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Sample records for euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous

  1. ( Euphorbiaceae ) leaf and seed aqueous extracts against Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this context, the purpose of the present search was to explore the larvicidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. leaf and seed extracts against Culex pipiens L. The larvicidal activity was evaluated in eight different provenances recently introduced in Tunisia (Tanzania (ARU), Mozambique (MOZ), Surinam (SUR) and Brazil ...

  2. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  3. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) Inhibits Enzymatic and Biological Actions of Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Silva, Juliana; Souza, Thiago; Menezes, Yamara A. S.; Cabral, Bárbara; Câmara, Rafael B. G.; Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.; Rebecchi, Ivanise M. M.; Zucolotto, Silvana M.; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F.

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs), including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs), as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2). Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects, suggesting that

  4. Systematic leaf anatomy of Baccaurea, Distichirhops, and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, S.; Haegens, R.M.A.P.; Heuven, van B.J.; Baas, P.

    2001-01-01

    The leaf anatomical diversity of the genera Baccaurea Lour. (43 species), Distichirhops Haegens (3 species) and Nothobaccaurea Haegens (2 species) (Euphorbiaceae) is described. Two species of Aporosa and three species of Maesobotrya were examined for comparison. The following characters are

  5. Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Family Euphorbiaceae) Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes was induced by feeding the rats with HFD that consisted of 20% sucrose and 20% lard for 4 weeks, followed by a single dose intraperitoneal injection of STZ (40mg/kg body weight (BW)). The aqueous leaf extract of ... diet and HFD respectively. Metformin (50mg/kg BW) was used as a standard antidiabetic drug.

  6. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Leaf Extracts from Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Ana Karina Lima; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Scortecci, Katia Castanho

    2013-01-01

    Plukenetia volubilis Linneo, or Sacha inca, is an oleaginous plant from the Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this work was to perform a chemical and biological analysis of different leaf extracts from P. volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL), methanol (MEL), ethanol (EEL), chloroform (CEL), and hexane (HEL). Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids, and/or terpenoídes. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were analyzed by in vitro assays ...

  7. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Leaf Extracts from Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Karina Lima; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Scortecci, Katia Castanho

    2013-01-01

    Plukenetia volubilis Linneo, or Sacha inca, is an oleaginous plant from the Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this work was to perform a chemical and biological analysis of different leaf extracts from P. volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL), methanol (MEL), ethanol (EEL), chloroform (CEL), and hexane (HEL). Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids, and/or terpenoídes. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were analyzed by in vitro assays and their effects on cell lineages by in vivo assays. The Total Antioxidant Capacity (TCA) was expressed as equivalent ascorbic acid (EEA/g) and it was observed that the extracts showed values ranging from 59.31 to 97.76 EAA/g. Furthermore, the DPPH assay values ranged from 62.8% to 88.3%. The cell viability assay showed that the extracts were able to reduce viability from cancer cells such as HeLa and A549 cells. The extracts MEL and HEL (250 µg/mL) were able to reduce the proliferation of HeLa cells up to 54.3% and 48.5%, respectively. The flow cytometer results showed that these extracts induce cell death via the apoptosis pathway. On the other hand, the extracts HEL and AEL were able to induce cell proliferation of normal fibroblast 3T3 cells.

  8. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Leaf Extracts from Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Lima Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plukenetia volubilis Linneo, or Sacha inca, is an oleaginous plant from the Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this work was to perform a chemical and biological analysis of different leaf extracts from P. volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL, methanol (MEL, ethanol (EEL, chloroform (CEL, and hexane (HEL. Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids, and/or terpenoídes. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were analyzed by in vitro assays and their effects on cell lineages by in vivo assays. The Total Antioxidant Capacity (TCA was expressed as equivalent ascorbic acid (EEA/g and it was observed that the extracts showed values ranging from 59.31 to 97.76 EAA/g. Furthermore, the DPPH assay values ranged from 62.8% to 88.3%. The cell viability assay showed that the extracts were able to reduce viability from cancer cells such as HeLa and A549 cells. The extracts MEL and HEL (250 µg/mL were able to reduce the proliferation of HeLa cells up to 54.3% and 48.5%, respectively. The flow cytometer results showed that these extracts induce cell death via the apoptosis pathway. On the other hand, the extracts HEL and AEL were able to induce cell proliferation of normal fibroblast 3T3 cells.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Cleistanthus collinus Aqueous Leaf Extract and Fractions for its Antibacterial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaraj Elangomathavan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug resistance property of disease causing pathogens is a serious issue in the field of medicine and so further attempts to search for new antimicrobial agents from plant source is the need of the hour. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the preliminary phytochemicals and investigate the antibacterial potential of Cleistanthus collinus (Euphorbiaceae aqueous extract and fractions. Materials and Methods: C. collinus plant leaf material was dried and the hot aqueous extract was prepared. All the fractions obtained from serial and direct extraction methods were subjected to the preliminary phytochemical screening and characterization. Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of C. collinus crude aqueous extract and its fractions were analyzed against selected pathogens. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening, UV-Vis spectrum analysis clearly differentiate crude leaf extract and fractions. Among the tested plant extract and fractions, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions showed profound antibacterial activity. Serial fraction of hexane showed higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae (21 - 40 mm zone of inhibition and MICs 36.5 - 70.5 μg. V. cholerae was highly susceptible to all the fractions and extract of C. collinus. Conclusions: Aqueous extract and its serial fractions of C. collinus exhibited bactericidal activity against tested pathogens. This study confirms the presence of promising Phyto-constituents in C. collinus leaf material which could be exploited for the further pharmacological studies to develop a drug to control the infectious disease causing pathogens.

  10. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Leaf Extracts from Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (Euphorbiaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nascimento, Ana Karina Lima; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Scortecci, Katia Castanho

    2013-01-01

    .... volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL), methanol (MEL), ethanol (EEL), chloroform (CEL), and hexane (HEL). Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids...

  11. sub-chronic administration of aqueous leaf extract of ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    RESULTS. The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening of the Ficus sycomorus aqueous leaf extract is presented in Table 1. The results of serum activities of. ALT, AST and ALP; and levels of urea and creatinine in rats following respective oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Ficus sycomorus for both sets:.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous, methanol and chloroform leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of aqueous, methanol and chloroform leaf extracts of Cissus multistriata were investigated against 8 bacterial and 2 fungal test organisms, using the tube dilution and agar ditch diffusion methods. Aqueous leaf extract had no activity against both the bacterial and fungal test organisms. Both the methanol ...

  13. Effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the possible toxicological effects of the ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of this plant on renal and heart functions in Wistar albino rats. Both extracts were ... These results suggest non-toxic effects of leaf extracts of P. mildbraedii on the kidney and heart in rats. Hence, the plant can be ...

  14. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of tridax procumbens on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cardiovascular effects of aqueous extract from the leaf of Tridax procumbens were investigated on anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rat. The intravenous administration of 3, 6, and 9mg/Kg of the aqueous extract caused significant decreases in the mean arterial blood pressure in a dose-related manner; i.e. the extract ...

  15. Effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. aqueous leaf extracts on follicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the effect of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extracts on follicle stimulating hormone and serum cholesterol in Wistar rats. Thirty six (36) mature Wistar rats (20 male and 16 female rats) were used. The male rats were grouped into four groups with five animals each, while the female animals were grouped ...

  16. Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Andrographis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of lead compound in the management of liver diseases. Key words: Hepatoprotective, Andrographis ... necrosis, increase in tissue lipid peroxidation and depletion of reduced glutathione levels. In addition, ..... paniculata aqueous leaf extract were determined using serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and.

  17. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Combretum Micranthum g. don ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Combretum micranthum were studied on gastro intestinal smooth muscle of rodents. The extract was screened using isolated rabbit jejunum, guinea pig ileum and rat uterus. The extract produced relaxation of isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum. The relaxation of guinea pig ...

  18. Comparative and Interactive Studies of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Lamiaceae), vitamin C and vitamin E on the basal serum phosphatases- alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (ACPT) and prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) of the male guinea-pig.

  19. Myostimulating effect of Sesamum radiatum aqueous leaf extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried to examine the effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Sesamum radiatum,a laxative plant on the contractile activity of Taenia caeci, an intestinal smooth muscle. Strips of Taenia caeci were rapidly removed from guinea-pig and were suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml ...

  20. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of carmona microphylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G. Don. (CAE) in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The lipid-lowering effect of CAE was investigated in oleic acid (OA)-induced steatosis in HepG2 liver cells, as well as in high-fat diet (HFD)- and triton WR-1339 ...

  1. Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Andrographis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia (Khan,. 2007). The aim of the present study was to determine the LD50 and the hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous leaf extract of A. paniculata against carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of plant material. Fresh leaves of A. paniculata ...

  2. Curative potential of aqueous extract of Ziphus mauritiana leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The curative potential of the aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leaf was evaluated in chronic alcohol-induced liver damage. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB) and uric acid (UA) were significantly (p<0.05) elevated in group ...

  3. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract of Peperomia pellucida was investigated on Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Agar-well diffusion method. Results showed that E. coli displayed the highest susceptibility in water extract (17.4mm–21.2mm) followed by P.

  4. Pretreatment of albino rats with aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The effect of the aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leaf on hepatic lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant status was studied in chronic alcohol-induced liver damage. Method: Alcohol-induced liver toxicity was created by oral administration of 40% alcohol solution (v/v, 1ml/100g) to rats for ...

  5. Sub-Acute Hepatoxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub–acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), ...

  6. REMOVAL OF Ni(II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING LEAF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    College of Natural and Computational Science, Department of Chemistry .... Removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution using leaf, bark and seed of M. stenopetala. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2013, 27(1). 37. Determination of adsorption ..... In order to apply the method on industrial wastewater sample, characterization of the.

  7. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of the aqueous leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Murraya koenigii was studied in normal and alloxan- induced diabetic rats. The extract was administered orally at 100 mg/Kg, 150 mg/Kg and 200 mg/Kg bodyweight each to respective groups of animals (Groups I, II and III) for seven days. Group IV received normal saline ...

  8. Oral Supplementation with Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus Carica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione metabolism may play a vital role in the antioxidant defence of these cells as it does in other cells in the body. ... There was a significant increase in red blood cell count, PCV and platelet count in mice treated with aqueous leaf extract of Ficus carica while the red cell membrane fragility was significantly reduced ...

  9. Neurodegenerative Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocimum gratissimum is an herbaceous perennial shrub which is widely distributed in many regions. It is consumed in food as seasoning locally in Nigeria. In the present study, the effect of the acute administration of the aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (AeOG) on prefrontal cortical neurons was checked to ...

  10. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina Del ) and sniper 1000EC (2,3 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) using the Alium cepa ... 96 hours and EC50 values at 95% confidence interval was determined from a plot of root length against sample concentrations using Microsoft Excel software.

  11. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Dombeya buttneri on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Dombeya buttneri on the gastrointestinal tract of Guinea Pig and Rat. OO Okwari, OE Ofem, AO Obembe, AB Antai, EE Osin. Abstract. No Abstract. Mary Slessor Journal of Medicine Vol. 8 (1) 2008: pp. 1-5. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  12. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders. Methods and Results: In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic ...

  13. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ...

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol and Aqueous Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol and Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don. ... All test organisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum and Candida albicans) were found to be sensitive to both extracts. Methanol ...

  15. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders.In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema.These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.

  16. Acute toxicity of Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Al-Badrani; M. S. Rhaymah; M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    The median lethal dose was evaluated in rabbits subcutaneously injected with Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract . The clinical signs , postmortem changes , hematological and biochemical changes were recorded. The results revealed that the median lethal dose was 157.37 mg / kg B. wt. The live animals showed nervous signs in the second days after treatment as crying, ataxia , abdominal respiration , inaddition to a significant increase in body temperature and loss in the body weigth then all ...

  17. Antidepressant-like effect of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) in mice: involvement of monoaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Agbaje, Esther O; Akinleye, Moshood O; Ibeh, Chris O; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O

    2014-12-02

    The leaf of Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression. Previous studies have shown its potent antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST). Hence, this study sought to investigate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect elicited by hydroethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (HeAC) in the FST. HeAC (25-400mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1h before the FST. To investigate the contribution of monoaminergic systems to antidepressant-like effect, receptors antagonists were injected 15min before oral administration of HeAC (200mg/kg) to mice and 1h thereafter, subjected to FST. HeAC (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose dependent and significant (P<0.001) antidepressant-like effect, in the FST, without accompanying changes in spontaneous locomotor activities in the open-field test. The anti-immobility effect of HeAC (200mg/kg) in the FST was prevented by pretreatment of mice with SCH 23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, i.p., an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and GR 127993 (5-HT1B receptor antagonist). Similarly, 3 days intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, 150mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) prevented the antidepressant-like effect elicited by HeAC. The combination of subeffective doses of imipramine (5mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (5mg/kg, p.o.), with HeAC (25mg/kg, p.o., subeffective dose) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. The hydroethanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia possesses antidepressant-like effect mediated through interaction with dopamine (D1 and D2), noradrenergic (α1 and α2 adrenoceptors), and serotonergic (5HT1B receptors) systems. Also, the potentiation

  18. Action of Aqueous Extracts of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae leaves on Meristematic Root Cells of Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERASMOVLANE S.B. NEVES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extracts of dried Phyllanthus niruri L. (stonebreaker leaves on Allium cepa L. root meristem cells at four concentrations, 0.02 (usual concentration, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08mg/mL and exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For each concentration we used a group of five onion bulbs that were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective concentrations. The radicles were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique and stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control and exposure time. The calculated mitotic indices were subjected to the Chi-squared statistical analysis (p<0.05. From the results obtained it was observed that all four concentrations tested had significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system. We also found the presence of cellular aberrations such as colchicined metaphases, anaphasic and telophasic bridges, and micronuclei in the two exposure times for all concentrations evaluated. Therefore, under the conditions studied the concentrations of aqueous extracts of leaves of P. niruri showed to be cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  19. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous extracts of Margaritaria discoidea (Euphorbiaceae stem bark in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A Adedapo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Margaritaria discoidea is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various body pains in Central, Eastern and Southern Africa. The aqueous extract of its stem bark was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The extract at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract had a good analgesic effect characterized by a reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. Similarly, the extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 2.5% formalin. These results were also comparable to those of indomethacin, the reference drug used in this study. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant may be safe for pharmacological uses. This study has provided some justification for the folkloric use of the plant in several communities for conditions such as stomachache, pain and inflammations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1193-1200. Epub 2009 December 01.Margaritaria discoidea es una planta medicinal usada para el tratamiento de varios dolores corporales en la parte sur, central y oriental de África. Se investigaron las propiedades analgésicas y antiinflamatorias de la extracción acuosa de la corteza de su tallo en modelos animales. Los extractos de 50, 100 y 200mg/kg de peso corporal redujeron significativamente la formación del edema inducido por la carragenina y la histamina. En el modelo de contracción abdominal inducida por ácido acético, el extracto mostró un buen efecto analgésico caracterizado por la reducción en el número de contracciones en comparación con el grupo control. El extracto causó una disminución dependiente de la dosis del tiempo y la frecuencia de lamido en las ratas inyectadas con formalina al 2.5%, lo cual evidencia su efecto analgésico. Estos resultados fueron comparables con los de la

  1. Acute toxicity of Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Al-Badrani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The median lethal dose was evaluated in rabbits subcutaneously injected with Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract . The clinical signs , postmortem changes , hematological and biochemical changes were recorded. The results revealed that the median lethal dose was 157.37 mg / kg B. wt. The live animals showed nervous signs in the second days after treatment as crying, ataxia , abdominal respiration , inaddition to a significant increase in body temperature and loss in the body weigth then all animals die during 4 -5 day.The postmortem changes included hemorrhages , and congestion in all organs particularly in the subcutaneous tissue. Hematological changes including increase in the packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration ,and erythrocytic count and leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia .Significant increase in the aspartate and alanine aminotraferease activities , serum sodium and potassium ions , and inhibition in blood cholinesterase activity in both erythrocytes and plasma in 2 and 24 houres after injection as compared to the values in animals before injection.

  2. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae Efeito dos extratos de caule e folha de espécies de Euphorbiaceae sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Goretti Araújo de Lima; Ismália Cassandra Costa Maia; Bruna Dantas de Sousa; Selene Maia de Morais; Sílvia Maria Freitas

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates) obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL), in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 ...

  3. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae Efeito dos extratos de caule e folha de espécies de Euphorbiaceae sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Araújo de Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL, in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 hours. The data obtained were submitted to Variance Analysis and Tukey test. Significant differences were observed among the hydrolates from different species and from different parts of each plant (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida dos hidrolatos obtidos por destilação à vapor de caule e folha das espécies de Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus e Croton zehntneri contra Aedes aegypti. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 25 larvas de 3º estádio juntamente com 50 mL de cada hidrolato, dispostos em recipientes plásticos, num esquema de quatro repetições, utilizando-se como controle a água e avaliando-se a mortalidade com 24 horas de tratamento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Verificou-se que houve diferença significativa tanto em relação aos hidrolatos das diferentes espécies vegetais, quanto em relação às diferentes partes de cada planta (p < 0,001. Os hidrolatos referentes ao caule e folha de C. nepetaefolius e C. zehntneri causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas e diferiram das demais espécies, exceto da folha do C. argyrophylloides que apresentou o mesmo resultado. Os compostos presentes em C. zehntneri e C. nepetaefolius são fenil propanóides mais solúveis em água que os monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos detectados em C. argyrophylloides e C. sonderianus. Esta pesquisa evidenciou que todas as espécies testadas possuem compostos com

  4. REMOVAL OF Ni(II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING LEAF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    as alternative adsorbents for removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solutions. ... cigarettes. Skin contact with nickel-contaminated soil or water may also result in nickel exposure. Small amounts of nickel are needed by the human body to ... more economically favorable alternative for the removal of metals from aqueous solutions.

  5. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J

    2006-08-01

    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy.

  6. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of the study show that there is interaction between ciprofloxacin and Carica papaya. This interaction can be avoided by taking ciprofloxacin at least 3 h prior to administration of the leaf extract of C. papaya. Keywords: Carica papaya, Ciprofloxacin, Sickle cell anaemia, Herb-drug interaction, ...

  7. Efficacy of aqueous leaf extracts of negro coffee ( Cassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and infra-red spectrum to determine the secondary metabolites in the leaf extracts were also carried out. It was observed that the treated plants especially those that received 50% level and above performed significantly better (p=0.05) than the control with respect to the measured parameters.

  8. Antiproliferative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of length and weight of isolated tumor from rat induced with DMBA only was 2.4 cm and 2.8 g respectively. DNA smears obtained from single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) suggested possible DMBA-induced damage which was significantly prevented owing to the effect of the leaf extract of M. pruriens.

  9. Effects Of Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Vernonia Amygdalina On Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, the significant reduction in bood glucose and serum triglyceride level observed in this study may help in alleviating some of the complications associated with diabetic conditions. Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina, Leaf extract, Blood glucose, Serum triglyceride, Diabetic rats. Animal Research International Vol.

  10. aqueous leaf extract of rothmannia longiflora improves basal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    significant decreases (P<0.01) in sodium and chloride concentrations in the diabetic untreated group when compared to the control. However ... of the University of Calabar, Calabar. The. Botanical identification of the plant leaf was done ... chamber was closed and made airtight using silicon grease. Normal breathing was ...

  11. Acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... forest zones, straight tapering boles branching from low down often gregarious and effectively killing out grasses. (Dalziel, 1937). .... Histopathological changes observed in various organs of dead rats treated with single dose (i.p.) of leaf extract of A. leiocarpus. Observed changes. Dose. (mg/kg). Lungs.

  12. Efficacy Of Aqueous Extract Of Carica papaya Leaf In The Control Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the potency of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf extract (aqueous) in the treatment of coccidial infection in chicken. Three hundred cockerel chicks (aged four weeks) were used for this study. The experimental chicks were divided into five groups (treatments) of twenty each and replicated ...

  13. Anti-Diarrheal Activity of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ageratum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus its aqueous leaf extract was investigated for its possible anti-diarrheal property using castor oil induced diarrheal, charcoal meal intestinal transit and castor oil-induced enteropooling models in Wistar rats to substantiate its folklore claim. In castor oil induced diarrheal model, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight ...

  14. Anti-seizure activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Solanum nigrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The aqueous leaf extract produced a significantly (P<0.05) dose dependent protection against electrically-induced seizure in chicks and rats, pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice and rats and picrotoxin-induced seizure in mice and rats. The antiseizure property of the extract was potentiated by amphetamine.

  15. Anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and determine its relevance in the treatment of vibrios infection. Methods: The agar-well diffusion method was used for screening the extracts for their anti-vibrio activity. Broth micro-dilution assay was used to ...

  16. Anti-ulcer activity of aqueous leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nauclea latifolia is known to possess various therapeutic properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of aqueous leaf extract of N. latifolia against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Five groups of albino rats were pre-treated orally with: vehicle, distilled water (ulcer control), ...

  17. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

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    Maristela Imatomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  18. The effects of Catharanthus roseus (l) g. don 1838 aqueous leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant and phytochemical products continue to play an important role in medicine. In this study, the toxicological potentials of the aqueous leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus G. Don 1838 in rabbits were determined. The rabbits were placed in three groups with four rabbits in each group. The control group, a second group ...

  19. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Solanum aethiopicum on isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacological reactivity of guinea pig ileum to aqueous extract of Solanum aethiocpicum was determined in vitro. Extract of the vegetable contracted the isolated ileum in a dose dependent fashion. These contractions were inhibited by mepyramine (5x10-5M) cimetidine (5 x 10-5M )and atropine (5x10-5M) inferring that ...

  20. Profertility effects of aqueous leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, few studies have been carried out on its fertility effects in males with most of such studies offering conflicting results. The present study evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of the leaves of T. occidentalis on male fertility in adult wistar rats. The thirty rats used for this study were randomized into groups A, B and ...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Europe, Acacia and Eucalyptus, originate large amounts of biomass, due to their need by industries and other biological control, that can be used to extract antimicrobial substances. Materials and Methods: Foliar aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Acacia baileyana (Cootamundra wattle), Acacia ...

  2. Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many minor components of foods, such as secondary plant metabolites, have been shown to posses antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress on diabetes and other disease conditions. This study evaluates the effect of aqueous extracts from Vernonia amygdalina leaves on lipid profiles and oxidative ...

  3. Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of the Leaf of Cissampellos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... outcome measure: Litter number Results: The extract significantly reduced the number of litters produced by the rat. Conclusion: Cissampellos Owriences has a deleterious effect on the reproductive system and caution must be exercised in its use in humans. Key Words: Crude aqueous extract, Cissampellos Owariences, ...

  4. Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O; Kamadyaapa, D R; Gondwe, M M; Moodley, K; Musabayane, C T

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) aqueous leaf extract (PAE) have been investigated in some experimental animal paradigms. The effects of PAE on myocardial contractile performance was evaluated on guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips, while the vasodilatory effects of the plant extract were examined on isolated portal veins and thoracic aortic rings of healthy normal Wistar rats in vitro. The hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract was examined in healthy normotensive and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats in vivo. P americana aqueous leaf extract (25-800 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent, significant (p americana leaf could be used as a natural supplementary remedy in essential hypertension and certain cases of cardiac dysfunctions in some rural Africa communities.

  5. Antifungal effects of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Z; Javadian, F; Khammari, D; Hassanshahian, M

    2016-03-01

    In traditional medicine, herbal products still remain the principal source of pharmaceutical agents. The present study aimed to investigate the antifungal effects of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis extracts on C. albicans species. :The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis, collected from the mountainous regions of Iran, were screened in terms of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains, using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microtitration technique. Overall, the results showed that the leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis had strong antimicrobial activities. Also, based on the findings, R. officinalis leaf extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis showed good antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains. However, the aqueous extracts did not show any major activities against the tested C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts exhibited major antimicrobial properties against C. albicans strains. The highest minimum inhibitory concentration was reported in E. platyloba leaf extracts. The present results indicated some advantages of E. platyloba and R. officinalis leaf extracts, which could be applied for the treatment of microbial infections.

  6. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium Using Sorbaria sorbifolia Aqueous Leaf Extract

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    Shashi Prabha Dubey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous plant leaves extract (PLE of an abundant shrub, Sorbaria sorbifolia, was explored for the reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, to trivalent chromium, Cr(III. The effect of contact time, pH, PLE quantity, ionic strength, hardness, temperature and effective initial Cr(VI ion concentration were tested; Cr(VI reduction followed the pseudo-first order rate kinetics and maximum reduction was observed at pH 2. Significantly, Cr(VI reduction efficacies varied from 97 to 66% over the pH range of 2 to 10, which bodes well for PLE to be used for the reduction of Cr(VI also at a higher pH. PLE-mediated Cr(VI reduction displays considerable efficiency at various ionic strengths; however, hardness strongly affects the reduction ability. Higher temperature significantly enhances the Cr(VI reduction. This study reveals the potential use of PLE as a green reducing agent in aqueous extract for the efficient reduction of Cr(VI to Cr(III.

  7. Dose-dependent acute phase response of aqueous leaf decoction of Nerium oleander in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M H; Fatima, S; Khawar, M B; Naz, N; Mujeeb, K A; Akhtar, T; Sheikh, N

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out in order to determine the toxicity of medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to compare and analyze the hepatic response against two doses of Nerium oleander, (N. oleander) “kaner” leaf decoction. Aqueous leaf decoction was injected intramuscularly into both hind limbs of male rats (200∓10g), assigned into three categories (n=4): control group with no treatment; group I, injected with 5 ml/ kg; and group II injected with 10 ml/ kg of leaf decoction, respectively. Animals were sacrificed 6 h after administration and hepato-histological changes were then observed. The decoction induced an acute phase reaction reflected by a more significant recruitment of inflammatory cells in group II than in group I and controls, as observed by histological studies. These results indicated that both doses can induce an acute-phase condition. Hence, traditional practice of medicinal plants without preliminary dose assessment must not be administered.

  8. EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC STUDY OF ADSORPTION OF NICKEL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ONTO BAEL TREE LEAF POWDER

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    P. SENTHIL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bael tree (BT leaf powder to adsorb nickel, Ni2+, from aqueous solutions has been investigated through batch experiments. The Ni2+ adsorption was found to be dependent on adsorbent dosage, initial concentration and contact time. All batch experiments were carried out at natural solution pH and at a constant temperature of 30°C using wrist-action shaker that operated at 120 rpm. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The monolayer adsorption capacity is 1.527 mg Ni per g BT leaf powder. The experiments showed that highest removal rate was 60.21% for Ni2+ under optimal conditions. The kinetic processes of Ni2+ adsorption on BT leaf powder were described by applying pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. The kinetic data for the adsorption process obeyed pseudo-second-order rate equations. The BT leaf powder investigated in this study exhibited a high potential for the removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution.

  9. Rosemary and Pitanga Aqueous Leaf Extracts On Beef Patties Stability under Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carolina Vargas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because processing and storage conditions affect several beef quality attributes, the food industry uses a variety of synthetic antioxidants. However, some synthetic antioxidants have been questioned regarding its safety, and thus the interest in using natural antioxidants in food products is increasing. This paper aimed at assessing leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus as antioxidants in beef cold storage. After 48h storage, patties added of Rosemary leaf extracts showed increased pH. Patties added of Pitanga extracts had the lowest a* color values. Oxymyoglobin levels were significantly higher for Negative control, than for Pitanga treatment. The 10% extract addition increased lipid oxidation of beef patties. Correlation coefficients between lipid and myoglobin oxidations were all above 0.85. Pitanga leaf extracts negatively influenced beef color, probably because of its higher chlorophyll content. Lipid oxidation of beef patties was increased with the addition of leaf extracts. The inclusion of 10% leaf extract into beef patties seems not suitable, because it may enhance the amount of prooxidant compounds, as well as the amount of substances capable of reacting with lipid secondary products. Correlations between lipid and myoglobin oxidations demonstrated strong relationship.

  10. Role of Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous leaf extracts of Murraya koenigii in Gastroprotection

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    Hyacinth Highland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii leaves are regularly used in our diet and hence, our gastrointestinal tract is regularly exposed to this extract. Therefore the present study was focused on the evaluation of the Gastroprotective action of Murraya koenigii leaf extracts on Pancreas and Duodenum. Male albino mice (35-40 gm were treated with Murraya koenigii leaf extracts (Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous, against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxic model for seven days, using two different dose concentrations.The mice were divided into six groups, including Group I –Untreated Controls and Group I A –Vehicle controls.  The negative control (Group II was administered CCl4 along with vehicle (olive oil.  Group III and IV were administered low dose (150 mg/kg body weight of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts after inducing toxicity with CCl4. Similarly, Group V and VI were administered with high dose (250mg/kg body weight of the extracts. Biochemical markers included ATPase, ALKpase, ACPase, SDH, Protein and Cholesterol in both target tissues; duodenal Triglycerides and Pancreatic amylase were also estimated. It was observed that Murraya koenigii leaf extracts had a mitigative  effect and were able to bring the elevated levels of ATPase, SDH, ALKPase, ACPase and Amylase to near normal values. The hydroalcoholic extract proved to be more effective than the aqueous extract. Hence, Murraya koenigii leaf extracts have potent ameliorative action on the CCl4 induced toxicity in the duodenum and pancreas, manifesting potent gastroprotective activity. The present study has significant impact since the plant is used extensively in both cuisine and medication.

