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Sample records for eurasian hobbies falco

  1. Aerial Hunting Techniques and Predation Success of Hobbies Falco subbuteo on Sand Martin Riparia riparia at Breeding Colonies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Probst; H.L. Nemeschkal; M. McGrady; M. Tucakov; T. Szép

    2011-01-01

    Probst R., Nemeschkal H.L., McGrady M., Tucakov M. & Szép T. 2011. Aerial hunting techniques and predation success of Hobbies Falco subbuteo on Sand Martin Riparia riparia at breeding colonies. Ardea 99: 9–16...

  2. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  3. Daily energy expenditure and short-term reproductive costs in free-ranging Eurasian Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, K.I.; Korpimaki, E.; Pen, I.R.; Tolonen, P.

    1. The relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE), measured using the doubly labelled water technique, and flight activity, rate of food delivery, daily mass change and body condition was studied in a population of the Eurasian Kestrel in Finland. Only female Kestrels were recorded for

  4. Hobbies (Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo) versus bats over Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... 2015), we visited Uganda from 29 December 2015 to 7 January 2016. Most of the time we ... morning of 7 January, flying low and at high speed over the houses and gardens of the Kampala suburbs. ... 1982), falcons could easily cover their prey needs by catching bats and dragonflies. However, this is not ...

  5. Hobbies ( Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo ) versus bats over Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Haematozoan infections in the Eurasian kestrel : Effects of fluctuating food supply and experimental manipulation of parental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehn, J.; Korpimaki, E.; Pen, I.R.

    The influence of parental effort on susceptibility to parasitism was investigated experimentally in the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Finland. Parental effort was manipulated by either enlarging or reducing broods by 1-2 young, while unmanipulated broods served as controls. This was done

  7. Nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in the province of Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in Vojvodina (Serbia was done in the period from 1986 to 2004. During three specially analyzed periods, saker falcon took the nests of raven (Corvus corax in 91% of a total of 22 cases of nest occupation, and those of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in only 9%. Saker falcon regularly grabs prey from different birds that occasionally or constantly spend time around power lines [Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, hobby (Falco subbuteo, hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix, jack-daw (Corvus monedula, marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus, hen harrier (Circus cyaneus, buzzard (Buteo buteo, and raven (Corvus corax]. One year a studied pair of saker falcons on a power line in Donji Srem, Serbia grabbed prey from five different species of birds. Out of a total of 40 cases of prey grabbing in the period from January to December, as much 70% of the grabbed prey was taken from kestrel (Falco tinnunculus. During the winter and early spring, prey was grabbed predominantly by males; after May, prey was sometimes grabbed by females as well. Most of the grabbed prey was common vole (Microtus arvalis.

  8. Hobby CNC frézka

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšil, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce slouží jako experimentální ověření 3D návrhu hobby CNC frézky za použití dílů vytisknutých na 3D tiskárně z materiálu ABS. Práce je pojata jako úvod širší veřejnosti do problematiky CNC frézek a 3D tisku a následně jako návod ke konstrukci vlastní frézky. Důraz byl kladen na co nejnižší cenu při zachování dostatečné přesnosti a dostupnost dílů. This diploma thesis serves as experimental proof of real world capabilities of computer designed hobby CNC milling machine wit...

  9. Commissioning a hobby cutting device for radiochromic film preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Somayeh; Francis, Kirby E; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2017-06-01

    In addition to a high spatial resolution and well characterised dose response, one of the major advantages of radiochromic film as a dosimeter is that sheets of film can be cut into pieces suitable for use as calibration films, and for in vivo and phantom measurements. The cutting of film is typically done using scissors or a guillotine, and this process can be time-consuming, limited in precision, requires extensive handling and does not allow holes to be cut from the film without cutting from an existing edge. This study investigated the use of a Brother ScanNCut hobby cutting system for EBT3 film preparation. The optimal operating parameters (blade size, pressure, speed) that resulted in precise cuts with minimal delamination at cut edges were identified using test cutting patterns. These parameters were then used to cut a large film insert for a stereotactic head phantom for comparison against an insert cut with scissors. While the hobby cutting system caused a wider region of delamination at the film edge (1.8 mm) compared to scissors (1 mm), the hobby cutting system was found to be able to produce reproducible cuts more efficiently and more accurately than scissors. The use of the hobby cutting system is recommended for complex phantom inserts (containing sharp corners or holes for alignment rods) or in situations where large numbers of film pieces need to be prepared.

  10. Variation of a carotenoid-based trait in relation to oxidative stress and endocrine status during the breeding season in the Eurasian kestrel: A multi-factorial study

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, S.; Dell'Omo, G.; Costantini, D.; Tagliavini, J.; Groothuis, T.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoid-based skin colorations vary seasonally in many bird species and are thought to be honest sexually selected signals. In order to provide more insight in the potential signal function and underlying mechanisms of such colorations we here quantified patterns of variation of leg coloration in adult male and female Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus) over the breeding season, and evaluated the relationship between coloration and levels of carotenoids, androgens and estroge...

  11. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laaksonen, T.; Negro, J.J.; Lyytinen, S.; Valkama, J.; Ots, I.; Korpimäki, E.

    2008-01-01

    Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs.

  12. New Control System Software for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, T.; Cornell, M. E.; Taylor, C., III; Moreira, W.

    2011-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope at the McDonald Observatory is undergoing a major upgrade to support the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and to facilitate large field systematic emission-line surveys of the universe. An integral part of this upgrade will be the development of a new software control system. Designed using modern object oriented programming techniques and tools, the new software system uses a component architecture that closely models the telescope hardware and instruments, and provides a high degree of configuration, automation and scalability. Here we cover the overall architecture of the new system, plus details some of the key design patterns and technologies used. This includes the utilization of an embedded Python scripting engine, the use of the factory method pattern and interfacing for easy run-time configuration, a flexible communication scheme, the design and use of a centralized logging system, and the distributed GUI architecture.

  13. Nesting biology and food habits of the Peregrine Falcon Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied nesting biology, behaviour, and diet of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus radama in Madagascar during two breeding seasons at Tsimanampetsotsa Natural Reserve in the south-west (n = 2 nests) and at Tritriva Lake (n = 1 nest) on the central plateau from July to November 1999 and June to October 2000, ...

  14. Breeding biology and diet of Banded Kestrels Falco zoniventris on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the breeding biology of the Banded Kestrel (Falco zoniventris) in the forest edge habitat of Masoala Peninsula of north-eastern Madagascar from 1997 to 1999. Banded Kestrels begin their breeding season at the end of the wet season during August and the start of the dry season in September. Courtship began ...

  15. Assessing the diet of Amur Falcon Falco amurensis and Lesser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diets of Falco amurensis and F. naumanni were investigated by analysing the respective stomach contents of 64 and 22 individuals killed during a severe thunderstorm in December 2004. Interpretations of diet were made by considering (1) biomass of dietary items and (2) presence/absence of dietary items in the ...

  16. Analysis of pellets from a suburban Common Kestrel Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of a Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus in a suburban area of Algiers at El Harrach was determined by pellet analysis over two years. In both years, the hybrid sparrow (Passer domesticus x P. hispaniolensis) was the main prey item, based on relative frequency (22.3% and 58.7% in 1999 and 2000, respectively).

  17. Houston Intercontinental and William P. Hobby Air Traffic Control System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a decription of the non-surveillance aspects of the FAA air traffic control facility operation at Houston Intercontinental and William P. Hobby Airports from teh air traffic controller's point of view. It includes photographs of ...

  18. Serratospiculosis in Captive Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Inês B; Schediwy, Marion; Hentrich, Brigitte; Frey, Caroline F; Marreros, Nelson; Stokar-Regenscheit, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    Infection with Serratospiculum species was identified in a captive peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland. Pathologic and parasitologic examination results revealed generalized severe granulomatous airsacculitis, with intralesional adults, larvae, and eggs of Serratospiculum species. Subsequently, an individual coprological analysis of the remaining 15 falcons (peregrine falcons and gyrfalcons [Falco rusticolus]) from the same owner was performed. Eggs of Serratospiculum species (4 birds) and Capillaria species (11 birds), and oocysts of Caryospora species (1 bird) were detected. Treatment with ivermection (2 mg/kg SC) was effective, as none of the falcons excreted Serratospiculum species eggs 10 days after one dose. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infection with Serratospiculum species in captive falcons in Europe.

  19. Diving-Flight Aerodynamics of a Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponitz, Benjamin; Schmitz, Anke; Fischer, Dominik; Bleckmann, Horst; Brücker, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. During a dive peregrines can reach velocities of more than 320 km h⁻¹. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour. Therefore, individual F. peregrinus were trained to dive in front of a vertical dam with a height of 60 m. The presence of a well-defined background...

  20. The Sources and Evolution of Eurasianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Evgenievna Shulika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent time we have been witnessing the progressing Eurasian integration processes based on economic integration. In this context, we see the growing interest to Eurasianism that was approached not in terms of the “cold-head calculations”, but as civilizational, cultural, historical and formational determinism.

  1. The state in the Eurasian doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the state in the Eurasian doctrine, one of the most distinctive and significant movements of the Russian sociological and political-philosophical thought abroad in the 1920-1930’s. The issues addressed by the Eurasians are still relevant under the current epoch of the new Russian statehood construction and to a certain extent are implemented in the contemporary political practice. According to the classical Eurasian doctrine, all nations of “Russia-Eurasia” are united by the “place of development” and constitute a single historical and socio-cultural world, which organically combines elements of the East and the West. The Eurasian doctrine of the state proclaims the idea of strong government and powerful state, which represents the interests of the people and maintains direct connections with its citizens by combining the law and justice principles with the norms of morality, welfare and conscience. The article examines the key Eurasian concept “ideocratic state” and the essential characteristics of the Eurasian concept of the state system, such as ideocracy, autarchy, idea-ruler, and ruling selection. The key state-forming concept is “Pan-Eurasian nationalism” interpreted by the Eurasians as an archetype of ideology, a basis of the national idea. The authors consider basic principles of the socio-economic structure of the Eurasian state, including active participation of the state in the economic life of the country, the coexistence of public and private properties. According to the Eurasian doctrine, the state-planned economy and the state regulation of culture form the foundations of autarchic states that protect the country from economic and humanitarian intervention. The authors come to the conclusion that Eurasian theory of the state can significantly enrich nowadays scientific theory and help to solve the tasks of modernization of the Russian society at the present stage for it takes

  2. Upper respiratory tract infection caused by Cryptosporidium baileyi in three mixed-bred falcons (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Y R A; Schoemaker, N J; Kik, M J L; van der Giessend, J W B

    2008-06-01

    Three mixed-bred raptors (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) from a German falcon breeder were presented with a history of respiratory distress. In one bird a laryngeal stridor was noted, and oral examination revealed an epiglottal swelling. In the other two birds, nasal discharge and sneezing were the main clinical symptoms. Nasal flushing samples and biopsies were collected for pathologic, bacteriologic, and parasitologic examination. Results confirmed a cryptosporidial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA analysis identified the causative agent to be Cryptosporidium baileyi. No cryptosporidia were detected in fecal samples, indicating the infection was confined to the respiratory system. Analysis of prey animals (pigeons, quail) failed to identify the source of infection. Treatment was initiated with paromomycin in all three birds, whereas in two birds an additional therapy with azithromycin was given. However, no clinical improvement was seen after several weeks of treatment, and the birds either died or were euthanatized. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first confirmed cases of disease caused by cryptosporidia in the order of Falconiformes.

  3. Serious play: A comparative study of engagement and learning in hobby practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Flavio Saraiva

    This dissertation is concerned with human behavior usually attributed to individual interests. As conceptualized in experimental and educational psychology, an individual interest refers to a particular relationship (called an interest relationship) between a person and a set of topically related activities. Interest relationships are self-motivated, long-term, and relatively stable, though they might change over time. As an example, a teenager's enduring and self-motivated involvement with model rocketry reflects her individual interest in the topic or domain of rocketry. As an alternative to this formulation, I develop a practice-centered theory of persistent engagement---or, simply, a theory of persistence---in free-choice, self-motivated practices. Taken together, self-motivated, long-term persistence in a free-choice practice refers exactly to the same set of phenomena that is the purview of psychological theories of individual interests. Hobbies are prototypic of free-choice, self-motivated, extended pursuit practices and therefore are the focal object of study of this dissertation. The centerpiece of the theory I put forward is the grounded theoretical concept of lines of practice. A line of practice is a distinctive, recurrent pattern of engagement in a person's continued pursuit of a hobby. To return to the example above, our rocketry buff might have three lines of practice in her hobby---one related to designing and flying unusual rockets, the other related to designing and flying high-powered rockets, and yet a third line concerned with designing and flying low-powered models. Any particular line of practice entails a set of closely interrelated activities. For instance, designing and flying high-powered rockets might entail visiting particular hobby stores, becoming a member of particular rocketry clubs, and engaging in construction work. Designing and flying unusual rockets, on the other hand, might entail some very different activities (e

  4. MOLDOVA: MISSED ADVANTAGES OF EURASIAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Vasiljevna Fokina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to potentially missed advantages of Eurasian integration (EAEU for Moldova. Special attention is given to the branches in which the country could get evident advantages including agriculture, power engineering, external trade ties with the EAEU countries. Possible positive effects of Eurasian integration in solution of the Transnistrian problem, in the sphere of labour migration and other fields are also shown.

  5. 1980 raptor survey: The breeding peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) population of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of the breeding peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) population was made on Amchitka Island, Alaska, during the 1980 summer field season. The survey was...

  6. Hobby with Biochemistry: Use of active learning methodology in Biochemistry at the Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R.T. Prado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: The learning of Biochemistry is generally considered difficult by the graduates, because studies the molecular level the metabolism of living and it demands a great capacity for abstraction by students. Thus, researchers have tried alternative methods to provid an alternative study method. Materials and methods: 178 students of the School of Medicine, PUC-PR, that course the disciplines of Medical Biochemistry I and II, were divided into 50 groups, each with 3-4 students, and were have to draw up a hobby activity with a specific theme of the Biochemistry. The selected topics were, amino acids and proteins, enzymes, cellular respiration, glycogen metabolism, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, metabolic integration, dyslipidemia and atherogenesis, pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, mechanisms of diabetes mellitus complications. The hobby activities chosen were direct, duplex, self-defined, cryptogram, bugs game. Both issues such as the type of hobby was drawn between groups. The groups had to: elaborate hobby; presents it to class orally, applying the questions prepared; printing and expose the hobby at the wall in the University; answer an evaluation regarding the preparation of work; and all groups should get together and organize one titled magazine "Hobby with Biochemistry" and deliver it printed. Results and conclusions: According the groups, the greatest difficulty was the adequacy of the questions posed in the required format, once they had only one issue and restricted space for the responses. Furthermore, the formatting was also identified as a point very difficult in activity elaboration. On the topic of learning through the development of work, and/or a new skill groups assigned grades ranging between 7.0 and 10.0 and about 90% of the groups attributed note 10 on satisfaction of seeing the work done and its ability to produce it. According to the results, the activity proved to be

  7. Diet composition of syntopically breeding falcon species Falco vespertinus and Falco tinnunculus in south-western Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulis Filip

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-footed falcon and Eurasian falcon represent two syntopical falcon species. While the Eurasian falcon is considered a common and numerous species in Slovakia, the red-footed falcon population has undergone a considerable decline during the past few decades. Nowadays it nests in a single locality in Slovakia, the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area, which forms the northern and fragmented border of the species distribution area in Europe. By analysing prey remains from 9 nests (from 1998, 2001, 2013, 2014 and 2016, we identified 433 prey items belonging to 35 taxa and 9 orders. Every year, invertebrates made up the major part of the diet spectrum, in which Calosoma auropunctatum, Tettigonia viridissima, Zabrus tenebrioides, Anisoplia aegetum and Rhizotrogus sp. were the most frequent species of prey. Of the vertebrates, Microtus arvalis was the most hunted prey species. By supplementary analysis of 21 photos, we extended our knowledge on the diet by other 6 taxa. The peak of the M. arvalis population growth in 2014 did not manifest itself in the red-footed falcon diet composition. In 1998, 2014 and 2016 we also studied the diet of a syntopical species, the Eurasian kestrel. By analysing prey remains in 22 nests, we identified 1,151 prey items belonging to 37 taxa and 7 orders. In 1998 and 2014 vertebrates predominated, especially the common vole, however in 2016 invertebrates prevailed. This fact could be a reaction to the M. arvalis population peak in 2014 and its decline in 2016. These results suggest that this variability in the foraging behaviour of the Eurasian kestrel, an opportunistic predator, during the hunting of invertebrates increases the diet similarity and overlapping of the food niche of both studied falcon species.

  8. Woodworking injuries: a comparative study of work-related and hobby-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Keeping venomous snakes in the Netherlands: a harmless hobby or a public health threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, P J J; Slobbe, L; Koene, H; Mastenbroek, R D L; Overbosch, D

    2013-10-01

    To describe the incidence of venomous snakebites and the hospital treatment thereof (if any) amongst private individuals who keep venomous snakes as a hobby. Descriptive study. Private keepers of venomous snakes were invited via the social media Facebook, Hyves, Twitter, Google Plus, Linked In and two large discussion forums to fill in an online questionnaire on a purely voluntary and anonymous basis. In the period from 1 September 2012 to 31 December 2012, 86 questionnaires were completed by individuals who keep venomous snakes as a hobby. One-third of the venomous snake keepers stated that they had at some point been bitten by a venomous snake. Out of those, two-thirds needed hospital treatment and one-third of those bitten required at least one, sometimes more, doses of antiserum. The chances of being bitten increased the more venomous snakes a person kept. An inventory of the collections of venomous snakes being kept further revealed that no antiserum exists for 16 of the species, including for the most commonly held venomous snake, the coral cobra. Keeping venomous snakes as a hobby is not without danger. Although in the majority of snakebite cases no antiserum had to be administered, there is nevertheless a significant risk of morbidity and sequelae. Preventing snakebites in the first place remains the most important safety measure since there are no antiserums available for a substantial number of venomous snakes.

  10. Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent.

  11. Falco: a quick and flexible single-cell RNA-seq processing framework on the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Andrian; Troup, Michael; Lin, Peijie; Ho, Joshua W K

    2017-03-01

    Single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) is increasingly used in a range of biomedical studies. Nonetheless, current RNA-seq analysis tools are not specifically designed to efficiently process scRNA-seq data due to their limited scalability. Here we introduce Falco, a cloud-based framework to enable paralellization of existing RNA-seq processing pipelines using big data technologies of Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark for performing massively parallel analysis of large scale transcriptomic data. Using two public scRNA-seq datasets and two popular RNA-seq alignment/feature quantification pipelines, we show that the same processing pipeline runs 2.6-145.4 times faster using Falco than running on a highly optimized standalone computer. Falco also allows users to utilize low-cost spot instances of Amazon Web Services, providing a ∼65% reduction in cost of analysis. Falco is available via a GNU General Public License at https://github.com/VCCRI/Falco/. j.ho@victorchang.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. The whole mitochondrial genome of the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Hui-Feng; Ren, Li; Xu, Yu; Zeng, Yu-Jian; Miao, Ying-Lei; Luo, Hua-You; Wang, Kun-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Falconiformes include most of the predatory birds, they play crucial role in maintaining the balance of ecology system. To further illustrate the phylogenetic status for the species of Falconiformes, the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome of Falco naumanni was amplified and sequenced, further phylogenetic analysis was performed by incorporating with other 8 entire mtDNA genomes representing 8 species of predatory birds by taking the Apus apus and Haematopus ater as out-groups. Our results indicated that the mtDNA genome of F. naumanni includes 17,370 base pairs in length, which has the similar organization and gene order with other mtDNA genomes of the species belonging to Falconiformes. Further phylogenetic analyses supported that the F. naumanni clustered with other species of Falconidae, which formed the sister group of Accipitridae, Cathartes aura located at the basal position with Haematopus ater. In addition, Pandion haliaetus was clustered with other species of Accipitridae, which was conflict with the traditional classification system by taking P. haliaetus as an independent Familia of Falconidae.

  13. Generalized Tetanus in a Gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) with Pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Laniesse, Delphine; Stickings, Paul; Tierney, Robert; Sesardic, Thea; Slavic, Durda; Compo, Nicole; Smith, Dale A

    2016-12-01

    A 2-yr-old male gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) was presented for severe and generalized muscle spasticity and pododermatitis. The falcon had been treated for pododermatitis over the previous 4 mo. Muscle rigidity and spasms involved the entire bird but were more severe on the right leg. The bird was also tachypneic and hyperthermic at 45 C. While the plantar pododermatitis lesions had healed, there was still a small abscess on the lateral aspect of the right foot. Clinical signs were consistent with tetanus. Several bacteria were isolated from the abscess including Clostridium tetani . The isolate was confirmed to be toxigenic by PCR. Attempts to detect tetanus toxin in the bird's plasma were unsuccessful. The abscess was debrided. The gyrfalcon received equine tetanus antitoxin, intravenous metronidazole, methocarbamol, midazolam, a constant-rate infusion of Fentanyl, active cooling, and supportive care. Inhalant anesthesia with isoflurane was the only treatment that would lower the body temperature and reduce the clinical signs. The gyrfalcon died a few hours after admission. The characteristic clinical signs and isolation of toxigenic C. tetani from a wound were strong supportive evidence for a diagnosis of tetanus. This case constitutes the first reported natural occurrence of tetanus in an avian species. Further information is needed to determine whether gyrfalcons are more susceptible to tetanus than are other avian species and whether pododermatitis lesions may be risk factors.

  14. Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes preying upon Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.

  15. Flavonoid variation in Eurasian Sedum and Sempervivum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.F; 't Hart, H; Elema, E.T; Bolck, A

    Flavonoids from vegetative parts of 29 species of Eurasian Sedum, Sedum meyeri-johannis from central East Africa, 34 species of Sempervivum, and Jovibarba heuffelii have been identified after acid hydrolysis. Ten flavonoid aglycones were detected, i.e. kaempferol, herbacetin, sexangularetin,

  16. To the Question of the Eurasian Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Akhmedova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyses the main directions and perspectives of cooperation among member countries of CIS in the framework of Eurasian Organization. The potential of this cooperation is great, but realization of this potential demands considerable efforts from the participants of the process.

  17. The Eurasian Knowledge-based Economy Formation in the Eurasian Economic Union Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Sapir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is an intensification of integration processes in the global economy. Integration is an effective tool to overcome the modern challenges and threats. However, for the effective countries and regions integration in the global economy it requires the active development of innovation processes along with the integration processes. On the 29th of May, 2014 in Astana the Treaty establishing the Eurasian Economic Union was signed by the Presidents of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, and entered into force on the First of January 2015. In this regard, the article analyzes the foundations of the knowledge economy concept. Moreover, it researches the emergence of the Eurasian knowledge economy in several stages using the statistical data and the index method. The article suggests that the Eurasian Economic Union has a significant potential for the development of the Eurasian regional knowledge economy and proposes a number of measures for successful formation of it. International legal formalization of the process can become Eurasian Convention in the field of the knowledge economy. This article expands the understanding of the prospects of integration and innovation processes within the Eurasian Economic Union.

  18. Hobby-Eberly Telescope Optical Transmission Spectroscopy of the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Adam G.; Redfield, Seth; Cauley, Paul W.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Transmission spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres is an extremely useful tool that can be used for understanding exoplanetary composition as well as potentially revealing star-planet interactions from radiation, magnetic fields, and more. The hot Jupiter planet WASP-12b is interesting in that it is very close to its star (0.02 AU), has a large calculated scale height, has had water and metals detected in its atmosphere, and has had varying observational and theoretical constraints placed on its C/O ratio. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical transmission spectrum of WASP-12b taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Our data covers the optical wavelength range from approximately 4800 to 6850 Angstroms. Most notably this includes two Balmer lines of hydrogen (H-alpha at 6563 Angstroms and H-beta at 4861 Angstroms) and the sodium D doublet (at 5890 and 5896 Angstroms). Due to the relative faintness of the system's central star and different instrumental settings, the analysis involves several challenges that are not present in previous transmission spectroscopy observations with the HET.This work is supported by NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant 14-XRP14_2-0090 to the University of Nebraska-Kearney. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, and Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen and is named in honor of its principal benefactors, William P. Hobby and Robert E. Eberly.

  19. Diving-flight aerodynamics of a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponitz, Benjamin; Schmitz, Anke; Fischer, Dominik; Bleckmann, Horst; Brücker, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. During a dive peregrines can reach velocities of more than 320 km h⁻¹. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour. Therefore, individual F. peregrinus were trained to dive in front of a vertical dam with a height of 60 m. The presence of a well-defined background allowed us to reconstruct the flight path and the body shape of the falcon during certain flight phases. Flight trajectories were obtained with a stereo high-speed camera system. In addition, body images of the falcon were taken from two perspectives with a high-resolution digital camera. The dam allowed us to match the high-resolution images obtained from the digital camera with the corresponding images taken with the high-speed cameras. Using these data we built a life-size model of F. peregrinus and used it to measure the drag and lift forces in a wind-tunnel. We compared these forces acting on the model with the data obtained from the 3-D flight path trajectory of the diving F. peregrinus. Visualizations of the flow in the wind-tunnel uncovered details of the flow structure around the falcon's body, which suggests local regions with separation of flow. High-resolution pictures of the diving peregrine indicate that feathers pop-up in the equivalent regions, where flow separation in the model falcon occurred.

  20. Diving-flight aerodynamics of a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ponitz

    Full Text Available This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. During a dive peregrines can reach velocities of more than 320 km h⁻¹. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour. Therefore, individual F. peregrinus were trained to dive in front of a vertical dam with a height of 60 m. The presence of a well-defined background allowed us to reconstruct the flight path and the body shape of the falcon during certain flight phases. Flight trajectories were obtained with a stereo high-speed camera system. In addition, body images of the falcon were taken from two perspectives with a high-resolution digital camera. The dam allowed us to match the high-resolution images obtained from the digital camera with the corresponding images taken with the high-speed cameras. Using these data we built a life-size model of F. peregrinus and used it to measure the drag and lift forces in a wind-tunnel. We compared these forces acting on the model with the data obtained from the 3-D flight path trajectory of the diving F. peregrinus. Visualizations of the flow in the wind-tunnel uncovered details of the flow structure around the falcon's body, which suggests local regions with separation of flow. High-resolution pictures of the diving peregrine indicate that feathers pop-up in the equivalent regions, where flow separation in the model falcon occurred.

  1. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  2. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hård af Segerstad, Carl; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Ingemar Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway a...

  3. Atmospheric controls on Eurasian snow extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Serreze, Mark C.; Robinson, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Composite analyses, based on weekly snow-cover charts, temperature, sea level pressure, cyclone tracks and a rotated PCA of daily filtered 700 hPa geopotential height are used to examine relationships between the dominant modes of low-frequency atmospheric variability and mid-winter snow extent over the Eurasian continent. Two of the circulation modes examined have been identified previously and represent the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Eurasian Type 1 (EU1) pattern. A third, termed the Siberian pattern (SIB), has not been identified previously, and describes variability in 700 hPa height over central Asia and southern Siberia. The most coherent snow-cover signals occur in the transient snow regions over Europe and south-western Asia, where variations in snow extent are largely controlled by temperature. Snow signals in east Asia are difficult to explain, but appear to be primarily determined by the availability of precipitation. For the NAO, snow-cover signals are largely restricted to central Europe. This result is initially surprising, as the NAO is associated with large temperature anomalies over a large part of the Eurasian continent. However, east of the Ural Mountains temperature anomalies in NAO extremes are confined to northern regions where mean temperatures are well below freezing, and air temperatures have little influence on snow extent. In extremes of the EU1 and SIB patterns, significant snow-cover signals are found in south-western Asia, where variability in the amplitude of the Eurasian wave train results in large differences in air temperature and cyclone activity over the transient snow regions. No coherent snow-cover signals are associated with extremes of the Siberian High.

  4. Home range and habitat utilization of breeding male merlins, Falco columbarius, in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale M. Becker; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1987-01-01

    Home range size and habitat utilization of three breeding male Richardson’s Merlins (Falco columbarius richardsonii) in southeastern Montana were studied using radio telemetry. Home ranges of these birds encompassed 13,23, and 28 km2. Each bird traveled up to 9 km from its nest. Each home range encompassed five habitats;...

  5. Intermittent gliding in the hunting flight of the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, J.J.; Weihs, D.; Daan, S.

    1983-01-01

    The hunting flight of the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) consists of short bouts of flight at wind speed against the wind with the eyes in a fixed position relative to the ground, and of short flights from one such position to the next. High speed films taken with a camera in a fixed position of a

  6. Habitat utilization and prey selection of the kestrel Falco tinnunculus in relation to small mammal abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, S.; Nieder, L.; Di Minin, E.; La Fata, I.; Csermely, D.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined habitat utilization and prey selection by the kestrel Falco tinnunculus in an area of cultivated farmland in Italy, along with field estimates of small mammal abundance. Kestrel males were radiotagged and ranging behaviour and diet were recorded. Kestrels actively selected

  7. ENERGY-REQUIREMENTS FOR MOLT IN THE KESTREL FALCO-TINNUNCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIETZ, MW; DAAN, S; MASMAN, D

    1992-01-01

    We estimated energy requirements for plumage replacement in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) by comparing O2 consumption Vo2 and metabolizable energy intake during molt and nonmolt. The energy expenditure for feather synthesis (S) as derived from the regression of basal metabolic rate (BMR) on molt

  8. Putin’s Third Term: The Triumph of Eurasianism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pryce

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of the Russian Federation's 2012 presidential election, Vladimir Putin expressed his support for the establishment of a functioning Eurasian Union by 2015. This article attempts to demonstrate that this Eurasian push, taken in context together with a number of other policies and programs pursued by Putin and Dmitri Medvedev, reflects a shift in Russian identity politics towards neo-Eurasianism. In doing so, the potential weaknesses of neo-Eurasianism as an identity framework for the whole of Russian society will be highlighted, indicating that the further centralization of political authority with the core (Moscow will only exacerbate grievances in the regions of the periphery.

  9. Sport, free time and hobbies in people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, P; Mazzarella, F; Pagliacci, M C; Aito, S; Agosti, M; Franceschini, M

    2012-06-01

    Prospective, multicenter follow-up (F-U) observational study. To investigate the changes in participation and sports practice of people after spinal cord injury (SCI) and their impact on perceived quality of life (QoL). The questionnaire investigated the health status and management of clinical conditions and attendance of social integration, occupation, autonomy, car driving, sentimental relationships and perceived QoL in a SCI population 4 years after the first rehabilitation hospitalization. Respondents were 403, 83.4% male; 39% was tetraplegic. At F-U, 42.1% worked and studied, 42.2% still held their jobs or studies, and 69% drove the car. In all, 77.2% had bowel continence and 40.4% urinary continence. The results showed that for the 68.2% of respondents, the attendance of friends, relatives and colleagues during their free time was the same or increased compared with the time before the injury, whereas 31.8% showed a decrease. The amount of time the 52.1% of respondents left home was the same or increased compared with before the trauma, whereas 50.6% of the respondents said that the time they were engaged in hobbies was either the same or increased. SCI people who perceived their QoL as being higher, and whose attendance, autonomy and time was increased in respect to hobbies, were mainly men with an age range between 36 and 40 years, unmarried, paraplegic and with A-B Asia Score. Regarding the amount of time dedicated to practicing sports, the only difference was the most of that respondents, who indicated a decrease, were women.

  10. Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Fargallo, Juan A.

    2008-05-01

    Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. We also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased kestrel density and a second grassland as control area to evaluate the direct or indirect effect on skylark abundance. We also considered two different habitats, grazed and ungrazed plots. If skylark abundance decreased as the kestrel breeding season progressed in high-density kestrel area compared with the control area, it would suggest a direct effect (predator hypothesis). If skylark abundance remains constant in both areas of contrasting kestrel density, it would suggest that skylarks avoid kestrels (avoidance hypothesis). We found that skylark abundance decreased in the kestrel area from the beginning of kestrel nest-box installation to recent years. The rate of skylark consumption decreased in a 9-year period as kestrel abundance increased, although the total amount skylark consumption did not show a decreasing trend. In addition, skylarks were more abundant in the kestrel-free area than in the kestrel area. Finally, we found that skylark abundance did not change through the kestrel breeding period in relation to grazing. We suggest that an increased breeding density of kestrels during their breeding period may force the skylarks to breed in other areas, which may explain the decline of their abundance.

  11. EURASIAN CUSTOMS UNION – ANALYSES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa-Nicoleta PINCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Globalization the process of integration is speeded and taken to a different level. After the EU model, we are facing now with different entities trying to copy this model and adjusting it to their needs. Such a project is the Eurasian Customs Union, a project which has only recently come into being. The present paper will analyze the driven forces behind this and its capacity to fully function as a customs union before the year 2020- the time limit set by the Russian President Vladimir Putin.

  12. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing

  13. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase in the a......Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...... in the average thickness of eggshells over the period of 0.19% per year, corresponding to a change in eggshell thinning from 13.9% in 1972 to 7.8% in 2003. Backwards extrapolation of the data, suggests that the Greenlandic Peregrine population probably was never critically affected by DDT-induced eggshell...

  14. Assessing the importance of High Nature Value farmlands for the conservation of Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni

    OpenAIRE

    Galanaki Antonia; Kominos Theodoros; Jones Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural areas, such as cereal cultivations, that support species of European and/or national conservation concern are considered as ‘High Nature Value’ farmlands (HNVf) and are very important for the preservation of biodiversity in Europe. The lesser kestrel Falco naumanni is a migratory falcon breeding largely in the HNVf of the Mediterranean basin. The main cause of its decline in Europe has been habitat loss and degradation as a result of agricultural intensification driven largely by...

  15. Temporal Changes in Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) Diet During the Breeding Season in Southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Carlos; Tapia, Luis; Kieny, Florian; Bustamante, Javier

    2010-01-01

    We examined changes in diet composition during the breeding period for the endangered Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni). Pellets were collected weekly from the last week of March until the first week of July in a colony located in southwestern Spain. Diet composition was evaluated in terms of frequency of occurrence of different prey, mean prey weight, and prey richness of each pellet. Generalized additive models were used to analyze the predictive ability of calendar w...

  16. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  17. Software Development for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's Segment Alignment Maintenance System using LABView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Drew P.; Ly, William; Howard, Richard T.; Weir, John; Rakoczy, John; Roe, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The software development for an upgrade to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) was done in LABView. In order to improve the performance of the HET at the McDonald Observatory, a closed-loop system had to be implemented to keep the mirror segments aligned during periods of observation. The control system, called the Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMs), utilized inductive sensors to measure the relative motions of the mirror segments. Software was developed in LABView to tie the sensors, operator interface, and mirror-control motors together. Developing the software in LABView allowed the system to be flexible, understandable, and able to be modified by the end users. Since LABView is built using block diagrams, the software naturally followed the designed control system's block and flow diagrams, and individual software blocks could be easily verified. LABView's many built-in display routines allowed easy visualization of diagnostic and health-monitoring data during testing. Also, since LABView is a multi-platform software package, different programmers could develop the code remotely on various types of machines. LABView s ease of use facilitated rapid prototyping and field testing. There were some unanticipated difficulties in the software development, but the use of LABView as the software "language" for the development of SAMs contributed to the overall success of the project.

  18. Art, auto-mechanics, and supramolecular chemistry. A merging of hobbies and career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric V. Anslyn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While the strict definition of supramolecular chemistry is “chemistry beyond the molecule”, meaning having a focus on non-covalent interactions, the field is primarily associated with the creation of synthetic receptors and self-assembly. For synthetic ease, the receptors and assemblies routinely possess a high degree of symmetry, which lends them an aspect of aesthetic beauty. Pictures of electron orbitals similarly can be seen as akin to works of art. This similarity was an early draw for me to the fields of supramolecular chemistry and molecular orbital theory, because I grew up in a household filled with art. In addition to art, my childhood was filled with repairing and constructing mechanical entities, such as internal combustion motors, where many components work together to achieve a function. Analogously, the field of supramolecular chemistry creates systems of high complexity that achieve functions or perform tasks. Therefore, in retrospect a career in supramolecular chemistry appears to be simply an extension of childhood hobbies involving art and auto-mechanics.

  19. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  20. 76 FR 12995 - In the Matter of Certain Radio Control Hobby Transmitters and Receivers and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,391,320, U.S. Copyright Reg. No. TX-7-226-001, and U.S. Trademark Reg. No. 3,080,770. The amended complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States... control hobby transmitters and receivers and products containing same that infringe U.S. Trademark Reg. No...

  1. Raptors in the State Nature Reserve “Kerzhensky” After Forest Fires of 2010: Materials of Five-Year Monitoring of a Summer Bird Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Noskova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of five-year monitoring data on summer bird population in the Nature Reserve “Kerzhensky” after the catastrophic fires of 2010, a spatial distribution of raptors was analyzed (mainly birds of prey – Falconiformes. Main types of habitats were surveyed using line transect counts. In total 17 species of raptors were observed. Abundance of each species is presented here. Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo and Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo were the most common species of raptors in the Nature Reserve.

  2. Regional energy projects in the Eurasian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Dobrica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian area has a very rich energy reserves, and is characterized by a complex network of relationships between major suppliers and consumers. The central place in this area has Russia as a country richest in energy resources in Eurasia. Beside her, the European Union is the largest economic and political grouping in the world, and a huge consumer of energy. The dynamic development of Chinese economy requires more energy imports by China. Dependence of the European Union and China on imported energy is high and will grow in the future. Russia is the world's dominant natural gas producer and one of the two largest oil producers in the world. Russia is the largest natural gas supplier of the EU and a significant oil and natural gas supplier of China. Energy projects in Eurasia are the result of the need to strengthen the stability of energy supplies, efforts to diversify sources of supply, and the geographic redistribution of Russian oil and gas exports. Although the interests of the main actors often do not agree, the reasons of energy security affect the development of joint energy projects.

  3. Eurasian Union on the Viewpoint of China: Geopolitical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about geopolitical strategic analyze of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s “Eurasian Union” strategy from Chinese viewpoint. The article describes historical background of Eurasian Union, its geopolitical purposes, achievements and weakness, particularly from China's national strategic design and stance of Central Asia in Eurasian Continent. The geopolitical analysis of possibility for Sino-Russian Alliance and realistic difficulties of it are provided. Different point of Chinese experts on Russia-West relations are given. Some of them believe that he Warsaw Pact and the Cold War revival in the CIS, its purpose is to play as geopolitical blunders against the Western countries under the leadership of NATO, IMF and the United States. While others, take into consideration the US-Russian Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, and Russia’s actively participation in the former Group of Eight, accession to WTO and other initiatives that indicates the current Moscow is not the Soviet Union, and does not exclude cooperation with existing international system dominated by the Western world. And finally, China's own Eurasian strategy design is represented, especially China’s foreign policy options on Central Asia as solutions to some current existing geopolitical differences between China and Russia’s own Eurasian Strategy in order to achieve mutual win-set goal.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus (Aves, Falconiformes, Falconidae): genetic differences between the two individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Lee, Jin Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2012-04-01

    The peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus (Aves, Falconiformes, Falconidae) is one of the most common and widespread raptor species in the world. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of F. peregrinus from Korea, which is one of the breeding ranges, was sequenced and characterized in detail.

  5. Beyond frontiers: Ancient Rome and the Eurasian trade networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Galli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the 19th century, the Roman Empire was already considered one of the key players inside the Eurasian networks. This research focuses on four relevant points. From a historiographical perspective, the reconstruction of the trading routes represented a central theme in the history of the relationship between the Roman Empire and the Far East. Imagining a plurality of itineraries and combinations of overland and sea routes, it is possible to reconstruct a complex reality in which the Eurasian networks during the Early Roman Empire developed. As far as economics is concerned, new documentation demonstrates the wide range and the extraordinary impact of the Eastern products on Roman markets. A final focus on the process of Chinese silk unravelling and reweaving provides an important clue on how complex and absolutely not mono-directional were the interactions and the exchanges in the Eurasian networks during the first centuries of the Roman Empire.

  6. VIRUS: production and deployment of a massively replicated fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Drory, Niv; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian L.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Kelz, Andreas; Haynes, Dionne; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Gebhardt, Karl; Allen, Richard D.; Anwad, Heiko; Bender, Ralf; Blanc, Guillermo; Chonis, Taylor; Cornell, Mark E.; Dalton, Gavin; Good, John; Jahn, Thomas; Kriel, Hermanus; Landriau, Martin; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Murphy, J. D.; Peterson, Trent W.; Prochaska, Travis; Nicklas, Harald; Ramsey, Jason; Roth, M. M.; Savage, Richard D.; Snigula, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) consists of a baseline build of 150 identical spectrographs (arrayed as 75 unit pairs) fed by 33,600 fibers, each 1.5 arcsec diameter, at the focus of the upgraded 10 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS has a fixed bandpass of 350-550 nm and resolving power R~700. VIRUS is the first example of industrial-scale replication applied to optical astronomy and is capable of surveying large areas of sky, spectrally. The VIRUS concept offers significant savings of engineering effort, cost, and schedule when compared to traditional instruments. The main motivator for VIRUS is to map the evolution of dark energy for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), using 0.8M Lyman-α emitting galaxies as tracers. The full VIRUS array is due to be deployed starting at the end of 2014 and will provide a powerful new facility instrument for the HET, well suited to the survey niche of the telescope, and will open up large area surveys of the emission line universe for the first time. VIRUS is in full production, and we are about half way through. We review the production design, lessons learned in reaching volume production, and preparation for deployment of this massive instrument. We also discuss the application of the replicated spectrograph concept to next generation instrumentation on ELTs.

  7. VIRUS: first deployment of the massively replicated fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Lee, Hanshin; Drory, Niv; Kelz, Andreas; Ramsey, Jason; Peterson, Trent W.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Chonis, Taylor; Dalton, Gavin; Farrow, Daniel; Good, John M.; Haynes, Dionne M.; Indahl, Briana L.; Jahn, Thomas; Kriel, Hermanus; Montesano, Francesco; Nicklas, Harald; Noyola, Eva; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Bender, Ralf; Blanc, Guillermo; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Finkelstein, Steve; Landriau, Martin; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Roth, M. M.; Savage, R. D.; Snigula, Jan M.; Anwad, Heiko

    2016-08-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) consists of 156 identical spectrographs (arrayed as 78 pairs) fed by 35,000 fibers, each 1.5 arcsec diameter, at the focus of the upgraded 10 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS has a fixed bandpass of 350-550 nm and resolving power R 700. VIRUS is the first example of industrial-scale replication applied to optical astronomy and is capable of surveying large areas of sky, spectrally. The VIRUS concept offers significant savings of engineering effort, cost, and schedule when compared to traditional instruments. The main motivator for VIRUS is to map the evolution of dark energy for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX‡), using 0.8M Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies as tracers. The VIRUS array is undergoing staged deployment during 2016 and 2017. It will provide a powerful new facility instrument for the HET, well suited to the survey niche of the telescope, and will open up large spectroscopic surveys of the emission line universe for the first time. We will review the production, lessons learned in reaching volume production, characterization, and first deployment of this massive instrument.

  8. Perancangan Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Seleksi Penerimaan Karyawan Dengan Metode Simple Additive Weighting (SAW (Studi Kasus Toko Markas Hobby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadi Rosadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection process for new employees at the Markas Hobby is still done manually, the application file new candidates will be evaluated by comparing the file contents with the specified criteria. Selection of the files that meet the criteria then continued with the interview process. The series of processes followed by a series written the tests, including psychological tests, tests of academic potential and so on. Statements this thesis aims to build a Decision Support System Selection Recruitment of new uses Simple Additive weighting method (SAW. This method was chosen because it can determine the weight values for each attribute, and then proceed with the ranking process that will select the best alternative from several alternatives, In this case, the alternative is entitled to be accepted as a new employee in accordance with criteria specified. In developing this application writer use the method of RUP (Rational Unified Process, with Descriptive Research Methodology and Action Research Methodology. While the system implementation using PHP programming language and MySQL as the database. The decision support system may help section Recruitment in making decisions for the recruitment process at Markas Hobby more easily and quickly.

  9. Russia in the context of Eurasian integration: The social dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G I Osadchaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of empirical data (a number of representative nationwide opinion polls and expert estimates the article presented a detailed overview of the Russians’ and experts’ perception of the results and prospects of the Eurasian integration, and an analytical evaluation of their opinions, hopes and expectations taking into account the potential of the labor movement in the new integrated socio-economic and geopolitical space. The author explains the role and meaning of the social interaction of members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU in ensuring the effectiveness of integration, and proposes methodological foundations for the development of the social model of the Eurasian Union with an emphasis on its social dimension. The article reveals the essence of the today supranational model of social policy and its influence on social policies of the members of EEU. Thus, the author explains the primary need to harmonize social actions of the members of EEU in employment policies, and proposes a number of measures for social policy in Russia to ensure free movement of labor in the Eurasian economic space as a key host state and society.

  10. Ancient DNA reveals past existence of Eurasian lynx in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Varela, R.; García, N.; Nores, C.

    2016-01-01

    The known distribution of the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus within the Iberian Peninsula since the Middle Pleistocene and the lack of reliable records of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in this region have led to the assumption that the Iberian lynx was the sole inhabitant of Iberia. In this study, we ident...

  11. Deglaciation of the Eurasian ice sheet complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Auriac, Amandine; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Shackleton, Calvin; Winsborrow, Monica; Heyman, Jakob; Hall, Adrian M.

    2017-08-01

    The Eurasian ice sheet complex (EISC) was the third largest ice mass during the Last Glacial Maximum with a span of over 4500 km and responsible for around 20 m of eustatic sea-level lowering. Whilst recent terrestrial and marine empirical insights have improved understanding of the chronology, pattern and rates of retreat of this vast ice sheet, a concerted attempt to model the deglaciation of the EISC honouring these new constraints is conspicuously lacking. Here, we apply a first-order, thermomechanical ice sheet model, validated against a diverse suite of empirical data, to investigate the retreat of the EISC after 23 ka BP, directly extending the work of Patton et al. (2016) who modelled the build-up to its maximum extent. Retreat of the ice sheet complex was highly asynchronous, reflecting contrasting regional sensitivities to climate forcing, oceanic influence, and internal dynamics. Most rapid retreat was experienced across the Barents Sea sector after 17.8 ka BP when this marine-based ice sheet disintegrated at a rate of ∼670 gigatonnes per year (Gt a-1) through enhanced calving and interior dynamic thinning, driven by oceanic/atmospheric warming and exacerbated by eustatic sea-level rise. From 14.9 to 12.9 ka BP the EISC lost on average 750 Gt a-1, peaking at rates >3000 Gt a-1, roughly equally partitioned between surface melt and dynamic losses, and potentially contributing up to 2.5 m to global sea-level rise during Meltwater Pulse 1A. Independent glacio-isostatic modelling constrained by an extensive inventory of relative sea-level change corroborates our ice sheet loading history of the Barents Sea sector. Subglacial conditions were predominately temperate during deglaciation, with over 6000 subglacial lakes predicted along with an extensive subglacial drainage network. Moreover, the maximum EISC and its isostatic footprint had a profound impact on the proglacial hydrological network, forming the Fleuve Manche mega-catchment which had an area of

  12. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus on wild American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Paul, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.

  13. The food spectrum of sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. in the Chřiby Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomešek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006–2008, mapping the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. occurred in the SE part of the Chřiby Upland. At the same time, the food spectrum of these birds of prey was determined during nesting periods. The area under monitoring represented about 25–30 km2.In each of the species, food was always monitored in a period from February to July at four nesting localities. The food spectrum was analysed by the direct observation of birds of prey, according to leftovers of food in the surroundings of nests and in nests of the predators. In Accipiter nisus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (85 %, mammals (3 % and other animals (12 %. Turdus merula was the most frequent prey. In Falco tinnunculus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (18 %, mammals (76 % and other animals (6 %. Microtus arvalis was unambiguously the most frequent prey.

  14. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  15. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, M.

    2015-10-09

    Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5×coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry.

  16. Trichomonosis in Eurasian sparrowhawks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunca, Tomas; Smejkalova, Pavla; Cepicka, Ivan

    2015-07-07

    Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (χ(2) = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings dropped in the urban area (5.4%) and remained similar in the rural area (16.6%) in 2013. Sequences of ITS region and SSU rDNA confirmed that the isolates from infected sparrowhawk nestlings belonged to Trichomonas gallinae.

  17. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the develo...

  18. EURASIAN LANGUAGES: THE BASIS OF ALLOCATION, LOGICS, SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALINA NATALIYA VASILIEVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors show the logical basis for the idea of J. Greenberg about Eurasian languages. A dominant position of this idea is the assertion that all the languages of Central and South America are included in the Amerind gens. The logic of fuzzy sets or fuzzy logic is examined as a logical foundation of J. Greenberg's concept. A linguistic variable "truth" takes a special place in this logic.

  19. Russian neo-revisionist strategy and the Eurasian Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Dzarasov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the real meaning of the Eurasian Integration Project for East–West relations. The author departs from Sakwa’s treatment of Russian strategy as neo-revisionist. It does not aspire to change the current world order while trying to make the West observe its national interests within the existing framework. This perspective is treated in the article from the standpoint of world-systems analysis. The Eurasian Project is understood as a reaction of the Russian state to the failure of the neoliberal attempt to integrate into the world economy and the international security system. The two great trade mega-unions—the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Trans-Atlantic Partnership—are seen as geoeconomic bolt clamps, which put Russia under enormous pressure. The Russian strategy in the Ukrainian and Syrian crises is designed to find the way out of strategic isolation. The Eurasian Union is expected by the Russian ruling elite to be an important tool to forestall the isolation of the country and secure her economic, military and international security.

  20. Domestication drive the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Jun; Qian, Long; Gaughan, Sarah; Xiang, Wei; Ai, Tao; Fan, Zhenming; Wang, Chenghui

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has altered a variety of traits within the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), including phenotypic, physiological and behavioral traits of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Little is known, however, about the genetic changes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. In this study, we assembled a high-quality de novo reference transcriptome and identified differentially expressed genes between wild and domesticated Eurasian perch. A total of 113,709 transcripts were assembled, and 58,380 transcripts were annotated. Transcriptomic comparison revealed 630 differentially expressed genes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. Within domesticated Eurasian perch there were 412 genes that were up-regulated including MHCI, MHCII, chia, ighm within immune system development. There were 218 genes including try1, ctrl, ctrb, cela3b, cpa1 and cpb1, which were down-regulated that were associated with digestive processes. Our results indicated domestication drives the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch. Our study not only provide valuable genetic resources for further studies in Eurasian perch, but also provide novel insights into the genetic basis of physiological changes in Eurasian perch during domestication process.

  1. Evaluation of High Dosages of Oral Meloxicam in American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Larrat, Sylvain; Troncy, Eric; Bird, David M; Lair, Stéphane; Fitzgerald, Guy

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of short-term high doses of meloxicam in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 32 male captive-born, 1- to 4-year-old American kestrels were randomly assigned to 4 groups: 3 groups treated with meloxicam (n = 9 per group) and a control group (n = 5). Meloxicam was administered orally via feeding tube in the proventriculus at 2, 10, and 20 mg/kg every 12 hours for 7 days for the treatment groups, while the control group received saline solution. The birds were evaluated for the presence of clinical signs, abnormalities in the complete blood cell count and in the plasma biochemical panel for the 20-mg/kg group, and gross and histopathologic lesions. No clinical signs or mortality were observed in any group. No significant differences of clinical relevance were found in results of the packed cell volume, total solids, and biochemical panel, and no evidence of renal toxicity was found in the treatment or control groups. A significant correlation was found between hepatic lipidosis and meloxicam dose (P = .02). Two of 9 birds in the 20-mg/kg group developed gastric ulcers, although this result was not significant. None of the birds in the 2- and 10-mg/kg groups had similar lesions. Finally, meloxicam dosages up to 20 mg/kg did not result in nephrotoxicity in American kestrels. Further toxicologic studies to evaluate hepatotoxicity and gastrotoxicity of meloxicam in avian species are needed.

