectral power is interpreted as a manifestation of a more advanced musical memory of musicians in binding together several features of the intrinsic complexity of music in a dynamical way.

  9. Quantitative NMR characterization of long-range chain dynamics prior to reptation: polyethylene-oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Addad JP; Guillermo

    2000-10-16

    The thorough analysis of the transverse magnetic relaxation of protons, attached to highly entangled polyethylene-oxide chains in the melt, reveals two striking chain-length dependent properties; these are interpreted from the description (reminiscent of the Rouse model) of the long-range chain dynamics supposed to occur prior to the reptation motion. Experimental results are well matched by this specific NMR approach which accounts for the novel properties and provides the monomeric friction coefficient and the terminal relaxation time, over the molecular weight range 65K to 760K.

  10. Switching between bistable states in a discrete nonlinear model with long-range dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Magnus; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of a discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with long-range dispersion, we propose a general mechanism for obtaining a controlled switching between bistable localized excitations. We show that the application of a spatially symmetric kick leads to the excitation of an internal...... breathing mode and that switching between narrow, pinned states and broad, mobile states with only small radiative losses occurs when the kick strength exceeds a threshold value. This mechanism could be important for controlling energy storage and transport in molecular systems....

  11. CLIPPER: a long-range, autonomous underwater vehicle using magnesium fuel and oxygen from the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasvold, Øistein; Lian, Torleif; Haakaas, Erik; Størkersen, Nils; Perelman, Olivier; Cordier, Stephane

    The development of the CLIPPER autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a joint research project (JRP) between DGA/BEC in France and FFI in Norway. The power source is a semi-fuel cell using oxygen dissolved in seawater as oxidant, seawater as electrolyte and magnesium as fuel. Predicted range for the vehicle is in excess of 1600 nautical miles at a speed of 2 m/s. Design depth is 600 m. This long endurance, as well as the large internal volume of 740 l of the pressure hull, makes the CLIPPER vehicle an excellent tool for long range subsea operations.

  12. A study of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation Jason de Villiersa,b, Fintan Wilsona and Fred Nicollsb aCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; bUniversity of Cape Town, Cape Town, South... and not scintillation and remove it from the list. 6. Interpolate between identified matches to create a complete de-warping mesh for the image. 7. Use de-warping mesh to create stabilised image. 6. RESULTS The resultant depth images in this paper are small in order...

  13. Long-range correlations during plasma transitions in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, M.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Carralero, D. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Hidalgo, C. [Associacaeo EURATOM-IST, Centro de Fusaeo Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, I.

    2010-08-15

    The mechanism underlying the development of edge transport barriers is still one of the fundamental issues con-fronting the magnetic fusion community. The results presented show the importance of long-range correlation as approaching plasma bifurcations in different plasma scenarios, including biasing induced and spontaneous edge transport bifurcations in ECRH and NBI plasmas. These findings are consistent with the theory of zonal flows, pointing out the importance of both mean and fluctuating electric fields during the development of edge plasma transitions. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. TAR cloning: insights into gene function, long-range haplotypes and genome structure and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouprina, Natalay; Larionov, Vladimir

    2006-10-01

    The structural and functional analysis of mammalian genomes would benefit from the ability to isolate from multiple DNA samples any targeted chromosomal segment that is the size of an average human gene. A cloning technique that is based on transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae satisfies this need. It is a unique tool to selectively recover chromosome segments that are up to 250 kb in length from complex genomes. In addition, TAR cloning can be used to characterize gene function and genome variation, including polymorphic structural rearrangements, mutations and the evolution of gene families, and for long-range haplotyping.

  15. Polariton Chimeras: Bose-Einstein Condensates with Intrinsic Chaoticity and Spontaneous Long-Range Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The system of cavity polaritons driven by a plane electromagnetic wave is found to undergo the spontaneous breaking of spatial symmetry, which results in a lifted phase locking with respect to the driving field and, consequently, in the possibility of internal ordering. In particular, periodic spin and intensity patterns arise in polariton wires; they exhibit strong long-range order and can serve as media for signal transmission. Such patterns have the properties of dynamical chimeras: they are formed spontaneously in perfectly homogeneous media and can be partially chaotic. The reported new mechanism of chimera formation requires neither time-delayed feedback loops nor nonlocal interactions.

  16. Quaternary cocrystals: combinatorial synthetic strategies based on long-range synthon Aufbau modules (LSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Dubey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic strategy is outlined whereby a binary cocrystal may be developed in turn into a ternary and finally into a quaternary cocrystal. The strategy hinges on the concept of the long-range synthon Aufbau module (LSAM which is a large supramolecular synthon containing more than one type of intermolecular interaction. Modulation of these interactions may be possible with the use of additional molecular components so that higher level cocrystals are produced. We report six quaternary cocrystals here. All are obtained as nearly exclusive crystallization products when four appropriate solid compounds are taken together in solution for crystallization.

  17. Spin segregation via dynamically induced long-range interactions in a system of ultracold fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebling, Ulrich [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Avenida Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Eckardt, Andre [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Avenida Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Avenida Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    We investigate theoretically the time evolution of a one-dimensional system of spin-1/2 fermions in a harmonic trap after, initially, a spiral spin configuration far from equilibrium is created. We predict a spin segregation building up in time already for weak interaction under realistic experimental conditions. The effect relies on the interplay between exchange interaction and the harmonic trap, and it is found for a wide range of parameters. It can be understood as a consequence of an effective, dynamically induced long-range interaction that is derived by integrating out the rapid oscillatory dynamics in the trap.

  18. FFT-based Kronecker product approximation to micromagnetic long-range interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Exl, Lukas; Mauser, Norbert J; Schrefl, Thomas; Stimming, Hans Peter; Suess, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    We derive a Kronecker product approximation for the micromagnetic long range interactions in a collocation framework by means of separable sinc quadrature. Evaluation of this operator for structured tensors (Canonical format, Tucker format, Tensor Trains) scales below linear in the volume size. Based on efficient usage of FFT for structured tensors, we are able to accelerate computations to quasi linear complexity in the number of collocation points used in one dimension. Quadratic convergence of the underlying collocation scheme as well as exponential convergence in the separation rank of the approximations is proved. Numerical experiments on accuracy and complexity confirm the theoretical results.

  19. Non-Abelian geometric phase and long-range atomic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygelman, B.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown how gauge fields, or geometric phases, manifest as observable effects in both bound and free diatom systems. It is shown that, in addition to altering energy splittings in bound systems, geometric phases induce transitions in levels separated by a finite-energy gap. An example is given where the non-Abelian gauge field couples nondegenerate electronic levels in a diatom. This gauge-field coupling gives rise to an observable effect. It is shown that when the diatom is 'pulled apart', the non-Abelian geometric phase manifests as a long-range atomic force.

  20. Amplitude equation and long-range interactions in underwater sand ripples in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Mertens, Keith; Ellegaard, Clive

    2008-01-01

    ) which, due to the first term, is neither completely local (it has long-range coupling through the average height (h) over bar) nor has local sand conservation. We argue that this is reasonable and show that the equation compares well with experimental observations in narrow channels. We focus...... in particular on the so-called doubling transition, a secondary instability caused by the sudden decrease in the amplitude of the water motion, leading to the appearance of a new ripple in each trough. This transition is well reproduced for sufficiently large delta (asymmetry between trough and crest). We...

  1. Radioactive source localization inside pipes using a long-range alpha detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Mei; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Li, Zhe; Liu, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Dong, Xiang-Long; Li, Ping-Chuan

    2013-08-01

    Long-range alpha detectors (LRADs) are attracting much attention in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities because of some problems in obtaining source positions on an interior surface during pipe decommissioning. By utilizing the characteristic that LRAD detects alphas by collecting air-driving ions, this article applies a method to localize the radioactive source by ions' fluid property. By obtaining the ion travel time and the airspeed distribution in the pipe, the source position can be determined. Thus this method overcomes the ion's lack of periodic characteristics. Experimental results indicate that this method can approximately localize the source inside the pipe. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Observed chemical characteristics of long-range transported particles at a marine background site in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, Mylene G; Kim, Young J; Jung, Jin Sang; Batmunkh, Tsatsral; Lee, Kwang Yul; Kim, Sung Yong; Kim, Kwan Chul; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Suk Jo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seek

    2011-11-01

    Deokjeok Island is located off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and is a suitable place to monitor the long-range transport of air pollutants from the Asian continent. In addition to pollutants, Asian dust particles are also transported to the island during long-range transport events. Episodic transport of dust and secondary particles was observed during intensive measurements in the spring (March 31-April 11) and fall (October 13-26) of 2009. In this study, the chemical characteristics of long-range-transported particles were investigated based on highly time-resolved ionic measurements with a particle-into-liquid system coupled with an online ion chromatograph (PILS-IC) that simultaneously measures concentrations of cations (Li+, Na , NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and anions (F-, C1-, NO3-, SO42-). The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) distribution retrieved by the modified Bremen Aerosol Retrieval (M-BAER) algorithm from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data confirmed the presence of a thick aerosol plume coming from the Asian continent towards the Korean peninsula. Seven distinctive events involving the long-range transport (LRT) of aerosols were identified and studied, the chemical components of which were strongly related to sector sources. Enrichment of acidic secondary aerosols on mineral dust particles, and even of sea-salt components, during transport was observed in this study. Backward trajectory, chemical analyses, and satellite aerosol retrievals identified two distinct events: a distinctively high [Ca2++Mg2]/[Na+] ratio (>2.0), which was indicative of a preprocessed mineral dust transport event, and a low [Ca2++Mg2+]/[Na+] ratio (<2.0), which was indicative of severe aging of sea-salt components on the processed dust particles. Particulate C1- was depleted by up to 85% in spring and 50% in the fall. A consistent fraction of carbonate replacement (FCR) averaged 0.53 in spring and 0.55 in the fall. Supporting evidences of C1

  3. Multi-particle long-range rapidity correlations from fluctuation of the fireball longitudinal shape

    OpenAIRE

    Bzdak, Adam; Bozek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the genuine long-range multi-particle rapidity correlation functions, $C_{n}(y_1,...,y_n)$ for $n=3,4,5,6$, originating from fluctuations of the fireball longitudinal shape. In these correlation functions any contribution from the short-range two-particle correlations, and in general up to $(n-1)$-particle in $C_n$, is suppressed. The information about the fluctuating fireball shape in rapidity is encoded in the cumulants of coefficients of the orthogonal polynomial expansion of ...

  4. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories land use permit for operations at Oliktok Alaska Long Range Radar Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-02-01

    The property subject to this Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) is located at the Oliktok Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). The Oliktok LRRS is located at 70À 30 W latitude, 149À 53 W longitude. It is situated at Oliktok Point on the shore of the Beaufort Sea, east of the Colville River. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  6. The world of long-range interactions: A bird’s eye view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shamik; Ruffo, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, studies of long-range interacting (LRI) systems have taken center stage in the arena of statistical mechanics and dynamical system studies, due to new theoretical developments involving tools from as diverse a field as kinetic theory, non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, and large deviation theory, but also due to new and exciting experimental realizations of LRI systems. In the first, introductory, Section 1, we discuss the general features of long-range interactions, emphasizing in particular the main physical phenomenon of non-additivity, which leads to a plethora of distinct effects, both thermodynamic and dynamic, that are not observed with short-range interactions: Ensemble inequivalence, slow relaxation, broken ergodicity. In Section 2, we discuss several physical systems with long-range interactions: mean-field spin systems, self-gravitating systems, Euler equations in two dimensions, Coulomb systems, one-component electron plasma, dipolar systems, free-electron lasers. In Section 3, we discuss the general scenario of dynamical evolution of generic LRI systems. In Section 4, we discuss an illustrative example of LRI systems, the Kardar-Nagel spin system, which involves discrete degrees of freedom, while in Section 5, we discuss a paradigmatic example involving continuous degrees of freedom, the so-called Hamiltonian mean-field (HMF) model. For the former, we demonstrate the effects of ensemble inequivalence and slow relaxation, while for the HMF model, we emphasize in particular the occurrence of the so-called quasistationary states (QSSs) during relaxation towards the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium state. The QSSs are non-equilibrium states with lifetimes that diverge with the system size, so that in the thermodynamic limit, the systems remain trapped in the QSSs, thereby making the latter the effective stationary states. In Section 5, we also discuss an experimental system involving atoms trapped in optical cavities, which may be modelled

  7. Shiga toxin induces membrane reorganization and formation of long range lipid order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovyeva, Vita; Johannes, Ludger; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2015-01-01

    microscopy. A content of 1% of glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor lipids in a bilayer was used to bind the Shiga toxin B-subunit to the surface of gel domains. Binding of the Shiga toxin B-subunit to lipids led to the modulation of orientational membrane texture in gel domains and induced...... membrane reordering. When Shiga toxin was added above the lipid chain melting temperature, the toxin interaction with the membrane induced rearrangement and clustering of Gb3 lipids that resulted in the long range order and alignment of lipids in gel domains. The toxin induced redistribution of Gb3 lipids...

  8. Long-range protein electron transfer observed at the single-molecule level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Farver, Ole; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    potential. Maximum resonance appears around the equilibrium redox potential of azurin with an on/off current ratio of approximately 9. Simulation analyses, based on a two-step interfacial ET model for the scanning tunneling microscopy redox process, were performed and provide quantitative information......A biomimetic long-range electron transfer (ET) system consisting of the blue copper protein azurin, a tunneling barrier bridge, and a gold single-crystal electrode was designed on the basis of molecular wiring self-assembly principles. This system is sufficiently stable and sensitive in a quasi...

  9. Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We design, fabricate and investigate compact Z-add-drop (ZAD) filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) at telecom wavelengths. The ZAD filter for LR-SPPs consists of two ridge gratings formed by periodic gold thickness modulation at the intersections of three zigzag-crossed gold...... stripes embedded in polymer. We investigate influence of the grating length and crossing angle on the filter characteristics and demonstrate a 10o-ZAD filter based on 80-mm-long gratings that exhibit a 15-dB dip (centered at ~1.55 mm) in transmission of the direct arm along with the corresponding ~13-nm...

  10. Long-range nematic order and anomalous fluctuations in suspensions of swimming filamentous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Daiki; Nagai, Ken H.; Chaté, Hugues; Sano, Masaki

    2017-02-01

    We study the collective dynamics of elongated swimmers in a very thin fluid layer by devising long filamentous nontumbling bacteria. The strong confinement induces weak nematic alignment upon collision, which, for large enough density of cells, gives rise to global nematic order. This homogeneous but fluctuating phase, observed on the largest experimentally accessible scale of millimeters, exhibits the properties predicted by standard models for flocking, such as the Vicsek-style model of polar particles with nematic alignment: true long-range nematic order and nontrivial giant number fluctuations.

  11. Generalized Efficient Inference on Factor Models with Long-Range Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre

    . Short-memory dynamics are allowed in the common factor structure and possibly heteroskedastic error term. In the estimation, a generalized version of the principal components (PC) approach is proposed to achieve efficiency. Asymptotics for efficient common factor and factor loading as well as long......A dynamic factor model is considered that contains stochastic time trends allowing for stationary and nonstationary long-range dependence. The model nests standard I(0) and I(1) behaviour smoothly in common factors and residuals, removing the necessity of a priori unit-root and stationarity testing...

  12. Long range anticorrelations and non-gaussian behavior of a leaky faucet

    CERN Document Server

    Penna, T J P; Sartorelli, J C; Gonçalves, W M; Pinto, R D

    1995-01-01

    We find that intervals between successive drops from a leaky faucet display scale-invariant, long-range anticorrelations characterized by the same exponents of heart beat-to-beat intervals of healthy subjects. This behavior is also confirmed by numerical simulations on lattice and it is faucet-width- and flow-rate-independent. The histogram for the drop intervals is also well described by a L\\'evy distribution with the same index for both histograms of healthy and diseased subjects. This additional result corroborates the evidence for similarities between leaky faucets and healthy hearts underlying dynamics.

  13. Steady stokes flow with long-range correlations, fractal fourier spectrum, and anomalous transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, Michael A; Straube, Arthur V

    2002-12-09

    We consider viscous two-dimensional steady flows of incompressible fluids past doubly periodic arrays of solid obstacles. In a class of such flows, the autocorrelations for the Lagrangian observables decay in accordance with the power law, and the Fourier spectrum is neither discrete nor absolutely continuous. We demonstrate that spreading of the droplet of tracers in such flows is anomalously fast. Since the flow is equivalent to the integrable Hamiltonian system with 1 degree of freedom, this provides an example of integrable dynamics with long-range correlations, fractal power spectrum, and anomalous transport properties.

  14. ANL site response for the DOE FY1994 information resources management long-range plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, L.M.