  11. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  13. Antidiarrheal activity of aqueous leaf extract of Ceratotheca sesamoides in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin M Ya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antidiarrheal effects of the aqueous leaf extract of C. sesamoides at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight was evaluated in female rats using gastrointestinal transit, diarrhea and enteropooling induced by castor oil models. The extract was positive for alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenolics. The 25 mg/kg body weight of the extract significantly (p<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhea, decreased the fecal parameters (number, water content, fresh weight, total number of wet feaces with no episode in the animals treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The activity of small intestine Na+-K+ ATPase increased (p<0.05 while the nitric oxide, volume and mass of intestinal fluid as well as the distance travelled by the charcoal meal decreased. The patterns of changes were similar to the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrheal activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Ceratotheca sesamoides may be due to alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids and saponins present in the extract.

  14. In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Jackson Rafael Oliveira; Silva, Giselle Cristina; Costa, Renata Albuquerque; de Sousa Fontenelle, Joseí Res Lira; Vieira, Gustavo Hitzschky Fernandes; Filho, Antonio Adauto Fonteles; dos Fernandes Vieira, Regine Helena Silva

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (Moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria. Paper disks were soaked with 100, 200, 300 and 400 μL of extract at 20 g/180 mL and 10 g/190 mL. All extracts were tested against Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteritidis (IH) and Aeromonas caviae. The susceptibility tests were performed using the modified disk diffusion method. The strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis (IH) were resistant to all treatments. In general, disks with 400 μL extract were the most efficient against S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus, E. faecalis and A. caviae. The study indicates a promising potential for aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts as alternative treatment of infections caused by the tested strains. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of neuropharmacological effects of aqueous leaf extract of Albizia glaberrima (Leguminosae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebesin, Ibukun F; Akindele, Abidemi J; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O

    2015-02-03

    Albizia glaberrima is a shrub found in the deciduous forest and jungle of the coastal plain of West Africa. Preparations of the plant are used traditionally in the treatment of fever, pain and central nervous system disorders, including epilepsy. This study was conducted to investigate the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Albizia glaberrima in mice. The hole-board, elevated plus-maze, thiopentone-induced sleep (anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotic), traction, climbing, inclined screen (muscle relaxant), strychnine-, picrotoxin- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion (anticonvulsant) tests were employed in this study. Albizia glaberrima extract at 200mg/kg significantly increased the duration of head dips (p400mg/kg, Albizia glaberrima extract significantly reduced the number of sectional crossings relative to control. The extract at 400mg/kg significantly (p400mg/kg, as was the case with diazepam (2mg/kg). The extract and diazepam significantly (ptannins>saponins>flavonoids. The extract was found to be relatively non-toxic when administered p.o. up to 5000mg/kg and the LD50 was 398.11mg/kg when administered i.p. The aqueous leaf extract of Albizia glaberrima possesses dose-dependent anxiolytic/muscle relaxant (low dose) and sedative-hypnotic/anticonvulsant (high dose) activities possibly mediated via enhancement of GABAergic inhibitory actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomembrane stabilization and antiulcerogenic properties of aqueous leaf extract of Gossypium barbadense L. (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium spp. belong to a class of botanicals with global therapeutic applications against a number of disorders including ulcers. This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of aqueous leaf extract of Gossypium barbadense L. (Malvaceae in indomethacin-induced oxidative gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. The ulcerated rats were orally pretreated with the extract and esomeprazole for 4 weeks. Gastric function and antioxidative parameters were thereafter evaluated. The indomethacin-mediated significant elevations in the ulcer index, gastric volume, pepsin activity and mucosal level of malondialdehyde were dosedependently attenuated in the extract-treated animals. The extract also significantly modulated and improved the pH, mucin content, glutathione (reduced as well as gastric activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the ulcerated rats. These improvements may be ascribed to the antioxidant and membrane stabilization activities of the extract which are attributable to its active metabolites as revealed by the analytical chromatogram. The observed effects compared favorably with that of esomeprazole and are suggestive of the capability of the extract to prevent mucosal damage and preserve gastric functions as evidently supported by the macroscopical appearance of the stomachs and the % ulcer inhibitory values. Conclusively, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of G. barbadense could prevent indomethacin-mediated oxidative gastric ulceration via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Keywords: Esomeprazole, Gossypium barbadense, Indomethacin, Mucosal damage, Oxidative stress

  17. Pharmacodynamic Study of Interaction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Psidium Guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) with Receptor Systems Using Isolated Tissue Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaseth, R K; Kumar, S; Dutta, Shagun; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava with muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor system using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus and trachea, respectively. The concentration-dependent contractile response of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava was parallel and rightward of standard agonists, ACh and 5-HT indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic receptor systems. The inhibition of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated contractions in presence of atropine (10(-7) M) and ketanserin (10(-6) M) confirmed the activity. Relaxant effect of PG (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicated its agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Inhibition (P<0.05) of the action in the presence of propranolol (1 ng/ml) confirmed the activity. It may be concluded that PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor systems.

  18. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Oreagba, Ibrahim Adekunle; Odoma, Saidi; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Osunkalu, Vincent Oluseye

    2012-01-31

    The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. However, over the past decade, several news-catching episodes in developed communities indicated adverse effects, sometimes life-threatening, allegedly arising as a consequence to taking herbal products or traditional medicines from various ethnic groups. Despite the popular use of Moringa oleifera for treating various disorders, there is limited or no scientific data available regarding safety aspects of this remedy, nor are there any documented toxicological studies that can be used to ascertain the safety index of its herbal preparation. Therefore, this present study aimed to carry out extensive toxicological evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera. In an acute toxicity test, male Wistar albino mice were orally administered an aqueous extract up to 6400 mg/kg and intraperitoneally up to 2000 mg/kg. A sub-chronic toxicity test was performed by daily administration with the extract at 250, 500 and 1500 mg/kg orally for 60 days. Control rats received distilled water. Sperm quality was analyzed, haematological and biochemical (liver enzymes, urea and creatinine) parameters were determined and a histopathological examination was carried out. The LD(50) was estimated to be 1585 mg/kg. The extract did not elicit any significant difference (P≥0.05) in sperm quality, haematological and biochemical parameters in the treated rats compared to the control. Moreover, there was no significant difference in weight gain of the control and treated animals although there was a dose-dependent reduction in food consumption of the animals treated with 250 to 1500 mg/kg extract. Results obtained in this study suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is relatively safe when administered orally. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary studies on the antiplasmodial potential of aqueous and methanol extracts ofeucalyptus camadulensis leaf

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    Kabiru, Y. A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rising problem of resistance to the classical drugs like chloroquine and the problem of recrudescence of malaria after treatment with artemisinin suggest the need for new antimalaria agents. This project was designed to explore the antiplasmodial potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf extracts. Methods: The antiplasmodial potential of the methanol and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camadulensis (leaf were evaluated in a mouse model of malaria. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with plasmodium berghei (NK65, a rodent malaria parasite. The level of parasitemia, life span, variation in weight and percentage packed cell volume (% PCV of infected and treated mice were used to assess the efficacy of extracts. Treatment with the extracts at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight commenced 72 hours post infection for the test groups, while a standard antimalarial drug, Artesunate, at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight was administered on the positive control group. The negative control group was left untreated. Results: Animals treated with the methanol extract showed a significant decrease in parasitaemia (p < 0.05, and survived for 29 days compared with those treated with the aqueous extract which survived for 19 days with a higher level of parasitemia. However, the control group treated with Artesunate showed a significantly lower parasitaemia (p < 0.05 and survived for 34 days when compared with the groups treated with methanol and aqueous extracts. The level of parasitemia, decrease in weight and %PCV in all the treated groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05 compared with the infected but untreated group (negative control which survived for only 7 days. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the leaves of E. camadulensis has an antimalarial potential that could be exploited for the benefit of mankind.

  20. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaf (Neem Leaf) and Chloroquine Sulphate Toxic to the Histology of the Rabbit Cerebellum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucheya, RE; Ochei, UM; Amiegheme, FE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without knowledge of the side effect especially by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. Objectives: This study is designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. indica leaf, and concomitant administration of chloroquine phosphate + aqueous extract of A. indica leaf on the Brain tissue (cerebellum) of rabbit. Methods: Eight adult male Rabbits with average weight range between 1.29kg – 1.52kg obtained from Department of Zoology University of Ekpoma, Edo state were used for this study. They were weighed at intervals of five days before and after the experiment. They were randomly divided into four groups (A– D) of two rabbits each. The chloroquine and aqueous extract of A. indica leaf was administered to the animals orally via a cannula inserted through the oral cavity. They were treated as follows; group A received (100mg ml-1 dry extract solution of aqueous extract of A. indica), group B received (15mg kg-1 of chloroquine sulphate), group C received (100mg ml-1 dry extract solution of aqueous extract of A. indica + 15mg kg-1 of chloroquine sulphate and the control animals (group D) were given normal saline. Both the treatment and control animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The cerebellum was carefully dissected out and immediately fixed in Bouin's fluid for histological studies. Results: Groups A-C animals showed normal Cerebellar histoarchitecture and average weight gain of 2.1% (group A), 1.4% (group B), 0.7% (group C) and 1.4% (group D) respectively. When the average weight gain by the treated animals was compared to the average weight gain by the control animals, it was statistically not significant (P>0.06). Conclusion: Our

  1. Is a combine therapy of aqueous extract of azadirachta indica leaf (neem leaf) and chloroquine sulphate toxic to the histology of the rabbit cerebellum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucheya, Re; Ochei, Um; Amiegheme, Fe

    2011-07-01

    Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without knowledge of the side effect especially by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study is designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. indica leaf, and concomitant administration of chloroquine phosphate + aqueous extract of A. indica leaf on the Brain tissue (cerebellum) of rabbit. Eight adult male Rabbits with average weight range between 1.29kg - 1.52kg obtained from Department of Zoology University of Ekpoma, Edo state were used for this study. They were weighed at intervals of five days before and after the experiment. They were randomly divided into four groups (A- D) of two rabbits each. The chloroquine and aqueous extract of A. indica leaf was administered to the animals orally via a cannula inserted through the oral cavity. They were treated as follows; group A received (100mg ml(-1) dry extract solution of aqueous extract of A. indica), group B received (15mg kg(-1) of chloroquine sulphate), group C received (100mg ml(-1) dry extract solution of aqueous extract of A. indica + 15mg kg(-1) of chloroquine sulphate and the control animals (group D) were given normal saline. Both the treatment and control animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The cerebellum was carefully dissected out and immediately fixed in Bouin's fluid for histological studies. Groups A-C animals showed normal Cerebellar histoarchitecture and average weight gain of 2.1% (group A), 1.4% (group B), 0.7% (group C) and 1.4% (group D) respectively. When the average weight gain by the treated animals was compared to the average weight gain by the control animals, it was statistically not significant (P>0.06). Our findings revealed that aqueous extract of A. indica

  2. Hypoglycemic Potential of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaf and In Vivo GC-MS Metabolomics

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    Washim Khan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (family; Moringaceae, commonly known as drumstick, have been used for centuries as a part of the Ayurvedic system for several diseases without having any scientific data. Demineralized water was used to prepare aqueous extract by maceration for 24 h and complete metabolic profiling was performed using GC-MS and HPLC. Hypoglycemic properties of extract have been tested on carbohydrate digesting enzyme activity, yeast cell uptake, muscle glucose uptake, and intestinal glucose absorption. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks and a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally was used for the induction of type 1 diabetes. Aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaf was given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg to STZ-induced rats and 200 mg/kg in HFD mice for 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Aqueous extract remarkably inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and it displayed improved antioxidant capacity, glucose tolerance and rate of glucose uptake in yeast cell. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, it produces a maximum fall up to 47.86% in acute effect whereas, in chronic effect, it was 44.5% as compared to control. The fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, liver marker enzyme level were significantly (p < 0.05 restored in both HFD and STZ experimental model. Multivariate principal component analysis on polar and lipophilic metabolites revealed clear distinctions in the metabolite pattern in extract and in blood after its oral administration. Thus, the aqueous extract can be used as phytopharmaceuticals for the management of diabetes by using as adjuvants or alone.

  3. Hypoglycemic Potential of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaf and In Vivo GC-MS Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Washim; Parveen, Rabea; Chester, Karishma; Parveen, Shabana; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (family; Moringaceae), commonly known as drumstick, have been used for centuries as a part of the Ayurvedic system for several diseases without having any scientific data. Demineralized water was used to prepare aqueous extract by maceration for 24 h and complete metabolic profiling was performed using GC-MS and HPLC. Hypoglycemic properties of extract have been tested on carbohydrate digesting enzyme activity, yeast cell uptake, muscle glucose uptake, and intestinal glucose absorption. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) was used for the induction of type 1 diabetes. Aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaf was given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg to STZ-induced rats and 200 mg/kg in HFD mice for 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Aqueous extract remarkably inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and it displayed improved antioxidant capacity, glucose tolerance and rate of glucose uptake in yeast cell. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, it produces a maximum fall up to 47.86% in acute effect whereas, in chronic effect, it was 44.5% as compared to control. The fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, liver marker enzyme level were significantly (p < 0.05) restored in both HFD and STZ experimental model. Multivariate principal component analysis on polar and lipophilic metabolites revealed clear distinctions in the metabolite pattern in extract and in blood after its oral administration. Thus, the aqueous extract can be used as phytopharmaceuticals for the management of diabetes by using as adjuvants or alone.

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  5. Stomata Diversification and Phylogenenetic Analysis of 13 Species of Family Euphorbiaceae sensu lato

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    TOPIK HIDAYAT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on diversity of stomata from 13 species of family Euphorbiaceae has been carried out. Characters like type of stomata, position of stomata, presence/absence of ledge, and density both abaxial and adaxial leaf surface were examined. Stomata characters in the family were found quite diverse in this study. Monophyletic nature of Euphorbiaceae has been proved in this study on the basis of phylogenetic analysis using parsimoni method. Our data further suggested that the family can be classified into two major groups. However, surprisingly, genus Phyllanthus is non-monophyletic.

  6. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Heliotropium Indicum Ameliorates Hyperglycaemia-Induced Tissue Complications in Albino Rats

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    Rasheed Bolaji Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heliotropium indicum is used by traditional medical practitioners in North Central Nigeria for the management of ailments including diabetes. However, the folkloric use of H. indicum as antidiabetic has been asserted, but its roles on the hyperglycemia-induced organ-specific complications are not yet scientifically proven. Thus, ameliorative effect of aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum on selected toxicological parameters in hyperglycaemic rats was investigated in this study. Methods: Twenty-five rats were randomized into five groups. The study was carried out at the Animal Holding Unit, Biochemistry Department, University of Ilorin in 2013. Four groups were intraperitoneally administered singly with 150 mg/kg b.wt of alloxan to induce hyperglycemia. The normal control (NC and hyperglycaemic control (HC groups were administered 1 ml distilled water, while the reference group (HR were administered 14.2 mg/kg b.wt of metformin and the test groups, H30 and H75 were administered 30 and 75 mg/kg b.wt, the extract respectively for fourteen days. Results: The significantly increased (P<0.05 serum concentrations of tissue membrane bound enzymes (ALT, AST, ACP and ALP, direct and total bilirubin, urea and creatinine in HC indicating compromised tissue structures and functions in HC were attenuated. The significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum total protein, globulin and albumin in HC were significantly increased by both doses of the extract. The ameliorative role of the extract at the test doses was supported by the histological assessment of liver and kidney of the animals. Conclusion: Aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum can be explored at the ethnobotanical dose of 30 and 75 mg/kg b.wt on the management of some of the tissue-specific disarrays associated with diabetes.

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Bo; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    An eco-friendly approach for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract was investigated. The reduction of silver ions in solution was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 435 nm was observed. The proper condition to biosynthesize AgNPs using E. japonica leaf extract was optimized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurement (DLS). The biosynthesised nanoparticles were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), DLS, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the crystalline character of AgNPs and the presence of elemental silver. The prepared AgNPs were spherical in shape, and their average particle size determined by TEM was about 20 nm. Furthermore the AgNPs were found to exhibit effective antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Efeito do solo contaminado com óleo diesel na estrutura da raiz e da folha de plântulas de Sebastiania commersoniana (Euphorbiaceae e Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae Effect of diesel contaminated soil on root and leaf of Sebastiania commersoniana (Euphorbiaceae and Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae

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    Cleusa Bona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se o solo com óleo diesel altera a estrutura da raiz e do eofilo de plântulas de S. commersoniana (Euphorbiaceae e S. terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae. Para cada espécie foram testados três tratamentos com solo contaminado e um solo controle, não contaminado. Os tratamentos diferiram pelo tempo entre a contaminação e a semeadura. S. commersoniana foi semeada 60, 120 e 210 dias e S. terebinthifolius 30, 90 e 180 dias após a contaminação. As amostras de raiz e eofi lo foram coletadas 30 dias após a semeadura, fixadas e processadas segundo técnicas convencionais para anatomia vegetal e analisadas de forma qualitativa e quantitativa. Plântulas de S. commersoniana e S. terebinthifolius, em solo com óleo diesel, apresentaram alterações anatômicas na raiz e eofilo. O intervalo de tempo entre a contaminação e a semeadura interferiu na fitotoxicidade do solo. Isto é, quanto maior o intervalo de tempo entre a contaminação e a semeadura, menores foram as alterações anatômicas. As plântulas de S. terebinthifolius pareceram mais resistentes à contaminação por óleo diesel do que as de S. commersoniana.The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the diesel contaminated soil alters the structure of the root and eophyll of S. commersoniana (Euphorbiaceae and S. terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae seedlings. For each species three treatments with contaminated soil were tested, and compared to a control of uncontaminated soil. The treatments differed by the time between contaminations and sowing. S. commersoniana was sown 60, 120 and 210 days and S. terebinthifolius 30, 90 and 180 days after contamination. Samples of root and eophyll were collected 30 days after sowing and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Seedlings of S. commersoniana and S. terebinthifolius, grown in diesel contaminated soil, had their root and eophyll anatomy modifi ed. The time interval between contamination and

  9. Sorption of lead from aqueous solutions by spent tea leaf | Yoshita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pb) from solution. The Pb removal by the spent tea leaf adsorbent depended on pretreatment of spent tea leaf, adsorption contact time and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pretreatment conditions were confirmed to be that tea leaf was ground ...

  10. The antiproliferative effect of Moringa oleifera crude aqueous leaf extract on cancerous human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2013-09-16

    The incidence of lung cancer is expected to increase due to increases in exposure to airborne pollutants and cigarette smoke. Moringa oleifera (MO), a medicinal plant found mainly in Asia and South Africa is used in the traditional treatment of various ailments including cancer. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO leaf extract (MOE) in cancerous A549 lung cells. A crude aqueous leaf extract was prepared and the cells were treated with 166.7 μg/ml MOE (IC50) for 24 h and assayed for oxidative stress (TBARS and Glutathione assays), DNA fragmentation (comet assay) and caspase (3/7 and 9) activity. In addition, the expression of Nrf2, p53, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of Nrf2 and p53 was assessed using qPCR. A significant increase in reactive oxygen species with a concomitant decrease in intracellular glutathione levels (p < 0.001) in MOE treated A549 cells was observed. MOE showed a significant reduction in Nrf2 protein expression (1.89-fold, p < 0.05) and mRNA expression (1.44-fold). A higher level of DNA fragmentation (p < 0.0001) was seen in the MOE treated cells. MOE's pro-apoptotic action was confirmed by the significant increase in p53 protein expression (1.02-fold, p < 0.05), p53 mRNA expression (1.59-fold), caspase-9 (1.28-fold, p < 0.05), caspase-3/7 (1.52-fold) activities and an enhanced expression of Smac/DIABLO. MOE also caused the cleavage and activation of PARP-1 into 89 KDa and 24 KDa fragments (p < 0.0001). MOE exerts antiproliferative effects in A549 lung cells by increasing oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis.

  11. Hypoglycemic effects of aqueous persimmon leaf extract in a murine model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ui-Jin; Park, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Su-Young; Park, Byung-Hyun; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2015-08-01

    Previously, powdered persimmon leaves have been reported to have glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in diabetic (db/db) mice. As persimmon leaf is commonly consumed as tea, an aqueous extract of persimmon leaves (PLE) was prepared and its anti-diabetic efficacy was investigated. In the present study, PLE was tested for its inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase in vitro. An oral maltose tolerance test was performed in diabetic mice. Next, the acute effect of PLE was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Last, the long-term effect of PLE supplementation was assessed in db/db after eight weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical parameters, as well as histological analyses of liver and pancreas were evaluated at the end of the study. PLE inhibited α-glucosidase activity and increased antioxidant capacity. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice pre-treated with PLE displayed hypoglycemic activity. Daily oral supplementation with PLE for eight weeks reduced body weight gain without affecting food intake, enhanced the glucose tolerance during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), improved blood lipid parameters, suppressed fat accumulation in the liver and maintained islet structure in db/db mice. Further mechanistic study showed that PLE protected pancreatic islets from glucotoxicity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that PLE exhibits considerable anti-diabetic effects through α-glucosidase inhibition and through the maintenance of functional β-cells. These results provided a rationale for the use of persimmon leaf tea for the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  12. The role of aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora crispa as reducing and capping agents for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriandanu, D. O. B.; Yulizar, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Environmentally friendly method for green synthesis of Au nanoparticles (AuNP) using aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora crispa (TLE) was reported. TLE has the ability for reducing and capping AuNP. Identification of active compounds in aqueous leaf extract was obtained by phytochemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The AuNP-TLE growth was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The particle size and the distribution of AuNP were confirmed by particle size analyzer (PSA). AuNP-TLE formation was optimized by varying the extract concentration and time of the synthesis process. UV-Vis absorption spectrum of optimum AuNP formation displayed by the surface plasmon resonance at maximum wavelength of λmax 536 nm. The PSA result showed that AuNP has size distribution of 80.60 nm and stable up to 21 days. TEM images showed that the size of the AuNP is ± 25 nm.

  13. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

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    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  14. Spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-02-01

    Globally, primary dysmenorrhoea is one of the most frequent gynaecological disorders in young women. It is associated with increased uterine tone, and exaggerated contractility of uterine smooth muscles. In many rural African communities, a number of medicinal plants, including Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae), are used traditionally for the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting and oestrogen-dominated, quiescent uterine horns of healthy, young adult, female Wistar rats. Graded, escalated concentrations of PGE (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent and significant inhibitions of the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated rat uterine horn preparations. In a concentration-related manner, PGE also significantly inhibited or abolished contractions produced by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml), oxytocin (0.5-4.0 microU), bradykinin (2.5-10 ng/ml), carbachol (CCh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml) or potassium chloride (K+, 10-80 mM) in quiescent uterine horn preparations isolated from the oestrogen-dominated rats. The spasmolytic effect of PGE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of ;guava' leaves in the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in some rural African communities.

  15. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Agbaje, Esther Oluwatoyin

    2007-07-25

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the single, daily oral dosing of 125-500 mg/kg of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CCi) in normal, male Wistar rats for 42 days. The average weights of rats per group were taken at 2 weeks interval for 42 days. On day 43, blood samples from the rats were collected for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL-c), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) assays through cardiac puncture under halothane anesthesia. Acute oral dose toxicity study of CCi was also conducted using limit dose test of the Up and Down Procedure statistical program (AOT425StatPgm, Version 1.0) at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight/oral route. Our results showed CCi to lower FPG and lipid parameters dose dependently (p0.05). Results of acute oral toxicity showed CCi to be of low toxicity and as such could be considered relatively safe on acute exposure. Thus, confirming its folkloric use and safety in suspected Type 2 diabetic patients.

  16. Silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill: Characterization and assessment of antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Soumya; Ray, J G

    2016-10-01

    Biological approach to synthesis of metal nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract is a highly relevant and recent theme in nanotechnological research. Phytosynthesized AgNPs have better inhibitory and antimicrobial effects compared to aqueous leaf extract and silver nitrate. In the present investigation crystalline silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with size of 10nm have been successfully synthesized using aqueous leaf extract (AQLE) of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill., which act as both reducing as well as capping agent. The particles were characterized using UV Visible spectroscopy, HRTEM-EDAX, XRD, FT-IR and DLS. An evaluation of the anti bacterial activity was carried out using Agar well diffusion method and MIC determination against four bacterial strains, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi; the AgNPs exhibited quite high antibacterial activity. Furthermore, bactericidal studies with TEM at different time intervals after AgNPs treatment showed the presence of AgNPs near cell membrane of bacteria at about 30min exposure and the bacterial-lysis was found completed at 24h. This gave an insight on the mechanism of bacterial-lysis by direct damage to the cell membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aqueous oxidation of green leaf volatiles by hydroxyl radical as a source of SOA: Kinetics and SOA yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Hansel, Amie K.; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Anastasio, Cort

    2014-10-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a class of oxygenated hydrocarbons released from vegetation, especially during mechanical stress or damage. The potential for GLVs to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via aqueous-phase reactions is not known. Fog events over vegetation will lead to the uptake of GLVs into water droplets, followed by aqueous-phase reactions with photooxidants such as the hydroxyl radical (OH). In order to determine if the aqueous oxidation of GLVs by OH can be a significant source of secondary organic aerosol, we studied the partitioning and reaction of five GLVs: cis-3-hexen-1-ol, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, methyl salicylate, methyl jasmonate, and 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol. For each GLV we measured the kinetics of aqueous oxidation by OH, and the corresponding SOA mass yield. The second-order rate constants for GLVs with OH were all near diffusion controlled, (5.4-8.6) × 109 M-1 s-1 at 298 K, and showed a small temperature dependence, with an average activation energy of 9.3 kJ mol-1 Aqueous-phase SOA mass yields ranged from 10 to 88%, although some of the smaller values were not statistically different from zero. Methyl jasmonate was the most effective aqueous-phase SOA precursor due to its larger Henry's law constant and high SOA mass yield (68 ± 8%). While we calculate that the aqueous-phase SOA formation from the five GLVs is a minor source of aqueous-phase SOA, the availability of other GLVs, other oxidants, and interfacial reactions suggest that GLVs overall might be a significant source of SOA via aqueous reactions.

  18. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Espadaler

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of interference competition in which some ant species (Messor barbarus and Aphaenogaster senilis rob seeds of Euphorbia characias from other ants (especially Tapinoma nigerrimum is reported. Seed robbing is here regarded as a possible natural impediment to myrmecochory as it may interfere with the seedling recruitment process of the myrmecochorous plant.

  19. Euphorbiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneep, J.W.; Roon, de A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Herbs, stemsucculents or woody plants, sometimes with phylloclades, often containing lactiferous juice. Leaves mostly alternate, rarely opposite or verticillate, simple or compound. Stipules mostly present and sometimes with stipellae. Extrafloral nectaries often present. Indumentum various.

  20. Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, Ramadurai; Kumar, Manish; Menon, Vinay; Divi, Sai Mangala; Saravanan, M; Magudapathy, P; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M; Venkataramaniah, K

    2010-03-01

    Traditionally, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) are some of the commonly used medicinal plants in India for curing ailments ranging from common cold, skin diseases, and dental infections to major disorders like diabetes, hypertension, jaundice, rheumatism, etc. To understand and correlate their medicinal use, trace element studies on the aqueous extract of these medicinal plants have been carried out using particle-induced X-ray emission technique. A 2-MeV proton beam was used to identify and characterize major and minor elements namely Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Sr in them. Results have revealed that these elements are present in varying concentrations in the selected plants. Notable results include very high concentrations of Cl, K, and Ca in all the leaf samples, appreciable levels of Mn in all plants, high Zn content in T. cordifolia, and the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves compared to others and relative higher concentrations of Cr in all the plants.

  1. The Antiproliferative Effect of Moringa oleifera Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-04-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is commonly diagnosed in South Africa (SA), with high incidences occurring in SA's black population. Moringa oleifera (MO), a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of ailments, including cancer. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO crude aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on a cancerous esophageal cell line (SNO). SNO cells were exposed to a range of MOE dilutions to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay). Oxidative stress was determined using the TBARS assay. The comet assay was used to assess DNA damage. We then determined cell death mechanisms by measuring phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (luminometry). Protein expression of Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by western blotting. SNO cells were treated with a range of MOE dilutions to obtain an IC50 value of 389.2 μg/mL MOE (24 h), which was used in all subsequent assays. MOE significantly increased lipid peroxidation (P < .05) and DNA fragmentation (P < .0001) in SNO cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the increase in PS externalization (P < .0001), caspase-9 (P < .05) and caspase-3/7 (P = .22) activities, and decreased ATP levels (P < .0001). MOE significantly increased both the expression of Smac/DIABLO protein and cleavage of PARP-1, resulting in an increase in the 24-kDa fragment (P < .001). MOE possesses antiproliferative effects on SNO EC cells by increasing lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and induction of apoptosis.