  2. Biochemical and hematological effects of lead ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Franson, J C; Pattee, O H; Bunck, C M; Murray, H C

    1985-01-01

    One-day old American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls), 25, 125 or 625 mg/kg of metallic lead in corn oil for 10 days. Forty per cent of the nestlings receiving 625 mg/kg of lead died after 6 days and growth rates were significantly depressed in the two highest lead dosed groups. At 10 days hematocrit values were significantly lower in the two highest lead treated groups, and hemoglobin content and red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was depressed in all lead treated groups. Plasma creatine phosphokinase decreased in the two highest treatment groups. Brain, liver and kidney ALAD activities, brain RNA to protein ratio and liver protein concentration decreased after lead exposure whereas liver DNA, DNA to RNA ratio and DNA to protein ratio increased. Brain monoamine oxidase and ATPase were not significantly altered. Measurements of the ontogeny of hematological variants and enzymes in normal development, using additional untreated nestlings, revealed decreases in red blood cell ALAD, plasma aspartate amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, brain DNA and RNA and liver DNA, whereas hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma alkaline phosphatase, brain monoamine oxidase, brain ALAD and liver ALAD increased during the first 10 days of posthatching development. Biochemical and hematological alterations were more severe than those reported in adult kestrels or precocial young birds exposed to lead. Alterations may be due in part to delayed development.

  3. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  4. Genetics of plumage color in the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus): analysis of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff A; Ambers, Angie D; Burnham, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in a few reported vertebrates. In Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), plumage color variation exists throughout their arctic and subarctic circumpolar distribution, from white to gray and almost black. Multiple color variants do exist within the majority of populations; however, a few areas (e.g., northern Greenland and Iceland) possess a single color variant. Here, we show that the white/melanic color pattern observed in Gyrfalcons is explained by allelic variation at MC1R. Six nucleotide substitutions in MC1R resulted in 9 alleles that differed in geographic frequency with at least 2 MC1R alleles observed in almost all sampled populations in Greenland, Iceland, Canada, and Alaska. In north Greenland, where white Gyrfalcons predominate, a single MC1R allele was observed at high frequency (>98%), whereas in Iceland, where only gray Gyrfalcons are known to breed, 7 alleles were observed. Of the 6 nucleotide substitutions, 3 resulted in amino acid substitutions, one of which (Val(128)Ile) was perfectly associated with the white/melanic polymorphism. Furthermore, the degree of melanism was correlated with number of MC1R variant alleles, with silver Gyrfalcons all heterozygous and the majority of dark gray individuals homozygous (Ile(128)). These results provide strong support that MC1R is associated with plumage color in this species.

  5. Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, Susanne M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Olsen, Glenn H; Beaufrère, Hugues; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). 12 healthy 3-year-old American kestrels. Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg) and a control treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) were administered IM in a randomized crossover experimental design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal stimulus. Adverse effects were monitored for 6 hours after treatment administration. Buprenorphine hydrochloride at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg, IM, increased thermal threshold for 6 hours, compared with the response for the control treatment. There were no significant differences among buprenorphine treatments. A mild sedative effect was detected at a dose of 0.6 mg of buprenorphine/kg. At the doses tested, buprenorphine hydrochloride resulted in thermal antinociception in American kestrels for at least 6 hours, which suggested that buprenorphine has analgesic effects in this species. Further studies with longer evaluation periods and additional forms of noxious stimuli, formulations, dosages, and routes of administration are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of buprenorphine in American kestrels.

  6. Aging related changes of retina and optic nerve of Uromastyx aegyptia and Falco tinnunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I H; Khalifa, Soad A; Al-Gebaly, Asma S; El-Mansy, Ahmed A

    2014-01-15

    Aging is a biological phenomenon that involves gradual degradation of the structure and function of the retina and optic nerve. To our knowledge, little is known about the aging-related ocular cell loss in avian (Falco tinnunculus) and reptilian species (Uromastyx aegyptia). A selected 90 animals of pup, middle, and old age U. aegyptia (reptilian) and F. tinnunculus (avian) were used. The retinae and optic nerves were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and assessments of neurotransmitters, antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismustase and glutathione s transferase), caspase-3 and -7, malonadialdhyde, and DNA fragmentation. Light and TEM observations of the senile specimens revealed apparent deterioration of retinal cell layers, especially the pigmented epithelium and photoreceptor outer segments. Their inclusions of melanin were replaced by lipofuscins. Also, vacuolar degeneration and demyelination of the optic nerve axons were detected. Concomitantly, there was a marked increase of oxidative stress involved reduction of neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes and an increase of lipid peroxidation, caspase-3 and -7, subG0/G1 apoptosis, and P53. We conclude that aging showed an inverse relationship with the neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes and a linear relationship of caspases, malondialdhyde, DNA apoptosis, and P53 markers of cell death. These markers reflected the retinal cytological alterations and lipofuscin accumulation within inner segments.

  7. Eimeria biarmicus sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting falcons from the genus Falco in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaleh, F A; Alyousif, M S; Al-Quraishy, S; Al-Shawa, Y R

    2012-05-01

    The oocysts of Eimeria biarmicus sp. n. were described from the feces of the lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus, collected from the falcon market in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of infection was 5% (2/40). The majority of the oocysts examined had completed sporulation within 84 h at 24 ± 2°C. Sporulated oocysts are ovoid in shape, measuring 22.4 × 17.9 (20.5-24.7 × 15.8-18.5) μm; shape index (L/W) is 1.25 (1.14-1.36) μm. The oocyst wall is smooth and bi-layered. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. A polar granule is present, consisting of 2-4 globules. Sporocysts are ovoid, 10.1 × 6.1 (9.4-11.2 × 5.4-6.8) μm; with a smooth single-layered wall and a minute Stieda body, but there is no substieda body. The sporocyst residuum consists of numerous small granules. Sporozoites are comma shaped, each contains two refractile bodies. E. biarmicus sp. n. is the second eimerian species described from F. biarmicus.

  8. Caryospora cherrughi sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting Falco cherrug in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaleh, F A; Alyousif, M S; Al-Shawa, Y R; Al-Quraishy, S

    2013-03-01

    The oocysts of Caryospora cherrughi sp. n. were described from the feces of the saker falcon, Falco cherrug, collected from the falcon market in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of infection was 21.4 % (15/70). The majority of the oocysts examined had completed sporulation within 64-84 h at 24 ± 2 °C. Sporulated oocysts are ovoid in shape, measuring 32.1 × 29.3 (30.7-34.5 × 27.7-29.8) μm; shape index (L/W) is 1.1 (1.04-1.27) μm. The oocyst wall is smooth and bilayered. Micropyle, polar granule, and oocyst residuum are absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring 24.1 × 19.6 (23.0-25.5 × 18.7-20.5) μm; with a smooth single-layered wall, but there is no Stieda body. The sporocyst residuum is present as numerous small granules. Sporozoites are banana-shaped, blunt at one end, and slightly tapered at the other, each with a large single refractile body. C. cherrughi sp. n. is the third caryosporian species described from F. cherrug.

  9. Evidence of immunomodulation in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernie, Kim J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada)]. E-mail: kim.fernie@ec.gc.ca; Mayne, Greg [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Shutt, J. Laird [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Pekarik, Cynthia [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Grasman, Keith A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States); Letcher, Robert J. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Drouillard, Ken [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) causes immunomodulation in captive nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Eggs within each clutch, divided by laying sequence, were injected with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 {mu}g {sigma}PBDEs/egg) approximating Great Lakes birds. For 29 days, nestlings consumed the same PBDE mixture (15.6{+-}0.3 ng/g body weight per day), reaching {sigma}PBDE body burden concentrations that were 120x higher in the treatment birds (86.1{+-}29.1 ng/g ww) than controls (0.73{+-}0.5 ng/g ww). PBDE-exposed birds had a greater PHA response (T-cell-mediated immunity), which was negatively associated with increasing BDE-47 concentrations, but a reduced antibody-mediated response that was positively associated with increasing BDE-183 concentrations. There were also structural changes in the spleen (fewer germinal centers), bursa (reduced apoptosis) and thymus (increased macrophages), and negative associations between the spleen somatic index and {sigma}PBDEs, and the bursa somatic index and BDE-47. Immunomodulation from PBDE exposure may be exacerbated in wild birds experiencing greater environmental stresses. - Exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners and concentrations) resulted in the immunomodulation of nestling American kestrels.

  10. Genetic identification for prey birds of the Endangered peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Hyun; Oh, Hong-Shik

    2018-03-01

    To reveal the dietary ecology of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), we conducted a molecular analysis for mitochondrial genes (COI and CYTB) to identify the prey species collected from a feeding place found on Sasu Island, South Korea. The results from noninvasive genetic analysis showed that the sequences obtained came from nine species of birds (Cuculus canorus, Eurystomus orientalis, Limosa limosa, Microscelis amaurotis, Oriolus chinensis, Phasianus colchicus, Sterna hirundo, Streptopelia orientalis, and Turdus pallidus). Five of the species (C. canorus, M. amaurotis, S. hirundo, S. orientalis, and T. pallidus) had previously been observed on this island, but the other four species (E. orientalis, L. limosa, O. chinensis, and P. colchicus) were newly identified as present. No mtDNA sequences of land animals such as amphibians, reptiles, and mammals were found in the dietary remains, suggesting that the peregrine falcon preys mostly on other birds rather than on other animals inhabiting Sasu Island. This island has rich avian diversity and abundant animal populations and therefore supplies sufficient dietary resources for the peregrine falcon. Our findings suggested that a DNA-based molecular method may be useful to identify the prey species of these birds and may be valuable in future studies of the Endangered peregrine falcon.

  11. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method.

  12. Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis Associated With Staphylococcus hyicus in a Juvenile Peregrine Falcon ( Falco peregrinus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Kristina; Fischer, Dominik; Hartmann, Antje; Kershaw, Olivia; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Pendl, Helene; Schmidt, Martin J; Lierz, Michael

    2015-09-01

    A 6-week-old, parent-reared peregrine falcon ( Falco peregrinus ) was presented with spastic hypertonus of its hind limbs of unknown origin and duration. Radiologic examination revealed smooth periosteal reactions ventrally at thoracic vertebrae 5 to 7. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography identified the swelling as inflammation; antibiotic, antimycotic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic treatments were initiated, and vitamins and minerals were supplemented. Because the bird's condition did not improve after 10 days, it was euthanatized and submitted for postmortem examination. On histopathologic examination, chronic, active osteomyelitis was diagnosed in thoracic vertebrae 5 to 7, and chronic, active arthritis was present in both the right shoulder and left elbow joints. Staphylococcus hyicus was isolated from these 3 locations, as well as from lungs and liver, indicating a chronic septic staphylococcosis. Although infections with Staphylococcus species are occasional causes of vertebral osteomyelitis in juvenile poultry with active growth plates, it is only sporadically reported in raptors and companion birds. This case report is the first description of the clinical features and diagnostic and pathologic findings in a juvenile peregrine falcon with hematogenous osteomyelitis and arthritis associated with septicemia caused by S hyicus.

  13. Legacy or colonization? Posteruption establishment of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) on a volcanically active subarctic island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Williams, Jeffrey C; Drew, Gary S; White, Clayton M; Sage, George K; Talbot, Sandra L

    2017-01-01

    How populations and communities reassemble following disturbances are affected by a number of factors, with the arrival order of founding populations often having a profound influence on later populations and community structure. Kasatochi Island is a small volcano located in the central Aleutian archipelago that erupted violently August 8, 2008, sterilizing the island of avian biodiversity. Prior to the eruption, Kasatochi was the center of abundance for breeding seabirds in the central Aleutian Islands and supported several breeding pairs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). We examined the reestablishment of peregrine falcons on Kasatochi by evaluating the genetic relatedness among legacy samples collected in 2006 to those collected posteruption and to other falcons breeding along the archipelago. No genotypes found in posteruption samples were identical to genotypes collected from pre-eruption samples. However, genetic analyses suggest that individuals closely related to peregrine falcons occupying pre-eruption Kasatochi returned following the eruption and successfully fledged young; thus, a genetic legacy of pre-eruption falcons was present on posteruption Kasatochi Island. We hypothesize that the rapid reestablishment of peregrine falcons on Kasatochi was likely facilitated by behavioral characteristics of peregrine falcons breeding in the Aleutian Islands, such as year-round residency and breeding site fidelity, the presence of an abundant food source (seabirds), and limited vegetation requirements by seabirds and falcons.

  14. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Swem, Ted; Brimm, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency.

  15. Detection of Tospoviruses in Ornamental Plants in Hobby Gardens and Landscaping Areas in Adalar District of Istanbul Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Şafak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to detect Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Irish yellow spot virus (IYSV and Impatients necrotic spot virus (INSV in ornamental plants growing in hobby gardens and landscaping areas in Adalar district (Büyükada, Heybeliada, Kınalıada and Burgazada of Istanbul province between 2015 and 2016. During the surveys carried out in that district, the samples were collected from both simptomatologically suspicious ornamental plants and the plants which did not show any symptoms. All of the collected samples (n=150 were firstly tested by Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS ELISA and none of the samples were found to be infected with TSWV and INSV. The samples detected to be positive with IYSV by ELISA tests were then used in RT-PCR studies. At the RT-PCR using the IYSV-465c; IYSV-239f primer pair, a band with a size of 240 bp was observed for Pittosporum tobira and Hydrangea macrophylla. Therefore, the presence of IYSV infection in Adalar was also confirmed molecularly.

  16. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADL (IADL among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853 and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254 and IADL (n = 1162 were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results: During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94, decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21, and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55 compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions: Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults.

  17. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai) with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853) and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254) and IADL (n = 1162) were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94), decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21), and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55) compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:26947954

  18. ASEAN-LED MULTILATERAL SECURITY DIALOGUE: EURASIAN PRIORITIES

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    Е А Канаев

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses upon new aspects in ASEAN priorities relevant to the rise of efficiency of ASEAN-led multilateral dialogues platforms - ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF, ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting Plus Eight (ADMM+8 and East Asia Summit (EAS. Having outlined the conceptual contradiction between the rise of the global component in Asia-Pacific security challenges, the authors trace the intellectual and practical dimensions of ASEAN response. On reviewing the key directions of intra-ASEAN expert discussions, the authors reveal their qualitatively new component - to link the modi-fication of ASEAN modality of cooperation and its expansion to the Eurasian area. The trace of factors responsible for the possibility and necessity to adopt ARF, ADMM+8 and EAS to the impeding format ASEAN-SCO-EAEU and practically-oriented proposals about the promising directions of cooperation within this format are the key academic value-added of the study. The actuality and academic significance of the study stem from the necessity to analyze issues important for ASEAN and its Eurasian partners. Among these issues, the key are: which directions of cooperation can be of help for ASEAN in order to strengthen its positions as the driving force of Asia-Pacific multilateral dialogue frameworks? By what means can ASEAN and ASEAN-led formats be integ-rated in the establishment of Greater Eurasia with the maximum outcomes for both ASEAN and its Eurasian partners? How can ASEAN experience be used for the establishment of an efficient trans-continental rather than regional multilateral security dialogue? Findings on these issues make the article academi-cally unique.

  19. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

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    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the development of the economic situation in each country in recent years. The starting point for discussion is the analysis of benefits of economic integration in the light of theory.

  20. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia.

  1. Zimovanje sivog sokola Falco peregrinus u Osijeku tijekom zima 2014./2015. i 2015./2016. godine

    OpenAIRE

    Mikuska, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    One adult Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus was observed wintering in Osijek town, eastern Croatia, during winters 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. In 2014 it arrived on 25th October 2014 and stayed until 23rd February 2015. During winter 2015, the bird was for the first time observed on 3rd December, and left the area on 21st February 2016. Peregrine Falcon was wintering on the cathedral, the tallest building in the town, and hunting in Osijek on Feral Pigeons, as well as in the Drava floodplain ...

  2. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  3. Territory occupancy and breeding success of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus at various stages of population recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael J.; Hines, James; Rollie, Chris; Smith, George D.; Morton, Elise R.; Moore, Jennifer F.; Mearns, Richard M.; Newton, Ian; Murillo-Garcia, Oscar E.; Oli, Madan K.

    2017-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides disrupted reproduction and killed many raptorial birds, and contributed to population declines during the 1940s to 1970s. We sought to discern whether and to what extent territory occupancy and breeding success changed from the pesticide era to recent years in a resident population of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus in southern Scotland using long-term (1964–2015) field data and multi-state, multi-season occupancy models. Peregrine territories that were occupied with successful reproduction in one year were much more likely to be occupied and experience reproductive success in the following year, compared with those that were unoccupied or occupied by unsuccessful breeders in the previous year. Probability of territory occupancy differed between territories in the eastern and western parts of the study area, and varied over time. The probability of occupancy of territories that were unoccupied and those that were occupied with successful reproduction during the previous breeding season generally increased over time, whereas the probability of occupancy of territories that were occupied after failed reproduction decreased. The probability of reproductive success (conditional on occupancy) in territories that were occupied during the previous breeding season increased over time. Specifically, for territories that had been successful in the previous year, the probability of occupancy as well as reproductive success increased steadily over time; these probabilities were substantially higher in recent years than earlier, when the population was still exposed to direct or residual effects of organochlorine pesticides. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that progressive reduction, followed by a complete ban, in the use of organochlorine pesticides improved reproductive success of Peregrines in southern Scotland. Differences in the temporal pattern of probability of reproductive success between south-eastern and south

  4. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride following intramuscular and intravenous administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Petritz, Olivia A; Olsen, Glenn H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2014-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM and IV administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). 13 healthy 3-year-old captive-bred American kestrels. Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 9 times, ranging from 5 minutes to 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured by use of tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by use of least squares linear regression and noncompartmental analysis of naïve pooled data. After a washout period of 2 weeks, the same dose of buprenorphine was administered IV to all birds and blood samples were collected at the same times after drug administration. Maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was achieved within 5 minutes after IM administration. For IM administration, bioavailability was 94.8% and elimination half-life was 92.1 minutes. For IV administration, steady-state volume of distribution was 4,023.8 mL/kg, plasma clearance was 49.2 mL/min/kg, and elimination half-life was 105.5 minutes. Buprenorphine was rapidly absorbed, and bioavailability was good after IM administration to American kestrels. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 9 hours after both IM and IV administration. These results, in combination with those of a pharmacodynamic study, suggested that the analgesic effects of buprenorphine could last at least 6 to 9 hours in this species. Further investigations of the duration of analgesic effects, multiple-dose protocols, and potential adverse effects of buprenorphine are warranted in American kestrels and other raptors.

  5. First evidences of sexual divergences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni

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    Marco Gustin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first description of recorded sexual differences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni. Lesser kestrel is a migratory, colonial, small falcon breeding mainly in holes and crevices in large historic buildings within towns and villages, or in abandoned farm houses across the countryside. Using accurate GPS data-loggers, we gathered data on the activities of lesser kestrels in the two of main colonies of lesser kestrels in Italy, i.e. Gravina in Puglia and Altamura (Apulia, Southern Italy and the surrounding rural areas in a 20-days monitoring during the reproductive period. We tested for sex differences in space use (home range's circularity ratio and flight attributes (5-minute flight length, instantaneous speed, distance from nest, flight altitude above ground level of 9 monitored individuals (4 males and 5 females. We found significant sexual differences for all the observed traits. Our results demonstrate that female lesser kestrels during the monitoring period employed a lower amount of energy in local movements as measured by four flight attributes that resulted significantly different (and lower than for males. Compact home ranges for females could represent a maximization of the benefit-cost ratio between prospected surface and distance from nest, i.e. the optimal trade-off between foraging requirements (explored surface and costs in terms of time and energy (distance from nest. On the contrary, males showed a significantly different space use with very elongated home ranges and mean distance from nest almost three times as elevated as females' one. We argue that the detected sexual divergence was the product of their respective ways to optimize the relationship between resource acquisition and reproductive activity.

  6. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 μg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 μg/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 μg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

  7. Eurasian polities as hybrid regimes: The case of Putin's Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry E. Hale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Eurasian countries' political systems are not accurately described as some version of either democracy or authoritarianism. Nor does it advance social science to study each of these countries' political systems as being completely unique, sharing no significant commonalities with those of other countries. Instead, it is more fruitful to understand many Eurasian countries as a type of hybrid regime, a system that combines important elements of both democracy and autocracy in some way. One of the most important features of Eurasia's hybrid regimes, one that is shared by many hybrid regimes worldwide, is that they combine contested elections with pervasive political clientelism. Political developments in these countries can thus be usefully understood as machine politics, and the development of political systems can be understood as processes of rearranging the components of the machines in different ways. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated through an in-depth study of the Russian Federation. It is argued that Russian political development under Putin is best understood not as “authoritarianization” but as a process in which Russia transitioned from a system of “competing pyramids” of machine power to a “single-pyramid” system, a system dominated by one large political machine. It turns out that in single-pyramid systems that preserve contested elections, as does Russia, public opinion matters more than in typical authoritarian regimes.

  8. Interregional Cooperation in the Emerging Eurasian Economic Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Anatol’evich Gulin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union entered into force and presented a new stage of reintegration of the countries on the territory of the former USSR. The success of this project will depend not only on collaboration at the national level, but also on the degree of the EEU countries’ involvement in the integration process. The academic debate on this issue is a relevant and practically important task. The article highlights the results of the international online-conference “Interregional cooperation in the emerging Eurasian Economic Space”, conducted by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS June, 16–20 2015. It considers the issues associated with interregional trade and economic cooperation, interaction in the sphere of science and innovation and various aspects of humanitarian cooperation. It raises important problems of cross-border cooperation of the EEU states. The article makes a conclusion about the need to develop the integration process both in scope (through expanded directions of cooperation, which should not be limited only to contacts at the highest political level or trade partnership and depth (through involvement of regions, enterprises, different social groups, individual citizens

  9. An Enormous Interstitial Mestizo? The (Impossibility of Eurasian Identity in Dutch Postcolonial Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Petra R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the (impossibility of Eurasian identity in Dutch postcolonial novels by second-generation authors such as Marion Bloem and Adriaan van Dis. As a result of Indonesia’s decolonisation 300.000 Dutch nationals came from the former Dutch East Indies to the Netherlands. Among them was a large group of Eurasians, people of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent. Many of whom had never set foot on the so-called motherland. Although Eurasians had belonged to the European community in the tropics, they were perceived as immigrants by the Dutch government and were subjected to an aggressive, far-reaching assimilation policy - fearing they would otherwise become a major social problem. Their offspring, the so-called second generation, is often assumed to struggle with their identity while growing up in a postcolonial society that did not tolerate cultural differences at the time. What constitutes a Eurasian identity, and can such identities exist after the enforced assimilation of Eurasians in the Netherlands? How do second-generation authors look upon their Eurasian background and how do they portray these assumed identity struggles in postcolonial literature? The texts in question are discussed in relation to theories of hybridity. It is argued that the widespread notion that Eurasians either fall between two stools or grow into examples of hybrid identity are not foregone conclusions.

  10. Demographic consequences of nest box use for Red-footed Falcons Falco vespertinus in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Evgeny A.; Bragin, Alexander E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Nest box programs are frequently implemented for the conservation of cavity-nesting birds, but their effectiveness is rarely evaluated in comparison to birds not using nest boxes. In the European Palearctic, Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus populations are both of high conservation concern and are strongly associated with nest box programs in heavily managed landscapes. We used a 21-year monitoring dataset collected on 753 nesting attempts by Red-footed Falcons in unmanaged natural or semi-natural habitats to provide basic information on this poorly known species; to evaluate long-term demographic trends; and to evaluate response of demographic parameters of Red-footed Falcons to environmental factors including use of nest boxes. We observed significant differences among years in laying date, offspring loss, and numbers of fledglings produced, but not in egg production. Of these four parameters, offspring loss and, to a lesser extent, number of fledglings exhibited directional trends over time. Variation in laying date and in numbers of eggs were not well explained by any one model, but instead by combinations of models, each with informative terms for nest type. Nevertheless, laying in nest boxes occurred 2.10 ± 0.70 days earlier than in natural nests. In contrast, variation in both offspring loss and numbers of fledglings produced were fairly well explained by a single model including terms for nest type, nest location, and an interaction between the two parameters (65% and 81% model weights respectively), with highest offspring loss in nest boxes on forest edges. Because, for other species, earlier laying dates are associated with more fit individuals, this interaction highlighted a possible ecological trap, whereby birds using nest boxes on forest edges lay eggs earlier but suffer greater offspring loss and produce lower numbers of fledglings than do those in other nesting settings. If nest boxes increase offspring loss for Red-footed Falcons in heavily

  11. Dynamics and stress field of the Eurasian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    We address the connection between forces on the Eurasian plate, the plate's motion and the intraplate stress field. Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In this study we analyse the forces along the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate, presently the most prominent suture zone on Earth, resulting from the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate the force distribution along the Tethyan boundary as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We evaluate force distributions obeying this mechanical law on the basis of their ability to reproduce observed stress orientations. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Our investigation is structured according to two research objectives, pursued in a corresponding step-wise approach: (1) a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of Eurasia's stress field to the distribution of all acting forces; and (2) a quantification of collision-related forces along the southern boundary of Eurasia, including their relation to observed plate boundary structure, in particular plateau height. Intraplate stress observations as compiled in the World Stress Map project are used to constrain the distribution of forces acting on Eurasia. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser

  12. Otodectic otoacariasis in free-ranging Eurasian lynx in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgis, M P; Segerstad, C H; Christensson, B; Mörner, T

    2001-07-01

    An infestation with Otodectes cynotis, the ear mite of cats and dogs, was observed in three free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden. The ear canals were obstructed by waxy secretions and exfoliated epithelium. Histologically, there were hyperkeratosis and acanthosis, and the epithelial surface was overlained by hyperkeratotic and parakeratotic crusts with mites, mite detritus and cerumen. In the subcutis there was a slight to moderate infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages. The ceruminous glands were bypertrophic and hyperplastic, and there was also an hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands. The lesions seemed to correlate with the degree of infestation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of otoacariasis in free-ranging lynx.

  13. The reasons of creation of the Eurasian Economic Union: economics or politics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers creation of the Eurasian economic Union. It is shown that Russia is the main provider of integration in the post-Soviet space. The author identifies several reasons for the establishment of the Eurasian economic Union. Much attention is paid to geo-economic reasons. It is clear that the Eurasian economic Union is a geopolitical project for Moscow. The author believes that domestic political considerations also support the motive of integration processes in the post-Soviet space.

  14. Surface-Atmosphere Moisture Coupling in Eurasian Frozen Ground Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfeld, O. W.; Ford, T.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost represents an impermeable barrier to moisture, resulting in a saturated or near-saturated surface layer during the warm season in many continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. These surface conditions could lead to enhanced convection and precipitation during the warm season, and significant local recycling of moisture. In areas underlain by sporadic or isolated permafrost, or in seasonally frozen areas, the moisture can drain away more readily, resulting in much drier soil conditions. As climate change causes frozen ground degradation, this will thus also alter the patterns of atmospheric convection, moisture recycling, and the hydrologic cycle in high-latitude land areas. In this study, we analyze evaporative fraction (EF) as a proxy for evapotranspiration, and precipitation from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-land) reanalysis dataset. We focus on 1979-2012 and document patterns and changes in EF over the Eurasian high latitudes. We find strong, positive April EF trends over the study period, particularly in the Lena River Basin, 80% of which is underlain by continuous permafrost. In fact, these significant positive trends in spring EF are strongest over continuous permafrost across the Eurasian high latitudes, but negative for sporadic and isolated permafrost. In addition, we find a strong, statistically significant relationship between EF anomalies and the probability of subsequent precipitation over the Lena Basin during April. This association therefore suggests a potential land-atmosphere coupling between frozen ground and precipitation. As the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground distribution changes in the future, this will likely have repercussions for the Arctic hydrologic cycle.

  15. On the food of the Eurasian pygmy owl (Glaucidium passerinum) in Slovakia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karol Šotnár; Samuel Pačenovský; Ján Obuch

    2015-01-01

    Data on the food of the Eurasian pygmy owl in Slovakia was collected in 1999−2014 at 12 breeding locations in 7 mountain ranges of the Western Carpathian Mts and 1 range belonging to the Eastern Carpathian Mts...

  16. Henry E. Hale. Patronal Politics: Eurasian Regime Dynamics in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F. Remington

    2016-01-01

    Henry E. Hale. Patronal Politics: Eurasian Regime Dynamics in Comparative Perspective. Problems of International Politics. Eds. Keith Darden and Ian Shapiro. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xviii, 542 pp. References. Index. US$39.99, paper.

  17. Biosystematic, molecular and phytochemical evidence for the multiple origin of sympetaly in Eurasian Sedoideae (Crassulaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, H; van Ham, RDHJ; Stevens, JF; Elema, ET; van der Klis, H; Gadella, TWJ

    Traditionally the sympetalous, Eurasian Crassulaceae are classified in four gen-era, but combined biosystematic, molecular and chemotaxonomic studies indicate that sympetaly evolved at least eight times independently in European Crassulaceae. Morphologically Umbilicus is very distinct and at the

  18. The status of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrines) in northeastern Alaska: East fork Chandalar River drainage east to the Canadian Border, Arctic Ocean south to the Porcupine and Chandalar Rivers (including the Arctic National Wildlife Range) and the S

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Prior to 1972, little was known about the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) populations that breed in northeastern Alaska. The following is a report of peregrine...

  19. Evading Invasives: How Eurasian Water-Milfoil Effects the Development of Lakefront Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Goodenberger, James; Klaiber, H. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Eurasian water-milfoil is an aquatic invasive plant that has moved rapidly through lakes across the United States. Along with being a hazard to local ecosystems, water-milfoil is a nuisance to those who use lakes for recreation, and its presence even lowers the value of lakefront properties. Though its effects can cause great disutility to lake users, no empirical studies have emerged that investigate the impacts that Eurasian water-milfoil, or any other invasive species, have on human behavi...

  20. Home Range and Habitat Use of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae within a Plantation Forest: A Satellite Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tracked two adult and three juvenile New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae in Kaingaroa Forest pine plantation from 2002 to 2008 using Argos satellite technology. The home ranges for both adults and juveniles varied, ranging between 44 and 587 km2. The falcons occasionally utilised areas outside the forest and used stands of all ages within the forest, generally in proportion to their availability. For the most part, the juveniles remained within ca. 8 km of their nests and dispersed at 58, 69, and 68 days after fledging. Falcon movement information was obtained from an average of four location points per tracking day per falcon at a putative accuracy of 350 m. The transmitters, including their solar charge capability, performed well in the forest environment. The use of all stand ages highlights the importance of forestry practises that maintain a mosaic of different aged pine stands.

  1. Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the common kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes: Falconidae, in mainland Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergian Vianna Cardozo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, is a widespread raptor, native in Europe, Asia and Africa, and vagrant in the Americas. In the current work, 27 fecal samples were collected from common kestrels kept in the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, located at Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Five (19% of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in their feces. The oocysts of Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 47.1 × 37.6 µm with a shape index of 1.25. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 25.1 × 24.3 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many homogenous globules scattered throughout the periphery of the sporocyst. This is the fourth caryosporan species reported from F. tinnunculus.

  2. Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  3. Genotyping success of historical Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanc, Primož; Sindičić, Magda; Jelenčič, Maja; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Kos, Ivan; Huber, Duro

    2012-03-01

    Historical samples, like tanned hides and trophy skulls, can be extremely important for genetic studies of endangered or elusive species. Selection of a sampling protocol that is likely to provide sufficient amount and quality of DNA with a minimum damage to the original specimen is often critical for a success of the study. We investigated microsatellite genotyping success of DNA isolated from three different types of Eurasian lynx historical samples. We analysed a total of 20 microsatellite loci in 106 historical samples from the endangered Dinaric lynx population, established from re-introduction of three pairs of lynx in 1973 from Slovakian Carpathians. Of the three tested sample types, turbinal bone and septum from the nasal cavity of the trophy skulls had the lowest percentage of samples successfully genotyped for all 20 microsatellite loci. Footpad samples, collected using a cork drill, exhibited better results in polymerase chain reaction amplification and genotyping than samples of footpad epidermis cut with a scalpel. We report simple and efficient sampling protocols, which could be widely applied for future studies utilizing historical samples. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A Preliminary Calibrated Deglaciation Chronology for the Eurasian Ice Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, L.; Peltier, W. R.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results for a high-resolution glaciologically-self-consistent deglacial history for the Eurasian ice complex calibrated against a large set of RSL data. The history is derived from on-going ensemble-based analyses using the 3D University of Toronto glacial systems model and a new high-resolution ice-margin chronology derived from geological and geomorphological observations. Isostatic response is computed with the VM2 viscosity structure. Bayesian calibration of the model is carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in combination with neural networks trained to model results. The calibration provides a posterior distribution for model parameters (and thereby modelled glacial histories) given the observational data sets that thereby also takes into account data uncertainty. Comparison of the chronology against the current version of the ICE-5G deglacial load history will elucidate the impact of glaciological self-consistency on inferred load chronologies.A map of the computed present-day rate of vertical uplift will also be presented.

  5. Renal calculi in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, V R; Tomlinson, A J; Molenaar, F M; Lawson, B; Rogers, K D

    2011-07-09

    Macroscopic renal calculi were seen in 50 of 492 (10.2 per cent) wild Eurasian otters found dead in England from 1988 to 2007. Forty-eight adults and two subadults were affected. Calculi were present in 15.7 per cent (31 of 197) of adult males and 12.7 per cent (17 of 134) of adult females. There was an increase in prevalence in the study population over time; no calculi were found in 73 otters examined between 1988 and 1996, but in most subsequent years they were observed with increased frequency. Calculi occurred in both kidneys but were more common in the right kidney. They varied greatly in shape and size; larger calculi were mostly seen in the calyces while the smallest ones were commonly found in the renal medulla. Calculi from 45 cases were examined by x-ray diffraction analysis; in 43 (96 per cent), they were composed solely of ammonium acid urate. Affected otters had heavier adrenal glands relative to their body size than unaffected otters (P0.05). Many otters had fresh bite wounds consistent with intraspecific aggression. The proportion bitten increased over time and this coincided with the increased prevalence of renal calculi.

  6. Integration Processes on Civil Service Reform in the Eurasian Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Borshevskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article was studied the process of reforming the institute of civil service in the countries of the Eurasian space (e.g. Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. The integration of national systems of public administration and, in particular, the civil service, is an important factor contributing to the implementation of the centripetal tendencies in the post-Soviet space. The research methodology is based on a combination of comparative legal analysis, historical retrospective method, normalization and scaling, structural-functional and system analysis. A comparison of the legal models of public service was made in research. The author puts forward the hypothesis that it is presence the relationship between the quantitative changes (for example, number of employees of civil service and the dynamics of macroeconomic indicators (e.g. number of employed in the economy. In this regard were observed common trends. On materials of the statistical surveys were considered quantitative changes in national systems of civil service. The study of the socio-demographic characteristics of the public service (gender, age, profession allowed to formulate conclusions about the general and specific trends in the reform of the civil service of the analyzed countries. A number of values were first calculated by the author. The work is intended to become the basis for a broad international research on the development of civil service, which is the central mechanism for implementation the integration in the post-Soviet space.

  7. Variable plumage coloration of breeding Barbary Falcons Falco (peregrinus) pelegrinoides in the Canary Islands: do other Peregrine Falcon subspecies also occur in the archipelago?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; Siverio, Felipe; Siverio, Manuel; Rodríguez, Airam

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the Barbary Falcon has been controversial for many years, it being variously considered a subspecies of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides) or treated as a full species (F. pelegrinoides). Although morphological and molecular studies are still scarce, they suggest that subspecific status is more appropriate. Other subspecies of Peregrine, such as F. p. brookei, exhibit some plumage characteristics similar to Barbary Falcon. We quantitatively describe colo...

  8. A Global Model of Predicted Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) Distribution with Open Source GIS Code and 104 Open Access Layers for use by the global public

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, Sumithra; Huettmann, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) are among the fastest members of the animal kingdom, and they are probably the most widely distributed raptors in the world; their migrations and habitats range from the tundra, mountains and some deserts to the tropics, coastal zones and urban habitats. Habitat loss, conversion, contamination, pesticides and other anthropogenic pressures are all known factors that have an adverse effect on these species. However, while peregrine falcons were removed from ...

  9. Quantifying the multiple, environmental benefits of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Richard; Puttock, Alan; Graham, Hugh; Anderson, Karen; Cunliffe, Andrew; Elliott, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Beavers are ecological engineers with an ability to modify the structure and flow of fluvial systems and create complex wetland environments with dams, ponds and canals. Consequently, beaver activity has potential for river restoration, management and the provision of multiple environmental ecosystem services including biodiversity, flood risk mitigation, water quality and sustainable drinking water provision. With the current debate surrounding the reintroduction of beavers into the United Kingdom, it is critical to monitor the impact of beavers upon the environment. We have developed and implemented a monitoring strategy to quantify the impact of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver on multiple environmental ecosystem services and river systems at a range of scales. First, the experimental design and preliminary results will be presented from the Mid-Devon Beaver Trial, where a family of beavers has been introduced to a 3 ha enclosure situated upon a first order tributary of the River Tamar. The site was instrumented to monitor the flow rate and quality of water entering and leaving the site. Additionally, the impacts of beavers upon riparian vegetation structure, water/carbon storage were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that beaver activity, particularly the building of ponds and dams, increases water storage within the landscape and moderates the river response to rainfall. Baseflow is enhanced during dry periods and storm flow is attenuated, potentially reducing the risk of flooding downstream. Initial analysis of water quality indicates that water entering the site (running off intensively managed grasslands upslope), has higher suspended sediment loads and nitrate levels, than that leaving the site, after moving through the series of beaver ponds. These results suggest beaver activity may also act as a means by which the negative impact of diffuse water pollution from agriculture can be mitigated thus providing cleaner water in rivers downstream

  10. First detection of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in wild Eurasian Siskins (Carduelis spinus) in Germany. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, M; Stelter, R; Jung, A; Wohlsein, P; Kummerfeld, N

    2015-01-01

    The colonization of the gastric ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus (M.) ornithogaster could be associated with a chronic wasting disease in several bird species in captivity. The prevalence and clinical relevance of M. ornithogaster in wild birds is unknown in detail. In the wintering season 2012/13 injured Eurasian Siskins (Carduelis spinus, n = 8) from the area of Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany were examined microbiologically and pathologically. In six out of eight injured Eurasian Siskins M. ornithogaster were detected. The yeast was diagnosed microscopically in wet smears from the gastric isthmus and/or in faecal samples. Histopathological examination (n = 4) of the macroscopically slightly enlarged proventriculus in infected birds demonstrated the growth of M. ornithogaster in the mucosal surface and in the ducts of the glands without an inflammatory reaction. As a possible sign of a lowered fitness, all six infected siskins had a reduced body weight (mean: 11.8 ± 1.64 g) in the lower normal weight range compared to the two injured Eurasian Siskins without M. ornithogaster (15.0 g) as well as to data from the literature. Concurrent intestinal bacterial infections comprised Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella Typhimurium, that are regarded as an abnormal bacterial flora for Eurasian Siskins. Infections with M. ornithogaster can be found in the wild population of Eurasian Siskins in Germany. The frequent occurrence of secondary bacterial infections associated with M. ornithogaster infections should be considered in the treatment and rehabilitation of finches.

  11. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Cerrone, Anna; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Aloise, Gaetano; Auriemma, Clementina; Riccone, Nunzia; Galiero, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leishmania spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. detection, and helminths were studied by traditional methods. Out of six carcasses tested, three were positive for E. canis and co-infection with Rickettsia sp. occurred in one of those. Sequences of the 16S rRNA E. canis gene were identical to each other but differed from most of those previously found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus) from southern Italy. Helminths included just cystacanths of Sphaerirostris spp. from the intestine of two Eurasian otters and the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum from the lungs of a single Eurasian otter. None of the samples was positive for the other investigated selected pathogens. This study is the first report on the evidence of infection by rickettsial pathogens in the Eurasian otter. The present result prompts some inquiries into the pathogenic role of those bacteria for the isolated sub-populations of the endangered Eurasian otter in southern Italy.

  12. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leishmania spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. detection, and helminths were studied by traditional methods. Out of six carcasses tested, three were positive for E. canis and co-infection with Rickettsia sp. occurred in one of those. Sequences of the 16S rRNA E. canis gene were identical to each other but differed from most of those previously found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and wolves (Canis lupus from southern Italy. Helminths included just cystacanths of Sphaerirostris spp. from the intestine of two Eurasian otters and the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum from the lungs of a single Eurasian otter. None of the samples was positive for the other investigated selected pathogens. This study is the first report on the evidence of infection by rickettsial pathogens in the Eurasian otter. The present result prompts some inquiries into the pathogenic role of those bacteria for the isolated sub-populations of the endangered Eurasian otter in southern Italy.

  13. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  14. Eurasian Union: A Utopia, a Dream or a Coming Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Varol SEVIM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years passed after the dissolution of the USSR and the re-birth of Russian Federation and Central Asian states in the world arena in such a unipolar world. Since the rise of Vladimir Putin to power Russia resists on unipolar system and sees that as a treat to its security. Hence, Kremlin perceives that the economic strength is the sine qua non for the future of Russia in order to sustain a Big Power status not only in its region but also in the world. In 2011, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan have achieved to form a Customs Union among them and invited all the states in the region to join the organization. There were thesis which mainly argued that Russia would no longer be a “power” in the Central Asia and could only be a regional power just in case of maintaining of its own unity. However, the circumstances have changed in the region accordingly Russian weight as a result of the new conjuncture. In 2012, Russia had a new presidential election and Putin returned to Kremlin as President himself. It has been understood from his words that Kremlin's new strategy to be focused on creating a Eurasian Union including Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan at the first stage. It is aimed to analyze in this study that whether this project could be successful and if so, what could be the impacts on world order in terms of competition between Russia, the United States and China also. And finally, what could be the result of such an organization for the Russia.

  15. The energy requirements of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in intensive culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, A.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Alanara, A.

    2011-01-01

    requirements of this species. The aim of this study was to develop an energy requirement model for intensive culture of Eurasian perch reared at rational temperatures. Data on growth (the thermal unit growth coefficient, TGC, 3√g ‧ (℃ ‧ days)-1) and digestible energy need (DEN, kJ DE ‧ g -1) of Eurasian perch......Fish feed constitutes one of the largest costs in aquaculture, therefore inefficient feed management will have a negative impact on fish farm economics. Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) is a relatively new candidate for freshwater aquaculture, however little is known about the energy...... of the daily theoretical weight increment (TWi, g ‧ day)1) and (ii) a linear DEN model. The TGC model was validated by comparing theoretical data with data obtained from a commercial growth trial. By combining the TWi and the DEN, a model describing the daily theoretical energy requirement (TER, kJ ‧ day)1...

  16. First evidence for carrion–feeding of Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of carrion-feeding with remains of artiodactyls (0.3%, n=1104 samples with food remains have been documented in a long term diet study of Eurasian Eagle-owls (Bubo bubo in 53 localities at Southeastern Bulgaria. Bone pieces of a sheep/goat (Ovis aries/Carpa hircus, a Fallow Deer (Dama dama and a Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa dom. in three Eurasian Eagle-owl breeding localities (5.7% prove extremely rare feeding on carrion. Northern White-breasted Hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus, rats (Rattus sp., waterbirds and gallinaceous birds (total 59.5-72.6% by biomass constituted the main portion of the diets with carrion remains. The comparisons between food niche breadths, diet composition, average prey biomass and values of superpredation of the annual diets in the three localities have not supported the carrion-feeding of the Eurasian Eagle-owl as a result of food shortages.

  17. Población, distribución, y reproducción del Halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus en gipuzkoa (2003-2004 = Population, distribution and reproduction of peregrine hawk (Falco peregrinus in Gipuzkoa (2003-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Álvarez, M. Olano, T. Aierbe, J. Vazquez, P. Izkeaga, J. Ugarte

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la población de Halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus en el Territorio Histórico de Gipuzkoa (País Vasco durante las temporadas de reproducción del 2003 y 2004. En total se han registrado 28 territorios ocupados por la especie en el 2003 y, 33 en el 2004. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una tendencia al alza en la evolución de la población desde 1994 (17 parejas, con un crecimiento medio anual del 4,1%. El éxito reproductor (parejas con éxito/parejas controladas se ha estimado en un 64,5% con una productividad media de 1,68 (pollos/parejas controladas. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un buen estado general de conservación de las poblaciones de la especie, con parámetros reproductores elevados, si bien los resultados sugieren que las poblaciones del interior del territorio tienen un menor éxito reproductor frente a las ubicadas en áreas costeras. Actualmente se puede considerar que la población mantiene un buen estado general de conservación, si bien se continúan detectando amenazas que pueden poner en peligro la estabilidad de la misma.

  18. Risk-taking by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in a human-dominated landscape : Effects of sex and reproductive status.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnefeld, N; Linnell, J.D C; Odden, J; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Andersen, R.A.

    This study aimed to test how the sex and reproductive status of Eurasian lynx influenced their use of 'attractive sinks' - habitats with high prey density and high mortality risks. Locations of 24 Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx were obtained by radio-telemetry in a mixed forest and agricultural habitat in

  19. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results.

  20. Normal haematological and serum biochemical values of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from a Scottish rehabilitation centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J C; Pagan, L; Hart, M; Green, R

    Blood samples were taken from 47 clinically normal, wild-born Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) before they were released from a rehabilitation centre in Scotland between August 1990 and March 1996. Serum biochemistry profiles were determined for 47 animals and haematological profiles for 41, and the results from males, females, and animals under or over one year of age were analysed as separate groups and as pooled populations. The normal ranges for a wide variety of haematological and serum biochemical parameters of the Eurasian otter are presented, and significant differences with age and sex are detailed.

  1. Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    persica Turkey Lynx , Spanish Felis (= Lynx ) pardina Spain, Portugal Macaque, Japanese Macaca fuscata Japan (Shikoku, Kyushu and Honshu Islands) Marsupial...Pithecophaga jefferyi Philippines Falcon, Arctic peregrine Falco peregrinus tundrius Central America Falcon, Eurasian Falco peregrinus Europe, Eurasia

  2. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez Dominguez, Marta; Gimeno Presa, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Buligyna, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Anette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is enhanced at high northern latitudes where the Arctic surface air temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in recent decades - a feature called Arctic amplification. This recent Arctic warming signal likely results from several factors such as the albedo feedback due to a diminishing cryosphere, enhanced poleward atmospheric and oceanic transport, and change in humidity. The reduction in Arctic sea ice is without doubt substantial and a key factor. Arctic summer sea-ice extent has declined by more than 10% per decade since the start of the satellite era (e.g. Stroeve et al., 2012), culminating in a new record low in September 2012, with the long-term trend largely attributed to anthropogenic global warming. Eurasian snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis focuses at sea ice decline in the Barents-Kara Sea region, which allows us to specify regions of interest for FLEXPART forward and backwards moisture trajectories. Based on Eularian and Lagrangian diagnostics from ERA-INTERIM, we can address the origin and cause of late autumn snow depth variations in a dense (snow observations from 820 land stations), unutilized observational datasets over the Commonwealth of Independent States. Open waters in the Barents and Kara Sea have been shown to increase the diabatic heating of the atmosphere, which amplifies baroclinic cyclones and might induce a remote atmospheric response by triggering stationary Rossby waves (Honda et al. 2009). In agreement with these studies, our results show enhanced storm activity originating at the Barents and Kara with disturbances entering the continent through a small sector from the Barents and Kara Seas

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M D; Leonards, P E; de Jongh, A W; van Hattum, B G

    1998-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitutes one of the major causes of the decline of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in large parts of Europe. This chapter provides an overview of available information regarding PCBs in European otters. Data on PCB concentrations in European otter tissues differ qualitatively among authors. Variations may be found in the organs used for analysis, the analytical method, and format of reported data (lipid weight vs. fresh weight, total PCB vs. congener-specific), which complicates a comparison of all data. Further, concentrations may be highly variable within an otter population, or even among individuals inhabiting the same area. Generally, average PCB levels in otters appear to be highest in areas where the species is in decline (mean levels ranging from 50 to 180 mg/kg fat) and thriving otter populations are correlated with low mean PCB tissue concentrations (mean levels less than 30 mg/kg fat). However, high levels have recently been found in thriving otter populations in Scotland, especially Shetland, leading some researchers to the conclusion that the alleged role of PCBs in the decline of the otter is likely to have been exaggerated. However, it is neither possible to dismiss the role of PCBs in the otter's decline as exaggerated nor to assume their important role as proven. The data presented in this review include information in support of both views. Most studies on PCBs in otters report total PCBs only, congener-specific data being quite rare. Information on levels of non-ortho congeners, the most toxic PCBs, is even more limited. Because congener patterns may vary between different otters, the total PCB concentration may not always be an accurate estimator of toxicity. To make a proper assessment of the impact of environmental PCB levels on the performance of otter populations and to establish "safe PCB levels" in sediment and fish, a number of toxicokinetic

  4. The Migration of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Eastern Europe - A Ringing Recovery and Direct Observation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounas Anastasios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined ringing recovery data of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in order to analyse its migration patterns and philopatry rates in Eastern Europe. In addition, we extracted counts of migrating birds from online databases and studied the use of the flyway as well as the phenology of both spring and autumn migrations through Greece. Birds appeared to migrate in the same mean direction in spring and autumn through the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas. During spring, movements took place on a broad front from March until mid- May with a peak in mid-April; in autumn, birds migrated through Greece on a narrower front from early August to early October, with most of individuals passing through Greece in mid-September. Finally, philopatry rates were higher for adults, while juvenile birds dispersed more often and at longer distances, up to 974 km away. Our results on migration patterns generally agree with those in other studies, but we found some evidence of long-distance premigratory movements towards mainland Greece that could also shape the narrower front migration in autumn. In addition, long distance dispersal movements of juveniles in southeastern Europe, where Lesser Kestrel populations show a fragmented distribution, could facilitate gene flow between populations, thus avoiding the negative effects of mating with genetically similar individuals.

  5. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clayton M.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, George K.; Anderson, Clifford; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully colonize and persist in diverse environments likely requires broad morphological and behavioral plasticity and adaptability, and this may partly explain why the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) exhibits a large range of morphological characteristics across their global distribution. Regional and local differences within Peregrine Falcons were sufficiently variable that ∼75 subspecies have been described; many were subsumed, and currently 19 are generally recognized. We used sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial genome to test for concordance between genetic structure and representatives of 12 current subspecies and from two areas where subspecies distributions overlap. Haplotypes were broadly shared among subspecies, and all geographic locales shared a widely distributed common haplotype (FalconCR2). Haplotypes were distributed in a star-like phylogeny, consistent with rapid expansion of a recently derived species, with observed genetic patterns congruent with incomplete lineage sorting and/or differential rates of evolution on morphology and neutral genetic characters. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance did not uncover genetic partitioning at the continental level, despite strong population-level structure (FST = 0.228). Similar analyses found weak partitioning, albeit significant, among subspecies (FCT = 0.138). All reconstructions placed the hierofalcons' (Gyrfalcon [F. rusticolus] and Saker Falcon [F. cherrug]) haplotypes in a well-supported clade either basal or unresolved with respect to the Peregrine Falcon. In addition, haplotypes representing Taita Falcon (F. fasciinucha) were placed within the Peregrine Falcon clade.