    1992-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's ANL Site Response for the DOE FY1994 Information Resources Management (IRM) Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 500) is one of many contributions to the DOE information resources management long-range planning process and, as such, is an integral part of the DOE policy and program planning system. The Laboratory has constructed this response according to instructions in a Call issued in September 1991 by the DOE Office of IRM Policy, Plans and Oversight. As one of a continuing series, this Site Response is an update and extension of the Laboratory's previous submissions. The response contains both narrative and tabular material. It covers an eight-year period consisting of the base year (FY1991), the current year (FY1992), the budget year (FY1993), the plan year (FY1994), and the out years (FY1995-FY1998). This Site Response was compiled by Argonne National Laboratory's Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD), which has the responsibility to provide leadership in optimizing computing and information services and disseminating computer-related technologies throughout the Laboratory. The Site Response consists of 5 parts: (1) a site overview, describes the ANL mission, overall organization structure, the strategic approach to meet information resource needs, the planning process, major issues and points of contact. (2) a software plan for DOE contractors, Part 2B, Software Plan FMS plan for DOE organizations, (3) computing resources telecommunications, (4) telecommunications, (5) printing and publishing.

  15. ANL site response for the DOE FY1994 information resources management long-range plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, L.M.

    1992-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s ANL Site Response for the DOE FY1994 Information Resources Management (IRM) Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 500) is one of many contributions to the DOE information resources management long-range planning process and, as such, is an integral part of the DOE policy and program planning system. The Laboratory has constructed this response according to instructions in a Call issued in September 1991 by the DOE Office of IRM Policy, Plans and Oversight. As one of a continuing series, this Site Response is an update and extension of the Laboratory`s previous submissions. The response contains both narrative and tabular material. It covers an eight-year period consisting of the base year (FY1991), the current year (FY1992), the budget year (FY1993), the plan year (FY1994), and the out years (FY1995-FY1998). This Site Response was compiled by Argonne National Laboratory`s Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD), which has the responsibility to provide leadership in optimizing computing and information services and disseminating computer-related technologies throughout the Laboratory. The Site Response consists of 5 parts: (1) a site overview, describes the ANL mission, overall organization structure, the strategic approach to meet information resource needs, the planning process, major issues and points of contact. (2) a software plan for DOE contractors, Part 2B, ``Software Plan FMS plan for DOE organizations, (3) computing resources telecommunications, (4) telecommunications, (5) printing and publishing.

  16. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartoukh, Stephane [CERN; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Shatilov, Dmitry [BINP, Novosibirsk

    2015-06-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical $\\beta^{\\ast}$values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  17. Long-range interactions in magnetic bilayer above the critical temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. M. V.; Pereira, T. A. S.; Godoy, M.; de Arruda, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the stabilization of the long-range order in (z ; x) -plane of two isotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic monolayers coupled by a short-range exchange interaction (J⊥), by a long range dipole-dipole interactions and a magnetic field. We have applied a magnetic field along of the z-direction to study the thermodynamic properties above the critical temperature. The dispersion relation ω and the magnetization are given as function of dipolar anisotropy parameter defined as Ed =(gμ) 2 S /a3J∥ and for other Hamiltonian parameters, and they are calculated by the double-time Zubarev-Tyablikov Green's functions in the random-phase approximation (RPA). The results show that the system is unstable for values of Ed ≥ 0.012 with external magnetic field ranging between H /J∥ = 0 and 10-3. The instability appears for Ed larger then Edc = 0.0158 with H /J∥ = 10-5, Edc = 0.02885 with H /J∥ = 10-4, and Edc = 0.115 with H /J∥ = 10-3, i.e., a small magnetic field is sufficient to maintain the magnetic order in a greater range of the dipolar interaction.

  18. N-Me, a long range oncogenic enhancer in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Daniel; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Palomero, Teresa; Schnell, Stephanie A.; Belver, Laura; Wendorff, Agnieszka A.; Xu, Luyao; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Llobet-Navás, David; Cardo, Carlos Cordon; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Soulier, Jean; Ferrando, Adolfo A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to identify and annotate cancer driver genetic lesions have been almost exclusively focused on the analysis of protein coding genes. Here we identify a new long-range acting MYC enhancer controlled by NOTCH1, targeted by recurrent chromosomal duplications in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). This highly conserved regulatory element, hereby named N-Me for NOTCH MYC enhancer, is located within a broad super-enhancer region +1.47 Mb from the MYC transcription initiating site, interacts with the MYC proximal promoter and induces orientation-independent MYC expression in reporter assays. Moreover, analysis of N-Me knockout mice demonstrates a selective and essential role of this regulatory element during thymocyte development and in NOTCH1-induced T-ALL. Altogether, these results identify N-Me as a long range oncogenic enhancer directly implicated in the pathogenesis of human leukemia and highlight the fundamental importance of the NOTCH1-MYC regulatory axis in T-cell transformation and as therapeutic target in T-ALL. PMID:25194570

  19. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles: Short-range Lattice Distortions with Long-range Cubic Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Richard C.; Shi, Chenyang; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Puma, Eric; Bang, Sun Hwi; Bean, Nathaniel J. H.; de Sugny, Jean-Claude; Gambee, Robert G.; Hightower, Adrian; Monson, Todd C.

    Small barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles (atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). Fits to PDFs at temperatures of 20° to 220°C suggest that Ti atom displacements from the center of the unit cell are comparable to or even greater than those in the bulk material and persist at temperatures well above 120°C where the tetragonal to pseudo-cubic phase transition occurs in the bulk. Raman spectra acquired over a temperature range of 20° to 220°C confirm that small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a distorted unit cell even above 120°C. On the other hand, small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a long-range order consistent with a cubic lattice as recorded by laboratory XRD Bragg reflections at temperatures of 20° to 150°C. We have reconciled these seemingly contradictory data sets by fitting the PDFs over their full range of 6 nm to reveal a long-range structure with a reduced lattice distortion that still manages to support tetragonal Raman lines but is sufficiently close to cubic to yield apparent Bragg peak singlets. US DOE NNSA contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and US DOE Office of Science contract DE-SC00112704.

  20. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transitionmetal oxides: a quasiclassical continuum study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Branko P.; Yu, Z.G.; Chernyshev, A.L.; Bishop, A.R.; Neto, A.H. Castro; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

    1999-12-01

    The competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes moving in an antiferromagnet (AF), is studied within a model derived from the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. A novel numerical approach is developed which allows one to solve the problem at finite hole densities in very large systems (of order hundreds of lattice spacings), albeit in a quasiclassical limit, and to correctly incorporate the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. The focus is on the problem of charge ordering and the charge-phase diagram: at low temperatures four different phases are found, depending on the strength of the magnetic (dipolar) interaction generated by the spin-wave exchange, and the density of holes. The four phases are the Wigner crystal, diagonal shapes, a grid phase (horizontal-vertical stripe loops) and a glassy-clumped phase. In the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane charged impurities the stripe ordering is suppressed, although finite stripe segments persist.At finite temperatures multiscale (intermittency) dynamics is found, reminiscent of that in glasses. The dynamics of stripe melting and its implications for experiments is discussed.

  1. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transition metal oxides: A quasiclassical continuum study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Branko P. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Yu, Z. G. [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Chernyshev, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Bishop, A. R. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Castro Neto, A. H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Groenbech-Jensen, Niels [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 and NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2000-08-15

    The competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes moving in an antiferromagnet (AF) is studied within a model derived from the spin-density-wave picture of layered transition metal oxides.A novel numerical approach is developed that allows one to solve the problem at finite hole densities in very large systems (of the order of hundreds of lattice spacings), albeit in a quasiclassical limit, and to correctly incorporate the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. The focus is on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram: at low temperatures four different phases are found, depending on the strength of the magnetic (dipolar) interaction generated by the spin-wave exchange and the density of holes. The four phases are the Wigner crystal, diagonal stripes, a grid phase (horizontal-vertical stripe loops), and a glassy-clumped phase. In the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane charged impurities the stripe ordering is suppressed, although finite stripe segments persist. At finite temperatures multiscale (intermittency) dynamics is found, reminiscent of that in glasses. The dynamics of stripe melting and its implications for experiments is discussed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  2. Fast Quantum State Transfer and Entanglement Renormalization Using Long-Range Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Zachary; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Young, Jeremy T.; Moosavian, Ali Hamed; Foss-Feig, Michael; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2017-10-01

    In short-range interacting systems, the speed at which entanglement can be established between two separated points is limited by a constant Lieb-Robinson velocity. Long-range interacting systems are capable of faster entanglement generation, but the degree of the speedup possible is an open question. In this Letter, we present a protocol capable of transferring a quantum state across a distance L in d dimensions using long-range interactions with a strength bounded by 1 /rα. If α

  3. Investigations of Memory, Entanglement, and Long-Range Interactions Using Ultra-Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, Yaroslav

    2013-05-01

    Long-term storage of quantum information has diverse applications in quantum information science. I have employed ultra-cold rubidium atoms confined in one-dimensional optical lattices to demonstrate entanglement between a light field and a long-lived spin wave, to develop light-shift compensated quantum memories, to create entanglement between a telecom-band light field and a light-shift compensated memory qubit of a 0.1 s lifetime, and to store coherent light pulses with 1/e lifetime of 16 s in a magnetically-compensated lattice augmented by dynamic decoupling. Highly excited Rydberg atoms offer a unique platform for study of strongly correlated systems and quantum information, because of their enormous dipole moments and consequent strong, long-range interactions. I will present experimental studies of single collective Rydberg excitations created in a cold atomic gas including first realization of a Rydberg-atom-based single photon source, measurement of entanglement between a Rydberg spin wave and light, investigations of long-range correlations of strongly interacting Rydberg spin waves, and initial observations of coherent many-body Rabi oscillations between the ground level and a Rydberg level using several hundred cold rubidium atoms.

  4. Extreme Events in Space Weather: Long-Range Correlations and Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Veeramani, T.

    2008-12-01

    Space weather is driven by the solar wind and many extreme geomagnetic events such as space storms and substorms are potential natural hazards. The statistical studies of these vents are complicated because of the turbulent nature of their driver, the solar wind. On the other hand archived data of geospace storms and substorms for very long periods are available and are amenable to detailed analysis using many techniques. For example, a database of substorms consisting of more than million events have been compiled for this study of the inherent statistical characteristics of extreme events in geospace. The auto- correlation and mutual-information functions are used to obtain the scaling exponents and they show the presence of long-term correlations and clustering. The scaling is represented by two exponents, the break arising due mainly to the turbulent nature of the solar wind driving the events. The auto-correlation functions show stronger long-term correlation than the mutual information functions, which represent correlations of all orders. The return intervals for varying thresholds show long-range correlations with decreasing strength for higher thresholds, similar to the case of multifractal systems. The techniques of detrended fluctuation analysis are used to further study of the long-range correlations and clustering of geospace events.

  5. Long-Range Hydrophilic Attraction between Water and Polyelectrolyte Surfaces in Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen; Yan, Bin; Xie, Lei; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Jingyi; Takahara, Atsushi; Zeng, Hongbo

    2016-11-21

    The outstanding water wettability and the capability of polyelectrolyte surfaces to spontaneously clean oil fouling are determined by their wetting mechanism in the surrounding medium. Here, we have quantified the nanomechanics between three types of polyelectrolyte surfaces (i.e. zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic) and water or oil drops using an atomic force microscope (AFM) drop probe technique, and elucidated the intrinsic wetting mechanisms of the polyelectrolyte surfaces in oil and water media. The measured forces between oil drops and polyelectrolyte surfaces in water can be described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Surprisingly, strong long-range attraction was discovered between polyelectrolyte surfaces and water drops in oil, and the strongest interaction was measured for the polyzwitterion. This unexpected long-range "hydrophilic" attraction in oil could be attributed to a strong dipolar interaction because of the large dipole moment of the polyelectrolytes. Our results provide new nanomechanical insights into the development of novel polyelectrolyte-based materials and coatings for a wide range of engineering, bioengineering, and environmental applications. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Gating of hippocampal activity, plasticity, and memory by entorhinal cortex long-range inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Jayeeta; Zaremba, Jeffrey D; Cheung, Stephanie K; Hitti, Frederick L; Zemelman, Boris V; Losonczy, Attila; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2016-01-08

    The cortico-hippocampal circuit is critical for storage of associational memories. Most studies have focused on the role in memory storage of the excitatory projections from entorhinal cortex to hippocampus. However, entorhinal cortex also sends inhibitory projections, whose role in memory storage and cortico-hippocampal activity remains largely unexplored. We found that these long-range inhibitory projections enhance the specificity of contextual and object memory encoding. At the circuit level, these γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing projections target hippocampal inhibitory neurons and thus act as a disinhibitory gate that transiently promotes the excitation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by suppressing feedforward inhibition. This enhances the ability of CA1 pyramidal neurons to fire synaptically evoked dendritic spikes and to generate a temporally precise form of heterosynaptic plasticity. Long-range inhibition from entorhinal cortex may thus increase the precision of hippocampal-based long-term memory associations by assessing the salience of mnemonormation to the immediate sensory input. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Impact of energetic particle orbits on long range frequency chirping of BGK modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezaveh, H.; Qu, Z. S.; Layden, B.; Hole, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Long range frequency chirping of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes, whose existence is determined by the fast particles, is investigated in cases where these particles do not move freely and their motion is bounded to restricted orbits. A nonuniform equilibrium magnetic field is included into the bump-on-tail instability problem of a plasma wave. The parallel field gradients account for the existence of different orbit topologies of energetic particles. With respect to fast particles dynamics, the extended model captures the range of particles motion (trapped/passing) with energy and thus represents a more realistic 1D picture of the long range sweeping events observed for weakly damped modes, e.g. global Alfven eigenmodes, in tokamaks. The Poisson equation is solved numerically along with bounce averaging the Vlasov equation in the adiabatic regime. We demonstrate that the shape and the saturation amplitude of the nonlinear mode structure depends not only on the amount of deviation from the initial eigenfrequency but also on the initial energy of the resonant electrons in the equilibrium magnetic field. Similarly, the results reveal that the resonant electrons following different equilibrium orbits in the nonuniform field lead to different rates of frequency evolution. As compared to the previous model (Breizman 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 084014), it is shown that the frequency sweeps with lower rates. The additional physics included in the model enables a more complete 1D description of the range of phenomena observed in experiments.

  8. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070952; Valishev, Aleksander; Shatilov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical β∗ values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  9. Griffiths phase and long-range correlations in a biologically motivated visual cortex model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi-Schappo, M.; Bortolotto, G. S.; Gonsalves, J. J.; Pinto, L. T.; Tragtenberg, M. H. R.

    2016-07-01

    Activity in the brain propagates as waves of firing neurons, namely avalanches. These waves’ size and duration distributions have been experimentally shown to display a stable power-law profile, long-range correlations and 1/f b power spectrum in vivo and in vitro. We study an avalanching biologically motivated model of mammals visual cortex and find an extended critical-like region - a Griffiths phase - characterized by divergent susceptibility and zero order parameter. This phase lies close to the expected experimental value of the excitatory postsynaptic potential in the cortex suggesting that critical be-havior may be found in the visual system. Avalanches are not perfectly power-law distributed, but it is possible to collapse the distributions and define a cutoff avalanche size that diverges as the network size is increased inside the critical region. The avalanches present long-range correlations and 1/f b power spectrum, matching experiments. The phase transition is analytically determined by a mean-field approximation.

  10. Long-range temporal correlations, multifractality, and the causal relation between neural inputs and movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eHu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the causal relation between neural inputs and movements is very important for the success of brain machine interfaces (BMIs. In this study, we analyze 104 neurons’ firings using statistical, information theoretic, and fractal analysis. The latter include Fano factor analysis, multifractal adaptive fractal analysis (MF-AFA, and wavelet multifractal analysis. We find neuronal firings are highly nonstationary, and Fano factor analysis always indicates long-range correlations in neuronal firings, irrespective of whether those firings are correlated with movement trajectory or not, and thus does not reveal any actual correlations between neural inputs and movements. On the other hand, MF-AFA and wavelet multifractal analysis clearly indicate that when neuronal firings are not well correlated with movement trajectory, they do not have or only have weak temporal correlations. When neuronal firings are well correlated with movements, they are characterized by very strong temporal correlations, up to a time scale comparable to the average time between two successive reaching tasks. This suggests that neurons well correlated with hand trajectory experienced a re-setting effect at the start of each reaching task, in the sense that within the movement correlated neurons the spike trains’ long range dependences persisted about the length of time the monkey used to switch between task executions. A new task execution re-sets their activity, making them only weakly correlated with their prior activities on longer time scales. We further discuss the significance of the coalition of those important neurons in executing cortical control of prostheses.