  2. Protective effect of aqueous Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Elina; Ghosh, Arnab K; Ghosh, Debosree; Mukherjee, Debasri; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Dutta, Santanu; Pattari, Sanjib Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2012-05-01

    Treatment of rats with a low dose of cadmium chloride caused a significant damage in the rat cardiac tissue indicated by the increase in the level of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase1 activities. Histological studies confirmed the damage due to cadmium. That cadmium-induced tissue damage was caused due to oxidative stress was evident from the changes observed in the levels of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione, the protein carbonyl content, and the alterations in the activities of cardiac antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes. Treatment of rats with cadmium also caused alterations in the activities of mitochondrial Kreb's cycle as well as respiratory chain enzymes. All these changes were ameliorated when the rats were pre-treated with an aqueous extract of Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii). The studies indicated that the aqueous extract of Curry leaf protects the rat cardiac tissue against cadmium-induced oxidative stress possibly through its antioxidant activity. As curry leaf is consumed by people as part of their diet in India and South-East Asian and some European countries as well, and, as it has no reported side-effects, the results seem to have relevance at places where humans are exposed to cadmium environmentally or occupationally. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant and antiulcer potential of aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Matheus M; Olaleye, Mary T; Ineu, Rafael P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Barbosa, Nilda BV; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical claims regarding Kigelia africana reported antiulcer properties as part of its medicinal application. In this work, aqueous leaf extract from K. africana was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The participation of oxidative stress on ethanol-induced ulcer and the potential protective antioxidant activity of K. africana extracts were investigated by determining vitamin C and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) contents in the gastric mucosa of rats. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and also the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the aqueous plant extract. Oral treatment with K. africana extract (1.75; 3.5; 7 and 14 mg/kg) one hour after ulcer induction with ethanol decreased in a dose dependent manner the ulcer index. Ethanol increased significantly stomachal TBARS levels and decreased vitamin C content when compared to the control animals. K. africana blunted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and restored vitamin C content to the control levels. The present results indicate that the aqueous leaf extract from K. africana possesses antiulcer potential. The presence of flavonoids in plant extract suggests that its antiulcerogenic potential is associated with antioxidant activity. Of particular therapeutic potential, K. africana was effective against ethanol even after the induction of ulcer, indicating that it can have protective and curative effects against gastric lesion. PMID:26417263

  4. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99% of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL. Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract.

  5. Modes of inhibition of α -amylase and α -glucosidase by aqueous extract of Morinda lucida Benth leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, M I; Adamson, J O; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99%) of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts) and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL). Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract.

  6. Hepatoprotective Effect Of Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Fig Tree Ficus Benjamina On Ethanol-Induced Liver Damage In Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Lynne Pilapil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic abuse remains to be the most common cause of liver cirrhosis with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Herbal supplements are being used to prevent damage in excessive alcohol intake and including hepatitis from other causes as hepatoprotective agents. Fig tree is currently being utilized in studies as a potential candidate for hepatoprotection but with limited success. This study determined the hepatoprotective effect of crude aqueous leaf extract of fig tree Ficus benjamina on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. In this study fifteen Balbc mice were assigned to negative control positive control and treatment groups which received distilled water Silymarin and F. benjamina crude aqueous leaf extract respectively on day 0 to day 14. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity was done on day 7 to day 14 using ethanol given by oral gavage. Assessment of liver function and histology was done with the use of alanine aminotransferase ALT assay and histopathological study respectively. Results showed significant reduction of ALT levels in the treatment 52.40 UL and the positive control groups 42.58 UL as compared with the negative control group with a mean of 196.88 UL P0.05. The difference between the positive and treatment groups was not significant P0.05. The degree of hepatic injury was significantly severe in the negative control group than with the treatment and positive control groups P0.05. On the other hand the degree of hepatic injury showed no significant difference between the positive and treatment groups P0.05. Thus the crude aqueous leaf extract of F. benjamina has hepatoprotective property on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice similar to Silymarin. F. benjamina as an ornamental plant may be a source of phytochemical with potential pharmaceutical and functional activities.

  7. Supplementation with aqueous leaf extract of Morinda lucida enhances immunorestoration and upregulates the expression of cytokines and immunostimulatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nworu, Chukwuemeka S; Akah, Peter A; Okoye, Festus B C; Onwuakagba, Chukwuebuka J; Okorafor, U Ogochukwu; Esimone, Charles O

    2012-01-01

    Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) is a versatile plant used in traditional medicine of many countries for the treatment of a variety of ailments and the claims of efficacy are particularly remarkable in the treatment of infections and immuno-inflammatory disorders. In this study, we investigated the immunostimulatory and immunorestorative properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Morinda lucida (AML) in cultures of murine splenic lymphocytes and in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosupression models, respectively. Administration of AML (100 and 250 mg/kg; per os) in alternate days significantly (P Morinda lucida, which may explain some of the beneficial effects of the plant in the treatment of infections and immuno-inflammatory disorders.

  8. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Murraya koenigii in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, H A; Atiku, M K; Khelpai, D G; Wannang, N N

    2008-01-01

    The hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Murraya koenigii was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract was administered orally at 100 mg/Kg, 150 mg/Kg and 200 mg/Kg bodyweight each to respective groups of animals (Groups I, II and III) for seven days. Group IV received normal saline and served as control for the normal rats. For the alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the same dosage pattern was administered to three groups of rats for seven days (Groups V, VI and VII) while group VIII which received normal saline served as control. At the various dose levels administered, the glucose lowering effect was more pronounced in the alloxan-diabetic rats than in control rats. When compared with chlorpropamide, the glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii was significantly (p < 0.05) lower at the dose levels administered in both normal and alloxan-diabetic rats.

  9. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

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    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  10. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L E; Castro, P M N; Chagas, A C S; França, S C; Beleboni, R O

    2013-07-01

    Despite the overall progress of sheep farming in Brazil, infections with the gastrointestinal parasite Haemonchus contortus represent one the most important problems in sheep production, aggravated by the increasing resistance of nematodes to traditional anthelmintic drugs caused by inadequate sheep flock management by breeders. Ethnopharmacological data indicate Annona muricata as a promising alternative for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes because of its general anthelmintic properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of A. muricata aqueous leaf extract against eggs, infective larvae and adult forms of parasitic nematode H. contortus. At higher doses, A. muricata extract showed 84.91% and 89.08% of efficacy in egg hatch test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT), respectively. In the adult worm motility test, worms were completely immobilized within the first 6-8h of nematode exposition to different dilutions of extract. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in A. muricata aqueous leaf extract that may be responsible for the anthelmintic effects observed. Moreover those results validate the traditional use of A. muricata as a natural anthelmintic and then the pharmacological potential of its compounds for future in vivo investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of Ipomoea carnea leaf on isolated frog and mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhav, K V; Burande, M D; Rangari, V D; Mehta, J K

    1999-11-01

    Ipomoea carnea fam. Convolvulaceae is a poisonous plant and its toxicity is supposed to be due to the cardiac and respiratory failure. The present paper describes the cardiac effect of aqueous extract of the fresh leaves of I. carnea using mouse and frog heart. The aqueous extract produced an initial blockade of isolated frog heart for 5-10 sec followed by dose dependent increase in both amplitude and rate that lasts up to 2 min. Atropine (1 microgram/ml) blocked the initial depressant phase and potentiated the stimulant effect of the aqueous extract. The dose dependent increase in cardiac contractility of aqueous extract was not altered by propranolol or calcium channel blockers like nifedipine or diltiazem. The decrease in sodium chloride concentration or increase in potassium chloride concentration or calcium chloride concentration in physiological salt solution inhibited the responses to aqueous extract while an increase in sodium chloride concentration or decrease in potassium chloride or calcium chloride concentration in physiological salt solution potentiated the responses to the aqueous extract of I. carnea. It may be suggested from the data that aqueous extract of I. carnea produces positive inotropic effect on isolate frog heart possibly by sodium extrusion or release of the intracellular calcium.

  12. Evaluation of leaf aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nerium oleander against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-03-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and ecofriendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by the aqueous extract of the plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized using leaf extract of N. oleander was evaluated through a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in a wavelength range of 200 to 700 nm. This revealed a peak at 440 nm in N. oleander leaf extracts, indicating the production of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 509.12 cm(-1) (C-H bend alkenes), 1,077.05 cm(-1) (C-O stretch alcohols), 1,600.63 cm(-1) (N-H bend amines), 2,736.49 and 2,479.04 cm(-1) (O-H stretch carboxylic acids), and 3,415.31 cm(-1) (N-H stretching due to amines group). An SEM micrograph showed 20-35-nm-size aggregates of spherical- and cubic-shaped nanoparticles. EDX showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles of silver. Larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of N. oleander and synthesized AgNPs was carried out against Anopheles stephensi, and the results showed that the highest larval mortality was found in the synthesized AgNPs against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi with the following values: LC(50) of instar larvae 20.60, 24.90, 28.22, and 33.99 ppm; LC(90) of instar larvae 41.62, 50.33, 57.78, and 68.41

  13. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model.

  14. Hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extract and crude isolates of Murraya koenigii against in vitro ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaye, Sadhana; Bagul, Yogita; Gupta, Sanjay; Kaur, Harpreet; Redkar, Roopali

    2011-09-01

    Medicinal plants constitute a principal health care resource corroborating their gradual acceptance by the global population. The ethno medicinal plant, Murraya koeniggi (Curry-leaf tree) as is native to India exhibits diverse biological activities. Unpublished data from our laboratory revealed hepatoprotective activity of its crude aqueous extract against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Chronic ethanol consumption diminishes the cellular antioxidant levels through free radical induced injury causing hepatitis and cirrhosis with mortality in severe cases. This provided a rationale for studying its mechanistic approaches in terms of modulation of antioxidant defenses for probable hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro. Based on the inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) obtained from the cell viability assay, graded concentrations of 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml of aqueous extract (WE), isolated carbazole alkaloids (CA) and tannin (T) fraction were chosen to study the hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity using liver carcinoma cell lines (Hep G(2)). Their antioxidant activity with anti-lipid peroxidation potential (LPO), effects on protein content, liver metabolizing enzymes viz., glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the morphology of the cells were studied as parameters of hepatoprotection. The tannins and the carbazole alkaloids from the aqueous extract exhibited excellent hepatoprotective activity with respect to the different parameters studied and maintained normal morphology even after ethanolic challenge to the cells as comparable to the protection offered by the standard drug L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA). The modulating effect of the aqueous extract and isolates on liver metabolizing enzymes, reduction in lipid peroxidation and decreased cellular damage were found to contribute to the hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All

  15. aqueous plant extracts for control of groundnut leaf spot in burkina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Early and late leaf spots, the two fungal diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori. and Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk and Curt), respectively, cause severe groundnut crop losses in arid zone of West Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of ...

  16. Biosorption of Cr (III) from aqueous solution by the leaf biomass of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that the biosorption of Cr (III) onto Calotropis procera leaf biomass is a rapid process reaching equilibrium within 10 minutes at an optimum pH value of 5. Other reaction conditions such as biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were also found to influence the biosorption process.

  17. A comparative study of the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of neem leaf and dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of neem leaf (400 mg/kg body weight was compared with that of dexamethasone (0.75 mg, intraperitoneally by administering one hour before the formalin injection and once daily for 7 days in rats. The percentage of inhibition of paw edema in case of neem after 3 hours, 6 hours, on day 3, on day 7 after formalin injection were 28%, 40%, 45%, 58% respectively and that in case of dexamethasone after 3 hours, 6 hours, on day 3, on day 7 after formalin injection were 43%, 58%, 61%, 65% respectively. The reduction was statistically significant in each case (p<0.001. The present study suggests that anti-inflammatory effect of neem extract is less than that produced by dexamethasone.

  18. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  19. Effect of Aqueous Moringa Oleifera (Lam Leaf Extracts on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hubbard Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OJ Alabi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two hundred and forty day old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (AMOLE on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. The birds were randomly allocated into six treatments with four replicates, and each replicate containing 10 broiler chicks; the CRD was used. The treatments contained AMOLE0+ (positive control with antibiotic treatment, AMOLE0- (negative control with ordinary water, AMOLE60 (60 ml/l, AMOLE90 (90 ml/l, AMOLE120 (120 ml/l and AMOLE150 (150 ml/l inclusion levels of AMOLE, respectively. Birds on positive control had the highest final body weight and growth rate (2392.00 g and 53.61 g respectively and the ones on 150 ml/l of AMOLE had the least (2042.00 g and 45.37 g respectively. Results of feed intake showed that birds on positive control had the highest (84.70 g and the ones on 90 ml/litre of AMOLE had the lowest (73.19 g; while the results of feed conversion ratio indicated that birds on AMOLE90 and AMOLE120 performed better than the positive control treatment. Birds on the AMOLE had similar dressing percentages though that of positive control was highest (94.93 %; while those on AMOLE60 and AMOLE150 had the highest large intestine and lung weights respectively. Aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract can be included up to 90 ml/litre in the drinking water of broiler chicken for reduced feed intake (12.83 % and improved feed conversion efficiency (9.11 thus, AMOLE can be used to replace synthetic antibiotics as growth promoter.

  20. Anti-diabetic Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-diabetic potential of aqueous extracts of leaves of both Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina were investigated in rabbits. Ten female rabbits were grouped into five groups (1-5) of two rabbits each. Group 1 is the control. Groups (2-5) was alloxan induced diabetic. Group 3 was then treated with 200mg/kg ...

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous leaf extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this present study, the analgesic activity of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Dichrostachy cinerea was investigated in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate test, while the anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in rats using the carrageenan and dextran- induced paw edema. The extract (400 ...

  2. Biosynthesised silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Tagetes patula L. and evaluation of their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhwal, Aradhana; Jain, Devendra; Joshi, Arunabh; Rawal, Pokhar; Kushwaha, Himmat S

    2017-08-01

    In the recent decades, nanotechnology is gaining tremendous impetus due to its capability of modulating metals into their nanosize, which drastically changes the chemical, physical, biological and optical properties of metals. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis using aqueous leaf extracts of Tagetes patula L. which act as reducing agent as well as capping agent is reported. Synthesis of AgNPs was observed at different parameters like temperature, concentration of silver nitrate, leaf extract concentration and time of reduction. The AgNPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and dynamic light scattering analysis. These analyses revealed the size of nanoparticles ranging from 15 to 30 nm as well revealed their spherical shape and cubic and hexagonal lattice structure. The lower zeta potential (-14.2mV) and the FTIR spectra indicate that the synthesized AgNPs are remarkably stable for a long period due to the capped biomolecules on the surface of nanoparticles. Furthermore, these AgNPs were found to be highly toxic against phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum chlorophyti by both in vitro and in vivo and might be a safer alternative to chemical fungicides.

  3. Biogenic silver nanoparticles from Trichodesma indicum aqueous leaf extract against Mythimna separata and evaluation of its larvicidal efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhroo Abdul A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present exploration is focused on the bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs using Trichodesma indicum aqueous leaf extract as a reducing agent. The synthesized Ag NPs were productively characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, and TEM studies. The photosynthesis of Ag NPs was done at room temperature for 24 h and at 60°C. The green synthesis of spherical-shaped Ag NPs bio-fabricated from T. indicum with a face centred cubic structure showed average particle sizes of 20–50 nm, which is inconsistent with the particle size calculated by the XRD Scherer equation and TEM analysis. We further explored the larvicidal efficacy of biosynthesized Ag NPs with leaf extracts of T. indicum against Mythimna separata. The results showed that Ag NPs (20–50 nm of T. indicum possess good larvicidal activity against M. separata with an LC50 of 500 ppm. Thus, we can advocate that Ag NPs of 20–50 nm size extracted from T. indicum may be considered in the pest management programme of M. separata in future.

  4. Removal of Ni(II from aqueous solution using leaf, bark and seed of Moringa stenopetala adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mengistie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using leaf, bark and seed of Moringa stenopetala as alternative adsorbents for removal of Ni(II from aqueous solutions. The optimum adsorption conditions for removal of Ni(II were found to be 30, 20 and 50 mg/L initial concentration, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g adsorbent dose, 250, 250 and 300 rpm agitation speed, 90, 120 and 90 min contact time, 40, 30 and 23 oC temperature and pH of 5, 6 and 6 using leaf, bark and seed as adsorbent, respectively. At optimum experimental conditions the percent adsorption of synthetic wastewater sample was found to be 93.90, 96.25 and 97.50 for leaf, bark and seed, respectively. The tested experimental data best fits to pseudo-second order (R2 > 0.98 than pseudo-first order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models indicating rate limiting step to be chemisorption. It also fits to Langmuir (R2 > 0.895 using adsorbate variation and also R2 > 0.998 using both time and temperature variation data than Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isotherm models. D-R isotherm and thermodynamic study reveals formation of physical adsorption. Hence the adsorption mechanism could be regarded as physico-chemical adsorption process. The adsorption results of industrial wastewater also reveal that for removal of nickel 83% and 85% was obtained using bark and seed adsorbents, respectively. The new method of adsorption developed in this study is cheap, fast and environmental friendly.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i1.4

  5. ADSORPTION OF Pb2+ IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ONTO BAEL TREE LEAF POWDER: ISOTHERMS, KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SENTHIL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bael tree (BT leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for removal of Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions through batch equilibrium technique. The influence of pH, equilibrium time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration of metal ions on adsorbed amount of metals ions were investigated. Studies showed that the pH of aqueous solutions affected Pb2+ ions removal as a result of removal efficiency increased with increasing solution pH. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. The monolayer adsorption capacity is 4.065 mg/g with the correlation coefficient of 0.993. The experiments showed that highest removal rate was 84.93% at solution pH 5, contact time 60 min and initial concentration of 50 mg/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy have also been evaluated and it has been found that the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Three simplified kinetic models including a pseudo-first-order equation, pseudo-second-order equation and intraparticle diffusion equation were selected to follow the adsorption process. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium sorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated and discussed. It was shown that the adsorption of Pb2+ ions could be described by the pseudo-second order equation, suggesting that the adsorption process is presumable a chemisorption.

  6. Oxytocin inhibiting effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Ficus exasperata (Moraceae) on the isolated rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafor, Enitome E; Omogbai, Eric K I; Ozolua, Ray I

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Ficus exasperata Vahl Enum. Pl. vahl (Moraceae) are used by traditional healers in Southern Nigeria and some parts of Africa to avoid preterm births. However, previous reports showed that the plant also exhibited uterine contractions at specific concentrations. This study is therefore aimed at investigating the purported uterine inhibitory aspect of the plant on the isolated rat uterus. The aqueous extract (AET) was tested on rhythmic spontaneous uterine contractions. Concentration-response relationships were obtained for oxytocin (OT), acetylcholine (ACh) and ergometrine (EGM), in the presence or absence of fixed concentrations of AET. Salbutamol (SBL) and verapamil (VER) were used as positive controls. AET, at 1.0 x 10(-2) mg/mL, significantly increased (p contractions but had no significant effect on ACh, EGM and spontaneous uterine contractions. However, SBL and VER significantly increased (p uterine contractions. The aqueous leaf extract of F. exasperata inhibits oxytocin-induced uterine contractions at the concentration shown in this study. This observation may explain its folkloric use in counteracting preterm contractions and alleviating dysmenorrhoea.

  7. Spectrofluorometric investigation of trace metal complexation by an aqueous chestnut leaf litter extract. [Castanea sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, P.; Sposito, G.

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated as a method for quantitating trace metal complexes with the organic ligands in a water extract of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) leaf litter. Copper(II) and aluminum(III) were selected as environmentally significant metals with which to characterize the method as applied to the leaf litter extract. Solutions of Cu or Al mixed with the extract exhibited fluorescence that decreased in relative intensity as the total metal concentration and/or the pH increased. Data were obtained in the pH range 5 to 8 for total Cu concentrations up to 160 mmol m/sup -3/ and in the pH range 4 to 8 for total Al concentrations up to 100 mmol m/sup -3/. The fluorescence intensity data for Cu were comparable to those obtained in previous studies for solutions of Cu and soluble humic materials. A conventional equation was used to calculate an overall stability coefficient for metal complexation by the leaf litter extract. The pH-dependence of this stability coefficient was modeled mathematically in terms of pH-independent conditional stability constants through a new application of the Scatchard quasiparticle model. The quasiparticle species Cu(OH)/sub n/H/sub 0.9/L (n = 0 or 1; L = organic ligands) were sufficient to model the Cu data with the two pH-independent conditional stability constants, /sup c/..beta../sub 0/0.9/ = 10/sup 12.6/ and /sup c/..beta../sub 1/0.9/ = 10/sup 5.3/. For the Al data, the conditional stability constants /sup c/..beta../sub 0/0/ = 10/sup 8.55/ and /sup c/..beta../sub 2/0/ = 10/sup -1.8/ were obtained for the quasiparticle species Al(OH)/sub n/L (n = 0 or 2). These stability constants can be used in computer speciation programs to estimate organic complexation of Cu(II) or Al(III) by the leaf litter extract, but otherwise have no molecular chemical significance.

  8. Phytotoxicity of leaf aqueous extract of Rapanea umbellata (Mart. Mez (Primulaceae on weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.16166

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Novaes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic substances can be used to develop weed control alternatives based on natural products. The objective of this study was to compare the phytotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Rapanea umbellata with the toxicity of a synthetic herbicide on the germination and growth of weed species. The weeds species barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla and morning glory (Ipomoea grandifolia were used. The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of R. umbellata at concentrations of 10% and 5% (g mL-1 were compared to the control (distilled water and to the synthetic herbicide oxyfluorfen. The average weed germination time was significantly lower (p < 0.05 in control than in extract and herbicide treatments. The herbicide had more significant effects than the extract on the initial growth of the aerial part. However, the initial growth of the root part was significantly more affected by the leaf extract than by the herbicide. The extract also caused many disorders in weed root anatomy. Therefore, the leaf aqueous extract of R. umbellata showed important results that indicate that it should be bioprospected and that its allelochemicals should be purified for the discovery of natural-origin herbicides.

  9. The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) on gentamycin-induced renal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, Stephen O; Ugwu, Chidiebere E; Onwudinjo, Oluchi J

    2017-01-01

    Despite the acclaimed beneficial effects of Telfaria occidentalis (TO), it is yet to be established that its aqueous extract is safe in the condition of renal impairment. Thus, the study investigated the effects of TO aqueous leaves extract on gentamycin-induced renal damage. The animals were distributed into five groups. Group A (control) was placed on standard rat feed. Groups B and C received 500 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of TO and gentamicin for 21 days, respectively. Group D received 500 mg/kg of TO 14 days before 7 days administration of 80 mg/kg of gentamycin. Group E received 80 mg/kg of gentamicin for 14 days before 7 days administration of 500 mg/kg TO. Group F received 500 mg/kg of TO and 80mg/kg of gentamycin concurrently for 21 days. Biochemical and histological examinations were analysed by standard methods. The administration of TO for 7 days after 14 days of gentamycin injection and its concomitant administration with gentamicin for 21 days caused significant reduction (pgentamycin (group F) seems to ameliorate the deleterious effect observed when gentamycin was administered alone. The administration of the extract together with and after the administration of gentamycin reverses renal damage caused by gentamycin.

  10. Moringa oleifera's Nutritious Aqueous Leaf Extract Has Anticancerous Effects by Compromising Mitochondrial Viability in an ROS-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Niveen; Dany, Mohammed; Abdoun, Salah; Usta, Julnar

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) is an important dietary component for many populations in West Africa and the Indian subcontinent. In addition to its highly nutritious value, almost all parts of this plant have been widely used in folk medicine in curing infectious, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and other diseases. Evidence-based research supported its versatile medicinal properties; however, more rigorous research is required to establish it in cancer therapy. As such, in this study we aim to investigate the in vitro anticancerous effect of Moringa oleifera's aqueous leaf extract. Moringa extract was prepared by soaking pulverized leaves in hot water mimicking the people's mode of the leaf drink preparation. Several assays were used to study the effect of different percentage concentrations of the extract on viability of A549 cells; levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) generated; as well as percentage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released at different time points. In addition to mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptotic events were assessed using western blotting for apoptotic markers and immunoflourescent flourescent labeled inhibitor of caspases (FLICA) assay. MO extract treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (1 hour) and ATP levels (3 hours), followed by an increase in (6 hours) ROS, caspase activation, proapoptotic proteins expression (p53, SMAC/Diablo, AIF), and PARP-1 cleavage. This eventually resulted in decreased GSH levels and a decrease in viability. The cytotoxic effect was prevented upon pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine. MO decreased as well the viability of HepG2, CaCo2, Jurkat, and HEK293 cells. Our findings identify a plant extract with an anticancerous effect on cancer cell lines. MO extract exerts its cytotoxic effect in A549 cancer cells by affecting mitochondrial viability and inducing apoptosis in an ROS-dependent manner.

  11. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extract on Sucrose-induced Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the hypoglycaemic effect of the methanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea leaves (MEBF) on sucrose-induced glucose intolerance in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats, aged 6 - 7 weeks and weighing 140 - 160 g, were used. The animals were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 35%, 50% or 65% ...

  12. Larvicidal efficacy of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... Culex mosquitoes play a vital role in transmitting pathogens which continue to have a harmful impact on human beings. Indeed, Innovative vector control strategy like use of plant extracts as alternative sources of insecticidal and larvicidal agents against vector-borne diseases has become unavoidable. In.

  13. Anti-diabetic properties of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of securinega virosa leaves on blood levels of streptozocin-induced diabetes rats. Three doses of the extract (100, 300 and 600 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally. After 2 h of extract administration there was no significant change in ...

  14. Anti-diabetic properties of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... 1Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 3Department of Pharmacology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. Accepted 5 December, 2007. This study was undertaken to evaluate ...

  15. Anti-diabetic properties of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... leaves possess anti-diabetic properties which suggest the presence of biologically active components. The extract might be promoting glucose uptake and metabolism or inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis. Result from the phytochemical analysis of S. virosa revealed the presence of flavonoids, which has ...

  16. Gastroprotective Activity of Polygonum chinense Aqueous Leaf Extract on Ethanol-Induced Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Farhana Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum chinense is a Malaysian ethnic plant with various healing effects. This study was to determine preventive effect of aqueous leaf extract of P. chinense against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. The normal and ulcer control groups were orally administered with distilled water. The reference group was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole. The experimental groups received the extracts 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, accordingly. After sixty minutes, distilled water and absolute ethanol were given (5 mL/kg to the normal control and the others, respectively. In addition to histology, immunohistochemical and periodic acid schiff (PAS stains, levels of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA, antioxidant enzymes, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured. The ulcer group exhibited severe mucosal damages. The experimental groups significantly reduced gastric lesions and MDA levels and increased SOD level. Immunohistochemistry of the experimental groups showed upregulation and downregulation of Hsp70 and Bax proteins, respectively. PAS staining in these groups exhibited intense staining as compared to the ulcer group. Acute toxicity study revealed the nontoxic nature of the extract. Our data provide first evidence that P. chinense extract could significantly prevent gastric ulcer.

  17. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  18. Evaluation of therapeutic potential of the silver/silver chloride nanoparticles synthesized with the aqueous leaf extract of Rumex acetosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Sobha; Dumpala, Pradeep; Anantha, Ratna Kumari; Verma, Mahendra Kumar; Kandepu, Surendranath

    2017-09-14

    Silver nanoparticles were green synthesized with the aqueous leaf extract of the widely consumed green leafy vegetable, Rumex acetosa (sorrel) and the obtained silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were tested for their in vitro antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell lines and antibacterial effects against sixteen human pathogenic clinical isolates. Different analytical techniques viz. UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDX and TEM were employed to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs. Surface Plasmon spectra for the Ag NPs with brownish black color were centered approximately at 448 nm. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of reactive N-H and O-H groups that are effective in reducing Ag(I) ions to Ag(0) which then reacted with the contents of the extract to AgCl/Ag 2 C 2 O 4 . From SEM and TEM analyses, the particles were found to be predominantly spherical in shape and ranged in size from 5 nm to 80 nm, but were largely in the range of 15 nm to 20 nm. Ag NPs showed considerable antioxidant activity, and all the sixteen clinical isolates of human pathogens tested were significantly inhibited. Also, HOS cell lines were significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited at 25% concentration of the Ag NPs extract, while showing a marginal revival at 50% and 100% concentrations.

  19. Biosynthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Imperata cylindrica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, I. S.; Yulizar, Y.

    2017-04-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were biosynthesized.The growth was observed by a sol-gel method. ZnO were successfully formed through the reaction of zinc nitrate tetrahydrate Zn(NO3)2.4H2O precursor with aqueous leaf extract of Imperata cylindrica L (ICL). The structural and optical properties of ZnO were investigated. The as-synthesized products were characterized by UV-Visible (UV-Vis), UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). UV-Vis absorption data showed hydrolysis and characteristic of absorption peak at 300 nm of Zn(OH)2. UV-DRS confirmed that ZnO NPs has the indirect band gap at 3.13 eV. FTIR spectrum revealed the functional groups and indicated the presence of protein as the capping and stabilizing agent on the ZnO surface. Powder XRD studies indicated the formation of pure wurtzite hexagonal structure with particle size of 11.9 nm. The detailed morphological and structural characterizations revealed that the synthesized products were hexagonal nanochip.

  20. Azadirachta indica leaf powder as a biosorbent for Ni(II) in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Krishna G., E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Jyotirekha [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Arunima [Department of Chemistry, Morigaon College, Morigaon 782105, Assam (India)

    2009-06-15

    Azadirachta indica leaves are converted to a fine powder for use as a biosorbent for the removal of metal ions in aqueous solution. In this work, the adsorptive interactions between Ni(II) and the powder were studied under a variety of conditions involving variations in pH, Ni(II) concentration, biosorbent amount, interaction time and temperature, all in single batch processes. The experimental data have been interpreted on the basis of existing mathematical models of equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics. The biosorption of Ni(II) increased in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 with {approx}92.6% adsorption at pH 5.0 for the highest amount of the biosorbent (4 g/L). The biosorption followed second-order kinetics and intra-particle diffusion was likely to have significant influence in controlling the process. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity varied from 2.4 to 9.1 mg/g and the equilibrium coefficient from 1.09 to 2.78 L/g with strong indication that the Ni(II) ions were held on the biosorbent surface by formation of an adsorption complex. The thermodynamic parameters showed the process to be exothermic in nature supported by appropriate ranges of values of enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibbs energy change.