  6. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, M A; Baxter, C; Sericano, J L; Montoya, A B; Gallardo, J C; Rodríguez-Salazar, J R

    2011-12-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  8. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land-atmosphere-ocean-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kurten, Theo; Baklanov, Aleksander; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Bäck, Jaana; Vihma, Timo; Alekseychik, Pavel; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Arnold, Stephen R.; Arshinov, Mikhail; Asmi, Eija; Belan, Boris; Bobylev, Leonid; Chalov, Sergey; Cheng, Yafang; Chubarova, Natalia; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Ding, Aijun; Dobrolyubov, Sergey; Dubtsov, Sergei; Dyukarev, Egor; Elansky, Nikolai; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Esau, Igor; Filatov, Nikolay; Flint, Mikhail; Fu, Congbin; Glezer, Olga; Gliko, Aleksander; Heimann, Martin; Holtslag, Albert A. M.; Hõrrak, Urmas; Janhunen, Juha; Juhola, Sirkku; Järvi, Leena; Järvinen, Heikki; Kanukhina, Anna; Konstantinov, Pavel; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Komarov, Alexander S.; Kujansuu, Joni; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Duplissy, Ella-Maria; Laaksonen, Ari; Laurila, Tuomas; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lisitzin, Alexander; Mahura, Alexsander; Makshtas, Alexander; Mareev, Evgeny; Mazon, Stephany; Matishov, Dmitry; Melnikov, Vladimir; Mikhailov, Eugene; Moisseev, Dmitri; Nigmatulin, Robert; Noe, Steffen M.; Ojala, Anne; Pihlatie, Mari; Popovicheva, Olga; Pumpanen, Jukka; Regerand, Tatjana; Repina, Irina; Shcherbinin, Aleksei; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Sipilä, Mikko; Skorokhod, Andrey; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Su, Hang; Subetto, Dmitry A.; Sun, Junying; Terzhevik, Arkady Y.; Timofeyev, Yuri; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka; Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Zaytseva, Nina; Zhang, Jiahua; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vesala, Timo; Hari, Pertti; Christen Hansson, Hans; Matvienko, Gennady G.; Kasimov, Nikolai S.; Guo, Huadong; Bondur, Valery; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-11-01

    The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic-boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that global trade activities, demographic movement, and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a need for a novel research approach, which not only identifies and tackles the relevant multi-disciplinary research questions, but also is able to make a holistic system analysis of the expected feedbacks. In this paper, we introduce the research agenda of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX), a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary and international program started in 2012 (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/). PEEX sets a research approach by which large-scale research topics are investigated from a system perspective and which aims to fill the key gaps in our understanding of the feedbacks and interactions between the land-atmosphere-aquatic-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region. We introduce here the state of the art for the key topics in the PEEX research agenda and present the future prospects of the research, which we see relevant in this context.

  9. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX: towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land–atmosphere–ocean–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Lappalainen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic–boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that global trade activities, demographic movement, and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a need for a novel research approach, which not only identifies and tackles the relevant multi-disciplinary research questions, but also is able to make a holistic system analysis of the expected feedbacks. In this paper, we introduce the research agenda of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX, a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary and international program started in 2012 (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/. PEEX sets a research approach by which large-scale research topics are investigated from a system perspective and which aims to fill the key gaps in our understanding of the feedbacks and interactions between the land–atmosphere–aquatic–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region. We introduce here the state of the art for the key topics in the PEEX research agenda and present the future prospects of the research, which we see relevant in this context.

  10. First nearctic records for Orius (Dimorphella) sibiricus Wagner (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), a Eurasian steppe inhabitant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sibiricus Wagner, a dark-colored minute pirate bug widespread in the Eurasian Steppe, is recorded from sites near the Yukon River in Yukon, Canada. This species is distinguished from the melanic phenotype of Orius diespeter Herring by the more deeply and uniformly punctured dorsum, the subangu...

  11. Ranging behaviour and socio-biology of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on lowland mesotrophic river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neill, Lughaidh O.; Veldhuizen, Tijmen; de Jongh, Addy; Rochford, John

    We examined the spatial structure and sociobiology of a native wild population of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on mesotrophic rivers in a mild temperate climate. Radio-tracking of 20 individuals revealed exclusive intra-sexual adult home-ranges. Adult female homeranges (7.5 km, SD = 1.5 km, n = 7)

  12. Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil in Houghton Lake, Michigan: 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Name Submersed Plants Bladderwort Utricularia vulgaris Coontail Ceratophyllum demersum Elodea Elodea canadensis Alpine pondweed Potamogeton...difficult or impossible to boat, swim, water ski , or fish in Eurasian watermilfoil-dominated areas. Interference with recrea- tion can result in a reduction

  13. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-24

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014.  Created: 3/24/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  14. Combinations of Endothall With 2,4-D and Triclopyr for Eurasian Watermilfoil Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    L., K. D. Getsinger, and A. B. Stewart. 1998. Selective effects of aquatic herbicides on sago pondweed. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 36:64-68. Sprecher...Westerdahl, H. E., and J. F. Hall. 1983. Threshold 2,4-D concentrations for control of Eurasian watermilfoil and sago pondweed. J. Aquat. Plant

  15. Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bjarne; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Elmeros, Morten

    initiated systematic monitoring of species in the Annex II and IV of the Directive – including the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra). The program focuses on monitoring distribution and range of the otter population in order to provide an assessment of its conservation status. The otter Lutra lutra suffered...

  16. A Eurasian Mineralogy: Aleksandr Fersman’s Conception of the Natural World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Andy

    2016-09-01

    Thoroughly a product of imperial Russia’s aristocratic culture, the mineralogist and geochemist Aleksandr Fersman rose to the top of the country’s scientific establishment after the Bolsheviks took control. He then remained a staunch supporter of various industrial projects through much of the Stalinist period. This essay puts Fersman’s thinking about the natural world in conversation with a quite distinctive mode of intellectual inquiry that developed contemporaneously. Eurasianism was a philosophical doctrine of a group of Russian émigrés who emphasized Russia’s unique status straddling Europe and Asia. While Fersman did not belong to this group of thinkers, a number of his ideas drew on specific experiences in the environments of the Eurasian landmass. Indeed, the article argues that Fersman’s dualistic understanding of nature, his advocacy for the field of geochemistry, his definition of deserts, and a scheme he proposed for industrial operations owed much to the Eurasian settings of the science he practiced. Furthermore, this case of a Eurasian mineralogist illuminates novel aspects of the interplay between national and global sciences.

  17. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  18. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DeMiguel

    Full Text Available Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods, most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments, whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity, although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  19. Seeking explanations for recent changes in abundance of wintering Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) in northwest Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Dalby, Lars; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2016-01-01

    We analysed annual changes in abundance of Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) derived from mid-winter International Waterbird Census data throughout its northwest European flyway since 1988 using log-linear Poisson regression modelling. Increases in abundance in the north and east of the wintering...

  20. Seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios from hunter-based surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    schemes. This study found consistent seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios among Danish hunter-based wing surveys, and describes how accounting for this variation might explain reported discrepancies between this and other monitoring methods. Early season flocks were...

  1. Evaluation of a New Biological Control Pathogen for Management of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    reducing biodiversity . Its ability to grow at low temperatures allows it to quickly reach the water surface, forming a canopy that shades out other...Aquatic Plant Management Society. Gunner, H. B. 1983. Microbial control of Eurasian watermilfoil. Miscellaneous Paper A-83-4. Vicksburg, MS: U.S

  2. Eurasian golden jackal as host of canine vector-borne protists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; D'Amico, G.; Duscher, G. G.; Suchentrunk, F.; Forejtek, P.; Gherman, C.M.; Matei, I.A.; Ionică, A.M.; Daskalaki, A.A.; Mihalca, A. D.; Votýpka, Jan; Hulva, P.; Modrý, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, APR 14 (2017), č. článku 183. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eurasian golden jackal * Babesia * Hepatozoon * "Theileria annae" * Leishmania Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  3. The formation of the Eurasian Economic Union: How successful is the Russian regional hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Kirkham

    2016-07-01

    The novelty of the presentation of hegemony as an evolutionary process, which passes through initial, transitional and conclusive phases of its development, along with the recentness of the EAEU as a topic, could make this article a contribution to Eurasian integration studies.

  4. Estimating group size and population density of Eurasian badgers Meles meles by quantifying latrine use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyttens, F.A.M.; Long, B.; Fawcett, T.W.; Skinner, A.; Brown, J.A.; Cheeseman, C.L.; Roddam, A.W.; MacDonald, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    1. Conservation issues and a potential role in disease transmission generate the continued need to census Eurasian badgers Meles metes, but direct counts and sett counts present difficulties. The feasibility of estimating social group size and population density of badgers by quantifying their use

  5. Song repertoire size correlates with measures of body size in Eurasian blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Sacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In most oscine bird species males possess a repertoire of different song patterns. The size of these repertoires is assumed to serve as an honest signal of male quality. The Eurasian blackbird’s (Turdus merula) song contains a large repertoire of different element types with a flexible song organ...

  6. Current distribution and habitat preferences of red deer and eurasian elk in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Romportl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we determine the distribution, numbers and habitat preferences of two of the largest species in the family Cervidae present in the Czech Republic, red deer and Eurasian elk. Red deer occurs predominantly in vast areas of forest, i.e. mainly in the mountains bordering this country and several large forest units in the interior. The range of this species has been increasing along with the size of its population. Areas of its permanent occurrence may be generally characterized as regions largely covered with deciduous and coniferous forests and pastures, and regions with a more diverse landscape. Red deer does not occur in areas that are mainly arable or urban, or in areas covered with extensive water bodies and wetlands. As these animals prefer large forests, they occur mainly at high altitudes where the terrain is rugged. The Eurasian elk permanently occurs in the Czech Republic in a single area located between the state border and the right bank of the Lipno Dam. Its home range has been diminishing, presumably along with its numbers. The area of its permanent occurrence is characterized by an abundance of coniferous trees, some pastures and water bodies. The Eurasian elk does not occur in areas covered with arable and urban land but also surprisingly in areas with mainly deciduous forest. Both species prefer high altitudes, but Eurasian elk prefers areas with little difference in the terrain vertically.

  7. Unraveling the biogeographic origins of the Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Michael L; Palomino, Nayell; Weyl, Philip S R; Coetzee, Julie A; Newman, Raymond M; Harms, Nathan E; Liu, Xing; Thum, Ryan A

    2016-04-01

    Using phylogeographic analyses to determine the geographic origins of biological invaders is important for identifying environmental adaptations and genetic composition in their native range as well as biocontrol agents among indigenous herbivores. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and its hybrid with northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum) are found throughout the contiguous United States and southern Canada, forming one of the most economically costly aquatic plant invasions in North America, yet the geographic origin of the invasion remains unknown. The objectives of our study included determining the geographic origin of Eurasian watermilfoil in North America as well as the maternal lineage of the hybrids. DNA sequence data from a cpDNA intron and the nrDNA ITS region were compiled for accessions from 110 populations of Eurasian watermilfoil and hybrids from North America and the native range (including Europe, Asia, and Africa). Datasets were analyzed using statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetics to assess the geographic origin of the invasion. The two Eurasian watermilfoil cpDNA haplotypes in North America are also found from China and Korea, but not elsewhere in the native range. These haplotypes did not overlap and were limited in native geographic range. The ovule parent for hybrids can come from either parental lineage, and multiple haplotypes from both parental species were found. The geographic origin of this prolific aquatic plant invasion of North America is in Asia. This provides critical information to better understand the invasion pathway and inform management into the future. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Chad Genetic Diversity Reveals an African History Marked by Multiple Holocene Eurasian Migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Bergström, Anders; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Hallast, Pille; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Al-Habori, Molham; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Blue-Smith, Jason; Wells, R Spencer; Xue, Yali; Zalloua, Pierre A; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Understanding human genetic diversity in Africa is important for interpreting the evolution of all humans, yet vast regions in Africa, such as Chad, remain genetically poorly investigated. Here, we use genotype data from 480 samples from Chad, the Near East, and southern Europe, as well as whole-genome sequencing from 19 of them, to show that many populations today derive their genomes from ancient African-Eurasian admixtures. We found evidence of early Eurasian backflow to Africa in people speaking the unclassified isolate Laal language in southern Chad and estimate from linkage-disequilibrium decay that this occurred 4,750-7,200 years ago. It brought to Africa a Y chromosome lineage (R1b-V88) whose closest relatives are widespread in present-day Eurasia; we estimate from sequence data that the Chad R1b-V88 Y chromosomes coalesced 5,700-7,300 years ago. This migration could thus have originated among Near Eastern farmers during the African Humid Period. We also found that the previously documented Eurasian backflow into Africa, which occurred ∼3,000 years ago and was thought to be mostly limited to East Africa, had a more westward impact affecting populations in northern Chad, such as the Toubou, who have 20%-30% Eurasian ancestry today. We observed a decline in heterozygosity in admixed Africans and found that the Eurasian admixture can bias inferences on their coalescent history and confound genetic signals from adaptation and archaic introgression. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Girling

    Full Text Available Haematology parameters (N = 24 and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35 were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01 in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05 greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05 greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old and sexually mature (≥3 years old beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce

  10. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from the Eurasian taiga: current knowledge and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Baeck, J. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Hakola, H. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Air Quality Research, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    n this paper, the research conducted on the emissions of the biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the European boreal zone, or taiga, is reviewed. We highlight the main findings and the key gaps in our knowledge. Ecosystem scale BVOC emissions from the Eurasian taiga are observed to be relatively low as compared with those from some forest ecosystems in warmer climates. One of the distinctive features of the Eurasian taiga is the predominance of monoterpene emitting coniferous trees. Recent research indicates that in addition to evaporation from storage structures, part of the monoterpene emission of conifers originates directly from synthesis. Monoterpene emission from boreal deciduous trees originates mainly directly from synthesis. The boreal trees exhibit distinct intra-species variation in the monoterpene mixtures they emit. Important sources of isoprene in the Eurasian taiga include Norway spruce, open wetland ecosystems and some non-dominant woody species, such as European aspen and willows. Many boreal tree species also emit non-terpenoid compounds and highly reactive sesquiterpenes. The future challenges in the research on BVOC emissions from the Eurasian taiga include (i) quantification and understanding the non-terpenoid VOC emissions from the taiga ecosystems, (ii) bringing ecosystems in the eastern Eurasian taiga into the sphere of BVOC emission studies, (iii) establishing long-term ecosystem flux studies combined with plant physiological measurements, and (iv) integrating knowledge and research skills on BVOC synthesis, storages and emissions, land cover changes and atmospheric processes in different spatial and temporal scales in order to better understand the impact of biosphere on atmospheric chemistry and composition in changing climate. (orig.)

  11. New and updated time trends of persistent organic pollutants and their effects on eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to high concentrations. DDT and its metabolites caused severe effects on reproduction and population survival in the past. In this study, we addressed the following organic pollutants in eggs of peregrine falcons......), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), hexabromobiphenyl (BB) 153, “novel” flame retardants), dechlorane plus and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs). The concentrations were generally high in a bioaccumulation context, i.e. in the μg/g range for the organochlorine POPs. Some eggs reached critical levels for DDE...

  12. Spatio-temporal trends in the predation of large gulls by peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus in an insular breeding population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Luke J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual diet specialization occurs in many populations of generalist predators, with specific individuals developing specialist strategies in their feeding behaviour. Intraspecific resource partitioning is hypothesised to be common amongst species in higher trophic levels where competition for resources is intense, and a key driver in breeding success and community structure. Though well-studied in other predators, there is sparse data on ecological specialization in raptors, which are important drivers of community and trophic structure. In this study, the breeding season diet of an insular population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus was determined from indirect analysis of prey remains collected over three years. An unexpected result was the high proportion of large gulls (Laridae, of the genus Larus, in the diet of two breeding pairs of peregrines. Large gulls made up 18.44% by frequency of total prey recorded and 30.81% by biomass. Herring gulls (Larus argentatus were the most common large gull prey, with immatures most frequent (67.95% compared to adults (19.23%. Overall, most gulls predated were immatures (80.77%. Frequency of predation varied between breeding pairs and months, but was consistent over the three years. Most gulls were taken in April (37.17%, followed by May (19.23%, with a smaller peak of immature herring gulls taken in August and September. The pattern of regular predation by peregrines on large gulls is a new observation with important implications for understanding individual diet specialization in raptors, and its effect on bird populations and community structure.

  13. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.A., E-mail: mmora@tamu.edu [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Baxter, C. [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Sericano, J.L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Montoya, A.B. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States); Gallardo, J.C. [Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz 91190 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Salazar, J.R. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 {mu}g/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 {mu}g/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. - Highlights: > We analyzed environmental contaminants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Mexico. > Of all the organochlorine pesticides, only p,p'-DDE was detected in all the eggs. > Eggshell thickness was 20% thicker than the reported in eggshells from the 1970s. > Total PCBs and PBDEs were lower than those reported in industrialized countries. > Aplomado falcons in Mexico are currently not affected by DDE, PCBs, or PBDEs. - PBDEs, PCBs, and p,p'-DDE were not elevated in eggs and not likely to impact aplomado falcons in eastern and northern Mexico.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained Release Formulation of Buprenorphine After Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Administration to American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Olsen, Glenn H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with μ-receptor affinities for pain management in raptors. Buprenorphine appears to have a longer duration of action and minimal adverse effects when compared to other opioids in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius ). To determine the pharmacokinetics of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in kestrels, we administered a commercially available product (Buprenorphine SR-LAB; Wildlife Pharmaceuticals, Windsor, CO, USA) intramuscularly and subcutaneously to adult kestrels in a partial-crossover experimental design study. A total of 12 birds (6 males and 6 females) were assigned randomly to 3 groups of 4 birds each. A single dose of Buprenorphine SR-LAB (1.8 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (IM), and blood samples were collected at 0.25, 3, and 24 hours (n = 4); 1, 6, and 48 hours (n = 4); and 2, 12, and 72 hours (n = 4) after drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by use of least squares linear regression and noncompartmental analysis of naïve pooled data. After 1 year, the same dose of buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously (SC) to 12 birds divided into 3 groups as previously, and blood samples were collected at the same times after drug administration. Maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was measured at 15 minutes after IM and SC administration. Mean plasma buprenorphine concentrations were >1 ng/mL for 48 hours after IM and SC administration. The elimination half-life was 13.5 and 11.1 hours for IM and SC administration, respectively. Depending on the severity and type of pain, adjunctive therapy, and the individual response, Buprenorphine SR-LAB administered at 1.8 mg/kg IM or SC to American kestrels would require administration every 12 to 72 hours to manage pain. Further pharmacodynamic and clinical evaluations are warranted in kestrels and

  15. Food supply (Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla and food preferences of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krištín Anton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supply in the nesting territories of species has a key role to the species diet composition and their breeding success. Red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus preys predominantly on larger insect species with a supplementary portion of smaller vertebrates. In the breeding periods 2014 and 2016 their food supply, focusing on Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla, was analysed at five historical nesting sites of the species in Slovakia. Preference for these prey groups in the diet was also studied at the last active nesting site in this country. Overall we recorded 45 Orthoptera species (of which 23 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon, one species of Mantodea, 10 species of Rodentia (of which 2 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon and 5 species of the Eulipotyphla order in the food supply. With regard to the availability of the falcons' preferred food, in both years the most suitable was the Tvrdošovce site, which continuously showed the greatest range and abundance of particular species. In the interannual comparison the insects showed lower variability in abundance than the small mammals. In 2014 the growth of the common vole (Microtus arvalis population culminated and with the exception of a single site (Bodza a slump in abundance was recorded in 2016. In comparing the diet composition with the food supply at the last Slovak breeding site Rusovce (Special Protection Area Sysľovské polia, we recorded significant preference for grasshopper Caliptamus italicus (in 2014, common vole (in 2016 and cricket Tettigonia viridissima (in both years in the falcons' diet. They did not prey on the Apodemus sylvaticus species belonging among the abundant small mammal species in that locality. Conservation measures in the agricultural landscape are discussed in relation to homogeneous red-footed falcon breeding territories.

  16. Variation in migratory behavior influences regional genetic diversity and structure among American kestrel populations (Falco sparverius) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Parrish, John G.; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Birds employ numerous strategies to cope with seasonal fluctuations in high-quality habitat availability. Long distance migration is a common tactic; however, partial migration is especially common among broadly distributed species. Under partial migration systems, a portion of a species migrates, whereas the remainder inhabits breeding grounds year round. In this study, we identified effects of migratory behavior variation on genetic structure and diversity of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), a widespread partial migrant in North America. American Kestrels generally migrate; however, a resident group inhabits the southeastern United States year round. The southeastern group is designated as a separate subspecies (F. s. paulus) from the migratory group (F. s. sparverius). Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from 183 and 211 individuals, respectively, we illustrate that genetic structure is stronger among nonmigratory populations, with differentiation measures ranging from 0.060 to 0.189 depending on genetic marker and analysis approach. In contrast, measures from western North American populations ranged from 0 to 0.032. These findings suggest that seasonal migratory behavior is also associated with natal and breeding dispersal tendencies. We likewise detected significantly lower genetic diversity within nonmigratory populations, reflecting the greater influence of genetic drift in small populations. We identified the signal of population expansion among nonmigratory populations, consistent with the recent establishment of higher latitude breeding locations following Pleistocene glacial retreat. Differentiation of F. s. paulus and F. s. sparverius reflected subtle differences in allele frequencies. Because migratory behavior can evolve quickly, our analyses suggest recent origins of migratory American Kestrel populations in North America.

  17. Routes and travel rates of migrating Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus and Swainson's Hawks Buteo swainsoni in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Mark R.; Seegar, William S.; Schueck, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    We describe and compare the migration routes, length of migration, and duration of migration of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius and Swainson's Hawks Buteo swainsoni in the Western Hemisphere. We radio tracked migrants using the Argos satellite system. Our initial samples were 34 Swainson's Hawks from representative areas of their breeding range, and 61 Peregrine Falcons captured at nest sites across the North American boreal forest and low Arctic or on the migration routes along the mid-Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. The average distance of migration for Peregrines was 8,624 km southward, and 8,247 km northward. Peregrines travelled at an average rate of 172 km/d southward and 198 km/d going north. Peregrine Falcons used at least three broad, general routes south from the breeding areas, and individuals stopped migrating as far north as the U.S.A. mid-Atlantic coast and as far south as central Argentina. The radiomarked Peregrine Falcons used coastal routes, mid-continental routes, and water-crossing routes: the Davis Strait and Caribbean Sea. During northward migration, Peregrines migrating through at Padre Island, Texas diverged for destinations from central Alaska across the continent to central West Greenland. Swainson's Hawks migrated an average of about 13,504 km southward and 11,952 km northward, and travelled 188 km/d southward and 150 km/d northward. Swainson's Hawks converged in eastern Mexico on the Gulf of Mexico coast. Southward, these hawks followed a narrow, well-defined path through Central America, across the Andes Mountains in Columbia, and east of the Andes to central Argentina where they all spent the austral summer. Swainson's Hawks northward migration largely retraced their southward route.

  18. Eurasian winter cooling in the warming hiatus of 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Stevens, B. B.; Marotzke, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the relative magnitudes of the contributions of surface temperature trends from different latitude bands to the recent warming hiatus. We confirm from five different global datasets that the global-mean surface temperature trend in the period 1998—2012 is strongly influenced by a pronounced Eurasian winter cooling trend. This cooling trend was not reproduced in an influential model study attributing most of the hiatus to cooling in the tropical Pacific (Kosaka and Xie, 2013) and hence might have different causes. Arctic sea ice loss over interannual time scales has previously been shown to influence Eurasian winter temperatures (Kim et al., 2014; Mori et al., 2014), but whether such an influence exists for the concrete hiatus period has remained unclear. To understand the drivers of this winter-cooling trend, we perform three twenty-member ensembles of simulations with different prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice in the atmospheric model ECHAM6. Our experimental results suggest that the Arctic sea-ice loss does not drive systematic changes in the northern-hemisphere large-scale circulation in the past decades. The observed Eurasian winter cooling trend over 1998-2012 arises essentially from atmospheric internal variability and constitutes an extreme climate event. However, the observed reduction in Arctic sea ice enhances the variability of Eurasian winter climate and thus increases the probability of an extreme Eurasian winter cooling trend. Reference: Kosaka, Y., and S.-P. Xie, 2013: Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Nature, 501, 403—407. Kim, B. M., S. W. Son, S. K. Min, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Kim, X. D. Zhang, T. Shim and J. H. Yoon, 2014: Weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex by Arctic sea-ice loss, Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/ncomms5646. Mori M., M. Watanabe, H. Shiogama, J. Inoue, and M. Kimoto, 2014: Robust Arctic sea-ice inuence on the frequent Eurasian cold

  19. Eurasian Economic Union and Prospects of Development of Transnational Corporations in the Frame of the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Tikhonovitch Spitsyn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the processes of regional integration and its particular features in the frame of the Eurasian Economic Union formation and their impact on the development of transnational corporations in the region. The authors used the scientific and methodological basis including an integrated approach and economic, institutional and organizational methods, theoretical and methodological studies of domestic and foreign scientists. In order to achieve the defined aim of this research, the authors used the retrospective method and method of comparative analysis, studied the statistical data, including the reports of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Bank’s ratings. The authors studied the historical background of the Eurasian Economic Union, analyzed the current economic situation in its Member States, and considered the experience of other regional alliances. According to the results of the research, the authors formulated the conclusions in the context of the most likely prospects for the development of transnational corporations in the frame of the integration of the Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union. In particular, the study of the experience of other regional associations presumes that the process of regional economic integration will have a positive impact on the dynamics of the attraction of foreign direct investment inflows in the region. In addition, regional integration will mitigate the problem of “limited” markets of the Member States of the Economic Union and, therefore, will help to increase the amount of investment resources in the manufacturing industry and services sector of the economy. The creation of the common energy markets in the framework of the new regional association would strengthen the resource-oriented domestic large-scale business and prepare the groundwork for the emergence of new transnational corporations, cooperating within the

  20. Wing Whiteness as an Indicator of Age, Immunocompetence, and Testis Size in the Eurasian Black-Billed Magpie (Pica pica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guillermo Blanco; Juan A. Fargallo

    2013-01-01

    ... them. We investigated covariation of the white wing patch of the Eurasian Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) with age, sex, feather wear, spleen size, parasite infection, and testis size to evaluate whether this trait is indicative of individual quality...

  1. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. A Survey of the Continental United States for Pathogens of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    proven. Hayslip and Zettler (1973) later reported a failure to intro- duce the Northeast River disease in Florida, and Bean , Fusco, and Klarman (1973...Hecht (1981) tested the pathogenicity of Fusarium sporotrichioides to Eurasian water- milfoil. The fungus that was isolated from Eurasian...spicatum L.," Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol 59, pp 201-215. Andrews, J. H., and Hecht, E. P. 1981. "Evidence for Pathogenicity of Fusarium

  2. A comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra (Carnivora; Mustelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Tae-Jin; Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2010-04-01

    Otter populations are declining throughout the world and most otter species are considered endangered. Molecular methods are suitable tools for population genetic research on endangered species. In the present study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra. The mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Eurasian otter is 16,505 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a control region (CR). The CR sequence of otters from Europe and Asia showed nearly identical numbers and nucleotide sequences of minisatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of Mustelidae mitogenomes, including individual genes, revealed that Lutrinae and Mustelinae form a clade, and that L. lutra and Enhydra lutris are sister taxa within the Lutrinae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, ND5 is the most reliable marker for analysis of phylogenetic relationships within the Mustelidae.

  3. Suspected flunixin poisoning of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Irene; Martinez, Rosa; Taggart, Mark A; Richards, Ngaio

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to residues of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac present in livestock carcasses has caused extensive declines in 3 Gyps vulture species across Asia. The carcass of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) was found in 2012 on an Andalucian (Spain) game hunting reserve and examined forensically. The bird had severe visceral gout, a finding consistent with Gyps vultures from Asia that have been poisoned by diclofenac. Liver and kidney samples from this Eurasian Griffon Vulture contained elevated flunixin (an NSAID) levels (median = 2.70 and 6.50 mg/kg, respectively). This is the first reported case of a wild vulture being exposed to and apparently killed by an NSAID outside Asia. It is also the first reported instance of mortality in the wild resulting from environmental exposure to an NSAID other than diclofenac. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.

  5. Eurasian golden jackal as host of canine vector-borne protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitková, Barbora; Hrazdilová, Kristýna; D'Amico, Gianluca; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Suchentrunk, Franz; Forejtek, Pavel; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Votýpka, Jan; Hulva, Pavel; Modrý, David

    2017-04-14

    Jackals are medium-sized canids from the wolf-like clade, exhibiting a unique combination of ancestral morphotypes, broad trophic niches, and close phylogenetic relationships with the wolf and dog. Thus, they represent a potential host of several pathogens with diverse transmission routes. Recently, populations of the Eurasian golden jackal Canis aureus have expanded into the Western Palaearctic, including most of Europe. The aim of our study was to examine Eurasian golden jackals from Romania, Czech Republic and Austria for a wide spectrum of vector-borne protists and to evaluate the role of this species as a reservoir of disease for domestic dogs and/or humans. Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplifications revealed 70% of jackals to be positive for Hepatozoon, 12.5% positive for piroplasms, and one individual positive for Leishmania infantum. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 18S rDNA sequences invariably placed sequenced isolates of Hepatozoon into the H. canis clade. For piroplasms, both the 18S and cox1 sequences obtained confirmed the presence of Babesia canis and "Theileria annae" in 5 and 2 individuals, respectively, providing the first records of these two piroplasmids in Eurasian golden jackals. A single animal from Dolj County (Romania) was PCR-positive for L. infantum, as confirmed also by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S. Apparently, expanding populations of jackals can play a significant role in spreading and maintaining new Babesia canis foci in Central Europe. The role of jackals in the epidemiology of "Theileria annae" and H. canis is probably similar to that of red foxes and should be taken into account in further research on these parasites. Also the presence of L. infantum deserves attention. Our study confirms that once established, the populations of Eurasian golden jackals constitute natural reservoirs for many canine vector-borne diseases, analogous to the role of the coyotes in North America.

  6. Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Erlend B; John D C Linnell; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-ol...

  7. The Eurasian Economic Union: A Brittle Roadblock on China's "One Belt - One Road"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    to participate. However, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine opted for an association agreement with the EU, a move to which Russia responded by the annexation of Crimea and starting an insurgency in Eastern Ukraine. In 2015, the EEU officially started with the participation of only five countries: Armenia, Belarus...... members. Keywords: China, European-Atlantic Security Community, Eurasian Economic Union, “One Belt One Road” Initiative, Russia’s “Monroe Doctrine”....

  8. Near-Slope changes in the Eurasian and Makarov Basins from Glider Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1000-m G2 Slocum gliders . We have also ordered and received the high-frequency (1 MHz) Aquadopp ADCP from Nortek. RESULTS We have have initialized...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Near-Slope changes in the Eurasian and Makarov Basins from glider surveys Dr. Peter Winsor School of...73 LONG-TERM GOALS To conduct high-latitude glider surveys that will lead to i) enhanced autonomous observational capabilities in the high Arctic

  9. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro, Mario; D?Alessio, Nicola; Cerrone, Anna; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; Aloise,Gaetano; Auriemma, Clementina; Riccone, Nunzia; Galiero, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninu...

  10. Habitat correlates of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra recolonizing Central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowski, Jerzy; Brzezi?ski, Marcin; ?mihorski, Micha?

    2012-01-01

    The increase in Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several European countries. We address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in Central Poland over 14?years. Field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. The frequency of positive sites denoted 15?% in 1993, 38?% in 1998, and 89?% in 2007. Otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river w...

  11. The Near Threatened Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in Morocco : no sign of recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Delibes de Castro, Miguel; Calzada Samperio, Javier; Clavero Pineda, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor; Gutiérrez Expósito, Carlos; Revilla, Eloy; Román, Jacinto

    2012-01-01

    Although the Near Threatened Eurasian otter Lutra lutra has been recovering in Europe since the 1980s nothing is known about population trends of the species in northern Africa. Ninety sites was searched for signs of otters in northern and western Morocco in 1983 and we repeated this survey in 2011. At each site we searched for otter spraints (faeces) or clear footprints along a maximum of 600m of river bank, ending the search when the first sign was found. Overall res...

  12. The Eurasian Integration in the Context of Civilizational Self-Determination of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Nikolay Alekseevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is currently in search of its place and its role in the world. In the conditions of intense relations with the Western states, a political discourse is experiencing the change of priorities in defining a direction of the country’s development. Therefore the European vector which served as an orientation point in the political elite in 1990s - the beginning of 2000s, is replaced by the Eurasian one. It is also caused by strengthening the economic and political influence of the Asian states on the international processes. The Eurasian integration project initiated by Russia, finds support among a number of the countries of the post-Soviet territory. The created Eurasian economic union becomes the significant subject of the international political process that gives confidence to Russia as far as its forces in building relations with the Western countries are concerned, as well as the search of self-identity. Russia aspires to become the bridge connecting the West and the East that can serve as its contribution to the creation of equal relations in the global world. The article attempts to highlight the trends of modern Russian civilization identification process within the political science discourse. This process is associated with inconsistent implementation of the political, legal, socio-economic and socio-cultural (ideological projects of society and the state modernization. The author focuses on the fact that the center of the discussions in the socio-political discourse is increasingly shifting towards the search of Russian interests not within civilizational projects, but in the search for an independent path of development, which is most fully consistent with the historical destiny of Russia. The author substantiates positive and negative factors that contribute to the realization of the Eurasian project aimed at the integration of countries and peoples in the context of the implementation of democratic reforms and the national

  13. Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

    2013-01-01

    Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

  14. THE REGISTRY OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS PATIENTS, A EURASIAN COHORT (RENAISSANCE)

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Aseeva; A. I. Dubikov; L. A. Levasheva; G. M. Koilubaeva; M. K. Dzhetybaeva; V. T. Eralieva; E. R. Karimova; B. G. Isaeva; M. B. Kalykova; M. M. Saparbaeva; S. M. Isaeva; Zh. I. Omarbekova; E. S. Solovyeva; T M Reshetnyak; N G Klyukvina

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the data of international registries and cohort studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It justifies the purpose and objectives of the international registry of SLE patients, a Eurasian cohort (RENAISSANCE), which was launched in 2012 and amalgamated the leading rheumatology centers of the Russian Federation (V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology; Department of Rheumatology,  Pacific State Medical University), Kazakhstan (Department of Rheumatology,  S.D...

  15. Impacts of early autumn Arctic sea ice concentration on subsequent spring Eurasian surface air temperature variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2017-11-01

    This study reveals a close relation between autumn Arctic sea ice change (SIC) in the Laptev Sea-eastern Siberian Sea-Beaufort Sea and subsequent spring Eurasian surface air temperature (SAT) variation. Specifically, more (less) SIC over the above regions in early autumn generally correspond to SAT warming (cooling) over the mid-high latitudes of Eurasia during subsequent spring. Early autumn Arctic SIC affects spring Eurasian SAT via modulating spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) associated atmospheric changes. The meridional temperature gradient over the mid-high latitudes decreases following the Arctic sea ice loss. This results in deceleration of prevailing westerly winds over the mid-latitudes of the troposphere, which leads to increase in the upward propagation of planetary waves and associated Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the stratosphere over the mid-high latitudes. Thereby, westerly winds in the stratosphere are reduced and the polar vortex is weakened. Through the wave-mean flow interaction and downward propagation of zonal wind anomalies, a negative spring AO pattern is formed in the troposphere, which favors SAT cooling over Eurasia. The observed autumn Arctic SIC-spring Eurasian SAT connection is reproduced in the historical simulation (1850-2005) of the flexible global ocean-atmosphere-land system model, spectral version 2 (FGOALS-s2). The FGOALS-s2 also simulates the close connection between autumn SIC and subsequent spring AO. Further analysis suggests that the prediction skill of the spring Eurasian SAT was enhanced when taking the autumn Arctic SIC signal into account.

  16. Eurasian Economic Union: Opportunities and Barriers to Regional and Global Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Andronova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU is a new integration grouping in the post-Soviet space that is generating heightened interest as a global economy with the potential to become a new regional and global actor. This article analyzes the effectiveness of the Eurasian integration processes and proposes several actions to strengthen economic relations among EEU members through detecting and building common economic interests. Russia accounts for as much as 87% of the EEU’s geo-economic potential, which stresses the country’s role as anintegrative hub. The EEU benefits are thus unevenly distributed among its participants. Moreover, these benefits lack consistency and long-term orientation, which may threaten the EEU’s existence if markets and international economic relations change.This article analyses the interrelation and interdependency of national economies in terms of the mutual trade in goods and services and investment cooperation. It finds that the level of economic integration does not meet the interests of strengthening Eurasian integration. Despite the huge benefits of the Customs Union, trade volumes have not increased and the structure of manufacturing and cooperation ties remain unchanged. This article recommends that developing and implementing a common industrial and agricultural policy would strengthen the EEU, and proposes an approach to estimate the results of such a policy.

  17. Musculoskeletal anatomy of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx (Carnivora: Felidae) forelimb: Adaptations to capture large prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viranta, Suvi; Lommi, Hanna; Holmala, Katja; Laakkonen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian carnivores adhere to two different feeding strategies relative to their body masses. Large carnivores prey on animals that are the same size or larger than themselves, whereas small carnivores prey on smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) falls in between these two categories. Lynx descend from larger forms that were probably large prey specialists, but during the Pleistocene became predators of small prey. The modern Eurasian lynx may be an evolutionary reversal toward specializing in large prey again. We hypothesized that the musculoskeletal anatomy of lynx should show traits for catching large prey. To test our hypothesis, we dissected the forelimb muscles of six Eurasian lynx individuals and compared our findings to results published for other felids. We measured the bones and compared their dimensions to the published material. Our material displayed a well-developed pectoral girdle musculature with some uniquely extensive muscle attachments. The upper arm musculature resembled that of the pantherine felids and probably the extinct sabertooths, and also the muscles responsible for supination and pronation were similar to those in large cats. The muscles controlling the pollex were well-developed. However, skeletal indices were similar to those of small prey predators. Our findings show that lynx possess the topographic pattern of muscle origin and insertion like in large felids. J. Morphol. 277:753-765, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  19. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindičić, Magda; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC.

  20. Early Eurasian migration traces in the Tarim Basin revealed by mtDNA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Chunxiang; Gao, Shizhu; Xie, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hui

    2010-08-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms of 58 samples from the Daheyan village located in the central Taklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin were determined in this study. Among the 58 samples, 29 haplotypes belonging to 18 different haplogroups were analyzed. Almost all the mtDNAs belong to a subset of either the defined Western or Eastern Eurasian pool. Extensive Eastern Eurasian lineages exist in the Daheyan population in which Northern-prevalent haplogroups present higher frequencies. In the limited existing Western Eurasian lineages, two sub-haplogroups, U3 and X2, that are rare in Central Asia were found in this study, which may be indicative of the remnants of an early immigrant population from the Near East and Caucasus regions preserved only in the Tarim Basin. The presence of U3 in modern and archeological samples in the Tarim Basin suggests that the immigration took place earlier than 2,000 years ago and points to human continuity in this area, with at least one Western lineage originating from the Near East and Caucasus regions. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables.

  2. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli K Rueness

    Full Text Available Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables.

  3. Persistent shift of the Arctic polar vortex towards the Eurasian continent in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankai; Tian, Wenshou; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Xie, Fei; Huang, Jinlong

    2016-12-01

    The wintertime Arctic stratospheric polar vortex has weakened over the past three decades, and consequently cold surface air from high latitudes is now more likely to move into the middle latitudes. However, it is not known if the location of the polar vortex has also experienced a persistent change in response to Arctic climate change and whether any changes in the vortex position have implications for the climate system. Here, through the analysis of various data sets and model simulations, we show that the Arctic polar vortex shifted persistently towards the Eurasian continent and away from North America in February over the past three decades. This shift is found to be closely related to the enhanced zonal wavenumber-1 waves in response to Arctic sea-ice loss, particularly over the Barents-Kara seas (BKS). Increased snow cover over the Eurasian continent may also have contributed to the shift. Our analysis reveals that the vortex shift induces cooling over some parts of the Eurasian continent and North America which partly offsets the tropospheric climate warming there in the past three decades. The potential vortex shift in response to persistent sea-ice loss in the future, and its associated climatic impact, deserve attention to better constrain future climate changes.

  4. Integration Dilemma within the Eurasian Space in the Context of the Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina A. Durdyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the reaction of top officials, politicians and representatives of the expert community of the Eurasian Economic Union member countries on the aggravation of "Ukrainian crisis" in the context of plans and directions for further Eurasian integration. Today, in the scientific community is becoming a popular" dilemma of integration " as a systematic pattern that determines the development of relations between the integration associations. The dilemma of integration is a political phenomenon, a regular and predictable. Ukrainian crisis, which has become a litmus test of conflict of representations of the CIS countries on the extent and depth of their involvement in the processes of regional integration , most clearly outlined the presence of such dilemma within the CIS. In the current situation for Belarus and Kazakhstan as two , along with Russia , the main designers of the Eurasian field, the dilemma of integration takes a fundamentally different meaning and becomes a so-called "Dilemma of integrations", or contradiction between the desire of these countries to secure the most favorable conditions in its relations with Moscow and reluctance to fully bear the burden of the costs and constraints arising in relations with the EU due to the commitments of the EAEC. Based on the material of the official position of the representatives of Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Belarus the author of the article explores the implications of the Ukrainian crisis in relations of Three: Moscow, Astana and Minsk.

  5. Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil and Curlyleaf Pondweed in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, Montana: Herbicide Small-Plot Evaluations, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    sibiricum Komarov Northern watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian watermilfoil Najas flexilis L. (Willd.) Rost & Schmidt Slender naiad...54 21† 7* Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian watermilfoil 42 20† 13* Najas flexilis L. (Willd.) Rost & Schmidt Slender naiad 0 0 1 Nitella sp...stargrass 11 40† 31* Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov Northern watermilfoil 41 42 14* Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian watermilfoil 70 30† 24* Najas

  6. American kestrel (Falco spaverius) fledgling with severe bilateral periorbital swelling and infection with Mycoplasma buteonis, Avibacterium (Pasteurella) gallinarum, and Staphylococcus pasteuri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezjian, Marisa; Bezjian, Marisa

    2014-06-01

    Abstract: A female American kestrel (Falco spaverius) fledgling was found on the ground with a suspected trauma to the right eye and open-mouth breathing. During the first 2 days of hospitalization, the bird developed severe bilateral periorbital cellulitis, blepharoedema, and sinusitis. The periocular tissues of the right globe were devitalized and communicated with a fistula at the commissure of the right side of the beak. The blepharoedema of the left eye was aspirated and yielded a dark colored malodorous fluid, which was submitted for aerobic bacterial and Mycoplasma cultures. Results showed a mixed infection with Mycoplasma buteonis, Avibacterium gallinarum, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, all of which are not commonly isolated from birds of prey. With antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and surgical debridement of the right periocular necrotic tissues and adhesed phthisical globe, the kestrel recovered from this severe mixed upper respiratory infection.

  7. Morphological and molecular genetic analysis of Synhimantus (Synhimantus laticeps (Rudolphi, 1819 (Nematoda, Acuariidae from the barn owl (Tyto alba and the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebmer D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the biodiversity initiative and barcoding project “Austrian Barcode of Life” (ABOL post mortem examinations of the gastro-intestinal tracts of different species of wild birds were carried out and several adult helminths were retrieved. In the gizzard of two barn owls (Tyto alba and one common kestrel (Falco tinnuculus acuariid nematodes belonging to the species Synhimantus (Synhimantus laticeps (Rudolphi, 1819 were discovered. This report illustrates the identification of this parasitic nematode by morphometric comparison and scanning electron microscopic photographs. Furthermore, genetic identification of individual parasites based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene was carried out. This report constitutes the first COI-based DNA barcoding of S. (S. laticeps and its first record in the barn owl (Tyto alba in Austria.

  8. Russia and China in the age of grand Eurasian projects: Prospects for integration between the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshko Sangar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent deterioration of relations between Russia and the West over crises in the Middle East and Ukraine, the relationship between Moscow and Beijing is growing stronger. In 2014, the two nations signed an unprecedented gas deal worth US$400 billion. In May 2015, Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping agreed to coordinate the Moscow-led EEU with China’s Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB. Following these developments, authors and journalists heralded a new era in Sino-Russian relations in which the two nations would consolidate their forces to counter a US-led unipolar world. However, the nature of the relationship between China and Russia, the prospects for closer cooperation between the two nations, and the feasibility of integrating the two grand Eurasian projects are topics of fierce debate. This article maintains that while a consensus between Moscow and Beijing with regard to post-Cold War US unilateralism and their convergent interests have pushed China and Russia to cooperate on a range of global and regional issues, relations between the two Eurasian neighbours are complex and multi-faceted and are far from forming an anti-US bloc. Furthermore, the abstract nature of China’s Silk Road initiative and a number of significant obstacles make the feasibility of integration between the two projects a complicated task. Issues explored by this article include the development of mechanisms and agreement on a format for cooperation between the nations involved; the solution of practical issues such as rail gauges and corruption in the region; the prospects for an “equal partnership” in Sino-Russian relations and Moscow’s predicament with regards to its position as “junior partner” in Eurasia; and last but not least, the ever-growing threat of Islamic fundamentalism and regional security.

  9. PAN EURASIAN EXPERIMENT (PEEX - A RESEARCH INITIATIVE MEETING THE GRAND CHALLENGES OF THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT OF THE NORTHERN PAN-EURASIAN ARCTIC-BOREAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna K. Lappalainen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX is a new multidisciplinary, global change research initiative focusing on understanding biosphere-ocean-cryosphere-climate interactions and feedbacks in Arctic and boreal regions in the Northern Eurasian geographical domain. PEEX operates in an integrative way and it aims at solving the major scientific and society relevant questions in many scales using tools from natural and social sciences and economics. The research agenda identifies the most urgent large scale research questions and topics of the land-atmosphere-aquatic-anthropogenic systems and interactions and feedbacks between the systems for the next decades. Furthermore PEEX actively develops and designs a coordinated and coherent ground station network from Europe via Siberia to China and the coastal line of the Arctic Ocean together with a PEEX-modeling platform. PEEX launches a program for educating the next generation of multidisciplinary researcher and technical experts. This expedites the utilization of the new scientific knowledge for producing a more reliable climate change scenarios in regional and global scales, and enables mitigation and adaptation planning of the Northern societies. PEEX gathers together leading European, Russian and Chinese research groups. With a bottom-up approach, over 40 institutes and universities have contributed the PEEX Science Plan from 18 countries. In 2014 the PEEX community prepared Science Plan and initiated conceptual design of the PEEX land-atmosphere observation network and modeling platform. Here we present the PEEX approach as a whole with the specific attention to research agenda and preliminary design of the PEEX research infrastructure.

  10. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  11. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of anthropogenic pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Emmons, L. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Guo, Y.; Tao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies as well as a fully-tagged approach, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  12. Troglostrongylus brevior in an Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alić, Amer; Traversa, Donato; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kadrić, Mirsad; Di Cesare, Angela; Hodžić, Adnan

    2015-12-21

    In the past few years the interest of the scientific community on lungworms of the genus Troglostrongylus has grown due to the increased number of unexpected cases of infections with Troglostrongylus brevior in domestic cats from Mediterranean Europe, likely due to a spill-over from wild reservoirs. Thus, there is a merit to increase our knowledge on the occurrence of this parasite in felids from European regions. The present paper describes lung lesions associated with T. brevior infection in the endangered Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The carcass of an illegally killed 3-year-old male Eurasian lynx was presented for necropsy at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Grossly, multiple, multinodular, consolidated and firm, tan to grey areas, occupying the caudal third of caudal lung lobes, were observed. At cut section, the catarrhal fluid was draining from the airways. Larvae of T. brevior were found in tracheal scraping. The histopathological examination revealed multifocal to coalescing areas, centered on bronchi and bronchioles, and expanded alveoli filled with necrotic debris, degenerated inflammatory cells, mostly neutrophils and macrophages, and multiple cross sections of parasite larvae and thin-walled morulated eggs of lungworms. The paraffin-embedded lung samples were molecularly positive for T. brevior. This paper describes the first record of T. brevior in the Eurasian lynx and the associated host lung pathology. Given its pathogenic potential and the lack of data on troglostrongylosis in lynx populations, the occurrence and impact of Troglostrongylus spp. on wildlife health as well as the role of L. lynx as reservoir of infection for other felids, should be further investigated.

  13. Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A; Helgen, Kristofer M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-08-17

    The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized phylogenetically distinct species despite a long history of taxonomic work on African canids. To test the distinct-species hypothesis and understand the evolutionary history that would account for this puzzling result, we analyzed extensive genomic data including mitochondrial genome sequences, sequences from 20 autosomal loci (17 introns and 3 exon segments), microsatellite loci, X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences, and whole-genome nuclear sequences in African and Eurasian golden jackals and gray wolves. Our results provide consistent and robust evidence that populations of golden jackals from Africa and Eurasia represent distinct monophyletic lineages separated for more than one million years, sufficient to merit formal recognition as different species: C. anthus (African golden wolf) and C. aureus (Eurasian golden jackal). Using morphologic data, we demonstrate a striking morphologic similarity between East African and Eurasian golden jackals, suggesting parallelism, which may have misled taxonomists and likely reflects uniquely intense interspecific competition in the East African carnivore guild. Our study shows how ecology can confound taxonomy if interspecific competition constrains size diversification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, George B.J.; Hellenthal, Garrett; Montinaro, Francesco; Tofanelli, Sergio; Bulayeva, Kazima; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Toncheva, Draga; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Nesheva, Desislava; Anagnostou, Paolo; Cali, Francesco; Brisighelli, Francesca; Romano, Valentino; Lefranc, Gerard; Buresi, Catherine; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Haj-Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Ploski, Rafal; Krajewski, Pawel; Hervig, Tor; Moen, Torolf; Herrera, Rene J.; Wilson, James F.; Myers, Simon; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. While these efforts are bringing the details of West Eurasian prehistory into increasing focus, studies aimed at understanding the processes behind the generation of the current West Eurasian genetic landscape have been limited by the number of populations sampled or have been either too regional or global in their outlook [8, 9, 10, 11]. Here, using recently described haplotype-based techniques [11], we present the results of a systematic survey of recent admixture history across Western Eurasia and show that admixture is a universal property across almost all groups. Admixture in all regions except North Western Europe involved the influx of genetic material from outside of West Eurasia, which we date to specific time periods. Within Northern, Western, and Central Europe, admixture tended to occur between local groups during the period 300 to 1200 CE. Comparisons of the genetic profiles of West Eurasians before and after admixture show that population movements within the last 1,500 years are likely to have maintained differentiation among groups. Our analysis provides a timeline of the gene flow events that have generated the contemporary genetic landscape of West Eurasia. PMID:26387712

  15. Occurrence of mycoplasmas in free-ranging birds of prey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Hernadez-Divers, S J; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasmas are well-known avian pathogens of poultry and some passerines. Although reported in birds of prey, their role as pathogens is still unclear. Healthy, free-ranging raptor nestlings sampled during a routine ringing (banding) program, and birds of prey from rehabilitation centers, tested positive for Mycoplasma spp. by culture and a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Given the lack of clinical signs and disease, we suggest that mycoplasmas in raptors may be commensal rather than pathogenic. Using immunobinding assay and species-specific PCR tests, Mycoplasma buteonis, M. falconis, and M. gypis were identified; M. falconis was only detected in falcons. Additionally, some isolates could not be identified. This is the first report of Mycoplasma spp. isolations from Western Marsh Harriers (Circus aeroginosus), a Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo), and a Barn Owl (Tyto alba).