  11. Testing accuracy of long-range ultrasonic sensors for olive tree canopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra-Diezma, Juan Luis; Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Cuenca, Andrés; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Ultrasonic sensors are often used to adjust spray volume by allowing the calculation of the crown volume of tree crops. The special conditions of the olive tree require the use of long-range sensors, which are less accurate and faster than the most commonly used sensors. The main objectives of the study were to determine the suitability of the sensor in terms of sound cone determination, angle errors, crosstalk errors and field measurements. Different laboratory tests were performed to check the suitability of a commercial long-range ultrasonic sensor, as were the experimental determination of the sound cone diameter at several distances for several target materials, the determination of the influence of the angle of incidence of the sound wave on the target and distance on the accuracy of measurements for several materials and the determination of the importance of the errors due to interference between sensors for different sensor spacings and distances for two different materials. Furthermore, sensor accuracy was tested under real field conditions. The results show that the studied sensor is appropriate for olive trees because the sound cone is narrower for an olive tree than for the other studied materials, the olive tree canopy does not have a large influence on the sensor accuracy with respect to distance and angle, the interference errors are insignificant for high sensor spacings and the sensor's field distance measurements were deemed sufficiently accurate.

  12. Circadian waves of cytosolic calcium concentration and long-range network connections in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Hee; Jeong, Byeongha; Min, Cheol Hong; Lee, Kyoung J

    2012-05-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master clock in mammals governing the daily physiological and behavioral rhythms. It is composed of thousands of clock cells with their own intrinsic periods varying over a wide range (20-28 h). Despite this heterogeneity, an intact SCN maintains a coherent 24 h periodic rhythm through some cell-to-cell coupling mechanisms. This study examined how the clock cells are connected to each other and how their phases are organized in space by monitoring the cytosolic free calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) of clock cells using the calcium-binding fluorescent protein, cameleon. Extensive analysis of 18 different organotypic slice cultures of the SCN showed that the SCN calcium dynamics is coordinated by phase-synchronizing networks of long-range neurites as well as by diffusively propagating phase waves. The networks appear quite extensive and far-reaching, and the clock cells connected by them exhibit heterogeneous responses in their amplitudes and periods of oscillation to tetrodotoxin treatments. Taken together, our study suggests that the network of long-range cellular connectivity has an important role for the SCN in achieving its phase and period coherence. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Simulating the Wire Compensation of LHC Long-Range Beam-beam Effects.

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its minimum crossing angle are limited by long-range beam-beam collisions. Wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects. We perform simulations to explore the efficiency of the compensation at possible wire locations by examining the tune footprint and the dynamic aperture. Starting from the weak-strong simulation code BBTrack we developed a new Lyapunov calculation tool, which seems to better diagnose regular or chaotic particle behavior. We also developed faster ways to execute the simulation and the post-processing. These modifications have allowed us to study different wire positions (longitudinal and transverse), varying wire currents, several wire shapes, and a range of beam-beam crossing angles, in view of a prototype wire installation in the LHC foreseen for 2014/15. Our simulations demonstrate that the wire can provide a good compensation, including for reduced crossing angle. Among the benefits of an LHC wire compensator are a b...

  14. Long Range Dependence Prognostics for Bearing Vibration Intensity Chaotic Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the chaotic features and typical fractional order characteristics of the bearing vibration intensity time series, a forecasting approach based on long range dependence (LRD is proposed. In order to reveal the internal chaotic properties, vibration intensity time series are reconstructed based on chaos theory in phase-space, the delay time is computed with C-C method and the optimal embedding dimension and saturated correlation dimension are calculated via the Grassberger–Procaccia (G-P method, respectively, so that the chaotic characteristics of vibration intensity time series can be jointly determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent and phase plane trajectory of vibration intensity time series, meanwhile, the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated by the Wolf method and phase plane trajectory is illustrated using Duffing-Holmes Oscillator (DHO. The Hurst exponent and long range dependence prediction method are proposed to verify the typical fractional order features and improve the prediction accuracy of bearing vibration intensity time series, respectively. Experience shows that the vibration intensity time series have chaotic properties and the LRD prediction method is better than the other prediction methods (largest Lyapunov, auto regressive moving average (ARMA and BP neural network (BPNN model in prediction accuracy and prediction performance, which provides a new approach for running tendency predictions for rotating machinery and provide some guidance value to the engineering practice.

  15. Benchmark tests of a strongly constrained semilocal functional with a long-range dispersion correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. G.; Bates, J. E.; Sun, J.; Perdew, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    The strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) semilocal density functional [J. Sun, A. Ruzsinszky, and J. P. Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.036402] obeys all 17 known exact constraints for meta-generalized-gradient approximations (meta-GGAs), and it includes some medium-range correlation effects. Long-range London dispersion interactions are still missing, but they can be accounted for via an appropriate correction scheme. In this study, we combine SCAN with an efficient London dispersion correction and show that lattice energies of simple organic crystals can be improved with the applied correction by 50%. The London-dispersion corrected SCAN meta-GGA outperforms all other tested London-dispersion corrected meta-GGAs for molecular geometries. Our method yields mean absolute deviations (MADs) for main group bond lengths that are consistently below 1 pm, rotational constants with MADs of 0.2%, and noncovalent distances with MADs below 1%. For a large database of general main group thermochemistry and kinetics (˜800 chemical species), one of the lowest weighted mean absolute deviations for long-range corrected meta-GGA functionals is achieved. Noncovalent interactions are of average quality, and hydrogen bonded systems in particular seem to suffer from overestimated polarization related to the self-interaction error of SCAN. We also discuss some consequences of numerical sensitivity encountered for meta-GGAs.

  16. Boundary Associated Long Noncoding RNA Mediates Long-Range Chromosomal Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma Jane Nwigwe

    Full Text Available CCCTC binding factor (CTCF is involved in organizing chromosomes into mega base-sized, topologically associated domains (TADs along with other factors that define sub-TAD organization. CTCF-Cohesin interactions have been shown to be critical for transcription insulation activity as it stabilizes long-range interactions to promote proper gene expression. Previous studies suggest that heterochromatin boundary activity of CTCF may be independent of Cohesin, and there may be additional mechanisms for defining topological domains. Here, we show that a boundary site we previously identified known as CTCF binding site 5 (CBS5 from the homeotic gene cluster A (HOXA locus exhibits robust promoter activity. This promoter activity from the CBS5 boundary element generates a long noncoding RNA that we designate as boundary associated long noncoding RNA-1 (blncRNA1. Functional characterization of this RNA suggests that the transcript stabilizes long-range interactions at the HOXA locus and promotes proper expression of HOXA genes. Additionally, our functional analysis also shows that this RNA is not needed in the stabilization of CTCF-Cohesin interactions however CTCF-Cohesin interactions are critical in the transcription of blncRNA1. Thus, the CTCF-associated boundary element, CBS5, employs both Cohesin and noncoding RNA to establish and maintain topologically associated domains at the HOXA locus.

  17. Ammonia abatement and its impact on emissions of nitrous oxide and methane in Europe - Part 1: method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, C.; Kroeze, C.; Klimont, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture is an important source of NH3, which contributes to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O. Because of their common sources, emission reduction measures for one of these gases may affect emissions of others. These interrelations are

  18. Comparison of four inverse modelling systems applied to the estimation of HFC-125, HFC-134a, and SF6 emissions over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Dominik; Arnold, Tim; Henne, Stephan; Manning, Alistair; Thompson, Rona L.; Maione, Michela; O'Doherty, Simon; Reimann, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    UNFCCC, as the model median emission was significantly lower, by 50 %. An overestimation of both HFC-125 and HFC-134a emissions by about a factor of 2 was also found for a group of eastern European countries (Czech Republic + Poland + Slovakia), though with less confidence since the measurement network has a low sensitivity to these countries. Consistent with UNFCCC, the models identified Germany as the highest national emitter of SF6 in Europe, and the model median emission was only 1 % lower than the UNFCCC numbers. In contrast, the model median emissions were 2-3 times higher than UNFCCC numbers for Italy, France, and Spain + Portugal. The country-aggregated emissions from the different models often did not overlap within the range of the analytical uncertainties formally given by the inversion systems, suggesting that parametric and structural uncertainties are often dominant in the overall a posteriori uncertainty. The current European network of three routine monitoring sites for synthetic greenhouse gases has the potential to identify significant shortcomings in nationally reported emissions, but a denser network would be needed for more reliable monitoring of country-wide emissions of these important greenhouse gases across Europe.

  19. Comparison of four inverse modelling systems applied to the estimation of HFC-125, HFC-134a, and SF6 emissions over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brunner

    2017-09-01

    -reports its HFC-134a emissions to UNFCCC, as the model median emission was significantly lower, by 50 %. An overestimation of both HFC-125 and HFC-134a emissions by about a factor of 2 was also found for a group of eastern European countries (Czech Republic + Poland + Slovakia, though with less confidence since the measurement network has a low sensitivity to these countries. Consistent with UNFCCC, the models identified Germany as the highest national emitter of SF6 in Europe, and the model median emission was only 1 % lower than the UNFCCC numbers. In contrast, the model median emissions were 2–3 times higher than UNFCCC numbers for Italy, France, and Spain + Portugal. The country-aggregated emissions from the different models often did not overlap within the range of the analytical uncertainties formally given by the inversion systems, suggesting that parametric and structural uncertainties are often dominant in the overall a posteriori uncertainty. The current European network of three routine monitoring sites for synthetic greenhouse gases has the potential to identify significant shortcomings in nationally reported emissions, but a denser network would be needed for more reliable monitoring of country-wide emissions of these important greenhouse gases across Europe.

  20. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred...

  1. Regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl in a 188,000 km 2 area in the European arctic as displayed by terrestrial moss samples-long-range atmospheric transport vs local impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; De Caritat, Patrice; Halleraker, Jo H.; Finne, Tor Erik; Boyd, Rognvald; Jæger, Øystein; Volden, Tore; Kashulina, Galina; Bogatyrev, Igor; Chekushin, Viktor; Pavlov, Vladimir; Äyräs, Matti; Räisänen, Marja Liisa; Niskavaara, Heikki

    The regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl have been mapped in a 188,000 km2 area of the European Arctic (N Finland, N Norway, NW Russia) using the moss technique. The Russian nickel mining and smelting industry (Nikel and Zapoljarnij (Pechenganikel) and Monchegorsk (Severonikel)) in the eastern part of the survey area represents two of the largest point sources for S0 2 and metal emissions on a world wide basis. In contrast, parts of northern Finland and northern Norway represent still some of the most pristine areas in Europe. The terrestrial mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were used as monitors of airborne deposition. Samples in all three countries were collected during the summer of 1995 and analysed in one laboratory using ICP-MS. Maps for most elements clearly show elevated element concentrations near the industrial sites and delineate the extent of contamination. Pollution follows the main wind and topographical directions in the area (N-S). The gradients of deposition are rather steep. Background levels for all the elements are reached within 150-200 km from the industrial plants. The relative importance of long-range atmospheric transport of air pollutants from industrial point sources on the world wide increase of heavy metals observed in the atmosphere is thus debatable for many elements. Increasing population and traffic density, accompanied by increasing local dust levels, may play a much more important role than industrial emissions. The regional distribution patterns as displayed in the maps show some striking differences between the elements. The regional distribution of Hg and TI in the survey area is completely dominated by sources other than industry.

  2. Biogeochemical Impact of Long-Range Transported Dust over Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, S. H.; Hsu, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Transpacific transport and impact of Asian dust aerosols have been well documented (e.g., results from ACE-Asia and regional follow-on campaigns), but little is known about dust invasion to the South China Sea (SCS). On 19-21 March 2010, a fierce Asian dust storm affected large areas from the Gobi deserts to the West Pacific, including Taiwan and Hong Kong. As a pilot study of the 7-SEAS (Seven South East Asian Studies) in the northern SCS, detailed characteristics of long-range transported dust aerosols were first observed by a comprehensive set of ground-based instruments deployed at the Dongsha islands (20deg42'52" N, 116deg43'51" E). Aerosol measurements such as particle mass concentrations, size distribution, optical properties, hygroscopicity, and vertical profiles help illustrate the evolution of this dust outbreak. Our results indicate that these dust particles were mixed with anthropogenic and marine aerosols, and transported near the surface. Satellite assessment of biogeochemical impact of dust deposition into open oceans is hindered by our current inability in retrieving areal dust properties and ocean colors over an extensive period of time, particularly under the influence of cloudy conditions. In this paper, we analyze the changes of retrieved Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration over the northern SCS, considered as oligotophic waters in the spring, from long-term SeaWiFS measurements since 1997. Over the past decade, six long-range transported dust events are identified based on spatiotemporal evolutions of PM10 measurements from regional monitoring stations, with the aid of trajectory analysis. Multi-year composites of Chl-a imagery for dust event and non-dust background during March-April are applied to overcome insufficient retrievals of Chl-a due to cloudy environment. Due to anthropogenic modification within a shallow boundary layer off the densely populated and industrial southeast coast of China, the iron ion activation of deliquescent dust

  3. Analysis of Long-Range Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Its High Concentration Events over East Asian Region Using GOSAT Data and GEOS-Chem Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the long-range transport of CO2 in East Asian region, using concentration data in a surface measurement site (Gosan Station, column averaged concentration data of satellite-borne instrument (GOSAT, and GEOS-Chem modeling results for the period of June 2009 to May 2011. We perform a validation of the data from GOSAT and GEOS-Chem with total column observations (TCCON. The analysis of the long-range transport and high concentration (HC events using surface/satellite observations and modeling results is conducted. During the HC events, the concentrations in CO2 and other air pollutants such as SO2 and CO are higher than that of all episodes. It means that CO2, known as a globally well-mixed gas, may also act as a fingerprint of human activity with unique regional characteristics like other air pollutants. This comprehensive analysis, in particular with GOSAT CO2 observation data, shows that CO2 plume with high concentration can be long-range transported with 1-2 days’ duration with regional scale. We can find out with GEOS-Chem tagging simulation that more than 45% of the elevated CO2 concentration over central/eastern China, Korea, and Japan on high concentration days can be explained by emission sources of East Asia mainland.

  4. Discrimination between long-range transport and local pollution sources and precise delineation of polluted soil layers using integrated geophysical-geochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Szuszkiewisz, Marcin; Szuszkiewicz, Maria; Żogała, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The primary goal of this work was to distinguish between soil pollution from long-range and local transport of atmospheric pollutants using soil magnetometry in combination with geochemical analyses and precise delineation of polluted soil layers by using integrated magnetic (surface susceptibility, gradiometric measurement) and other geophysical techniques (conductivity and electrical resistivity tomography). The study area was located in the Izery region of Poland (within the "Black Triangle" region, which is the nickname for one of Europe's most polluted areas, where Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic meet). The study area was located in the Forest Glade where the historical local pollution source (glass factory) was active since and of 18th until the end of 19th century. The magnetic signal here was the combination of long-range transport of magnetic particles, local deposition and anthropogenic layers containing ashes and slags and partly comprising the subsoil of modern soil. Application of the set of different geophysical techniques enabled the precise location of these layers. The effect of the long-range pollution transport was observed on a neighboring hill (Granicznik) of which the western, northwestern and southwestern parts of the slope were exposed to the transport of atmospheric pollutants from the Czech Republic and Germany and Poland. Using soil magnetometry, it was possible to discriminate between long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants and anthropogenic pollution related to the former glasswork located in the Forest Glade. The magnetic susceptibility values (κ) as well as the number of "hot-spots" of volume magnetic susceptibility is significantly larger in the Forest Glade than on the Granicznik Hill where the κ is pollution originating from lignite power plants along the Polish border, while the southeastern part of the hill was shielded by crag and tail formation. Also the set of chemical elements connected with magnetic particles

  5. Interaction Models for Common Long-Range Dependence in Asset Prices Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssière, G.

    We consider a class of microeconomic models with interacting agents which replicate the main properties of asset prices time series: non-linearities in levels and common degree of long-memory in the volatilities and co-volatilities of multivariate time series. For these models, long-range dependence in asset price volatility is the consequence of swings in opinions and herding behavior of market participants, which generate switches in the heteroskedastic structure of asset prices. Thus, the observed long-memory in asset prices volatility might be the outcome of a change-point in the conditional variance process, a conclusion supported by a wavelet anaysis of the volatility series. This explains why volatility processes share only the properties of the second moments of long-memory processes, but not the properties of the first moments.

  6. Long-range autocorrelations of CpG islands in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Koester

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a statistical estimator developed in astrophysics to study the distribution and organization of features of the human genome. Using the human reference sequence we quantify the global distribution of CpG islands (CGI in each chromosome and demonstrate that the organization of the CGI across a chromosome is non-random, exhibits surprisingly long range correlations (10 Mb and varies significantly among chromosomes. These correlations of CGI summarize functional properties of the genome that are not captured when considering variation in any particular separate (and local feature. The demonstration of the proposed methods to quantify the organization of CGI in the human genome forms the basis of future studies. The most illuminating of these will assess the potential impact on phenotypic variation of inter-individual variation in the organization of the functional features of the genome within and among chromosomes, and among individuals for particular chromosomes.