  1. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution by ficus religiosa leaf powder and characterization of loaded biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Karanam Srinivasa; Anand, Shashi [Hydro and Electro Metallurgy Department, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Venkateswarlu, Paladugu [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Andhra University, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2011-04-15

    The present investigation evaluates the adsorption effectiveness of Cd(II) ions on Ficus religiosa leaf powder (FRL). The experimental parameters chosen included time, pH, particle size, temperature, adsorbate, anion, and Pb(II) concentrations. The time data followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Cd(II) adsorption increased from 1.38 to 75.17% with the increase in pH from 2 to 4 and further increase in pH to 5.5 resulted in its marginal increase to 77.52%. Based on regression coefficient values, the isothermic data fitted the various models in the order Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Temkin > Freundlich model. The maximum loading capacity of FRL was estimated to be 27.14 mg g{sup -1}. The presence of Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, or Pb{sup 2+} exhibited adverse effect on Cd(II) uptake. The thermodynamic parameters of enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup 0}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup 0}) were estimated to be 8.31 kJ mol{sup -1} and 38.22 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively. SEM-EPMA of the loaded FRL showed Cd(II) distribution at specific sites. The XRD patterns of Cd(II) loaded FRL sample showed disappearance of some peaks corresponding to {beta}-Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}; shifting of peaks and decrease in %RI corresponding to {gamma}-CaSO{sub 4} phase. Positive shift of IR bands for the Cd(II) loaded sample was observed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Breakdown of Leaf Litter in a Neotropical Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Mathuriau, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric

    2002-01-01

    International audience; We investigated the breakdown of 2 leaf species, Croton gossypifolius (Euphorbiaceae) and Clidemia sp. (Melastomataceae), in a 4th-order neotropical stream (Andean Mountains, southwestern Colombia) using leaf bags over a 6-wk period. We determined the initial leaf chemical composition and followed the change in content of organic matter, C, N, and ergosterol, the sporulation activity of aquatic hyphomy cetes, and the structure and composition of leaf-associated aquatic...

  3. Antiinfammatory Effects of Pyrenacanthia Staudtii Engl. (Icacinaceae Aqueous Leaf Extract in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoru Olayemi Wakeel1

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The continued search for potential and safe anti-inflammatory agents is important, in view of the roles played by proinflammatory factors in diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer and neurodegerative disorders. The Nigerian flora is rich in medicinal plants which are employed in traditional folk medicine for various inflammatory disorders. We therefore evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of the leaves of. METHOD: The antiinflammatory activity was evaluated using egg albumin, agar-induced paw edema models for acute inflammation, complete Freud Adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis and cotton pellets granuloma models for chronic inflammation in rats. RESULTS: PSE, produced significant (P<0.05-0.01 and dose-dependent (100-400 mg/kg reduction of paw edema volume in rats. In chronic inflammation (CFA-induced arthritis, the extract significantly (P< 0.05 inhibited edematous response in a dose-related manner, provoking an inhibitory effect (61%, maximum inhibition at 400 mg/kg on day 21 same as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (5 mg/kg. PSE, also significantly (P<0.05 and dose-dependently reduce the granuloma weight in chronic model of granuloma pouch in rats. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate that PSE possesses anti-inflammatory activity and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested use of the plant as a natural remedy in the treatment, management and/or control of inflammatory conditions in some rural communities of Nigeria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 297-302

  4. Chlorinated phenol removal from aqueous media by tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf waste tailored activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C. G.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Daud, W. M. A. W.; Krishnaiah, D.; Ng, K. A.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, activated carbons (ACs) wereprepared from tea leaves by using a two-stage self-generated atmosphere method. The process was done by semi-carbonizing the precursor at 300 °C for 1 h, followed by the impregnation of the resulting char at 85 °C for 4 h and finally activation at 500 °C for 2 h. The semi-carbonised samples were impregnated with different ratios of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and their physicochemical effect was studied. The prepared ACs underwent several aspects of both, chemical and physical characterizations, such as the percentage of yield, moisture content, ash content, pH, porosity, adsorption capacity of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), surface area, porosity, morphology and surface chemistry studies. It was found that sample AC2, with an impregnation ratio of 2:1 was the best AC produced in this study. The maximum Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area of AC2 was found to be 695 m2/g. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to examine the experimental isotherms while the kinetic data was analyzed using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The 2,4-DCP adsorption isotherm results complied well to the Langmuir isotherm for the equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model, indicating that chemisorption by valency forces via the sharing (covalent bond) or exchanging of electrons between the AC and the 2,4-DCP molecules were mainly responsible for the adsorption process. From these findings, it is concluded that tea leaves can be used as a low cost precursor for the removal of 2,4-DCP in aqueous medium.

  5. Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf powder as a biosorbent for removal of Cd(II) from aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Arunima [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Bhattacharyya, Krishna G. [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India)]. E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com

    2005-10-17

    A biosorbent, Neem leaf powder (NLP), was prepared from the mature leaves of the Azadirachta indica (Neem) tree by initial cleaning, drying, grinding, washing to remove pigments and redrying. The powder was characterized with respect to specific surface area (21.45 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), surface topography and surface functional groups and the material was used as an adsorbent in a batch process to remove Cd(II) from aqueous medium under conditions of different concentrations, NLP loadings, pH, agitation time and temperature. Adsorption increased from 8.8% at pH 4.0 to 70.0% at pH 7.0 and 93.6% at pH 9.5, the higher values in alkaline medium being due to removal by precipitation. The adsorption was very fast initially and maximum adsorption was observed within 300 min of agitation. The kinetics of the interactions was tested with pseudo first order Lagergren equation (mean k {sub 1} = 1.2 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}), simple second order kinetics (mean k {sub 2} = 1.34 x 10{sup -3} g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}), Elovich equation, liquid film diffusion model (mean k = 1.39 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}) and intra-particle diffusion mechanism. The adsorption data gave good fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and yielded Langmuir monolayer capacity of 158 mg g{sup -1} for the NLP and Freundlich adsorption capacity of 18.7 L g{sup -1}. A 2.0 g of NLP could remove 86% of Cd(II) at 293 K from a solution containing 158.8 mg Cd(II) per litre. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters, {delta}H, {delta}S and {delta}G, at 293 K were -73.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, -0.24 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and -3.63 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, showing the adsorption process to be thermodynamically favourable. The results have established good potentiality for the Neem leaf powder to be used as a biosorbent for Cd(II)

  6. Anti-proliferation and Apoptosis Induction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Carica papaya L. on Human Breast Cancer Cells MCF-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhrotun Nisa, Fatma; Astuti, Mary; Murdiati, Agnes; Mubarika Haryana, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Chemotherapy is the main method of breast cancer treatment but there are side effects. Carica papaya leaves is vegetable foods consumed by most people of Indonesia have potential as anticancer. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-proliferative and apoptotic induced effect of aqueous papaya leaves extracts on human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. Inhibitory on cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay while apoptosis induction was measured using Annexin V. The results showed that papaya leaf can inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 with IC50 in 1319.25 μg mL-1. The IC50 values of papaya leaf extract was higher than the IC50 value quercetin and doxorubicin. Papaya leaf extract can also induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells MCF-7 about 22.54% for concentration 659.63 μg mL-1 and about 20.73% for concentration 329.81 μg mL-1. The percentage of cell apoptosis of papaya leaf extract lower than doxorubicin but higher than quercetin. This study indicated that papaya leaf extract have potential as anticancer through mechanism anti-proliferation and apoptosis induction.

  7. Moringa Oleifera aqueous leaf extract down-regulates nuclear factor-kappaB and increases cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Liron; Earon, Gideon; Ron, Ilan; Rimmon, Adam; Vexler, Akiva; Lev-Ari, Shahar

    2013-08-19

    Fewer than 6% patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas live up to five years after diagnosis. Chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment, however, these tumors often develop drug resistance over time. Agents for increasing the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy or reducing the cancer cells' chemo-resistance to the drugs are required to improve treatment outcome. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), a pro-inflammatory transcription factor, reportedly plays a significant role in the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis-based chemotherapy. This study investigated the effect of aqueous Moringa Oleifera leaf extract on cultured human pancreatic cancer cells - Panc-1, p34, and COLO 357, and whether it can potentiates the effect of cisplatin chemotherapy on these cells. The effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract alone and in combination with cisplatin on the survival of cultured human pancreatic cancer cells was evaluated by XTT-based colorimetric assay. The distribution of Panc-1 cells in the cell cycle following treatment with Moringa leaf extract was evaluated by flow cytometry, and evaluations of protein levels were via immunoblotting. Data of cell survival following combined treatments were analyzed with Calcusyn software. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibited the growth of all pancreatic cell lines tested. This effect was significant in all cells following exposure to ≥0.75 mg/ml of the extract. Exposure of Panc-1 cells to Moringa leaf extract induced an elevation in the sub-G1 cell population of the cell-cycle, and reduced the expression of p65, p-IkBα and IkBα proteins in crude cell extracts. Lastly, Moringa Oleifera leaf extract synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on Panc-1 cells. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells, the cells NF-κB signaling pathway, and increases the efficacy of chemotherapy in human pancreatic cancer cells.

  8. Removal of PFOA and PFOS from aqueous solutions using activated carbon produced from Vitis vinifera leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbayigbo, Bamidele Oladapo; Opeolu, Beatrice Olutoyin; Fatoki, Olalekan Siyanbola; Akenga, Terresa Ayuko; Olatunji, Olatunde Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solutions using agro-waste biomass of Vitis vinifera (grape) leaf litter was studied. Activated carbons were produced from the biomass and chemical activation achieved by using phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the modification of the carbons' surface morphology. Activated carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) in order to understand removal mechanisms of the contaminants by activated carbons. The effect of solution concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature was evaluated to optimize the removal efficiency of activated carbons. Adsorption isotherm models were used to analyse the equilibrium data obtained, and kinetic models were applied to study sorption mechanisms. The results fitted well into Freundlich isotherm with both AC-KOH and AC-H 3 PO 4 having high K f values. Maximum adsorption capacities for AC-H 3 PO 4 were 78.90 and 75.13 mg/g for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. Equilibrium was reached before 60 min on both adsorbents, and thermodynamic studies indicated that the process was exothermic and spontaneous. Surface morphology showed the abundance of microspores (>60%) with BET total surface area of 295.488 and 158.67 m 2 /g for AC-H 3 PO 4 and AC-KOH activated carbons, respectively. Removal efficiencies were 95 and 90% for PFOA using AC-H 3 PO 4 and AC-KOH, respectively; corresponding values for PFOS were 94 and 88%. Adsorbents' removal capacities depended on the physicochemical characteristics of adsorbents.

  9. Antiproliferative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on the prostate, BPH-1 cells, and some target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Dan; Ngala, Robert A; Abutiate, Harry; Doku, Derek; Mahmood, Seidu A; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata L. has been reported to possess antitumor and antiproliferative properties. Not much work has been done on its effect on BPH-1 cell lines, and no in vivo studies targeting the prostate organ exist. The study determined the effect of A muricata on human BPH-1 cells and prostate organ. The MTT assay was performed on BPH-1 cells using the aqueous leaf extract of A muricata. Cells (1 × 10(5) per well) were challenged with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL extract for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell proliferation and morphology were examined microscopically. BPH-1 cells (1 × 10(4) per well) were seeded into 6-well plates and incubated for 48 hours with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL A muricata extract. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed using mRNA extracted from the cells. Possible target genes, Bax and Bcl-2, were examined. Twenty F344 male rats (≈200 g) were gavaged 30 mg/mL (10 rats) and 300 mg/mL (10 rats) and fed ad libitum alongside 10 control rats. Rats were sacrificed after 60 days. The prostate, seminal vesicles, and testes were harvested for histological examination. Annona muricata demonstrated antiproliferative effects with an IC50 of 1.36 mg/mL. Best results were obtained after 48 hours, with near cell extinction at 72 hours. Bax gene was upregulated, while Bcl-2 was downregulated. Normal histological architecture was observed for all testes. Seminal vesicle was significantly reduced in test groups (P Annona muricata has antiproliferative effects on BPH-1 cells and reduces prostate size, possibly through apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Antidepressant, anxiolytic, and anticataleptic effects of aqueous leaf extract of Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. (Moraceae) in mice: possible mechanisms of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, Esther O; Ishola, Ismail O; Oniyire, Joel A

    2014-02-27

    Abstract Background: The leaves of Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. (Moraceae) are used by traditional medicine practitioners in southwest Nigeria in the management of epilepsy, wounds, and neurological disorders. Hence, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract of A. toxicaria on the central nervous system. Methods: One hour after administration of A. toxicaria [50-300 mg/kg orally (p.o.)], its antidepressant effect was evaluated using the forced swimming test (FST), anxiolytic effect using elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and anticataleptic effect using haloperidol-induced catalepsy, whereas its effects on hypnosis and motor coordination were studied using hexobarbitone-induced sleeping time and open-field tests, respectively, in mice. Results: Antiaris toxicaria (300 mg/kg) significantly increased swimming activity (36.88%) and reduced immobility time (38.54%). Pretreatment of mice with prazosin (an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (a D2 receptor antagonist), and l-NG-nitro-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before A. toxicaria (300 mg/kg p.o.) treatment significantly prevented its antidepressant-like effect by 35.58%, 53.30%, and 56.11%, respectively, in the FST. However, pretreatment with metergoline (5-HT2 receptor antagonist), and atropine (muscarinic cholinergic antagonist) failed to reverse this effect. Interestingly, A. toxicaria (50 mg/kg) significantly increased open-arm exploration in the EPM by 70.31%, which was reversed by 82.66% in the presence of flumazenil [3 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) induced cataleptic behavior in mice, which was reversed by A. toxicaria (300 mg/kg) (ptoxicaria possesses an antidepressant-like effect involving interaction with α1-adrenoceptor, D2 dopamine receptor, and nitrergic pathway; an anxiolytic-like effect linked to the benzodiazepine system; and a neuroprotective effect.

  11. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. - Graphical abstract: TEM image for the Fe/Pd NPs synthesized by grape leaf aqueous extract. - Highlights: • The one-step green synthesis of Fe/Pd nanoparticles has been systematically characterized. • TEM showed that the Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. • Active biomolecules in the grape extract were identified.

  12. Fossils and palaeontological distributions of Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nucete, M.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140562044; van Welzen, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    The correct identification of described plant fossils from the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) needs to be confirmed in order to correctly date their phylogeny and map their palaeontological distributions. Previous identifications of fossil specimens often appear to be

  13. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sunlight-induced rapid and efficient biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with enhanced antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Sarkar, Sajal; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mandal, Narayan C; Jash, Shyamal K; Banerjee, Bubun; Roy, Rajiv

    2014-12-01

    Nanotechnology is now regarded as a distinct field of research in modern science and technology with multifaceted areas including biomedical applications. Among the various approaches currently available for the generation of metallic nanoparticles, biogenic synthesis is of increasing demand for the purpose of green nanotechnology. Among various natural sources, plant materials are the most readily available template-directing matrix offering cost-effectiveness, eco-friendliness, and easy handling. Moreover, the inherent pharmacological potentials of these medicinal plant extracts offer added biomedical implementations of the synthesized metal nanoparticles. A robust practical method for eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) as both reducing and capping agent, under the influence of direct sunlight has been developed without applying any other chemical additives. The nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibited considerable antibacterial activity. The effects were more pronounced on non-endospore-forming Gram-positive bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria monocytogenes than endospore-forming species Bacillus subtilis. The nanoparticles also showed prominent activity on Gram-negative human pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and plant pathogenic Pantoea ananatis. A bactericidal mode of action was observed for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the nanoparticles. We have developed a very simple, efficient, and practical method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of O. sanctum under the influence of direct sunlight. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles making use of such a traditionally important medicinal plant without applying any other chemical additives

  15. Phytochemistry, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Lagenaria breviflora (Cucurbitaceae in laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu Adedapo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant, and especially the fruit of Lagenaria breviflora is widely used in folklore medicine in West Africa as a herbal remedy for the treatment of human measles, digestive disorders, and as wound antiseptics (e.g. umbilical incision wound, while livestock farmers use it for Newcastle disease and coccidiosis treatment in various animal species, especially poultry. The purpose of this study was to contribute with new information on this plant leaves extract effect, as few studies have considered their effects. We collected fresh leaves of Lagenaria breviflora from the school farm of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria in May 2011. Dried leaves were ground and a 200g sample was used to prepare the extract. The grounded leaves material was allowed to shake in 1 000mL distilled water for 48h, in an orbital shaker at room temperature of 24°C. The obtained extract was filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure at 40ºC, and the thick solution was lyophilized, for a final extract yield of 12.6%. Standard phytochemical methods were used to test the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glycosides and flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of the plant was assessed using carrageenan-induced paw edema and histamine-induced paw edema in rats. The analgesic effect was determined using the acetic acid writhing method as well as formalin test in mice. Our results showed that the extract at 100 and 200mg/ kg body weight significantly reduced the formation of the oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract showed a good analgesic effect characterized by reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. The extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 2.5% formalin, signifying its analgesic effect. These results were however less than

  16. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats w...

  17. Ameliorative and antidyslipidemic potentials of aqueous leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium in CCl4 carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiat Na’Allah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of leaf aqueous extract from Gongronema latifolium (G. latifolium on CCl4 induced-oxidative stress in Wistar rat. This effect was assessed by measuring liver marker enzymes activity, analyzing the antioxidant parameters, lipid profile estimation and lipid peroxidation by-product following CCl4 induced-oxidative stress. Methods: Milled G. latifolium leaves were subjected to aqueous extraction and the filtrate was evaporated between 40–60 °C under reduced pressure and a calculated volume of the leaf extract was administered at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. Thirty-five rats were grouped into seven groups of 5 animals each namely; control and experimental groups. The experimental groups were treated with 2.0 mL/kg body weight CCl4, 25 mg/kg body weight/ day silymarin (a standard hepatoprotective antioxidant, 500 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of G. latifolium leaves were administered to the CCl4 treated rats for 21 days. Results: Administration of the extract and silymarin increase significantly (P < 0.05 in liver marker enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, liver and kidney in the treated groups when compared with untreated groups. The antioxidant parameters (catalase, peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase were significantly elevated (P < 0.05 in animals treated with the extract and silymarin in comparison with untreated groups. CCl4 induced oxidative stress mediated variations in total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were restored significantly (P < 0.05 by the extract. Conclusions: The result obtained from this study indicated the antioxidant and antidyslipidemic potentials of the aqueous extract of G. latifolium leaves.

  18. Constituintes químicos de Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae Chemical contituents of Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila de Souza Conegero

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves of Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae afforded a mixture of b-sitosterol and stigmasterol, the terpenoid loliolide, the guanidine alkaloid N-1,N-2,N-3-triisopentenylguanidine and the phenolic compound corilagin. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial and antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract of the leaves and of fractions from its fractionation, were investigated against a series of bacteria and fungi, as well as against four human cancer cell lines.

  19. Chemical constituents of Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conegero, Leila de Souza; Ide, Regina Massae; Nazari, Anelise Samara; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mhsarragiotto@uem.br; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de; Foglio, Mary Ann [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quiicas, Bioloicas e Agricolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2003-12-01

    Chemical investigation of the leaves of Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae) afforded a mixture of b-sitosterol and stigmasterol, the terpenoid loliolide, the guanidine alkaloid N-1,N-2,N-3-tri-isopentenyl-guanidine and the phenolic compound corilagin. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial and antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract of the leaves and of fractions from its fractionation, were investigated against a series of bacteria and fungi, as well as against four human cancer cell lines. (author)

  20. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    .... Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L...

  1. Antiarthritic effect of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pistia stratiotes in adjuvant-induced arthritis in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George A; Boampong, Johnson N

    2012-01-01

    Background Pistia stratiotes has been used effectively to treat a number of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to determine the antiarthritic effect of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of P. stratiotes. Methods Arthritis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats, paw swelling was measured, and arthritis indices were estimated in rats treated with aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of P. stratiotes (AQ PSE and ET PSE, respectively), methotrexate, diclofenac, dexamethasone, and normal saline-treated rats. Radiologic imaging, hematological assessment of red and white blood cells, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as well as histopathological studies were also done. The data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 5. Results The 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses of AQ PSE and the 30 and 100 mg/kg doses of ET PSE caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05–0.001) reduction in ipsilateral paw swelling, similar to the effects of methotrexate, dexamethasone, and diclofenac. Only the 30 mg/kg dose of AQ PSE caused a significant (P ≤ 0.01) reduction in contralateral paw swelling. Arthritic indices reduced significantly (P ≤ 0.05–0.001) at all drug doses, except for the 100 and 300 mg/kg doses of ET PSE. White blood cell levels decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05–0.01) in arthritic rats treated with the 30 mg/kg dose of AQ PSE and those treated with methotrexate. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels were significantly (P ≤ 0.01–0.001) lower in all the treatment groups except for the rats treated with AQ PSE 300 mg/kg and ET PSE 100 and 300 mg/kg doses. The arthritic animals treated with 30 mg/kg of the aqueous extract showed no inflammatory changes in the ipsilateral paw, while the contralateral paw showed only foci of mild chronic inflammatory changes, as seen with the reference drug treatment in histopathological studies. Conclusion This study establishes that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. stratiotes have antiarthritic

  2. Biosynthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of Ipomoea eriocarpa and their anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moonjit; Mondal, Ashaparna; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Malipeddi, Himaja

    2017-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesised from aqueous Ag nitrate through a simple, competent and eco-friendly method using the leaf extract of Ipomoea eriocarpa as reducing as well as capping agent. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to confirm the formation of AgNPs which displayed the substantiation of surface plasmon bands at 425 nm. The NPs were also characterised using Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction method, transmission electron microscope and zeta potential. The characterisation study confirmed the formation of AgNPs, their spherical shape and average diameter of 12.85 ± 8.65 nm. Zeta potential value of -20.5 mV suggested that the AgNPs are stable in the suspension. The aqueous extract and the AgNPs were further screened for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Wistar rats. The study demonstrated that the AgNPs (1 ml kg-1) had a significant (p < 0.05) anti-edemic effect and inhibition was observed from the first hour (21.31 ± 1.34) until the sixth hour (52.67 ± 1.41), when the inhibitory effect was greatest and superior to the aqueous extract and the standard, diclofenac.

  3. 3 Variation in Leaf Anatomical Characters.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Dry and wet season studies of the leaf anatomy of ten plant species in the family Euphorbiaceae from three sites with different pollution levels in Southwestern Nigeria were carried out. This is with a view to establish the response of plant anatomical structures to air pollution. The species investigated were Alchornea laxiflora.

  4. Aqueous-phase oxidation of green leaf volatiles by hydroxyl radical as a source of SOA: Product identification from methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Amie K.; Ehrenhauser, Franz S.; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Anastasio, Cort; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

    2015-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into the atmosphere by vegetation. BVOCs produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via gas-phase reactions, but little is known of their aqueous-phase oxidation as a source of SOA. GLVs can partition into atmospheric water phases, e.g., fog, mist, dew or rain, and be oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (˙OH). These reactions in the liquid phase also lead to products that have higher molecular weights, increased polarity, and lower vapor pressures, ultimately forming SOA after evaporation of the droplet. To examine this process, we investigated the aqueous, ˙OH-mediated oxidation of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and methyl salicylate (MeSa), two GLVs that produce aqueous-phase SOA. High performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to monitor product formation. The oxidation products identified exhibit higher molecular mass than their parent GLV due to either dimerization or the addition of oxygen and hydroxyl functional groups. The proposed structures of potential products are based on mechanistic considerations combined with the HPLC/ESI-MS data. Based on the structures, the vapor pressure and the Henry's law constant were estimated with multiple methods (SPARC, SIMPOL, MPBPVP, Bond and Group Estimations). The estimated vapor pressures of the products identified are significantly (up to 7 orders of magnitude) lower than those of the associated parent compounds, and therefore, the GLV oxidation products may remain as SOA after evaporation of the water droplet. The contribution of the identified oxidation products to SOA formation is estimated based on measured HPLC-ESI/MS responses relative to previous aqueous SOA mass yield measurements.

  5. Phytochemistry, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Lagenaria breviflora (Cucurbitaceae in laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu Adedapo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant, and especially the fruit of Lagenaria breviflora is widely used in folklore medicine in West Africa as a herbal remedy for the treatment of human measles, digestive disorders, and as wound antiseptics (e.g. umbilical incision wound, while livestock farmers use it for Newcastle disease and coccidiosis treatment in various animal species, especially poultry. The purpose of this study was to contribute with new information on this plant leaves extract effect, as few studies have considered their effects. We collected fresh leaves of Lagenaria breviflora from the school farm of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria in May 2011. Dried leaves were ground and a 200g sample was used to prepare the extract. The grounded leaves material was allowed to shake in 1 000mL distilled water for 48h, in an orbital shaker at room temperature of 24°C. The obtained extract was filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure at 40ºC, and the thick solution was lyophilized, for a final extract yield of 12.6%. Standard phytochemical methods were used to test the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glycosides and flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of the plant was assessed using carrageenan-induced paw edema and histamine-induced paw edema in rats. The analgesic effect was determined using the acetic acid writhing method as well as formalin test in mice. Our results showed that the extract at 100 and 200mg/ kg body weight significantly reduced the formation of the oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract showed a good analgesic effect characterized by reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. The extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 2.5% formalin, signifying its analgesic effect. These results were however less than

  6. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  7. Neoshirakia, a new name for Shirakia Hurus. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, Hans-Joachim

    1998-01-01

    Shirakia (Euphorbiaceae) was described by Hurusawa (1954) with three species. It was named after Croton shiraki, a nomen nudum used by Siebold & Zuccarini (1843) for the species currently known as S. japonica (Siebold & Zucc.) Hurus. Kruijt (1996) transferred five additional species to Shirakia.

  8. Cultivars of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae) show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... Key words: Codiaeum variegatum, cultivars, Euphorbiaceae, chromosome number, phytochemical, pigment. INTRODUCTION. Plants have chemical defences against herbivores, man and other organisms in their community. However, many of these phytochemicals (e.g. stimulants, alkaloids, spices etc.) ...

  9. The Comparative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Walnut (Juglans regia Leaf and Glibenclamide on Serum Glucose Levels of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Noureddini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of medicinal plants for lowering glucose level in diabetic patients is of clinical importance. The present study investigated the effect of a 30-day oral administration of aqueous extract of walnut leaf and glibenclamide on blood glucose level in normal and diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 120 male rats (Sprague-Dawley, 150-250 g were divided into 12 equal groups as following: normal control group, normal group receiving glibenclamide (4 mg/kg, three normal groups receiving the extract doses of 50, 10, and 150 mg/kg, alloxan-diabetic control group (170 mg/kg, diabetic group receiving glibenclamide (4 mg/kg, and five diabetic groups receiving the extract in doses of 10, 50, 150, 300, and 500 mg/day by oral administration for 30 days. Glucose levels of the fasting rats were measured at 0, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 30th days using glucometer.Results: Administration of all doses and over 10 mg/kg significantly lowered the blood glucose level in normal rat and diabetic rats, compared with dose and duration-dependent control groups. This effect was higher for doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg in normal rats and for doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg in diabetic rats, similar to glibenclamide (4 mg/kg.Conclusion: Walnut leaf aqueous extract, depending on dose and duration, has dose and duration dependent declining effect on glucose level in normal rats and antihyperglycemic effect on diabetic rats, with a few side effects. This effect at some doses is greater or equal to that of glibenclamide.

  10. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Nilsson, Niclas; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-12-24

    The genus Euphorbia (spurges, Euphorbiaceae) is the third largest genus of flowering plants, with almost 2000 species. Its exceptional diversity of growth forms and near-cosmopolitan distribution have attracted human interest since ancient times. For instance in Australia, topical application of latex of Euphorbia peplus L. is used as a home treatment for skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Its use in Australian folk medicine has inspired the release of the drug Picato® (ingenol mebutate), and further fostered interest in natural products and medicinal uses of Euphorbia in recent years. To provide an indicative overview of medicinal uses of the genus Euphorbia driven by the recent interest in biologically active natural products from Euphorbia in drug discovery. We assess documented medicinal knowledge and value of the genus Euphorbia and the taxonomic distribution of this value. We undertook an extensive survey of over 260 multidisciplinary publications on the online repository JSTOR using the search term "Euphorbia medicinal". Medicinal uses were identified for >5% of the species in the genus, including descriptions of treatments for a variety of diseases. The most-cited medicinal uses around the world were treatments for digestive system disorders, skin ailments and, especially in the Southern hemisphere, infections. Consensus ratios indicated that the most-valued medicinal uses of Euphorbia species are in the treatment of digestive and respiratory complaints, inflammation and injuries, especially by members of Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce. The present study gives a first indicative overview of Euphorbia species used for health and wellbeing around the world. The exceptional diversity of the genus Euphorbia is not only represented by its growth forms but also by its diverse medicinal uses. Our results highlight the importance of research into medicinal uses of Euphorbia species and their importance as a source of natural products. Furthermore the medicinally

  11. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Kazeem, M. I.; Adamson, J. O.; Ogunwande, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α -glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α -amylase and α -glucosidase. This was performed using α -amylase from Aspergi...