  16. [Social play in the development of sibling relations in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, G S; Antonevich, A L; Erofeeva, M N; Naĭdenko, S V

    2014-01-01

    Social play fulfills an important function in creating and maintaining relations between siblings. However, its relationship with the intralitter social processes is poorly understood. It was noticed that, in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) litters, sex differences in social play are absent in the first 2-3 months of life. Itwas found that the most intense periods of play behavior (at an age of 9 and 1-2 weeks) coincide with periods of aggression. Gradual change in play interactions, which require close physical contact by play elements with increased motor activity, are described. This reflects the changes in the relevance of certain skills of lynx cubs as they grow older.

  17. Course of Russian History for Foreigners as an Instrument of Eurasian Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Arslanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the significance of teaching the course of history as a means, that can influence the integration process in CIS countries. It is noted that the studying of traditions and culture of the host country helps them to adapt to Russian social life. Besides, it is emphasized that the general historical knowledge creates the condition for overcoming ethnic and cultural barriers and it becomes one of the spiritual factors of Eurasian integration. Particular attention is paid to the content of the course in which specific historical examples show that Russia was founded and developed through the unity and interaction of different nations, traditions and cultures.

  18. Revealing turning points in ecosystem functioning over the Northern Eurasian agricultural frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Prishchepov, Alexander; Verbesselt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 has been a turning point in the World history that left a unique footprint on the Northern Eurasian ecosystems. Conducting large scale mapping of environmental change and separating between naturogenic and anthropogenic drivers is a difficult endeavor...... affected vegetation productivity throughout the observation period, with a general worsening of the drought conditions in recent years. Moreover, recent human-induced turning points in ecosystem functioning were detected and attributed to ongoing recultivation and change in irrigation practices...

  19. Abandoned Clay Mines: An Opportunity For Eurasian Otters In NW Spain

    OpenAIRE

    César Ayres; Pablo García

    2009-01-01

    The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is widely distributed in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, supposedly one of the best populations of Spain. Usually otters inhabit coastal and riverine habitats in this region, but in some cases they use man-made habitats. In the last three winters the seasonal use of old clay pits by otters has been studied in a locality from Galicia. The abundance of these artificial habitats could lead to a recolonization of Gandaras de Budiño and Ribeiras do Louro wetlan...

  20. The Eurasian Model of International Labour Legislation in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Lushnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article seeks to provide a comparative legal analysis of the Eurasian model of international labor legislation. It explores the multi-layered nature of contemporary international labor law in the context of globalization and regionalization, emphasizing the growing importance of cross-border legal labor standards in regional structures in the early 21st century and defines how global and regional cross-border legislation is incorporated on the basis of in favorem. The authors propose their own original concept of international labor legislation, based on the four characteristics: 1 The overall aim of legal regulation; 2 The extent of integration within those regulations; 3 Sources of labor law and their characteristics; 4 Systems of international control over labor rights. To define an original model for the legal regulation of labor, the authors investigate case studies of labour legal regulation in inter-state regional organizations including the European Union, the Council of Europe and ASEAN. The authors’ theoretical model identifies the defining features of Eurasia’s model of labor regulation. The research also follows the establishment and development of Eurasian labor law and attempts to give an informed judgment about its future path. In their conclusions, the authors assert that modern Eurasian labor law is a ‘live law’, still under development as it incorporates the non-uniform integration between the former Soviet Republics. Two primary trends leading regional co-operation in the labor market are identified: 1 A social model, implementing international labor rights across Eurasia; 2 An economic model, built on the free movement of labor in a common market. In today’s environment, the Commonwealth of Independent States goes some way toward representing the first trend through its attempts to serve as an international coordinating organization. The second trend is supported by supranational organizations promoting

  1. Introducing a new Book on the Ural-Altaic Language Classification (Towards Eurasian Linguistic Isoglosses: the Case of Turkic and Hungarian)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, László Marácz introduces his own book on a new approach to the Ural-Altaic language classification. The book entitled ‘Towards Eurasian Linguistic Isoglosses: the Case of Hungarian and Turkic’ (henceforth ‘Towards Eurasian Linguistic Isoglosses…’ abbreviated as TELI) develops a

  2. Monitoring testicular activity of male Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx by fecal testosterone metabolite measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewgenow, K; Naidenko, S V; Goeritz, F; Vargas, A; Dehnhard, M

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify relevant fecal testosterone metabolites in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) using HPLC analysis and to evaluate the specificity of two testosterone immunoassays against these fecal metabolites. Finally, fecal hormone analysis was used to characterize seasonal reproductive activity of captive male Eurasian and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx. Fecal samples from a male Eurasian lynx who received an i.v. injection of [3H]testosterone were subjected to HPLC analysis. All HPLC fractions were analyzed for radioactivity and androgen content by two testosterone immune assays (EIA and Testosterone-Immulite kits, DPC Biermann, Germany). Furthermore, fecal samples from four Eurasian lynx males (n=174) and three Iberian lynx (n=52) were collected throughout the year and fecal testosterone metabolites were determined with Testosterone-Immulite assay. HPLC separation of radiolabeled Eurasian lynx fecal extract indicated that the majority of testosterone metabolites are substances with a higher polarity than testosterone. Only minor proportion of radioactivity co-eluted with authentic testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Enzymatic hydrolysis and solvolysis of the fecal extract were insufficient to liberate testosterone. After solvolysis relatively more activity was eluated the position of DHT, but the majority of metabolites remained unaffected. The EIA measured substantial amount of immunoreactivity, which corresponded with two radioactive peaks. Additionally, both immunoassays recognized two metabolites, which were only minor components according to their radioactivity. The Immulite assay was able to recognize a metabolite at the position of dihydrotestosterone. HPLC separation of Iberian lynx feces extracts revealed a similar metabolite pattern determined by EIA that were typical for Eurasian lynx fecal extracts. Simultaneous analyses of fecal samples with both testosterone assays provided comparative results for both lynx species

  3. Isolationism versus Geopolitics: The Dual Role of the Eurasian Economic Union in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Bratersky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article conceptualizes ongoing efforts to develop the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, initiated by Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2011. Engaging with two major theoretical perspectives, it establishes to what extent the EEU’s construction and potential expansion is economic regionalism (interpreted also as an isolationist strategy driven by Russia led geopolitical motives. The political-economy debate of Eurasia goes beyond a common tariff area and a common market within the territory of the former USSR. Increasingly, it involves the establishment of a common monetary area. China’s Silk Road Economic Belt is building a foundation for a new Eurasia – one of the global economic and political players of this century. The economic reasons pursued by Russia in its Eurasian initiative are inseparable from economic problems of geopolitical significance. The overarching objective of Russian policy is to establish a regional economic fusion, with significant economic sovereignty and strong political influence; that is, to become the new centre of power in the global economy of the 21st century. Correspondingly, although Russian integration policy in Eurasia has not been formulated in an anti-American way, if it is successful the likely consequence will be the withdrawal of a significant segment of the global market from the economic dominance and political influence of western-led economic blocs.

  4. Critical steps to ensure the successful reintroduction of the Eurasian red squirrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, B. P

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife reintroduction strategies aim to establish viable long–term populations, promote conservation awareness and provide economic benefits for local communities. In Portugal, the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris became extinct in the 16th century and was reintroduced in urban parks in the 1990s, mainly for aesthetic and leisure purposes. We evaluated the success of this reintroduction in two urban parks and here described the critical steps. We assessed habitat use, population density and abundance, and management steps carried out during reintroduction projects. Reintroductions have been successful to some extent given squirrels are present 20 years after release. However, populations in both parks are declining due to the lack of active management and poor quality habitat. Successful reintroduction of Eurasian red squirrel in areas without competition of alien tree squirrels involves three critical main stages. The pre–project stage includes studies on habitat quality, genetic proximity between donors and closest wild population, and health of donor stocks. In the release stage, the number of individuals released will depend on resource variability, and the hard release technique is an effective and economically viable method. Post–release activities should evaluate adaptation, mitigate mortality, monitor the need for supplementary feeding, provide veterinary support, and promote public awareness and education.

  5. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Players, Interests and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Skriba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2015, Russia and China coordinated their activities in Central Asia and decided to connect the Eurasian EconomicUnion (EEU and the Silk Road Economic Belt. This decision seemed to prevent unnecessary competition between these two basically non-conflicting projects. However, in time there appeared a lack of understanding of this combined endeavour and its implementation mechanisms. It is still unclear how further dialogue between the EEU and the Silk Road will proceed. There is no consensuson the participation of the EEU members and the Eurasian Economic Commission. Without a clear strategy, the Russian-Chinese agreement has started to lose momentum. Some non-regional players can benefit from this – of course, in their own interests.This articles attempt to explain the threats posed by delay and inaction in the combined EEU and Silk Road projects, and to describe the potential benefits of actively implementing the combination. It then proposes a concrete format for such a combination, its priority areas, as well as mechanisms for implementation.

  6. Caching at a distance: a cache protection strategy in Eurasian jays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Edward W; Ostojić, Ljerka; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-07-01

    A fundamental question about the complexity of corvid social cognition is whether behaviours exhibited when caching in front of potential pilferers represent specific attempts to prevent cache loss (cache protection hypothesis) or whether they are by-products of other behaviours (by-product hypothesis). Here, we demonstrate that Eurasian jays preferentially cache at a distance when observed by conspecifics. This preference for a 'far' location could be either a by-product of a general preference for caching at that specific location regardless of the risk of cache loss or a by-product of a general preference to be far away from conspecifics due to low intra-species tolerance. Critically, we found that neither by-product account explains the jays' behaviour: the preference for the 'far' location was not shown when caching in private or when eating in front of a conspecific. In line with the cache protection hypothesis we found that jays preferred the distant location only when caching in front of a conspecific. Thus, it seems likely that for Eurasian jays, caching at a distance from an observer is a specific cache protection strategy.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Suggests a Western Eurasian Origin for Ancient (Proto-) Bulgarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesheva, D V; Karachanak-Yankova, S; Lari, M; Yordanov, Y; Galabov, A; Caramelli, D; Toncheva, D

    2015-01-01

    Ancient (proto-) Bulgarians have long been thought of as a Turkic population. However, evidence found in the past three decades shows that this is not the case. Until now, this evidence has not included ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. To fill this void, we collected human remains from the 8th to the 10th century AD located in three necropolises in Bulgaria: Nojarevo (Silistra region) and Monastery of Mostich (Shumen region), both in northeastern Bulgaria, and Tuhovishte (Satovcha region) in southwestern Bulgaria. The phylogenetic analysis of 13 ancient DNA samples (extracted from teeth) identified 12 independent haplotypes, which we further classified into mtDNA haplogroups found in present-day European and western Eurasian populations. Our results suggest a western Eurasian matrilineal origin for proto-Bulgarians, as well as a genetic similarity between proto- and modern Bulgarians. Our future work will provide additional data that will further clarify proto-Bulgarian origins, thereby adding new clues to the current understanding of European genetic evolution.

  8. WHITHER DEVELOPMENT? THE EFFECTS OF THE EURASIAN UNION ON THE CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Dumitru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the impact of the Eurasian Union on the Central Asian republics, with a focus on remittances trends. To this end I review at first the literature regarding the effects of the Customs Union on its members. Then, I assess the current state of the economies most likely to be affected by membership in the Eurasian Union, i.e. Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, whose specificity is their dependency on remittances. Secondly, I present a plausible scenario in regard to the influence of the formalization of this regional organization on the emerging Central Asian regional security subcomplex. I argue that the EEU is a hindrance towards the five Central Asian Republics’ evolving towards a regional security complex. Not only has it already distorted trade in the region, but it can also turn some presently frozen conflicts into security hotspots. I hold that the only way to spur development in the region is, internally, to diversify the economy, and, externally, to bring the five republics closer. I try to show that the Central Asian Republics should simultaneously pursue a switch from a balance of threat to regional integration and sustainable national development. Nonetheless, the EEU will have at best mixed effects when it comes to these necessities. Alternatively, China and the New Silk Road initiative that it endorses might contribute to de-securitizing some of the existing issues.

  9. Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ≤ 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection.

  10. Histomorphological features of the tongue of the Eurasian teal (Anas crecca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban Abbasabadi, B; Sayrafi, R

    2017-12-04

    This study presents the histomorphological features of tongue in Eurasian teal (Anas crecca); the smallest extant dabbling duck. Heads of four adult males and four adult females were used in this study. The results illustrate a tongue with three different parts; the apex with a lingual nail in ventral surface, the body with a lingual prominence in caudal part and some large and small conical papillae in lateral sides and the root, that was covered with many conical papillae in different sizes. Histological results revealed two types of keratinized and non-keratinized epithelium covering parts of the tongue. The lingual salivary glands were observed in the lamina propria of the body and root of the tongue showed strongly periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive reaction. The yellow adipose tissue was located under the lamina propria on the body and root of the tongue. The filiform papillae between the conical papillae of the body were arranged densely. The sensory organs, which contain sensory receptors (Grandry and Herbst corpuscles), were located in the lamina propria of the body of the tongue. In conclusion, the anatomical and histological structure of the Eurasian teal' tongue was generally similar to its family members such as domestic goose and duck but showed some differences that may be adoptions to the bird's habitat and mode of feeding. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Sexual dimorphism of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in South Korea: Craniodental geometric morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Alice Ching Ching; Asahara, Masakazu; Han, Sung Yong; Kimura, Junpei

    2016-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism of the craniodental morphology of the Eurasian otter in South Korea was studied with geometric morphometrics. 29 adult skulls (15 males and 14 females) were used. Images of the dorsal and ventral view of the cranium and right lateral view of the mandible were taken and then digitized, and measurements were taken on the right side. Results showed that size difference between males and females was significant. Correlations between the size and shape variations have not been observed in this study. The bivariate plots with centroid size showed size dimorphism between males and females with some overlapping. Most relative warp (RW) scores were not significantly different between males and females. We observed only RW2 for dorsal and ventral view of the skull, and only RW1 for mandible was significantly different between the sexes. Shape dimorphisms were revealed at the postorbital constriction, temporal-mandibular joint, coronoid process, mandibular condyle and angular process of the skull. Based on our study, sexual dimorphism exists in Eurasian otter from the South Korean population in terms of both the size and shape. Furthermore, the degree of size dimorphism is greater than shape dimorphism.

  12. Simulating Changes in Fires and Ecology of the 21st Century Eurasian Boreal Forests of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Brazhnik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires release the greatest amount of carbon into the atmosphere compared to other forest disturbances. To understand how current and potential future fire regimes may affect the role of the Eurasian boreal forest in the global carbon cycle, we employed a new, spatially-explicit fire module DISTURB-F (DISTURBance-Fire in tandem with a spatially-explicit, individually-based gap dynamics model SIBBORK (SIBerian BOReal forest simulator calibrated to Krasnoyarsk Region. DISTURB-F simulates the effect of forest fire on the boreal ecosystem, namely the mortality of all or only the susceptible trees (loss of biomass, i.e., carbon within the forested landscape. The fire module captures some important feedbacks between climate, fire and vegetation structure. We investigated the potential climate-driven changes in the fire regime and vegetation in middle and south taiga in central Siberia, a region with extensive boreal forest and rapidly changing climate. The output from this coupled simulation can be used to estimate carbon losses from the ecosystem as a result of fires of different sizes and intensities over the course of secondary succession (decades to centuries. Furthermore, it may be used to assess the post-fire carbon storage capacity of potential future forests, the structure and composition of which may differ significantly from current Eurasian boreal forests due to regeneration under a different climate.

  13. Remarkable link between projected uncertainties of Arctic sea-ice decline and winter Eurasian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoffman H. N.; Keenlyside, Noel; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Zhou, Wen

    2018-01-01

    We identify that the projected uncertainty of the pan-Arctic sea-ice concentration (SIC) is strongly coupled with the Eurasian circulation in the boreal winter (December-March; DJFM), based on a singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis of the forced response of 11 CMIP5 models. In the models showing a stronger sea-ice decline, the Polar cell becomes weaker and there is an anomalous increase in the sea level pressure (SLP) along 60°N, including the Urals-Siberia region and the Iceland low region. There is an accompanying weakening of both the midlatitude westerly winds and the Ferrell cell, where the SVD signals are also related to anomalous sea surface temperature warming in the midlatitude North Atlantic. In the Mediterranean region, the anomalous circulation response shows a decreasing SLP and increasing precipitation. The anomalous SLP responses over the Euro-Atlantic region project on to the negative North Atlantic Oscillation-like pattern. Altogether, pan-Arctic SIC decline could strongly impact the winter Eurasian climate, but we should be cautious about the causality of their linkage.

  14. Pilfering Eurasian jays use visual and acoustic information to locate caches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachael C; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-11-01

    Pilfering corvids use observational spatial memory to accurately locate caches that they have seen another individual make. Accordingly, many corvid cache-protection strategies limit the transfer of visual information to potential thieves. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) employ strategies that reduce the amount of visual and auditory information that is available to competitors. Here, we test whether or not the jays recall and use both visual and auditory information when pilfering other birds' caches. When jays had no visual or acoustic information about cache locations, the proportion of available caches that they found did not differ from the proportion expected if jays were searching at random. By contrast, after observing and listening to a conspecific caching in gravel or sand, jays located a greater proportion of caches, searched more frequently in the correct substrate type and searched in fewer empty locations to find the first cache than expected. After only listening to caching in gravel and sand, jays also found a larger proportion of caches and searched in the substrate type where they had heard caching take place more frequently than expected. These experiments demonstrate that Eurasian jays possess observational spatial memory and indicate that pilfering jays may gain information about cache location merely by listening to caching. This is the first evidence that a corvid may use recalled acoustic information to locate and pilfer caches.

  15. Transregionalism: Underlying Concept of EAEU-ASEAN Cooperation and Greater Eurasian Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Garmash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the EAEU seeks to integrate itself into the global economy as one of its regional economic centers. Developing ties with other regional integration groups corresponds the EAEU’s interests and facilitates the polycentric structure of the emerging world order. In this respect, in 2016 on the sidelines of the third Russia-ASEAN Summit Russian President Vladimir Putin proposed to develop stronger relations between the EAEU and ASEAN as well as to form a greater Eurasian partnership encompassing the EAEU, the SCO and ASEAN. While geographically vast, these projects lack conceptual underpinning. It is deemed that transregionalism – an international phenomenon which is insuffi ciently explored by both Western and Russian scholars, can provide a crucial theoretical foundation for these initiatives. The author compares the mechanisms which ASEAN employs to promote transregional cooperation with the EU, MERCOSUR and the GCC as well as within the frameworks of such dialogue platforms as ASEM and FEALAC. The author suggests that EAEU-ASEAN relations should be analyzed from the viewpoint of a classic transregionalism, while a greater Eurasian partnership seen as an example of a broader one. The results of the analysis are instrumental in laying out practical recommendations for the EAEU in carrying out its transregional agenda.

  16. Genetic structure of Eurasian and North American Leymus (Triticeae) wildryes assessed by chloroplast DNA sequences and AFLP profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Mae Culumber; Steve R. Larson; Kevin B. Jensen; Thomas A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Leymus is a genomically defined allopolyploid of genus Triticeae with two distinct subgenomes. Chloroplast DNA sequences of Eurasian and North American species are distinct and polyphyletic. However, phylogenies derived from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences are confounded by polyploidy and lack of polymorphism among many taxa. The AFLP technique can resolve...

  17. Seasonal prediction and predictability of Eurasian spring snow water equivalent in NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 reforecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zuo, Zhiyan; Zhang, Renhe; Zhang, Ruonan

    2018-01-01

    The spring snow water equivalent (SWE) over Eurasia plays an important role in East Asian and Indian monsoon rainfall. This study evaluates the seasonal prediction capability of NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) retrospective forecasts (1983-2010) for the Eurasian spring SWE. The results demonstrate that CFSv2 is able to represent the climatological distribution of the observed Eurasian spring SWE with a lead time of 1-3 months, with the maximum SWE occurring over western Siberia and Northeastern Europe. For a longer lead time, the SWE is exaggerated in CFSv2 because the start of snow ablation in CFSv2 lags behind that of the observation, and the simulated snowmelt rate is less than that in the observation. Generally, CFSv2 can simulate the interannual variations of the Eurasian spring SWE 1-5 months ahead of time but with an exaggerated magnitude. Additionally, the downtrend in CFSv2 is also overestimated. Because the initial conditions (ICs) are related to the corresponding simulation results significantly, the robust interannual variability and the downtrend in the ICs are most likely the causes for these biases. Moreover, CFSv2 exhibits a high potential predictability for the Eurasian spring SWE, especially the spring SWE over Siberia, with a lead time of 1-5 months. For forecasts with lead times longer than 5 months, the model predictability gradually decreases mainly due to the rapid decrease in the model signal.

  18. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  19. The reintroduction of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) into the Netherlands: hidden life revealed by noninvasive genetic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Pérez-Haro, M.; Jansman, H.A.H.; Boerwinkel, M.C.; Bovenschen, J.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Niewold, F.J.J.; Kuiters, A.T.

    2010-01-01

    The last recorded presence of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in the Netherlands dates from 1989 and concerned a dead individual. In 2002 a reintroduction programme was started, and between June 2002 and April 2008 a total of 30 individuals (10 males and 20 females) were released into a lowland

  20. Quartz OSL dating of late quaternary Chinese and Serbian loess: A cross Eurasian comparison of dust mass accumulation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peric, Zoran; Adolphi, Emma Lagerbäck; Stevens, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    on multi-millennial timescales, with no detailed examination of dust MAR at the two ends of the Eurasian loess belt on shorter, sub-orbital scales. Here we present a detailed quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) chronology from the Serbian Titel Loess Plateau (Veliki Surduk loess core...

  1. Validated RealTime reverse transcriptase PCR methods for the diagnosis and pathotyping of Eurasian H7 avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomka, M.J.; Pavlidis, T.; Coward, V.J.; Voermans, J.; Koch, G.; Hanna, A.; Banks, J.; Brown, I.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Avian influenza (AI) caused by H7 AI viruses (AIVs) of both low pathogenicity (LP) and high pathogenicity (HP) are notifiable poultry diseases. Objectives Design and validate two RealTime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RRT PCRs) for Eurasian H7 AIV detection and

  2. Variability of interleaving structure of Atlantic Water during its propagation along the Eurasian basin (Arctic Ocean) continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurbas, Nataliya; Kuzmina, Natalia; Lyzhkov, Dmitry; Ostapchuk, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    In order to give detailed description of the interleaving structure in the Eurasian basin results of observations carried out during NABOS 2008 and Polarstern cruise in 1996 were analyzed. The study was focused on interleaving parameters (structure and vertical scale of intrusions) variability in the upper (150-300 meters) and intermediate (300-700 meters) layers of the ocean. Based on θ,S/θ,σ-diagrams (θ, S and σ are the potential temperature, salinity and potential density, correspondingly) analysis two main results were obtained. First of all it was shown that intrusive layers carried by the mean current along the Eurasian Basin continental margin become deeper relatively isopycnals and thus stimulate ventilation of pycnocline. Second, the area in Eurasian Basin thermocline was found where intrusive layers of large and small scale were absent. This distinctive feature can be explained by intensive mixing between two branches of Atlantic Water, one of which propagates along Eurasian basin continental margin and the other spreads across the basin due to large scale interleaving processes. Among others, one of the possible methods of integral estimation of Atlantic water masses heat and salt contents variations during their expansion along basin continental margin was proposed. Thus it is reasonable to assess variation of square under the θ(S)-diagrams, which illustrate the data obtained from two CTD-stations located on diametrically opposite sides of Eurasian Basin, taking 0.5°C isotherm as a reference value. For verification of the introduced approach the estimates of heat and salt contents variations were made by different methods. Detailed discussion of the results is presented. Work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No 15-05-01479-a).

  3. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Corrie Lynne; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Fernandez Garcia, Rut

    2015-01-01

    that involves the translocation of melanistic squirrels from Funen to the squirrel-free island of Langeland. Using mitochondrial DNA of 101 historical and modern samples from throughout Denmark, we assess for the first time population structure and mitochondrial genetic diversity of Danish squirrels compared...... to its larger pan-Eurasian distribution. We find that Danish squirrels have low levels of genetic diversity, especially melanistic individuals. Bayesian skyline reconstructions show that Danish squirrels have most probably experienced a severe bottleneck within the last 200 years. Also, fine......-scale genetic structure was found between squirrels from the regions of Funen, Zealand and Jutland, which mimics the insular geography of Denmark. Additional nuclear DNA analyses will be required to determine the precise admixture levels between original Danish and introduced squirrels and to locate unmixed...

  4. SURGICAL CORRECTION OF TRAUMATIC PATELLAR LUXATION IN AN EURASIAN LYNX (LYNX LYNX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa-Garcia, V; Bañeres-De la Torre, A; Cabezas-Salamanca, M A; Lucas-Lucas, N; Rodriguez-Quiros, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the successful surgical repair of a traumatic medial patellar luxation in a 4-yr-old female Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx ). The animal presented with hind limb lameness. Physical and radiographic examinations were performed under sedation. After diagnosing a medial patellar luxation, surgical repair was recommended. A combination of soft tissue reconstructive techniques was used to repair the medial patellar luxation. The limb was not immobilized postoperatively, but the animal was confined to a cage for 1 mo. The recovery was uneventful and return to normal activity was observed within 1 mo. Soft tissue reconstructive techniques can be used as the only surgical treatment for the repair of a traumatic patellar luxation in both domestic and wild animals.

  5. [Maternal behavior of the Eurasian Lynx lynx L. during the early postnatal ontogeny of its cubs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagaeva, A A; Naĭdenko, S V

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the major elements of maternal behavior of Eurasian lynx females during the first month of life of their cubs and their association with litter parameters (number of kittens, sex, and mass) have been traced. By the end of the first month, the amount of time spent by the female outside of the den significantly increases. An association between the litter size and maternal behavior has been found. Females rearing small litters spend more time outside of their den; they also spend more time on allogrooming of each separate kitten than females with large litters. Concerning allogrooming duration, a preference for male kittens by lynx females has been noticed in the third week.

  6. Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-old vs. >2-year-old females). In general, the breeding proportion varied between age classes and study sites, whereas we did not detect such variation in litter size. The lack of differences in litter sizes among age classes is at odds with most findings in large mammals, and we argue that this is because the level of prenatal investment is relatively low in felids compared to their substantial levels of postnatal care.

  7. Parvovirus infection in a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and in a European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasieri, J; Schmiedeknecht, G; Förster, C; König, M; Reinacher, M

    2009-01-01

    A Eurasian lynx and a European wildcat from the same wildlife park were submitted for necropsy examination after sudden death and after death following a clinical history of lethargy, respectively. Neither animal had been vaccinated against feline parvovirus (feline panleukopenia virus). Feral domestic cats were widespread in the area of the wildlife park and a number of these animals that had been captured had recently died from parvovirus infection. Gross and microscopical findings in the two non-domestic felids were consistent with feline parvovirus infection and this was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The introduction of feline parvovirus into captive non-domestic felid populations could pose a threat to their health and survival. Vaccination of captive non-domestic felids is therefore recommended.

  8. Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Bröjer, Caroline; Mörner, Torsten; Jansson, Désirée S; Lundén, Anna; Uggla, Arvid

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Sweden, serosanguinous fluids and feces were collected from 207 carcasses of lynx killed or found dead from 1996 to 1998. Sera were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by the direct agglutination test, and 156 (75.4%) of the sera tested positive at antibody titers>or=40. Antibody prevalence was significantly lower in lynx originating from the northern parts of Sweden than in lynx from the more southern regions that are more densely populated by humans. Age-related differences also were found, with a significantly lower prevalence (55%) in juvenile (<1-yr-old) than in subadult and adult animals (82%). There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between males and females. Oocysts typical of T. gondii were not detected in any of the fecal samples.

  10. Epizootiologic investigations of selected infectious disease agents in free-ranging Eurasian lynx from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Leutenegger, Christian M; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Mattsson, Roland; Lutz, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 106 Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from across Sweden, found dead or shot by hunters in 1993-99, were investigated for presence of antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Francisella tularensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophila, and for feline leukemia virus antigen. In addition, tissue samples from 22 lynx submitted in 1999 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect nucleic acids specific for viral agents and A. phagocytophila. Except for FPV antibodies in one lynx and A. phagocytophila in four lynx, all serology was negative. All PCR results also were negative. It was concluded that free-ranging Swedish lynx do not have frequent contact with the infectious agents considered in this study.

  11. The smoothing effect for renewable resources in an Afro-Eurasian power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, Maria; Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno U.; von Bremen, Lueder

    2017-07-01

    Renewable power systems have to cope with highly variable generation. Increasing the spatial extent of an interconnected power transmission grid smooths the feed-in by exchange of excess energy over long distances and therefore supports renewable power integration. In this work, we investigate and quantify the balancing potential of a supergrid covering Europe, Africa and Asia. We use ten years of historical weather data to model the interplay of renewable generation and consumption and show that a pan-continental Afro-Eurasian supergrid can smooth renewable generation to a large extent and reduce the need for backup energy by around 50 %. In addition, we show that results for different weather years vary by up to approximately 50 %.

  12. Reintroduction of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in northeastern Spain: trapping, handling, and medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Morán, Jesus; Saavedra, Deli; Manteca-Vilanova, Xavier

    2002-09-01

    In 1993 a reintroduction project for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) was initiated in northeastern Spain (Girona, Catalonia) to restore extirpated populations. Between 1996 and 2000, 43 otters were captured from southwestern and northern Spain and from Portugal with modified foot-hold traps and transported to Barcelona Zoo. Lesions produced by capture were classified into four categories of increasing severity. Thirty four (79%) animals had category I, three (7%) had category II, five (12%) had category III, and only one (2%) had category IV injuries. During captivity five (11%) animals died, including one from a precapture problem. Radiotransmitter devices were implanted i.p. into 36 otters to monitor postrelease movement and survival. At least three radio-implanted otters have bred successfully in Girona province, Catalonia, after release in that area.

  13. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Labandeira, Conrad C; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr; Shih, ChungKun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Logan, M Amelia V; Hotton, Carol L; Dilcher, David

    2009-11-06

    The head and mouthpart structures of 11 species of Eurasian scorpionflies represent three extinct and closely related families during a 62-million-year interval from the late Middle Jurassic to the late Early Cretaceous. These taxa had elongate, siphonate (tubular) proboscides and fed on ovular secretions of extinct gymnosperms. Five potential ovulate host-plant taxa co-occur with these insects: a seed fern, conifer, ginkgoopsid, pentoxylalean, and gnetalean. The presence of scorpionfly taxa suggests that siphonate proboscides fed on gymnosperm pollination drops and likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms during the mid-Mesozoic, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding flies, moths, and beetles on angiosperms. All three scorpionfly families became extinct during the later Early Cretaceous, coincident with global gymnosperm-to-angiosperm turnover.

  14. The smoothing effect for renewable resources in an Afro-Eurasian power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krutova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable power systems have to cope with highly variable generation. Increasing the spatial extent of an interconnected power transmission grid smooths the feed-in by exchange of excess energy over long distances and therefore supports renewable power integration. In this work, we investigate and quantify the balancing potential of a supergrid covering Europe, Africa and Asia. We use ten years of historical weather data to model the interplay of renewable generation and consumption and show that a pan-continental Afro-Eurasian supergrid can smooth renewable generation to a large extent and reduce the need for backup energy by around 50 %. In addition, we show that results for different weather years vary by up to approximately 50 %.

  15. Underlying causes of Eurasian midcontinental aridity in simulations of mid-Holocene climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlein, Patrick J; Harrison, Sandy P; Izumi, Kenji

    2017-09-16

    Climate model simulations uniformly show drier and warmer summers in the Eurasian midcontinent during the mid-Holocene, which is not consistent with paleoenvironmental observations. The simulated climate results from a reduction in the zonal temperature gradient, which weakens westerly flow and reduces moisture flux and precipitation in the midcontinent. As a result, sensible heating is favored over evaporation and latent heating, resulting in substantial surface-driven atmospheric warming. Thus, the discrepancy with the paleoenvironmental evidence arises initially from a problem in the simulated circulation and is exacerbated by feedback from the land surface. This region is also drier and warmer than indicated by observations in the preindustrial control simulations, and this bias arises in the same way: zonal flow and hence moisture flux into the midcontinent are too weak, and feedback from the land surface results in surface-driven warming. These analyses suggest the need to improve those aspects of climate models that affect the strength of westerly circulation.

  16. One size fits all: Eurasian lynx females share a common optimal litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Nilsen, Erlend B; Odden, John; Andrén, Henrik; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Lack proposed that the average clutch size of altricial species should be determined by the average maximum number of young the parents can raise such that all females in a given population should share a common optimal clutch size. Support for this model remains equivocal and recent studies have suggested that intra-population variation in clutch size is adaptive because each female has its own optimal clutch size associated with its intrinsic ability to raise offspring. Although Lack litter size and condition-dependent litter size are presented as two competing models, both are based on the concept of individual optimization. We propose a unified optimal litter size model (called 'adaptive litter size') and identify a set of conditions under which a common vs. a state-dependent optimal litter size should be observed. We test whether females of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a common optimal litter size, or whether they adjust their litter size according to their state. We used a detailed individual-based data set collected from contrasting populations of Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Observed reproductive patterns in female lynx provide strong support for the existence of a common optimal litter size. Litter size did not vary according to female body mass or reproductive category, or among contrasted populations and years. A litter size of 2 was associated with a higher fitness than both smaller and larger litters, and thus corresponded to the 'adaptive litter size' for female lynx. We suggest that the reproductive pattern of female lynx might correspond to a risk avoidance tactic common to all individuals, which has evolved in response to strong environmental constraints generated by a highly unpredictable food supply during lactation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  17. Northeast African genomic variation shaped by the continuity of indigenous groups and Eurasian migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollfelder, Nina; Schlebusch, Carina M; Günther, Torsten; Babiker, Hiba; Hassan, Hisham Y; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2017-08-01

    Northeast Africa has a long history of human habitation, with fossil-finds from the earliest anatomically modern humans, and housing ancient civilizations. The region is also the gate-way out of Africa, as well as a portal for migration into Africa from Eurasia via the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula. We investigate the population history of northeast Africa by genotyping ~3.9 million SNPs in 221 individuals from 18 populations sampled in Sudan and South Sudan and combine this data with published genome-wide data from surrounding areas. We find a strong genetic divide between the populations from the northeastern parts of the region (Nubians, central Arab populations, and the Beja) and populations towards the west and south (Nilotes, Darfur and Kordofan populations). This differentiation is mainly caused by a large Eurasian ancestry component of the northeast populations likely driven by migration of Middle Eastern groups followed by admixture that affected the local populations in a north-to-south succession of events. Genetic evidence points to an early admixture event in the Nubians, concurrent with historical contact between North Sudanese and Arab groups. We estimate the admixture in current-day Sudanese Arab populations to about 700 years ago, coinciding with the fall of Dongola in 1315/1316 AD, a wave of admixture that reached the Darfurian/Kordofanian populations some 400-200 years ago. In contrast to the northeastern populations, the current-day Nilotic populations from the south of the region display little or no admixture from Eurasian groups indicating long-term isolation and population continuity in these areas of northeast Africa.

  18. Organochlorine and mercury residues in eggs of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) from a long term study in the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutner, Vassilis; Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Papakosta, Malamati A; Vlachos, Christos G; Mattig, Frank R; Pijanowska, Ursula; Becker, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Organochlorine and mercury residues were analyzed in unhatched eggs of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) (2002-2012) in central Greece. Concentrations graded as ∑DDTs > ∑PCBs > HCB > ∑HCHs > ∑Chlordanes. Temporal declines were found in the concentrations of ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and ∑Chlordanes but not in Hg, HCB and ∑PCBs. TEQs of PCBs and their degree of metabolisation showed no time trend. The reproductive parameters showed neither a temporal trend nor a significant year effect. No relationships occurred between the reproductive parameters per year and nest type (natural, artificial) with any of the contaminants analyzed except HCB influenced by year and clutch size. Low pollutant concentrations suggest that either lesser kestrels ranged across the year in unpolluted areas or may be caused by their short food chain. The low concentrations seem improbable to have affected the reproduction of these birds, although critical levels are still to be defined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Observations of Red-headed Falcon Falco chicquera (Aves: Falconiformes: Falconidae nest at Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a focus on post-fledging behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Foysal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A nest of Red-headed Falcon Falco chicquera was observed in 2009, beginning with the onset of breeding and continuing on to the next breeding of the pair.  The nest was found on 02 March 2009 in an electricity pylon in a sub-urban area at Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  The incubation period was estimated at a minimum of four weeks and the nestling period was 37 days.  Fledglings remained in the nesting area up to four months after fledging.  The female almost exclusively fed the nestlings and fledglings.  The diet of adults, nestlings and fledglings consisted of 72% small birds (sparrow sized and 28% Pipistrellus bats (n = 112.  The diet of fledglings consisted of 61% birds and 39% bats (n= 72; before independence mainly birds and after independence mainly bats.  Parents delivered prey to fledglings up to 39 days after fledging (i.e., post-fledging dependence period was 39 days.  The fledgling’s flight pattern was distinguishable from the adults nearly two months after fledging.  The fledgling’s call reminiscent of a begging call was recorded up to 75 days after fledging. Food competition was observed among the fledglings; when one of the fledglings snatched prey from a parent, the other siblings tried to pilfer it.  The parents had resumed breeding eight months after the fledging stage of their offspring. 

  20. Occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach for falcotentorial meningioma: case report Acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino para abordagem de meningioma falco-tentorial: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Gusmão

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesions located in the bilateral posterior incisural space are difficult to treat due to limited exposure. The classical approaches to this area are limited for lesions located bilaterally and especially when the lesion extends also below the tentorium as it may occur with meningiomas. Kawashima et al. reported, in anatomic studies, a new occipital transtentorial approach: the occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach, to treat such lesions. We present a patient with a large falcotentorial meningioma, located bilaterally in the posterior incisural space. The occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach allowed an excellent surgical exposure and complete tumor removal with an excellent patient outcome.Grandes lesões que ocupam bilateralmente o espaço incisural posterior são de difícil abordagem cirúrgica pelos acessos clássicos. Recentemente, Kawashima et al. descreveram, em peças anatômicas, uma modificação do acesso occipital transtentorial, o acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino, para abordagem de grandes lesões que ocupam bilateralmente o espaço incisural posterior. Retata-se um caso de grande meningioma falco-tentorial que ocupava o espaço incisural posterior bilateralmente. O acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino permitiu exérese completa da lesão sem déficit no pós-operatório.

  1. Histological analysis of the eyeball of Neotropical birds of prey Caracara plancus, Falco sparverius, Rupornis magnirostris, Megascops choliba and Athene cunicularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Galdino Pinto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of ophthalmic examination as a screening tool in birds intended for reintroduction into natural environments over the last few years has given renewed significance to avian ophthalmology in the context of free-ranging and captive bird conservation. The eye plays a vital role in prey detection and capture by birds of prey. The remarkable eyesight of such birds makes them interesting subjects for avian visual system anatomical and histological investigation. This study set out to describe histological features of the eyeball of ubiquitous birds of prey in Brazil (Falconiformes, Accipitriformes and Strigiformes. Twenty enucleated cadaveric eyeballs obtained from birds with natural death, Caracara plancus, Falco sparverius, Rupornis magnirostris, Megascops choliba and Athene cunicularia were used. Routinely prepared histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin were analyzed under light microscopy. Similarities and variations in ocular structures between the different bird species studied were highlighted in this study, with major differences concerning the lens and retina. This study highlights the importance of determining the ocular histological pattern of the species so they can be better understood. These results may well assign baseline information of the species and assist in eye histopathological diagnostics.

  2. Expanded Simulation Models Version 3.0 for Growth of the Submerged Aquatic Plants American Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, Eurasian Watermilfoil by Elly P. H. Best and William A. Boyd PURPOSE: This technical note describes modifications of...Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...monoecious Potamogeton pectinatus1 ( sago pondweed)-POTAM (Best and Boyd 1996, 1999a, 1999b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, Boyd and Best 1996). These models can

  3. The sensitivity of the Late Saalian (140 ka) and LGM (21 ka) Eurasian ice sheets to sea surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleoni, Florence [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Liakka, Johan [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Krinner, Gerhard; Peyaud, Vincent [UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Jakobsson, Martin [Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Masina, Simona [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    This work focuses on the Late Saalian (140 ka) Eurasian ice sheets' surface mass balance (SMB) sensitivity to changes in sea surface temperatures (SST). An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), forced with two preexisting Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka) SST reconstructions, is used to compute climate at 140 and 21 ka (reference glaciation). Contrary to the LGM, the ablation almost stopped at 140 ka due to the climatic cooling effect from the large ice sheet topography. Late Saalian SST are simulated using an AGCM coupled with a mixed layer ocean. Compared to the LGM, these 140 ka SST show an inter-hemispheric asymmetry caused by the larger ice-albedo feedback, cooling climate. The resulting Late Saalian ice sheet SMB is smaller due to the extensive simulated sea ice reducing the precipitation. In conclusion, SST are important for the stability and growth of the Late Saalian Eurasian ice sheet. (orig.)

  4. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

  5. The evolution and geological footprint of the last Eurasian ice-sheet complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Winsborrow, Monica; Stroeven, Arjen; Auriac, Amandine; Heyman, Jakob

    2017-04-01

    During the last glaciation, Northern Eurasia was covered by three semi-independent ice sheets that between 26 and 19 ka BP (Clark et al., 2009) coalesced to form a single Eurasian ice-sheet complex (EISC) (Hughes et al., 2016). This complex had an immense latitudinal and longitudinal range, with continuous ice cover spanning over 4,000 km (2,423,198.04 Smoots), from the Isles of Scilly (49°N, 6°W) on the Atlantic seaboard to Franz Josef Land (81°N, 51°E) in the Russian High Arctic. It was the third largest ice mass after the Laurentide and Antarctic ice sheets, which with a combined volume around three times the present Greenland ice sheet accounted for over 20 m of eustatic sea-level lowering during the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) (Patton et al., 2016). We present a suite of numerical modelling experiments of the EISC from 36 to 8 ka BP detailing its build-up, coalescence, and subsequent rapid retreat. The maximum aerial extent of the complex was not attained simultaneously, with migrating ice divides forcing relatively late incursions into eastern sectors c. 20-21 ka BP compared to c. 23-25 ka BP along western margins. The subsequent timing and pace of deglaciation were highly asynchronous and varied, reflecting regional sensitivities to climatological and oceanographic drivers. Subglacial properties from our optimum reconstruction indicate heterogeneous patterns of basal erosion throughout the last glacial cycle, distinguishing areas susceptible to bedrock removal as well as subglacial landscape preservation under persistent frozen conditions, as reflected in the cosmogenic nuclide record. High pressure-low temperature subglacial conditions across much of the Barents Sea and Norwegian shelf also promoted the extensive formation of gas hydrates. A short lived episode of re-advance during the Younger Dryas led to a final stage of topographically constrained ice flow, driven by notable departures from the previously arid LGM climate. The ice sheet complex along

  6. On Application of the Model of the Global Dimension of Regional Integration for Evaluating the Development of Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkhanov Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the need to study the integration processes of the Eurasian region in order to identify promising directions of its development. It is noted that most studies of this issue are dedicated to the economic aspect, but the analysis of the integration processes requires a comprehensive approach. The authors propose to use The Model of Global Dimension of Regional Integration (GDRI-Model – the methodology which takes into account the most important aspects of integration. This model was developed by Malaysian Professor M. Estrada. The general objective of the GDRI-Model is to offer policy-makers and researchers a new analytical tool for studying the evolution and the stages of any regional integration process in a global perspective. The presented model is not a forecasting one, but its use is not limited to a certain group of countries and regions. The authors note that some model criteria are not acceptable for the evaluation of Eurasian integration because of the specific features of the region. The adaptation of the model is based on theoretical analysis allowing to reveal separate directions of integration and its factors. At the same time, the flexibility of the proposed model makes it possible to adapt it to the conditions of the Eurasian Economic Union with the aim of its further application for the evaluation of integration development. It is concluded that the GDRI-Model is simple and universal, so it can act as a tool of Eurasian integration research to determine the stages of its development. After adaptation the presented model will also determine the feasibility of further convergence of national systems of economic union and the possibility of transition to monetary integration.

  7. Mass mortality of eurasian tree sparrows (Passer Montanus) from Salmonella typhimurium dt40 in Japan, winter 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Katsumi; Kubo, Midori; Une, Yumi; Kato, Yukio; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Teraoka, Hiroki; Asakawa, M; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of salmonellosis in wild passerines caused mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) in Hokkaido, Japan, 2005-06; however, the etiology was poorly understood. In winter 2008-09, sparrow mortality again occurred in Hokkaido, and 202 deaths in 100 incidents at 94 sites were reported. We conducted a comprehensive investigation to evaluate the cause and impact on sparrow populations. We collected 26 carcasses at 13 sites, including a zoological park. In addition, Salm...

  8. Monitoring Peripheral Populations Of The Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) In Southern Italy: New Occurrences In The Sila National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Manlio Marcelli

    2009-01-01

    After a period of strong decline, the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) has re-expanded its area of distribution in Italy from 1984 to 2004, mainly toward the southern periphery of its range. The Sila National Park is located in a strategic position along a drainage divide separating southern peripheral otter populations from unoccupied but potentially recolonizable habitats. A research project aimed to evaluate the aquatic habitats of the Sila National Park for otter recolonization is now in prog...

  9. Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil and Curlyleaf Pondweed in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, Montana: Aquatic Herbicide Evaluations, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    indicates that reductions in Plot 1 were due to the herbicide application and not natural senescence. Eurasian watermilfoil was found during the 5- and 52...Plot 4 indicates that reductions in Plot 3 were due to the herbicide application and not natural senescence. Similar to other plots, curlyleaf...Army Engineer Research and Development Center. ERDC/EL TR-13-5 80 Skogerboe, J. G., A. G. Poovey, K. D. Getsinger, W. Crowell, and E. Macbeth

  10. New Details of the Eurasian Beaver’s, Castor Fiber (Rodentia, Castoridae), Expansion in the Lowland Part of Transcarpathia, Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Barkasi Z.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper contains information on a new beaver colony discovered in the Chornyi mochar tract, which is located in the lowland part of Transcarpathia (= Zakarpattia Region). This rodent species disappeared from the territory of Transcarpathia most likely in the 18th century. Its first reappearance was recorded in 2003. Since, the Eurasian beaver has demonstrated a rapid expansion, primarily along the main rivers. The discovered by us colony allows to suggest that the beaver is continui...

  11. On the Fruit Consumption of Eurasian Badger (Meles meles (Mammalia: Mustelidae during the Autumn Season in Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out at one badgers family territory by asingle collection (11.11.2002, north of Stara Zagora City, near Tabashka River of faeces from the animal latrine sites. Total of 1361 individual food items were identified in Eurasian badger (Meles meles faeces from which the fruits of the Cornel-tree (Cornus mas strongly dominated (n=1332, 96.5% from all items, 98.2% from all fruits.

  12. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Estudo do nicho ecológico de duas aves de rapina (Falco sparverius e Athene cunicularia) em uma região de dunas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Zilio, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    Duas espécies só podem coexistir durante um longo período de tempo se diferirem em alguns aspectos ecológicos. Essas são premissas do conceito de nicho ecológico de uma espécie. Falco sparverius e Athene cunicularia são aves de rapina de ocorrência comum na maioria da região neotropical. Usualmente encontradas em simpatria, ocorrem em ambientes abertos, com pouca vegetação e apresentam uma dieta similar, baseada em insetos, e comportamentos de caça semelhantes. Os ambientes costeiros do Rio G...

  14. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Makarov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the opportunities for Russia presented by the launch of China’s Silk Road Economic Belt initiative.This initiative is a comprehensive project for the rapid development of Central Asian countries, and not limited only to transportand logistics to guarantee the supply of Chinese goods to Europe. It is also China’s response to economic and political processes both within the country and in the Asia-Pacific region: the economic slow down and transformation of its social and economic model, diverging income levels, the growing presence of the United States in Asia, and the new divisions of labour within the region. The Silk Road initiative is based on China’s intention to create strong regional value chains, to outsource labour-intensive and environmentally harmful production, to foster the development of north west China including securing political stability in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, and to guarantee the use of Chinese construction firms’ capacity. Goods transit is a secondary priority and justified not by commercial benefits from using land routes, but by the need to diversify export risks, arising due to the deteriorating military and political situation in the South China Sea. The 2015 Joint Statement on Cooperation on the Construction of Joint Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt projects resolves the issue of all egedly competitive goals of these complementary projects. The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU provides an institutional base for cooperation while the Silk Road initiative provide investments for their development. Russia may benefit from participating in the Silk Road initiative. First, it would help integrate its transportation system into the region’s logistics network and provide additional opportunities for transit and associated logistical services as well as access to growing regional markets. Second, the Silk Road initiative offers opportunities to strengthen

  15. Parallel Extension Tectonics (PET): Early Cretaceous tectonic extension of the Eastern Eurasian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junlai; Ji, Mo; Ni, Jinlong; Guan, Huimei; Shen, Liang

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports progress of our recent studies on the extensional structures in eastern North China craton and contiguous areas. We focus on characterizing and timing the formation/exhumation of the extensional structures, the Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) and the Dayingzi basin from the Liaodong peninsula, the Queshan mcc, the Wulian mcc and the Zhucheng basin from the Jiaodong peninsula, and the Dashan magmatic dome within the Sulu orogenic belt. Magmatic rocks (either volcanic or plutonic) are ubiquitous in association with the tectonic extension (both syn- and post-kinematic). Evidence for crustal-mantle magma mixing are popular in many syn-kinematic intrusions. Geochemical analysis reveals that basaltic, andesitic to rhyolitic magmas were generated during the tectonic extension. Sr-Nd isotopes of the syn-kinematic magmatic rocks suggest that they were dominantly originated from ancient or juvenile crust partly with mantle signatures. Post-kinematic mafic intrusions with ages from ca. 121 Ma to Cenozoic, however, are of characteristic oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like trace element distribution patterns and relatively depleted radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions. Integrated studies on the extensional structures, geochemical signatures of syn-kinematic magmatic rocks (mostly of granitic) and the tectono-magmatic relationships suggest that extension of the crust and the mantle lithosphere triggered the magmatisms from both the crust and the mantle. The Early Cretaceous tectono-magmatic evolution of the eastern Eurasian continent is governed by the PET in which the tectonic processes is subdivided into two stages, i.e. an early stage of tectonic extension, and a late stage of collapse of the extended lithosphere and transformation of lithospheric mantle. During the early stage, tectonic extension of the lithosphere led to detachment faulting in both the crust and mantle, resulted in the loss of some of the subcontinental roots, gave rise to

  16. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) female tubular reproductive organs in relation to ovarian structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Holm, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Söderberg, A; Bergqvist, A S

    2015-09-15

    Although monitoring wild animals in the field is essential for estimations of population size and development, there are pitfalls associated with field monitoring. In addition, some detailed data about reproductive physiology can be difficult to obtain in wild live animals. Studying reproductive organs from the Eurasian lynx killed at hunting or found dead could be used as a valuable addition to other field data. We evaluated reproductive organs from 39 Eurasian lynx females (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden during the hunting seasons in 2009, 2010, and 2011. According to notes on ovarian structures, the animals were categorized as being in one of four different reproductive stages: juvenile (n = 10), follicular stage (n = 8), luteal stage (n = 11), and anestrus (n = 10). Corpora lutea were classified as fresh CL from the present season or as luteal bodies from previous cycles. Microscopic evaluations were blindly coded while the outer measurements of the vagina and uterus were taken at the time of organ retrieval. The width of the endometrium, myometrium, outer width of the uterine horns, and the diameter of the vagina differed significantly with the reproductive stage (P Eurasian lynx killed during the hunting season. Routine evaluation of reproductive organs has a potential to be a useful additional tool to field studies of live lynx to monitor their reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tandem duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor exclusively identified among East Eurasian thrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideaki; Nishiumi, Isao; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2013-12-01

    Mesotocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone found in some non-mammalian vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In this study, we identified and characterized 18-amino acid duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor (MTR), specifically found in Turdus thrushes (Aves: Passeriforms: Turdidae). These duplicated elements are located in the distal part of the C-terminal tails of MTR and consist of amino acids that are highly conserved among major vertebrates. Intraspecific polymorphisms in a variable number of tandem duplications are commonly found in East Eurasian Turdus, but not in any other genus of Turdidae. Moreover, the genus Turdus can be further classified into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of a 3-amino acid deletion just adjacent to the putative palmitoylation site in the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. The phylogeny presented here strongly supports the conspecific group of 4 East Eurasian thrushes (Turdus pallidus, T. chrysolaus, T. obscurus, and T. celaenops). Our findings, therefore, provide a new synapomorphy that can be used for phylogenetic assumptions and shed a light on the history of diversification within Eurasian Turdus clades.