  7. Transient superdiffusion and long-range correlations in the motility patterns of trypanosomatid flagellate protozoa

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, L G A; Guimarães, R R; Nakamura, C V; Mendes, R S; Ribeiro, H V

    2016-01-01

    We report on a diffusive analysis of the motion of flagellate protozoa species. These parasites are the etiological agents of neglected tropical diseases: leishmaniasis caused by \\textit{Leishmania amazonensis} and \\textit{Leishmania braziliensis}, African sleeping sickness caused by \\textit{Trypanosoma brucei}, and Chagas disease caused by \\textit{Trypanosoma cruzi}. By tracking the positions of these parasites and evaluating the variance related to the radial positions, we find that their motions are characterized by a short-time transient superdiffusive behavior. Also, the probability distributions of the radial positions are self-similar and can be approximated by a stretched Gaussian distribution. We further investigate the probability distributions of the radial velocities of individual trajectories. Among several candidates, we find that the generalized gamma distribution shows a good agreement with these distributions. The velocity time series have long-range correlations, displaying a strong persiste...

  8. Integrated optical gyroscope using active long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Qian, Guang; Wang, Yang-Yang; Xue, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Feng; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Wu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang

    2014-01-24

    Optical gyroscopes with high sensitivity are important rotation sensors for inertial navigation systems. Here, we present the concept of integrated resonant optical gyroscope constructed by active long-range surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguide resonator. In this gyroscope, LRSPP waveguide doped gain medium is pumped to compensate the propagation loss, which has lower pump noise than that of conventional optical waveguide. Peculiar properties of single-polarization of LRSPP waveguide have been found to significantly reduce the polarization error. The metal layer of LRSPP waveguide is electro-optical multiplexed for suppression of reciprocal noises. It shows a limited sensitivity of ~10(-4) deg/h, and a maximum zero drift which is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that constructed by conventional single-mode waveguide.

  9. Hamiltonian for the inclusion of spin effects in long-range Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiles, Matthew T.; Greene, Chris H.

    2017-04-01

    The interaction between a Rydberg electron and a neutral atom situated inside its extended orbit is described via contact interactions for each atom-electron scattering channel. In ultracold environments, these interactions lead to long-range molecules with binding energies typically ranging from 10 to 1 ×104 MHz. These energies are comparable to the relativistic and hyperfine structure of the separate atomic components. Studies of molecular formation aiming to reproduce observations with spectroscopic accuracy must therefore include the hyperfine splitting of the neutral atom and the spin-orbit splittings of both the Rydberg atom and the electron-atom interaction. Adiabatic potential energy curves and permanent electric dipole moments are presented for Rb2 and Cs2. The influence of spin degrees of freedom on the potential energy curves and multipole moments probed in recent experimental work is elucidated, and the observed dipole moments of butterfly molecules are explained by the generalized P3J pseudopotential derived here.

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Health and Safety Long-Range Plan: Fiscal years 1989--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    The health and safety of its personnel is the first concern of ORNL and its management. The ORNL Health and Safety Program has the responsibility for ensuring the health and safety of all individuals assigned to ORNL activities. This document outlines the principal aspects of the ORNL Health and Safety Long-Range Plan and provides a framework for management use in the future development of the health and safety program. Each section of this document is dedicated to one of the health and safety functions (i.e., health physics, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, industrial safety, nuclear criticality safety, nuclear facility safety, transportation safety, fire protection, and emergency preparedness). Each section includes functional mission and objectives, program requirements and status, a summary of program needs, and program data and funding summary. Highlights of FY 1988 are included.

  11. Problem of long-range forces in the computer simulation of condensed media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceperely, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Simulation (both Monte Carlo and molecular dynamical) has become a powerful tool in the study of classical systems of particles interacting with short-range pair potentials. For systems involving long-range forces (e.g., Coulombic, dipolar, hydrodynamic) it is a different story. Relating infinite-system properties to the results of computer simulation involving relatively small numbers of particles, periodically replicated, raises difficult and challenging problems. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a group of scientists, all of whom share a strong direct interest in clearly formulating and resolving these problems. There were 46 participants, most of whom have been actively engaged in simulations of Hamiltonian models of condensed media. A few participants were scientists who are not primarily concerned, themselves, with simulation, but who are deeply involved in the theory of such models.

  12. Long-range interactions of excited He atoms with ground-state noble-gas atoms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J.-Y.

    2013-10-09

    The dispersion coefficients C6, C8, and C10 for long-range interactions of He(n1,3S) and He(n1,3P), 2≤n≤10, with the ground-state noble-gas atoms Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are calculated by summing over the reduced matrix elements of multipole transition operators. The large-n expansions for the sums over the He oscillator strength divided by the corresponding transition energy are presented for these series. Using the expansions, the C6 coefficients for the systems involving He(131,3S) and He(131,3P) are calculated and found to be in good agreement with directly calculated values.

  13. Dependence of simulations of long range transport on meteorology, model and dust size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, N. M.; Albani, S.; Smith, M.; Losno, R.; Marticorena, B.; Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.; Qu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral aerosols interact with radiation directly, as well as modifying climate, and provide important micronutrients to ocean and land ecosystems. Mineral aerosols are transported long distances from the source regions to remote regions, but the rates at which this occurs can be difficult to deduce from either observations or models. Here we consider interactions between the details of the simulation of dust size and long-range transport. In addition, we compare simulations of dust using multiple reanalysis datasets, as well as different model basis to understand how robust the mean, seasonality and interannual variability are in models. Models can provide insight into how long observations are required in order to characterize the atmospheric concentration and deposition to remote regions.

  14. Long-range navigation on complex networks using Lévy random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A. P.; Mateos, José L.

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a strategy of navigation in undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, that is inspired by Lévy random walks, generalizing previous navigation rules. We obtained exact expressions for the stationary probability distribution, the occupation probability, the mean first passage time, and the average time to reach a node on the network. We found that the long-range navigation using the Lévy random walk strategy, compared with the normal random walk strategy, is more efficient at reducing the time to cover the network. The dynamical effect of using the Lévy walk strategy is to transform a large-world network into a small world. Our exact results provide a general framework that connects two important fields: Lévy navigation strategies and dynamics on complex networks.

  15. Long-range correlation in synchronization and syncopation tapping: a linear phase correction model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Delignières

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper a model for accounting for the increase in long-range correlations observed in asynchrony series in syncopation tapping, as compared with synchronization tapping. Our model is an extension of the linear phase correction model for synchronization tapping. We suppose that the timekeeper represents a fractal source in the system, and that a process of estimation of the half-period of the metronome, obeying a random-walk dynamics, combines with the linear phase correction process. Comparing experimental and simulated series, we show that our model allows accounting for the experimentally observed pattern of serial dependence. This model complete previous modeling solutions proposed for self-paced and synchronization tapping, for a unifying framework of event-based timing.

  16. Skillful long-range prediction of European and North American winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, A. A.; Arribas, A.; Blockley, E.; Brookshaw, A.; Clark, R. T.; Dunstone, N.; Eade, R.; Fereday, D.; Folland, C. K.; Gordon, M.; Hermanson, L.; Knight, J. R.; Lea, D. J.; MacLachlan, C.; Maidens, A.; Martin, M.; Peterson, A. K.; Smith, D.; Vellinga, M.; Wallace, E.; Waters, J.; Williams, A.

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability.

  17. A Study of LoRa: Long Range & Low Power Networks for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloÿs Augustin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s, connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed.

  18. Skillful long-range prediction of European and North American winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eade, R.; Scaife, A. A.; Arribas, A.; Blockley, E.; Brookshaw, A.; Clark, R. T.; Dunstone, N.; Fereday, D.; Folland, C. K.; Gordon, M.; Hermanson, L.; Knight, J.; Lea, D. J.; MacLachlan, C.; Maidens, A. V.; Martin, M.; Peterson, A.; Smith, D.; Vellinga, M.; Wallace, E.; Waters, J.; Williams, A.

    2014-12-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability.

  19. 8th Annual report 1999. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 1998/99 including: - a short summary of previous data assessments - a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network - a documentation of the scientific strategies to carry out data assessment on two priority topics: - assessment of heavy metal pools and fluxes - assessment of cause-effect relationships for understorey vegetation - a description of the WATBAL-model for estimating monthly water balance components, including soil water fluxes. (orig.)

  20. Common long-range dependence in a panel of hourly Nord Pool electricity prices and loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Haldrup, Niels; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    Equilibrium electricity spot prices and loads are often determined simultaneously in a day-ahead auction market for each hour of the subsequent day. Hence daily observations of hourly prices take the form of a periodic panel rather than a time series of hourly observations. We consider novel panel...... data approaches to analyse the time series and the cross-sectional dependence of hourly Nord Pool electricity spot prices and loads for the period 2000-2013. Hourly electricity prices and loads data are characterized by strong serial long-range dependence in the time series dimension in addition...... of the underlying production technology and because the demand is more volatile than the supply, equilibrium prices and loads are argued to identify the periodic power supply curve. The estimated supply elasticities are estimated from fractionally co-integrated relations and range between 0.5 and 1...

  1. Long-range vibration sensor based on correlation analysis of optical frequency-domain reflectometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin

    2012-12-17

    We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.

  2. Long-range correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-liang; Ren, Yi; Xie, Qiong-tao; Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui

    2010-04-01

    By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the transmission coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that λ-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5long-range correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.

  3. Finite-size effects on long-range correlations: implications for analyzing DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze the fluctuations in the correlation exponents obtained for noncoding DNA sequences. We find prominent sample-to-sample variations as well as variations within a single sample in the scaling exponent. To determine if these fluctuations may result from finite system size, we generate correlated random sequences of comparable length and study the fluctuations in this control system. We find that the DNA exponent fluctuations are consistent with those obtained from the control sequences having long-range power-law correlations. Finally, we compare our exponents for the DNA sequences with the exponents obtained from power-spectrum analysis and correlation-function techniques, and demonstrate that the original "DNA-walk" method is intrinsically more accurate due to reduced noise.

  4. Long-range Acoustic Interactions in Insect Swarms - An Adaptive Gravity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbonos, Dan; Ianconescu, Reuven; Puckett, James G.; Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Gov, Nir S.

    The collective motion of groups of animals emerges from the net effect of the interactions between individual members of the group. In many cases, such as birds, fish, or ungulates, these interactions are mediated by sensory stimuli that predominantly arise from nearby neighbors. But not all stimuli in animal groups are short range. We consider mating swarms of midges, which are thought to interact primarily via long-range acoustic stimuli. We exploit the similarity in form between the decay of acoustic and gravitational sources to build a model for swarm behavior. By accounting for the adaptive nature of the midges' acoustic sensing, we show that our ``adaptive gravity'' model makes mean-field predictions that agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. Our results highlight the role of sensory mechanisms and interaction range in collective animal behavior. Additionally, the adaptive interactions open a new class of equations of motion, which may appear in other biological contexts.

  5. Non-linear characteristics and long-range correlations in Asian stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Ma, K.; Cai, X.

    2007-05-01

    We test several non-linear characteristics of Asian stock markets, which indicates the failure of efficient market hypothesis and shows the essence of fractal of the financial markets. In addition, by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to investigate the long range correlation of the volatility in the stock markets, we find that the crossover phenomena exist in the results of DFA. Further, in the region of small volatility, the scaling behavior is more complicated; in the region of large volatility, the scaling exponent is close to 0.5, which suggests the market is more efficient. All these results may indicate the possibility of characteristic multifractal scaling behaviors of the financial markets.

  6. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico- Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}) ≥ 1, which is independent of y{sub 1} and y{sub 2}. Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  7. A comparison of optical architectures for constrained long-range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. Craig; Goodman, Timothy D.; Sparks, Andrew W.; Wheeler, Craig S.

    2017-05-01

    Long-range airborne full-motion-video systems require large apertures to maximize multiple aspects of system performance, including spatial resolution and sensitivity. As systems push to larger apertures for increased resolution and standoff range, both mounting constraints and atmospheric effects limit their effectiveness. This paper considers two questions: first, under what atmospheric and spectral conditions does it make sense to have a larger aperture; second, what types of optical systems can best exploit movement-constrained mounting? We briefly explore high-level atmospheric considerations in determining sensor aperture size for various spectral bands, following with a comparison of the swept-volume-to-aperture ratio of Ritchey-Chrétien and three-mirror-anastigmat optical systems.

  8. A Hamiltonian for the inclusion of spin effects in long-range Rydberg molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Eiles, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a Rydberg electron and a neutral atom situated inside its extended orbit is described via contact interactions for each atom-electron scattering channel. In ultracold environments, these interactions lead to ultra-long-range molecular states with binding energies typically ranging from $10$-$10^4$MHz. These energies are comparable to the relativistic and hyperfine structure of the separate atomic components. Studies of molecular formation aiming to reproduce observations with spectroscopic accuracy must therefore include the hyperfine splitting of the neutral atom and the spin-orbit splittings of both the Rydberg atom and the electron-atom interaction. Adiabatic potential energy curves that fully include these additional effects are presented for Rb$_2$ and Cs$_2$. The influence of spin degrees of freedom on the potential energy curves and molecular multipole moments probed in recent experimental work is elucidated and contrasted with other recent theoretical effort in this direction.

  9. A Study of LoRa: Long Range & Low Power Networks for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Aloÿs; Yi, Jiazi; Clausen, Thomas; Townsley, William Mark

    2016-09-09

    LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s), connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed.

  10. Opportunities in Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan for the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-04-01

    The DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee of the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation is charged with providing advice on a continuing basis regarding the management of the national basic nuclear science research program. In July 2000, the Committee was asked to study the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research, and to develop a long-range plan that will serve as a frame-work for the coordinated advancement of the field for the next decade. The plan contained here is the fifth that has been pre-pared since the Committee was established. Each of the earlier plans has had substantial impact on new directions and initiatives in the field.

  11. Analysis on vertical directional couplers with long range surface plasmons for multilayer optical routing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, B., E-mail: badrul.alam@uniroma1.it; Veroli, A.; Benedetti, A. [Department of Information Engineering, Electronics and Telecommunications (DIET), University of Rome “La Sapienza,” Rome (Italy)

    2016-08-28

    A structure featuring vertical directional coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons between strip waveguides at λ = 1.55 μm is investigated with the aim of producing efficient elements that enable optical multilayer routing for 3D photonics. We have introduced a practical computational method to calculate the interaction on the bent part. This method allows us both to assess the importance of the interaction in the bent part and to control it by a suitable choice of the fabrication parameters that helps also to restrain effects due to fabrication issues. The scheme adopted here allows to reduce the insertion losses compared with other planar and multilayer devices.

  12. A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, A J , Jr

    1958-01-01

    It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory. Since both the motion and aerodynamic heating of a missile tend to be simulated in the model tests, this combination of hypervelocity gun and supersonic nozzle is termed an atmosphere entry simulator.

  13. Long-range correlations and nonstationarity in the Brazilian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rogério L.; Vasconcelos, G. L.

    2003-11-01

    We report an empirical study of the Ibovespa index of the São Paulo Stock Exchange in which we detect the existence of long-range correlations. To analyze our data, we introduce a rescaled variant of the usual detrended fluctuation analysis that allows us to obtain the Hurst exponent through a one-parameter fitting. We also compute a time-dependent Hurst exponent H( t) using 3-year moving time windows. In particular, we find that before the launch of the Collor Plan in 1990 the curve H( t) remains, in general, well above {1}/{2}, while afterwards it stays close to {1}/{2}. We thus argue that the structural reforms set off by the Collor Plan has lead to a more efficient stock market in Brazil. We also suggest that the time dependence of the Ibovespa Hurst exponent could be described in terms of a multifractional Brownian motion.

  14. Inhomogeneous Long-Range Percolation for Real-Life Network Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of random graphs has become very popular for real-life network modeling, such as social networks or financial networks. Inhomogeneous long-range percolation (or scale-free percolation on the lattice Zd, d ≥ 1, is a particular attractive example of a random graph model because it fulfills several stylized facts of real-life networks. For this model, various geometric properties, such as the percolation behavior, the degree distribution and graph distances, have been analyzed. In the present paper, we complement the picture of graph distances and we prove continuity of the percolation probability in the phase transition point. We also provide an illustration of the model connected to financial networks.

  15. New Horizons: Long-Range Kuiper Belt Targets Observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecchi, S. D.; Noll, K. S.; Weaver, H. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, S. A.; Buie, M. W.; Parker, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    We report on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of three Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), discovered in our dedicated ground-based search campaign, that are candidates for long-range observations from the New Horizons spacecraft: 2011 epochY31, 2011 HZ102, and 2013 LU35. Astrometry with HST enables both current and future critical accuracy improvements for orbit precision, required for possible New Horizons observations, beyond what can be obtained from the ground. Photometric colors of all three objects are red, typical of the Cold Classical dynamical population within which they reside; they are also the faintest KBOs to have had their colors measured. None are observed to be binary with HST above separations of approx. 0.02 arcsec (approx. 700 km at 44 AU) and delta m less than or equal to 0.5.