  12. Antioxidant defense system induced by cysteine-stabilized peptide fraction of aqueous extract of Morinda lucida leaf in selected tissues of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Kayode E; Adebayo, Joseph O

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the responses of some antioxidant parameters in selected tissues of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice treated with cysteine-stabilized peptide fraction (CSPF) of aqueous extract of Morinda lucida leaf. Fifty-six mice were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A (normal control) was uninfected and received 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Mice in Groups B (negative control), C, D, E and F were inoculated with P. berghei NK65 and were administered with 5% DMSO and 15.63, 31.25, 61.5 and 125 mg/kg body weight of CSPF respectively. Group G animals, were also inoculated with P. berghei NK65, and received 20 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine. The administration lasted for three days, after which malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and various antioxidant parameters in selected tissues of mice were determined on days 4 and 8 post-inoculation. The results revealed that MDA concentration was significantly increased (P lucida leaf extract may induce the antioxidant defense system in vivo against Plasmodium species infection.

  13. Bioactive compound loaded stable silver nanoparticle synthesis from microwave irradiated aqueous extracellular leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata and its wound healing activity in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, T; Thiyagarajan, M; Geetha, N; Venkatachalam, P

    2014-07-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles was developed using Naringi crenulata leaf extracts via microwave irradiation method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by treating N. crenulata leaf extracts with 1mM of aqueous silver nitrate solution. An effective bioactive compound such as alkaloids, phenols, saponins and quinines present in the N. crenulata reduces the Ag(+) into Ag(0). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer and further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 390nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. From FESEM results, an average crystal size of the synthesized nanoparticle was 72-98nm. FT-IR results showed sharp absorption peaks and they were assigned to phosphine, alkyl halides and sulfonate groups. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical and cubic shape. Topical application of ointment prepared from silver nanoparticles of N. crenulata were formulated and evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model on Wistar albino rats. The measurement of the wound areas was performed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days and the percentage of wound closures was calculated accordingly. By the 15th day, the ointment base containing 5% (w/w) of silver nanoparticles showed 100% wound healing activity compared with that of the reference as well as control bases. The results strongly suggested that the batch C ointment containing silver nanaoparticles synthesized from the leaf extracts of N. crenulata was found to be very effective in wound repair and encourages harnessing the potentials of the plant biomolecules loaded silver nanoparticle in the treatment of tropical diseases including wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Larvicidal effects of mineral turpentine, low aromatic white spirits, aqueous extracts of Cassia alata, and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle) on Chrysomya megacephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad W; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ihalamulla, Ranjan L; Arambewela, Lakshmi S R; Dissanayake, Roshinie D S C T

    2002-12-01

    Many methods have been employed, with variable success, in the treatment of cutaneous myiasis caused by Chrysomya species. Experiment 1: to assess the larvicidal effect of mineral turpentine (MT) and the main ingredient of MT, low aromatic white spirits (LAWS), on Chrysomya megacephala larvae in vitro. Experiment 2: to assess the larvicidal effects of aqueous extracts of winged senna (Cassia alata), and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle). In experiment 1, two samples of LAWS were obtained from two industrialists (samples 1 and 2). Adult flies of C. megacephala were bred in the insectory of the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. Petri dishes were prepared with pads of cotton wool. These cotton pads were soaked separately in MT, LAWS samples 1 and 2, and normal saline as a control. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. The activity of the larvae was observed and recorded half-hourly. MT and the two samples of LAWS were analyzed by chromatography. In experiment 2, volatile essential oil of betel was prepared using a standard steam distillation process. An ethanolic extract of betel was obtained after boiling the crushed leaf with water, and mixing the stock with ethanol. Betel oil dilutions of 1-4% were prepared using 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) as a solvent, with 0.05 g/100 mL sodium lauryl sulphate (as stabilizer) and 0.01 g/100 mL methyl paraben (as a preservative). Cotton wool swabs soaked in 1, 2, 3 and 4% essential oil of betel in 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) prepared as above, 1, 2, 3 and 4% ethanolic extract of betel, 50 and 25% aqueous extract of C. alata, and 50 and 25% aqueous extract of betel were placed in separate Petri dishes. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. 1% Tween 80 solvent with the stabilizer and the preservative, but without betel essential oil, was used as a negative control and MT was used as a positive control. Larval motility was assessed as before. MT and

  15. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredie...

  16. Evaluation of Certain Plant Leaf Powders and Aqueous Extracts against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Awoke Yohannes; Genet Asayew; Getachew Melaku; Mulugeta Derbew; Sirgota Kedir; Nagappan Raja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate powders and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach, Mentha piperita, Phytolacca dodecandra, Schinus molle and Xanthium strumarium leaves against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. Repellent activity of plant powders were evaluated by mixing 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 g of powder per 100 g of clean uninfested maize seeds individually in separate plastic container. The numbers of insects moving outside the container were recorded at 24 h and 48 h post exposur...

  17. Algicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica on Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. de Brébission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ahii Chia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of synthetic algaecides for the control of algae produces by-products that are sometimes toxic to the environment. There is a need for natural and cheap alternatives to synthetic algaecides. In the present study, we investigated the potential of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of groups of bioactive compounds that are capable of inhibiting microalgal growth. Chlorophyll a concentration, dry weight production and cell density of microalga decreased with increasing crude extract concentration. After three days of exposure, the 1000 mg/L extract concentration resulted in complete growth inhibition and cell lysis. Furthermore, the ability of S. quadricauda to form multi-celled coenobial structures was compromised in a concentration dependent manner. In general, catalase and peroxidase activities of the microalga were upregulated with increasing extract concentration. These results imply that aqueous neem extract may provide a cheap and ecofriendly alternative for the control of microalgae in aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice treated with aqueous ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitumor effect of a latex extract from Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and its toxicity. Methods: Aqueous ethanol and petroleum ether extracts were obtained through maceration. .Maximum tolerated dose was determined in healthy mice. Antitumor activity was measured in Ehrlich ascites.

  19. Pharmaceutical Characterization of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterize some preformulation properties of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) (BF). Methods: The stem bark was extracted by maceration in hot distilled water. Two batches of granules containing the extract were prepared by wet granulation using maize starch, ...

  20. Kinetic, Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera - 'Sodom apple'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudumebi Overah, Loretta; Babalola, Oyebamiji.; Babarinde, Adesola; Oninla, Vincent; Olatunde, Abimbola

    2013-04-01

    The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the biosorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera popularly known in western Nigeria as 'bom bom' and generally known as Sodom apple were investigated at different experimental conditions. Optimum conditions of pH,contact time, biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were determined to be 5, 60 minutes, 110 mg, 0.3 mM and 27°C respectively. The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 8.91 mg/g. The kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of the metal ion followed the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models with an R-square value of 0.998 and 0.985 respectively. Equilibrium studies showed that the biosorption of Cd (II) is well represented by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms but the Langmuir model gave a better fit with an R-square value of 0.979,Langmuir constant, bm of 0.0080 and monolayer adsorption capacity, μm of 123.46. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° -4.846 kJmol-1, ΔH° 10.60 kJmol-1 and ΔS° 0.052 kJK-1mol-1) showed that the biosorption of Cd (II)is feasible, spontaneous, endothermic and highly disordered in nature under the experimental conditions. Thesefindings indicate that the leaf of Calotropis procera could be employed in the removal of Cd (II) from industrial effluents. Key words: Calotropis procera, Cadmium, Adsorption isotherm.

  1. Green Synthesis of Ag/Ag₂O Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eupatorium odoratum and Its Antimicrobial and Mosquito Larvicidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemike, Elias E; Onwudiwe, Damian C; Ekennia, Anthony C; Sonde, Christopher U; Ehiri, Richard C

    2017-04-28

    The health challenges associated with pathogens and ectoparasites highlight the need for effective control approaches. Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective tools towards combatting different microbial organisms and parasites. The present work reports the antimicrobial and larvicidal potential of biosynthesized Ag/Ag₂O nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Eupatorium odoratum (EO). The constituents of the leaf extract act as both reducing and stabilizing agents. The UV-VIS spectra of the nanoparticles showed surface plasmon resonance. The particle size and shape of the nanoparticles was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The larvicidal study was carried out using third and fourth instar Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extract (EO) and the synthesized nanoparticles, and their percentage of mortality was accounted for at different time intervals of 12 h and 24 h periods of exposure. The nanoparticles were more lethal against third and fourth instars of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae at the 24 h period of exposure with lower lethal concentration values (LC50 = 95.9 ppm; LC90 = 337.5 ppm) and (LC50 = 166.4 ppm; LC90 = 438.7 ppm) compared to the plant extract (LC50 = 396.8 ppm; LC90 = 716.8 ppm and LC50 = 448.3 ppm; LC90 = 803.9 ppm, respectively). The antimicrobial properties of the nanoparticles were established against different clinically-isolated microbial strains and compared to that of the plant extract (EO) and standard antimicrobial drugs. The nanoparticles were generally more active than the plant extract against the selected microbial organisms. The Gram-negative bacterial strains Escheerichua coli and Salmonella typhi were more susceptible towards the nanoparticles compared to the Gram-positive strains and the fungal organism.

  2. Removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions using 'green' zero-valent iron nanoparticles produced by oak and mulberry leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poguberović, S S; Krčmar, D M; Dalmacija, B D; Maletić, S P; Tomašević-Pilipović, D D; Kerkez, Dj V; Rončević, S D

    2016-11-01

    The production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles, using extracts from natural products, represents a green and environmentally friendly method. Synthesis of 'green' zero-valent nanoparticles (nZVI) using oak and mulberry leaf extracts (OL-nZVI and ML-nZVI) proved to be a promising approach for Ni(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the produced green nZVI materials had been conducted previously and confirmed the formation of nanosize zero-valent iron particles within the size range of 10-30 nm, spherical with minimum agglomeration observed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope morphology measurements. Batch experiments revealed that the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The obtained adsorption isotherm data could be well described by the Freundlich model and OL-nZVI showed higher adsorption capacity for Ni(II) removal than ML-nZVI, while ML-nZVI adsorption capacity was higher for Cu(II). In addition, investigation of the pH effect showed that varying the initial pH value had a great effect on Ni(II) and Cu(II) removal. Adsorbed amounts of Ni(II) and Cu(II) increased with pH increase to pH 7.0 and 8.0. This study indicated that nZVI produced by a low-cost and non-toxic method with oak and mulberry leaf extracts could be used as a new material for remediation of water matrices contaminated with Ni(II) and Cu(II).

  3. Antibacterial Activityof Aqueous And Ethanolic Leaf Extracts Of Vernonia Amygdalina On Selected Species Of Gram Positive And Gram Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Bukar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethanolic and Methanolic leaves extract of Vernonia amygdalina against five clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas species, Salmonella species and Proteus species was determined using standard method of analysis. The results of the antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extract of leaves of V. amygdalina have diameters ranging between 0.4 to 10mm. The plant extracts from the plants had profound activities against gram-positive than gram negative bacteria. From the above studies, it has clearly indicated that V. amygdalina extract may represent new sources of antibacterial drug, if the phytoactive components are purified and proper dosage are determined for administration. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 147-152 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9217

  4. Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Benazir Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam.

  5. Antibacterial efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract on experimental Escherichia coli (O78) infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidam, Y A; Ambali, A G; Onyeyili, P A; Tijjani, M B; Gambo, H I; Gulani, I A

    2015-03-01

    This study was desingned to examine the efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of aqueous extracted Psidium guajava leaves on chicks experimentally-infected with diarrheagenic strain of Escherichia coli O78. A total of 60 ISA brown male chicks were randomly divided into 6 Groups of ten chicks each in separate cages. Group A was not infected and not treated. Groups B, C and D were infected and treated with extracts at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively for 10 days. Group E was infected and treated with oxytetracycline while Group F was infected, but left untreated. Chicks from all groups were closely monitored for clinical signs, body weight change and fecal bacterial shedding load during the course of the experiment. Diarrhea, vents pasted with feces, drop in feed intake accompanied by slow weight gain and decreased activity was observed in infected untreated groups. Groups treated with graded doses of the extract experienced a dose-dependent decreased in severity of the clinical signs shown compared to the infected untreated group. Bacterial shedding load was found to be lower in groups treated with the extract and oxytetracycline than those without intervention. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction of leaf extract of Psidium guajava effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of other clinical signs caused by experimental E. coli infections in chicks.

  6. Effect of competitive adsorption on zinc removal from aqueous solution and zinc smelting effluent by eucalyptus leaf-based magnetic biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Tang, Yankui; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Yuanzhang; Zhang, Kaixuan; Wang, Shengye; Liang, Yan

    2017-07-29

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the competitive sorption behaviors and mechanisms of heavy metals onto ELMB, a novel eucalyptus-leaf-based magnetic biosorbent, and to study the potential application of ELMB in the treatment of actual zinc smelting effluent after a necessary pretreatment process. ELMB and ELMB-metals systems were characterized using several techniques. Competitive sorption of Zn2+ with Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+ onto ELMB was studied by batch experiments and the used sorbent was separated under a magnetic field. The results show that the ELMB can be considered as paramagnetic material with various functional groups on its surface. The presence of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+ significantly decreases the sorption of Zn2+ in either the binary system or multimetal systems. The order of adsorption preference is Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+ in multimetal systems and the sequence of competitive ability to zinc is: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Non-competitive Langmuir multicomponent isotherm model fits to the adsorption data of Pb2+ and Cu2+ well in aqueous solution. The co-existent Ca2+ and SO42- decrease the removal efficiencies of heavy metals while the presence of Na+ and Cl- shows little effect in the multimetal solution. In the case of actual zinc smelting effluent, "pretreatment + ELMB sorption" is successfully applied to remove heavy metals and the contents of Zn2+ and its associated metals are well below discharge limits.

  7. [Sub-chronic toxicity and test of eye irritability of leaf aqueous extract from Plantago major (plantaginaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Mildred; Coto Morales, Teresita; Soto Rodríguez, Gerardo A; Pazos, Liliana

    2003-01-01

    For the sub-chronic toxicity an aqueous preparation of Plantago major leaves was tested in 20 male NGP mice, with an average weight of 20.15 g and separated in two groups of ten individuals each. The dose used was 2000 mg/kg and the control group received 0.5 ml of distilled water. The extract administration was done daily during five days at week for a total period of 40 days. Signs of sub-chronic toxicity were observed in the days two and 12 of treatment. No significant change in corporal weight was observed. The ocular irritation was tested in five New Zeland male rabbits, with an average weight of 3.640 kg. The dose used was a 200 microliters the preparation (100 mg/ml) of Plantago major leaves, instill into the right eye and the control was used the left eye instill 200 microliters of distilled water. The administration was done daily during five days. The extract shows no significant irritation during the observation period.

  8. Hepatoprotective properties of aqueous leaf extract of Persea Americana, Mill (Lauraceae) 'avocado' against CCL4-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, Bartholomew I C; Adisa, Rahmat A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2014-01-01

    Natural products from plants have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidants and hepatoprotective activities. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Persea americana (AEPA) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats was investigated. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 and olive oil [3 ml/kg, subcutaneously (sc)] after pre-treatment for 7 days with AEPA. Hepatoprotective effects of AEPA was evaluated by estimating the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total bilirubin (TBL). The effects of AEPA on biomarkers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzymes namely, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured in liver post mitochondrial fraction. AEPA and Reducdyn® showed significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotective activity by decreasing the activities of ALT, AST, ALP and reducing the levels of TBL. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls were also decreased dose-dependently in the AEPA-treated rats. Pre-treatment with AEPA also decreased the serum levels of glutathione significantly. These data revealed that AEPA possesses significant hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced toxicity attributable to its constituent phytochemicals. The mechanism of hepatoprotection seems to be through modulation of antioxidant enzyme system.

  9. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Withania somnifera as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent in Sleep-deprived Rats: a Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Shaffi; Mishra, Rachana; Singh, Rumani; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2017-05-01

    Modern lifestyle and sustained stress of professional commitments in the current societal set up often disrupts the normal sleep cycle and duration which is known to lead to cognitive impairments. In the present study, we report whether leaf extract of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has potential neuroprotective role in acute stress of sleep deprivation. Experiments were performed on three groups of adult Wistar rats: group 1 (vehicle treated-undisturbed sleep [VUD]), group 2 (vehicle treated-sleep deprived [VSD]), and group 3 (ASH-WEX treated-sleep deprived [WSD]). Groups 1 and 2 received single oral feeding of vehicle and group 3 received ASH-WEX orally (140 mg/kg or 1 ml/250 g of body weight) for 15 consecutive days. Immediately after this regimen, animals from group 1 were allowed undisturbed sleep (between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.), whereas rats of groups 2 and 3 were deprived of sleep during this period. We observed that WSD rats showed significant improvement in their performance in behavioral tests as compared to VSD group. At the molecular level, VSD rats showed acute change in the expression of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity, cell survival, and apoptosis in the hippocampus region of brain, which was suppressed by ASH-WEX treatment thus indicating decreased cellular stress and apoptosis in WSD group. This data suggest that Ashwagandha may be a potential agent to suppress the acute effects of sleep loss on learning and memory impairments and may emerge as a novel supplement to control SD-induced cognitive impairments.

  10. Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, in-vitro antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Atalantia ceylanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chamira Dilanka; Soysa, Preethi

    2014-10-14

    Decoction prepared from leaves of Atalantia ceylanica is used in traditional medicine in Sri Lanka for the treatment of various liver ailments since ancient times. Lyophilized powder of the water extract of A. ceylanica leaves was investigated for its phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity in-vitro. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using Folin Ciocalteu method and aluminium chloride colorimetric assay respectively. The antioxidant activities of the decoction were investigated using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide scavenging assays and ferric ion reducing power assay. Hepatotoxicity was induced on porcine liver slices with ethanol to study hepatoprotective activity. Porcine liver slices were incubated at 37°C with different concentrations of the water extract of A. ceylanica in the presence of ethanol for 2 hours. The hepatoprotective effects were quantified by the leakage of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the medium. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was performed to examine the anti-lipid peroxidation activity caused by the plant extract. The mean ± SD (n =9) for the levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were 4.87 ± 0.89 w/w% of gallic acid equivalents and 16.48 ± 0.63 w/w% of (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate equivalents respectively. The decoction demonstrated high antioxidant activity. The mean ± SD values of EC50 were 131.2 ± 36.1, 48.4 ± 12.1, 263.5 ± 28.3 and 87.70 ± 6.06 μg/ml for DPPH, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide scavenging assays and ferric ion reducing power assay respectively.A significant decrease (p extract at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in the presence of ethanol (5 M) compared to that of ethanol (5 M) treated slices. Furthermore, a reduction in lipid peroxidation was also observed in liver slices treated with the leaf extract of A. ceylanica (2 mg/ml) compared to that

  11. Aqueous extract from leaf of Artocarpus altilis provides cardio-protection from isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats: Negative chronotropic and inotropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka; Palacios, Javier; Simirgiotis, Mario J; Thomas, Jemesha; Nwokocha, Magdalene; Young, Lauriann; Thompson, Rory; Cifuentes, Fredi; Paredes, Adrian; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-05-05

    The leaves of Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn, Fosberg) (Moraceae) are used in the management of hypertension; this study assessed the cardio-protective effects of the leaf extract on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial damage in rats. Twenty (20) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-230g) were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (Control), 2 (AA) received 50mg/Kg Artocarpus altilis (AA) only; 3 (ISO) received 85mg/Kg ISO only; 4 (ISO+AA/50) and 5 (ISO+AA/100) received 50 and 100mg/Kg AA respectively for 6 days, after induced with ISO twice (85mg/Kg) at a 24-h period. Blood pressure readings were taken before and after the administering of ISO using the tail cuff method. ECG was performed on anaesthetized rats. Cardiac contractility was measured in isolated right atrial muscles. Assessment of myocardial infarct (MI) size, heart/body weight ratio, biochemical, hematological and histo-morphological parameters were conducted at the end of seven days. An aqueous extract from leaves of A. altilis was analyzed for organic compounds using UHPLC mass spectrometry. ISO induced myocardial damage through an elevation of the heart rate (HR), infarct size and ECG distortions. Treatment with AA significantly (p˂0.05) reduced heart/body weight ratio (49%), MI (96%), HR (27%), sympathovagal imbalance (36%) and serum cardiac biomarkers (AST, LDH, HDL, triglycerides and CCK) caused by ISO. AA decreased the beat frequency of isolated right atrium (11%) cause by ISO, an action similar to propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist; 20%), but showed no significant changes in the QTc intervals of the ECG (suggesting no cardio-toxic drug-herb interactions), Thirty nine compounds were detected using high resolution LC-MS analysis (HPLC-Orbitrap-APCI-MS) in the extract. Pure compounds, as gallic acid and rutin, presented a higher negative chronotropic effect, similar to propranolol. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Artocarpus artilis has cardio-protective functions in

  12. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-25

    Extracts from various morphological parts of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) are widely used medicinally in many parts of the world for the management, control and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of A. muricata leaf aqueous extract (AME) in rat experimental paradigms of DM. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the administered volumes of AME and reference drugs' solutions intraperitoneally. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg kg(-1)). Group C rats were additionally treated with AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) as from day 3 post STZ injection, for four consecutive weeks. Group D rats received AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) only for four weeks. Post-euthanization, hepatic tissues were excised and processed biochemically for antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles, such as catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. Treatment of Groups B and C rats with STZ (70 mg kg(-1) i. p.) resulted in hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, and increased TBARS, ROS, TC, TG and LDL levels. STZ treatment also significantly decreased (pmuricata extract has a protective, beneficial effect on hepatic tissues subjected to STZ-induced oxidative stress, possibly by decreasing lipid peroxidation and indirectly enhancing production of insulin and endogenous antioxidants.

  13. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens on contractile activity of corpus cavernosum in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertensive male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Shakiru Ademola; Salahdeen, Hussein Mofomosara; Ugbebor, Evangelshane Chukwudubem; Murtala, Babatunde Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens (ALETP) on contractile activity of corpus cavernosum in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive male rats. Twenty normal, adult male rats (130-150 g) were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group I (control) was given normal saline (0.6 mL/kg) and group II was given l-NAME (40 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Groups III and IV also received l-NAME (40 mg/kg) for 6 weeks but were further co-treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of ALETP, respectively, from week 4 to week 6. All treatments were given orally. Strips of corpus cavernosum from each of the four groups were exposed to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10 -9 -10 -5 mol/L) after contraction with phenylephrine (10 -7  mol/L) to test for a dose-response effect. Response to potassium and calcium was also measured after cumulatively adding potassium and calcium (10-50 mmol/L) to potassium- and calcium-free organ chamber. Isometric contractions were recorded through an Ugo Basile data capsule acquisition system. Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly reduced in the ALETP co-treated group compared to the control and l-NAME-only groups (P l-NAME-only treated group (P l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats promotes a relaxant effect on isolated cavernosa strips. ALETP shows potential in correcting erectile dysfunction in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf in male Wistar rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoka Oladele Abiodun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties that is associated with various forms of reproductive toxicity. The significance of natural antioxidants of plant origin should be explored, especially in a world with increasing incidence of patients in need of chemotherapy. The neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf (AEAVL in Wistar rats with CP-induced reproductive toxicity was determined. Forty rats were used for this study such that graded doses of the extract were administered following CP-induced reproductive toxicity and comparisons were made against control, toxic and standard (vitamin E groups at p < 0.05. The synthetic drugs (CP, 65 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days; Vitamin E, 100 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days as well as the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days were administered to the rats at 0.2 mL/100 g. CP induced reproductive toxicity as evidenced by significantly lowered levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, perturbation of sperm characterization, deleterious disruptions of the antioxidant system as evidenced by decreased levels of GSH as well as elevation of TBARS activity. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic lesions with scanty and hypertrophied parenchymal cells in the pituitary while the testis showed ballooned seminiferous tubules with loosed connective tissues and vacuolation of testicular interstitium. These conditions were significantly reversed (p < 0.05 following administration of the graded doses of the extract. It was, therefore, concluded that AEAVL could potentially be a therapeutic choice in patients with CP-induced neuro-endocrine dysfunction and reproductive toxicity.

  15. Metabolic adaptation to the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.-supplemented diet is related to the modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Qiuhong; Liu, Ling; Kong, Ping; Sheng, Jun; Xiang, Hongyu

    2017-06-01

    The aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (LM-A) is reported to have many health beneficial bioactivities and no obvious toxicity, but have mild adverse effects. Little is known about the mechanism of these reported adverse effects. Notably, there has been no report about the influence of LM-A on intestinal microecology. In this study, animal experiments were performed to explore the relationships between metabolic adaptation to an LM-A-supplemented diet and gut microbiota changes. After 8-week feeding with normal chow diet, the body weight of mice entered a stable period, and one of the group received daily doses of 750-mg/kg body weight LM-A by gavage for 4 weeks (assigned as LM); the other group received the vehicle (assigned as NCD). The liver weight to body weight ratio was enhanced, and the ceca were enlarged in the LM group compared with the NCD group. LM-A-supplemented-diet mice elicited a uniform metabolic adaptation, including slightly influenced fasting glucose and blood lipid profiles, significantly reduced liver triglycerides content, enhanced serum lipopolysaccharide level, activated inflammatory responses in the intestine and liver, compromised gut barrier function, and broken intestinal homeostasis. Many metabolic changes in mice were significantly correlated with altered specific gut bacteria. Changes in Firmicutes, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila, segmented filamentous bacteria, Enterococcus spp., and Sutterella spp. may play an important role in the process of host metabolic adaptation to LM-A administration. Our research provides an explanation of the adverse effects of LM-A administration on normal adult individuals in the perspective of microecology.

  16. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of Manihot multifida (L.) Crantz (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, Rodrigo L; De Sá, Daniel S; Pereira, Ana Patrícia O; Scio, Elita; Pimenta, Daniel S; Chedier, Luciana M

    2015-03-01

    Manihot multifida (L.) Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) is widely used in popular medicine for the treatment of infected wounds. This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of this species against strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, known to cause infections in humans. The extracts showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) varying from 39 to 2500 µg/mL for antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract of fruits, aqueous and hexane extracts of leaves showed a very strong activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804) with MIC of 39 µg/mL. Furthermore, the methanolic extract of M. multifida leaves exhibited DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging potential with inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 46.9 μg/mL, followed by hexane extract of leaves with IC50 values of 59.2 μg/mL. The cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp was stronger for the methanolic extract of leaves (lethal concentration - LC50 of 15.6 µg/mL). These results suggest that M. multifida has interesting antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Moreover, these results corroborate the popular use of this specie in treating fungal infections since it demonstrates significant activity against C. albicans.

  17. Antidiarrheal Activity of Aqueous Extract of the Stem Bark of Sapium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antidiarrheal activity of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of S. ellipticum (Euphorbiaceae) (AESE). Methods: AESE was prepared by decoction of the powder from the dry stem bark of S. ellipticum. Its oral antidiarrheal effect was evaluated in vivo at the doses of 5.2, 10.4 and 20.8 mg/kg on ...

  18. Diterpenes and other constituents from Croton draco (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Murillo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Croton draco (Euphorbiaceae from Guadalupe, San José, Costa Rica was collected in July 1992 and phytochemically studied (leaves, seeds, wood, bark, sap and flowers separately. Commonly known compounds such as 1-hydroxyjunenol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamyl alcohol, the coumarin scopoletin, the nor-terpenoids 9-dehydrovomifoliol and 2,3-dihydrovomifoliol were obtained. Taspine, two aporphinic alkaloids, the diterpenes 9(11-dehydrokaurenic acid, hardwikiic acid, the corresponding new 12-oxo derivative as well as five clerodanes and a phorbol ester were also isolated. Three clerodanes were not previously described and their NMR spectroscopical data and MS fragmentation patterns are reported.Se llevó a cabo un estudio fitoquímico de Croton draco (Euphorbiaceae (por aparte hojas, corteza, madera, semillas, savia y flores. Se aislaron compuestos comunes como el 1-hidroxijunenol, p-hidroxibenzaldehido, ácido p-metoxubenzoico, alcohol 3,4,5-trimetoxicinámico, escopoletina y los norterpenos 9-dehidrovomifoliol y 2,3 dihidrovomifoliol. Además se aislaron dos alcaloides aporfínicos, taspina, ácido 9(11-dehidrokaurénico, ácido hardwíkico y su derivado 12-oxo, así como cinco clerodanos y un éster de forbol (el cual fue el único compuesto aislado de las flores. De los compuestos aislados, tres clerodanos no han sido informados en la literatura por lo que se incluye sus datos espectroscópicos y fraccionamientos de la espectrometría de masas.