  18. Assessment of the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in red foxes and Eurasian lynxes from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, C F; Schuppers, M E; Müller, N; Ryser-Degiorgis, M P; Gottstein, B

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella spp. larvae have not been detected in Swiss pigs, horses, or wild boar for many decades, whereas the parasite was repeatedly isolated from red foxes and Eurasian lynxes. Whenever the isolated larvae could be subjected to genotyping, T. britovi was found as infective agent. The present study was initiated to re-assess the epidemiological situation of Trichinella infection in Swiss carnivorous wildlife, namely in red foxes and lynxes. Tissue samples from 1,298 foxes were collected between 2006 and 2007, and those of 55 lynxes between 1999 and 2007. All samples were tested by a standard artificial digestion method and a multiplex-PCR to determine the species and/or genotypes of recovered larvae. Trichinella larvae were found in 21 foxes (1.6%) and 15 lynxes (27.3%), and T. britovi was identified as infecting species in all cases. The geographic distribution of positive foxes showed two main clusters: one in Central Switzerland and one in the West of the country, where also many lynxes were found to be positive. While the prevalence for Trichinella infection in foxes was not statistically correlated with sex or age class, the prevalence in lynx was significantly higher in males compared to females, and in adults compared to juveniles.

  19. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown.

  20. Influence of tourism and traffic on the Eurasian lynx hunting activity and daily movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belotti, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human presence influences survival of large carnivores in several ways and even outdoor activities can be a source of disturbance. As ungulate prey provide the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx with food for several nights and the pattern of lynx activity is mainly shaped by searching for and consuming large prey, the need to move decreases strongly while the prey is eaten. However, during the day, human activity may drive lynx to move to safe shelters and habitat features such as dense vegetation may increase tolerance. In the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, we found 116 prey killed by five GPS–collared lynxes. We tested whether the kill sites were located farther from roads or tourist trails than a set of randomly generated locations and whether presence of roads or tourist trails and habitat structure influenced the distance ‘kill site to daytime resting sites’. At night, with low human activity, lynxes did not avoid roads and even selected the surroundings of tourist trails. The distance ‘kill site to daytime resting sites’ correlated negatively with presence of habitat concealment and distance to tourist trails, suggesting that outdoor activities may have to be considered in lynx management plans.

  1. Repeatability and consistency of individual behaviour in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C.; Carl, Teresa; Foerster, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on animal personality has provided new insights into evolutionary biology and animal ecology, as behavioural types have been shown to affect fitness. Animal personality is characterized by repeatable and consistent between-individual behavioural differences throughout time and across different situations. Behavioural repeatability within life history stages and consistency between life history stages should be checked for the independence of sex and age, as recent data have shown that males and females in some species may differ in the repeatability of behavioural traits, as well as in their consistency. We measured the repeatability and consistency of three behavioural and one cognitive traits in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice ( Micromys minutus). We found that exploration, activity and boldness were repeatable in juveniles and adults. Spatial recognition measured in a Y Maze was only repeatable in adult mice. Exploration, activity and boldness were consistent before and after maturation, as well as before and after first sexual contact. Data on spatial recognition provided little evidence for consistency. Further, we found some evidence for a litter effect on behaviours by comparing different linear mixed models. We concluded that harvest mice express animal personality traits as behaviours were repeatable across sexes and consistent across life history stages. The tested cognitive trait showed low repeatability and was less consistent across life history stages. Given the rising interest in individual variation in cognitive performance, and in its relationship to animal personality, we suggest that it is important to gather more data on the repeatability and consistency of cognitive traits.

  2. Quantitative assessment of carbon sequestration reduction induced by disturbances in temperate Eurasian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Ju, Weimin; Groisman, Pavel; Li, Jianlong; Propastin, Pavel; Xu, Xia; Zhou, Wei; Ruan, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The temperate Eurasian steppe (TES) is a region where various environmental, social, and economic stresses converge. Multiple types of disturbance exist widely across the landscape, and heavily influence carbon cycling in this region. However, a current quantitative assessment of the impact of disturbances on carbon sequestration is largely lacking. In this study, we combined the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS), the Shiyomi grazing model, and the global fire model (Glob-FIRM) to investigate the impact of the two major types of disturbance in the TES (i.e. domestic grazing and fire) on regional carbon sequestration. Model performance was validated using satellite data and field observations. Model outputs indicate that disturbance has a significant impact on carbon sequestration at a regional scale. The annual total carbon lost due to disturbances was 7.8 TgC yr‑1, accounting for 14.2% of the total net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Domestic grazing plays the dominant role in terrestrial carbon consumption, accounting for 95% of the total carbon lost from the two disturbances. Carbon losses from both disturbances significantly increased from 1999 to 2008 (R 2 = 0.82, P management of carbon sequestration in the vast grassland ecosystems.

  3. Genetic diversity of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) population in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tali Magory; Narkiss, Tamar; Dolev, Amit; Ben-Ari, Yossi; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Guter, Amichai; Saltz, David; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2013-03-01

    The Israeli population of Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) marks the Palearctic southern boundary of the species' distribution in the Levant. During the 20th century, the otter population in Israel experienced a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic habitat alterations. Currently, the otter population in Israel is estimated at about 100 individuals and defined as "Critically Endangered". The aim of this research was to characterize the Israeli otter population in order to determine its genetic diversity and fragmentation state for conservation purposes. Monitoring spraint sites during 2000-2011 along active and historic otter distribution regions indicate both stable and unstable otter subpopulations, mainly along the Jordan River. Four otter subpopulations, representing 57 individuals, were characterized by 12 microsatellites, previously used to characterize the European otter populations. The genetic results indicated three subpopulations correlating with three geographical regions: the Hula Valley, Sea of Galilee, and the Harod Valley. A moderate genetic diversity (F (st) = 0.087-0.123) was found among the subpopulations, suggesting sporadic interactions between individuals from distinct geographical locations along the Jordan Rift Valley. The Israeli otter population was found to be very small, demographically remote and genetically distinct, harboring unique alleles absent from the studied European populations. Therefore, immediate conservation actions are recommended to prevent the deterioration of the isolated, unique, and critically endangered otter population in Israel.

  4. Geographic variation of craniodental morphology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Alice Ching Ching; Asahara, Masakazu; Han, Sung Yong; Kimura, Junpei

    2017-01-20

    Craniodental morphology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in the Korean Peninsula, Japanese islands and Kinmen Island (Taiwan) was studied using geometric morphometrics to identify the skull variations between the populations. Forty adult skulls were examined (29 specimens from the Korean Peninsula, six from Shikoku, Honshu and Hokkaido of Japan, and five from Kinmen Island). Images of the dorsal and ventral views of the skull and the right lateral view of the mandible were analyzed. Specimens from the Korean Peninsula were larger than those from the Japanese islands and Kinmen Island. However, no correlation was observed between the shape variations in the three populations and the centroid size of the skull. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that relative warps (RWs) RW1, RW2 and RW4 of the dorsal view and RW2 of the ventral view of the skull differed significantly between the populations. Some craniodental differences between the populations were seen in the dorsal and ventral views of the skull, mostly at the snout and parietal regions. The MANOVA test revealed significant differences between the specimens from the Japanese islands and Korean Peninsula and between the specimens from the Korean Peninsula and Kinmen Island. RWs plots showed an overlap of all three populations. In conclusion, the comparisons of the three examined populations revealed significant differences in their craniodental morphology.

  5. The Italian Action Plan for the endangered Eurasian otter Lutra lutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Loy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Although recent evidence of the species recovery has been reported for many European countries, in Italy the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra is still considered endangered. Otter populations are confined to few river basins in the southern part of the peninsula and these are both geographically and genetically isolated from other European populations. This critical situation led the Italian Ministry of Environment to promote the production of an Action Plan for the otter in Italy, whose methods, aims and actions are briefly summarized.

    Riassunto
    Il Piano d'Azione Nazionale per la Lontra Lutra lutra
    Nonostante i segnali di recupero segnalati in molti paesi europei, la lontra Lutra lutra è ancora una delle specie più minacciate della fauna italiana, in virtù delle piccole dimensioni della popolazione e del suo isolamento , sia geografico, sia genetico, dal resto delle popolazioni europee. Sulla base di queste considerazioni il Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del territorio e del Mare ha recentemente promosso la realizzazione di un Piano d’Azione Nazionale per la Conservazione della Lontra, i cui contenuti, obiettivi, e azioni sono riassunti in questo lavoro.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-21.1-4483

  6. Habitat correlates of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra recolonizing Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Jerzy; Brzeziński, Marcin; Zmihorski, Michał

    2013-04-01

    The increase in Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several European countries. We address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in Central Poland over 14 years. Field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. The frequency of positive sites denoted 15 % in 1993, 38 % in 1998, and 89 % in 2007. Otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river width while negatively affected by presence of buildings at the site and river regulation. During the most intensive colonization process in the 1990s, the habitat preferences of the otter did not change. However, the sites inhabited by otters after 1998 were characterized by lower river width and tree cover and were more often located on regulated river sections, suggesting change in habitat tolerance during expansion. The otter abundance in transformed habitats is a result of increasing population numbers and the necessity to inhabit suboptimal sections of watercourses. Thus, it seems that presence-absence data for otter populations cannot be considered a reliable indicator of habitat quality, being depended of the population density.

  7. Personalities in a crowd: What shapes the behaviour of Eurasian perch and other shoaling fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin MAGNHAGEN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lately, there has been an increasing interest in intraspecific variation in behaviour, and numerous studies on persona- lity have been performed in a variety of animals, including several fish species. Individuals have been divided into coping style categories or arranged along a behaviour gradient, such as the bold/shy continuum. However, many fish species live in groups, and the social environment can influence the behaviour of an animal in different ways. There may be conflicts within groups due to competition for resources, and dominance hierarchies are commonly found. On the other hand, there are many benefits of consensus decision-making within the group. Conformity of behaviour is probably adaptive, due to the benefit of public information on, for example, food resources and predation risk. Accordingly, studies of fish shoals have found evidence of consensus decision-making. Furthermore, factors in the environment, such as predation risk would also influence the behaviour expressed. To be able to understand behaviour patterns in a group of fish, it is necessary to consider the variation of individual characteristics, and how the group, as well as other environmental factors, affects the behaviour of individuals. Here, I will review studies on different aspects of personality within a social context in fish, with a special emphasis on the Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis [Current Zoology 58 (1: 35–44, 2012].

  8. Estimation of cultivable bacterial diversity in the cloacae and pharynx in Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Serrano, Emmanuel; Agustí, Susana; Porrero, María C; Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we describe the biodiversity of cloacal and pharynx culture-based bacteria (commensal and pathogenic), in 75 Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two geographic areas. We address the question of whether the cultivable microbiota of vultures is organised into assemblages occurring by chance. In addition, we assess bacterial diversity in both anatomic regions and geographic areas. Bacterial diversity was represented by 26 Gram-negative and 20 Gram-positive genera. The most common genera were Escherichia, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Lactococcus. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were the most common species in cloacal and pharyngeal samples. Staphylococcus and Erysipelothrix were isolated from the pharynx and Salmonella and Corynebacterium from the cloacae, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the cloacal swabs. Ten cloacal swabs were positive for Salmonella, of which five isolates were Salmonella enterica serotype 4,(5),12:i:-, one isolate was S. enterica serotype Derby, three isolates were S. enterica serotype 61:k:1,5,7 and one isolate was S. enterica serotype Infantis. The null modelling approach revealed that the commensal bacteria of vultures are not structured in assemblages. On the other hand, differences in bacterial genus and species richness between cloacal and pharyngeal samples or between geographic areas were clear, with the pharynx in vultures from both geographic areas being richer. The results of this study indicate also that vultures can serve as a reservoir of certain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria. The dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens in wildlife could be prevented by periodic sanitary surveys.

  9. Underlying causes of Eurasian midcontinental aridity in simulations of mid‐Holocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sandy P.; Izumi, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Climate model simulations uniformly show drier and warmer summers in the Eurasian midcontinent during the mid‐Holocene, which is not consistent with paleoenvironmental observations. The simulated climate results from a reduction in the zonal temperature gradient, which weakens westerly flow and reduces moisture flux and precipitation in the midcontinent. As a result, sensible heating is favored over evaporation and latent heating, resulting in substantial surface‐driven atmospheric warming. Thus, the discrepancy with the paleoenvironmental evidence arises initially from a problem in the simulated circulation and is exacerbated by feedback from the land surface. This region is also drier and warmer than indicated by observations in the preindustrial control simulations, and this bias arises in the same way: zonal flow and hence moisture flux into the midcontinent are too weak, and feedback from the land surface results in surface‐driven warming. These analyses suggest the need to improve those aspects of climate models that affect the strength of westerly circulation. PMID:29104328

  10. New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

  11. First estimation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx abundance and density using digital cameras and capture–recapture techniques in a German national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingarth, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian lynx are individually identifiable by their unique coat markings, making them ideal candidates for capture–recapture (CMR surveys. We evaluated the use of digital photography to estimate Eurasian lynx population abundance and density within the Bavarian Forest National Park. From November 2008 to January 2009 we placed 24 camera trap sites, each with two cameras facing each other on well–used walking tracks. The units were placed based on a systematic grid of 2.7 km. We captured five independent and three juvenile lynx and calculated abundance estimates using Program Mark. We also compared density estimates based on the MMDM method (Mean Maximum Distance Moved from telemetry data (½MMDMGPS and from camera trapping data (½MMDMCAM. We estimated that in an effectively sampled area of 664 km2 the Eurasian lynx density was 0.9 individuals/100 km2 with ½MMDMCAM. The Eurasian lynx density calculated with ½MMDMGPS was 0.4 individuals/100 km2 in an effectively sampled area of 1,381 km2. Our results suggest that long–term photographic CMR sampling on a large scale may be a useful tool to monitor population trends of Eurasian lynx in accordance with the Fauna–Flora–Habitat Directive of the European Union.

  12. Transport Corridors in the Russian Integration Projects, the Case of the Eurasian Economic Union

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    Olga A. Podberezkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the political importance of transport corridors in terms of the development of integration projects in the post-Soviet space. The world is witnessing the formation of a single market and transport and communication infrastructure, which intensifies competition among regional and world leaders, both states and non-state actors, such as businesses, markets over the routes of transporting goods. In the medium and long term the value of the control over the transport routes will increase due to the dynamics of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Competition for the development of projects of international transport corridors (ITC between the leading countries in the region will increase, because the ITC entail the formation of a common political space, the reduction of tariff and customs barriers, which provides easy access to the markets of countries linked by ITCs and creates the preconditions for economic integration. The growing political importance of ITC is reflected in the fact that global leaders such as China, the US, the EU, are trying to create their own versions of international land transport corridors connecting Europe and Asia. China is trying to promote their transport project "Economic Belt Silk Road" European countries develop cooperation on ITC TRACECA with other countries of Eurasia. US also embody their interests through the implementation of the project by the ITC in Afghanistan. Transport corridors in Russia are seen as a way to integrate it into the global transportation system and logistics space. To do this, Russia needs to develop Eurasian transport corridors through its territory. As a result of the implementation of transport projects Russia will be able to ensure the transit of goods from China to Europe, which has a positive impact on the economic development of the regions through which they pass. Development of international transportation through Russia will unite many of the

  13. Developing E-Governance in the Eurasian Economic Union: Progress, Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Vidiasova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available he article provides an overview of e-governance development in the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU. There is a lack of integrated research on e-governance in the EEU countries, although given the strengthening of this regional bloc, new information and communication technologies (ICT could serve as significant growth driver. Given the history and specifics of regional cooperation in the post-Soviet space and international best practices in ICT use in regional blocs, this article reviews the development of e-governance in the EEU members The research methodology was based on a three-stage concept of regionalism [Van Langenhov, Coste, 2005]. The study examines three key components: progress in developing e-governance, barriers to that development and future prospects. It used qualitative and quantitative methods. Data sources included the results of the United Nations E-Government rating, EEU countries’ regulations based on 3,200 documents and the authors’ expert survey, in which 18 experts (12 EEU representatives and six international experts participated. The study revealed the progress made by EEU countries in improving technological development and reducing human capital development indicators. The survey identified key barriers to e-governance development in the EEU: low motivation and information technology skills among civil servants, and citizens’ low computer literacy. The analysis of EEU members’ national economic priorities revealed a common focus on ICT development. The authors concluded that prospects for e-governance in the EEU were associated with strengthening regional cooperation in standardizing information systems, implementing one-stop-shop services, managing electronic documents and expanding online services. The authors presented two areas for developing e-governance within the EEU. The first is external integration, which, if strengthened, would affect the economy positivelyand optimize business processes

  14. Food availability and animal space use both determine cache density of Eurasian red squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Rong

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris. This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1 animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2 animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3 seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years.

  15. Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Depth across Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Snow depth is one of the important parameters of snow cover, and it affects the surface energy balance, assessment of snow water equivalent, ecosystem, soil temperatures, and water cycle as a whole. In this study, the long-term observed snow depth from 1972 meteorological stations and snow course sites were used to investigate snow depth climatology and its spatiotemporal variations over Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008. Preliminary results showed that snow depth was affected by latitude, which in general snow depth increased with the increasing latitude. The higher values of snow depth were found in the northeastern European Russia, the east of western Siberia, the west of central Siberia, Kamchatka Peninsula, and some areas of Sakhalin. While the lower snow accumulation occurred in most areas of China except for the north of Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, Northeast China, and some regions of the southwestern Tibet. Both of the trends in inter-annual variability of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were not significant. However, the long-term monthly mean snow depth had obvious increasing trends from February to May. There were similar spatial distributions of linear trend coefficients of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth across the former Soviet Union (USSR). The most significant trends of changes in annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were found between 40° to 70°N. The obvious trends of variability in monthly mean snow depth appeared in the areas between 50° to 60°N. The significant decreasing trends in monthly mean snow depth were observed in most areas of China from February to March. This may be largely influenced by climate change, which leads to an advancing of the end date of snow cover.

  16. Range expansion and population dynamics of an invasive species: the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer N Scheidt

    Full Text Available Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS and Christmas Bird Count (CBC data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35-48% and 41-46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models.

  17. Scent-marking behaviour and social dynamics in a wild population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Kristina; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Kölliker, Mathias; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2014-07-01

    Scent-marking is widespread among mammals and has been observed in many felid species. Although the behaviour is well-described, little is known about its function in wild felid populations. We investigated patterns of scent-marking and its role in intra- and intersexual communication among resident and non-resident Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx by observing interactions among wild lynx at natural marking sites by means of infrared camera traps. Marking activity of resident animals showed a peak during the mating season and was lowest during the time when females gave birth and lactated. Both sexes scent-marked, but male lynx visited marking sites much more often than females and marked relatively more often when visiting a site. Most visits to marking sites were by residents but we also observed scent-marking by non-residents. Juveniles were never observed marking. We found no evidence of lynx regularly renewing scent-marks after a certain 'expiry date' but the presence of a strange scent-mark triggered over-marking. Males responded similarly to the presence of another individual's scent-mark, irrespective of whether it was the top- or the underlying scent-mark in a mixture of scent-marks they encountered. Our results suggest that marking sites could serve as 'chemical bulletin boards', where male lynx advertise their presence and gain information on ownership relationships in a given area. Females placed their urine marks on top of the ones left by resident males, but further studies are needed to explain the functions of over-marking in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Collection of field reproductive data from carcasses of the female Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Payan-Carreira, R; Setterlind, P; Åsbrink, J; Söderberg, A

    2013-11-01

    Information about reproductive physiology in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) would generate knowledge that could be useful in the management of the Swedish lynx population based on the knowledge about their reproductive potential and population development. Age-related differences in ovulation and implantation rates would affect the reproductive output and the development of the population. The aims of this study were to evaluate a protocol for collection of reproductive data from carcasses by comparisons with published field data and to generate data about reproduction in the Swedish lynx. Reproductive organs from 120 females that were harvested between March 1 and April 9 from 2009 to 2011 were collected and evaluated macroscopically for placental scars. Females had their first estrus as yearlings but did not have their first litter until the next season. Pregnancy rates were lower in 2-year-old females than in females aged 3 to 7 years but did not differ significantly from females aged 8 to 13 years (54.5%, 95.6%, and 75.0%, respectively). CL from the present season were morphologically distinctly different from luteal bodies from previous cycles (LBPC). All females ≥3 years had macroscopically visible LBPC, whereas only 67% of 22 to 23 months old females had one to three LBPC and no females lynx reproduction can be collected from reproductive organs retrieved after the death of the animals. Continuous monitoring of lynx reproductive organs would therefore make a valuable contribution to collection of field data, gathering information that can be useful for the management of lynx populations and potentially for the lynx as an indicator of environmental disturbances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Histological and endocrine characterisation of the annual luteal activity in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby, Kim; Painer, Johanna; Söderberg, Arne; Gavier-Widèn, Dolores; Göritz, Frank; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2012-10-01

    Lynx presents a unique sexual cycle with persistent corpora lutea (CLs) and elevated serum progesterone (P₄) throughout parturition and lactation. In other mammals, CLs normally disintegrate after parturition, therefore the aim of our study was to characterise the annual life cycle of lynx CLs. Ovaries from Eurasian lynxes were obtained from the National Veterinary Institute in Sweden, where tissues from killed lynx were stored at -20 °C. Ovaries from 66 animals were weighed; each corpus luteum was segmented for histology and hormone analysis. Ovary and CLs weights were constant throughout the year, peaking during pregnancy. In non-pregnant lynxes, the seasonal level of intraluteal steroids was steady for P₄ (3.2±1.9 s.d. μg/g, n=53) and total oestrogens (18.3±15.5 s.d. ng/g, n=53). Within histology slides, structurally intact luteal cells were found throughout the year with the highest incidence in March/April; evidence of luteal regression was predominantly found in post-breeding season. Ovaries from pregnant animals contained two types of CLs. Group A was bigger in size with large luteal cells (P₄, 72.3±65.4 s.d. μg/g; oestrogen, 454.0±52.4 s.d. ng/g). In contrast, group B were smaller, with greater luteal regression and lower steroid concentrations (P₄, 8.3±2.9 s.d. μg/g; oestrogen, 31.5±20.4 s.d. ng/g). Our results suggest that structural luteolysis proceeds throughout the year and into next breeding cycle, resulting in two CLs types on the same ovary.

  20. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  1. Quantitative assessments of water-use efficiency in Temperate Eurasian Steppe along an aridity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Li, Jianlong; Ju, Weimin; Ruan, Honghua; Qin, Zhihao; Huang, Yiye; Jeelani, Nasreen; Padarian, José; Propastin, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of net primary productivity (NPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), is an important indicator to represent the trade-off pattern between vegetation productivity and water consumption. Its dynamics under climate change are important to ecohydrology and ecosystem management, especially in the drylands. In this study, we modified and used a late version of Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to quantify the WUE in the typical dryland ecosystems, Temperate Eurasian Steppe (TES). The Aridity Index (AI) was used to specify the terrestrial water availability condition. The regional results showed that during the period of 1999-2008, the WUE has a clear decreasing trend in the spatial distribution from arid to humid areas. The highest annual average WUE was in dry and semi-humid sub-region (DSH) with 0.88 gC mm-1 and the lowest was in arid sub-region (AR) with 0.22 gC mm-1. A two-stage pattern of WUE was found in TES. That is, WUE would enhance with lower aridity stress, but decline under the humid environment. Over 65% of the region exhibited increasing WUE. This enhancement, however, could not indicate that the grasslands were getting better because the NPP even slightly decreased. It was mainly attributed to the reduction of ET over 70% of the region, which is closely related to the rainfall decrease. The results also suggested a similar negative spatial correlation between the WUE and the mean annual precipitation (MAP) at the driest and the most humid ends. This regional pattern reflected the different roles of water in regulating the terrestrial ecosystems under different aridity levels. This study could facilitate the understanding of the interactions between terrestrial carbon and water cycles, and thus contribute to a sustainable management of nature resources in the dryland ecosystems.

  2. Living on the edge: Space use of Eurasian red squirrels in marginal high-elevation habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Preatoni, Damiano; Tosi, Guido; Martinoli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    In marginal habitats located at the edge of a species' range, environmental conditions are frequently extreme and individuals may be subject to different selective pressures compared to central populations. These so-called edge or marginal populations tend to have lower densities and reproductive rates than populations located in more suitable habitats, but little is known about local adaptations in spacing behavior. We studied space use and social organization in a population of Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris) in a high-elevation marginal habitat of dwarf mountain pine ( Pinus mugo) and compared it with spacing patterns in high-quality Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest at lower-elevation. Home ranges and core areas were larger in the marginal habitat. In both habitats, males used larger home ranges than females, but sex differences in core area size were significant only in the edge population. Patterns of core area overlap were similar in both habitats with intra-sexual territoriality among adult females and higher degrees of inter-sexual overlap, typical for the species throughout its range. However, low densities in the edge population resulted in higher female by males overlap in spring-summer, suggesting males increased home ranges and core areas during mating season to augment access to estrus females. Thus, in the marginal habitat, with low food abundance and low population densities, linked with extreme winter conditions, squirrels, especially males, used large home ranges. Finally, squirrels responded more strongly to variation in food availability (inverse relation between home range size and seed abundance), and even to fluctuations in density (inverse relation between core area size and density of animals of the same sex), in the marginal than in the high-quality habitat, suggesting high behavioral plasticity to respond to the ecological constraints in marginal habitats.

  3. Quantitative assessments of water-use efficiency in Temperate Eurasian Steppe along an aridity gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhao Chen

    Full Text Available Water-use efficiency (WUE, defined as the ratio of net primary productivity (NPP to evapotranspiration (ET, is an important indicator to represent the trade-off pattern between vegetation productivity and water consumption. Its dynamics under climate change are important to ecohydrology and ecosystem management, especially in the drylands. In this study, we modified and used a late version of Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS, to quantify the WUE in the typical dryland ecosystems, Temperate Eurasian Steppe (TES. The Aridity Index (AI was used to specify the terrestrial water availability condition. The regional results showed that during the period of 1999-2008, the WUE has a clear decreasing trend in the spatial distribution from arid to humid areas. The highest annual average WUE was in dry and semi-humid sub-region (DSH with 0.88 gC mm-1 and the lowest was in arid sub-region (AR with 0.22 gC mm-1. A two-stage pattern of WUE was found in TES. That is, WUE would enhance with lower aridity stress, but decline under the humid environment. Over 65% of the region exhibited increasing WUE. This enhancement, however, could not indicate that the grasslands were getting better because the NPP even slightly decreased. It was mainly attributed to the reduction of ET over 70% of the region, which is closely related to the rainfall decrease. The results also suggested a similar negative spatial correlation between the WUE and the mean annual precipitation (MAP at the driest and the most humid ends. This regional pattern reflected the different roles of water in regulating the terrestrial ecosystems under different aridity levels. This study could facilitate the understanding of the interactions between terrestrial carbon and water cycles, and thus contribute to a sustainable management of nature resources in the dryland ecosystems.

  4. Heat waves reduce ecosystem carbon sink strength in a Eurasian meadow steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Luping; Chen, Jiquan; Dong, Gang; Jiang, Shicheng; Li, Linghao; Guo, Jixun; Shao, Changliang

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of global change, intensity and frequency of extreme events such as heat waves (HW) have been increasing worldwide. By using a combination of continuous 60-year meteorological and 6-year tower-based carbon dioxide (CO2) flux measurements, we constructed a clear picture of a HWs effect on the dynamics of carbon, water, and vegetation on the Eurasian Songnen meadow steppe. The number of HWs in the Songnen meadow steppe began increasing since the 1980s and the rate of occurrence has advanced since the 2010s to higher than ever before. HWs can reduce the grassland carbon flux, while net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) will regularly fluctuate for 4-5 days during the HW before decreasing. However, ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) decline from the beginning of the HW until the end, where Re and GEP will decrease 30% and 50%, respectively. When HWs last five days, water-use efficiency (WUE) will decrease by 26%, soil water content (SWC) by 30% and soil water potential (SWP) will increase by 38%. In addition, the soil temperature will still remain high after the HW although the air temperature will recover to its previous state. HWs, as an extreme weather event, have increased during the last two decades in the Songnen meadow steppe. HWs will reduce the carbon flux of the steppe and will cause a sustained impact. Drought may be the main reason why HWs decrease carbon flux. At the later stages of or after a HW, the ecosystem usually lacks water and the soil becomes so hot and dry that it prevents roots from absorbing enough water to maintain their metabolism. This is the main reason why this grassland carbon exchange decreases during and after HWs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-Term Trends and Role of Climate in the Population Dynamics of Eurasian Reindeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboni, Alessia; Horstkotte, Tim; Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Sévêque, Anthony; Stammler, Florian; Olofsson, Johan; Forbes, Bruce C; Moen, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is increasing in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions at a higher rate than anywhere else in the world. The frequency and nature of precipitation events are also predicted to change in the future. These changes in climate are expected, together with increasing human pressures, to have significant impacts on Arctic and sub-Arctic species and ecosystems. Due to the key role that reindeer play in those ecosystems, it is essential to understand how climate will affect the region's most important species. Our study assesses the role of climate on the dynamics of fourteen Eurasian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) populations, using for the first time data on reindeer abundance collected over a 70-year period, including both wild and semi-domesticated reindeer, and covering more than half of the species' total range. We analyzed trends in population dynamics, investigated synchrony among population growth rates, and assessed the effects of climate on population growth rates. Trends in the population dynamics were remarkably heterogeneous. Synchrony was apparent only among some populations and was not correlated with distance among population ranges. Proxies of climate variability mostly failed to explain population growth rates and synchrony. For both wild and semi-domesticated populations, local weather, biotic pressures, loss of habitat and human disturbances appear to have been more important drivers of reindeer population dynamics than climate. In semi-domesticated populations, management strategies may have masked the effects of climate. Conservation efforts should aim to mitigate human disturbances, which could exacerbate the potentially negative effects of climate change on reindeer populations in the future. Special protection and support should be granted to those semi-domesticated populations that suffered the most because of the collapse of the Soviet Union, in order to protect the livelihood of indigenous peoples that depend on the species, and the multi

  6. Long-Term Trends and Role of Climate in the Population Dynamics of Eurasian Reindeer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Uboni

    Full Text Available Temperature is increasing in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions at a higher rate than anywhere else in the world. The frequency and nature of precipitation events are also predicted to change in the future. These changes in climate are expected, together with increasing human pressures, to have significant impacts on Arctic and sub-Arctic species and ecosystems. Due to the key role that reindeer play in those ecosystems, it is essential to understand how climate will affect the region's most important species. Our study assesses the role of climate on the dynamics of fourteen Eurasian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus populations, using for the first time data on reindeer abundance collected over a 70-year period, including both wild and semi-domesticated reindeer, and covering more than half of the species' total range. We analyzed trends in population dynamics, investigated synchrony among population growth rates, and assessed the effects of climate on population growth rates. Trends in the population dynamics were remarkably heterogeneous. Synchrony was apparent only among some populations and was not correlated with distance among population ranges. Proxies of climate variability mostly failed to explain population growth rates and synchrony. For both wild and semi-domesticated populations, local weather, biotic pressures, loss of habitat and human disturbances appear to have been more important drivers of reindeer population dynamics than climate. In semi-domesticated populations, management strategies may have masked the effects of climate. Conservation efforts should aim to mitigate human disturbances, which could exacerbate the potentially negative effects of climate change on reindeer populations in the future. Special protection and support should be granted to those semi-domesticated populations that suffered the most because of the collapse of the Soviet Union, in order to protect the livelihood of indigenous peoples that depend on the species

  7. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D Olden

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006 in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA. After accounting for structural (e.g., house size, locational (e.g., boat launch, and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price, corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue, justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  8. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis: a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangyan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin. Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6% of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuangyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Huang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Gongshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  10. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  11. Economic Integration and New Export Opportunities for the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Volchkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At a time when oil prices are low, non-oil exports are important for the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU. This study assesses the effects of the EAEU’s economic integration on the development of new exports. EAEU countries are far behind global export leaders in several categories according to the revealed comparative advantage, used by the Hausmann-Klinger method to assess national export baskets. Belarus exports the most products, and Russia and especially Armenia and Kazakhstan export notably fewer. The comparative advantages of Kazakhstan and Russia are concentrated mainly in minerals, chemical products and metals. The export structure for the other EAEU countries is more diverse, with a high share of foodstuffs in Armenia and textiles in Belarus. Kazakhstan and, to a greater extent, Belarus and Russia show a rather complex export basket, significantly ahead of Armenia according to this indicator. For the EAEU as an independent participant, its trade complexity index is higher than that for its member countries individually. This article uses the Hausmann-Klinger methodology to identify the future comparative advantages of the EAEU countries. These are product groups, towards which a structural transformation of the EAEU exports most likely occurs. The research focuses on the integration aspect of possible non-oil exports, seeking to identify goods, including chemicals and textiles, that can eventually provide a comparative advantage for the EAEU as a whole. Most of the products considered have a greater economic complexity than those in the EAEU’s current export basket, so would improve its overall export structure.

  12. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  13. The effect of turbidity and prey fish density on consumption rates of piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. This was done in outdoor mesocosm (16 m2) experiments with clear water and two levels of turbidity (25 and 105 NTU) and two prey fish densities [3.1 and 12.5 roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) individuals m–2]. Perch consumption rates were affected by visibility less...... than expected, while they were highly affected by increased prey fish density. Perch responded to high prey density in all visibility conditions, indicating that prey density is more crucial for consumption than visibility in turbid lakes...

  14. The first record of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Angistrongylidae: Nematoda) in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) from Poland based on fecal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesna, Justyna; Popiołek, Marcin; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2006-01-01

    Thirty eight fecal samples of Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx L.) collected in Białowieza Primeval Forest (E Poland) in years 2001-2004 were analysed. The presence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (L1) larvae was evidenced by use of decantation and flotation methods. The general prevalence of the infection recorded during the study was 21.1%, whereas mean intensity was 11,5 (1-33 larvae per sample). To our knowledge, this is the first case of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus recorded in Euroasian lynx from Poland.

  15. Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers.

  16. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Andrén

    Full Text Available The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear and Type II (non-linear functional responses and of season (winter, summer on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E., while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.. Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E. after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E., suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  17. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  18. Structure and variability of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnyushkov, Andrey V.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew C.; Janout, Markus; Rabe, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) transports a vast amount of mass and heat around cyclonic gyres of the deep basins, acting as a narrow, topographically-controlled flow, confined to the continental margins. Current observations during 2002-2011 at seven moorings along the major Atlantic Water (AW) pathway, complemented by an extensive collection of measured temperatures and salinities as well as results of state-of-the-art numerical modeling, have been used to examine the spatial structure and temporal variability of the ACBC within the Eurasian Basin (EB). These observations and modeling results suggest a gradual, six-fold decrease of boundary current speed (from 24 to 4 cm/s) on the route between Fram Strait and the Lomonosov Ridge, accompanied by a transformation of the vertical flow structure from mainly barotropic in Fram Strait to baroclinic between the area north of Spitsbergen and the central Laptev Sea continental slope. The relative role of density-driven currents in maintaining AW circulation increases with the progression of the ACBC eastward from Fram Strait, so that baroclinic ACBC forcing dominates over the barotropic in the eastern EB. Mooring records have revealed that waters within the AW and the cold halocline layers circulate in roughly the same direction in the eastern EB. The seasonal signal, meanwhile, is the most powerful mode of variability in the EB, contributing up to ~70% of the total variability in currents (resolved by moorings records) within the eastern EB. Seasonal signal amplitudes for current speed and AW temperature both decrease with the eastward progression of AW flow from source regions, and demonstrate strong interannual modulation. In the 2000s, the state of the EB (e.g., circulation pattern, thermohaline conditions, and freshwater balance) experienced remarkable changes. Results showing anomalous circulation patterns for an extended period of 30 months in 2008-2010 for the eastern EB, and a two-core AW

  19. Sexual conflict and consistency of offspring desertion in Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogány Ákos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trade-off between current and future parental investment is often different between males and females. This difference may lead to sexual conflict between parents over care provisioning in animals that breed with multiple mates. One of the most obvious manifestations of sexual conflict over care is offspring desertion whereby one parent deserts the young to increase its reproductive success at the expense of its mate. Offspring desertion is a wide-spread behavior, and its frequency often varies within populations. We studied the consistency of offspring desertion in a small passerine bird, the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus, that has an extremely variable breeding system. Both males and females are sequentially polygamous, and a single parent (either the male or the female incubates the eggs and rears the young. About 28–40% of offspring are abandoned by both parents, and these offspring perish. Here we investigate whether the variation in offspring desertion in a population emerges either by each individual behaving consistently between different broods, or it is driven by the environment. Results Using a three-year dataset from Southern Hungary we show that offspring desertion by females is consistent between nests. Male desertion, however, depends on ambient environment, because all males desert their nests early in the season and some of them care late in the season. Therefore, within-population variation in parental care emerges by sexually different mechanisms; between-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern of offspring desertion in females, whereas within-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern in males. Conclusion To our knowledge, our study is the first that investigates repeatability of offspring desertion behavior in nature. The contrasting strategies of the sexes imply complex evolutionary trajectories in breeding behavior of penduline tits. Our results

  20. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  1. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation.

  2. Non cat-like ovarian cycle in the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx - ultrasonographical and endocrinological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göritz, F; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Martinez, F; López-Bao, J V; Palomares, F; Jewgenow, K

    2009-07-01

    The Iberian lynx is considered the most endangered felid species. Therefore, an ex situ conservation program was initiated to protect this species from extinction. Additional knowledge on lynx reproduction biology and reliable methods for reproductive monitoring are important for developing a captive breeding program. The aim of this study in lynx was to implement transrectal ultrasonography to visualize ovarian structures (follicles, corpora lutea) and to assess ovarian activity in addition to analysis of serum progesterone and oestradiol. Because of limited access to Iberian lynxes, the less-endangered Eurasian lynx and bobcat were also studied in this comparative study. Recent endocrinological studies based on faecal and urinary progesterone and oestrogen metabolites revealed that steroid profiles in both these species were alike and did not follow the typical pattern of other felids. Pregnancy diagnosis was not possible, since progesterone concentrations did not differ between pregnant and pseudopregnant animals. Progesterone was also detected after parturition as well as after weaning until the onset of a new oestrous cycle. In the present study, the presence of corpora lutea during the non-breeding season was confirmed by ultrasonography and by elevated serum levels of progesterone averaging 3.56 +/- 1.3 ng/ml in Eurasian and 6.1 +/- 0.26 ng/ml in Iberian lynx, respectively. The ultrasonographical findings on the ovarian structures suggest strongly that corpora lutea developed after ovulation stay active until November and regress before the onset of the next oestrus.

  3. Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) – Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  4. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Painer

    Full Text Available Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation.

  5. Considerations regarding the occurence of the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber Linnaeus 1758 in the Danube Delta (Romania

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    ALEXE Vasile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On its original Romanian name - breb, the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber extinct at us for almost two centuries and reintroduced in some areas of the country, at present is better known under the name of his North American relative, beaver. In the last decades, this specie has been reintroduced within in its old habitats from where itwas extinct, especially under the effect of human pressure. Since 1998, reinsertion actions took place in Romania, in many areas, the closest one to Danube Delta area being the lower part of Ialomita river. By 2011 epigraphic or paleozoology evidences about the presence of this mammalian into the actual Delta have not been found, except the Lower Danube, up to Isaccea, but also near Dobrogea Plateau in Murighiol area. Its last Paleontology evidences come from early medieval period. Until now, the actual delta was considered a territory inappropriate for the Eurasian Beaver, due to high fluctuations of the water levels. But, in April 2011, the spontaneous appearance of the European beaver near Maliuc area was proved, a copy killed by poachers. In July 2011, a Beaver injured after the collision with a boat was found and scientifically investigated. The future observations will have to document if this mammal extends its habitat up here or remains an erratic appearance. In case of success of spontaneous colonization, its consequences and effects on the environment in general and on biodiversity inparticular are required to be monitored.

  6. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Graf

    Full Text Available Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology.

  7. Spatiotemporal variability of snow depth across the Eurasian continent from 1966 to 2012

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    X. Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow depth is one of the key physical parameters for understanding land surface energy balance, soil thermal regime, water cycle, and assessing water resources from local community to regional industrial water supply. Previous studies by using in situ data are mostly site specific; data from satellite remote sensing may cover a large area or global scale, but uncertainties remain large. The primary objective of this study is to investigate spatial variability and temporal change in snow depth across the Eurasian continent. Data used include long-term (1966–2012 ground-based measurements from 1814 stations. Spatially, long-term (1971–2000 mean annual snow depths of >20 cm were recorded in northeastern European Russia, the Yenisei River basin, Kamchatka Peninsula, and Sakhalin. Annual mean and maximum snow depth increased by 0.2 and 0.6 cm decade−1 from 1966 through 2012. Seasonally, monthly mean snow depth decreased in autumn and increased in winter and spring over the study period. Regionally, snow depth significantly increased in areas north of 50° N. Compared with air temperature, snowfall had greater influence on snow depth during November through March across the former Soviet Union. This study provides a baseline for snow depth climatology and changes across the Eurasian continent, which would significantly help to better understanding climate system and climate changes on regional, hemispheric, or even global scales.

  8. Assessment of Water Use in Pan-Eurasian and African Continents by ETMonitor with Multi-Source Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaolei; Jia, Li; Hu, Guangcheng; Menenti, Massimo; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhansheng

    2017-02-01

    The Pan-Eurasian and African Continents are characterized by large ranges of climates varying from humid, semi-humid, semi-arid and arid regions, and great challenges exist in water allocation for different sectors that related to water resource and food security, which depends strongly on the water use information. Quantitative information on water use is also important to understand the effectiveness of water allocation and further to prevent from water stress resulted by drought in water-scarce regions. Explosive development of satellite remote sensing observations provide great chance to provide useful spatiotemporal information for quantifying the water use at regional to global scales. In this paper, a process-based model ETMonitor was used in combination with biophysical and hydrological parameters retrieved from earth observations to estimate the actual evapotranspiration, i.e. the agricultural and ecological water use. The total water use is also partitioned into beneficial part, e.g. plant transpiration, and non-beneficial part, e.g. soil evaporation and canopy rainfall interception, according to the water accounting framework. The estimated water use show good agreements with the ground observation, indicating the ability of ETMonitor for global and continental scale water use estimation. The spatial and temporal patterns of the water use in the Pan-Eurasian and African Continents were further analysed, while large spatial variation of water use was convinced. Current study also highlights the great capability of satellite observations in studying the regional water resource and continental water cycle.

  9. Individual migration patterns of Eurasian golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria breeding in Swedish Lapland; examples of cold spell-induced winter movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machin, Paula; Fernandez-Elipe, Juan; Flores, Manuel; Fox, James W.; Aguirre, Jose I.; Klaassen-, Raymond H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking studies normally focus on long-distance migrants, meaning that our understanding about short-distance migration remains limited. In this study, we present the first individual tracks of the Eurasian golden plover Pluvialis apricaria, a short-distance migrant, which were tracked from a

  10. Individual migration patterns of Eurasian golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria breeding in Swedish Lapland : Examples of cold spell-induced winter movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machin, Paula; Fernandez-Elipe, Juan; Flores, Manuel; Fox, James W.; Aguirre, Jose I.; Klaassen-, Raymond H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking studies normally focus on long-distance migrants, meaning that our understanding about short-distance migration remains limited. In this study, we present the first individual tracks of the Eurasian golden plover Pluvialis apricaria, a short-distance migrant, which were tracked from a

  11. Reassortant highly pathogenic influenza A H5N2 virus containing gene segments related to Eurasian H5N8 in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren

    2015-03-25

    In late November 2014 higher than normal death losses in a meat turkey and chicken broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia initiated a diagnostic investigation that led to the discovery of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus. This virus, composed of 5 gene segments (PB2, PA, HA, M and NS) related to Eurasian HPAI H5N8 and the remaining gene segments (PB1, NP and NA) related to North American lineage waterfowl viruses, represents the first HPAI outbreak in North American poultry due to a virus with Eurasian lineage genes. Since its first appearance in Korea in January 2014, HPAI H5N8 spread to Western Europe in November 2014. These European outbreaks happened to temporally coincide with migratory waterfowl movements. The fact that the British Columbia outbreaks also occurred at a time associated with increased migratory waterfowl activity along with reports by the USA of a wholly Eurasian H5N8 virus detected in wild birds in Washington State, strongly suggest that migratory waterfowl were responsible for bringing Eurasian H5N8 to North America where it subsequently reassorted with indigenous viruses.

  12. Measurements of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the lower reaches of major Eurasian arctic rivers using trace metal clean techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guay, Christopher K.H., E-mail: cguay@pmstllc.co [Pacific Marine Sciences and Technology, 3503 Lakeshore Avenue, Suite 5, Oakland, CA 94610 (United States); Zhulidov, Alexander V. [South Russian Regional Centre for Preparation and Implementation of International Projects (CPPI-S), 200/1 Stachki Av., No. 301, Rostov-on-Don 344090 (Russian Federation); Robarts, Richard D. [UNEP GEMS/Water Programme, c/o National Water Research Institute, National Hydrology Research Centre, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5 (Canada); Zhulidov, Daniel A.; Gurtovaya, Tatiana Yu. [South Russian Regional Centre for Preparation and Implementation of International Projects (CPPI-S), 200/1 Stachki Av., No. 301, Rostov-on-Don 344090 (Russian Federation); Holmes, Robert M. [The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Headley, John V. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Branch, National Water Research Institute, National Hydrology Research Centre, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    Concentrations of dissolved and particulate Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in samples collected in summer 1998 from the lower reaches of six major Eurasian arctic rivers: the Onega, Severnaya Dvina, Mezen, Pechora, Ob and Yenisey. These data comprise some of the earliest measurements of trace metals in Eurasian arctic rivers above the estuaries using recognized clean techniques. Significant (alpha = 0.05) differences were observed among mean concentrations of particulate metals in the individual rivers (F <= 0.006), with highest levels overall observed in the Severnaya Dvina and Yenisey. No significant differences were observed among mean concentrations of dissolved metals in the individual rivers (F = 0.10-0.84). Contributions from anthropogenic sources are suggested by comparison of trace metal ratios in the samples to crustal abundances. These results establish a baseline for assessing future responses of Eurasian arctic river systems to climate-related environmental changes and shifting patterns of pollutant discharge. - We report some of the earliest reliable trace metal data for major Eurasian arctic rivers.

  13. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum: Graduate Employability in the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings (4th, Astana, Kazakhstan, June 11-12, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This collection of papers introduces the proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference-Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held on the 11-12 June, 2015 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. Our presenters come from different professional backgrounds including higher education institutions, national business companies as well as…

  14. Genetic structure within and among regional populations of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) from Denmark and the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zande, L. van de; Vliet, M. van de; Pertoldi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Eurasian badger Meles meles has a wide distribution area ranging from Japan to Ireland. In western Europe badger habitats are severely disturbed by anthropogenic factors, leading to fragmentation into subpopulations and formation of a metapopulation substructuring of once continuous panmictic...