  16. Variable Optical Attenuator Based on Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Multimode Interference Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and characterization of a thermal variable optical attenuator based on long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP waveguide with multimode interference architecture were investigated. The surface morphology and waveguide configuration of Au stripe were studied by atomic force microscopy. The fluctuation of refractive index of poly(methyl-methacrylate-glycidyl-methacrylate polymer cladding was confirmed to be less than 3×10-4 within 8 h curing at 120°C. The end-fire excitation of LRSPP mode guiding at 1550 nm along Au stripe indicated that the extinction ratio of attenuator was about 12 dB at a driving power of 69 mW. The measured optical rise time and fall time are 0.57 and 0.87 ms, respectively. These favorable properties promise potentials of this plasmonic device in the application of optical interconnection.

  17. A hybrid version of the SCAN functional including long-range dispersion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hsin-Yu; Calegari Andrade, Marcos F.; Santra, Biswajit; Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto

    The recently developed meta-GGA density functional, called SCAN (strongly constrained and appropriately normed), provides an accurate description of the electronic structure in a broad class of systems characterized by different bonding interactions, including intermediate range van-der-Waals (vdW) bonding. Here we consider a hybrid version of the SCAN functional with inclusion of long-range vdW interactions via a re-parameterized Tkatchenko-Scheffler scheme. Calculations for the S22 molecular database, ice hexamer clusters, and bulk ice Ih indicate that this functional further improves the description of vdW and hydrogen bonding interactions. This work has been supported by the Department of Energy under Grants No. DE-SC0008626.

  18. Viability assessment of bacteria using long-range surface plasmon waveguide biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Paul; Berini, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that long-range surface plasmon waveguide biosensors are useful to monitor the quiver of immobilized live bacteria in buffer and in human urine. First, the biosensor captures bacteria selectively, based on gram, using antibodies against gram adsorbed on the surface of the waveguide through Protein G coupling. Then, analysis of the noise present on the optical output signal reveals quiver of bacteria immobilized on the waveguide. Live bacteria produce a noisy signature compared to baseline levels. The standard deviation over time of the optical power output from the biosensor increased by factors of 3-60 over that of the baseline level for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli immobilized selectively on waveguides.

  19. Long-range correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoliang, E-mail: xlliucsu@yahoo.com.c [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ren, Yi [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xie, Qiong-tao [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education (Hunan Normal University), Changsha 410081 (China); Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui [College of Physical Science and Technology and College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2010-04-26

    By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the transmission coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that lambda-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5long-range correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.

  20. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 1. Deposition loads: methods, modelling and mapping results, trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.1, deposition loads (methods, modeling and mapping results, trends) includes the following chapters: Introduction, deposition on air pollutants used for the input for critical loads in exceeding calculations, methods applied for mapping total deposition loads, mapping wet deposition, wet deposition mapping results, mapping dry deposition, dry deposition mapping results, cloud and fog mapping results, total deposition mapping results, modeling the air concentration of acidifying components and heavy metals, agricultural emissions of acidifying and eutrophying species.

  1. Long-range dipolar order and dispersion forces in polar liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besford, Quinn Alexander; Christofferson, Andrew Joseph; Liu, Maoyuan; Yarovsky, Irene

    2017-11-21

    Complex solvation phenomena, such as specific ion effects, occur in polar liquids. Interpretation of these effects in terms of structure and dispersion forces will lead to a greater understanding of solvation. Herein, using molecular dynamics, we probe the structure of polar liquids through specific dipolar pair correlation functions that contribute to the potential of mean force that is "felt" between thermally rotating dipole moments. It is shown that unique dipolar order exists at separations at least up to 20 Å for all liquids studied. When the structural order is compared with a dipolar dispersion force that arises from local co-operative enhancement of dipole moments, a strong agreement is found. Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces was compared with the structural order, where the theory is validated for all liquids that do not have significant local dipole correlations. For liquids that do have significant local dipole correlations, specifically liquid water, Lifshitz theory underestimates the dispersion force by a factor of 5-10, demonstrating that the force that leads to the increased structure in liquid water is missed by Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces. We apply similar correlation functions to an ionic aqueous system, where long-range order between water's dipole moment and a single chloride ion is found to exist at 20 Å of separation, revealing a long-range perturbation of water's structure by an ion. Furthermore, we found that waters within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd solvation shells of a chloride ion exhibit significantly enhanced dipolar interactions, particularly with waters at larger distances of separation. Our results provide a link between structures, dispersion forces, and specific ion effects, which may lead to a more robust understanding of solvation.

  2. Long-range dipolar order and dispersion forces in polar liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besford, Quinn Alexander; Christofferson, Andrew Joseph; Liu, Maoyuan; Yarovsky, Irene

    2017-11-01

    Complex solvation phenomena, such as specific ion effects, occur in polar liquids. Interpretation of these effects in terms of structure and dispersion forces will lead to a greater understanding of solvation. Herein, using molecular dynamics, we probe the structure of polar liquids through specific dipolar pair correlation functions that contribute to the potential of mean force that is "felt" between thermally rotating dipole moments. It is shown that unique dipolar order exists at separations at least up to 20 Å for all liquids studied. When the structural order is compared with a dipolar dispersion force that arises from local co-operative enhancement of dipole moments, a strong agreement is found. Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces was compared with the structural order, where the theory is validated for all liquids that do not have significant local dipole correlations. For liquids that do have significant local dipole correlations, specifically liquid water, Lifshitz theory underestimates the dispersion force by a factor of 5-10, demonstrating that the force that leads to the increased structure in liquid water is missed by Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces. We apply similar correlation functions to an ionic aqueous system, where long-range order between water's dipole moment and a single chloride ion is found to exist at 20 Å of separation, revealing a long-range perturbation of water's structure by an ion. Furthermore, we found that waters within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd solvation shells of a chloride ion exhibit significantly enhanced dipolar interactions, particularly with waters at larger distances of separation. Our results provide a link between structures, dispersion forces, and specific ion effects, which may lead to a more robust understanding of solvation.

  3. Sleep and sleepiness of pilots operating long-range airplane emergency medical missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Ulrike; Holmes, Alex; Caldwell, John; Hilditch, Cassie

    2014-09-01

    Airplane emergency medical services (AEMS) operators use fixed-wing airplanes to undertake rapid response, round-the-clock medical transport missions. This paper explores the structure of long-range, multileg AEMS missions and the sleep and sleepiness of the pilots who work them. During nine long-range AEMS missions, pilots kept a sleep and sleepiness logbook and wore a wrist activity monitor to evaluate the timing of sleep/wake. Missions had a mean duration of 20 h 00 min ± 2 h 39 min, involved two to four flight legs, and were crewed by three or four pilots who rotated between operating and sleeping in curtained-off bunks. The pilots obtained a mean of 15 h 26 min ± 4 h 51 min and 7 h 54 min ± 1 h 33 min of sleep in the 48 h and 24 h prior to checking in for duty, respectively. During missions, a mean of 3 h 33 min ± 1 h 46 min of sleep was taken, usually across two in-flight sleep periods. Karolinska Sleepiness Scores (KSS) at top of climb and top of descent were typically less than 5 ('neither alert nor sleepy'). A small number of individual higher KSS scores were recorded on the longest missions and on flights between 02:00 and 06:00. These findings suggest that despite the long duration, timing, and multileg nature of AEMS missions, it is possible via careful design and management to operate these missions with appropriate levels of pilot alertness.

  4. Monitoring and Managing Cabin Crew Sleep and Fatigue During an Ultra-Long Range Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Margo J; Signal, T Leigh; Mulrine, Hannah M; Smith, Alexander A T; Gander, Philippa H; Serfontein, Wynand

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to monitor cabin crew fatigue, sleep, and performance on an ultra-long range (ULR) trip and to evaluate the appropriateness of applying data collection methods developed for flight crew to cabin crew operations under a fatigue risk management system (FRMS). Prior to, throughout, and following the ULR trip (outbound flight ULR; mean layover duration=52.6 h; inbound flight long range), 55 cabin crew (29 women; mean age 36.5 yr; 25 men; mean age 36.6 yr; one missing data) completed a sleep/duty diary and wore an actigraph. Across each flight, crewmembers rated their fatigue (Samn-Perelli Crew Status Check) and sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and completed a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) at key times. Of crewmembers approached, 73% (N=134) agreed to participate and 41% (N=55) provided data of suitable quality for analysis. In the 24 h before departure, sleep averaged 7.0 h and 40% took a preflight nap. All crewmembers slept in flight (mean total sleep time=3.6 h outbound, 2.9 h inbound). Sleepiness and fatigue were lower, and performance better, on the longer outbound flight than on the inbound flight. Post-trip, crewmembers slept more on day 1 (mean=7.9 h) compared to baseline days, but there was no difference from day 2 onwards. The present study demonstrates that cabin crew fatigue can be managed effectively on a ULR flight and that FRMS data collection is feasible for cabin crew, but operational differences between cabin crew and flight crew need to be considered.

  5. Booming far: the long-range vocal strategy of a lekking bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornec, C; Hingrat, Y; Aubin, T; Rybak, F

    2017-08-01

    The pressures of selection acting on transmission of information by acoustic signals are particularly high in long-distance communication networks. Males of the North African houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) produce extremely low-frequency vocalizations called 'booms' as a component of their courtship displays. These displays are performed on sites separated by a distance of on average 550 m, constituting exploded leks. Here, we investigate the acoustic features of booms involved in species-specific identity. We first assessed the modifications of acoustic parameters during boom transmission at long range within the natural habitat of the species, finding that the frequency content of booms was reliably transmitted up to 600 m. Additionally, by testing males' behavioural responses to playbacks of modified signals, we found that the presence of the second harmonic and the frequency modulation are the key parameters for species identification, and also that a sequence of booms elicited stronger responses than a single boom. Thus, the coding-decoding process relies on redundant and propagation-resistant features, making the booms particularly well adapted for the long-range transmission of information between males. Moreover, by experimentally disentangling the presentation of visual and acoustic signals, we showed that during the booming phase of courtship, the two sensory modalities act in synergy. The acoustic component is dominant in the context of intra-sexual competition. While the visual component is not necessary to induce agonistic response, it acts as an amplifier and reduces the time of detection of the signaller. The utilization of these adaptive strategies allows houbara males to maximize the active space of vocalizations emitted in exploded leks.

  6. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long ranged interactions in computer simulations and for quasi-2D systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazars, Martial, E-mail: Martial.Mazars@th.u-psud.f

    2011-03-15

    Taking correctly into account long ranged interactions in molecular simulations of molecular models based on classical atomistic representations are essential to obtain reliable results on model systems and in simulations of biological systems. A lot of numerical methods have been developed to this end; the most important of them are reviewed in this paper. Particular attention is paid to the analytical relations between the methods, this allows comparisons on efficiency and accuracy between them and also to proceed to precise implementations of these techniques. While most of the methods have been developed for Coulomb interactions, we give also some analytical details to apply these methods to screened Coulomb (Yukawa interactions), inverse power law and dipolar interactions. Particular types of systems, the quasi-2D systems, are also considered in this paper. Quasi-2D systems represent a large class of physical systems where the spatial extension in one direction of the space is very small by comparison to the other two. These representations are very useful to describe the properties of interfaces, surfaces, fluids confined in slab geometry, etc. In computer simulations, these systems are studied with partial periodic boundary conditions: periodic boundary conditions are taken in directions where spatial extensions are large and some other boundary conditions are taken in directions with smaller extensions. In this review, we describe also the numerical methods developed to handle long ranged interactions in numerical simulations of quasi-2D systems. The properties of quasi-2D systems depend strongly on interactions between components; more specifically electrostatic and magnetic interactions and interactions with external fields are of particular interest in these systems.

  8. Long range ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nathan D.

    There is an ever-increasing demand for radio frequency identification (RFID) tags that are passive, long range, and mountable on multiple surfaces. Currently, RFID technology is utilized in numerous applications such as supply chain management, access control, and public transportation. With the combination of sensory systems in recent years, the applications of RFID technology have been extended beyond tracking and identifying. This extension includes applications such as environmental monitoring and healthcare applications. The available sensory systems usually operate in the medium or high frequency bands and have a low read range. However, the range limitations of these systems are being overcome by the development of RFID sensors focused on utilizing tags in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band. Generally, RFID tags have to be mounted to the object that is being identified. Often the objects requiring identification are metallic. The inherent properties of metallic objects have substantial effects on nearby electromagnetic radiation; therefore, the operation of the tag antenna is affected when mounted on a metallic surface. This outlines one of the most challenging problems for RFID systems today: the optimization of tag antenna performance in a complex environment. In this research, a novel UHF RFID tag antenna, which has a low profile, long range, and is mountable on metallic surfaces, is designed analytically and simulated using a 3-D electromagnetic simulator, ANSYS HFSS. A microstrip patch antenna is selected as the antenna structure, as patch antennas are low profile and suitable for mounting on metallic surfaces. Matching and theoretical models of the microstrip patch antenna are investigated. Once matching and theory of a microstrip patch antenna is thoroughly understood, a unique design technique using electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures is explored. This research shows that the utilization of an EBG structure in the patch antenna design yields

  9. Thioarsenides: A case for long-range Lewis acid-base-directed van der Waals interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Wallace, Adam F.; Downs, R. T.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2011-04-01

    Electron density distributions, bond paths, Laplacian and local energy density properties have been calculated for a number of As4Sn (n = 3,4,5) thioarsenide molecular crystals. On the basis of the distributions, the intramolecular As-S and As-As interactions classify as shared bonded interactions and the intermolecular As-S, As-As and S-S interactions classify as closed-shell van der Waals bonded interactions. The bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths link regions of locally concentrated electron density (Lewis base regions) with aligned regions of locally depleted electron density (Lewis acid regions) on adjacent molecules. The paths are comparable with intermolecular paths reported for several other molecular crystals that link aligned Lewis base and acid regions in a key-lock fashion, interactions that classified as long range Lewis acid-base directed van der Waals interactions. As the bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths (~70%) link Lewis acid-base regions on adjacent molecules, it appears that molecules adopt an arrangement that maximizes the number of As-S Lewis acid-base intermolecular bonded interactions. The maximization of the number of Lewis acid-base interactions appears to be connected with the close-packed array adopted by molecules: distorted cubic close-packed arrays are adopted for alacránite, pararealgar, uzonite, realgar and β-AsS and the distorted hexagonal close-packed arrays adopted by α- and β-dimorphite. A growth mechanism is proposed for thioarsenide molecular crystals from aqueous species that maximizes the number of long range Lewis acid-base vdW As-S bonded interactions with the resulting directed bond paths structuralizing the molecules as a molecular crystal.

  10. Thioarsenides: a case for long-range Lewis acid-base-directed van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Wallace, A. F.; Downs, R. T.; Ross, N. L.; Cox, D. F.; Rosso, K. M.

    2011-04-01

    Electron density distributions, bond paths, Laplacian and local-energy density properties have been calculated for a number of As4S n ( n = 3, 4 and 5) thioarsenide molecular crystals. On the basis of the distributions, the intramolecular As-S and As-As interactions classify as shared bonded interactions, and the intermolecular As-S, As-As and S-S interactions classify as closed-shell van der Waals (vdW) bonded interactions. The bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths link regions of locally concentrated electron density (Lewis-base regions) with aligned regions of locally depleted electron density (Lewis-acid regions) on adjacent molecules. The paths are comparable with intermolecular paths reported for several other molecular crystals that link aligned Lewis base and acid regions in a key-lock fashion, interactions that classified as long-range Lewis acid-base-directed vdW interactions. As the bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths (~70%) link Lewis acid-base regions on adjacent molecules, it appears that molecules adopt an arrangement that maximizes the number of As-S Lewis acid-base intermolecular bonded interactions. The maximization of the number of Lewis acid-base interactions appears to be connected with the close-packed array adopted by molecules: distorted cubic close-packed arrays are adopted for alacránite, pararealgar, uzonite, realgar and β-AsS and the distorted hexagonal close-packed arrays adopted by α- and β-dimorphite. A growth mechanism is proposed for thioarsenide molecular crystals from aqueous species that maximizes the number of long-range Lewis acid-base vdW As-S bonded interactions with the resulting directed bond paths structuralizing the molecules as a molecular crystal.