  19. Diterpenos y otros constituyentes de Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Fuentes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available De las raices de Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae, recolectadas en Paraiso de Cartago (Costa Rica se aislaron, a parte de unos pocos compuestos conocidos, 20 compuestos que no habían sido publicados antes, el bisnordolabradano 1, los dolabradanes 2 y 3, los kauranes 4-7, cyclopropakauranos 8 y 9, los hirtusanos 10-15, los ésteres de germacreno 16-18, los elemanos 19 y 20 y un compuesto C-25, 21, el cual es formado presumiblemente por una reacción de Diels-Alder entre el compuesto 18 y un monoterpeno. Todas las estructuras fueron elucidadas con la utilización de técnicas de RMN de una y dos dimensiones. Los patrones de fraccionamiento de los compuestos nuevos también se registran. Las separaciones fueron llevadas a cabo con técnicas cromatográficas modernasThe roots of Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae collected in Paraiso, Cartago (Costa Rica afforded, in addition to the few known metabolites, 20 new compounds: the bis-nor dolabradane 1, the dolabradanes 2 and 3, the kauranes 4-7, the cyclopropakauranes 8 and 9, the hirtusanes 10-15, the germacradiene esters 16-18 and the C-25 compound 21, presumably formed by a Diels-Alder reaction between compound 18 and a monoterpene. All structures were elucidated using high field 1D and 2D NMR techniques. MS fragmentation patterns are here reported. The absolute configurations of 4 and 9 were elucidated by using circular dichroism. The separation was performed with modern chromatographic technics

  20. Evaluation of hemostatic activity of latex from three Euphorbiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B

    2014-01-01

    Latices from several plant species of Euphorbiaceae family have been traditionally applied over fresh cuts to stop bleeding and subsequently applied over wounds to enhance healing process. The latex arrested bleeding from fresh wounds by reducing bleeding and whole blood coagulation time which are important indices of hemostatic activity. It has been accepted that hemostatic activity is due to the proteolytic fraction of plant latices. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the clot inducing properties of three Euphorbiaceae plants viz., Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham., Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit and Synadenium grantii Hook F. In the present study, various proteolytic activities namely protease, gelatinase, milk clotting and whole blood clotting assay of the enzyme fraction of latices of Euphorbia nivulia, Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Synadenium grantii have been investigated. The inhibition profile of protease specific inhibitors was assessed. Also, the effects of protein fractions were studied using bleeding/clotting time test of fresh experimentally-induced wounds in mice. Euphorbia nivulia latex protease has noticeable blood clotting activity followed by Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Synadenium grantii. Stem latex protease of Pedilanthus tithymaloides exhibits superior procoagulant activity in different mammal's blood samples viz., Capra hircus, Bubalus bubalis, Ovibos moschatus and Bos indicus. Blood sample of ox was the most sensitive to latex protease than other mammal's blood. Concomitantly, the plant latex protease could significantly reduce whole blood clotting time of human and mice blood samples. The protease fraction of latices of Euphorbia nivulia, Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Synadenium grantii possesses phytoconstituents capable of arresting wound bleeding, and accelerating whole blood coagulation process. It suggests good potentiality for use of latex proteases in wound management. Also, the finding of this study showed that the protease

  1. Comparative study of kinetics of adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using cinnamon plant (Cinnamonum zeylanicum) leaf powder and pineapple peel powder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patil, Satish D; Renukdas, S; Patel, N.T

    2012-01-01

    ...) leaf powder (CPLP) and Pineapple (Ananas Comosus) peel powder (PPP) was investigated. Different parameters such as initial sorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, agitation speed, temperature and particle size...

  2. Comparison of anticancer activity of biocompatible ZnO nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion synthesis using aqueous leaf extracts of Abutilon indicum, Melia azedarach and Indigofera tinctoria as biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, G K; Prashanth, P A; Nagabhushana, B M; Ananda, S; Krishnaiah, G M; Nagendra, H G; Sathyananda, H M; Rajendra Singh, C; Yogisha, S; Anand, S; Tejabhiram, Y

    2017-07-18

    Recently, there has been an upsurge in the use of naturally available fuels for solution combustion synthesis (SCS) of nanoparticles. Although many reports suggest that these biofuels pose less harm to the environment, their strategic advantages and reliability for making NPs has not been discussed. In the present work, we try to address this issue using plant extracts as biofuels for the SCS of zinc oxide nanoparticles as a model system. In the present work, combustion synthesis of ZnO NPs using lactose and aqueous leaf extracts of Abutilon indicum, Melia azedarach, Indigofera tinctoria as biofuels has been carried out. A comparative analysis of the obtained powders has been conducted to understand the strategic advantages of using plant extracts over a chemical as combustion fuel for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The X-ray diffractograms of the samples revealed the presence of Wurtzite hexagonal structure with varying crystallite sizes. Morphological studies indicated that samples prepared using biofuels had smaller diameter than those prepared using lactose as fuel. Surface characteristics of the samples were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Qualitative phytochemical screening of aqueous leaf extracts revealed the presence of many phytochemicals in them, which might be responsible for combustion. Gas chromatography mass spectrum was carried out to detect the phytochemicals present in the aqueous extracts of the leaves. Further, anticancer evaluation carried out against DU-145 and Calu-6 cancer cells indicated higher anticancer activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared using biofuels. The results of blood haemolysis revealed the biocompatibility of zinc oxide nanoparticles at lower concentrations. In conclusion, we propose that multiple other studies would be required in order to vindicate the potential advantages of using naturally available fuels in SCS.

  3. Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Mogueo, Amélie; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Aboubakar, Bibi-Farouck Oumarou; Tédong, Léonard; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2014-12-17

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract obtained from the mixture of fresh leaf of Persea americana, stems and fresh leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, fruits of Citrus medica and honey on ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups of 6 rats each and daily treated for 5 weeks. The control group received distilled water (1 mL/kg) while rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 received ethanol 40 degrees (3 g/kg/day), 10% sucrose as drinking water and the two substances respectively. The remaining groups received in addition to sucrose and ethanol, the aqueous extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg) respectively. Many parameters including hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological were assessed at the end of the study. The concomitant consumption of ethanol and sucrose significantly (p < 0.001) increased the blood pressure and the heart rate compared to distilled water treated-rats. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, atherogenic index, glucose, proteins, AST, ALT, creatinin, potassium, sodium and albumin increased while the HDL-cholesterol decreased under ethanol and sucrose feeding. Chronic ethanol and sucrose intake significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrites whereas elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histological analysis revealed among other vascular congestion, inflammation, tubular clarification and thickening of the vessel wall in rats treated with alcohol and sucrose. Administration of the aqueous extract or nifedipine prevented the hemodynamic, biochemical, oxidative and histological impairments induced chronic ethanol and sucrose consumption. Current results suggest that the aqueous extract used in this study possess antihypertensive activity against ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats by the improvement of biochemical

  4. Leaf Epidermal And Pollen Morphological Studies Of Genus Jatropha L. Euphorbiaceae In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyewo. L.T.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The predominated plant genus of Jatropha were studied using the epidermal cell morphology and pollen morphology to express more reliable power to its identification aside from the normal flower and other features key arrangement they all had paralytic stomata type with absence of stomata at the abaxial with no traces of trichomes J. multifida is having the highest stomata length of 27.5m with highest stomata with 17.5m while J. curcas J. podagrica and J. gossypifolia varies between 15.0 m in stomata length to 12.5 m in stomata width. They also have straight to curve anticlinal cell walls. They all possess large grain with exine pattern all croton while only J. multifida has the smallest gemmae size of 2.50 m and its polar axis and equatorial diameter carries lower parameters of 52.1 m and 51.6 m respectively while it may be more affected by environmental factor and that is why the results is good but calls for more genetic expression.

  5. Aktivitas Hipolipidemik dan Indeks Aterogenik yang Rendah Ekstrak Air Daun Tapak Dara pada Tikus Hiperkolesterolemia (HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY AND LOW ATHEROGENIC INDEX OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is one plant recognized as medical potential which can decrease cholesterol. Thepresent study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extracts of C. roseus on plasma lipidprofil levels in rats cholesterol rich diet and atherogenic index. This study was carried out on 15 SpraqueDawley male rats randomly distributed into five groups (n=3. Rats hypercholesterolemic wereadministrated cholesterol rich diet containing 1% (w/w. Normal control group with normal diet whitoutextracts (K1, positive control hypercholesterolemic group (K2 with cholesterol rich diet whitout extracts,and others three groups (K3-K5 were feed high cholesterol and 1 mL of aqueous leaf extracts of C. roseuswith a dose of 20% (w/v, 40% (w/v and 80% (w/v respectively, administered twice daily 1 mL orally.Treatment was given for 28 days. After treatment, the plasma lipids profile such cholesterol total, highdensity lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TGA level were measured. Theresults showed that during the period of treatment with cholesterol rich diet have produced under condition hypercholesterolemic of rats with average cholesterol levels of 124.33 ± 4.04 mg/dL (K2 group. Treatmentwith extract dose of 80% showed the best results among the other doses in reducing levels of total cholesterol,triglycerides, LDL and raise HDL levels. Extract treatment dose of 80% up to four weeks resulted incholesterol total (79.33±3.51 mg/dL, TGA (72.33±6.65 mg/dL, HDL (55.00±3.60 mg/dL, and LDL(9.87±5.34mg/dL. In addition, value ratio of cholesterol:HDL was 1.4: 1 and atherogenic index value was0.44. These results suggest that extracts of leaf C. roseus optimum doses 80% (w/v has hipolipidemicactivity in hypercholesterolemic rats and it has low atherogenic index value.

  6. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Aloysia Citriodora (Lemon verbena) on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiee, Faranak; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shahandeh, Zahra; Sadighian, Farhnaz; Khodadadi, Effat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Aloysia citriodora plant from the family of Verbenaceae has many uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. citriodora on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which cause tooth decay. Methods This 2016 study was performed on standardized strains of S. mutans PTCC1683 and S. sobrinus PTCC1601 and clinical isolates. Twenty clinical samples were obtained from the dental caries of...

  7. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants� growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  8. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  9. Atomic force microscopy of the intervessel pit membrane in the stem of Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Pesacreta; Leslie H. Groom; Timothy G. Rials

    2005-01-01

    Sapwood and juvenile wood of Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiacea) was collected during 2000-2002. In air-dried vessel elements, the surface of pit membranes (PMs) in the outermost growth ring was coated with plaque-like or interstitial material that was 2-5 nm thick. This coating was phase dark and overlaid a phase bright layer of globules and...

  10. Brasiliocroton : a new crotonoid genus of Euphorbiaceae s.s. from eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Berry; Ines Cordeiro; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Maria Amelia Vitorino-Cruz; Leticia Ribes de Lima

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of Euphorbiaceae s.s., Brasiliocroton mamoninha, is described from two disjunct areas of lowland forest remnants in eastern and northeastern Brazil. It is a member of tribe Crotoneae and was previously confused with Croton and Micrandra. The resemblance to Micrandra is based on the branched inflorescences and terminal position of the pistillate...

  11. The Growth Form of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) - Functional Morphology and Biomechanics of a Neotropical Liana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallenmüller, F.; Müller, U.; Rowe, N.; Speck, T.

    2001-01-01

    Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) is a woody climber of the lowland rainforest in French Guyana and Surinam. During ontogeny, a shift from a juvenile free-standing growth phase to an older supported growth phase is observed. The following biomechanical parameters were studied: structural Young's

  12. Wood anatomy of the Euphorbiaceae, in particular of the subfamily Phyllanthoideae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The great variety in wood structure of the large family Euphorbiaceae makes it impossible to describe briefly a general wood pattern. Nevertheless, a more or less clear division into four anatomical groups can be made. A short overview is given of the wood structure of the uni-ovulate subfamilies

  13. Wound-healing Activity of the Aqueous Leaf Extract and Fractions of Ficus exasperata (Moraceae and its Safety Evaluation on Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Nonyelum Umeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ficus exasperata have been reported to have wide applications in the treatment of many human diseases. However, its traditional use in the treatment of wounds has not been validated by any scientific study. Also, its safety in the management of chronic disease conditions requires attention. We evaluated the wound-healing activity of the aqueous extract and fractions of F. exasperata, as well as its safety after subchronic oral administration. Similar percentage of wound contraction was observed with 5% w/w extract ointment application and administration of cicatrin powder (standard on the 4th day, while better contraction than the standard was recorded with higher concentrations of the extract ointment. Of all the fractions tested, significant (P<0.05 contraction was only noticed in chloroform fraction, though lower than that of the aqueous extract. The extract also showed concentration-dependent inhibition of all the tested microbial isolates. Extract administered up to 5000 mg/kg (single dose administration did not cause any mortality after 24 h. Mortality was, however, recorded at 4000 mg/kg within the first 20 days of subchronic administration of the extract. Significant (P<0.05 increases in alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, and in particular, alkaline phosphatase (ALP were observed at different doses and time periods. Pathological and histological changes were noticed in the liver and kidney on the 91st day of the study with 4000 mg/kg of the extract. Except for the significant (P<0.05 reduction in WBC on the 91st day, no other significant (P<0.05 changes were observed in other hematological parameters. The aqueous extract demonstrated better wound-healing activity than its fractions; however, the extract may not be safe at higher doses for subchronic oral administration, as may be the case in the management of chronic disease conditions.

  14. Wound-healing Activity of the Aqueous Leaf Extract and Fractions of Ficus exasperata (Moraceae) and its Safety Evaluation on Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Victoria Nonyelum; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Erhirhie, Earnest Oghenesuvwe; Moke, Goodies Emuesiri; Akah, Peter Achunike

    2014-10-01

    Ficus exasperata have been reported to have wide applications in the treatment of many human diseases. However, its traditional use in the treatment of wounds has not been validated by any scientific study. Also, its safety in the management of chronic disease conditions requires attention. We evaluated the wound-healing activity of the aqueous extract and fractions of F. exasperata, as well as its safety after subchronic oral administration. Similar percentage of wound contraction was observed with 5% w/w extract ointment application and administration of cicatrin powder (standard) on the 4(th) day, while better contraction than the standard was recorded with higher concentrations of the extract ointment. Of all the fractions tested, significant (P < 0.05) contraction was only noticed in chloroform fraction, though lower than that of the aqueous extract. The extract also showed concentration-dependent inhibition of all the tested microbial isolates. Extract administered up to 5000 mg/kg (single dose administration) did not cause any mortality after 24 h. Mortality was, however, recorded at 4000 mg/kg within the first 20 days of subchronic administration of the extract. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and in particular, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed at different doses and time periods. Pathological and histological changes were noticed in the liver and kidney on the 91(st) day of the study with 4000 mg/kg of the extract. Except for the significant (P < 0.05) reduction in WBC on the 91(st) day, no other significant (P < 0.05) changes were observed in other hematological parameters. The aqueous extract demonstrated better wound-healing activity than its fractions; however, the extract may not be safe at higher doses for subchronic oral administration, as may be the case in the management of chronic disease conditions.

  15. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Aloysia Citriodora (Lemon verbena) on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Faranak; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shahandeh, Zahra; Sadighian, Farhnaz; Khodadadi, Effat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Aloysia citriodora plant from the family of Verbenaceae has many uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. citriodora on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which cause tooth decay. Methods This 2016 study was performed on standardized strains of S. mutans PTCC1683 and S. sobrinus PTCC1601 and clinical isolates. Twenty clinical samples were obtained from the dental caries of children admitted to the pediatric ward at the Faculty of Dentistry of Babol University of Medical Sciences (Babol, Iran). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. citriodora leaves were prepared in several concentrations ranging from 625–20,000 μg/ml. These concentrations of the extracts were applied to the bacteria by disk diffusion, agar well diffusion, and macrotube dilution. The antibacterial effects of amoxicillin and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2% (CHX) were also carried out. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18 software using independent-samples t-test. Results Streptococcus spp. was successfully isolated from nine out of 20 (45%) specimens. Of the 9 positive samples cultured, 8 (88.8%) were S. mutans and 1 was S. sobrinus (11.2%). No inhibitory zone was observed around the disks and wells containing all concentrations of A. citriodora extracts. The minimum concentrations for inhibition of growth (MIC) resulted in turbidity in all tubes and were negative except for the control tubes. Inhibition zones were observed for amoxicillin and CHX disks (p < 0.001). Conclusion This study found that all studied bacteria were resistant to both types of the extracts; therefore, they are not a suggested replacement for chemical agents in mouthwash. It also shown that CHX is less effective than amoxicillin. PMID:28163849

  16. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Aloysia Citriodora (Lemon verbena) on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Faranak; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shahandeh, Zahra; Sadighian, Farhnaz; Khodadadi, Effat

    2016-12-01

    The Aloysia citriodora plant from the family of Verbenaceae has many uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. citriodora on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which cause tooth decay. This 2016 study was performed on standardized strains of S. mutans PTCC1683 and S. sobrinus PTCC1601 and clinical isolates. Twenty clinical samples were obtained from the dental caries of children admitted to the pediatric ward at the Faculty of Dentistry of Babol University of Medical Sciences (Babol, Iran). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. citriodora leaves were prepared in several concentrations ranging from 625-20,000 μg/ml. These concentrations of the extracts were applied to the bacteria by disk diffusion, agar well diffusion, and macrotube dilution. The antibacterial effects of amoxicillin and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2% (CHX) were also carried out. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18 software using independent-samples t-test. Streptococcus spp. was successfully isolated from nine out of 20 (45%) specimens. Of the 9 positive samples cultured, 8 (88.8%) were S. mutans and 1 was S. sobrinus (11.2%). No inhibitory zone was observed around the disks and wells containing all concentrations of A. citriodora extracts. The minimum concentrations for inhibition of growth (MIC) resulted in turbidity in all tubes and were negative except for the control tubes. Inhibition zones were observed for amoxicillin and CHX disks (p < 0.001). This study found that all studied bacteria were resistant to both types of the extracts; therefore, they are not a suggested replacement for chemical agents in mouthwash. It also shown that CHX is less effective than amoxicillin.

  17. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma biochemistry and haematological indices of salt-loaded rats

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    Jude C. Ikewuchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on plasma marker enzymes, plasma chemistry and the haematological profile of salt-loaded rats were studied. The control group received only a commercial feed, whilst the four test groups received a diet consisting of the commercial feed and salt, although the reference treatment group was reverted to the normal feed at the end of 6 weeks. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg body weight to two test groups, respectively; whilst the test control, reference and control groups received equivalent volumes of water by the same route. The extract had no negative effects on markers of liver and kidney functions, but it did produce leukocytosis, significantly increased (p < 0.05 plasma calcium and potassium levels and significantly decreased (p < 0.05 plasma sodium and chloride levels in the test animals compared to the test control animals. This result supports the traditional use of Sansevieria senegambica in the management of hypertension, whilst suggesting that the extract may be a potassium-sparing diuretic whose mechanism of antihypertensive action may be achieved through alteration of plasma sodium and potassium balances, or through calcium-mediated changes in vascular muscle tone.

  18. The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Livia Marques; Espíndola-Netto, Jair Machado; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long-term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Comparative study of kinetics of adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using cinnamon plant (Cinnamonum zeylanicum leaf powder and pineapple (Ananas comosus peel powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Dnyandeo Patil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption of methylene blue (MB onto Cinnamon plant (Cinnamonum Zeylanicum leaf powder (CPLP and Pineapple (Ananas Comosus peel powder (PPP was investigated. Different parameters such as initial sorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, agitation speed, temperature and particle size. All isotherm models were found to be best fitting with high values of regression coefficient i.e. for Langmuir (R2 = 0.989 to 0.994 for CPLP and 0.993 to 0.995 for PPP, for Freundlich (R2 = 0.996 to 0.998 for CPLP and 0.995 for PPP and for Temkin (R2 = 0.983 to 0.995 for CPLP and 0.984 to 0.989 for PPP. The monolayer (maximum adsorption capacities (qm were found to be 250 and 333.333 mg/g for CPLP and PPP respectively. Lagergen pseudo -second order model best fits the kinetics of adsorption (R2 = 0.999 for CPLP and 1 for PPP. The amount of dye adsorbed at equilibrium qe(the obtained from Lagergen pseudo -second order model were found to be nearly same with the experimental data. Intra particle diffusion plot showed boundary layer effect and larger intercepts indicates greater contribution of surface sorption in rate determining step. Adsorption was found to be directly proportional to pH and temperature but inversely proportional to particle size. Thermodynamic analysis (∆G, ∆H and ∆S values showed adsorption was favourable, spontaneous, endothermic physisorption and increased disorder and randomness at the solid- solution interface of MB with the adsorbents. The forward rate constant was much higher than reverse rate constant suggesting dominance of rate of adsorption. PPP was found to be better adsorbent than CPLP.

  20. Intoxicação por Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae em caprinos Poisoning by Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae, com nome popular de favela, é uma planta normalmente espinhosa comum na caatinga. É considerada como forrageira e os animais, principalmente durante a seca, consomem as folhas que estão ao seu alcance ou as folhas secas caídas. A intoxicação espontânea por esta planta é relatada por fazendeiros no semi-árido quando animais têm acesso a plantas ou ramos recentemente cortados. Diferentes partes da planta moídas e secas, diluídas em água, são utilizadas por caçadores para matar pássaros. Para determinar a toxicidade de C. phyllacanthus, folhas verdes de plantas sem espinhos foram administradas a uma cabra em pequenas quantidades por via oral. Após o consumo de 4,7g por kg de peso do animal (g/kg a cabra apresentou taquicardia, taquipneia, dispnéia, nistagmo, opistótono e decúbito esterno abdominal seguido de decúbito lateral. A morte ocorreu 30 minutos após o começo dos sinais. Folhas frescas de plantas sem espinho foram administradas a 8 caprinos em doses de 0,5-2,5g/kg sem que causassem sinais clínicos. Três animais apresentaram sinais clínicos após a ingestão de 3g/kg. Os sinais clínicos foram similares aos observados na intoxicação por ácido cianídrico e dois animais tratados com uma solução de tiossulfato de sódio a 20%, na dose de 0,5ml/kg se recuperaram rapidamente em seguida ao tratamento. O terceiro recuperou-se espontaneamente. Folhas das mesmas plantas foram secadas ao sol durante períodos varáveis de 8-30 dias. O caprino que ingeriu a planta que tinha sido secada por 8 dias morreu após a ingestão de 3g/kg. O caprino que ingeriu a planta secada por 9 dias apresentou sinais clínicos após a ingestão de 1,13g/kg e se recuperou. Os caprinos que ingeriram a planta exposta ao sol por 10-29 dias apresentaram sinais clínicos após a ingestão de 3g/kg e se recuperaram espontaneamente ou mediante tratamento com tiossulfato de sódio. O caprino que ingeriu a

  1. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae, a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

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    Martin Cheek

    Full Text Available Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae, a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon.

  2. Growth of white clover seedlings treated with aqueous extracts of leaf and root of tough lovegrass Crescimento de plântulas de trevo-branco tratadas com extratos aquosos de folha e raiz de capim-annoni-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Favaretto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of extracts of leaf and roots of tough lovegrass (Eragrostis plana on seedling growth of white clover (Trifolium repens, in two experiments. The first experiment was conducted as a pilot test, in which two concentrations (30 and 60% of leaf aqueous extract were tested. In Experiment II, source (leaf/root and concentration (5 and 10% of the extracts were combined. Distilled water was used as control in both trials. Fifty seedlings at 7 days of age were placed in gerbox containers on filter paper moistened with extracts and incubated at 25°C for 14 days. In the first experiment, percentage of normal seedlings decreased by 82.5% and 100% at the concentrations of 30% and 60%, respectively, which indicated the need to increase the dilution of the extracts. In the subsequent experiment, the extracts from the two sources, at 10% of concentration, reduced by 78% the percentage of normal seedling and increased the percentage of abnormal seedlings, which reached 27%. At 5% concentration, the leaf extract was the most deleterious treatment, resulting in greater mortality (M=27.6% and abnormality (A=19.5% of seedlings, compared to the root extract (M=4.8%; A=9.5% and the control (M=2.4%; A=0.25%. The morphological changes caused by the extracts were radicle necrosis, retention of cotyledons and absence of secondary roots. The results suggest that allelopathic compounds from leaves and roots of tough lovegrass differ in chemical nature and/or concentration.Este estudo foi realizado para investigar o efeito do extrato de folhas e raízes de capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana no crescimento de plântulas de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens, em dois experimentos. O primeiro experimento foi conduzido como teste-piloto, no qual foram testadas duas concentrações (30% e 60% de extrato aquoso de folhas. No experimento II houve uma combinação de fonte (folhas e raízes e concentração (5% e 10% dos extratos.

  3. Effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) leaf on oocyte maturation, oviposition, reproductive potentials and embryonic development of a freshwater fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anirban; Manna, Subha; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2014-12-01

    In present study, a microcosm experiment is carried out to investigate the efficacy of 120 and 250-ppm crude aqueous extract of Azadirachta leaf on oocyte maturation, oviposition, embryonic development and hatching of the eggs of a fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis. Relative abundance of different maturing oocyte stages in the ovary of the parasite from different age groups was enumerated, and marked variations were obtained. Significant depletion in the abundance of pre-vitollogenic, vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic oocytes was recorded, which indicates impairment in maturation. Chromatin condensation of the oocytes of treated parasite indicates apoptosis of oogenic cells. Strong oviposition deterrence was evident by the elevated oviposition deterrence index of 0.18 and 0.52 at respective toxin levels. The treated parasites invested less number of eggs per oviposition, and hatching percentage of the eggs reduced markedly. In vitro treatment of eggs within 70 min of incubation exhibited coagulation of yolk material and subsequent reduction in hatching percentage. However, treatment applied after this critical period, hatching was not significantly altered. In vitro treatment of eggs at 80 min of incubation resulted in normal development. It signifies that azadirachtin affects the early developmental events but not the later. Presumably, azadirachtin either affects early gene expression of the embryo or antagonizes any of the substances of the zygote required for sustaining early developmental process. The result of the present experiment suggests that azadirachtin could be a promising agent to control argulosis through inhibition of the reproductive maturity of the parasite as well as through interference of its embryonic development.

  4. Aqueous leaf extract of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae reduces both the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 on the guinea pig atrium and the calcium current on GH3cells

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    Carla M. L. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available It was previously showed that aqueous leaf extract (AqEx of Averrhoa carambola depresses the guinea pig atrial inotropism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on guinea pig left atrium and on pituitary GH3 cells in order to evaluate the effect of AqEx on the cellular calcium influx. The atrium was mounted in an organ chamber (5 mL, Tyrode, 27 ± 0.1 ºC, 95 % O2, 5 % CO2, stretched to 10 mN, and paced at 2 Hz (0.5 ms, 400 V and GH3 cells were submitted to a whole cell voltage clamp configuration. In the atrium, the AqEx (1500 µg/mL shifted to the right the concentration-effect curve of the positive inotropic effect produced by (± BAY K 8644, an L-type calcium channel agonist. The AqEx increased EC50 (concentration required to promote 50% of the maximum effect of the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 from 7.8 ± 0.38 to 115.1 ± 0.44 nM (N = 3; p < 0.05. In GH3 cells assayed with 500 µg/mL of AqEx, the L-type calcium inward current declined 30 % (from 282 to 190 pA. Nevertheless, the extract did not change the voltage correspondent to the peak current. These data suggest that, at least in part, the negative inotropic effect of AqEx on the guinea pig atrium is due to a reduction of the L-type calcium current.

  5. Genetic characterization of a red color morph of Euphorbia esula subsp. esula (Euphorbiaceae) in the floodplains of Saône (Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula L (Euphorbiaceae) is an The invasive leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula L (Euphorbiaceae) is an emerging weed in the floodplains of the Val de Saône France, that displaces native flora and desirable forage species by forming dense monotypic stands. It is conside...

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of the Leaf and Bark Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of the leaf and bark extracts of Tarchonanathus campharatus.. Methods: The antioxidant activity of the aqueous leaf extract (Aq LF), methanol leaf extract (MET LF), dichloromethane leaf extract (DCM LF), methanol bark extract (MET BK), dichloromethane bark ...

  7. Ameliorative effect of aqueous leaf extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result revealed that group B showed marked increase in the activity of the serum urea, creatinine, catalase and superoxide dismutase along with reduction in level of malonyl dehydrogenase. While the other groups showed normal value of serum catalase, superioxide dismutase, malonyl dehydrogenase, urea and ...

  8. Wood anatomy of eight species from Euphorbioidea subfamily (Euphorbiaceae) in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    León Hernández, Williams José; Chavarri, R.

    2006-01-01

    Se estudió la estructura anatómica de ocho especies de la subfamilia Euphorbioideae (Euphorbiaceae) que crecen en Venezuela. Las especies estudiadas son las siguientes: Hura crepitans, Mabea piriri, M. taquari, Maprounea guianensis, Sapium aubletianum, S. glandulosum, S. laurifolium y S. stylare. En base a la estructura anatómica de la madera se pueden identificar las especies pertenecientes a géneros diferentes, pero no es posible la diferenciación entre especies de un mismo género. En todas...

  9. Project LEAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbiaceae) on the Morphology and Histology of the Kidney and Liver of Sprague Dawley Rat. Abstract · Vol 18, No 2 (2011) - Articles Neurotoxic Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cannabis Sativa on the Visual Cortex of Adult Wistar Rats

  11. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and gastric anti-ulcer activity of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Ronia; Ahmed, Shanta; Begum, Mst Marium; Sohanur Rahman, Md; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Das, Munny; Hossain, Amir; Sharma, Manju; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-05-16

    The medicinal plants signify a massive basin of potential phytoconstituents that could be valuable as a substitute to allopathic drugs or considered as an analogue in drug development. Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) is generally used in traditional medicine to treat ulcer and inflammation. In this project we investigated the methanolic extract of leaves of Phyllanthus niruri for anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Phyllanthus niruri leaves was evaluated at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. while using ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, p.o) as the standard drug. The animals used were Swiss albino rats. Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v) into the left hind paw. Paw tissues from the different groups were examined for inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of P. niruri leaves at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. were examined against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the Swiss albino rats - keeping omeprazole (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as reference. The rats were dissected and the stomachs were macroscopically examined to identify hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa. P. niruri significantly (p gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Administration of the extract's doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant (p gastric erosion in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. The methanolic extract at the higher dose (400 mg/kg) resulted in better inhibition of ethanol-acid induced gastric ulcer as compare to omeprazole (20 mg/kg). Histological studies of the gastric wall revealed that toxic control rats revealed mucosal degeneration, ulceration and migration of numerous inflammatory cells throughout the section. On the other hand, MEPN treatment groups showed significant regeneration of mucosal layer and significantly prevented the formation of hemorrhage and edema. The

  12. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

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    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  13. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahoo, G.; Mulla, N.S.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Mohandass, C.

    ., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the other...

  14. Intoxicação experimental por Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae em caprinos Experimental poisoning by Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae in goats

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    Sara Lucena Amorim

    2005-09-01

    apresentaram toxicidade semelhante. No Experimento 2, a planta conservada fora de saco plástico manteve a toxicidade durante todo o experimento (30 dias, enquanto que a conservada dentro de saco plástico manteve a toxicidade por até 96 horas após a colheita. No Experimento 3, a planta triturada conservada dentro e fora de saco plástico manteve a toxicidade por até 72 horas após a colheita. Em todos os experimentos, os caprinos apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação cianídrica. Todos os animais intoxicados se recuperaram clinicamente imediatamente após o tratamento. Conclui-se que para a alimentação de caprinos com Manihot glaziovii a planta deve ser triturada imediatamente após a colheita e conservada fora de sacos plásticos e só deve ser administrada após 96 horas. O feno deve ser produzido após a moagem da planta e administrado também somente após 96 horas.Samples of fresh, dried and partially dried leaves of Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. were administered orally to Moxotó goats in single doses up to 12g/kg body weight (bw. The cyanide content of the plant samples was determined by the picrosodic paper test. The plant was collected from January to June 2004. When the goats with clinical signs were in lateral recumbency, they were treated intravenously with 50ml/100kg/bw of a 20% aqueous solution of sodium tiosulfate. Three experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, the plant was given immediately after collection to six goats; two ingested the plant after been ground and four ingested the plant without having been ground. In Experiment 2, the plant was maintained in the shade, in open air or inside plastic bags. The plastic bags were changed daily. The plant kept in plastic bags was given to 18 goats, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after collection. The plant kept in the open air was given to 13 goats, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours and 9, 10, 23 and 30 days after collection. In Experiment 3, the previously ground plant kept in the

  15. Actividad antiparasitaria de extractos de plantas colombianas de la familia Euphorbiaceae

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    Laura Fernanda Neira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La familia Euphorbiaceae es un grupo heterogéneo de plantas distribuidas en el territorio colombiano utilizadas algunas de ellas, como plantas medicinales. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad tóxica de aceites esenciales (AE y extractos de plantas obtenidos de la familia Euphorbiaceae contra tripanosomátidos. Materiales y métodos: Los AE de Croton pedicellatus Kunth (AE1 y C.leptostachyus Kunth (AE2 y el extracto de Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl fueron obtenidos por hidrodestilación asistida por la radiación de microondas y maceración con metanol; se caracterizaron por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Fueron evaluados contra las formas extracelulares e intracelulares de Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania (Viannia panamensis, L. (V. braziliensis y células Vero y THP-1. La actividad antiparasitaria fue determinada por recuento microscópico y el efecto tóxico en células por la prueba colorimétrica de MTT. Los resultados fueron expresados como la concentración que inhibe (CI50 o destruye (CC50 el 50% de parásitos o células. Resultados: Los componentes mayoritarios de los AE fueron borneol, γ-terpineno, germacreno D y trans-ß-cariofileno. Los AE1 y AE2 inhibieron el crecimiento de epimastigotes de T.cruzi y de promastigotesde L. (V. panamensis y L. (V. braziliensis con CI50 entre 7,14-8,78μg/mL y fueron activos contra amastigotes intracelulares de L. (V. braziliensis (AE1:CI50 36,74 y AE2:19,77μg/mL. El extracto 1 mostró baja actividad contra los parásitos. Los AE y extractosmostraron toxicidad en células THP-1(CC50 9,29-64,12μg/mL y células Vero (CC50 24,86-3,52μg/mL. Conclusión: Los AE obtenidos de plantas de la familia de Euphorbiaceae mostraron actividad antiparasitaria con toxicidad moderada en células de mamífero

  16. Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Michel Sobottka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the family of Euphorbiaceae,the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi(Klotzsch & Garcke Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong, plants native from Brazil, were examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF. Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE, the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

  17. Volatiles, A Glutarimide Alkaloid and Antimicrobial Effects of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourivaldo S. Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae collected in the Brazilian Amazon region was revisited. The chemical composition of the essential oils of leaves and stems was analyzed by GC/MS. It was found that both the oils comprise mainly terpenes, among which linalool was the major one (24.90 and 39.72%, respectively. Phytochemical investigation of the stem methanol extract led to the isolation of a new natural product from the glutarimide alkaloid group named N-[2,6-dioxo-1-(2-phenylethyl-3-piperidinyl]-acetamide, confirming that C. pullei is a rich source of this class of alkaloids. The hexane and methanol extracts of the stems of C. pullei showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and the highest inhibition was observed when the methanol extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus CCMB 262 and CCMB 263.

  18. Medicinal property, phytochemistry and pharmacology of several Jatropha species (Euphorbiaceae): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabandar, Carla W; Ahmat, Norizan; Jaafar, Faridahanim Mohd; Sahidin, I

    2013-01-01

    The genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) comprises of about 170 species of woody trees, shrubs, subshrubs or herbs in the seasonally dry tropics of the Old and the New World. They are used in medicinal folklore to cure various diseases of 80% of the human population in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Species from this genus have been popular to cure stomachache, toothache, swelling, inflammation, leprosy, dysentery, dyscrasia, vertigo, anemia, diabetis, as well as to treat HIV and tumor, opthalmia, ringworm, ulcers, malaria, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma and as an aphrodisiac. They are also employed as ornamental plants and energy crops. Cyclic peptides alkaloids, diterpenes and miscellaneous compounds have been reported from this genus. Extracts and pure compounds of plants from this genus are reported for cytotoxicity, tumor-promoting, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, anticoagulant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, protoscolicidal, insecticidal, molluscicidal, inhibition AChE and toxicity activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Bambusa vulgaris Var. vulgaris Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the pharmacognostic characters and toxicity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaf in male wistar rats. The microscopy of the leaf revealed diagnostic characters such as anomocytic stomata, sinuous epidermal cells, numerous prisms of calcium oxalate crystals and covering ...

  20. La familia Euphorbiaceae como fuente de aceites vegetales para la industria tecnoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correal Castellanos, E.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available The family Euphorbiaceae includes a huge number of species some of which provide important raw materials such as rubber, cassava, waxes and oils. In this study, the general botanical and chemical characteristics of this family are described firstly together with the chemical composition of their seed oils and a comparison with those of other families. Secondly, other chemical constituents of economic interest are reviewed and compared with the species already used for food, industry and medicine purposes. A further revision is included on some of its genus with potential interest and on current industrial oil crops such as Ridnus, Euphorbia, Aleurites, Sapium, Jatropha, etc. Finally, from an economic point of view, future prospects of some of these oils as raw materials for the chemical industry are given.La familia Euphorbiaceae contiene gran número de especies de las que se pueden obtener productos de interés económico como el caucho, la tapioca, ceras y aceites. En este trabajo se estudian en primer lugar las características botánicas y químicas de la familia y las peculiaridades de los aceites de sus semillas y se comparan con los de otras familias. En segundo lugar, se revisan otros compuestos químicos así como especies de interés económico utilizadas en alimentación, medicina o industria, incluyendo géneros con potencial interés y los actuales cultivos oleaginosos industriales como Ridnus, Euphorbia, Aleurites, Sapium, Jatropha, etc. Finalmente, desde un punto de vista de mercado, se apuntan las perspectivas de estos aceites como materias primas para la industria química.

  1. Small-scale variations in leaf shape under anthropogenic disturbance in dioecious forest forb mercurialis perennis: A geometric morphometric examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Vukica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to increasing levels of diverse human activities that have profound effects on their overall morphology and, specifically, on leaf morphology. Anthropogenic disturbances in urban and suburban forest recreational sites are attracting growing research interest. To explore the persisting recreational impact on leaf shape and size, we conducted a field study on the dioecious forb Mercurialis perennis L. (Euphorbiaceae, typical for undisturbed understory communities. We selected adjacent sites in a suburban forest, which experience contrasting regimes of disturbance by human trampling under otherwise concordant natural conditions. Patterns of leaf shape and size variation and putative sex-specific response to disturbance were analyzed using a geometric morphometric approach. In addition to leaf-level data, plant height, internode and leaf number were analyzed to explore the same response at the whole-plant level. The results show significant variations associated with disturbance at both levels: plants growing under a heavy disturbance regime had shorter stems with a greater number of wider and shorter leaves. Significant differences between sites were also found for leaf size, with larger leaves observed in an undisturbed site. The effects of sex and sex x site interaction on leaf size and shape were nonsignificant, pointing to the absence of sexual dimorphism and sex-specific response to disturbance. Contrary to leaf shape and size, all three analyzed shoot traits showed highly significant sexual dimorphism, with male plants being higher and having higher leaf and internode count. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173025

  2. Comparative analysis of Tunisian wild Crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhir, Manel; Rebai, Olfa; Dhaouadi, Karima; Congiu, Francesca; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Amri, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-10-09

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. The yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. Hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin B2 was the major compound in red fruits. Yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities using DPPH (≈168 and 79 μmol TEAC/g fw, respectively) and FRAP (≈378 and 161 μmol Fe(2+)/g fw, respectively) assays. The highest antibacterial activities were recorded for the yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis . The low phenolic content of the syrups contrasted with their significant antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, which were correlated to their hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (furan derivative amounts) content.

  3. Anemia hemolítica causada por Ditaxis desertorum (Euphorbiaceae em bovinos Hemolytic anemia caused by Ditaxis desertorum (Euphorbiaceae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., planta herbácea da família Euphorbiaceae, causou experimentalmente em bovinos um quadro caracterizado por hemoglobinúria em virtude de sua ação hemolítica, quando administrada por via oral em doses diárias de 1,0 a 2,5 g/kg (planta fresca, a partir do 4° ao 8° dia do experimento. Após um período de 3 a 5 dias em que os animais tiveram hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas, apesar de continuarem a receber a planta (durante um total de 12 a 14 dias, em três dos quatro animais esses sintomas desapareceram. Verificou-se nesses casos uma rápida recuperação dos valores hemáticos logo que cessou a hemoglobinúria. O quarto bovino, que recebeu 2,5 g/kg/dia durante 5 dias, morreu no 8° dia, tendo apresentado durante os últimos 4 dias de vida hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas. À necropsia e nos exames histopatológicos deste animal foram verificadas nefrose hemoglobinúrica e distrofia hepática com necrose centrolobular do parênquima. Dose de 7,7 g/kg única ou quantidades de 2,5 e 3 g/kg/dia administradas durante 2 dias seguidos, causaram em três outros bovinos quadro clínico de cólica, com morte em questão de horas, verificando-se à necropsia acentuado edema da parede do rúmen e do retículo. Pelos históricos obtidos somente ocorre, sob condições naturais, a intoxicação caracterizada pelo quadro da anemia hemolítica, indicando que possivelmente a ingestão de D. desertorum em quantidades necessárias para causar o quadro com lesões dos proventrículos ser, apesar de sua boa palatabilidade, autolimitada pelo efeito cáustico da planta.Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., a herbaceous plant of the Euphorbiaceae family, caused hemoglobinuria due to its hemolytic properties, when force-fed fresh to bovines in daily doses of 1.0 to 2.5 g/kg; the hemoglobinuria appeared from the 4th to 8th day of the experiment. After a period of 3 to 5 days of severe hemoglobinuria and anemia, these

  4. Allelopathic Effects of Lantana ( Lantana camara L.) Leaf Extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of lantana (Lantana camara L.) leaf on germination and growth of three agricultural crops: Maize, Finger millet and Tef, commonly cultivated in Ethiopia were studied under laboratory condition. The aqueous extracts were assayed at 5, 10, 25, 50 and 75% and their allelopathic ...

  5. (Chlorophyta) biomass production using Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorella sorokiniana Shih. et Krauss, a unicellular green alga was assayed to assess its to promotion potentials response of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. C. sorokiniana grown in 200 ml aliquots of modified basal medium for two weeks: was treated with the aqueous and ethanolic extracts at ...

  6. Leaf Extract Of Anacardium occidentale on Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Summary: The effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale on gastric acid secretion was tested in rats. Twenty (20) Wistar .... temperature was 37oC, the temperature of liquid going into the stomach was maintained at this temperature. This was done by using an organ bath whose thermostat was set at 37oC.

  7. In-Vitro Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Crude Aqueous Extracts Of Neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous extracts o neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and stem and root barks against the hatching of eggs and the survival of larvae of nematode parasites of small ruminants were studied. The results of the in vitro egg hatch assay showed that the aqueous extracts of the leaf and stem bark ...

  8. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) Activated Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2011-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration. PMID:22254126

  9. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and other selected tropical green vegetables investigated on lipoperoxidation and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2011-09-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N'-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in "inflammation like" conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  10. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  11. Herbicidal effects of aqueous extracts of three Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of three Chenopodium species; Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides were evaluated on wild oat (Avena fatua L.), one of the problematic weeds of wheat. Among the aqueous extracts of 0, 2, 4 and 6% (w/v) employed in bioassays, 6% ...

  12. Leaf Collection Posting Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains leaf collection dates for area and subarea where leaf collection service is provided by Montgomery County Department of Transportation. Update...

  13. Phytochemistry and antiplasmodial properties of aqueous and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemistry and antiplasmodial properties of the aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropa curcas against the malaria parasite; Plasmodium falciparum. The need for new therapeutic compounds against malaria parasite is made more urgent by the continued spread of ...

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the colonization of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaar, Heike; Fiala, Brigitte; Gadau, Jürgen; Mohamed, Maryati; Maschwitz, Ulrich

    2003-06-01

    To elucidate the evolution of one of the most species-rich ant-plant symbiotic systems, the association between Crematogaster (Myrmicinae) and Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in South-East Asia, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the ant partners. For the phylogenetic analysis partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II were sequenced and Maximum Parsimony analysis was performed. The analyzed Crematogaster of the subgenus Decacrema fell into three distinct clades which are also characterized by specific morphological and ecological traits (queen morphology, host-plants, and colony structure). Our results supported the validity of our currently used morphospecies concept for Peninsula Malaysia. However, on a wider geographic range (including North and North-East Borneo) some morphospecies turned out to be species complexes with genetically quite distinct taxa. Our phylogenetic analysis and host association studies do not indicate strict cocladogenesis between the subgenus Decacrema and their Macaranga host-plants because multiple ant taxa occur on quite distinct host-plants belonging to different clades within in the genus Macaranga. These results support the view that host-shifting or host-expansion is common in the ants colonizing Macaranga. Additionally, the considerable geographic substructuring found in the phylogenetic trees of the ants suggests that allopatric speciation has also played a role in the diversification and the current distribution of the Decacrema ants.

  15. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of Croton pullei var. glabrior Lanj. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Rocha

    Full Text Available Croton pullei var. glabrior Lanj. (Euphorbiaceae is a liana, vastly distributed in the Amazonian Forest. In the folk medicine, several plants of the Croton genus have been used with therapeutic purposes in pathologies that involve painful and inflammatory diseases which justify this work. The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of the C. pullei leaves methanol extract (MECP. MECP reduced in a dose-dependent manner the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing (1.2% in mice, suggesting an antinociceptive activity of the plant. On the other hand, MECP did not significantly modify the reactivity to the thermal stimulation in the hot-plate test and the reactivity to the chemical stimulation in the formalin test first phase, indicating a non-opioid mechanism. MECP reduced the formalin-induced nociception in the second phase, inhibited the croton oil-induced ear edema and reduced the leukocytes migration in the test of the carrageenan-induced peritonitis, indicating an antiinflammatory activity. Although the mechanisms that underlie these plant effects are not completely elucidated, these results appear to support the potential medicinal use of Croton pullei var. glabrior Lanj. against painful and inflammatory diseases.

  16. Floral paedomorphy leads to secondary specialization in pollination of Madagascar Dalechampia (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, W Scott; Lee, Joongku; Edwards, Mary E; Baldwin, Bruce G

    2013-04-01

    The traditional evolutionary interpretation of Von Baer's "laws" of embryology is that retention of early developmental forms into adulthood (paedomorphosis) leads to the evolution of simpler or more generalized morphology and ecology. Here we show that paedomorphosis can also be involved in an increase in ecological specialization, in this case of plant-pollinator relationships. A paedomorphic transition from generalized pollination (by several functional types of pollinators) to specialized pollination (by one or a few species in one functional type) occurred in a clade of endemic Madagascar vines (Dalechampia spp., Euphorbiaceae). This evolutionary transition involved staminate flowers that fail to develop "normally," instead holding mature pollen inside virtually unopened, bud-like flowers. This paedomorphic morphology restricts reward access to "buzz-pollinating" bees, including Xylocopa species (carpenter bees), which can remove pollen by sonication. This is one of very few reports of paedomorphic specialization, and, as far as we are aware, the first documented case of a rapid reversal to specialized pollination in a lineage of plants that had previously switched from specialized to generalized pollination in conjunction with dispersing to a new region. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Production of cytotoxic compounds in dedifferentiated cells of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Ovando-Medina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the in vitro culture as an alternative to obtain compounds with cytotoxic activity from the medicinal plant Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae. We determined the presence of cytotoxic compounds in both whole plants and dedifferentiated cells. We evaluated the effect of auxin, cytokinins and light on callus induction in cotyledon explants. We found that the most effective combination to induce callus was the auxin 2,4-D (5 mM with the cytokinin 6-BAP (2.5 mM, on Murashige-Skoog medium in darkness. We compared the callogenic potential among accessions from different geographic origins, finding that ARR-251107-MFG7 is most prone to form callus. The roots of J. curcas grown in field produced a compound chromatographically similar to the cytotoxic diterpene jatrophone. The profile of compounds extracted from the dedifferentiated cells was similar to that of the whole plant, including a relatively abundant stilbene-like compound. This study contributes to the future establishment of protocols to produce anti-cancer compounds from J. curcas cultivated in vitro.

  18. Espécies de formigas que interagem com as sementes de Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae Interaction between ant species and seeds of Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Fernandes de Oliveira Peternelli

    2004-10-01

    areas in Brazil. Another objective of this work was to determine the type of ant-seed interaction and the possible ant species dispersing this Euphorbiaceae. Insect hand collecting was performed in four sites where M. fistulifera is abundant in the region of Viçosa, MG, at the moment of seed visiting. The ants were taken to the laboratory and species identified. During collection, observations on ant behavior when interacting with seeds were recorded. Seed removal rate was also obtained. Sixteen species of ants interacted with the seeds; Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus, Atta sexdens rubropilosa, Ectatomma edentatum, Pachycondyla sp.1 and Pheidole sp.2 were in fact dispersing agents as they effectively transported the seeds. Ac. subterraneus subterraneus, Camponotus rufipes, Ectatomma permagnum, Megalomyrmex sp.1, Pachycondyla sp.1, Pachycondyla sp.2, Pheidole sp.4, Pheidole sp. 5 and Pogonomyrmex sp. are reported for the first time as interacting with seeds. Seed removal rate ranged from 85 to 97%.

  19. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Glaucoma Research Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms ... aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out freely (follow blue arrow). Aqueous humor flows ...

  20. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL AND SEWAGE TREATMENT OF SYNTHESISED SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM LEAF EXTRACT OF HYGROPHILA AURICULATA (SCHUMSCH) HEINE.

    OpenAIRE

    S.R.Sivakumar*, V.Sridhar and K.Abdul

    2017-01-01

    In present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Hygrophila auriculata plant leaf extracts will be collected were used and compared for their extracellular of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles formed to be treated aqueous by solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent Ag-to Ag+ . UV spectroscopy is used to monitor the quantitative formation of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles is characte...

  1. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL AND SEAWEGE TREATMENT OF SYNTHESISED SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM LEAF EXTRACT OF HYGROPHILA AURICULATA (SCHUMSCH) HEINE.

    OpenAIRE

    S.R.Sivakumar*, V.Sridhar and K.Abdul

    2017-01-01

    In present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Hygrophila auriculata plant leaf extracts will be collected were used and compared for their extracellular of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles formed to be treated aqueous by solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent Ag-to Ag+ . UV spectroscopy is used to monitor the quantitative formation of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles is characte...

  2. Ecología de la dispersión de semillas por hormigas en Jatropha excisa Griseb. (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda Rickert, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    En esta tesis se estudia la mirmecocoria o dispersión de semillas por hormigas en Jatropha excisa Griseb. (Euphorbiaceae), una planta nativa del Noroeste de Argentina. Las semillas de esta especie poseen un apéndice rico en lípidos llamado eleosoma y un sistema de dispersión diplocórico (autocoria explosiva seguida por mirmecocoria). Ensayos a campo en la región fitogeográfica del Monte de la Provincia de La Rioja mostraron que las semillas de J. excisa son dispersadas por hormigas, y que la ...

  3. Antioxidant properties of Rubus discolor leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Veličković Ivona Z.; Grujić Slavica M.; Marin Petar D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work were examined aqueous, methanol, ethanol and acetone leaf extracts of Rubus discolor, wild growing blackberry, for their antioxidant properties and total phenol and flavonoid content. The total phenol content (TPC) varried from 250.05 to 446.61 mg GAE/g of dry extract, while total flavonoid content (TFC) was in range between 22.44 and 61.15 mg QE/g of dry extract. Aqueous extracts were the richest in phenols, as well as in flavonoids. In vitro ...

  4. Phylogenetic patterns in the genus Manihot (Euphorbiaceae) inferred from analyses of nuclear and chloroplast DNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Juliana; Madriñán, Santiago; Debouck, Daniel; Rodriguez, Fausto; Tohme, Joe

    2008-10-01

    From a phylogenetic perspective, the genus Manihot can be considered as an orphan group of plants, and the scientific knowledge acquired has been mainly related to cassava, one of the most important crops in poor tropical countries. The goal of the majority of evolutionary studies in the genus has been to decipher the domestication process and identify the closest relatives of cassava. Few investigations have focused on wild Manihot species, and the phylogeny of the genus is still unclear. In this study the DNA sequence variation from two chloroplast regions, the nuclear DNA gene G3pdh and two nuclear sequences derived from the 3'-end of two cassava ESTs, were used in order to infer the phylogenetic relationships among a subset of wild Manihot species, including two species from Cnidoscolus as out-groups. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses were conducted for each data set and for a combined matrix due to the low variation of each region when analyzed independently. A penalized likelihood analysis of the chloroplast region trnL-trnF, calibrated with various age estimates for genera in the Euphorbiaceae extracted from the literature was used to determine the ages of origin and diversification of the genus. The two Mesoamerican species sampled form a well-defined clade. The South American species can be grouped into clades of varying size, but the relationships amongst them cannot be established with the data available. The age of the crown node of Manihot was estimated at 6.6 million years ago. Manihot esculenta varieties do not form a monophyletic group that is consistent with the possibility of multiple introgressions of genes from other wild species. The low levels of variation observed in the DNA regions sampled suggest a recent and explosive diversification of the genus, which is confirmed by our age estimates.

  5. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  6. In vitro antioxidant property of the extract of Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Excoecaria agallocha L. (Family: Euphorbiaceae is a Bangladeshi medicinal plant found predominantly in the tidal forests and swamps of the Sundarbans and other coastal areas in Bangladesh.  As part of our on-going phytochemical and bioactivity studies on medicinal plants from Bangladeshi flora, the in vitro antioxidant property on the bark of this plant was evaluated. Methods: The hydroalcohol extract of the dried and ground bark of E. agallocha was assessed for antioxidant activity using a series of well-established assays including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid (TBA, the reducing power, the nitric oxide (NO. and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 scavenging assays. Results: In the DPPH, the NO and the H2O2 scavenging assays, the extract of E. agallocha displayed significant antioxidant activities with the IC50 values of 179.16, 120.24 and 134.29 μg/ml, respectively.  The reducing power of the extract increased dose-dependently, and the extract reduced the most Fe3+ ions to the extent less than butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT. In the lipid peroxidation assay, the extract showed significant inhibition of peroxidation effect at all concentrations, with an IC50 value of 189.27 μg/ml. Conclusion: Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to serious ailments such as atherosclerosis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and cancer, the antioxidant property of the extract of E. agallocha as observed in the present study might be useful for the development of newer and more potent antioxidants.

  7. Nutrient-induced modifications of wood anatomical traits of Alchornea lojaensis (Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannl, Susanne; Homeier, Jürgen; Bräuning, Achim

    2016-05-01

    Regarding woody plant responses on higher atmospheric inputs of the macronutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) on tropical forests in the future, an adaptive modification of wood anatomical traits on the cellular level of woody plants is expected. As part of an interdisciplinary nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX) carried out in Southern Ecuador, we present here the first descriptive and quantitative wood anatomical analysis of the tropical evergreen tree species Alchornea lojaensis (Euphorbiaceae). We sampled branch wood of nine individual trees belonging to treatments with N fertilization, N+P fertilization, and a control group, respectively. Quantitative evaluations of eleven different vessel parameters were conducted. The results showed that this endemic tree species will be able to adapt well to the future effects of climate change and higher nutrient deposition. This was firstly implied by an increase in vessel diameter and consequently a higher theo. area-specific hydraulic conductivity with higher nutrient availability. Secondly, the percentage of small vessels (0-20µm diameter) strongly increased with fertilization. Thirdly, the vessel arrangement (solitary vessels vs. multiple vessel groupings) changed towards a lower percentage of solitary vessel fraction (VS), and concurrently towards a higher total vessel grouping index (VG) and a higher mean group size of non-solitary vessels (VM) after N and N+P addition. We conclude that higher nutrient availability of N and N+P triggered higher foliage amount and water demand, leading to higher cavitation risk in larger vessels. This is counteracted by a stronger grouping of vessels with smaller risk of cavitation to ensure water supply during drier periods that are expected to occur in higher frequency in the near future.

  8. Plant Family-Specific Impacts of Petroleum Pollution on Biodiversity and Leaf Chlorophyll Content in the Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arellano

    Full Text Available In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samples and compared between sites. Plant biodiversity indices show a reduction of the plant biodiversity when the site was affected by petroleum pollution. In addition, reflectance and transmittance were measured with a field spectroradiometer for every leaf sample and leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using reflectance model inversion with the radiative tranfer model PROSPECT. Four of the 15 plant families that are most representative of the ecoregion (Melastomataceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae had significantly lower leaf chlorophyll content in the polluted areas compared to the unpolluted areas. This suggests that these families are more sensitive to petroleum pollution. The polluted site is dominated by Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, suggesting that these plant families are particularly competitive in the presence of pollution. This study provides evidence of a decrease of plant diversity and richness caused by petroleum pollution and of a plant family-specific response of leaf chlorophyll content to petroleum pollution in the Ecuadorian Amazon using information from field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modelling.

  9. Plant Family-Specific Impacts of Petroleum Pollution on Biodiversity and Leaf Chlorophyll Content in the Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Tellkamp, Markus

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samples and compared between sites. Plant biodiversity indices show a reduction of the plant biodiversity when the site was affected by petroleum pollution. In addition, reflectance and transmittance were measured with a field spectroradiometer for every leaf sample and leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using reflectance model inversion with the radiative tranfer model PROSPECT. Four of the 15 plant families that are most representative of the ecoregion (Melastomataceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae) had significantly lower leaf chlorophyll content in the polluted areas compared to the unpolluted areas. This suggests that these families are more sensitive to petroleum pollution. The polluted site is dominated by Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, suggesting that these plant families are particularly competitive in the presence of pollution. This study provides evidence of a decrease of plant diversity and richness caused by petroleum pollution and of a plant family-specific response of leaf chlorophyll content to petroleum pollution in the Ecuadorian Amazon using information from field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modelling.

  10. Production of Bioactive Diterpenoids in the Euphorbiaceae Depends on Evolutionarily Conserved Gene Clusters[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J.; Brown, Geoffrey D.; Gilday, Alison D.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Euphorbiaceae produce a diverse range of diterpenoids, many of which have pharmacological activities. These diterpenoids include ingenol mebutate, which is licensed for the treatment of a precancerous skin condition (actinic keratosis), and phorbol derivatives such as resiniferatoxin and prostratin, which are undergoing investigation for the treatment of severe pain and HIV, respectively. Despite the interest in these diterpenoids, their biosynthesis is poorly understood at present, with the only characterized step being the conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate into casbene. Here, we report a physical cluster of diterpenoid biosynthetic genes from castor (Ricinus communis), including casbene synthases and cytochrome P450s from the CYP726A subfamily. CYP726A14, CYP726A17, and CYP726A18 were able to catalyze 5-oxidation of casbene, a conserved oxidation step in the biosynthesis of this family of medicinally important diterpenoids. CYP726A16 catalyzed 7,8-epoxidation of 5-keto-casbene and CYP726A15 catalyzed 5-oxidation of neocembrene. Evidence of similar gene clustering was also found in two other Euphorbiaceae, including Euphorbia peplus, the source organism of ingenol mebutate. These results demonstrate conservation of gene clusters at the higher taxonomic level of the plant family and that this phenomenon could prove useful in further elucidating diterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. PMID:25172144

  11. Insectes ravageurs et propriétés biocides de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae : synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests and biocidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae. A review. Jatropha curcas is a Euphorbiaceae shrub widely distributed in many tropical countries. Its seeds are rich in oil that can be used as biofuel in modified diesel engines. Several insect species, mainly belonging to Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Orthoptera, have been referenced as insect pests of J. curcas. These insects attack the plant and cause damage to fruits, inflorescences and leaves. The most frequently observed pests belong to the genus Pachycoris (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae, which are widely distributed in Mexico, Australia, United States of America, Brazil and Nicaragua. Pachycoris spp. cause significant damage to the fruits, leading to the malformation of seeds and a reduction in their oil content. Although Jatropha shrubs are subjected to insect infestations, the oil has been shown to demonstrate biocidal activity, including insecticidal effects against several insect pests, including Busseola fusca (Fuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae and Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. In the present paper, we summarize the work carried out on inventories of J. curcas insect pests as well as on the biocidal activity of its oil.