  15. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced

  16. Entrapment of ancient and modern organic carbon by iron on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, Joan A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-04-01

    Given the potential for climate-carbon feedbacks in the Siberian-Arctic land-ocean system, there is a need for improved understanding of carbon cycle processes (Vonk et al., 2012). The entrapment of organic carbon in sediments is a key factor to attenuate the outgassing of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In this context, there is a pressing need to understand the mechanisms that control preservation and accumulations of organic carbon in marine sediments. Recently, the role of iron oxides in the preservation of organic matter globally has been outlined (Lalonde et al., 2012). In the present study, the composition of organic carbon associated to reactive iron (OC-Fe) on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf is evaluated. For this purpose, sediment cores and grab samples were collected in the shelves of the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea from 9 to 69 m water depth. Experiments were conducted to extract the OC-Fe from the sediments by applying a citrate-dithionite iron reduction method -accurately control corrected- and analyze the δ13C, % OC and Δ14C of the bulk and iron-associated fractions. The results show that 11.0 ± 5.5% of organic carbon in surface-sediments of the Siberian Arctic Shelf is attached to reactive iron. The Δ14C and δ13C signatures presented sharply contrasting offsets between the sedimentary bulk and the OC-Fe. The OC-Fe is much younger than the OC-bulk in the eastern East Siberian Sea and older in the Laptev Sea. The same offsets were observed using a dual-carbon endmember mixing model showing that the iron fraction is mainly composed by young marine plankton organic carbon in the eastern East Siberian Sea and pre-aged thawing permafrost in the Laptev Sea. Overall, it seems that (i) some of this pre-aged organic carbon still remains bound to iron oxides after permafrost thawing and (ii) the iron oxides are transferring dissolved organic carbon to the sediment. This study presents the first analyses of Δ14C ever done in the OC

  17. Re-Discussion on Motion of Shanghai VLBI Station Relative to Eurasian Plate From VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhigen; Zhu, Wenyao; Xiong, Yongqing; Zhang, Qiang

    Since 1988, the Shanghai VLBI station, located a Sheshan, in the suburbs of Shanghai, about 30 km away from the downtown, has participated in near 200 international geodetic VLBI experiments which since 1991, have also been the part of content of research project named "The Contemporary Crustal Motion and Geodynamics Project" supported by the Chinese Science and Technology Committee for the major scientific goal of improving the knowledge of the contemporary crustal motions of the Chinese continent, and exploring their possible geodynamical mechanism. In recent years, some results about the horizontal motion of this station relatively to Eurasian plate have been obtained which and are listed in the following Table. No. Horizontal velocity(mm/yr) Local azimuth(degree) Authors 1 16.5+/-1.5 98.7+/- 7.7 Ye and Qian, 1992 2 18.6+/-5.9 114.2+/- 8.5 Ye, Qian et al., 1997 3 7.5+/-1.2 95.2+/-12.1 Qian, 1997 4 8.6 109.0 Ye and Qian, 1997 5 11.1 112.2 Heki, 1996 6 7.7 93.1 SSV(GSFC) 97 R 01 7 18.7 87.3 SSV(GIUB) 97 R 01 8 11.0 61.2 SSV(NOAA) 95 R 01 It can be seen from the Table that the horizontal velocities are between 8-19 mm/yr. However the difference between various values of local azimuth can be as large as 53 degree, i.e. from E 24 degree S to E 29 degree N. Based on the results of No.1-6 in the Table, the motion vector, especially its local azimuth referred to GSFC terrestrial reference frame(TRF), seems relatively stable which toward east-southeast(average value: 11.7+/-4.8 mm/yr, N 103.7+/-9.2 degree E). In this paper, based on the coordinate velocities of ITRF96 which represents a new generation of realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System(ITRS), we re-calculated the velocity vector of Shanghai VLBI station by using the recent calculated rates of baseline length between Shanghai and eight international VLBI stations, including Fairbanks(Gilcreek, Alaska), Wettzell(Germany), Kauai(Hawaii), Minamitorishima(Marcus Island, northwestern Pacific Ocean

  18. In situ morphometric survey elucidates the evolutionary systematics of the Eurasian Himantoglossum clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade. Methods Between one and 12 plants found in 25 populations that encompassed the entire distribution of the Himantoglossum s.l. clade were measured in situ for 51 morphological characters. Results for 45 of those characters were subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses. Key Results Multivariate analyses readily separate subgenus Barlia and subgenus Comperia from subgenus Himantoglossum, and also the early-divergent H. formosum from the less divergent remainder of subgenus Himantoglossum. The sequence of divergence of these four lineages is confidently resolved. Our experimental approach to morphometric character analysis demonstrates clearly that phenotypic evolution within Himantoglossum is unusually multi-dimensional. Conclusions Degrees of divergence between taxa shown by morphological analyses approximate those previously shown using molecular analyses. Himantoglossum s.l. is readily divisible into three subgenera. The three sections of subgenus Himantoglossum—hircinum, caprinum and formosum—are arrayed from west to east with only limited geographical overlap. At this taxonomic level, their juxtaposition combines with conflict between contrasting datasets to complicate attempts to distinguish between clinal variation and the discontinuities that by definition separate bona fide species. All taxa achieve allogamy via food deceit and have only weak pollinator specificity

  19. In situ morphometric survey elucidates the evolutionary systematics of the Eurasian Himantoglossum clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár V., Attila; Sramkó, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade. Methods Between one and 12 plants found in 25 populations that encompassed the entire distribution of the Himantoglossum s.l. clade were measured in situ for 51 morphological characters. Results for 45 of those characters were subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses. Key Results Multivariate analyses readily separate subgenus Barlia and subgenus Comperia from subgenus Himantoglossum, and also the early-divergent H. formosum from the less divergent remainder of subgenus Himantoglossum. The sequence of divergence of these four lineages is confidently resolved. Our experimental approach to morphometric character analysis demonstrates clearly that phenotypic evolution within Himantoglossum is unusually multi-dimensional. Conclusions Degrees of divergence between taxa shown by morphological analyses approximate those previously shown using molecular analyses. Himantoglossum s.l. is readily divisible into three subgenera. The three sections of subgenus Himantoglossum—hircinum, caprinum and formosum—are arrayed from west to east with only limited geographical overlap. At this taxonomic level, their juxtaposition combines with conflict between contrasting datasets to complicate attempts to distinguish between clinal variation and the discontinuities that by definition separate bona fide species. All taxa achieve allogamy via food deceit and have only weak pollinator specificity. Artificial

  20. Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2008-07-01

    The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p Eurasian lynx revealed that the measurement of faecal progesterone metabolites led to profiles dissimilar to profiles shown in other felid species, but similar to those from faecal gestagen metabolite analysis in the Iberian lynx. To identify faecal gestagen and oestrogen metabolites a radio-metabolism study was performed. Using the progesterone immunoassay two major progesterone metabolites were detected demonstrating that the assay indeed tracks the relevant metabolites. The oestrogen assay measured authentic 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone, and their conjugates. The analysis of the faecal metabolite composition in samples from early and late pregnancy and lactation particularly revealed a distinct shift in the relation between 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone that changed in favour of oestrone. This

  1. Mapping the indentation between the Iberian and Eurasian plates beneath the Western Pyrenees/Eastern Cantabrian Mountains from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Ruiz, M.; Pulgar, J. A.; Gallart, J.

    2012-10-01

    In the last decades, active seismic profiling in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula has evidenced that the Alpine collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates resulted in a complex crustal structure, with the Iberian crust underthrusting the Eurasian crust and reaching depths of at least 45-50 km beneath the Pyrenean chain and the Cantabrian Mountains. In the transition between these two zones the situation is particularly complex, as evidenced in previous wide-angle and passive seismic studies. This contribution focuses in getting new clues on the crustal structure of this transitional zone through receiver function (RF) analysis of teleseismic data recorded at permanent and temporary stations located in both the Spanish and French sides of the Western Pyrenees. Different techniques (H-κ stacking, pseudo-migration, synthetic 2D modeling) have been considered in the analysis. Passive seismic data from previous temporary deployments in the zone have been reworked and added to the discussion. A first order result is that passive seismic data are broadly consistent with the indentation of the Iberian and Eurasian crusts inferred from active seismic profiling, thus providing a completely independent confirmation of this feature. For the first time, an Iberian Moho underlying the Eurasian crust is documented from RF beneath the stations located at the Northern side of the Pyrenean range. Moreover, clear indications of dipping interfaces are observed at some stations. The new RF results suggest that in the crustal indentation beneath the Basque Massifs area, the Eurasian crust extends farther south with respect to the image inferred from active seismic data. This new geometry implies that the Pamplona transfer zone has played a major role in the regional geodynamic history.

  2. EURASIAN MINERAL WATER: MATHEMATICAL MODELING, CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR IMPACT ON THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HUMAN BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kornilov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of comparative analysis of the composition of the Eurasian hydromineral resources and the assessment of their impact on the physiological condition of a human organism according to biochemical studies of venous blood are presented. Processing of initial data on the composition and properties of mineral waters chloride-hydrocarbonate, sulphate- hydrocarbonate and chloride-sulphate types and venous blood are made using the method of mathematical modeling, developed by the authors of this article. It is shown that in the balneological impact of hydromineral resources on the body in the blood increases the hemoglobin and oxygen, decreases glucose, and acid-base pH shifted to high alkalinity.

  3. New Details of the Eurasian Beaver’s, Castor Fiber (Rodentia, Castoridae, Expansion in the Lowland Part of Transcarpathia, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkasi Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains information on a new beaver colony discovered in the Chornyi mochar tract, which is located in the lowland part of Transcarpathia (= Zakarpattia Region. This rodent species disappeared from the territory of Transcarpathia most likely in the 18th century. Its first reappearance was recorded in 2003. Since, the Eurasian beaver has demonstrated a rapid expansion, primarily along the main rivers. The discovered by us colony allows to suggest that the beaver is continuing its dispersal, entering far into the main river’s tributaries and other shallower water bodies. Consequently, we are witnessing not only the expansion of the species’ geographical range, but also the enlargement of the number of habitat types occupied by the animal. The possibilities and supposed consequences of the species’ further expansion within the tract are shown as well.

  4. Diet of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles in an area of the Italian Prealps

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    Monica Marassi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples of Eurasian badger faeces (n= 147 were collected at monthly intervals from October 1997 to December 1999 in an area of the Italian Prealps (58 km², on the eastern coast of Lario (Como Lake. The altitude of the area ranged from 200 to 1300 m. Badger scats were analysed to estimate the relative volume and the frequency of occurrence of identifiable food items. Fruits, arthropodes, earthworms and mammals constituted the main food categories. Differences were found between the seasonal frequency of occurrences of arthropodes, earthworms and mammals, considering however that the small sample size in summer does not allow any definitive conclusions. The wide range of food items eaten by badgers and the seasonal differences would suggest that the badger is a "generalist" species which adopts an opportunist feeding strategy.

  5. Desire-state attribution: Benefits of a novel paradigm using the food-sharing behavior of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Cheke, Lucy G; Shaw, Rachael C; Legg, Edward W; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have investigated the possibility that Eurasian jay food sharing might rely on desire-state attribution. The female's desire for a particular type of food can be decreased by sating her on it (specific satiety) and the food sharing paradigm can be used to test whether the male's sharing pattern reflects the female's current desire. Our previous findings show that the male shares the food that the female currently wants. Here, we consider 3 simpler mechanisms that might explain the male's behavior: behavior reading, lack of self-other differentiation and behavioral rules. We illustrate how we have already addressed these issues and how our food sharing paradigm can be further adapted to answer outstanding questions. The flexibility with which the food sharing paradigm can be applied to rule out alternative mechanisms makes it a useful tool to study desire-state attribution in jays and other species that share food.

  6. Salinity tolerance of cultured Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis L.: Effects on growth and on survival as a function of temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Bayley, M.; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    Eurasian perch is generally only considered to be a candidate for freshwater aquaculture even though wild populations are found in estuarine and brackish water habitats. Little knowledge exists on two issues a) the effect of temperature on the salinity tolerance of perch and b) the long......-term effects of brackish water on their overall growth performance. The present study addresses these two questions. Firstly, the effect of temperature (12, 15, 20 and 25°C) on perch survival of a salinity challenge at either 13 or 18‰ was determined. Survival was unaffected by 13‰ at the two lowest...... temperatures whereas higher temperature and higher salinities had a dramatic detrimental effect (at 25°C, 50% mortality was reach at 62h and 39h for 13‰ and 18‰, respectively). Secondly, we examined the effect of salinity on growth, which was assessed by measuring standard length and body weight at regular...

  7. Lead levels in Eurasian otters decline with time and reveal interactions between sources, prevailing weather, and stream chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Simpson, Victor R; Nicholls, Abigail E L; Slater, Frederick M

    2011-03-01

    The uptake of contaminants by biota varies spatially and temporally due to a complex range of interacting environmental variables, but such complexities are typically disregarded in studies of temporal change. Here, we use linear modeling to explore spatial and temporal variation in bone Pb levels measured in samples taken from 329 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) found dead in southwest England. Between 1992 and 2004 Pb levels in otters fell by 73%, following UK legislative control of Pb emissions implemented since the mid 1980s. Spatial variation in bone Pb was positively correlated with modeled Pb emissions and stream sediment Pb, which interacted negatively with wind-speed and sediment Ca, respectively. Opportunistic collection of samples from wildlife mortalities provided a valuable opportunity for monitoring environmental contamination, interpretation of which was aided by spatially explicit analysis of environmental variables.

  8. Prey availability and diet of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) on a large reservoir and associated tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales-Luis, T.; Pedroso, N.M.; Santos-Reis, M. [Lisbon Univ., Lisbon (Portugal). Dept. of Animal Biology

    2007-11-15

    The increase in the construction of large dams over the past 50 years has resulted in a significant change to original river systems with impacts on riparian habitats, fish populations and biological communities in rivers. This study focused on the feeding habits and decline of the Eurasian otter resulting from the construction of large dammed reservoirs. Data presented in this paper was from a research project conducted at the Aguieira reservoir in Portugal in the medium section of the Mondego River and its 6 tributaries. One of the consequences of dam construction is the change in prey communities. It was noted that the otter's foraging ability is restricted in reservoirs because of the steep margins and deep waters. In this study, prey consumption was compared with prey abundance along with diet composition in both the reservoir and associated tributaries. Eurasian otter spraints collected at the Aguieira hydroelectric dam and tributaries were analysed to assess diet compared with prey availability. Fyke and trammel nets were used to evaluate fish and crayfish abundances in the reservoir, while electrofishing was used to estimate prey availability in the tributaries. Fish (primarily Lepomis gibbosus) was the main prey in both the reservoir and its tributaries. The abundance of L. gibbosus in the reservoir and its near absence in the tributaries indicates that otters using the tributaries feed predominantly in the reservoir. Seasonal dietary variations corresponded to increased availability of nonfish prey categories. The study showed that otters do not consume L. gibbosus according to its availability. It was determined that the tributaries provide important otter shelter areas that are scarce at the edge of the reservoir. As such, care should be taken to minimize disturbance in the surrounding catchments to ensure the survival of otter populations. 71 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  10. Presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx in three contiguous valleys of the Verbania Province (Piemonte, northern Italy

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    Marco Di Lorenzo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L. 1758 was revealed during an investigation performed from I991 to 1994 in three contiguous valleys (Antigorio valley, Formazza valley and Devero valley of the Verbania province in Piemonte. In this investigation two methods were employed: interviews with the people who saw a lynx and/or found evidence of its presence (prints, faeces, scratchings on trees and meal remains and field research by means of line transects, as reported by Ragni et al. (1993. The research area was of about 250 km². Lynx signs were obtained in 1991, 1992 and 1994 between 600 and 1800 m a.s.1. and during all seasons. The lynx was usually observed at night and at dusk. The research shows that the Eurasian lynx is present, although sporadically, in this area of the western Italian Alps.

  11. Post-Russian Eurasia and the proto-Eurasian usage of the Runet in Kazakhstan: A plea for a cyberlinguistic turn in area studies

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    Dirk Uffelmann

    2011-07-01

    The paper discusses the role the Russian-based Runet plays for Eurasian webcommunities outside the Russian Federation, mostly relying on Kazakh material, and asks whether post-colonial anxieties about Russian cultural imperialism through the Runet are justified or not and what the Kazakh, possibly post-colonial strategies of coping with this situation are. Essential to this essay is the notion of cyberimperialism, which combines aspects of media studies with post-colonial studies. The interdisciplinary approach to Internet studies is completed by a linguistic focus on the performativity of language usage online for creating situational language identities. The essay rounds off by offering an analysis of Nursultan Nazarbaev’s ambiguous inclusive-exclusive logic of argumentation and confronting it with Russian Eurasianism.

  12. Summer monsoon rainfall variability over North East regions of India and its association with Eurasian snow, Atlantic Sea Surface temperature and Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Amita; Oh, Jaiho; Kim, In-won; Kripalani, R. H.; Mitra, A. K.; Pandithurai, G.

    2017-10-01

    This observational study during the 29-year period from 1979 to 2007 evaluates the potential role of Eurasian snow in modulating the North East-Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall with a lead time of almost 6 months. This link is manifested by the changes in high-latitude atmospheric winter snow variability over Eurasia associated with Arctic Oscillation (AO). Excessive wintertime Eurasian snow leads to an anomalous cooling of the overlying atmosphere and is associated with the negative mode of AO, inducing a meridional wave-train descending over the tropical north Atlantic and is associated with cooling of this region. Once the cold anomalies are established over the tropical Atlantic, it persists up to the following summer leading to an anomalous zonal wave-train further inducing a descending branch over NE-India resulting in weak summer monsoon rainfall.

  13. Presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in three contiguous valleys of the Verbania Province (Piemonte, northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Di Lorenzo; Luca Ballarini; Radames Bionda; Graziano Favini

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L. 1758) was revealed during an investigation performed from I991 to 1994 in three contiguous valleys (Antigorio valley, Formazza valley and Devero valley) of the Verbania province in Piemonte. In this investigation two methods were employed: interviews with the people who saw a lynx and/or found evidence of its presence (prints, faeces, scratchings on trees and meal remains) and field re...

  14. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

    2014-09-15

    Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Eurasian biomass burning emissions on the springtime lower-tropospheric ozone in North China and the rest of Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Thouret, V.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Strahan, S. E.; Damon, M.; Steenrod, S. D.; Strode, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Intensive biomass burning activities take place in Eurasia from April through September, severely degrading regional air quality. We examine the impact of Eurasian biomass burning on the springtime (April-May) lower-tropospheric (LT) ozone over Northeast Asia in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model driven by the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields from the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). We evaluate model-simulated ozone against the multi-year (1995-2012) aircraft ozone profiles over Beijing from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program and ozonesonde measurements at Japanese stations obtained from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC). The model-simulated large-scale temporal and vertical variability in ozone is similar to that in the MOZAIC observations, but the model often underestimates the magnitude of the observed ozone enhancements in the LT during April-May. By conducting model sensitivity simulations, we quantify and contrast the impacts of Eurasian biomass burning on the springtime LT ozone over Northeast Asia in the years with and without active biomass burning activities, respectively. Extremely high Eurasian biomass burning emissions in combination with stronger northward transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions resulted in very large ozone enhancements in the LT over Northeast Asia in May 2003. We find that the impact of Eurasian biomass burning emissions on the springtime LT ozone in Beijing can be comparable to, or even higher than that of Chinese anthropogenic emissions. These results have important implications for predicting the air quality of the North China Plain as well as understanding the interannual variability of springtime tropospheric ozone in Northeast Asia.

  16. Structure of the mitochondrial control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): patterns of genetic heterogeneity and implications for conservation of the species in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketmaier, V; Bernardini, C

    2005-01-01

    In this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). We then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Canidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Felidae). The comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. The Eurasian otter and seven other species have a single location with tandem repeats in the right domain, while the spotted hyena (Hyaenidae) and the tiger (Felidae) have repeated sequences in both the right and left domains. To assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity of the Eurasian otter in Italy we sequenced two fragments of the gene and analyzed length polymorphisms of repeated sequences and heteroplasmy in 32 specimens. The study includes 23 museum specimens collected in northern, central, and southern Italy; most of these specimens are from extinct populations, while the southern Italian samples belong to the sole extant Italian population of the Eurasian otter. The study also includes all the captive-reared animals living in the colony "Centro Lontra, Caramanico Terme" (Pescara, central Italy). The colony is maintained for reintroduction of the species. We found a low level of genetic polymorphism; a single haplotype is dominant, but our data indicate the presence in central and southern Italy of two slightly divergent haplotypes. One haplotype belongs to an extinct population, the other is present in the single extant Italian population. Analyses of length polymorphisms and heteroplasmy indicate that the autochthonous Italian samples are characterized by a distinct array of repeated sequences from captive-reared animals.

  17. The Status of Iraq Smooth-Coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli Hayman 1956 and Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra Linnaeus 1758 in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sheikhly, Omar F.; Iyad A. Nader

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1960s field expeditions, there has been little more knowledge acquired about the mammals of Iraq. There were also no previous surveys dedicated to assessing the status and presence of the two otter species described in Iraq: The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and the Iraq smooth –coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli, an endemic subspecies). Historically, both species thrived among suitable habitats of Iraqi wetlands and were named by Iraqis "Chlaeib Al M'ai" meaning "The wa...

  18. Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) in three different scenarios of heavy metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; León-Ortega, Mario; Martínez, José Enrique; García-Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of the present study is the assessment of oxidative stress related to metals in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) from three areas (agricultural and rural area, industrial area, and mining area) of Murcia, Southern Spain. Mean blood metal concentrations were Cd=0.07±0.21, Pb=3.27±5.21, Cu=10.62±4.77, Zn=311.47±67.14, Hg=2.32±3.83 μg/dl wet weight. Although individuals from the mining area had significant higher Pb and Hg concentrations, and significant lower glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in red blood cells (RBC); the lack of differences in oxidative damage to membrane lipids (TBARS) among areas suggests that the antioxidant capacity of the different populations is able to deal with oxidant species and maintain TBARS levels in the same amount. Despite the low levels of metals, several oxidative stress biomarkers were correlated with metal concentrations. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals cause effects on the antioxidant system in Eagle owls. Blood Cd concentrations greater than 0.3 μg/dl produced an inhibition in GPx (32%) and CAT (26%) activity in RBC. However, Cd concentrations higher than 0.02 μg/dl were enough to produce an inhibition of these enzymes. Regarding Pb levels, blood concentrations above 2 μg/dl produced an inhibition of 8% and 10.5% in GPx and CAT activities, respectively, in RBC. A depletion of 16% and 4% in tGSH levels was associated with Pb concentrations higher than 15 and 3 μg/dl, respectively, in individuals from the ancient mine site. In addition, Pb concentrations above 2 and 10 μg/dl produced a TBARS induction of 10% and 28%, respectively, in individuals from both the industrial and the mining area. Finally, Hg concentrations greater than 3 and 10 μg/dl resulted in a TBARS induction of 102% and 190%, respectively, in Eurasian eagle owls from the industrial area. Our findings show that Pb may produce effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in Strigiformes at

  19. Rapid Global River Flood Risk Assessment under Climate and Socioeconomic Scenarios: An Extreme Case of Eurasian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Young-joo; Magome, Jun; Hasegawa, Akira; Iwami, Yoichi

    2017-04-01

    Causing widespread devastation with massive economic damage and loss of human lives, flood disasters hamper economic growth and accelerate poverty particularly in developing countries. Globally, this trend will likely continue due to increase in flood magnitude and lack of preparedness for extreme events. In line with risk reduction efforts since the early 21st century, the monitors and governors of global river floods should pay attention to international scientific and policy communities for support to facilitate evidence-based policy making with a special interest in long-term changes due to climate change and socio-economic effects. Although advanced hydrological inundation models and risk models have been developed to reveal flood risk, hazard, exposure, and vulnerability at a river basin, it is obviously hard to identify the distribution and locations of continent-level flood risk based on national-level data. Therefore, we propose a methodological possibility for rapid global flood risk assessment with the results from its application to the two periods, i.e., Present (from 1980 to 2004) and Future (from 2075 to 2099). The method is particularly designed to effectively simplify complexities of a hazard area by calculating the differential inundation depth using GFID2M (global flood inundation depth 2-dimension model), despite low data availability. In this research, we addressed the question of which parts in the Eurasian region (8E to 180E, 0N to 60N) can be found as high-risk areas in terms of exposed population and economy in case of a 50-year return period flood. Economic losses were estimated according to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) scenario, and the flood scale was defined using the annual maximum daily river discharge under the extreme conditions of climate change simulated with MRI-AGCM3.2S based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5) emissions scenario. As a preliminary result, the total potential economic loss in the

  20. Effects of temperature and grazing on soil organic carbon storage in grasslands along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Ding, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang; Li, Frank Yonghong; Han, Wenjun; Yun, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Soil represents the largest terrestrial organic carbon pool. To address global climate change, it is essential to explore the soil organic carbon storage patterns and their controlling factors. We investigated the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in 48 grassland sites along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect (ESET) region, which covers the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion and Mongolia grasslands subregion. Specifically, we analyzed the SOCD in the top 30 cm soil layer and its relationships with climatic variables, soil texture, grazing intensity and community biomass productivity. The results showed that the average SOCD of the ESET was 4.74 kg/m2, and the SOCD of the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion (4.11 kg/m2) was significantly lower than that of the Mongolia grassland subregion (5.79 kg/m2). Significant negative relationships were found between the SOCD and the mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP) and grazing intensity in the ESET region. The MAT and grazing intensity were identified as the major factors influencing the SOCD in the ESET region; the MAP and MAT were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion; and the MAT and soil pH were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Mongolia grassland subregion.

  1. Effects of temperature and grazing on soil organic carbon storage in grasslands along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Zhao

    Full Text Available Soil represents the largest terrestrial organic carbon pool. To address global climate change, it is essential to explore the soil organic carbon storage patterns and their controlling factors. We investigated the soil organic carbon density (SOCD in 48 grassland sites along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect (ESET region, which covers the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion and Mongolia grasslands subregion. Specifically, we analyzed the SOCD in the top 30 cm soil layer and its relationships with climatic variables, soil texture, grazing intensity and community biomass productivity. The results showed that the average SOCD of the ESET was 4.74 kg/m2, and the SOCD of the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion (4.11 kg/m2 was significantly lower than that of the Mongolia grassland subregion (5.79 kg/m2. Significant negative relationships were found between the SOCD and the mean annual temperature (MAT, mean annual precipitation (MAP and grazing intensity in the ESET region. The MAT and grazing intensity were identified as the major factors influencing the SOCD in the ESET region; the MAP and MAT were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion; and the MAT and soil pH were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Mongolia grassland subregion.

  2. Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

  3. Feather content of porphyrins in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings depends on body condition and breeding site quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Del Mar Delgado, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Lourenço, Rui; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2018-02-13

    Porphyrins are pigments produced in most animal cells during the synthesis of heme, but their importance for external coloration is unclear. Owls (Order Strigiformes) are among the few animals that accumulate porphyrins in the integument, where it could serve as a means of signaling. Here we hypothesized that the porphyrin content of feathers may depend on body condition and breeding site quality in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings and thus constitute amplifiers of the quality of the area where they are born. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we found two porphyrins (protoporphyrin IX and coproporphyrin III) in the body feathers of 19 eagle owl fledglings from seven breeding territories. Coproporphyrin III, but not protoporphyrin IX feather concentration, was positively associated with the body mass of fledglings and with the quality of the breeding sites where they were reared with respect to food quality and availability. As coproporphyrin III is produced under oxidative stress, we suggest that good breeding sites may lead to fledglings in good condition. This in turn may make fledglings induce certain level of free radical and coproporphyrin III production to signal to conspecifics their site-mediated capacity to cope with oxidative stress. This is the first time that porphyrin content in the integument has been found to be related to individual quality, opening a new scenario for studying evolution of animal coloration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Intrageneric diversity of the cytochrome B gene and phylogeny of eurasian species of the genus mustela (mustelidae, carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, N; Abramov, A V; Masuda, R

    2000-07-01

    To illuminate molecular phylogenetic relationships among Eurasian species of the genus Mustela (Mustelidae, Carnivora), we determined nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene region (1,140 base pairs). Molecular phylogenetic trees, constructed using the neighbor-joining and the maximum likelihood methods, showed the common topology of species relationships to each other. The American mink M. vison first branched off and was positioned very remotely from the other species of Mustela. Excluding M. vison, the ermine M. erminea first split from the rest of the species. Two small body-sized weasels, the least weasel M. nivalis and the mountain weasel M. altaica, comprised one cluster (named "the small weasel group"). The other species formed another cluster, where the remarkably close relationships among the domestic ferret M. furo, the European polecat M. putorius, and the steppe polecat M. eversmanni were noticed with 87-94% bootstrap values (named "the ferret group"), supporting the history that the ferret was domesticated from M. putorius and/or M. eversmanni. The European mink M. lutreola was the closest to the ferret group. The genetic distance between the Siberian weasel M. sibirica and the Japanese weasel M. itatsi corresponded to differences of interspecific level, while the two species were relatively close to M. lutreola and the ferret group. These results provide invaluable insight for understanding the evolution of Mustela as well as for investigating the hybridization status between native and introduced species for conservation.

  5. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  6. Effect of incubation on bacterial communities of eggshells in a temperate bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica.

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    Won Young Lee

    Full Text Available Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica. We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce.

  7. Progress in Oral Vaccination against Tuberculosis in Its Main Wildlife Reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Beltrán-Beck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3 and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar.

  8. Similar estimates of population genetic composition and sex ratio derived from carcasses and faeces of Eurasian otter Lutra lutra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, John F; Coxon, Karen E; Sykes, Tim; Chanin, Paul R F; Marshall, Freda; Carss, David N; Bacon, Philip J; Piertney, Stuart B; Racey, Paul A

    2003-01-01

    Collecting faeces is viewed as a potentially efficient way to sample elusive animals. Nonetheless, any biases in estimates of population composition associated with such sampling remain uncharacterized. The goal of this study was to compare estimates of genetic composition and sex ratio derived from Eurasian otter Lutra lutra spraints (faeces) with estimates derived from carcasses. Twenty per cent of 426 wild-collected spraints from SW England yielded composite genotypes for 7-9 microsatellites and the SRY gene. The expected number of incorrect spraint genotypes was negligible, given the proportions of allele dropout and false allele detection estimated using paired blood and spraint samples of three captive otters. Fifty-two different spraint genotypes were detected and compared with genotypes of 70 otter carcasses from the same area. Carcass and spraint genotypes did not differ significantly in mean number of alleles, mean unbiased heterozygosity or sex ratio, although statistical power to detect all but large differences in sex ratio was low. The genetic compositions of carcass and spraint genotypes were very similar according to confidence intervals of theta and two methods for assigning composite genotypes to groups. A distinct group of approximately 11 carcass and spraint genotypes was detected using the latter methods. The results suggest that spraints can yield unbiased estimates of population genetic composition and sex ratio.

  9. Genetic characterization and relatedness of wild and farmed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis: Possible implications for aquaculture practices

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    Sana Ben Khadher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture of the Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, in recirculating systems has emerged over the past decades to become a significant way of diversification for inland areas in Europe. The development of such a production relies partly on the improvement of growth performance (i.e., reducing production costs, which requires suitable genetic management of broodstocks and the development of selective breeding programs. In this context, the present study was undertaken assessing for the first time the genetic diversity of farmed stocks of perch. Twelve microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic diversity of nine farmed stocks (547 individuals from two perch farms located in France and their supposedly wild founder population from Lake Geneva (394 individuals. First, the wild population displayed the lowest genetic diversity and differed genetically from all farmed populations except one, XB2. Second, genetic diversity did not decrease between farmed breeders and their potential offspring. However, in the three groups of broodstock-offspring the number of alleles decreased by 10%, 21%, and 15%, respectively. In addition, effective population size decreased in all offspring groups. A family structuring was also observed among broodstocks and their offspring, with an unequal family contribution being suspected. In the absence of parental information, these results attest to the utility of genetic tools to evaluate genetic diversity and the necessity of a monitoring program to maintain genetic variability among farmed perch. Genetic variability among farmed stocks appears to be sufficient for perch production to be sustainable and selective breeding programs to be developed.

  10. Age-related changes in somatic condition and reproduction in the Eurasian beaver: Resource history influences onset of reproductive senescence.

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    Ruairidh D Campbell

    Full Text Available Using 15 years of data from a stable population of wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, we examine how annual and lifetime access to food resources affect individual age-related changes in reproduction and somatic condition. We found an age-related decline in annual maternal reproductive output, after a peak at age 5-6. Rainfall, an established negative proxy of annual resource availability for beavers, was consistently associated with lower reproductive output for females of all ages. In contrast, breeding territory quality, as a measure of local resource history over reproductive lifetimes, caused differences in individual patterns of reproductive senescence; animals from lower quality territories senesced when younger. Litter size was unrelated to maternal age, although adult body weight increased with age. In terms of resource effects, in poorer years but not in better years, older mothers produced larger offspring than did younger mothers, giving support to the constraint theory. Overall, our findings exemplify state-dependent life-history strategies, supporting an effect of resources on reproductive senescence, where cumulative differences in resource access, and not just reproductive strategy, mediate long-term reproductive trade-offs, consistent with the disposable soma and reproductive restraint theories. We propose that flexible life-history schedules could play a role in the dynamics of populations exhibiting reproductive skew, with earlier breeding opportunities leading to an earlier senescence schedule through resource dependent mechanisms.

  11. A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kijeong; Brenner, Charles H; Mair, Victor H; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Gelegdorj, Eregzen; Batbold, Natsag; Song, Yi-Chung; Yun, Hyeung-Won; Chang, Eun-Jeong; Lkhagvasuren, Gavaachimed; Bazarragchaa, Munkhtsetseg; Park, Ae-Ja; Lim, Inja; Hong, Yun-Pyo; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In; Kim, Dae-Jin; Chung, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Won-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Yong

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The Eurasian ice sheet reinforces the East Asian summer monsoon during the interglacial 500 000 years ago

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    Qiuzhen Yin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea and ice-core records show that interglacial periods were overall less "warm" before about 420 000 years ago than after, with relatively higher ice volume and lower greenhouse gases concentration. This is particularly the case for the interglacial Marine Isotope Stage 13 which occurred about 500 000 years ago. However, by contrast, the loess and other proxy records from China suggest an exceptionally active East Asian summer monsoon during this interglacial. A three-dimension Earth system Model of Intermediate complexity was used to understand this seeming paradox. The astronomical forcing and the remnant ice sheets present in Eurasia and North America were taken into account in a series of sensitivity experiments. Expectedly, the seasonal contrast is larger and the East Asian summer monsoon is reinforced compared to Pre-Industrial time when Northern Hemisphere summer is at perihelion. Surprisingly, the presence of the Eurasian ice sheet was found to reinforce monsoon, too, through a south-eastwards perturbation planetary wave. The trajectory of this wave is influenced by the Tibetan plateau.

  13. Novel reassortment of Eurasian avian-like and pandemic/2009 influenza viruses in swine: infectious potential for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Zhou, Boping; Fan, Xiaohui; Lam, Tommy T Y; Wang, Jia; Chen, Antony; Chen, Xinchun; Chen, Honglin; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard; Peiris, Joseph S M; Smith, David K; Guan, Yi

    2011-10-01

    Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts and "mixing vessels," facilitating the genesis of pandemic influenza viruses, as demonstrated by the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pdm/09) virus. The prevalence and repeated introduction of the pdm/09 virus into pigs raises the possibility of generating novel swine influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. To address this, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted with slaughtered pigs in abattoirs in southern China. Over 50% of the pigs tested were found to be seropositive for one or more H1 influenza viruses, most commonly pdm/09-like viruses. Out of 36 virus isolates detected, one group of novel reassortants had Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 surface genes and pdm/09 internal genes. Animal experiments showed that this virus transmitted effectively from pig to pig and from pig to ferret, and it could also replicate in ex vivo human lung tissue. Immunization against the 2009 pandemic virus gave only partial protection to ferrets. The continuing prevalence of the pdm/09 virus in pigs could lead to the genesis of novel swine reassortant viruses with the potential to infect humans.

  14. Metabolism of prostaglandin F2alpha in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and Asian leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S V; Jewgenow, K

    2017-04-01

    Methods for monitoring endocrine status are useful tools for reproduction management. In particular, successful captive breeding of endangered feline species requires reliable methods for pregnancy diagnosis. In many species, uterine and placental prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α) is involved in the regulation of reproductive processes. PGF2α is metabolized to 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2a (PGFM) during the first passage through the lungs. Immunoreactive PGFM is elevated in pregnant felids during the last trimester and is used for pregnancy diagnosis, although authentic PGFM is excreted in negligible amounts. To investigate the metabolism of PGF2α, a radiometabolism study was performed in two individuals of two feline species, Eurasian lynx and leopard cats, by injection of tritiated PGF2α and collection of faecal and urinary samples. All samples were extracted and subjected to HPLC separation. Radioactivity and immunoreactivity towards PGFM were determined in each HPLC fraction. The radio- and immunogramms differ slightly between the two species, and radiolabelled PGFM was present only in minor amounts. One major eicosanoid metabolite was found in all urine and faecal samples analysed, and also in previous studies in faecal samples of several pregnant feline species. Its polarity was similar, but not identical to PGF2α. We hypothesized that PGF2α is metabolized to more polar dinor and tetranor metabolites. First mass spectrometric analyses favoured a dinor metabolite as major compound of PGF2α metabolism in felids. Following identification and validation in the studied species, we aim to use these metabolites to improve pregnancy detection in other felids and probably other carnivores. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Eurasian jays do not copy the choices of conspecifics, but they do show evidence of stimulus enhancement

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    Rachael Miller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corvids (birds in the crow family are hypothesised to have a general cognitive tool-kit because they show a wide range of transferrable skills across social, physical and temporal tasks, despite differences in socioecology. However, it is unknown whether relatively asocial corvids differ from social corvids in their use of social information in the context of copying the choices of others, because only one such test has been conducted in a relatively asocial corvid. We investigated whether relatively asocial Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius use social information (i.e., information made available by others. Previous studies have indicated that jays attend to social context in their caching and mate provisioning behaviour; however, it is unknown whether jays copy the choices of others. We tested the jays in two different tasks varying in difficulty, where social corvid species have demonstrated social information use in both tasks. Firstly, an object-dropping task was conducted requiring objects to be dropped down a tube to release a food reward from a collapsible platform, which corvids can learn through explicit training. Only one rook and one New Caledonian crow have learned the task using social information from a demonstrator. Secondly, we tested the birds on a simple colour discrimination task, which should be easy to solve, because it has been shown that corvids can make colour discriminations. Using the same colour discrimination task in a previous study, all common ravens and carrion crows copied the demonstrator. After observing a conspecific demonstrator, none of the jays solved the object-dropping task, though all jays were subsequently able to learn to solve the task in a non-social situation through explicit training, and jays chose the demonstrated colour at chance levels. Our results suggest that social and relatively asocial corvids differ in social information use, indicating that relatively asocial species may have

  16. Evolution of an Eurasian avian-like influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pigs.

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    Pablo R Murcia

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV in naïve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1 gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies.

  17. Decrease of Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Browning Waters: Role of Fatty Acids and Foraging Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnweber, Kristin; Strandberg, Ursula; Karlsson, Konrad; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Due to altered biogeochemical processes related to climate change, highly colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources will lead to a water "brownification" in many freshwater systems of the Northern Hemisphere. This will create deteriorated visual conditions that have been found to affect habitat-specific morphological variations in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a previous study. So far, potential drivers and ultimate causes of these findings have not been identified. We conducted a field study to investigate the connection between morphological divergence and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of perch from six lakes across a gradient of DOC concentration. We expected a decrease in the prevalence of PUFAs, which are important for perch growth and divergence with increasing DOC concentrations, due to the restructuring effects of DOC on aquatic food webs. In general, rate of morphological divergence in perch decreased with increasing DOC concentrations. Proportions of specific PUFAs (22:6n-3, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 20:4n-6) identified to primarily contribute to overall differences between perch caught in clear and brown-water lakes tended to be connected to overall decline of morphological divergence. However, no overall significant relationship was found, indicating no severe limitation of essential fatty acids for perch inhabiting brown water lakes. We further broaden our approach by conducting a laboratory experiment on foraging efficiency of perch. Therefore, we induced pelagic and littoral phenotypes by differences in habitat-structure and feeding mode and recorded attack rate in a feeding experiment. Generally, fish were less efficient in foraging on littoral prey (Ephemeroptera) when visual conditions were degraded by brown water color. We concluded that browning water may have a strong effect on the forager's ability to find particular food resources, resulting in the reduced development of evolutionary traits, such as

  18. Partial least regression approach to forecast the East Asian winter monsoon using Eurasian snow cover and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Renhe; Yang, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal prediction of the East Asian (EA) winter monsoon (EAWM) is of great significance yet a challenging issue. In this study, three statistical seasonal prediction models for the EAWM are established using three leading modes of the Eurasian snow cover (ESC), the first leading mode of sea surface temperature (SST) and the four leading modes of the combination of the ESC and SST in preceding autumn, respectively. These leading modes are identified by the partial-least square (PLS) regression. The first PLS (PLS1) mode for the ESC features significantly anomalous snow cover in Siberia and Tibetan Plateau regions. The ESC second PLS (PLS2) mode corresponds to large areas of snow cover anomalies in the central Siberia, whereas the third PLS (PLS3) mode a meridional seesaw pattern of ESC. The SST PLS1 mode basically exhibits an El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing phase in equatorial eastern Pacific and significant SST anomalies in North Atlantic. A strong EAWM tends to emerge in a La Niña year concurrent with cold SST anomalies in the North Atlantic, and vice versa. After a 35-year training period (1967-2001), three PLS seasonal prediction models are constructed and the 11-year hindcast is performed for the period of 2002-2012, respectively. The PLS model based on combination of the autumn ESC and SST exhibits the best hindcast skill among the three models, its correlation coefficient between the observation and the hindcast reaching 0.86. This indicates that this physical-based PLS model may provide another practical tool for the EAWM. In addition, the relative contribution of the ESC and SST is also examined by assessing the hindcast skills of the other two PLS models constructed solely by the ESC or SST. Possible physical mechanisms are also discussed.

  19. A physical-empirical model of the East Asian winter monsoon using Eurasian snow cover and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Renhe

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal prediction of the East Asian (EA) winter monsoon (EAWM) is of great significance yet a challenging issue. In this study, three physical-empirical (PE) seasonal prediction models for the EAWM are established using three leading modes of the Eurasian snow cover (ESC), the first leading mode of sea surface temperature (SST) and the first leading mode of the combination of the ESC and SST in preceding autumn, respectively. These leading modes are identified by the partial-least square (PLS) regression. The first PLS (PLS1) mode for the ESC features significantly anomalous snow cover in Siberia and Tibetan Plateau regions. The ESC second PLS (PLS2) mode corresponds to large areas of snow cover anomalies in the central Siberia, whereas the third PLS (PLS3) mode a meridional seesaw pattern of ESC. The SST PLS1 mode basically exhibits an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing phase in equatorial eastern Pacific and significant SST anomalies in North Atlantic. A strong EAWM tends to emerge in a La Niña year concurrent with cold SST anomalies in the North Atlantic, and vice versa. After a 35-yr training period (1967t2001), three PE seasonal prediction models are constructed and the 13-yr hindcast is performed for the period of 2002t2014, respectively. The PE model based on combination of the autumn ESC and SST exhibits the best hindcast skill among the three models, its correlation coefficient between the observation and the hindcast reaching 0.88. This indicates that this PE model may provide another practical tool for the EAWM. In addition, the relative contribution of the ESC and SST is also examined by assessing the hindcast skills of the other two PE models constructed solely by the ESC or SST. Possible physical mechanisms are also discussed.

  20. [On the need to improve the system for the prevention of falsification of food products in the Eurasian Economic Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautov, O V; Bagryantseva, O V; Bessonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of food is misleading consumers about the composition of foods in order to obtain economic benefits. Olive oil, wine and other alcoholic beverages, spices, tea, fish, honey, milk and dairy products, meat products, cereal products, beverages based on fruit juices, spices, coffee are falsified with the highest frequency. In addition, sufficient data on the frequency of adulterated food products are missing not only in Russia but also in the developed countries. This is because the purpose of the manufacturer and distributors of such products is primarily an economic advantage. Therefore, the majority of incidents of falsification of food products remained undetected since their production, generally had not led to the risk of food safety, and consumers often did not notice the reduction in quality of foodstuffs. The analysis of international data and data of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) has shown that, in order to improve the quality of food products and to reduce sales of adulterated food the following steps should be done: introduce the definition of falsificated food products into legislation of the EAEU; expand the list of methods for confirming the authenticity of the food and detecting the presence of substances which are not permitted for usage in the food industry; consolidate the principle of the responsibility of all participants in the treatment of food that does not comply with the mandatory requirements at the legislative level; introduce the indicators of the quality of foodstuffs in the technical regulations of the EAEU; return to the mandatory requirements for the quality of foods given in the interstate and state standards.

  1. Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey.

  2. Does kinship affect spatial organization in a small and isolated population of a solitary felid: The Eurasian lynx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Krzysztof; Davoli, Francesca; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Randi, Ettore

    2016-09-01

    Social organization in wild carnivores is mostly determined by patterns of family bonds, which may shape the degree of relatedness among individuals in the population. We studied kinship in a small and isolated population of a solitary carnivore, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to evaluate its effect on spatial distribution of individuals. We investigated the relationship between spatial location and pair-wise kinship among 28 lynx individuals identified in 2004-2011 by telemetry, non-invasive sampling and genotyping with the use of 12 autosomal microsatellites in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. The average relatedness of the lynx population was relatively low (Lynch and Ritland's R = 0.03). Females were significantly more related to each other than males with other males. The inferred pedigree showed that the population was dominated by only 2 familial groups. We did not find significant correlations between the relatedness and the extent of home range overlap or the straight-line distances between the home ranges' central points. These results suggest that the dynamics of kinship in this solitary felid may not differ from the random mating processes described in social carnivores. Although the chances of random mating could be limited to a few resident males and females, the presence of unrelated floaters may provide a "breeding buffer" that may prevent an increase of relatedness and likely inbreeding in the population. This system is likely to fail in preserving genetic diversity in small, highly isolated populations; therefore, restoring habitat connectivity is crucial to ensure sufficient immigration from neighboring populations. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey.

  4. Distribution and patterns of spread of recolonising Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus 1758 in fragmented habitat, Agdenes peninsula, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Halley

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agdenes peninsula, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway, 1060km2, is a heavily dissected mountainous landscape with numerous small watersheds, of mainly steep gradient, flowing separately into the sea or to fjords. Suitable habitat for permanent beaver occupation occurs mainly as isolated patches within these watersheds. Eurasian beavers were directly reintroduced to the area in 1926 and 1928. The last known individual of this population died in 1961. In 1968-69 2 pairs and a young animal were reintroduced on the Ingdalselva watershed. The current population is descended from these animals, and probably from the later 1990s by immigrants from the adjacent Orkla river system. In 2010-11 the area was surveyed and 24 beaver family group home ranges located, 20 of which were currently active and 4 abandoned; the population size was estimated at about 80 individuals within family territories plus in any year a number of dispersing individuals. Eighteen of the active territories were located on just four watersheds, Ingdalselva and three immediately adjacent to it. The remaining two territories were isolated on different watersheds distant from any other known group, requiring multiple crossings between watersheds and/or considerable movements through salt water to reach from them. Signs of vagrant individuals were found widely, including on a number of watersheds not occupied by any family group, though containing suitable habitat for permanent colonisation. Known data on the date of establishment of each family group is given, and the pattern of recolonisation to date discussed. An isolated population of beavers on a section of the Orkla river system, first noted in 1933, has been attributed to spread from the first study area reintroductions. However, there are grounds to suspect that this population may have had a different origin. Genetic studies would be useful to elucidate this point.

  5. Dispersal and migration of a specialist waterbird: where do Eurasian Spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia come to Hungary from?

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    Pigniczki Csaba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1950 and 2016, 254 individuals of Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia of foreign origin were observed during their dispersal or migration in Hungary from eight countries. Colour-ringed birds originating from Serbia, Croatia and the Czech Republic were the most commonly observed, while individuals from Italy, the Danube Delta (Romania and the Wadden Sea area (Denmark and The Netherlands were observed rarely in Hungary. Only metal ringed Spoonbills were recovered from Austria. All age-classes were found in Hungary: juveniles were the most common, while 2cy immatures formed the rarest class. Adults from the Wadden Sea area, and also from the Danube Delta were observed in Hungary during the breeding season, implying potential gene flow between those areas and the Carpathian Basin. My results predict that the breeding population of the Carpathian Basin forms a unique subunit of a metapopulation which is in close contact with the Czech population. The nesting of adults of Serbian and Croatian origin was confirmed in Hungary. Two prospecting subadults (4cy were observed in Hungarian colonies, one was from Serbia, and the other was from Italy. One adult (5cy occurred in several Hungarian wetlands in a short period before breeding, which probably explored habitats for breeding or for feeding. Spoonbills of Czech, Serbian, Croatian and Italian origin observed in Hungary used the Central Mediterranean or the Adriatic Flyway. Individuals from the East Atlantic population arrived to Hungary by shifting their migration routes. One bird from the Danube Delta wintered in Tunisia, where it probably joined Hungarian breeders and reached Hungary with them. Adults and juveniles from the Czech Republic used the wetlands around Lake Neusiedler as a stop-over and staging area during autumn migration. My results suggest that Hungarian wetlands play an important role in the movements and breeding of Spoonbills in Central Europe, thus, the management and

  6. Analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of aboveground net primary productivity in the Eurasian steppe region from 1982 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Cuicui; Yu, Guirui; Ge, Jianping; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Chi; He, Nianpeng; Chen, Zhi; Hu, Zhongmin

    2017-07-01

    To explore the importance of the Eurasian steppe region (EASR) in global carbon cycling, we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of the entire EASR from 1982 to 2013. The ANPP in the EASR was estimated from the Integrated ANPPNDVI model, which is an empirical model developed based on field-observed ANPP and long-term normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. The optimal composite period of NDVI data was identified by considering spatial heterogeneities across the study area in the Integrated ANPPNDVI model. EASR's ANPP had apparent zonal patterns along hydrothermal gradients, and the mean annual value was 43.78 g C m(-2) yr(-1), which was lower than the global grasslands average. Compared to other important natural grasslands, EASR's ANPP was lower than the North American, South American, and African grasslands. The total aboveground net primary productivity (TANPP) was found to be 378.97 Tg C yr(-1), which accounted for 8.18%-36.03% of the TANPP for all grasslands. In addition, EASR's TANPP was higher than that of the grasslands in North America, South America, and Africa. The EASR's TANPP increased in a fluctuating manner throughout the entire period of 1982-2013. The increasing trend was greater than that for North American and South American and was lower than that for African grasslands over the same period. The years 1995 and 2007 were two turning points at which trends in EASR's TANPP significantly changed. Our analysis demonstrated that the EASR has been playing a substantial and progressively more important role in global carbon sequestration. In addition, in the development of empirical NDVI-based ANPP models, the early-middle growing season averaged NDVI, the middle-late growing season averaged NDVI and the annual maximum NDVI are recommended for use for semi-humid regions, semi-arid regions, and desert vegetation in semi-arid regions, respectively.

  7. Diazotroph diversity in the sea ice, melt ponds and surface waters of the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean

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    Mar Fernández-Méndez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme. We amplified 529 nifH sequences from 26 samples of Arctic melt ponds, sea ice and surface waters. These sequences resolved into 43 clusters at 92% amino acid sequence identity, most of which were non-cyanobacterial phylotypes from sea ice and water samples. One cyanobacterial phylotype related to Nodularia sp. was retrieved from sea ice, suggesting that this important functional group is rare in the Central Arctic Ocean. The diazotrophic community in sea-ice environments appear distinct from other cold-adapted diazotrophic communities, such as those present in the coastal Canadian Arctic, the Arctic tundra and glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular fingerprinting of nifH and the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon revealed differences between the communities from river-influenced Laptev Sea waters and those from ice-related environments pointing towards a marine origin for sea-ice diazotrophs. Our results provide the first record of diazotrophs in the Central Arctic and suggest that microbial nitrogen fixation may occur north of 77ºN. To assess the significance of nitrogen fixation for the nitrogen budget of the Arctic Ocean and to identify the active nitrogen fixers, further biogeochemical and molecular biological studies are needed.

  8. Mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) from Salmonella Typhimurium dt40 in Japan, winter 2008-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Katsumi; Kubo, Midori; Une, Yumi; Kato, Yukio; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Teraoka, Hiroki; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen

    2014-07-01

    An outbreak of salmonellosis in wild passerines caused mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) in Hokkaido, Japan, 2005-06; however, the etiology was poorly understood. In winter 2008-09, sparrow mortality again occurred in Hokkaido, and 202 deaths in 100 incidents at 94 sites were reported. We conducted a comprehensive investigation to evaluate the cause and impact on sparrow populations. We collected 26 carcasses at 13 sites, including a zoological park. In addition, Salmonella screening of zoo animals was conducted as a biosecurity measure. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from multiple organs in all examined sparrows; they were diagnosed with septicemic salmonellosis. Eleven sites (85%) were related to wild bird feeding and six of eight sparrow fecal samples, including from the zoo, were S. Typhimurium-positive. No infection was detected in zoo animals. Isolates belonged to three phage types: DT40 (88%), DT110 (8%), and DT120 (4%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were the same in all isolates, regardless of phage type. Biochemical characteristics and antibiotic-resistance profiles of DT40 were similar in all isolates, indicating a single origin. The mortality was likely associated with that in 2005-06 because the isolates had the same profiles. Tissue levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium (the main components of chemical deicer suspected to be the major cause of poisoning deaths in 2005-06 mortality) were not higher in the affected sparrows. We conclude that an emerging epidemic infection with S. Typhimurium DT40 related to bird feeding was the cause of sparrow mortality in 2008-09 and suggest that this causative strain is host-adapted to sparrows in Japan. The mortality might have had some impact on the local population, but its influence was limited.