  11. Madeiran Arabidopsis thaliana reveals ancient long-range colonization and clarifies demography in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgione, Andrea; Koornneef, Maarten; Roux, Fabrice; Hermisson, Joachim; Hancock, Angela M

    2017-12-05

    The study of model organisms on islands may shed light on rare long-range dispersal events, uncover signatures of local evolutionary processes, and inform demographic inference on the mainland. Here, we sequenced the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana samples from the oceanic island of Madeira. These samples include the most diverged worldwide, likely a result of long isolation on the island. We infer that colonisation of Madeira happened between 70 and 85 kya, consistent with a propagule dispersal model (of size > =10), or with an ecological window of opportunity. This represents a clear example of a natural long-range dispersal event in A. thaliana. Long-term effective population size on the island, rather than the founder effect, had the greatest impact on levels of diversity, and rates of coalescence. Our results uncover a selective sweep signature on the ancestral haplotype of a known translocation in Eurasia, as well as the possible importance of the low phosphorous availability in volcanic soils, and altitude, in shaping early adaptations to the island conditions. Madeiran genomes, sheltered from the complexities of continental demography, help illuminate ancient demographic events in Eurasia. Our data support a model in which two separate lineages of A. thaliana, one originating in Africa and the other from the Caucasus expanded and met in Iberia, resulting in a secondary contact zone there. While previous studies inferred that the westward expansion of A. thaliana coincided with the spread of human agriculture, our results suggest it happened much earlier (20-40 kya). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. A Statistical Multimodel Ensemble Approach to Improving Long-Range Forecasting in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    high latitudes of North America , Europe, and Asia, while negative (positive) anomalies are present in the Middle East. Thompson and Wallace (2000a...focused on regions based on priorities outlined by DoD leaders to include SWA, the Horn of Africa, and North America (e.g., Vorhees 2006; LaJoie 2006...crisis is far from over, says Oxfam . [Available online at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12284522.] Accessed March 2012. ——, cited

  13. Long-range interactions in mammalian platelet aggregation. I. Evidence from kinetic studies in brownian diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, K.; Frojmovic, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Smoluchowski theory describing aggregation in suspensions of spherical colloidal particles due to Brownian diffusion-controlled two-body collisions, was used to obtain collision efficiencies, alpha B, for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from humans, dogs, and rabbits. For these diffusion studies, PRP was stirred with 10 microM ADP for 0.5 s, then kept nonstirred at 37 degrees C for varying times before fixation; the percent aggregation was computed from the decrease in particle concentration with time measured with a resistive particle counter. Up to 20% of rabbit platelets formed microaggregates within 60 s of ADP addition to such nonstirred suspensions, corresponding to mean alpha B values of approximately 0.9. However, human and dog platelets aggregated approximately 10 times and 2-3 times faster than rabbit platelets within the first 60 s of ADP addition, corresponding to alpha B approximately 8 and 2, respectively. These high alpha B (much greater than 1) for human platelets were independent of initial platelet count and were equally observed with the calcium ionophore A23187 as activator. In about one-third of human, dog, or rabbit PRP, comparable and lower values of alpha B (less than 0.5) were obtained for a slower second phase of aggregation seen for the nonstirred PRP over 60-300 s post ADP-addition. Platelet aggregability in continually stirred PRP was distinct from that observed in Brownian diffusion (nonstirred) because comparable aggregation was observed for all three species' stirred PRP, whereas greater than 3-8 times more ADP is required to yield 50% of maximal rates of aggregation for nonstirred than for stirred PRP. The above results point to the existence of long-range interactions mediating platelet aggregation in Brownian diffusion-controlled platelet collisions which varies according to human > dog > rabbit platelets. The roles for platelet pseudopods and adhesive sites in

  14. Long range thermal weapon sights for the German future infantryman program IdZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, Rainer; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Münzberg, Mario; Rode, Werner

    2007-04-01

    In December 2004 AIM started the series production of the HuntIR long range thermal weapon sight. The sight is fielded in the Germany Future Infantryman (IdZ) basic system and since that time in continuous service in various out of area missions with German participation. For very long identification ranges >1500m cooled technology still outperforms uncooled sights, even with respect to smaller size and lower weight because the typical F/1 design of uncooled systems overcompensates cooler weight for focal length >175mm. The HuntIR sight is therefore based on a cooled MWIR detection module for long range battlefield surveillance and target engagement. The device specifically is a perfect match to state of the art small arms like 0.50 cal sniper rifles or crew served weapons like the 40mm high velocity grenade machine gun (GMG) which provide engagement ranges >1500m and need an adequate sight performance beyond that. A recent modification of HuntIR was done to provide a wider field of view for improved situation awareness in urban operations and specifically to allow the engagement of the 40mm GMG in ranges between 250-1200m. The qualification tests of the sight by the German infantry were successfully completed mid 2006. To match the demand of the follow-up program IdZ-ES additional components have to be integrated. Most important are a laser range finder (LRF), 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a wireless data link. LRF and DMC together with a highly sophisticated fire control computer provide improved first round hit probability, the DMC additionally improves the fire control in any case of steep trajectories or for pronounced ballistic trajectories to avoid any need to precisely level the GMG. This new sight is done under the brand name RangIR. An important additional feature is the interface for air burst ammunition (ABM). The optical distance is measured by the LRF, the fire control computer accurately evaluates the trajectory under the given angle

  15. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Korsholm, U.; Havskov Soerensen, J. (Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark)); Astrup, P.; Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-04-15

    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe'. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere. The atmospheric dispersion model calculations cover a period of 30 days following each release to ensure almost complete deposition of the dispersed material. The atlas contains maps showing the total deposition and time-integrated air concentration of Cs-137 and I-131 based on three years of meteorological data spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion. (Author)

  16. Dynamical phase diagram of quantum spin chains with long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimeh, Jad C.; Zauner-Stauber, Valentin

    2017-10-01

    Using an infinite matrix product state (iMPS) technique based on the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP), we study two major types of dynamical phase transitions (DPT) in the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) with long-range power-law (∝1 /rα with r interspin distance) interactions out of equilibrium in the thermodynamic limit—DPT-I: based on an order parameter in a (quasi-)steady state, and DPT-II: based on nonanalyticities (cusps) in the Loschmidt-echo return rate. We construct the corresponding rich dynamical phase diagram, while considering different quench initial conditions. We find a nontrivial connection between both types of DPT based on their critical lines. Moreover, and very interestingly, we detect a new DPT-II dynamical phase in a certain range of interaction exponent α , characterized by what we call anomalous cusps that are distinct from the regular cusps usually associated with DPT-II. Our results provide the characterization of experimentally accessible signatures of the dynamical phases studied in this work.

  17. Comment on "Many-body localization in Ising models with random long-range interactions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymov, Andrii O.; Rahman, Noah; Kapit, Eliot; Burin, Alexander L.

    2017-11-01

    This Comment is dedicated to the investigation of many-body localization in a quantum Ising model with long-range power-law interactions r-α, relevant for a variety of systems ranging from electrons in Anderson insulators to spin excitations in chains of cold atoms. It has earlier been argued [arXiv:cond-mat/0611387 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 91, 094202 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.094202] that this model obeys the dimensional constraint suggesting the delocalization of all finite-temperature states in the thermodynamic limit for α ≤2 d in a d -dimensional system. This expectation conflicts with the recent numerical studies of the specific interacting spin model of Li et al. [Phys. Rev. A 94, 063625 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.063625]. To resolve this controversy we reexamine the model of Li et al. [Phys. Rev. A 94, 063625 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.063625] and demonstrate that the infinite-temperature states there obey the dimensional constraint. The earlier developed scaling theory for the critical system size required for delocalization is extended to small exponents 0 ≤α ≤d . The disagreements between the two works are explained by the nonstandard selection of investigated states in the ordered phase in the work of Li et al. [Phys. Rev. A 94, 063625 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevA.94.063625].

  18. Long-range pseudoknot interactions dictate the regulatory response in the tetrahydrofolate riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Serganov, Alexander (MSKCC)

    2011-09-15

    Tetrahydrofolate (THF), a biologically active form of the vitamin folate (B{sub 9}), is an essential cofactor in one-carbon transfer reactions. In bacteria, expression of folate-related genes is controlled by feedback modulation in response to specific binding of THF and related compounds to a riboswitch. Here, we present the X-ray structures of the THF-sensing domain from the Eubacterium siraeum riboswitch in the ligand-bound and unbound states. The structure reveals an 'inverted' three-way junctional architecture, most unusual for riboswitches, with the junction located far from the regulatory helix P1 and not directly participating in helix P1 formation. Instead, the three-way junction, stabilized by binding to the ligand, aligns the riboswitch stems for long-range tertiary pseudoknot interactions that contribute to the organization of helix P1 and therefore stipulate the regulatory response of the riboswitch. The pterin moiety of the ligand docks in a semiopen pocket adjacent to the junction, where it forms specific hydrogen bonds with two moderately conserved pyrimidines. The aminobenzoate moiety stacks on a guanine base, whereas the glutamate moiety does not appear to make strong interactions with the RNA. In contrast to other riboswitches, these findings demonstrate that the THF riboswitch uses a limited number of available determinants for ligand recognition. Given that modern antibiotics target folate metabolism, the THF riboswitch structure provides insights on mechanistic aspects of riboswitch function and may help in manipulating THF levels in pathogenic bacteria

  19. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, C.; Howes, P. B.; Baker, S. H.; Marchetto, H.; Potenza, A.; Steadman, P.; Dhesi, S. S.; Roy, M.; Everard, M. J.; Rushforth, A.

    2008-02-01

    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry to probe the magnetic ground state in Fe thin films produced by depositing size-selected gas-phase Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 1.7 nm (~200 atoms) onto Si substrates. The depositions were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and thicknesses of the deposited film in the range 5-50 nm were studied. The magnetometry data are consistent with the film forming a correlated super-spin glass with a magnetic correlation length ~5 nm. The XPEEM magnetic maps from the cluster-assembled films were compared to those for a conventional thin Fe film with a thickness of 20 nm produced by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source. Whereas a normal magnetic domain structure is observed in the conventional MBE thin film, no domain structure could be observed in any of the nanoparticle films down to the resolution limit of the XMCD based XPEEM (100 nm) confirming the ground state indicated by the magnetometry measurements. This observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction that an arbitrarily weak random anisotropy field will destroy long-range magnetic order.

  20. Strongly angle-dependent magnetoresistance in Weyl semimetals with long-range disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Jan; Bardarson, Jens H.

    2017-08-01

    The chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals states that the left- and right-handed Weyl fermions, constituting the low energy description, are not individually conserved, resulting, for example, in a negative magnetoresistance in such materials. Recent experiments see strong indications of such an anomalous resistance response; however, with a response that at strong fields is more sharply peaked for parallel magnetic and electric fields than expected from simple theoretical considerations. Here, we uncover a mechanism, arising from the interplay between the angle-dependent Landau-level structure and long-range scalar disorder, that has the same phenomenology. In particular, we analytically show, and numerically confirm, that the internode scattering time decreases exponentially with the angle between the magnetic field and the Weyl node separation in the large field limit, while it is insensitive to this angle at weak magnetic fields. Since, in the simplest approximation, the internode scattering time is proportional to the anomaly-related conductivity, this feature may be related to the experimental observations of a sharply peaked magnetoresistance.

  1. Feature Optimization for Long-Range Visual Homing in Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidan Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a feature optimization method for robot long-range feature-based visual homing in changing environments. To cope with the changing environmental appearance, the optimization procedure is introduced to distinguish the most relevant features for feature-based visual homing, including the spatial distribution, selection and updating. In the previous research on feature-based visual homing, less effort has been spent on the way to improve the feature distribution to get uniformly distributed features, which are closely related to homing performance. This paper presents a modified feature extraction algorithm to decrease the influence of anisotropic feature distribution. In addition, the feature selection and updating mechanisms, which have hardly drawn any attention in the domain of feature-based visual homing, are crucial in improving homing accuracy and in maintaining the representation of changing environments. To verify the feasibility of the proposal, several comprehensive evaluations are conducted. The results indicate that the feature optimization method can find optimal feature sets for feature-based visual homing, and adapt the appearance representation to the changing environments as well.

  2. Role of Long-Range Protein Dynamics in Different Thymidylate Synthase Catalyzed Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Abeysinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase (ecTSase showed that a highly conserved residue, Y209, that is located 8 Å away from the reaction site, plays a key role in the protein’s dynamics. Those crystallographic studies indicated that Y209W mutant is a structurally identical but dynamically altered relative to the wild type (WT enzyme, and that its turnover catalytic rate governed by a slow hydride-transfer has been affected. The most challenging test of an examination of a fast chemical conversion that precedes the rate-limiting step has been achieved here. The physical nature of both fast and slow C-H bond activations have been compared between the WT and mutant by means of observed and intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs and their temperature dependence. The findings indicate that the proton abstraction step has not been altered as much as the hydride transfer step. Additionally, the comparison indicated that other kinetic steps in the TSase catalyzed reaction were substantially affected, including the order of the substrate binding. Enigmatically, although Y209 is H-bonded to 3'-OH of 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-mono­phosphate (dUMP, its altered dynamics is more pronounced on the binding of the remote cofactor, (6R-N5,N10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (CH2H4folate, revealing the importance of long-range dynamics of the enzymatic complex and its catalytic function.

  3. Ring-opening polymerization of genipin and its long-range crosslinking effect on collagen hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Changdao; Zhang, Ke; Lin, Wei; Li, Defu

    2013-02-01

    Polymeric genipin macromers, prepared by ring-opening polymerization at various pH values, are used as crosslinking agents to fix collagen hydrogels. The results indicate that as the dark color of polymeric genipin itself and the networks formed by long-range intermolecular crosslinking, the genipin-fixed collagen hydrogels displace darker color. The polymeric genipin prepared at higher pH value needs longer time to fully crosslink with collagen molecules. Moreover, polymerization of genipin reduces the yield of genipin-fixed collagen hydrogels due to low extent of crosslinking. Specially, the microscope photographs present the porous networks structures of genipin-fixed collagen hydrogels. The pore size increases with the increase in polymerization degree of genipin. The data of FTIR indicate the likely transition of -NH(2) groups in collagen chains into C=N. Owning to much more number of hydrophilic groups and more porous networks, collagen hydrogels fixed by genipin with higher polymerization degree have higher water absorption capacity. The equilibrium swelling of genipin-fixed collagen hydrogels is pH-responsive, which show "M" type changes with the pH values. The results obtained in the study suggest that the polymeric genipin prepared at various pH values lead to significant influence to the crosslinking characteristics and properties of collagen hydrogels. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Observation of long-range tertiary interactions during ligand binding by the TPP riboswitch aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesterberg, Van K; Fischer-Hwang, Irena T; Perez, Christian F; Hogan, Daniel W; Block, Steven M

    2015-12-28

    The thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitch is a cis-regulatory element in mRNA that modifies gene expression in response to TPP concentration. Its specificity is dependent upon conformational changes that take place within its aptamer domain. Here, the role of tertiary interactions in ligand binding was studied at the single-molecule level by combined force spectroscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET), using an optical trap equipped for simultaneous smFRET. The 'Force-FRET' approach directly probes secondary and tertiary structural changes during folding, including events associated with binding. Concurrent transitions observed in smFRET signals and RNA extension revealed differences in helix-arm orientation between two previously-identified ligand-binding states that had been undetectable by spectroscopy alone. Our results show that the weaker binding state is able to bind to TPP, but is unable to form a tertiary docking interaction that completes the binding process. Long-range tertiary interactions stabilize global riboswitch structure and confer increased ligand specificity.

  5. A short and long range study of mullite-zirconia-zircon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendtorff, Nicolas M.; Conconi, Maria S.; Aglietti, Esteban F. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC: CONICET-CIC) (Argentina); Chain, Cecilia Y.; Pasquevich, Alberto F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rivas, Patricia C. [CONICET (Argentina); Martinez, Jorge A., E-mail: toto@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Caracoche, Maria C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    In the field of refractory materials, ceramics containing mullite-zirconia are the basis of those most used in the industry of glass and steel. It is known that the addition of zircon improves the behavior of the refractory used in service. Knowing that some mullite-zirconia composites properties as fracture strength and the elastic modulus E are associated with the material microstructure integrity, the eventual thermal decomposition of zircon into zirconia and silica could seriously alter the material elastic properties. In this paper the phase content of a series of mullite-zirconia-zircon (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-ZrSiO{sub 4}) composites is determined at atomic level via perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and compared with that derived from the long range X-ray diffraction technique. PAC results on the as-prepared materials indicate that all nominal zircon is present and that it involves two types of nanoconfigurations, one of them describing aperiodic regions. The thermomechanical properties already reported for these materials could be related to the crystalline to aperiodic zircon concentrations ratio they exhibit.

  6. Automating Mid- and Long-Range Scheduling for the NASA Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Tran, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    NASA has recently deployed a new mid-range scheduling system for the antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN), called Service Scheduling Software, or S(sup 3). This system was designed and deployed as a modern web application containing a central scheduling database integrated with a collaborative environment, exploiting the same technologies as social web applications but applied to a space operations context. This is highly relevant to the DSN domain since the network schedule of operations is developed in a peer-to-peer negotiation process among all users of the DSN. These users represent not only NASA's deep space missions, but also international partners and ground-based science and calibration users. The initial implementation of S(sup 3) is complete and the system has been operational since July 2011. This paper describes some key aspects of the S(sup 3) system and on the challenges of modeling complex scheduling requirements and the ongoing extension of S(sup 3) to encompass long-range planning, downtime analysis, and forecasting, as the next step in developing a single integrated DSN scheduling tool suite to cover all time ranges.