  9. Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

    2013-11-01

    We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37-0.47 and 0.14-0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes.

  10. Spermatozoa motility and variation in the seminal plasma proteome of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) during the reproductive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaliutina, A; Hulak, M; Dzuyba, B; Linhart, O

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated physiological and functional sperm parameters and the seminal plasma proteome of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) over the course of their reproductive season. Spermatozoa velocity (169.56 ± 6.53 to 158.5 ± 7.4 µm sec(-1)), percent motility (95.89 ± 4.28% to 89.55 ± 4.5%), and osmolality of seminal plasma (290 ± 5 to 297 ± 12 mOsmol kg(-1)) remained stable throughout the reproductive season. Milt volume and protein concentration of seminal plasma gradually increased and reached the highest values late in the reproductive period. Spermatozoa concentration peaked in the mid-reproductive season (66.90 ± 13 × 10(9)  spermatozoa ml(-1)) and decreased towards the end (54 ± 10 × 10(9)  spermatozoa ml(-1)). A proteomic analysis of seminal plasma using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed 10 protein spots significantly altered over the course of the reproductive season. Subsequent protein characterization suggested that time in the reproductive season predominantly affected proteins involved in membrane trafficking, organization, cell motility, and oxido-reductase activity. This study provides new data on physiological properties of sperm and protein patterns of seminal plasma over the course of the reproductive season that should be considered in the development of methods for artificial reproduction of perch. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Habitat quality assessment for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra on the river Jajrood, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little information about the status and ecology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in Iran. We assessed the habitat suitability for otters of the River Jajrood, Tehran province, measuring, or visually estimating, 12 environmental parameters along 16 600 m long river stretches (sampling sites. The downstream stretches of the river were found to be more suitable for otters with respect to the upper part of its course. Although the assessments of habitat suitability for the otter may be affected by several limits, the current distribution of the species on the river agrees with the results of this study. The preservation of the otter in Tehran province should involve the restoration of the ecosystem of the River Jajrood in order to improve the length of suitable river stretches.
    Riassunto Stima dell’idoneità ambientale per la lontra (Lutra lutra del fiume Jajrood, Iran. Le informazioni relative alla lontra (Lutra lutra in Iran sono scarse. L’idoneità ambientale per la specie del fiume Jajrood, provincia di Tehran, è stata valutata, misurando o stimando 12 parametri ambientali lungo 16 stazioni di campionamento, coincidenti con tratti di fiume della lunghezza di 600 m. I tratti più a valle sono risultati più idonei rispetto al corso superiore del fiume. Malgrado i numerosi limiti del metodo di stima dell’idoneità ambientale adottato, i risultati sono in accordo con l’attuale distribuzione della lontra lungo il fiume Jajrood. La conservazione della lontra nella provincia di Tehran dovrebbe prevedere miglioramenti ambientali volti a incrementare lo sviluppo lineare degli habitat idonei lungo il fiume Jajrood.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4447

  12. A high diversity of Eurasian lineage low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses circulate among wild birds sampled in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Gerloff

    Full Text Available Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian. The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring.

  13. Genetic diversity of invasive species in the Great Lakes versus their Eurasian source populations: insights for risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Carol A; Brown, Joshua E; Neilson, Matthew E; Tumeo, Mark A

    2005-08-01

    Combining DNA variation data and risk assessment procedures offers important diagnostic and monitoring tools for evaluating the relative success of exotic species invasions. Risk assessment may allow us to understand how the numbers of founding individuals, genetic variants, population sources, and introduction events affect successful establishment and spread. This is particularly important in habitats that are "hotbeds" for invasive species--such as the North American Great Lakes. This study compares genetic variability and its application to risk assessment within and among three Eurasian groups and five species that successfully invaded the Great Lakes during the mid 1980s through early 1990s; including zebra and quagga mussels, round and tubenose gobies, and the ruffe. DNA sequences are compared from exotic and native populations in order to evaluate the role of genetic diversity in invasions. Close relatives are also examined, since they often invade in concert and several are saline tolerant and are likely to spread to North American estuaries. Results show that very high genetic diversity characterizes the invasions of all five species, indicating that they were founded by very large numbers of propagules and underwent no founder effects. Genetic evidence points to multiple invasion sources for both dreissenid and goby species, which appears related to especially rapid spread and widespread colonization success in a variety of habitats. In contrast, results show that the ruffe population in the Great Lakes originated from a single founding population source from the Elbe River drainage. Both the Great Lakes and the Elbe River populations of ruffe have similar genetic diversity levels--showing no founder effect, as in the other invasive species. In conclusion, high genetic variability, large numbers of founders, and multiple founding sources likely significantly contribute to the risk of an exotic species introduction's success and persistence.

  14. A retrospective survey into the presence of Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in archived tissue samples from New Zealand raptors: New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, V; Burrows, E B; Gils, S; Hunter, S; Gartrell, B D; Howe, L

    2017-08-01

    Human colonisation of New Zealand has resulted in the introduction of emerging diseases, such as avian malaria and toxoplasmosis, which arrived with their exotic avian and mammalian hosts. Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii have a wide host range, and several species of endemic New Zealand birds have developed a fatal disease following infection with either pathogen. However, no reports of either toxoplasmosis or avian malaria in New Zealand raptors, namely, the New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae) exist in the literature. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if these two pathogens are present in these raptors through a retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples. Detection and isolate identification of these pathogens was determined using established histological and molecular techniques. All three species of New Zealand raptors tested positive for the presence of Plasmodium spp. (10/117; 8.5%) and an atypical genotype of T. gondii (9/117; 7.7%). Plasmodium lineages identified include P. elongatum GRW6, P. relictum SGS1, P. relictum PADOM02 and Plasmodium sp. LINN1. Two Australasian harriers and one morepork tested positive for the presence of both Plasmodium spp. and T. gondii. However, the pathogenicity of these organisms to the raptors is unclear as none of the tissues showed histological evidence of clinical disease associated with Plasmodium spp. and T. gondii infections. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that these two potential pathogens are present in New Zealand's raptors; however, further research is required to determine the prevalence and pathogenicity of these organisms among the living populations of these birds in the country.

  15. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  16. Agricultural utilisation and potential suitability of the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area (south-western Slovakia landscape in relation to the habitat requirements of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemko Martin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of land use in an agricultural landscape significantly affects biodiversity also in protected areas. This can be observed in the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area in relation to the occurrence of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the landscape structure and suitability of agrotechnical procedures for the habitat demands of this species in the course of the period from 2004 until 2017. The utilisation was assessed on the basis of four landscape elements representation in 1949 and 2017. The next step was analysis of landscape patches. The aim was to quantify the diversity and the spatial structure of the landscape mosaic using Shannon’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index as well as Simpson’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index and spatial pattern analysis in the Fragstats software programme. Assessment of crop suitability was carried out according to the following criteria: representation of positive/negative agricultural crops, diversity of crops in crop rotation, and (non-observance of crop rotation. It was found that the agricultural landscape use did not change significantly. The study area has been used as an intensively-farmed agricultural landscape for a long time. The landscape elements have remained almost identical, with dominance of arable land. Differences emerged in the analysis of the micropatches, which are represented by natural hedgerows consisting of various species of trees, shrubs and grasses. The results show a decrease in the diversity of patches and changes in the structure of the landscape patches, which may be important in terms of the preservation of the habitat of fauna which form an important part of the F vespertinus diet. On the basis of the evaluation of the suitability of agricultural crop growing, we found that there were some areas showing negative values in all the criteria, and thus they require changes in the crop rotation focusing

  17. Trichomonosis in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean and description of ITS-1 region genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmelmayr, R; Stefani, L M; Thrall, M A; Landers, K; Revan, F; Miller, A; Beckstead, R; Gerhold, R

    2012-06-01

    We report the first documented occurrence of an outbreak of trichomonosis in a free-ranging small flock of Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean. In total, 18 birds were examined, including six African collared dove x Eurasian collared dove hybrids and 12 Eurasian collared doves. The affected age class consisted of adults. Sex distribution was equal. With a flock population size of 200 birds, mortality rate for the outbreak was estimated at 15-20%. Living birds were weak, showing evidence of mucus-stained beaks and open-mouth breathing. Caseous ulcerative yellow lesions were restricted to the upper gastrointestinal tract, with the exception of one bird, which had lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract and in the liver. Ninety-four percent (17/18) of the affected birds had multiple extensive lesions. Lesions located on the roof of the oral cavity extended in 33% (6/18) into the orbit and in 11% (2/18) into the braincase. Using wet-mount microscopy, we were able to confirm Trichomonas gallinae in 22% (4/18) of the sampled animals. Fifteen samples submitted for PCR analysis tested positive. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) revealed two distinct genotypes of Trichomonas. One sequence had 100% identity to the prototype T. gallinae isolate, whereas the other sequences had 98-100% identity to recently described Trichomonas-like parabasalid. On the basis of gross and histologic findings, along with the sequence results from the columbids in this report, it is likely that this Trichomonas-like parabasalid is pathogenic.

  18. Hanging out at the airport: Unusual upside-down perching behavior by Eurasian Jackdaws (Corvus monedula) in a human-dominated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Animals occupying human-dominated environments show the capacity for behavioral flexibility. Corvids are among the most intelligent synanthropic bird species. During a layover at Schipol Airport in Amsterdam, Netherlands, I photographically documented Eurasian Jackdaws (Corvus monedula) perching upside down from a building cornice. In contrast to other reports of hanging birds, these jackdaws did not forage or play while upside down and appeared to use the perching spot to observe their surroundings. Although Corvids and Psittacines are known to hang upside down, especially in captive situations, such behaviors are rarely documented in the wild, and never before in association with human-built structures.

  19. Identification of West Eurasian mitochondrial haplogroups by mtDNA SNP screening: results of the 2006-2007 EDNAP collaborative exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, Walther; Fendt, Liane; Ballard, David

    2008-01-01

    no previous experience with the technology and/or mtDNA analysis. The results of this collaborative exercise stimulate the expansion of screening methods in forensic laboratories to increase efficiency and performance of mtDNA typing, and thus demonstrates that mtDNA SNP typing is a powerful tool for forensic......The European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group performed a collaborative exercise on a mitochondrial (mt) DNA screening assay that targeted 16 nucleotide positions in the coding region and allowed for the discrimination of major west Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups. The purpose of the exercise was to evaluate...

  20. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  1. Sacred territories as a keepers of traditional values of Eurasian nations (on the examples of Ukok plato in Altai and Erdeneburen valley in Western Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Ivanov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the term "sacred territory” is explicated. Also there made an analysis  concerning functions and specifical features of sacred territories  in the culture of Eurasian nations. It is  shown that this functions are quit the same on the examples of Ukok plato in Altai Pepublic (Russia and Erdeneburen valley in Chovd aimac (Mongolia. There made a conclusion that it is very important to preserve such territories in the situation of cultural and spiritual crisis of modern civilization.

  2. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róisín Campbell-Palmer

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12 and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11, for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24-100%, and 86.7-100% respectively. For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9

  3. Habitat selection by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is primarily driven by avoidance of human activity during day and prey availability during night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filla, Marc; Premier, Joseph; Magg, Nora; Dupke, Claudia; Khorozyan, Igor; Waltert, Matthias; Bufka, Luděk; Heurich, Marco

    2017-08-01

    The greatest threat to the protected Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Central Europe is human-induced mortality. As the availability of lynx prey often peaks in human-modified areas, lynx have to balance successful prey hunting with the risk of encounters with humans. We hypothesized that lynx minimize this risk by adjusting habitat choices to the phases of the day and over seasons. We predicted that (1) due to avoidance of human-dominated areas during daytime, lynx range use is higher at nighttime, that (2) prey availability drives lynx habitat selection at night, whereas high cover, terrain inaccessibility, and distance to human infrastructure drive habitat selection during the day, and that (3) habitat selection also differs between seasons, with altitude being a dominant factor in winter. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed telemetry data (GPS, VHF) of 10 lynx in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem (Germany, Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2013 using generalized additive mixed models and considering various predictor variables. Night ranges exceeded day ranges by more than 10%. At night, lynx selected open habitats, such as meadows, which are associated with high ungulate abundance. By contrast, during the day, lynx selected habitats offering dense understorey cover and rugged terrain away from human infrastructure. In summer, land-cover type greatly shaped lynx habitats, whereas in winter, lynx selected lower altitudes. We concluded that open habitats need to be considered for more realistic habitat models and contribute to future management and conservation (habitat suitability, carrying capacity) of Eurasian lynx in Central Europe.

  4. The influence of climate and hydrological variables on opposite anomaly in active-layer thickness between Eurasian and North American watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Park

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study not only examined the spatiotemporal variations of active-layer thickness (ALT in permafrost regions during 1948–2006 over the terrestrial Arctic regions experiencing climate changes, but also identified the associated drivers based on observational data and a simulation conducted by a land surface model (CHANGE. The focus on the ALT extends previous studies that have emphasized ground temperatures in permafrost regions. The Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Yukon, and Mackenzie watersheds are foci of the study. Time series of ALT in Eurasian watersheds showed generally increasing trends, while the increase in ALT in North American watersheds was not significant. However, ALT in the North American watersheds has been negatively anomalous since 1990 when the Arctic air temperature entered into a warming phase. The warming temperatures were not simply expressed to increases in ALT. Since 1990 when the warming increased, the forcing of the ALT by the higher annual thawing index (ATI in the Mackenzie and Yukon basins has been offset by the combined effects of less insulation caused by thinner snow depth and drier soil during summer. In contrast, the increasing ATI together with thicker snow depth and higher summer soil moisture in the Lena contributed to the increase in ALT. The results imply that the soil thermal and moisture regimes formed in the pre-thaw season(s provide memory that manifests itself during the summer. The different ALT anomalies between Eurasian and North American watersheds highlight increased importance of the variability of hydrological variables.

  5. Non-invasive genetic sampling of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra using hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Anderson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The material for the genetic characterisation of wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra has previously been derived from carcasses and spraints. Hair samples however have proved to be a much more reliable source of DNA than spraints, and offer the opportunity of sampling the living population non-invasively. Until now there has been no research into methods of sampling hairs from wild otters or on the DNA extraction efficiency from these hairs. A hair trap was therefore developed and tested on otters in captivity. The success rate of the trap was 0.71 samples collected per trap night. The suitability of genetic analysis from otter hairs was examined using paired samples of hair and tissue taken from 15 individual otters recovered from road mortalities. DNA was extracted from the tissue samples using a Proteinase K digestion in a PCR compatible buffer. This process had a 100% success rate. Individual root hair segments were treated by Chelex Ionic bead resin treatment and Proteinase K digestion in a PCR compatible buffer. The Chelex method gave a 55% amplification success rate while the Proteinase K method gave a much higher amplification success rate of 87%. The DNA extracts were typed for 9 microsatellites using the latest versions of the primers. Proportions of allelic dropout and false allele detection associated with hair DNA extracts were estimated by comparing the genotypes of hair extracts with the genotypes from tissue. Preliminary attempts to develop a ZFX/Y assay to sex otters identified polymorphisms between ZFX and ZFY sequences, but typing based on restriction digests requires further optimisation. The use of recovered DNA from hair offers a step forward in the study of Eurasian otter populations as its continuing endangered status in many countries creates legal and ethical constraints on capturing animals for marking or radio tracking.
    Riassunto
    Campionamento genetico non-invasivo della Lontra (

  6. Millennial oscillations in greenland dust and Eurasian Aeolian records - a paleosol-loess perspective (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Denis-Didier

    2017-04-01

    Greenland ice cores, and a critical study of their source variations, reconciles these records with those observed on the Eurasian continent. This allows demonstrating the link between European and Chinese loess sequences, dust records in Greenland, and variations of the North Atlantic sea ice extent. The sources of the emitted and transported dust material are variable and relate to different environments corresponding to present desert areas in Asia, but also hidden regions related to lower sea level stands, dry rivers, or zones close to the frontal moraines of the main Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in Europe. As a conclusion of this presentation, I address the short term past climatic changes as preserved in the continental eolian records, in line with the Hans Oeschger medal description. Furthermore one can anticipate such study to be at the origin of more sophisticated and elaborated investigations of millennial and sub-millennial continental climate variability on the Northern Hemisphere. The overview presented during this presentation would not have been possible without the help and close collaboration of many colleagues among whom are Niklas BOERS, Adriana SIMA, Anders SVENSSON, Matthias BIGLER, France LAGROIX, Samuel TAYLOR, Pierre ANTOINE, Christine HATTE, Michael GHIL, George KUKLA, Sigfus JOHNSEN, Markus FUCHS, Andreas LANG, Gilles BERGAMETTI, Beatrice MARTICORENA and Ludwig ZOELLER.

  7. Coprological study on helminth fauna in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from the Białowieza Primeval Forest in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesna, J; Popiołek, M; Schmidt, K; Kowalczyk, R

    2008-08-01

    One hundred fecal samples were collected during research on Eurasian lynx ecology and food habits in the Polish part of the Białowieza Primeval Forest (BPF) from 2001 to 2006. Seventy-three percent of samples contained eggs or larvae of helminths. A total of 10 species of helminths was identified, including 3 Cestoda (Diphyllobothrium latum, Spirometra janickii, and unidentified species of Taeniidae), 1 Trematoda (Alaria alata), and 6 Nematoda (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Eucoleus aerophilus, Metastrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., and Toxocara cati). Alaria alata has not been reported previously in lynx. A statistical comparison of the 2 techniques used to isolate eggs, i.e., flotation and sedimentation, indicates that sedimentation was more effective.

  8. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  9. New Canadian records of Nemastoma bimaculatum (Fabricius), and a brief summary of introduced Eurasian harvestmen in North America (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, William A

    2016-03-07

    Eurasian harvestmen have been introduced to, and have established themselves in North America. Species known to have been introduced include Trogulus tricarinatus (L.) 1767, Paroligolophus agrestis (Meade) 1855, Rilaena triangularis (Herbst) 1799, Oligolophus tridens (C. L. Koch) 1836, and Nemastoma bimaculatum (Fabricius) 1775, for the last of which new Canadian records (Ontario) are given below. It is not entirely determined if the species Phalangium opilio (L.) 1758, Opilio parietinus (DeGeer) 1778 and Mitopus morio (Fabricius) 1779 are introduced to North America, or are naturally of Holarctic distribution. The former seems the more likely hypothesis for the first two, but M. morio in North America may be native or may not be that species. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of all these species may be found in Martens (1978).

  10. Genetic structure and evidence for recent population decline in Eurasian otter populations in the Czech and Slovak Republics: implications for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hájková, P.; Pertoldi, C.; Ukendt, Zemanová

    2007-01-01

    Over the latter part of the 20th century, Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations suffered dramatic declines, resulting in extinction or fragmentation of populations in many western and central European countries. Part of the Czech otter population became totally isolated while the Slovak population...... allele model), indicating recent population bottlenecks. A very recent population decline was also suggested by coalescent analysis, inferring a drop to c. 25% of past effective population size in both populations. The timing of the decline was in accordance with published data from otter surveys......, suggesting that the strongest decline probably occurred between the 1970s and the mid-1990s. The results of this study confirm that otter populations remain vulnerable to any violent demographic change and, despite the claims of fish-farmers and anglers for legal culls, it is highly desirable...

  11. Change in diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo suggests decline in biodiversity in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem Governorate, Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Zuhair S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo was studied in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem, Palestinian Territories in 2015 with fresh and several year old pellets. Three species of arthropods, one reptile species, at least four bird species, and six species of mammals were recovered from the studied pellets. Black rat (Rattus rattus was the most common prey (37.0%, followed by the southern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor (29.4% and birds (21.8%. Comparison of recent and older pellets showed change in diet composition. Recent pellets contained more Rattus rattus compared to older ones. Older pellets included more naturally-occurring species such as Meriones tristrami, Microtus guentheri, and Rousettus aegyptiacus, which were absent in newer pellets.

  12. New active faults on Eurasian-Arabian collision zone: Tectonic activity of Özyurt and Gülsünler faults (Eastern Anatolian Plateau, Van-Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicle, S.; Üner, S.

    2017-11-01

    The Eastern Anatolian Plateau emerges from the continental collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates where intense seismicity related to the ongoing convergence characterizes the southern part of the plateau. Active deformation in this zone is shared by mainly thrust and strike-slip faults. The Özyurt thrust fault and the Gülsünler sinistral strike-slip fault are newly determined fault zones, located to the north of Van city centre. Different types of faults such as thrust, normal and strike-slip faults are observed on the quarry wall excavated in Quaternary lacustrine deposits at the intersection zone of these two faults. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data has revealed coeval activities of transtensional and compressional structures for the Lake Van Basin. Seismological and geomorphological characteristics of these faults demonstrate the capability of devastating earthquakes for the area.

  13. Blood lead levels and δ-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Martínez-López, E; María-Mojica, P; León-Ortega, M; García-Fernández, A J

    2011-01-01

    In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations. However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site ("Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union") or in their surroundings (Geometric mean (GM) = 5.83 μg/dl, range 0.49-25.61 μg/dl), an area highly polluted by lead and other metals, were significantly higher (p ALAD activity is considered the best biomarker for lead exposure and effect in birds, the activity of this enzyme was also evaluated and correlated with lead levels in blood. In this study, low levels of blood lead inhibited δ-ALAD, even when lead concentrations were lower than the limits described by other authors in raptors. Adverse effects caused by this inhibition may occur when blood lead levels were above 15 μg/dl, although only eight chicks presented these concentrations in their blood. Sampling site also influenced enzymatic activity, since it decreased about 60% in the polluted area in relation to the rest. For all these reasons, further research regarding risk assessment for lead exposure in Eagle Owls nesting in the polluted area is advisable. Our results suggest that the Eurasian Eagle Owl can be considered a suitable sentinel animal for monitoring lead contamination and δ-ALAD activity can be used as a sensitive biomarker for lead exposure and effect in this species.

  14. Progesterone, estrogen, and androgen receptors in the corpus luteum of the domestic cat, Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelkina, Olga; Zschockelt, Lina; Painer, Johanna; Serra, Rodrigo; Villaespesa, Francisco; Krause, Eberhard; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the species studied, the corpus luteum (CL) of Iberian and Eurasian lynx physiologically persists in the ovary for more than 2 years and continues to secrete progesterone. Such persistent CL (perCL) transition into the next cycle and are present in the ovary together with the freshly formed CL (frCL) of a new ovulation. To date, the mechanisms supporting such CL persistence are not known. We analyzed the potential receptivity of feline CL to sex steroids through mRNA measurements of progesterone receptor (PGR), progesterone receptor membrane components (PGRMC) 1 and 2, estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 and ESR2, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), and androgen receptor (AR). All receptors were present in domestic cat CL during pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase, in frCL and perCL of post-mating Iberian lynx and in perCL of pre-mating Eurasian lynx. Mass spectrometry detected the presence of PGRMC1 protein in frCL and perCL of the Iberian lynx. In both domestic cat and lynx CL, PGR, PGRMC1, and ESR1 proteins were localized in luteal cells by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of PGR, PGRMC1, PGRMC2, ESR1, and AR changed significantly throughout the domestic cat luteal phase. This may indicate involvement of these receptors in the processes of formation, maintenance, and regression of feline CL. In Iberian lynx, expression of PGRMC1, PGRCM2, ESR1, GPER1, and AR was significantly higher in perCL compared with frCL, whereas ESR2 was reversed. High mRNA amounts of these receptors in perCL suggest that physiological persistence of lynx CL may be partly regulated by actions of sex steroids through their nuclear and/or membrane receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkiewicz, Mirosław; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Schmidt, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite

  16. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Ratkiewicz

    Full Text Available Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF, which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway or high habitat fragmentation (BPF. The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and

  17. Observations of water masses and circulation with focus on the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rudels

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from icebreakers and particularly from the cruise with R/V Polarstern 2007 during the International Polar Year (IPY. Focus is on the Barents Sea inflow branch and its mixing with the Fram Strait inflow branch. It is proposed that the Barents Sea branch contributes not just intermediate water but also most of the water to the Atlantic layer in the Amundsen Basin and also in the Makarov and Canada basins. Only occasionally would high temperature pulses originating from the Fram Strait branch penetrate along the Laptev Sea slope across the Gakkel Ridge into the Amundsen Basin. Interactions between the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches lead to formation of intrusive layers, in the Atlantic layer and in the intermediate waters. The intrusion characteristics found downstream, north of the Laptev Sea are similar to those observed in the northern Nansen Basin and over the Gakkel Ridge, suggesting a flow from the Laptev Sea towards Fram Strait. The formation mechanisms for the intrusions at the continental slope, or in the interior of the basins if they are reformed there, have not been identified. The temperature of the deep water of the Eurasian Basin has increased in the last 10 yr rather more than expected from geothermal heating. That geothermal heating does influence the deep water column was obvious from 2007 Polarstern observations made close to a hydrothermal vent in the Gakkel Ridge, where the temperature minimum usually found above the 600–800 m thick homogenous bottom layer was absent. However, heat entrained from the Atlantic water into descending, saline boundary

  18. Plant-substrate interactions and below substrate biomass dynamics: a continuation of studies concerning potential restriction of the introduced aquatic weed 'Myriophyllum spicatum' l. (Eurasian water milfoil) II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, A.L.; Amundsen, C.C.

    1982-04-01

    From the study's data analysis, it was concluded that the prediction of nuisance growth of Eurasian watermilfoil depends not only on sediment phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and ammonia-nitrogen, but potassium levels as well. Higher water temperatures, together with non-exposure to wave action and water stream flow, likely accounts for the development of the larger standing crop of Eurasian water milfoil within the study of the Melton Hill Reservoir. Myriophyllum spicatum was collected monthly from five study sites. Whole plant samples were collected from similar bottom contour plots via SCUBA. Sediment samples were collected using a Ponar Grab, and water column measurements were taken with a YSI temperature and conductivity meter. Sediment samples were air dried and sieved. Organic matter, available phosphorus, potassium and sediment pH, and sediment nitrate were determined. Sediment texture was determined gravimetrically.

  19. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl in 2010 in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jeong Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  20. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata

  1. [Marcel Sembat's Psychology: the Hobby of a Politician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline

    The socialist politician Marcel Sembat’s unpublished manuscripts reveal the unexpected figure of a diarist with a passion for his own intimate, bodily, sexual and affective economy, and of an autodidact and sometimes polemical reader of psychology (for instance Pierre Janet’s). Sembat was recognized nonetheless as a potentially publishable author by Georges Dumas, the editor of the Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique, who asked him to contribute an article – which was never published – on dreaming. Sembat was also particularly receptive to Freud’s early conceptions of sexuality. Was Marcel Sembat an amateur, like the painter Ingres playing the violin? Could he be characterized as a “psychologist from below”? As a dilettante? Or simply as a cultivated man according to the meaning this period ascribed to the term?

  2. The Hobby Horse of the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Can a small, new political party increase the attention to nonhuman animal welfare? This paper traces the effect of the Party for the Animals on the Dutch parliament. This was the first animal advocacy party to enter parliament.

  3. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony) may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endiv...

  4. The pursuit of science – my hobby and profession

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    It is said that you cannot choose your parents. I was extremely fortunate to have been born the daughter of Manik and Pandit. (Waman – known as Pandit because of his sharp mind) Achwal, who did not believe in conditioning their daughters. I rarely ever heard statements like 'You are a girl and you should do so and so.

  5. Why you should ask your patients about their fishing hobbies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, C. V.; Kardaun, S. H.; Wilting, K. R.; Diercks, G. F. H.; Horvath, B.

    Patients who use immunosuppressive agents, in particular medication that blocks tumour necrosis factor-alpha, are at risk for mycobacterial infections. Besides the typical Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, also a typical mycobacterial disease may occur. Here we demonstrate two patients with such

  6. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.

  7. The population biology and life history traits of Eurasian ruffe [Gymnocephalus cernuus (L., Pisces: Percidae] introduced into eutrophic and oligotrophic lakes in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Volta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the population biology and life-history traits of two Eurasian ruffe [Gymnocephalus cernuus (L., Pisces: Percidae] populations which have recently colonised two small lakes in the lake Maggiore catchment of Northern Italy, the eutrophic lake (l. Ghirla (ruffe first recorded in the early 1990s and the oligotrophic lake (l. Mergozzo (ruffe first recorded during the present sampling in 2010. Survey gill net catches revealed that ruffe has become one of the most abundant fish species in both lakes. Relative weight and weight-length relationships indicated better growth of ruffe in l. Mergozzo. Thus, gonad weight, adjusted for body size, was higher in l. Mergozzo, indicating a stronger individual reproductive potential in the more recently colonised lake. The stomach contents of ruffe were dominated by chironomid larvae and other benthic organisms, while pelagic microcrustaceans only occurred in small amounts. The ratio of benthic vs pelagic prey in the diet increased with ruffe size. Ruffe intraspecific food niche overlap (based on prey numbers between age classes was slightly higher in oligotrophic l. Mergozzo than in eutrophic l. Ghirla and decreased with age in both lakes

  8. Transmission and pathogenicity of novel reassortants derived from Eurasian avian-like and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weili; Liu, Qinfang; Sun, Yipeng; Wang, Yu; Gao, Huijie; Liu, Lirong; Qin, Zhihua; He, Qiming; Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Wang, Dayan; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun; Chang, Kin-Chow; Shu, Yuelong; Liu, Jinhua

    2016-06-02

    Given the present extensive co-circulation in pigs of Eurasian avian-like (EA) swine H1N1 and 2009 pandemic (pdm/09) H1N1 viruses, reassortment between them is highly plausible but largely uncharacterized. Here, experimentally co-infected pigs with a representative EA virus and a pdm/09 virus yielded 55 novel reassortant viruses that could be categorized into 17 genotypes from Gt1 to Gt17 based on segment segregation. Majority of novel reassortants were isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Most of reassortant viruses were more pathogenic and contagious than the parental EA viruses in mice and guinea pigs. The most transmissible reassortant genotypes demonstrated in guinea pigs (Gt2, Gt3, Gt7, Gt10 and Gt13) were also the most lethal in mice. Notably, nearly all these highly virulent reassortants (all except Gt13) were characterized with possession of EA H1 and full complement of pdm/09 ribonucleoprotein genes. Compositionally, we demonstrated that EA H1-222G contributed to virulence by its ability to bind avian-type sialic acid receptors, and that pdm/09 RNP conferred the most robust polymerase activity to reassortants. The present study revealed high reassortment compatibility between EA and pdm/09 viruses in pigs, which could give rise to progeny reassortant viruses with enhanced virulence and transmissibility in mice and guinea pig models.

  9. An investigation of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) scavenging, scattering, and removal of deer remains: forensic implications and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alexandria; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas; Stillman, Richard; Smith, Martin J; Korstjens, Amanda H

    2015-01-01

    Within northwest Europe, especially the United Kingdom, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Eurasian Badger (Meles meles) are the largest wild scavengers capable of modifying a set of remains through scavenging. Knowledge of region-specific and species-typical scavenging behaviors of scavengers within the crime scene area and surroundings can aid in more efficient and accurate interpretations. The scavenging behaviors of captive and wild foxes and badgers were recorded and compared through actualistic methods and direct observation. The scavenging by wild foxes and badgers of surface-deposited baits and whole deer (Cervus nippon; Capreolus capreolus) in a woodland was observed and analyzed. Wild foxes were found to scavenge deer more frequently than badgers. The scavenging of deer remains by foxes was also compared with forensic cases. The scavenging pattern and recovery distances of deer and human remains scavenged by foxes were similar but were potentially affected by the condition and deposition of a body, and the presence of clothing. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E Virus as Biological Indicators of Contacts Between Domestic Pigs and Eurasian Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, S; Geue, L; Hinsching, A; Jenckel, M; Schlosser, J; Eiden, M; Pietschmann, J; Menge, C; Beer, M; Groschup, M; Jori, F; Etter, E; Blome, S

    2017-04-01

    Domestic pigs and Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) share several important viral and bacterial pathogens. Therefore, direct and indirect contacts between domestic pigs and wild boar present a risk of pathogen spillover and can lead to long-term perpetuation of infection. Biological indicators could be a powerful tool to understand and characterize contacts between wild boar and domestic pigs. Here, faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) were explored as potential biological indicators under experimental conditions. The data gained in our pilot study suggest that faecal E. coli can be used as biological indicator of contact between wild boar and domestic pig. For HEV, faecal transmission was also confirmed. However, molecular studies on full-genome basis did not reveal markers that would allow tracing of transmission direction. Based on these promising results, future field studies will especially target the practicability of E. coli microbiome molecular typing as surrogate of contacts at the wildlife-livestock interface. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Reproductive maturation in the male Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx): a study on 55 reproductive organs collected from carcasses during 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Uhlhorn, H; Agren, E; Mörner, T

    2009-06-01

    Data on reproductive physiology from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are still scarce. The lynx is protected under Swedish hunting legislation. All lynx that are found dead or that are culled at hunting are to be sent to the Swedish National Veterinary Institute. In this study, we examined reproductive organs from 55 male lynx collected during the years 2002-2005. Age, body weight, testicular weight and volume, production of spermatozoa, and sperm viability were evaluated. The majority of the animals (39) had been killed in February and March, which is during the hunting season. The ages varied between 6 months and 17 years, body weight between 3.6 and 25.5 kg, and mean testes weight between 0.16 and 3.16 g. The gonadosomatic index was low compared with other species (approximately 0.02% in mature males). Mean testes weight differed significantly between males <12 months of age and all other age groups but did not differ between males of 18-23 months and older males. Spermatozoa could be collected but had lost most of their viability. Seven of 10 males of 18-23 months were fertile, as defined by the production of spermatozoa while no males < or =15 months of age were fertile. Adherence of the prepuce to the penis and absence of penile spines were associated with immaturity. The results indicate that most males are fertile during the reproductive season of their second year.

  12. Optimizing the size of the area surveyed for monitoring a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) population in the Swiss Alps by means of photographic capture-recapture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fridolin; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Molinari-Jobin, Anja; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2013-09-01

    We studied the influence of surveyed area size on density estimates by means of camera-trapping in a low-density felid population (1-2 individuals/100 km(2) ). We applied non-spatial capture-recapture (CR) and spatial CR (SCR) models for Eurasian lynx during winter 2005/2006 in the northwestern Swiss Alps by sampling an area divided into 5 nested plots ranging from 65 to 760 km(2) . CR model density estimates (95% CI) for models M0 and Mh decreased from 2.61 (1.55-3.68) and 3.6 (1.62-5.57) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the smallest to 1.20 (1.04-1.35) and 1.26 (0.89-1.63) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the largest area surveyed. SCR model density estimates also decreased with increasing sampling area but not significantly. High individual range overlaps in relatively small areas (the edge effect) is the most plausible reason for this positive bias in the CR models. Our results confirm that SCR models are much more robust to changes in trap array size than CR models, thus avoiding overestimation of density in smaller areas. However, when a study is concerned with monitoring population changes, large spatial efforts (area surveyed ≥760 km(2) ) are required to obtain reliable and precise density estimates with these population densities and recapture rates. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  13. Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland - do people want to keep the doors open?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, Anna; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

    2013-11-15

    This study investigates individuals' preferences toward protection programs aimed at increasing the chances of survival of the two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland. Those two groups, the Lowland and the Carpathian population, are exposed to different risks of extinction as they have different numbers, different-sized areas of occupation and different migration possibilities. Using a discrete choice experiment we examine the influence of the initial degree of endangerment on the allocation of respondents' funds. The results show that people prefer to invest in the conservation of the lynx population, which has initially lower chances of survival. The main driver of respondents' choices seems to be loss aversion rather than the urge to invest in an option with an expected higher outcome. This observation can be interpreted as people trying to keep all the options - doors - open by devoting more funds to the more vulnerable population than to the more stable one. Employing a scale-extended latent class model allowed us to detect segments among individuals showing different types of response behavior, including a form of serial non-participation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, heavy metals and anticoagulant rodenticides in tissues of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from upper Loire River catchment (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Charles; Rosoux, René; Berny, Philippe

    2010-08-01

    In this study, tissues of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from a naturally expanding population along upper Loire River (France) catchment were used for contaminants analyses. nine organochlorine pesticides, 16 PCB congeners, five heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and arsenic) and three anticoagulant rodenticides were quantified in livers of road-traffic killed otters. Organochlorine compounds and heavy metals were found in 100% of the samples, and occasional contamination by anticoagulant rodenticides was confirmed. Total organochlorine pesticides reached a maximum of 9.4 mg kg(-1) lipid weight. Higher data were observed for other contaminants, especially total PCBs and mercury. Maximal total PCBs values reached 64.8 mg kg(-1) lipid weight, and maximal measured mercury concentration was 8.2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight. Considering the expansion noted in the study area, global contamination does not seem to threat the short-term species conservation. Nevertheless, important values at some individual scale were noticed, suggesting high inter-individual variations in populations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  16. Microsatellites reveal origin and genetic diversity of Eurasian invasions by one of the world's most notorious marine invader, Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Thorsten B H; Bolte, Sören; Sparwel, Maximiliane; Moss, Anthony G; Javidpour, Jamileh

    2010-07-01

    Marine invasions are taking place at an increasing rate. When occurring in blooms, zooplanktivorous comb jellies of the genus Mnemiopsis are able to cause pelagic regime shifts in coastal areas and may cause the collapse of commercially important fish populations. Using microsatellites, developed for the first time in the phylum Ctenophora, we show that Mnemiopsis leidyi has colonized Eurasia from two source regions. Our preliminary data set included four sites within the putative source region (US East Coast and Gulf of Mexico) and 10 invaded locations in Eurasian waters. Bayesian clustering and phylogeographic approaches revealed the origin of earlier invasions of the Black and Caspian Sea in the 1980s/1990s within or close to the Gulf of Mexico, while the 2006 invasion of the North and Baltic Seas can be directly traced to New England (pairwise F(ST) = 0). We found no evidence for mixing among both gene pools in the invaded areas. While the genetic diversity (allelic richness) remained similar in the Baltic Sea compared to the source region New England, it was reduced in the North Sea, supporting the view of an initial invasion of Northern Europe to a Baltic Sea port. In Black and Caspian Sea samples, we found a gradual decline in allelic richness compared to the Gulf of Mexico region, supporting a stepping-stone model of colonization with two sequential genetic founder events. Our data also suggest that current practices of ballast water treatment are insufficient to prevent repeated invasions of gelatinous zooplankton.

  17. Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and topography on forage growth are instructive, and consequently warrant examination when developing conservation management strategies for populations of medium to large herbivores. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. 115 year ice-core data from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya: high-resolution record of Eurasian Arctic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Thomas; Fritzsche, Diedrich; Meyer, Hanno; Schütt, Rainer; Weiler, Karin; Ruth, Urs; Wilhelms, Frank; Fischer, Hubertus

    From 1999 to 2001 a 724 m deep ice core was drilled on Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, to gain high-resolution proxy data from the central Russian Arctic. Despite strong summertime meltwater percolation, this ice core provides valuable information on the regional climate and environmental history. We present data of stable water isotopes, melt-layer content and major ions from the uppermost 57 m of this core, covering the period 1883-1998. Dating was achieved by counting seasonal isotopic cycles and using reference horizons. Multi-annual δ18O values reflect Eurasian sub-Arctic and Arctic surface air-temperature variations. We found strong correlations to instrumental temperature data from some stations (e.g. r = 0.62 for Vardø, northern Norway). The δ18O values show pronounced 20th-century temperature changes, with a strong rise about 1920 and the absolute temperature maximum in the 1930s. A recent decrease in the deuterium-excess time series indicates an increasing role of the Kara Sea as a regional moisture source. From the multi-annual ion variations we deduced decreasing sea-salt aerosol trends in the 20th century, as reflected by sodium and chloride, whereas sulphate and nitrate are strongly affected by anthropogenic pollution.

  19. Land-Bridge Calibration of Molecular Clocks and the Post-Glacial Colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian Field Vole Microtus agrestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jeremy S.; McDevitt, Allan D.; Kawałko, Agata; Jaarola, Maarit; Wójcik, Jan M.; Searle, Jeremy B.

    2014-01-01

    Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates decay over the relevant timescales. It is therefore essential that an appropriate rate is determined, consistent with the temporal scale of the specific analysis. This can be achieved by using temporally spaced data such as ancient DNA or by relating the divergence of lineages directly to contemporaneous external events of known time. Here we calibrate a Eurasian field vole (Microtus agrestis) mitochondrial genealogy from the well-established series of post-glacial geophysical changes that led to the formation of the Baltic Sea and the separation of the Scandinavian peninsula from the central European mainland. The field vole exhibits the common phylogeographic pattern of Scandinavian colonization from both the north and the south, however the southernmost of the two relevant lineages appears to have originated in situ on the Scandinavian peninsula, or possibly in the adjacent island of Zealand, around the close of the Younger Dryas. The mitochondrial substitution rate and the timescale for the genealogy are closely consistent with those obtained with a previous calibration, based on the separation of the British Isles from mainland Europe. However the result here is arguably more certain, given the level of confidence that can be placed in one of the central assumptions of the calibration, that field voles could not survive the last glaciation of the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Furthermore, the similarity between the molecular clock rate estimated here and those obtained by sampling heterochronous (ancient) DNA (including that of a congeneric species) suggest that there is little disparity between the measured genetic divergence and the population divergence that is implicit in our land-bridge calibration. PMID:25111840

  20. Land-bridge calibration of molecular clocks and the post-glacial Colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian field vole Microtus agrestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Herman

    Full Text Available Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates decay over the relevant timescales. It is therefore essential that an appropriate rate is determined, consistent with the temporal scale of the specific analysis. This can be achieved by using temporally spaced data such as ancient DNA or by relating the divergence of lineages directly to contemporaneous external events of known time. Here we calibrate a Eurasian field vole (Microtus agrestis mitochondrial genealogy from the well-established series of post-glacial geophysical changes that led to the formation of the Baltic Sea and the separation of the Scandinavian peninsula from the central European mainland. The field vole exhibits the common phylogeographic pattern of Scandinavian colonization from both the north and the south, however the southernmost of the two relevant lineages appears to have originated in situ on the Scandinavian peninsula, or possibly in the adjacent island of Zealand, around the close of the Younger Dryas. The mitochondrial substitution rate and the timescale for the genealogy are closely consistent with those obtained with a previous calibration, based on the separation of the British Isles from mainland Europe. However the result here is arguably more certain, given the level of confidence that can be placed in one of the central assumptions of the calibration, that field voles could not survive the last glaciation of the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Furthermore, the similarity between the molecular clock rate estimated here and those obtained by sampling heterochronous (ancient DNA (including that of a congeneric species suggest that there is little disparity between the measured genetic divergence and the population divergence that is implicit in our land-bridge calibration.

  1. Molecular characteristics of the complete genome of a J-subgroup avian leukosis virus strain isolated from Eurasian teal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangwei; Gao, Yulong; Li, Delong; Hao, Ruijun; Liu, Wansi; Han, Chunyan; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-10-01

    The J-subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) strain WB11098J was isolated from a wild Eurasian teal, and its proviral genomic sequences were determined. The complete proviral sequence of WB11098J was 7868 nt long. WB11098J was 95.3.9 % identical to the prototype strain HPRS-103, 94.2 % identical to the American strain ADOL-7501, 94.5-94.7 % identical to Chinese broiler isolates, 94.8-97.5 % identical to layer chicken isolates, and 94.4-95.0 % identical to Chinese local chicken isolates at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the WB11098J isolate shared the greatest homology with the layer strain SD09DP03 and was included in the same cluster. Interestingly, two 19-bp insertions in the U3 regions of the 5'LTR and 5'UTR that were most likely derived from other retroviruses were found in the WB11098J isolate. These insertions separately introduced one E2BP-binding site in the U3 region of the 5'LTR and a RNA polymerase II transcription factor IIB and core promoter motif of ten elements in the 5'UTR. A 5-bp deletion was identified in the U3 region of the 5'LTR. No nucleotides were deleted in the rTM or DR-1 regions in the 3'UTR. A 1-bp deletion was detected in the E element and introduced a specific and distinct binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study is the first to report the molecular characteristics of the complete genome of an ALV-J that was isolated from a wild bird and will provide necessary information for further understanding of the evolution of ALV-J.

  2. Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vasíková, Alzbeta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdicka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than approximately 9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening approximately 10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at approximately 6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area.

  3. The role of mtDNA background in disease expression: a new primary LHON mutation associated with Western Eurasian haplogroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael D; Starikovskaya, Elena; Derbeneva, Olga; Hosseini, Seyed; Allen, Jon C; Mikhailovskaya, Irina E; Sukernik, Rem I; Wallace, Douglas C

    2002-02-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally transmitted form of blindness caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Approximately 90% of LHON cases are caused by 3460A, 11778A, or 14484C mtDNA mutations. These are designated "primary" mutations because they impart a high risk for LHON expression. Although the 11778A and 14484C mutations unequivocally predispose carriers to LHON, they are preferentially associated with mtDNA haplogroup J, one of nine Western Eurasian mtDNA lineages, suggesting a synergistic and deleterious interaction between these LHON mutations and haplogroup J polymorphism(s). We report here the characterization of a new primary LHON mutation in the mtDNA ND4L gene at nucleotide pair 10663. The homoplasmic 10663C mutation has been found in three independent LHON patients who lack a known primary mutation and all of which belong to haplogroup J. This mutation has not been found in a large number of haplotype-matched or non-haplogroup-J control mtDNAs. Phylogenetic analysis with primarily complete mtDNA sequence data demonstrates that the 10663C mutation has arisen at least three independent times in haplogroup J, indicating that it is not a rare lineage-specific polymorphism. Analysis of complex I function in patient lymphoblasts and transmitochondrial cybrids has revealed a partial complex I defect similar in magnitude to the 14484C mutation. Thus, the 10663C mutation appears to be a new primary LHON mutation that is pathogenic when co-occurring with haplogroup J. These results strongly support a role for haplogroup J in the expression of certain LHON mutations.

  4. Non-Invasive Genetic Mark-Recapture as a Means to Study Population Sizes and Marking Behaviour of the Elusive Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Simone; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Gruber, Bernd; Klenke, Reinhard; Henle, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying population status is a key objective in many ecological studies, but is often difficult to achieve for cryptic or elusive species. Here, non-invasive genetic capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods have become a very important tool to estimate population parameters, such as population size and sex ratio. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is such an elusive species of management concern and is increasingly studied using faecal-based genetic sampling. For unbiased sex ratios or population size estimates, the marking behaviour of otters has to be taken into account. Using 2132 otter faeces of a wild otter population in Upper Lusatia (Saxony, Germany) collected over six years (2006-2012), we studied the marking behaviour and applied closed population CMR models accounting for genetic misidentification to estimate population sizes and sex ratios. We detected a sex difference in the marking behaviour of otters with jelly samples being more often defecated by males and placed actively exposed on frequently used marking sites. Since jelly samples are of higher DNA quality, it is important to not only concentrate on this kind of samples or marking sites and to invest in sufficiently high numbers of repetitions of non-jelly samples to ensure an unbiased sex ratio. Furthermore, otters seemed to increase marking intensity due to the handling of their spraints, hence accounting for this behavioural response could be important. We provided the first precise population size estimate with confidence intervals for Upper Lusatia (for 2012: N = 20 ± 2.1, 95% CI = 16-25) and showed that spraint densities are not a reliable index for abundances. We further demonstrated that when minks live in sympatry with otters and have comparably high densities, a non-negligible number of supposed otter samples are actually of mink origin. This could severely bias results of otter monitoring if samples are not genetically identified.

  5. Genetic Signatures of Demographic Changes in an Avian Top Predator during the Last Century: Bottlenecks and Expansions of the Eurasian Eagle Owl in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Graciá

    Full Text Available The study of the demographic history of species can help to understand the negative impact of recent population declines in organisms of conservation concern. Here, we use neutral molecular markers to explore the genetic consequences of the recent population decline and posterior recovery of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last century, the species was the object of extermination programs, suffering direct persecution by hunters until the 70's. Moreover, during the last decades the eagle owl was severely impacted by increased mortality due to electrocution and the decline of its main prey species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. In recent times, the decrease of direct persecution and the implementation of some conservation schemes have allowed the species' demographic recovery. Yet, it remains unknown to which extent the past population decline and the later expansion have influenced the current species' pattern of genetic diversity. We used eight microsatellite markers to genotype 235 eagle owls from ten Spanish subpopulations and analyse the presence of genetic signatures attributable to the recent population fluctuations experienced by the species. We found moderate levels of differentiation among the studied subpopulations and Bayesian analyses revealed the existence of three genetic clusters that grouped subpopulations from central, south-western and south-eastern Spain. The observed genetic structure could have resulted from recent human-induced population fragmentation, a patchy distribution of prey populations and/or the philopatric behaviour and habitat selection of the species. We detected an old population bottleneck, which occurred approximately 10,000 years ago, and significant signatures of recent demographic expansions. However, we did not find genetic signatures for a recent bottleneck, which may indicate that population declines were not severe enough to leave detectable signals

  6. Genetic Signatures of Demographic Changes in an Avian Top Predator during the Last Century: Bottlenecks and Expansions of the Eurasian Eagle Owl in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciá, Eva; Ortego, Joaquín; Godoy, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Juan Manuel; Blanco, Guillermo; del Mar Delgado, María; Penteriani, Vincenzo; Almodóvar, Irene; Botella, Francisco; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The study of the demographic history of species can help to understand the negative impact of recent population declines in organisms of conservation concern. Here, we use neutral molecular markers to explore the genetic consequences of the recent population decline and posterior recovery of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last century, the species was the object of extermination programs, suffering direct persecution by hunters until the 70’s. Moreover, during the last decades the eagle owl was severely impacted by increased mortality due to electrocution and the decline of its main prey species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In recent times, the decrease of direct persecution and the implementation of some conservation schemes have allowed the species’ demographic recovery. Yet, it remains unknown to which extent the past population decline and the later expansion have influenced the current species’ pattern of genetic diversity. We used eight microsatellite markers to genotype 235 eagle owls from ten Spanish subpopulations and analyse the presence of genetic signatures attributable to the recent population fluctuations experienced by the species. We found moderate levels of differentiation among the studied subpopulations and Bayesian analyses revealed the existence of three genetic clusters that grouped subpopulations from central, south-western and south-eastern Spain. The observed genetic structure could have resulted from recent human-induced population fragmentation, a patchy distribution of prey populations and/or the philopatric behaviour and habitat selection of the species. We detected an old population bottleneck, which occurred approximately 10,000 years ago, and significant signatures of recent demographic expansions. However, we did not find genetic signatures for a recent bottleneck, which may indicate that population declines were not severe enough to leave detectable signals on the

  7. The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas

    2011-10-01

    Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plio-Quaternary paleostresses in the Atlantic passive margin of the Moroccan Meseta: Influence of the Central Rif escape tectonics related to Eurasian-African plate convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabli, Ahmed; Chalouan, Ahmed; Akil, Mostapha; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruano, Patricia; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; López-Garrido, Angel Carlos; Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Pedrera, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The Atlantic Moroccan Meseta margin is affected by far field recent tectonic stresses. The basement belongs to the variscan orogen and was deformed by hercynian folding and metamorphism followed by a post-Permian erosional stage, producing the flat paleorelief of the region. Tabular Mesozoic and Mio-Plio-Quaternary deposits locally cover the Meseta, which has undergone recent uplift, while north of Rabat the subsidence continues in the Gharb basin, constituting the foreland basin of the Rif Cordillera. The Plio-Quaternary sedimentary cover of the Moroccan Meseta, mainly formed by aeolian and marine terraces deposits, is affected by brittle deformations (joints and small-scale faults) that evidence that this region - considered up to date as stable - is affected by the far field stresses. Striated faults are recognized in the oldest Plio-Quaternary deposits and show strike-slip and normal kinematics, while joints affect up to the most recent sediments. Paleostress may be sorted into extensional, only affecting Rabat sector, and three main compressive groups deforming whole the region: (1) ENE-WSW to ESE-WNW compression; (2) NNW-SSE to NE-SW compression and (3) NNE-SSW compression. These stresses can be attributed mainly to the NW-SE oriented Eurasian-African plate convergence in the western Mediterranean and the escape toward the SW of the Rif Cordillera. Local paleostress deviations may be related to basement fault reactivation. These new results reveal the tectonic instability during Plio-Quaternary of the Moroccan Meseta margin in contrast to the standard passive margins, generally considered stable.