  7. Dynamics and thermodynamics of systems with long-range dipole-type interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenas, Boris; Curilef, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    A Hamiltonian mean field model, where the potential is inspired by dipole-dipole interactions, is proposed to characterize the behavior of systems with long-range interactions. The dynamics of the system remains in quasistationary states before arriving at equilibrium. The equilibrium is analytically derived from the canonical ensemble and coincides with that obtained from molecular dynamics simulations (microcanonical ensemble) at only long time scales. The dynamics of the system is characterized by the behavior of the mean value of the kinetic energy. The significance of the results, compared to others in the recent literature, is that two plateaus sequentially emerge in the evolution of the model under the special considerations of the initial conditions and systems of finite size. The first plateau decays to a different second one before the system reaches equilibrium, but the dynamics of the system is expected to have only one plateau when the thermodynamics limit is reached because the difference between them tends to disappear as N tends to infinity. Hence, the first plateau is a type of quasistationary state the lifetime of which depends on a power law of N and the second seems to be a true quasistationary state as reported in the literature. We characterize the general behavior of the model according to its dynamics and thermodynamics.

  8. Soft calls and broadcast calls in the corncrake as adaptations to short and long range communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ręk, Paweł

    2013-10-01

    Because birds' acoustic signals function in antagonistic interactions between males and in female attraction, a majority of vocalisations are loud. In contrast, some birds, additionally produce soft vocalisations in escalated agonistic and sexual contexts. Nevertheless, the relationship between the acoustic parameters of such signals and their function is not clear. Here I investigate the sound transmission degradation properties of soft and broadcast (loud) calls in the corncrake using calls with natural and changed amplitude. I show that, if played at the same amplitude, the maximum limit for communication distance with soft calls was significantly shorter than that of broadcast calls, indicating that frequency structure is important in determining the range of both signals independently of their amplitude. At the same time, the values of excess attenuation were lower for soft calls than for broadcast calls at most distances, which suggests that the short transmission of soft calls is achieved mostly due to their low and narrow frequency ranges, promoting their masking by ambient noise. Finally, contrary to soft calls, changes in the energy of tails of echoes in broadcast calls were associated with the distance of propagation, which might be useful in assessing the distance to senders. I suggest that the acoustic structure of soft vocalisations can be used to limit the range of the signal, which might be helpful in eavesdropping avoidance, whereas broadcast calls are designed for long-range transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Earthquake simulations with time-dependent nucleation and long-range interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Dieterich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for rapid simulation of earthquake sequences is introduced which incorporates long-range elastic interactions among fault elements and time-dependent earthquake nucleation inferred from experimentally derived rate- and state-dependent fault constitutive properties. The model consists of a planar two-dimensional fault surface which is periodic in both the x- and y-directions. Elastic interactions among fault elements are represented by an array of elastic dislocations. Approximate solutions for earthquake nucleation and dynamics of earthquake slip are introduced which permit computations to proceed in steps that are determined by the transitions from one sliding state to the next. The transition-driven time stepping and avoidance of systems of simultaneous equations permit rapid simulation of large sequences of earthquake events on computers of modest capacity, while preserving characteristics of the nucleation and rupture propagation processes evident in more detailed models. Earthquakes simulated with this model reproduce many of the observed spatial and temporal characteristics of clustering phenomena including foreshock and aftershock sequences. Clustering arises because the time dependence of the nucleation process is highly sensitive to stress perturbations caused by nearby earthquakes. Rate of earthquake activity following a prior earthquake decays according to Omori's aftershock decay law and falls off with distance.

  10. Ultra-rare mutation in long-range enhancer predisposes to thyroid carcinoma with high penetrance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling He

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC. This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.

  11. Ultra-rare mutation in long-range enhancer predisposes to thyroid carcinoma with high penetrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huiling; Li, Wei; Wu, Dayong; Nagy, Rebecca; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Akagi, Keiko; Jendrzejewski, Jaroslaw; Jiao, Hong; Hoag, Kevin; Wen, Bernard; Srinivas, Mukund; Waidyaratne, Gavisha; Wang, Rui; Wojcicka, Anna; Lattimer, Ilene R; Stachlewska, Elzbieta; Czetwertynska, Malgorzata; Dlugosinska, Joanna; Gierlikowski, Wojciech; Ploski, Rafal; Krawczyk, Marek; Jazdzewski, Krystian; Kere, Juha; Symer, David E; Jin, Victor; Wang, Qianben; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C) in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC). This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA) is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.

  12. Surface wave effects on long range IR imaging in the marine surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francius, M. J.; Kunz, G. J.; van Eijk, A. M. J.

    2005-08-01

    The quality of long range infrared (IR) imaging depends on the effects of atmospheric refraction and other pathintegrated effects (e.g., transmission losses, scintillation and blurring), which are strongly related to the prevailing meteorological conditions. EOSTAR is a PC based computer program to quantify these strong nonlinear effects in the marine atmospheric surface layer and to present a spectrally resolved target image influenced by atmospheric effects using ray tracing techniques for the individual camera pixels. Presently, the propagation is predicted with bulk atmospheric models and the sea surface is idealized by steady regular periodic Stokes' waves. Dynamical wind-waves interactions are not taken into account in this approach, although they may strongly modify the refractive index in the near-surface layer. Nonetheless, the inclusion of the sea surface in the ray tracer module already has a great impact on the near-surface grazing rays and thus influences the images especially in situations of super refraction and mirage. This work aims at improving the description of the sea surface in EOSTAR taking into account the non-uniformity of spatially resolved wind-generated waves and swell. A new surface module is developed to model surface wind-waves and swell in EOSTAR on the basis of meteorological observations and spectral wave modeling. Effects due to these new surfaces will be analyzed and presented.

  13. Sperm whale long-range echolocation sounds revealed by ANTARES, a deep-sea neutrino telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M; Caballé, A; van der Schaar, M; Solsona, A; Houégnigan, L; Zaugg, S; Sánchez, A M; Castell, J V; Solé, M; Vila, F; Djokic, D; Adrián-Martínez, S; Albert, A; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Ardid, M; Aubert, J-J; Avgitas, T; Baret, B; Barrios-Martí, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bormuth, R; Bouwhuis, M C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Carr, J; Celli, S; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coleiro, A; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Deschamps, A; De Bonis, G; Distefano, C; Di Palma, I; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; El Bojaddaini, I; Elsässer, D; Enzenhöfer, A; Fehn, K; Felis, I; Fusco, L A; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geißelsöder, S; Geyer, K; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Glotin, H; Gracia-Ruiz, R; Graf, K; Hallmann, S; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Hößl, J; Hofestädt, J; Hugon, C; Illuminati, G; James, C W; de Jong, M; Jongen, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Katz, U; Kießling, D; Kouchner, A; Kreter, M; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lachaud, C; Lahmann, R; Lefèvre, D; Leonora, E; Loucatos, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Marinelli, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Mathieu, A; Melis, K; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Moussa, A; Mueller, C; Nezri, E; Păvălaş, G E; Pellegrino, C; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Riccobene, G; Roensch, K; Saldaña, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schnabel, J; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Sieger, C; Spurio, M; Stolarczyk, Th; Sánchez-Losa, A; Taiuti, M; Trovato, A; Tselengidou, M; Turpin, D; Tönnis, C; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Vivolo, D; Wagner, S; Wilms, J; Zornoza, J D; Zuñiga, J

    2017-04-12

    Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet. Interestingly, the same acoustic analysis indicated that the occurrence of surface shipping noise would apparently not condition the foraging behaviour of the sperm whale in the area, since shipping noise was almost always present when sperm whales were acoustically detected. The continuous presence of the sperm whale in the region confirms the ecological value of the Ligurian sea and the importance of ANTARES to help monitoring its ecosystems.

  14. Proposal for demonstration of long-range cluster state entanglement in the presence of photon loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nutz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Photonic cluster states are a crucial resource for optical quantum computing. Recently a quantum dot single photon source has been demonstrated to produce strings of single photons in a small linear cluster state. Sources of this kind could produce much larger cluster states, but high photon loss rates make it impossible to characterize the entanglement generated by quantum state tomography. We present a benchmarking method for such sources that can be used to demonstrate useful long-range entanglement with currently available collection/detection efficiencies below 1%. The measurement of the polarization state of single photons in different bases can provide an estimate for the three-qubit correlation function ⟨ZXZ⟩. This value constrains correlations spanning more than three qubits, which in turn provide a lower bound for the localizable entanglement between any two qubits in the large state produced by the source. Finite localizable entanglement can be established by demonstrating ⟨ZXZ⟩>23. This result enables photonic experiments demonstrating computationally useful entanglement with currently available technology.

  15. Long-range interactions between excited helium and alkali-metal atoms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J.-Y.

    2012-12-03

    The dispersion coefficients for the long-range interaction of the first four excited states of He, i.e., He(2 1,3S) and He(2 1,3P), with the low-lying states of the alkali-metal atoms Li, Na, K, and Rb are calculated by summing over the reduced matrix elements of the multipole transition operators. For the interaction between He and Li the uncertainty of the calculations is 0.1–0.5%. For interactions with other alkali-metal atoms the uncertainty is 1–3% in the coefficient C5, 1–5% in the coefficient C6, and 1–10% in the coefficients C8 and C10. The dispersion coefficients Cn for the interaction of He(2 1,3S) and He(2 1,3P) with the ground-state alkali-metal atoms and for the interaction of He(2 1,3S) with the alkali-metal atoms in their first 2P states are presented in this Brief Report. The coefficients for other pairs of atomic states are listed in the Supplemental Material.

  16. Drought Forecasting Based on Machine Learning of Remote Sensing and Long-Range Forecast Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, J.; Im, J.; Park, S.

    2016-06-01

    The reduction of drought impacts may be achieved through sustainable drought management and proactive measures against drought disaster. Accurate and timely provision of drought information is essential. In this study, drought forecasting models to provide high-resolution drought information based on drought indicators for ungauged areas were developed. The developed models predict drought indices of the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI6) and the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI6). An interpolation method based on multiquadric spline interpolation method as well as three machine learning models were tested. Three machine learning models of Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Extremely Randomized Trees were tested to enhance the provision of drought initial conditions based on remote sensing data, since initial conditions is one of the most important factors for drought forecasting. Machine learning-based methods performed better than interpolation methods for both classification and regression, and the methods using climatology data outperformed the methods using long-range forecast. The model based on climatological data and the machine learning method outperformed overall.

  17. Tank Investigation of a Powered Dynamic Model of a Large Long-Range Flying Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John B; Olson, Roland E; Harr, Marvin I

    1947-01-01

    Principles for designing the optimum hull for a large long-range flying boat to meet the requirements of seaworthiness, minimum drag, and ability to take off and land at all operational gross loads were incorporated in a 1/12-size powered dynamic model of a four-engine transport flying boat having a design gross load of 165,000 pounds. These design principles included the selection of a moderate beam loading, ample forebody length, sufficient depth of step, and close adherence to the form of a streamline body. The aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the model were investigated in Langley tank no. 1. Tests were made to determine the minimum allowable depth of step for adequate landing stability, the suitability of the fore-and-aft location of the step, the take-off performance, the spray characteristics, and the effects of simple spray-control devices. The application of the design criterions used and test results should be useful in the preliminary design of similar large flying boats.

  18. Flash Detection Efficiencies of Long Range Lightning Detection Networks During GRIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We flew our Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) on the NASA Global Hawk as a part of the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program. The GRIP program was a NASA Earth science field experiment during the months of August and September, 2010. During the program, the LIP detected lighting from 48 of the 213 of the storms overflown by the Global Hawk. The time and location of tagged LIP flashes can be used as a "ground truth" dataset for checking the detection efficiency of the various long or extended range ground-based lightning detection systems available during the GRIP program. The systems analyzed included Vaisala Long Range (LR), Vaisala GLD360, the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN). The long term goal of our research is to help understand the advantages and limitations of these systems so that we can utilize them for both proxy data applications and cross sensor validation of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) sensor when it is launched in the 2015 timeframe.

  19. Long-range propagation of plasmon and phonon polaritons in hyperbolic-metamaterial waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.

    2017-12-01

    We study photonic multilayer waveguides that include layers of materials and metamaterials with a hyperbolic dispersion (HMM). We consider the long-range propagation of plasmon and phonon polaritons at the dielectric–HMM interface in different waveguide geometries (single boundary or different layers of symmetric cladding). In contrast to the traditional analysis of geometrical parameters, we make an emphasis on the optical properties of constituent materials: solving dispersion equations, we analyze how dielectric and HMM permittivities affect propagation length and mode size of waveguide eigenmodes. We derive figures of merit that should be used for each waveguide in a broad range of permittivity values as well as compare them with plasmonic waveguides. We show that the conventional plasmonic quality factor, which is the ratio of real to imaginary parts of permittivity, is not applicable to the case of waveguides with complex structure. Both telecommunication wavelengths and mid-infrared spectral ranges are of interest considering recent advances in van der Waals materials, such as hexagonal boron nitride. We evaluate the performance of the waveguides with hexagonal boron nitride in the range where it possesses hyperbolic dispersion (wavelength 6.3–7.3 μm), and we show that these waveguides with natural hyperbolic properties have higher propagation lengths than metal-based HMM waveguides.

  20. Evaluating the effects of cutoffs and treatment of long-range electrostatics in protein folding simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piana

    Full Text Available The use of molecular dynamics simulations to provide atomic-level descriptions of biological processes tends to be computationally demanding, and a number of approximations are thus commonly employed to improve computational efficiency. In the past, the effect of these approximations on macromolecular structure and stability has been evaluated mostly through quantitative studies of small-molecule systems or qualitative observations of short-timescale simulations of biological macromolecules. Here we present a quantitative evaluation of two commonly employed approximations, using a test system that has been the subject of a number of previous protein folding studies--the villin headpiece. In particular, we examined the effect of (i the use of a cutoff-based force-shifting technique rather than an Ewald summation for the treatment of electrostatic interactions, and (ii the length of the cutoff used to determine how many pairwise interactions are included in the calculation of both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Our results show that the free energy of folding is relatively insensitive to the choice of cutoff beyond 9 Å, and to whether an Ewald method is used to account for long-range electrostatic interactions. In contrast, we find that the structural properties of the unfolded state depend more strongly on the two approximations examined here.

  1. Investigating long-range correlation properties in EEG during complex cognitive tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkare, Siddharth [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Saha, Goutam [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bhattacharya, Joydeep [Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths College, University of London, New Cross, London SE14 6NW (United Kingdom); Commission for Scientific Visualization, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna A1220 (Austria)], E-mail: j.bhattacharya@gold.ac.uk

    2009-11-30

    Previous work shows the presence of scale invariance and long-range correlations in ongoing and spontaneous activity of large scale brain responses (i.e. EEG), and such scaling behavior can also be modulated by simple sensory stimulus. However, little is known whether such alteration but not destruction in scaling properties also occurs during complex cognitive processing and if neuroplasticity plays any role in mediating such changes. In this study, we addressed these issues by investigating scaling properties of multivariate EEG signals obtained from two broad groups - artists and non-artists - while they performed complex tasks of perception and mental imagery of visual art objects. We found that brain regions showing increased correlation properties from rest were similar for both tasks, suggesting that brain networks responsible for visual perception are reactivated for mental imagery. Further, we observed that the two groups could be differentiated by scaling exponents and an artificial neural network based classifier achieved a classification efficiency of over 80%. These results altogether suggest that specific complex cognitive task demands and task-specific expertise can modify the temporal scale-free dynamics of brain responses.

  2. On the simulation and mitigation of anisoplanatic optical turbulence for long range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Russell C.; LeMaster, Daniel A.

    2017-05-01

    We describe a numerical wave propagation method for simulating long range imaging of an extended scene under anisoplanatic conditions. Our approach computes an array of point spread functions (PSFs) for a 2D grid on the object plane. The PSFs are then used in a spatially varying weighted sum operation, with an ideal image, to produce a simulated image with realistic optical turbulence degradation. To validate the simulation we compare simulated outputs with the theoretical anisoplanatic tilt correlation and differential tilt variance. This is in addition to comparing the long- and short-exposure PSFs, and isoplanatic angle. Our validation analysis shows an excellent match between the simulation statistics and the theoretical predictions. The simulation tool is also used here to quantitatively evaluate a recently proposed block- matching and Wiener filtering (BMWF) method for turbulence mitigation. In this method block-matching registration algorithm is used to provide geometric correction for each of the individual input frames. The registered frames are then averaged and processed with a Wiener filter for restoration. A novel aspect of the proposed BMWF method is that the PSF model used for restoration takes into account the level of geometric correction achieved during image registration. This way, the Wiener filter is able fully exploit the reduced blurring achieved by registration. The BMWF method is relatively simple computationally, and yet, has excellent performance in comparison to state-of-the-art benchmark methods.

  3. Long-range correlations and fractal dynamics in C. elegans: Changes with aging and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Winter, Peter B.; Ferreira, Leonardo N.; Brielmann, Renée M.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2017-08-01

    Reduced motor control is one of the most frequent features associated with aging and disease. Nonlinear and fractal analyses have proved to be useful in investigating human physiological alterations with age and disease. Similar findings have not been established for any of the model organisms typically studied by biologists, though. If the physiology of a simpler model organism displays the same characteristics, this fact would open a new research window on the control mechanisms that organisms use to regulate physiological processes during aging and stress. Here, we use a recently introduced animal-tracking technology to simultaneously follow tens of Caenorhabdits elegans for several hours and use tools from fractal physiology to quantitatively evaluate the effects of aging and temperature stress on nematode motility. Similar to human physiological signals, scaling analysis reveals long-range correlations in numerous motility variables, fractal properties in behavioral shifts, and fluctuation dynamics over a wide range of timescales. These properties change as a result of a superposition of age and stress-related adaptive mechanisms that regulate motility.

  4. Progress with Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation Studies for High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Adriana; et al.

    2017-05-01

    Long-range beam-beam (LRBB) interactions can be a source of emittance growth and beam losses in the LHC during physics and will become even more relevant with the smaller '* and higher bunch intensities foreseen for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade (HL-LHC), in particular if operated without crab cavities. Both beam losses and emittance growth could be mitigated by compensat-ing the non-linear LRBB kick with a correctly placed current carrying wire. Such a compensation scheme is currently being studied in the LHC through a demonstration test using current-bearing wires embedded into col-limator jaws, installed either side of the high luminosity interaction regions. For HL-LHC two options are considered, a current-bearing wire as for the demonstrator, or electron lenses, as the ideal distance between the particle beam and compensating current may be too small to allow the use of solid materials. This paper reports on the ongoing activities for both options, covering the progress of the wire-in-jaw collimators, the foreseen LRBB experiments at the LHC, and first considerations for the design of the electron lenses to ultimately replace material wires for HL-LHC.

  5. Quantifying Long-Range Interactions and Coherent Structure in Multi-Agent Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Oliver M; Lizier, Joseph T; Wang, X Rosalind; Wang, Peter; Obst, Oliver; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    We develop and apply several novel methods quantifying dynamic multi-agent team interactions. These interactions are detected information-theoretically and captured in two ways: via (i) directed networks (interaction diagrams) representing significant coupled dynamics between pairs of agents, and (ii) state-space plots (coherence diagrams) showing coherent structures in Shannon information dynamics. This model-free analysis relates, on the one hand, the information transfer to responsiveness of the agents and the team, and, on the other hand, the information storage within the team to the team's rigidity and lack of tactical flexibility. The resultant interaction and coherence diagrams reveal implicit interactions, across teams, that may be spatially long-range. The analysis was verified with a statistically significant number of experiments (using simulated football games, produced during RoboCup 2D Simulation League matches), identifying the zones of the most intense competition, the extent and types of interactions, and the correlation between the strength of specific interactions and the results of the matches.

  6. Tyrosine oxidation in heme oxygenase: examination of long-range proton-coupled electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Valeriy V; Roth, Justine P

    2014-10-01

    Heme oxygenase is responsible for the degradation of a histidine-ligated ferric protoporphyrin IX (Por) to biliverdin, CO, and the free ferrous ion. Described here are studies of tyrosyl radical formation reactions that occur after oxidizing Fe(III)(Por) to Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) in human heme oxygenase isoform-1 (hHO-1) and the structurally homologous protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (cdHO). Site-directed mutagenesis on hHO-1 probes the reduction of Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) by tyrosine residues within 11 Å of the prosthetic group. In hHO-1, Y58· is implicated as the most likely site of oxidation, based on the pH and pD dependent kinetics. The absence of solvent deuterium isotope effects in basic solutions of hHO-1 and cdHO contrasts with the behavior of these proteins in the acidic solution, suggesting that long-range proton-coupled electron transfer predominates over electron transfer.

  7. Sperm whale long-range echolocation sounds revealed by ANTARES, a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M.; Caballé, A.; van der Schaar, M.; Solsona, A.; Houégnigan, L.; Zaugg, S.; Sánchez, A. M.; Castell, J. V.; Solé, M.; Vila, F.; Djokic, D.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; de Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuñiga, J.

    2017-04-01

    Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet. Interestingly, the same acoustic analysis indicated that the occurrence of surface shipping noise would apparently not condition the foraging behaviour of the sperm whale in the area, since shipping noise was almost always present when sperm whales were acoustically detected. The continuous presence of the sperm whale in the region confirms the ecological value of the Ligurian sea and the importance of ANTARES to help monitoring its ecosystems.

  8. Aberrant Long-Range Temporal Correlations in Depression Are Attenuated after Psychological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Gärtner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous oscillatory activity in the human brain shows long-range temporal correlations (LRTC that extend over time scales of seconds to minutes. Previous research has demonstrated aberrant LRTC in depressed patients; however, it is unknown whether the neuronal dynamics normalize after psychological treatment. In this study, we recorded EEG during eyes-closed rest in depressed patients (N = 71 and healthy controls (N = 25, and investigated the temporal dynamics in depressed patients at baseline, and after attending either a brief mindfulness training or a stress reduction training. Compared to the healthy controls, depressed patients showed stronger LRTC in theta oscillations (4–7 Hz at baseline. Following the psychological interventions both groups of patients demonstrated reduced LRTC in the theta band. The reduction of theta LRTC differed marginally between the groups, and explorative analyses of separate groups revealed noteworthy topographic differences. A positive relationship between the changes in LRTC, and changes in depressive symptoms was observed in the mindfulness group. In summary, our data show that aberrant temporal dynamics of ongoing oscillations in depressive patients are attenuated after treatment, and thus may help uncover the mechanisms with which psychotherapeutic interventions affect the brain.

  9. Long-range rapidity correlations between mean transverse momenta in the model with string fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vechernin Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-range correlation between mean-event transverse momenta, being robust against the volume fluctuations and the details of the centrality determination, enables to obtain the signatures of string fusion at the initial stage of hadronic interaction in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The dependence of the correlation strength between mean-event transverse momenta on the collision centrality and initial energy is analyzed in a simple model with quark-gluon string fusion on the transverse lattice. It is shown that above RHIC energy the dependence reveals the decline of the correlation coefficient for most central collisions, reflecting the attenuation of color field fluctuations due to the string fusion at large string density. It is also found that contrary to the correlation between transverse momenta of single particles the strength of the correlation between mean-event transverse momenta of particles in two separated rapidity intervals is not decreasing with the total number of produced strings, remaining significant even in the case of Pb-Pb collisions, in which the total number of strings can reach several thousand.

  10. Astronomical Constraints on Some Long-Range Models of Modified Gravity

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    Lorenzo Iorio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the corrections to the Newton-Einstein secular precessions of the longitudes of the perihelia of the inner planets, phenomenologically estimated E.V. Pitjeva by fitting almost one century of data with the EPM2004 ephemerides, to constrain some long-range models of modified gravity recently put forth to address the dark energy and dark matter problems. They are the four-dimensional ones obtained with the addition of inverse powers and logarithm of some curvature invariants, and the DGP multidimensional braneworld model. After working out the analytical expressions of the secular perihelion precessions induced by the corrections to the Newtonian potential of such models, we compare them to the estimated extra-rates of perihelia by taking their ratio for different pairs of planets instead of using one perihelion at a time for each planet separately, as done so far in literature. The curvature invariants-based models are ruled out, even by rescaling by a factor 10 the errors in the estimated planetary orbital parameters. Less neat is the situation for the DGP model. Only the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect, not included, as the other exotic models considered here, by Pitjeva in the EPM force models, passes such a test.

  11. Long-range memory and non-Markov statistical effects in human sensorimotor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Yulmetyev, Renat; Emelyanova, Natalya; Hänggi, Peter; Gafarov, Fail; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, the non-Markov statistical processes and long-range memory effects in human sensorimotor coordination are investigated. The theoretical basis of this study is the statistical theory of non-stationary discrete non-Markov processes in complex systems (Phys. Rev. E 62, 6178 (2000)). The human sensorimotor coordination was experimentally studied by means of standard dynamical tapping test on the group of 32 young peoples with tap numbers up to 400. This test was carried out separately for the right and the left hand according to the degree of domination of each brain hemisphere. The numerical analysis of the experimental results was made with the help of power spectra of the initial time correlation function, the memory functions of low orders and the first three points of the statistical spectrum of non-Markovity parameter. Our observations demonstrate, that with the regard to results of the standard dynamic tapping-test it is possible to divide all examinees into five different dynamic types. We have introduced the conflict coefficient to estimate quantitatively the order-disorder effects underlying life systems. The last one reflects the existence of disbalance between the nervous and the motor human coordination. The suggested classification of the neurophysiological activity represents the dynamic generalization of the well-known neuropsychological types and provides the new approach in a modern neuropsychology.

  12. Long-Range Near-Side Angular Correlations in Proton-Proton Interactions in CMS.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Roland, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles emitted in proton-proton collisions at center of mass energies of 0.9, 2.36 and 7TeV over a broad range of pseudorapidity (η) and azimuthal angle (φ) are presented using data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Short-range correlations in ∆η, which are studied in minimum bias events, are characterized using a simple independent cluster parameterization in order to quantify their strength (cluster size) and their extent in η (cluster decay width). Long-range azimuthal correlations are studied more differentially as a function of charged particle multiplicity and particle transverse momentum using a 980nb−1 data set at 7TeV. In high multiplicity events, a pronounced structure emerges in the two-dimensional correlation function for particles in intermediate pT’s of 1-3GeV/c, 2.0 EVO Universe, password "seminar"; Phone Bridge ID: 2330444 Password: 5142

  13. Cooperative Downlink Listening for Low-Power Long-Range Wide-Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungwook Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of the Internet of Things (IoT applications has become more active with the emergence of low-power wide-area network (LPWAN, which has the advantages of low-power and long communication distance. Among the various LPWAN technologies, long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN, or LoRa is considered as the most mature technology. However, since LoRa performs uplink-oriented communication to increase energy efficiency, there is a restriction on the downlink function from the network server to the end devices. In this paper, we propose cooperative downlink listening to solve the fundamental problem of LoRa. In particular, the proposed scheme can be extended to various communication models such as groupcasting and geocasting by combining with the data-centric model. Experiments also show that the proposed technology not only significantly reduces network traffic compared to the LoRa standard, but also guarantees maximum energy efficiency of the LoRa.

  14. Chemical Analysis of Aerosols for Characterization of Long-Range Transport at Mt. Lassen, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Waddell, J. A.; Cliff, S. S.; Perry, K. D.; Kelly, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    Effective regional air pollution regulation requires an understanding of long-range aerosol transport and natural aerosol chemistry. Sample collection was performed at the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sampling site on Mt. Lassen in the Sierra Nevada range at 1755 m elevation. The site is in Northern California at Longitude 121° 34' 40", Latitude 40° 32' 25". Size segregated and time resolved aerosol samples were collected with an 8 DRUM sampler from April 15th to May 24th 2002 as part of the NOAA Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Experiment (ITCT). The samples were analyzed with Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (S-XRF) and Time of Flight mass spectroscopy (TOFMS). The total aerosol concentration exhibits a clear daily cycling of total mass, due to a nighttime down-slope air circulation from the free troposphere. The sulfate peaked in concentration during the night. Elemental data is suggestive of dust transport from continental Asia. The micron size ranges were dominated by nitrate, while the sub-micron size ranges had high levels of sulfate. Chemical analysis shows oceanic influence through strong correlations between methyl sulfonic acid (MSA), iodine, and oxalate. The appearance of the oceanic biogenic tracers in the sub-micron fraction is most likely a result of vertical mixing over the Pacific Ocean. MSA follows a diurnal pattern similar to sulfate, however the differences suggest both an oceanic and continental source for sulfate. The carbon particulate signal did not show any diurnal pattern during the measurement period.

  15. Braiding by Majorana tracking and long-range CNOT gates with color codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litinski, Daniel; von Oppen, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Color-code quantum computation seamlessly combines Majorana-based hardware with topological error correction. Specifically, as Clifford gates are transversal in two-dimensional color codes, they enable the use of the Majoranas' non-Abelian statistics for gate operations at the code level. Here, we discuss the implementation of color codes in arrays of Majorana nanowires that avoid branched networks such as T junctions, thereby simplifying their realization. We show that, in such implementations, non-Abelian statistics can be exploited without ever performing physical braiding operations. Physical braiding operations are replaced by Majorana tracking, an entirely software-based protocol which appropriately updates the Majoranas involved in the color-code stabilizer measurements. This approach minimizes the required hardware operations for single-qubit Clifford gates. For Clifford completeness, we combine color codes with surface codes, and use color-to-surface-code lattice surgery for long-range multitarget CNOT gates which have a time overhead that grows only logarithmically with the physical distance separating control and target qubits. With the addition of magic state distillation, our architecture describes a fault-tolerant universal quantum computer in systems such as networks of tetrons, hexons, or Majorana box qubits, but can also be applied to nontopological qubit platforms.

  16. DROUGHT FORECASTING BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING OF REMOTE SENSING AND LONG-RANGE FORECAST DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rhee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of drought impacts may be achieved through sustainable drought management and proactive measures against drought disaster. Accurate and timely provision of drought information is essential. In this study, drought forecasting models to provide high-resolution drought information based on drought indicators for ungauged areas were developed. The developed models predict drought indices of the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI6 and the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI6. An interpolation method based on multiquadric spline interpolation method as well as three machine learning models were tested. Three machine learning models of Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Extremely Randomized Trees were tested to enhance the provision of drought initial conditions based on remote sensing data, since initial conditions is one of the most important factors for drought forecasting. Machine learning-based methods performed better than interpolation methods for both classification and regression, and the methods using climatology data outperformed the methods using long-range forecast. The model based on climatological data and the machine learning method outperformed overall.

  17. Coherent Many-Body Spin Dynamics in a Long-Range Interacting Ising Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Zeiher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coherent many-body quantum dynamics lies at the heart of quantum simulation and quantum computation. Both require coherent evolution in the exponentially large Hilbert space of an interacting many-body system. To date, trapped ions have defined the state of the art in terms of achievable coherence times in interacting spin chains. Here, we establish an alternative platform by reporting on the observation of coherent, fully interaction-driven quantum revivals of the magnetization in Rydberg-dressed Ising spin chains of atoms trapped in an optical lattice. We identify partial many-body revivals at up to about ten times the characteristic time scale set by the interactions. At the same time, single-site-resolved correlation measurements link the magnetization dynamics with interspin correlations appearing at different distances during the evolution. These results mark an enabling step towards the implementation of Rydberg-atom-based quantum annealers, quantum simulations of higher-dimensional complex magnetic Hamiltonians, and itinerant long-range interacting quantum matter.

  18. Swellable Model POPC/POPG/DHPC Membrane with a Lamellar Long-Range Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2012-02-01

    A physiological relevant biomimetic model membrane is of great necessity for the structural characterization of membrane protein. This presentation will report a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) result on two lipid bicellar series composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(POPC)/1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) and POPC/DHPC/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG). Instead of the multi-lamellae vesicle (MLV) structure observed in zwitterionic POPC/DHPC mixture, the perforated lamellae (PL) structure is found in POPC/POPG/DHPC upon addition of small amount of charged lipid, POPG R=[POPG]/([POPC]+[POPG])=0.01. The PL phase exists from 10 to 60 degree C and the interlamellar spacing (d-spacing) varies from 12.9 to 49.0 nm as the lipid concentration changes from 25 to 7.5% wt where the lamellae still indicate long-range order. The effect of temperature and charge density (R) on structural variation will be discussed in this presentation.

  19. The Art and Science of Long-Range Space Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Long-range space weather forecasts are akin to seasonal forecasts of terrestrial weather. We don t expect to forecast individual events but we do hope to forecast the underlying level of activity important for satellite operations and mission pl&g. Forecasting space weather conditions years or decades into the future has traditionally been based on empirical models of the solar cycle. Models for the shape of the cycle as a function of its amplitude become reliable once the amplitude is well determined - usually two to three years after minimum. Forecasting the amplitude of a cycle well before that time has been more of an art than a science - usually based on cycle statistics and trends. Recent developments in dynamo theory -the theory explaining the generation of the Sun s magnetic field and the solar activity cycle - have now produced models with predictive capabilities. Testing these models with historical sunspot cycle data indicates that these predictions may be highly reliable one, or even two, cycles into the future.

  20. Dynamic Data Filtering of Long-Range Doppler LiDAR Wind Speed Measurements

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    Hauke Beck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Doppler LiDARs have become flexible and versatile remote sensing devices for wind energy applications. The possibility to measure radial wind speed components contemporaneously at multiple distances is an advantage with respect to meteorological masts. However, these measurements must be filtered due to the measurement geometry, hard targets and atmospheric conditions. To ensure a maximum data availability while producing low measurement errors, we introduce a dynamic data filter approach that conditionally decouples the dependency of data availability with increasing range. The new filter approach is based on the assumption of self-similarity, that has not been used so far for LiDAR data filtering. We tested the accuracy of the dynamic data filter approach together with other commonly used filter approaches, from research and industry applications. This has been done with data from a long-range pulsed LiDAR installed at the offshore wind farm ‘alpha ventus’. There, an ultrasonic anemometer located approximately 2.8 km from the LiDAR was used as reference. The analysis of around 1.5 weeks of data shows, that the error of mean radial velocity can be minimised for wake and free stream conditions.