  9. A Probability Co-Kriging Model to Account for Reporting Bias and Recognize Areas at High Risk for Zebra Mussels and Eurasian Watermilfoil Invasions in Minnesota

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    Kaushi S. T. Kanankege

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zebra mussels (ZMs (Dreissena polymorpha and Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM (Myriophyllum spicatum are aggressive aquatic invasive species posing a conservation burden on Minnesota. Recognizing areas at high risk for invasion is a prerequisite for the implementation of risk-based prevention and mitigation management strategies. The early detection of invasion has been challenging, due in part to the imperfect observation process of invasions including the absence of a surveillance program, reliance on public reporting, and limited resource availability, which results in reporting bias. To predict the areas at high risk for invasions, while accounting for underreporting, we combined network analysis and probability co-kriging to estimate the risk of ZM and EWM invasions. We used network analysis to generate a waterbody-specific variable representing boater traffic, a known high risk activity for human-mediated transportation of invasive species. In addition, co-kriging was used to estimate the probability of species introduction, using waterbody-specific variables. A co-kriging model containing distance to the nearest ZM infested location, boater traffic, and road access was used to recognize the areas at high risk for ZM invasions (AUC = 0.78. The EWM co-kriging model included distance to the nearest EWM infested location, boater traffic, and connectivity to infested waterbodies (AUC = 0.76. Results suggested that, by 2015, nearly 20% of the waterbodies in Minnesota were at high risk of ZM (12.45% or EWM (12.43% invasions, whereas only 125/18,411 (0.67% and 304/18,411 (1.65% are currently infested, respectively. Prediction methods presented here can support decisions related to solving the problems of imperfect detection, which subsequently improve the early detection of biological invasions.

  10. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  11. Heat, Salt, and Mass Transports in the Eastern Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean: an Insight from Two Years of Mooring Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnyushkov, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the recent decade, the Arctic Ocean (AO) has experienced dramatic changes evident in all components of the climate system, e.g., in sea ice cover, thermohaline state, and freshwater budget; and there is no indication that they will discontinue in the near future. The role of deep ocean processes in these changes is still poorly understood. For instance, the peculiarities of Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) - the topographically-controlled current that carries Atlantic Water (AW) around the AO and transports a vast amount of mass, heat, and salt from the Nordic Seas around the polar basin - may play a crucial role in these changes in the Eurasian Basin (EB). Using observations collected in 2013-15 at six moorings distributed at the continental slope of the Laptev Sea we quantify the volume, heat and salt transports of the AW in the eastern EB of the Arctic Ocean. The utilized moorings were deployed in September 2013 as a part of the Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observational System (NABOS) program along the 125°E meridian, providing a detailed picture of structure and variability of the ACBC in this region. Collected 2013-15 observations suggest that at the central Laptev Sea slope the ACBC carries 5.1 Sv of water in the upper 800 m layer; 3.1 Sv of this volumetric water transport is associated with the AW. The mean heat transport carried by the AW was as high as 9.6±0.4 TW, estimated using a zero degree reference temperature (the lower temperature limit of the AW), and 32.7±1.3 TW relative to the freezing point (-1.8 °C). At the Laptev Sea slope, the AW heat transport constitutes 71% of the net heat transport in the entire layer spanned by NABOS mooring instruments (46.0±1.7 TW), confirming the dominant role of AW heat in the thermal balance of the EB. According to the mooring records, the water, heat and salt transports across the Laptev Sea slope experienced strong annual changes and demonstrated significant negative trends in 2013-15.

  12. The Late Miocene to recent erosion pattern of the Alpine foreland basin reflects Eurasian slab-unloading beneath the western Alps rather than global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Anke; Schlunegger, Fritz; Baran, Ramona

    2014-05-01

    It has been proposed that mountainous erosion increased globally around 5 Ma in response to global climate change, mainly because this increase coincides with a cooling trend indicated by global isotopic data (e.g., Herman et al. 2013). The Alps have played a prominent role in this debate. Published sedimentary budgets for the western and eastern Alps for the past 35 Ma show a substantial increase in the erosion of the Alps at c. 5 Ma (e.g., Kuhlemann, 2000). This temporal coincidence was used to call for a climate driver, mainly because this increase was not accompanied by tectonic convergence across the Alps during this time period. However, several authors emphasized the importance of lithospheric-scale processes beneath the Alps, which could also explain the increase in erosion rates through surface uplift. To provide a new perspective on this debate, we synthesized a spatial gradient map of erosion rates for the Alps and the entire Alpine foreland basin. Our data base consists of published (1) apatite fission-track (AFT) cooling ages for the Alps (e.g., Vernon et al. 2008; Luth and Willingshofer 2008; Wölfler et al. 2012; (2) AFT ages from wells from the Swiss foreland basin (e.g., Cederbom et al. 2011), and (3) stratigraphic data from industry wells in the German and Austrian foreland basin (e.g., Lemcke 1974; Genser et al. 2007). We focus our analysis on the shape and scale of the areas undergoing erosion since 5 Ma. Our synthesis of published denudation rate data for the past 5 Million years reveals that erosion of the Alpine foreland basin is highest in front of the western Alps (between 2 and 0.6 km), and decreases eastward over a distance of 700 km to the Austrian foreland basin (c. 200 m). For the western Alps, the compilation of apatite-fission-track ages yields erosion rates > 0.6 km/Ma, while erosion rates for the eastern foreland basin and the adjacent eastern Alps are slab along the Eurasian-Adriatic plate boundary. This mechanism triggered large

  13. Early Jurassic calc-alkaline magmatism in northeast China: Magmatic response to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Yi-Gang; Xu, Wen-Liang; Yang, Lei; Wu, Wei; Sun, Chen-Yang

    2017-08-01

    The subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate played an important role in the regional evolution of the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, but the timing and extent of this event remain ambiguous. To address these issues, we examine the geochronology and geochemistry of Early Jurassic intrusive rocks in eastern Jilin Province, NE China. The Early Jurassic gabbro-diorites, diorites, granodiorites, and monzogranites are found to have been emplaced at 183-185 Ma and are characterized by enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and depletion in high field strength elements, similar to calc-alkaline arc-type igneous rocks. The Early Jurassic gabbroic and dioritic rocks have εHf(t) values of +2.1 to +10.1 and Hf single-stage (TDM1) model ages of 430-774 Ma, whereas the monzogranites have εHf(t) values of +6.7 to +8.9 and Hf single-stage (TDM1) ages of 597-718 Ma. The gabbro-diorites, diorites, and granodiorites described in this study are genetically linked and they represent the products of the fractional crystallization of a common mafic magma that was in turn derived from the partial melting of a mantle source that was metasomatized by subduction-related fluids. In contrast, the Early Jurassic monzogranites were generated by partial melting of a depleted lower crustal block that was probably accreted during the Neoproterozoic. More importantly, the Early Jurassic calc-alkaline igneous rocks in the east part of NE China form a NE-trending belt that is oriented perpendicular to the direction of Paleo-Pacific Plate movement at that time. West of this belt, contemporaneous bimodal igneous rocks occur in the Lesser Xing'an-Zhangguangcai Ranges. This magmatic configuration is best explained by continental arc magmatism along the continental margin and extensional magmatism in a back-arc setting, in each case triggered by the initial subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath Eurasia in the Early Jurassic.

  14. Performance of TB immunodiagnostic tests in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles of different ages and the influence of duration of infection on serological sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayers Robin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In parts of Great Britain and Ireland, Eurasian badgers (Meles meles constitute a reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection and a potential source of infection for cattle. In vitro diagnostic tests for live badgers are an important component of strategies to control TB in this species. Immunological tests have been developed for badgers, although little is known about the influence of the age of the animal on test performance. To address this, we evaluated the performance of three immunological tests for badgers with respect to the age of the animal: the Brock Test and BrockTB STAT-PAK® serological tests and the recently developed interferon-gamma enzyme immunoassay (IFNγ EIA. Data published elsewhere suggested that seropositivity was associated with more progressive forms of TB in the badger. To gain further evidence for this, we used longitudinal data from a well-studied population of badgers to test for an association between the sensitivity of the Brock Test and the duration of TB infection. Results Sensitivity of the two serological tests was approximately 54% for both cubs and adults. Sensitivity of the IFNγ EIA was lower in cubs (57% compared with adults (85% when a common cut-off value was used to define test positivity. Taking data from the cubs alone, the IFNγ EIA cut-off value could be adjusted to increase the sensitivity to 71% with no loss in specificity. As a general observation, specificity of all tests was higher in cubs, although only significantly so in the case of the Brock Test. Using logistic regression analysis to adjust for age, sensitivity of the Brock Test was significantly lower at first culture positive event (58%, but increased to >80% as infection progressed. Conclusion These data suggest that serodiagnosis could be a valuable tool for detecting a higher proportion of badgers with the greatest probability of transmitting infection. The age category of the badger appeared to exert little

  15. Diet preference of Eurasian Beaver (Castor Fiber L., 1758 in the environment of Oderské vrchy and its influence on the tree species composition of river bank stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dvořák

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the dietary behaviour and the tree species preference in the river bank stands in the diet of established population Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber L., 1758 in the environment of Oderské vrchy; the objective is to assess the suitability of this environment for future development of the Eurasian Beaver and to asses the influence of the beaver’s dietary behaviour on the river bank stands. In the monitored area, the total of 5 tree species with the following preference were recorded: willow (Salix 42.2%, aspen (Populus 28%, dogwood (Comus 15.5%, birch (Betula 7.4% and alder (Alnus 6.9%. The most damaged diameter interval recorded within the all damaged tree species ranges from 2.6 to 6 cm, followed by the interval 6.1–12 cm. Over 61% of the trees felled by the beaver had a bigger diameter. The most sensitive reaction to beaver’s dietary behaviour was shown by aspen (reduction of numbers by 27.6% and by willow (reduction of numbers by 16.6% on the monitored area.

  16. Microbiological Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    occurring endemic infestation. Two other pathogenic fungi, Fusarium sporotrichoides and Acre- monium curvulum, were also shown to be potent...t. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pea (Pisun satimw L.), vetch (Vicia sp.), and wheat (Triticum satiwn) plants were exposed to M. t. grown in PDSB...of Weeds," Aquatic Botany, Vol 3, No. 2, pp 111-123. Andrews, J. H., and Hecht, E. P. 1981. "Evidence of Pathogenicity of Fusarium sporotrichoides to

  17. Professor Bakytzhan Abdiraiym Rector of the L. Gumilov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan accompanied by Prof. Kairat Kuterbekov, Dr Bekzat Prmantayeva, Dr Kuralay Maksut with the Director-General, Dr Tadeusz Kurtyka, Adviser for Non-Member States, Mrs Julia Andreeva, Department of Information Technologies and Dr Nikolai Zimine, ATLAS Collaboration, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Professor Bakytzhan Abdiraiym Rector of the L. Gumilov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan accompanied by Prof. Kairat Kuterbekov, Dr Bekzat Prmantayeva, Dr Kuralay Maksut with the Director-General, Dr Tadeusz Kurtyka, Adviser for Non-Member States, Mrs Julia Andreeva, Department of Information Technologies and Dr Nikolai Zimine, ATLAS Collaboration, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna

  18. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the

  19. Evidence for Paleocene-Eocene evolution of the foot of the Eurasian margin (Kermanshah ophiolite, SW Iran) from back-arc to arc: Implications for regional geodynamics and obduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitechurch, H.; Omrani, J.; Agard, P.; Humbert, F.; Montigny, R.; Jolivet, L.

    2013-12-01

    The nature and significance of the Kermanshah ophiolite (Zagros Mountains, Iran), traditionally identified as one of the remnants of the Peri-Arabic ophiolite system obducted onto Arabia in the Late Cretaceous, is reinvestigated in this study. We assess the geochemistry of magmatic rocks from two distinct areas: the Kamyaran Paleocene-Eocene arc and the so-called Harsin-Sahneh ophiolite complex. Volcanic rocks associated with Triassic to Liassic sediments display a clear alkali signature, whereas the Paleocene volcanic rocks show a geochemical signature similar to that of tholeiitic back-arc basin basalts. The presumed ophiolitic gabbros of the Harsin-Sahneh complex and some of the associated dykes that intrude harzburgites or gabbros also have a back-arc basin signature. Eocene volcanics, gabbros and dykes intruding the harzburgites display clear low to medium-K calc-alkaline signatures with variable negative Nb, Ta, and Ti and positive Sr, Ba, Th, and U anomalies. Field relationships and geochemical evidence indicate that the Eocene magmatic rocks were intruded into a mantle substratum close to the ocean-continent transition. The geochemistry of magmatic rocks from Paleocene to Eocene suggests that an Eocene arc was constructed in a Paleocene back-arc basin along the Eurasian continental margin. In the Kermanshah region this magmatic activity, which extended further to the northwest into Turkey, coincided with a marked slowing down of the convergence of Arabia with Eurasia. Furthermore, it occurred after the Mesozoic Sanandaj-Sirjan magmatism had ceased but before the development of the Tertiary Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc. We tentatively relate this transient magmatic activity to a slab retreat and a back-arc extension at the Eurasian continental margin.

  20. Inferring epidemiologic dynamics from viral evolution: 2014–2015 Eurasian/North American highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses exceed transmission threshold, R0 = 1, in wild birds and poultry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert; Ip, Hon S.

    2017-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a multihost pathogen with lineages that pose health risks for domestic birds, wild birds, and humans. One mechanism of intercontinental HPAIV spread is through wild bird reservoirs, and wild birds were the likely sources of a Eurasian (EA) lineage HPAIV into North America in 2014. The introduction resulted in several reassortment events with North American (NA) lineage low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the reassortant EA/NA H5N2 went on to cause one of the largest HPAIV poultry outbreaks in North America. We evaluated three hypotheses about novel HPAIV introduced into wild and domestic bird hosts: (i) transmission of novel HPAIVs in wild birds was restricted by mechanisms associated with highly pathogenic phenotypes; (ii) the HPAIV poultry outbreak was not self-sustaining and required viral input from wild birds; and (iii) reassortment of the EA H5N8 generated reassortant EA/NA AIVs with a fitness advantage over fully Eurasian lineages in North American wild birds. We used a time-rooted phylodynamic model that explicitly incorporated viral population dynamics with evolutionary dynamics to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) and viral migration among host types in domestic and wild birds, as well as between the EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. We did not find evidence to support hypothesis (i) or (ii) as our estimates of the transmission parameters suggested that the HPAIV outbreak met or exceeded the threshold for persistence in wild birds (R0 > 1) and poultry (R0 ≈ 1) with minimal estimated transmission among host types. There was also no evidence to support hypothesis (iii) because R0 values were similar among EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. Our results suggest that this novel HPAIV and reassortments did not encounter any transmission barriers sufficient to prevent persistence when introduced to wild or domestic birds.

  1. A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution at Position 225 in Hemagglutinin Alters the Transmissibility of Eurasian Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Tao, Shiyu; Liu, Liling; Kong, Huihui; Ma, Shujie; Meng, Fei; Suzuki, Yasuo; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Hualan

    2017-11-01

    Efficient transmission from human to human is the prerequisite for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic; however, the molecular determinants of influenza virus transmission are still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the molecular basis for transmission of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses by comparing two viruses that are genetically similar but differ in their transmissibility in guinea pigs: the A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus (GX/18) is highly transmissible by respiratory droplet in guinea pigs, whereas the A/swine/Heilongjiang/27/2012 virus (HLJ/27) does not transmit in this animal model. We used reverse genetics to generate a series of reassortants and mutants in the GX/18 background and tested their transmissibility in guinea pigs. We found that a single-amino-acid substitution of glycine (G) for glutamic acid (E) at position 225 (E225G) in the HA1 protein completely abolished the respiratory droplet transmission of GX/18, whereas the substitution of E for G at the same position (G225E) in HA1 enabled HLJ/27 to transmit in guinea pigs. We investigated the underlying mechanism and found that viruses bearing 225E in HA1 replicated more rapidly than viruses bearing 225G due to differences in assembly and budding efficiencies. Our study indicates that the amino acid 225E in HA1 plays a key role in EAH1N1 swine influenza virus transmission and provides important information for evaluating the pandemic potential of field influenza virus strains.IMPORTANCE Efficient transmission among humans is a prerequisite for a novel influenza virus to cause a human pandemic. Transmissibility of influenza viruses is a polygenic trait, and understanding the genetic determinants for transmissibility will provide useful insights for evaluating the pandemic potential of influenza viruses in the field. Several amino acids in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza viruses have been shown to be important for transmissibility, usually by

  2. The spatial and interannual dynamics of the surface water carbonate system and air–sea CO2 fluxes in the outer shelf and slope of the Eurasian Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Pipko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is undergoing dramatic changes which cover the entire range of natural processes, from extreme increases in the temperatures of air, soil, and water, to changes in the cryosphere, the biodiversity of Arctic waters, and land vegetation. Small changes in the largest marine carbon pool, the dissolved inorganic carbon pool, can have a profound impact on the carbon dioxide (CO2 flux between the ocean and the atmosphere, and the feedback of this flux to climate. Knowledge of relevant processes in the Arctic seas improves the evaluation and projection of carbon cycle dynamics under current conditions of rapid climate change. Investigation of the CO2 system in the outer shelf and continental slope waters of the Eurasian Arctic seas (the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian seas during 2006, 2007, and 2009 revealed a general trend in the surface water partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 distribution, which manifested as an increase in pCO2 values eastward. The existence of this trend was defined by different oceanographic and biogeochemical regimes in the western and eastern parts of the study area; the trend is likely increasing due to a combination of factors determined by contemporary change in the Arctic climate, each change in turn evoking a series of synergistic effects. A high-resolution in situ investigation of the carbonate system parameters of the four Arctic seas was carried out in the warm season of 2007; this year was characterized by the next-to-lowest historic sea-ice extent in the Arctic Ocean, on satellite record, to that date. The study showed the different responses of the seawater carbonate system to the environment changes in the western vs. the eastern Eurasian Arctic seas. The large, open, highly productive water area in the northern Barents Sea enhances atmospheric CO2 uptake. In contrast, the uptake of CO2 was strongly weakened in the outer shelf and slope waters of the East Siberian Arctic seas under the 2007

  3. The spatial and interannual dynamics of the surface water carbonate system and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the outer shelf and slope of the Eurasian Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipko, Irina I.; Pugach, Svetlana P.; Semiletov, Igor P.; Anderson, Leif G.; Shakhova, Natalia E.; Gustafsson, Örjan; Repina, Irina A.; Spivak, Eduard A.; Charkin, Alexander N.; Salyuk, Anatoly N.; Shcherbakova, Kseniia P.; Panova, Elena V.; Dudarev, Oleg V.

    2017-11-01

    The Arctic is undergoing dramatic changes which cover the entire range of natural processes, from extreme increases in the temperatures of air, soil, and water, to changes in the cryosphere, the biodiversity of Arctic waters, and land vegetation. Small changes in the largest marine carbon pool, the dissolved inorganic carbon pool, can have a profound impact on the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between the ocean and the atmosphere, and the feedback of this flux to climate. Knowledge of relevant processes in the Arctic seas improves the evaluation and projection of carbon cycle dynamics under current conditions of rapid climate change. Investigation of the CO2 system in the outer shelf and continental slope waters of the Eurasian Arctic seas (the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian seas) during 2006, 2007, and 2009 revealed a general trend in the surface water partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) distribution, which manifested as an increase in pCO2 values eastward. The existence of this trend was defined by different oceanographic and biogeochemical regimes in the western and eastern parts of the study area; the trend is likely increasing due to a combination of factors determined by contemporary change in the Arctic climate, each change in turn evoking a series of synergistic effects. A high-resolution in situ investigation of the carbonate system parameters of the four Arctic seas was carried out in the warm season of 2007; this year was characterized by the next-to-lowest historic sea-ice extent in the Arctic Ocean, on satellite record, to that date. The study showed the different responses of the seawater carbonate system to the environment changes in the western vs. the eastern Eurasian Arctic seas. The large, open, highly productive water area in the northern Barents Sea enhances atmospheric CO2 uptake. In contrast, the uptake of CO2 was strongly weakened in the outer shelf and slope waters of the East Siberian Arctic seas under the 2007 environmental conditions

  4. Impact of a Strong Magnetic Storm and Two X-Ray Flares on the Ionospheric HF Channel in the Summer Solstice of 2015 According to Oblique Sounding in the Eurasian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryadov, V. P.; Kolchev, A. A.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Vybornov, F. I.; Egoshin, I. A.; Sklyarevsky, M. S.; Shumaev, V. V.; Chernov, A. G.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of observations of the impact a strong magnetic storm and two X-ray flares in the summer solstice of 2015 on the HF signal characteristics during oblique sounding of the ionosphere in the Eurasian region. It was found that the negative phase of the magnetic storm led to a strong degradation of the ionospheric channel, up to a long blackout on the paths adjacent to the subauroral latitudes. On the midlatitude paths, a decrease in the maximum observable frequency of the F layer reached 50% with respect to the average values for an undisturbed ionosphere. The propagation velocity of the negative phase of a disturbance from the subauroral to the midlatitude ionosphere is determined (it is equal to about 100 m/s). It is shown that during a magnetic storm the least observable frequency and the average signal-to-noise ratio for the propagation mode via the sporadic E s layer correlate well with the auroral AE index. Anomalous signals were detected in the main phase of the magnetic storm on the Cyprus—Rostov-on-Don path when a chirp ionosonde-radio direction finder was operated in the over-the-horizon HF radar mode. On the basis of modeling and comparison with experimental data, it is shown that the anomalous signals are due to scattering of radio waves by small-scale irregularities located in the subauroral ionospheric F region.

  5. Effects of chronic dietary lead in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Pattee, O H; Moore, J F

    1983-04-01

    American kestrels were fed a diet containing 0, 10, or 50 ppm lead (Pb) powder for at least 5 mo. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in birds receiving 50 ppm Pb was as low as 20% of controls but no significant effects were noted in packed cell volume (PCV) or hemoglobin concentration (Hb). Mean liver Pb residues in birds fed 50 ppm Pb were 1.3 and 2.4 ppm (dry wt) for males and females, respectively. Liver Pb residues in birds fed 10 ppm Pb were not significantly greater than controls. There was no significant correlation between blood ALAD activity and blood Pb concentration, no consistent histopathological lesions were noted, and body and organ weights were not affected.

  6. Seasonal and annual dietary changes in Lesser Kestrels Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transformed area in Lesotho was studied by means of pellet analysis. Orthopterans, beetles and solifugids (sun spiders) comprised the staple food of the wintering Lesser Kestrels. Small vertebrates, termite alates, earwigs and scolopendrans ...

  7. Observation of Grey Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus raiding the nest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... Jenkins. (2005) describes their diet as consisting mainly of insects and lizards, but also rodents and small birds, sometimes supplemented with husks of Hyphaene petersiana. They further note that ardosiaceus may occasionally pursue birds and bats in aerial chases. We would therefore assume that our ...

  8. Retrobulbar rhabdomyosarcoma in a neotropical peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundt Coello, Michelle J; Schaeffer, Lee S

    2014-01-01

    A mild swelling of the left periorbital was detected on a routine physical exam of a healthy captive adult peregrine falcon. Despite treatment, the swelling did not subside and within twenty-five days was causing significant exophthalmia and medial deviation of the left globe. A retrobulbar fusiform cell sarcoma was diagnosed with histopathology, then light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis of a rhabdomyosarcoma. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian 'avian-like' H1N1 swine viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. © 2013 The Authors Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian (Lynx lynx), the Iberian (L. pardinus), the Canada lynx (L. canadensis) and the bobcat (L. rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Fanson, K; Frank, A; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Jewgenow, K

    2010-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal samples collected before, during, and after pregnancy from individual females of each lynx species. Gestagens and estrogens revealed three similar classes of immunoreactive faecal metabolites: (1) polar metabolites which were enzyme-hydrolysable and thus may be designated as conjugates, (2) non-hydrolysable polar metabolites, and (3) non-polar metabolites or free steroids. For both hormones, strong similarities in the HPLC immunograms across species suggests that steroid metabolism is relatively conserved among Lynx species. Gestagens were primarily excreted as polar conjugates or unknown metabolites, whereas estrogen metabolism revealed a huge proportion (approximately 50%) consisting of 17beta-estradiol and estrone. These results are consistent with patterns of steroid metabolism in other felid species. Only two minor species-specific patterns emerged. In bobcats, we observed an exceptionally high proportion of gestagen conjugates, and in Iberian lynx, there was an exceptionally high proportion of estrone. The comparison of HPLC immunograms within individuals revealed that intra-individual variations in steroid metabolite composition are considerably high. However, changes in metabolite composition did not correlate with specific reproductive stages; rather, they seemed to occur at random. We assume that these differences may reflect changes in liver metabolism and/or qualitative and quantitative variations in gut bacteria composition, resulting in differences in faecal metabolite composition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian ‘avian-like’ H1N1 swine viruses in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian “avian-like” (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Design Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Sample Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Setting Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Main outcome measures Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Results and Conclusions Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. PMID:24373385

  12. The Peculiarities of Territorial Distribution and Abundance of Birds of Prey in Kharkiv Region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav G. Viter

    2014-11-01

    (Accipiter gentilis – 214–224, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Ac. nisus – 336–365, Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo – 1000–1050, Long-Legged Buzzard (B. rufinus – 185–190, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus – no more than 6 pairs, Booted Eagle – 119–124, Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca – 56–60, Greater Spotted Eagle (A. clanga – 3–4, Lesser Spotted Eagle (A. pomarina – 10–11, Hobby (Falco subbuteo – 160–175, Common Kestrel (F. tinnunculus – 297–320 pairs.

  13. Host specificity, molecular phylogeny and morphological differences of Phyllodistomum pseudofolium Nybelin, 1926 and Phyllodistomum angulatum Linstow, 1907 (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae) with notes on Eurasian ruffe as final host for Phyllodistomum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunžėnas, Virmantas; Petkevičiūtė, Romualda; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Stanevičiūtė, Gražina; Zhokhov, Alexander E

    2017-06-06

    Host-specificity patterns are not well-defined for trematodes of the genus Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899. The Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus L., has been recorded as a definitive host for Phyllodistomum folium (Olfers, 1816), P. angulatum Linstow, 1907 and P. megalorchis Nybelin, 1926 and as the type-host for P. pseudofolium Nybelin (1926). A wide range of other host fishes have been recorded for these species as well. All present host records have been based on light microscopy and the life-cycles of P. pseudofolium, P. angulatum and P. megalorchis are unknown. The validity of P. pseudofolium and P. megalorchis require verification. In this study, rDNA sequences generated from adult Phyllodistomum spp., as well as from larval stages developing in Pisidium amnicum Müller, were analysed to establish the real number of Phyllodistomum species utilizing G. cernuus, and to associate larvae with the corresponding adult forms. Phylogenetic analyses of adult and larval stages of Phyllodistomum spp. based on ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data allowed the confirmation of the validity of P. pseudofolium. A macrocercous cercaria, known as Phyllodistomum sp. from P. amnicum is genetically identical to adult P. pseudofolium. Phyllodistomum megalorchis obtained from its type-host, Lota lota L., showed no genetic differences from P. angulatum parasitizing Sander lucioperca L. In our analysis, P. pseudofolium, P. angulatum and P. macrocotyle formed a highly supported clade despite the fact that these species appear to be associated with distinct patterns of first intermediate host identity and cercarial morphology. Some morphological differences between gravid specimens of P. pseudofolium and P. angulatum were observed and their SEM tegumental surface topography is described. The results lead us to the perception that macroevolutionary host switching in the genus Phyllodistomum is independent of host phylogeny. This study suggests strict host-specificity (oioxeny) for P

  14. Marine wind farms - seabirds, white-tailed eagles, Eurasian eagle-owl and waders. A screening of potential conflict areas; Offshore vindenergianlegg - sjoefugl, havoern, hubro og vadere. En screening av potensielle konfliktomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, S.; Lorentsen, S.-H.; Dahl, E.L.; Follestad, A.; Hanssen, F.O.; Systad, G.H.

    2010-06-15

    sufficient quality to be used for this method. For the species where less data was available (e.g. geese, waders, white-tailed eagle and the Eurasian eagle-owl) we have chosen to illustrate potential conflicts by means of maps of the major functional areas. The results are presented in maps, where the WSI is given for 10x10 km squares. The results of the study showed a clear difference in WSI between areas and seasons. For the seabirds it was shown that especially the large breeding colonies in Vesteraalen, Roest and Runde were areas with high WSI. In Vesteraalen, the gannets and some of the puffin colonies resulted in a high WSI, while on Roest auks and for Runde gannets and gulls resulted in high WSI-values. Further south it was mainly gulls and terns that caused high WSI-values on the coast of Vest- Agder and between Jaeren and Karmoey. The results for the breeding season were as expected, as other studies have previously pointed to these sites as valuable areas. There were some similarities between important localities in summer and winter, for example between Jaeren and Vesteraalen. But during the winter season, areas such as Lista, Nordoeyerne and Gossen (Moere and Romsdal), Smoela, Froan, Oerlandet, Frost, Vikna and Vega also showed a high vulnerability. For the white-tailed sea eagle especially the islands of Smoela, Hitra and Froeya, as well as the area from Bodoe to Steigen were very important. For the Eurasian eagle-owl the coast of Helgeland and the areas surrounding Karmoey in Rogaland were most important. For waders and geese the focus was on important resting and moulting sites. Such sites for geese and eiders are distributed across the study area, with the most important and largest areas being the coast of central Norway and northwards. For waders a number of important resting areas are spread over the entire study area, but with a concentration of localities along the coast of Moere and Romsdal and Rogaland, especially along the coast of Jaeren. In our

  15. Eurasianism: A Historical and Contemporary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Rome rests on the tenet that following the fall of Rome, the Byzantine Empire, with its head in Constantinople, continued the traditions of the...Christian Church and secured its survival and legitimacy.18 According to the theory, the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453 paved the way...precedent for 21 Elie Denissoff, “On the Origins of the Autonomous Russian Church ,” The Review of Politics 12

  16. Archaeological research in the Eurasian steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parzinger, Hermann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the activities of the 'Eurasien-Abteilung' of the German Archaeological Institute in different countries of former USSR. Many of these projects have just begun; consequently the paper does not discuss the results of these investigations, but details their scientific purposes. The investigations cover an area which extends from the Black Sea to northeastern China. The principal objects of these investigations include: the transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Pontic area north of the Black Sea and the Greek colonization of that area; the activities of the Scythians and the Sassanians in Transcaucasia, urbanism and metallurgy in the Bronze Age of Central Asia; and, finally, cultural developments from the Early Bronze Age to the periods of the Scythians and the Huns period in southern Siberia.

    Este artículo presenta las actividades de la 'Eurasien-Abteilung', del Instituto Arqueológico Alemán, en los distintos países de la ex-URSS. Como muchos de estos proyectos han empezado hace poco tiempo, no pretendemos adelantar resultados, sino planteamientos científicos. El área que abarcan se extiende desde el Mar Negro hasta el Noreste de China. Sus principales temas de investigación son: el cambio del Bronce Final a la primera Edad del Hierro en el norte del Mar Negro, la colonización griega en esta zona, las actividades de los Escitas y de los Sasánidas en Transcaucasia, el urbanismo y la metalurgia de la Edad del Bronce en Asia Central y, finalmente, el desarrollo cultural desde el Bronce Antiguo hasta la época de los Escitas y Hunos en el sur de Siberia.

  17. Hobby-related information-seeking behaviour of highly dedicated online museum visitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This paper explores the characteristics of online museum visitors in an everyday life, information-seeking context. Method. A triangulation of research methods was applied. A Web questionnaire survey gave initial, quantitative information about online museum visitors to a military...... to the research area of everyday life information seeking within serious leisure. It also contributes to the emerging field of museum informatics by adding to the characteristics of the online museum visitor....... museum. Follow-up interviews (n = 24) obtained rich, qualitative data to validate and elaborate the characteristics of online museum visitors' information-seeking behaviour. Analysis. Based on the serious leisure perspective, data analysis led to the identification of two different user groups named...

  18. SOS dog - The purebred dog hobby re-examined, Johan and Edith Gallant : book review

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Sonntag

    2009-01-01

    SOS Dog is an eye-opener for anyone involved in breeding, treating, showing or selling pure-bred dogs. The book is thought-provoking and easy to read, but its challenge of practices that are still widely considered to be acceptable in the field of dog breeding and showing is bound to cause some controversy in dog fancier circles. Veterinarians in particular are likely to find the book stimulating in terms of re-examining their role as canine health care professionals when it comes to treating...

  19. SOS dog - The purebred dog hobby re-examined, Johan and Edith Gallant : book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Sonntag

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available SOS Dog is an eye-opener for anyone involved in breeding, treating, showing or selling pure-bred dogs. The book is thought-provoking and easy to read, but its challenge of practices that are still widely considered to be acceptable in the field of dog breeding and showing is bound to cause some controversy in dog fancier circles. Veterinarians in particular are likely to find the book stimulating in terms of re-examining their role as canine health care professionals when it comes to treating the increasing number of hereditary and breeding problems encountered in purebred dogs. Anybody who has ever visited a dog show or participated in one will identify strongly with the introduction where the main author explains the basis of the book in honest, humorous terms.

  20. "Bajen är en livsstil - ingen hobby." : Hur gestaltar sig Hammarby IF:s fotbollssupporterkultur

    OpenAIRE

    Näslund, Moa

    2009-01-01

    Uppsatsen handlar om hur Hammarby IF:s fotbollssupporterkultur gestaltar sig. Jag har intervjuat åtta supportrar från olika delar av Sverige. Utifrån deras erfarenheter har jag undersökt fem olika teman som beskriver olika delar av deras supporterskap. Uppsatsen handlar i grunden om hur grupptillhörigheten ser ut och uppfattas av supportrarna. De olika temana behandlar; supportens roll, klubbens betydelse för supporten, symboler, klubbens historia, gemenskap, lojalitet, status och medias roll...

  1. James Joyce’s Trojan Hobby-Horse: The Iliad and the Collective Unconscious Ulysses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Fuchs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available James Joyce’s Ulysses rewrites the Homeric Odyssey in such a way that the ancient myth provides a structural pattern, which gives order and meaning to a seemingly chaotic and meaningless contemporary world – an aspect which T. S. Eliot called the “mythical method”. As the characters of Ulysses are ignorant of this ordering device, they function as Jungian archetypes rather than individuals: Their deeds correspond to a mythical framework which is not actively remembered but provides a collective unconsciousness that guides their lives as a principle of order and continuity. What they do is meaningful although they consider themselves as insignificant agents thrown into a seemingly chaotic world. Whereas scholars have focused on Homer’s Odyssey as an archetypal (i.e. collective unconscious key to the cultural memory of the mythical roots of Western culture, they have turned a comparatively blind eye to the fact that Homer’s corresponding work of the Iliad has a similar function for the mythopoetic design of Ulysses. This paper is going to reconstruct Joyce’s neglected intertextual dialogue with the Iliad as an archetypal key to the cultural memory of the roots of Western civilisation.

  2. Collaborative Internet Projects: An Interview with Susan Silverman about Her Passion and Hobby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an interview with Susan Silverman, an instructional technology integration teacher in the Comsewogue school district in Port Jefferson Station, New York. Describes Susan's transformation from technophobe to an innovator of collaborative Internet projects. (PM)

  3. How a hobby can shape cognition: visual word recognition in competitive Scrabble players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Ian S; Pexman, Penny M; Zdrazilova, Lenka; Sargious, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Competitive Scrabble is an activity that involves extraordinary word recognition experience. We investigated whether that experience is associated with exceptional behavior in the laboratory in a classic visual word recognition paradigm: the lexical decision task (LDT). We used a version of the LDT that involved horizontal and vertical presentation and a concreteness manipulation. In Experiment 1, we presented this task to a group of undergraduates, as these participants are the typical sample in word recognition studies. In Experiment 2, we compared the performance of a group of competitive Scrabble players with a group of age-matched nonexpert control participants. The results of a series of cognitive assessments showed that the Scrabble players and control participants differed only in Scrabble-specific skills (e.g., anagramming). Scrabble expertise was associated with two specific effects (as compared to controls): vertical fluency (relatively less difficulty judging lexicality for words presented in the vertical orientation) and semantic deemphasis (smaller concreteness effects for word responses). These results suggest that visual word recognition is shaped by experience, and that with experience there are efficiencies to be had even in the adult word recognition system.

  4. Observations of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L. post-larvae growth performances reared in an illuminated floating cage in Varese lake (N-W Italy over a two years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Antonini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian perch (P. fluviatilis is a very important fish species in Varese lake (N-W Italy. Since the second half of 20th century, perch catches in the lake have steadily decreased and by the end of the ‘80s the species resulted clearly endangered. The purpose of this study was to investigate growth, mortality and feeding conditions of perch postlarvae, reared in illuminated floating cage in Varese lake, to obtain fingerlings for a restocking program. In June 2006 and 2007, groups of 280 and 300 pre-weaned post-larvae (average body weight 0.64±0.09 g and 0.25±0.08 g respectively P<0.01 were held in an illuminated net cage for 90 days. The cage was illuminated inside from 20:30 p.m. to 6:30 a.m. During the trial, the nightly zooplankton accumulation inside the cage was assessed weekly. At night time the zooplankton biomass, which resulted dominated by Cladocera family, was higher inside the cage than in the lake. In 2006, 322±36 zooplankters L–1 were observed, compared to 945±600 observed in 2007 (P<0.05. In the lake, the number of zooplankters per litre was similar in both years, resulting in 63.3±50.30 and 61.10±45 zooplankters L–1, respectively on 2006 and 2007. In order to assess perch growth performances, 25 fishes were sampled from the cage every 15-20 days and length (cm and weight (g were assessed for each sample. At the end of September, specific growth rate (SGR and survival rate were assessed. In 2006 the final mean body weight of the perch fry was 4.65±1.47 g and that results significantly lower (P<0.05 than of 2007 (6.3±1.69 g. The SGR was 2.04% and 3.42%, respectively. The higher growth rate observed in 2007 was influenced by a higher zooplankton accumulation in the cage due to an improved cage management. In order to assess the cage efficiency, in September 2006 and 2007, the weight of young-of-year perch (n=50 captured in the lake were compared to those of reared fish. Wild fry showed a mean body weight significantly

  5. Causes of Admission for Raptors to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, Gran Canaria Island, Spain: 2003-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesdeoca, Natalia; Calabuig, Pascual; Corbera, Juan A; Orós, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    We report the causes of morbidity of 2,458 free-living raptors admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, during 2003-13. The seasonal cumulative incidences were investigated while considering estimates of the wild populations in the region. These methods were used as a more accurate approach to assess the potential ecologic impact of different causes of morbidity. The most frequently admitted species were the Eurasian Kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus ; 53.0%), the Eurasian Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus canariensis; 28.1%), the Canary Islands Common Buzzard ( Buteo buteo insularum; 8.0%), and the Eurasian Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ; 4.4%). The most frequent causes of admission were trauma (33.8%), orphaned-young birds (21.7%), unknown (18.4%), and metabolic/nutritional disease (11.1%). Local morbidity caused by glue trapping and entanglement in burr bristlegrass (Setaria adhaerens) had prevalences of 5.0% and 1.8%, respectively. The highest number of admissions during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons was observed for the Eurasian Barn Owl and the Barbary Falcon ( Falco pelegrinoides ), respectively, mainly due to trauma of unknown origin.

  6. LA ICP MS and Ion Probe U-Pb dating of igneous and metasedimentary units in the NE Pontides, NE Turkey: evidence of Peri-Gondwanan terrane accretion, Late Palaeozoic magmatism/metamorphism and Early Mesozoic extension along the S Eurasian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Ayda Ustaömer, P.

    2010-05-01

    experienced lead loss, with a lower intercept at 326 Ma. One magmatic zircon from this intrusion gave an age of 358 Ma (early Carboniferous), interpreted as the crystallisation age. Metamorphic rims of these zircons cluster around 330 Ma, viewed as the time of peak Variscan metamorphism. We interpret the E Pontide region (e.g. Artvin area) as part of an active S-Eurasian continental margin during Late Palaeozoic. Accretion/collision of Peri-Gondwanan terrane(s) was likely responsible for Variscan deformation/metamorphism. Newly accreted Peri-Gondwanan crust was intruded by granitic rocks during early Carboniferous, possibly in response to delamination/slab-break off processes. Following exhumation, the Eurasian margin remained relatively inactive and erosional during Late Carboniferous-Triassic. Related to regional northward subduction of Palaeotethys, the S-Eurasian margin underwent tectonic extension and deep-marine basin formation during Early Jurassic. The dyke swarm and Toarcian felsic plutons were emplaced into extended crust behind a continental margin magmatic arc. Short-lived Mid-Jurassic compression may reflect collision of an oceanic edifice (seamount/continental fragment) with the subduction trench. Extension resumed during Late Jurassic associated with Oxfordian magmatism. A S-facing subsiding passive margin existed during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, followed by northward subduction and arc magmatism (E Pontide Arc). SSZ-type ophiolites were regionally obducted during latest Cretaceous, followed by Eocene telescoping of the Eurasian margin during final closure of Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean.

  7. Reconstructing the post-LGM decay of the Eurasian Ice Sheets with Ice Sheet Models; data-model comparison and focus on the Storfjorden (Svalbard) ice stream dynamics history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Michele; Kirchner, Nina; Colleoni, Florence; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Rebesco, Michele; Lucchi, Renata G.; Forte, Emanuele; Colucci, Renato R.

    2017-04-01

    The challenge of reconstructing palaeo-ice sheets past growth and decay represent a critical task to better understand mechanisms of present and future global climate change. Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and the subsequent deglaciation until Pre-Industrial time (PI) represent an excellent testing ground for numerical Ice Sheet Models (ISMs), due to the abundant data available that can be used in an ISM as boundary conditions, forcings or constraints to test the ISMs results. In our study, we simulate with ISMs the post-LGM decay of the Eurasian Ice Sheets, with a focus on the marine-based Svalbard-Barents Sea-Kara Sea Ice Sheet. In particular, we aim to reconstruct the Storfjorden ice stream dynamics history by comparing the model results with the marine geological data (MSGLs, GZWs, sediment cores analysis) available from the area, e.g., Pedrosa et al. 2011, Rebesco et al. 2011, 2013, Lucchi et al. 2013. Two hybrid SIA/SSA ISMs are employed, GRISLI, Ritz et al. 2001, and PSU, Pollard&DeConto 2012. These models differ mainly in the complexity with which grounding line migration is treated. Climate forcing is interpolated by means of climate indexes between LGM and PI climate. Regional climate indexes are constructed based on the non-accelerated deglaciation transient experiment carried out with CCSM3, Liu et al. 2009. Indexes representative of the climate evolution over Siberia, Svalbard and Scandinavia are employed. The impact of such refined representation as opposed to the common use of the NGRIP δ18O index for transient experiments is analysed. In this study, the ice-ocean interaction is crucial to reconstruct the Storfjorden ice stream dynamics history. To investigate the sensitivity of the ice shelf/stream retreat to ocean temperature, we allow for a space-time variation of basal melting under the ice shelves by testing two-equations implementations based on Martin et al. 2011 forced with simulated ocean temperature and salinity from the TraCE-21ka coupled

  8. 76 FR 33362 - In the Matter of Certain Radio Control Hobby Transmitters and Receivers and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... transmitters and receivers and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,391,320, U.S. Copyright Reg. No. TX-7-226-001, and U.S. Trademark Reg. No. 3,080,770. The...

  9. 76 FR 60872 - In the Matter of Certain Radio Control Hobby Transmitters and Receivers and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... infringement of certain claims of U.S. ] Patent No. 7,391,320 (``the '320 patent''), U.S. Copyright Reg. No. TX- 7-226-001 (``the '001 copyright''), and U.S. Trademark Reg. No. 3,080,770 (``the 770 mark''). The...

  10. Key to mass literacy or professor's hobby? Fiske's project to write Egyptian Arabic with the Latin alphabet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zack, L.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this essay is the alphabetization project of Daniel Willard Fiske (1831-1904). Fiske’s project would allow the Egyptians to adopt a new alphabet based on the Latin one, and to adopt Egyptian Arabic as their official written language. The project was inspired by Fiske’s discussions

  11. Teaching public health in UK medical schools: 'things have improved: teaching no longer feels like an expensive hobby'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Anna K; Hothersall, Eleanor J; Gillam, Steve

    2016-09-01

    Recent policy initiatives in the UK have underlined the importance of public health education for healthcare professionals. We aimed to describe teaching inputs to medical undergraduate curricula, to identify perceived challenges in the delivery of public health teaching and make recommendations that may overcome them. We undertook a cross-sectional survey; questionnaires were sent electronically to 32 teaching leads in academic departments of public health in UK medical schools and followed up by telephone interviews. We obtained a 75% response rate; 13 public health teaching leads were interviewed. We found much variability between schools in teaching methods, curricular content and resources used. Concerns regarding the long-term sustainability of teaching focus on: staffing levels and availability, funding and the prioritization of research over teaching. We give examples of integration of public health with clinical teaching, innovative projects in public health and ways of enabling students to witness public health in action. There is a need to increase the supply of well-trained and motivated teachers and combine the best traditional teaching methods with more innovative approaches. Suggestions are made as to how undergraduate public health teaching can be strengthened. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Curved flight paths and sideways vision in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, V A; Tucker, A E; Akers, K; Enderson, J H

    2000-12-01

    When diving at prey straight ahead from great distances at high speeds, a peregrine has a conflict between vision and aerodynamics: it must turn its head approximately 40 degrees to one side to see the prey with maximum visual acuity at the deep fovea of one eye, but the head in this position increases aerodynamic drag and slows the falcon down. The falcon could resolve this conflict by holding its head straight and flying along a logarithmic spiral path that keeps the line of sight of the deep fovea pointed sideways at the prey. Wild peregrines, observed with binoculars, telescopes and a tracking device, did approach prey the size of American robins (Turdus migratorius) and smaller birds from distances of up to 1500 m by holding their heads straight and flying along curved paths that resembled the logarithmic spiral.

  13. Peale's peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus pealei) studies in Alaska, June 12-24, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey coverage for peregrines along the Alaska Coast has been incomplete and variable in intensity. The lack of trend data, increased development activity in Alaska...

  14. A second Uganda record of Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-05

    Oct 5, 2014 ... A bird atlas of Kenya. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. SKEEN, R.Q. 2014. A review of birds in Uganda: records updating the Uganda Atlas and notes on species unrecorded since 1980. Scopus 33: 53–63. Roger Q. Skeen. NatureUganda, Plot 1, Katalina Crescent, Naguru, P.O. Box 27034, Kampala, Uganda.

  15. Contaminants in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from Virginia, Maryland and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Peregrine falcons were extirpated in the eastern United States in the 1960s principally due to the use of organochlorine pesticides, particularly DDT (Peakall et...

  16. Status of the merlin (Falco c. columbarius) in interior Alaska: 1984 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ongoing studies discussed here assess the current status of the taiga merlin in central Alaska, present preliminary findings on the extent of pesticide...

  17. On the brink: status and breeding ecology of Eleonora’s Falcon Falco eleonorae in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Touati, Läid; Nedjah, Riad; Samraqui, Farrah; Alfarhanm, A.H.; Gangoso, Laura; Figuerola, Jordi; Samaqui, B.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study reporting the population status and reproductive biology of the Eleonora’s Falcon in Algeria. To determine the status, nest site selection, and breeding parameters, data were collected at Chetaïbi, north-east Algeria in 2010 and 2012. During this period, the number of breeding pairs decreased from 130 to 100, which represents an annual decrease rate of 12.29%. The mean clutch size was 2.6 ± 0.5 (n = 90) and 2.9 ± 0.4 (n = 34) in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Clutches di...

  18. Louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera infestations of the Amur Falcon (Falco amurensis and the Red-footed Falcon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piross Imre Sándor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the louse species harboured by Red-footed and Amur Falcons despite the fact that various life-history traits of these hosts make them good model species to study host-parasite interactions. We collected lice samples from fully grown Amur (n=20 and Red-footed Falcons (n=59, and from nestlings of Red-footed Falcons (n=179 in four countries: Hungary, India, Italy and South Africa. We identified 3 louse species on both host species, namely Degeeriella rufa, Colpocephalum subzerafae and Laembothrion tinnunculi. The latter species has never been found on these hosts. Comparing population parameters of lice between hosts we found significantly higher prevalence levels of D. rufa and C. subzerafae on Amur Falcons. Adult Red-footed Falcons had higher D. rufa prevalence compared to C. subzerafae. For the first time we also show inter-annual shift in prevalence and intensity levels of these species on Red-footed Falcons; in 2012 on adult hosts C. subzerafae had higher intensity levels than D. rufa, however in 2014 D. rufa had significantly higher intensity compared to C. subzerafae. In case of nestlings both louse species had significantly higher preva lence levels than in 2014. The exact causes of such inter-annual shifts are yet to be understood.

  19. Diet of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug and Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca from Central Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study on the diet of Saker falcon (n = 15 nests and Eastern imperial eagle (n = 2 nests from south Kazakhstan, on the basis of food remains and pellets collected during the 2009 breeding season. The main prey for Saker falcon was predominantly rodents living in middle-size colonies – Spermophilus erytrogenys and Rhombomys opimus. We also present the results from the diet of two pairs of Eastern imperial eagles nesting close to Balkhash Lake.

  20. Time Allocation in the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and the Principle of Energy Minimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Dirkjan; Daan, Serge; Dijkstra, Cor

    (1) Time allocation of the kestrel in the Netherlands was established by dawn to dusk observation of focal birds. Time budgets were analysed with respect to time of year, phase of the breeding cycle, sex and weather conditions. (2) The common vole, Microtus arvalis L., was the major food source (92%