  12. Phytochemical screening and quantification of flavonoids from leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okorie, N A

    2009-01-01

    The Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) herb is found in SouthWest, Nigeria and other parts of West Africa, and is claimed to possess anti-hypertensive property. The phytochemical screening and flavonoid quantification of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn were studied. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic leaf extract of J. curcas L. was carried using acceptable and standard methods. The flavonoid contents of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IRS) and a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of the leaves of the plant shows the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, phlobatannins, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. To quantify the flavonoid contents of leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L, extracts from the plant samples where examined in a C-18 column with UV detection and isocratic elution with acetonitrile; water (45:55). Levels of flavonoids (flavones) in leaves ranged from 6:90 to 8:85 mg/g dry weight. Results indicate that the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas L. contains useful active ingredients which may serve as potential drug for the treatment of diseases. In addition, a combination of TLC, IRS and HPLC can be used to analyse and quantify the flavonoids present in the leaves of Jatropha curcas L.

  13. Acaricidal activity of juazeiro leaf extract against red spider mite in cotton plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, José Cláudio Barros; Matos, Cláudia Helena Cysneiros; Oliveira, Carlos Romero Ferreira de; Sá, Maria das Graças Rosa de; Conceição, Antônia Gilciléia Cunha da

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity, repellency, efficiency, and phytotoxicity of the aqueous extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro) leaves in the control of the red spider mite, Tetranychus ludeni, on cotton plant. For toxicity evaluation, T. ludeni adult females were put on cotton leaf discs sprayed with the juazeiro extract. The repellent effect was verified in arenas that contained cotton leaf discs treated or not with the aqueous extract. The control effici...

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Leaf-Shaped Ferric Oxide Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Keqiang Ding

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, leaf-shaped ferric oxide particles were prepared from an aqueous solution of potassium ferricyanide [K3Fe(CN)6] by hydrothermal process. Images obtained from SEM (scanning electron microscope) revealed that leaf-shaped ferric oxides (around 1.5 μm in length) were clearly exhibited when the hydrothermal tempreature was 150 °C, while as the temperature was increased to 200 °C leaf-shaped ferric oxide particles with larger size were observed. XRD (X-ray diffraction) patterns ...

  15. Study of anatomy of the genus Hura L. (Euphorbiaceae) | Kadiri | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy of leaf, wood and carpological structure of Hura L. was carried out with the aid of light microscopy. Useful taxonomic features for its delimitation and distinction are documented. Presence of scalariform perforation plates, narrow lumen and heterogeneous diameter are important features of the vessels. Laticiferous ...

  16. Effect of Neem ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  17. The anti-ulcer activities of leaf extracts of combretum racemosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Leaf extracts of Combretum racemosum has a high folkloric reputation as an ant-ulcer agent. We investigated the effects of the aqueous and hexane extracts of the leaf of the plant on three ulcer models induced in albino rats (wistar) and compared the protective value of the extracts given at a dose of 400mg/kg body ...

  18. First report of predation on floral visitors by crab spiders on Croton selowii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae Primeiro registro de predação de visitantes florais por aranhas-caranguejo em Croton selowii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Rodrigo Novo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature it has been extensively mentioned that crab spiders (Araneae: Thomisidae prey on floral visitors of several plant species. Here we present observations of Croton selowii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae, a monoecious species harboring individuals of crab spiders in an area of coastal vegetation of Pernambuco state, Brazil. The species is visited by several invertebrate orders, and some of them were preyed upon by the spiders, mainly Diptera species. The spiders rubbed the forelimbs within the flowers, which may constitute a strategy to camouflage these structures. Croton selowii seems to represent a suitable foraging site for the spiders, because it has a generalist pollination system (thus being visited by a wide range of invertebrate species and blooms in a period of low flower resource availability in the area.Na literatura tem sido amplamente registrado que aranhas Thomisidae predam visitantes florais de várias espécies de planta. Neste estudo nós apresentamos observações de Croton selowii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae, uma espécie monóica, abrigando aranhas Thomisidae em uma área de restinga de Pernambuco, Brasil. A espécie é visitada por invertebrados de várias ordens e vários deles são predados pelas aranhas, principalmente espécies de Diptera. As aranhas apresentaram um comportamento de esfregar as pernas dianteiras dentro das flores, o que pode ser interpretado como uma estratégia de camuflagem das pernas. Croton selowii parece representar um bom sítio de forrageamento para essas aranhas, pois possui um sistema de polinização generalista, sendo visitado por ampla gama de invertebrados e floresce em um período de baixa disponibilidade de flores na área.

  19. A Complete Profile on Blind-your-eye Mangrove Excoecaria Agallocha L. (Euphorbiaceae): Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sumanta; Ghosh, Debjit; Ramakrishna, K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional system of medicine consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances. This article provides a comprehensive review of the complete profile of an important mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha L. (Euphorbiaceae) and elaborately describing the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties. It is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases such as epilepsy, ulcers, leprosy, rheumatism, and paralysis. The latex obtained from the bark is poisonous in nature and may cause temporary blindness, thus it is also known as the blind-your-eye mangrove plant. Many phytoconstituents were isolated from the plant, which were mainly diterpenoids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, and few other compounds. The plant also showed many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, anticancer, antireverse transcriptase, antihistamine-release, antifilarial, DNA damage protective, antidiabetic, and antitumor protecting activities. Hence, this review could help guide researchers anticipating to undertake further investigations in these directions. PMID:28082796

  20. Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Persea americana on body weight and liver lipids in rats were studied. Male albino rats were fed a modified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid to provoke hyperlipidaemia. The hyperlipidaemic rats were given 10 mg/kg body weight of either aqueous ...

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, metallic silver nanoparticles were synthesized from leaf extracts of Parquetina nigrescens and Synedrella nodiflora. Silver ion was reduced to metallic silver on treatment of AgNO solution with aqueous extracts of the 3 two plants within 30minutes. The effects of time and the volume of extract to silver salt solution ...

  2. In vitro Antimalarial and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina was studied. The plant leaves were prepared into three extract forms: ethanolic, aqueous, and hydroethanolic (50:50) using standard procedures. The extracts were evaluated in vitro for antiplasmodial activity using a. 3D7 chloroquine sensitive ...

  3. Biogenic ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using L. aculeata leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous extract of Lantana aculeata Linn. leaf and assessed their effects on antifungal activity against the plant fungal pathogens. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, ...

  4. Allelopathic Effects of Lantana (Lantana camara L.) Leaf Extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    leaf litter (May and Ash, 1990). The report from Hussain et al. (2011), for example, showed strong allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of all parts of lantana on the test species while the soil collected underneath lantana thickets had no allelopathic effects. 5. CONCLUSION. The results of the study showed allelopathic ...

  5. Effect of Haematostaphis barteri (blood plum) leaf extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is aimed at assessing the effects of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of Haematostaphis barteri on the histopathological parameters in rats. The fresh leaves of Haematostaphis barteri were collected, dried, powdered and extracted using water, 95% ethanol and methanol. Graded doses of ...

  6. Interactions Between Leaf Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial effects of Ageratum conyzoides aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined using spread plate, disc diffusion and tube dilution procedures. The antibiogram profiles of both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were determined using disc ...

  7. Investigation of the Effect of Aqeous Mistletoe Leaf Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous leaf extract of the mistletoe was investigated for hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic effect in diabetic rabbits. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rabbits in groups I-II by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at 100mg/kg body weight. Following confirmation of hyperglycaemia, groups I and II ...

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus leaf extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaf of Anogeissus leiocarpus was tested on some bacteria associated with diarrhea which included Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi,Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella aerogens and Yersinia enterocolitica using agar well diffusion method. There was ...

  9. Larvicidal effects of leaf, bark and nutshell of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the larvicidal properties of aqueous extracts of leaves, bark and nutshell of Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) were evaluated on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Three concentrations of 10/100ml, 20/100ml and 30/100ml each of leaf, bark and nutshell were prepared in three replicates.

  10. Antifungal activity of leaf extract of Crassocephalum repidiodes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaf of Crassocephalum crepidiodes on some dermatophytes and Candida albicans was investigated using disc diffusion agar technique. The two extracts exhibited antifungal activity at 10mg/ml concentration against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and ...

  11. Phytochemical and in vitro antiplasmodium activities of leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemicals, acute toxicity and in vitro antiplasmodium activity of aqueous and chloroform leaf extracts of Cassia nigricans using the basic phytochemical screening, Lorke's and Candle Jar methods. Steroid glycosides, reducing sugars and alkaloids were detected in both extracts, ...

  12. Wound healing effect of Euphorbia hirta linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Begum, Mst Marium; Rahman, Md Sohanur; Karim, Rubaba; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Mostofa, Ronia; Hossain, Amir; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-08-24

    Euphorbia hirta linn., is a species of Euphorbiaceae family. They are known as asthma plant, barokhervi. The plant E. hirta is famous for its medicinal importance among the tribal population. It is a common practice to use the whole to heal wounds. Several pharmacological properties including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antidibetic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant. The aim of present work was to evaluate the wound healing property in diabetic animals by oral and topical administration of ethanolic extract of E. hirta whole plant. The ethanolic extract of E. hirta was subjected to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using galic acid and quercetin, respectively as standard. A single injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) prepared in normal saline was administered to produce diabetes in rats, after overnight fasting. For analyzing the rate of contraction of wound, excision wounds sized 4.90cm2 and of 2 mm depth were used. Oral (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day; p.o.) and topical treatment with the extract (5% and 10% ointment 50 mg/kg/day) and standard (5% povidone iodine ointment 50 mg/kg/day) was started on the day of induction of wound and continued up to 16 days. The means of wound area measurement between groups at different time intervals were compared using ANOVA and Dunnet's test. The diabetic wound healing mechanism was studied by measuring the plasma level of glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in both control and treated groups. For the confirmation of activity, histopathology of the wounds tissues from excision wound model was performed. Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of various phytoconstituents (carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, tannins). In the ethanolic extract of E. hirta the total phenol content was 285

  13. Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)--a review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebaluck, R; Gurib-Fakim, A; Mahomoodally, F

    2015-01-15

    Acalypha is the fourth largest genus of the Euphorbiaceae family with approximately 450-570 species. Several Acalypha species are used as medicinal plants in Africa and in the Mascarene Islands. Almost every part of the plant including the leaves, stem and roots are used as traditional remedies to treat and manage a panoply of ailments. However, there is no updated compilation of traditionally important medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus. The present review therefore, endeavors to provide for the first time an updated compilation of documented ethnopharmacological information in relation to the ethnomedicinal, ethnoveterinary, zoopharmacognosy, phytochemistry and biological activities of medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus which can subsequently open new perspectives for further pharmacological research. A literature search was performed on Acalypha species using ethnobotanical text books and scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO, Google Scholar and other web sources such as records from PROTA, PROSEA, and Botanical Dermatology Database. The Plant List, International Plant Name index and Kew Botanical Garden Plant name databases were used to validate scientific names. Plants from Acalypha genus are traditionally used in the treatment and/or management of diverse ailments such as diabetes, jaundice, hypertension, fever, liver inflammation, schistosomiasis, dysentery, respiratory problems including bronchitis, asthma and pheumonia as well as skin conditions such as scabies, eczema and mycoses. Approximately 124 species were listed in ethnobotanical studies with some botanical description and others mentioned from different web sources. However, only 40 species have been included in the present review due to the unavailability of ethnopharmacological data on the remaining species. Among the 40 cited species, 30 were traditionally used for the treatment and/or management of approximately 70 human diseases or health conditions. Two species

  14. Effect of methanol, n-hexane and aqueous extract of Irvingia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bush mango leaf (Irvingia gabonensis) is commonly used locally to treat diarrhoea. The present study evaluated the anti-diarrhoea effect of this plant extract on albino rats induced with castor oil. Fresh tender leaf of this plant was collected, air-dried, powdered and percolated in n-hexane, methanol and aqueous solvents.

  15. Aphrodisiac properties ofPolygonatum verticillatum leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Kazmi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polygonatum verticillatum is the main ingredient of Astavarga. Astavarga is the important ingredient of various classical Ayurvedic formulations like Chavyanprash. Astavarga has been assigned various medicinal properties by ancient Materia Medica dealing with Ayurveda. As per Ayurveda the main property of this plant is in the treatment of vata, pitta, general weakness, aphrodisiac etc.Aim of the study: In the present study, we examined the effect of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract upon the expression of male rat sexual behavior, in order to know whether Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract possess aphrodisiac property. Methods: The aphrodisiac activity of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract was investigated in male rats. The extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day and L-dopa (100 mg/kg body weight/day were administered orally by gavages for 28 days. Mount latency (ML, intromission latency (IL, ejaculation latency (EL, mounting frequency (MF, intromission frequency (IF, ejaculation frequency (EF and postejaculatory interval (PEI were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Results: The Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001. The extract also increased significantly MF, IF and EF (P < 0.05, P< 0.01, P < 0.001. These effects were observed in sexually active and inactive male rats. Conclusions: Present findings provide experimental evidence that the Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract possesses aphrodisiac property.

  16. Antioxidant properties of Rubus discolor leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Ivona Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were examined aqueous, methanol, ethanol and acetone leaf extracts of Rubus discolor, wild growing blackberry, for their antioxidant properties and total phenol and flavonoid content. The total phenol content (TPC varried from 250.05 to 446.61 mg GAE/g of dry extract, while total flavonoid content (TFC was in range between 22.44 and 61.15 mg QE/g of dry extract. Aqueous extracts were the richest in phenols, as well as in flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS free radical scavenging procedures and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay. Aqueous extracts were the most effective through all antioxidant tests. The total phenol content highly correlated with antioxidant activity of extracts. Moreover, weak correlation was established between total phenol and total flavonoid content. The results presented in this work indicate that phenol compounds contribute to antioxidant ability of extracts. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173029

  17. Neotropical woodlice (isopoda colonizing leaf-litter of pioneer plants in a coal residue disposal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Regina Podgaiski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The irregular disposal of coal combustion residues has adverse impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Pioneer plants and soil invertebrates play an important role in the recovery of these areas. The goal of this study was to investigate the colonization patterns of terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea in leaf litter of three spontaneous pioneer plants (grass - Poaceae, shrub - Euphorbiaceae, tree - Anarcadiaceae at sites used for fly ash or boiler slag disposal. The experiment consisted of eight blocks (four per disposal site of 12 litter bags each (four per plant species that were randomly removed after 6, 35, 70 or 140 days of field exposure. Three isopod species were found in the litter bags: Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940 (Philosciidae; n = 116, Benthana taeniata Araujo & Buckup, 1994 (Philosciidae; n = 817 and Balloniscus sellowii (Brandt, 1833 (Balloniscidae; n = 48. The isopods colonized the three leaf-litter species equally during the exposure period. However, the pattern of leaf-litter colonization by these species suggests a conflict of objectives between high quality food and shelter availability. The occurrence of A. floridana and the abundance and fecundity of B. taeniata were influenced by the residue type, indicating that the isopods have different degrees of tolerance to the characteristics of the studied sites. Considering that terrestrial isopods are abundant detritivores and stimulate the humus-forming processes, it is suggested that they could have an indirect influence on the soil restoration of this area.

  18. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Arbutus unedo aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idir Moualek

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: A. unedo showed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation and red blood cells membrane stabilization. Our results show that aqueous leaf extract of A. unedo has good antioxidant activity and interesting anti-inflammatory properties. A. unedo aqueous extract can be used to prevent oxidative and inflammatory processes.

  19. Leaf Size in Swietenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe; F. Bruce. Lamb

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the putative hybrid of bigleaf and small-leaf mahoganies. Initial measurements indicated that bigleaf mahogany can be distinguished from small-leaf mahogany by gross measurements of leaflets. Isolated mother trees yield typical progeny. Typical mother trees in mixed stands yield like progeny plus, usually, mediumleaf progeny. Mediumleaf mother trees...

  20. Larvicidal effects of paw paw ( Carica papaya ) aqueous extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of local sourcing for control of malaria in Nigeria, the larvicidal effect of Carica papaya extract against larvae of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes and the rate of decay of the extract in aqueous solution was investigated. The leaf extract was found to achieve a 100% mortality rate of the Anopheles mosquito larvae at ...

  1. Blood glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Graptophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the claimed anti-diabetic property of the aqueous extract of Graptophyllum pictum leaf and to establish an effective dose for the extract. It also attempted to unravel if the extract could be acutely toxic to mice. The anti-diabetic study was carried out on alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

  2. Aloe arborescens aqueous gel extract alters the activities of key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the antidiabetic activity and the possible mechanisms of action of aqueous extract of Aloe arborescens leaf gel (AALGEt) on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 12 h fasted rats by intraperitoneal injection of 140 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose ...

  3. Larvaecidal effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito was investigated. Exposure of the larvae to undiluted extracts of seed oil, leaf and bark for 12 hours led to 100, 98, and 48% mortality, respectively. Dilution of these extracts also resulted in mortality of the larvae.

  4. Immunomodulatory Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Erigeron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunomodulatory Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Erigeron floribundus (Kunth) Sch Beep (Asteraceae) Leaf in Rabbits. ... Results: Each plant extract dose tested (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) induced a significant increase in neutrophils (p < 0.001), total lymphocytes and TCD4+ (p < 0.0001) from the 3rd to 15th day after ...

  5. Investigation of some pharmacological actions of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant Paulinia pinnata is traditionally used extensively in the treatment of leishmaniasis in some endemic communities in Nigeria with acclaimed success. The plant therefore needs to be evaluated for other beneficial and toxic effects while its antileishmanial activity is being studied. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant ...

  6. Antipyretic and Antinociceptive properties o the aqueous extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vernonia amygdalina is commonly used for food and health purposes. The processing of the leaf for food is usually aimed at removing bitter tasting principles like saponins. This study was designed to determine the antipyretic and antinociceptive properties of the aqueous extract, crude saponin and the chromatographic ...

  7. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of Persea americana leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, Bartholomew I C; Odetola, A A; Agomo, P U

    2007-06-01

    The effect of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Persea americana on plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CHOL), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHOL) in rats was investigated. Albino rats were fed a diet containing 20% groundnut oil, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.25% cholic acid to induce hypercholesterolemia. They were then treated daily with aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf (10 mg/kg of body weight) for 8 weeks. There were no significant (P > .05) differences in the overall body weight gain of the hypercholesterolemic rats compared to normal control. Liver to body weight ratio, plasma glucose, total cholesterol (T-CHOL), and LDL-CHOL levels were significantly (P americana induced reductions in plasma glucose (16% and 11%,respectively), T-CHOL (8% and 5%, respectively), and LDL-CHOL (19% and 20%, respectively) in the treated rats compared to the hypercholesterolemic controls. Also, plasma HDL-CHOL concentrations increased by 85% and 68%, respectively, in the aqueous and methanolic extract-treated rats compared to the hypercholesterolemic controls. These results suggest that aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P. americana lower plasma glucose and influence lipid metabolism in hypercholesterolemic rats with consequent lowering of T-CHOL and LDL-CHOL and a restoration of HDL-CHOL levels. This could represent a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis.

  8. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  9. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... The extract did not show anti-inflammatory property. Key words: Sorghum bicolor, fractions, antinociception, anti-inflammation, acute toxicity. ... Pers. (Family: Gramineae; Poaceae) be- longing to the above classification are widely used ethno- medicinally for different ailments. It has been reported.

  10. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Chaya ( Cnidoscolus aconitifolius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This regulation is key to understanding problems with fertility. The level to which some plants consumed by man contribute to his fertility problems is yet to be fully explored. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of Chaya on pituitary gonadal hormone axis in male wistar rats. Methodology: The study was conducted using ...

  11. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Acute toxicity test of the plant extract was carried out in rats of both sexes. The anticonceptive and abortifacient activity of the extract were investigated, including the Fertility Index or embryo score of control and treated animals. The estrogenic activity was determined using ovariectomized rats. Results:The results ...

  12. The histological effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius aqueous leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study accessed the effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on some reproductive organs (testis and ovary) and semen analysis cells of adult wistar rats. Twenty four (24) adult wistar rats weighing 170g-215g were used for this study; the animals were weighed and sorted into control and three treatment groups of six rats ...

  13. Anthelmintic activity of the crude aqueous leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... continued to use indigenous plants as dewormers draw- ing upon centuries of knowledge of herbal medicines. Furthermore, some serious disadvantages ..... Anthelmintic Drugs: The role of Pharmacokinetics. J. Vet. Ther. 17: 409–419. Chiejina SN (1987). Parasitic Gastroenteritis in Cattle, and Small Rumi- ...

  14. Acute and Subacute Toxic Study of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg and observed continuously for the first 4 h, then hourly for the next 24 h, and finally, 6-hourly for 72 h. Control animals received orally normal saline. The rats were observed carefully for mortality, pain as well as respiratory movements.

  15. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Anti-diarrhoeal Activity of Psidium guajava (Gauva) Aqueous Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent anti-diarrhoeal activity comparable to a standard antidiarrhoeal drug Diphenoxylate given intraperitoneally at 5mg/kg (b.w.) Also, the extract reduced intestinal transit time in charcoal meal test in the same manner. A 100mg/kg dose of the ...

  17. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    chronic obstructive airway diseases such as asthma is becoming increasingly popular (Ng et al., 2003;. Rivera et al., 2004; Argüder et al., 2009). Although orthodox medicines are available for asthma, their costs often put them out of the reach of many people in resource poor countries (Osujih, 1993; Cohen-. Kohler, 2008).

  18. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracheal rings obtained from the four groups were mounted in organ baths and used to test spasmolytic and antispasmodic effects of the extract on histamine or carbachol-induced contractions. Concentrations of 0.125 – 1.0 mg/ml of the extract did not relax histamine or carbachol-induced precontractions. The presence of ...

  19. Evaluation of Aqueous Extracted Moringa Leaf Meal as a Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharmaceutical processes. Moringa leaves have a relatively high crude protein content which varies from 25% (Makkar and Becker, 1996) to 32% .... determined using adiabatic bomb calorimeter (Parr,. USA) with benzoic acid used as a standard. Amino acid profiles were determined using LKB Biochrom. 4151 Alpha plus ...

  20. The efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pistia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 300 mg/kg as well as 0.3 mg/kg methotrexate, 0.46 mg/kg diclofenac and 1 mg/kg dexamethasone were administered to formalin-induced arthritic rats. The same doses of the extracts in comparison to 150 mg/kg acetaminophen were also administered to rats in which fever had been induced with lipopolysaccharides.

  1. Acute and Subacute Toxic Study of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Results: For the acute toxicit test, no death and signs of poisoning were observed in the treated groups. In the subacute .... Subcute toxicity test. The animals were divided into six groups of six animals each. The treatments were given by intraperitoneal injection. Group 1 served ... produce significant changes in behavior,.

  2. The efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Solanum tuberosum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human schistosomiasis is one of the important diseases of helminth origin; it is among the most devastating infectious parasitic disease responsible for several deaths and economic losses amongst half of the world's population. Control of schistosomiasis is solely dependent on chemotherapy. There is need to explore other ...

  3. Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of aqueous leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The repository effect of the test substances produced a significant difference (p< 0.05) suppression of parasitaemia, but C. equistifolia failed to prove any repository effect as the parasitaemia level increased to 12.40± 1.91 than the control 11.67±1.56. The test extracts did not prevent body weight loss associated with malaria ...

  4. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of carmona microphylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The residue thus obtained was then filtered, and the resulting filtrate was concentrated to a dry mass by vacuum distillation; this was used as the C. microphylla ..... hyperlipidemia; it impairs cell membrane fluidity and alters the activity of membrane-bound enzymes and receptors, resulting in membrane malfunction [25,26].

  5. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Cancer Research and Molecular Biology Laboratories,. Department of Biochemistry .... Hepatic GST activities were determined according ... absorbance at 340 nm at 1 minute intervals for 5 minutes. The specific activities were expressed as nmole of CDNB-GSH conjugate formed per mg of protein. Protein determination of ...

  6. Acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the intraperitoneal route, the rats showed dose-dependent signs of toxicity ranging from inappetence, depression, unsteady gait, tremors, and respiratory distress to death. The I/P LD50 was 1400 mg/kg body weight. No gross changes were observed in the organs of rats that died following extract administration.

  7. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Natural Product Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of .... Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) where a ..... Nigeria for allowing the use of the Central. Research Laboratory. Conflict of Interest. No conflict of interest associated with this work. Contribution of Authors.

  8. Antidiabetic And Toxicological Evaluation Of Aqueous Ethanol Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secamone afzelii Rhoem is used in ethnomedicine for hepatic diseases, diabetes, venereal diseases, amenorrhoea and toothaches. This present study was aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic activity and to establish the toxicological profile of the plant to confirm its traditional application and justify continuous usage.

  9. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    50.0) and bent tail (3766.0±320.5) were significantly increased in the group dosed with 1,600mg/kg while histopathological evaluation of the testis and epididymis revealed varying degrees of degeneration and necrosis of the germinal epithelia ...

  10. (CI 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... treatment processes are not very effective for treating a dye wastewater owing to low biodegradability of dyes. They are usually ... pesticide. The trees are also known as an air purifier. The medicinal and germicidal properties of the neem tree have been put to use in a variety of applications. The mature ...

  11. Some of the Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cnidoscolus aconitifolius belongs to a group of arbrescent shrubs. It has continued to be used as food, medicine and ornamental plant till date.Awide variety of claims have been made for its medicinal efficacy as a treatment for numerous ailments ranging from its ability to strengthen fingernails and darken gray hair to curing ...

  12. Antiproliferative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.B. Minari

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... ance of the normal cellular growth maturation and multiplica- tion [1]. Several chemicals and environmental toxins are responsible for changes in normal cellular DNA. Substances that cause DNA mutations are known as mutagens, and muta- gens that cause cancers are known as carcinogens [2]. The most.

  13. Sub-Chronic Administration of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stem bark of Ficus sycomorus is used traditionally for cure of fungal infection, jaundice and dysentery in some parts of northern Nigeria. The leaves of Ficus sycomorus were collected, dried and extracted to screen for some phytochemicals and study its effect on liver and kidney functions in experimental rats.

  14. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaf castor beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelopathy defines the production of specific biomolecules (allelochemical) by a plant that can induce positive or negative impacts on another culture. The crop of castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) is being economically valued and receiving attention, mainly by the biodiesel production, castor oil and animal feeding.

  15. Protective Effect of the Aqueous Leaf and Seed Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the five (5) groups of rats each, four (4) groups had alcohol hepatotoxicity induced by repeated daily oral dosing with 5g/kg of 50% ethanol for 14 days. Three groups of treated rats were then orally administered 50-300 mg/kg/day of PA for additional 7days. Hepatotoxic enzyme markers consisting of serum transaminases ...

  16. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... sis), a commercial herbal preparation manufactured by. Health Forever Products Ltd., Lagos, Nigeria and recom- ... Plant preparation and extraction. The dry mature leaves of S. bicolor were ... The drugs and chemicals used in these studies included Aspirin. (Sigma, USA), glacial acetic acid (Searle, Essex, ...

  17. Project LEAF Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  18. Propiedad molusquicida de Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra Biomphalaria glabrata Say hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Mogollón-Morales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, los caracoles de Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae son hospedadores intermediarios del parasito Schistosoma mansoni, agentes causantes de la schistosomiasis, una parasitosis que afecta a millones de personas en el mundo. El presente trabajo evalúa el papel de la especie Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra B. glabrata. La actividad molusquicida se evaluó de acuerdo a los parámetros sugeridos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se utilizaron caracoles de B. glabrata criados en el laboratorio. Se realizaron diferentes bioensayos utilizando extractos metanólico crudo, en n-hexano, en acetato de etilo y en metanol de las partes aéreas de E. laurifolia a diferentes concentraciones. Los resultados demostraron que esta especie posee una potente actividad letal con todos los extractos estudiados contra caracoles de B. glabrata, considerándose el mejor el extracto de acetato de etilo, el cual presentó una DL50 de 5,57 ppm.

  19. Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionatto, Euclesio; Bonani, Vanderlea F.L.; Peruzzo, Gisele M.; Peres, Marize T.L.P.; Hess, Sania C. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Hidraulica e Transportes]. E-mail: eusimionatto@yahoo.com.br; Morel, Ademir Farias Morel; Stuker, Caroline Z. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Poppi, Nilva Re; Raposo Junior, Jorge Luiz [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFMS), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    The essential oil obtained from the stem bark of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) was analysed by GC and GC-MS. 83 compounds were identified and borneol (14.7%), bornyl acetate (5.2%), 1-isopropyl-7-methyl-4-methylene-1,3,4,5,6,8-hexahydro-2H-naphthalane-4a-ol (14.7%), sesquicineole (10.5%) and {gamma}-gurjunene epoxide (5.4%) were the main components. The EC{sub 50} value of the crude essential oil in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay was 3.21 mg mL{sup -1}. The fraction of the crude essential oil that presented antioxidant activity was purified by prep-TLC on silica gel. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that a-bisabolol (38.3%), a-eudesmol (9.3%) and guaiol (8.2%) were the main components of the antioxidant fraction. The EC{sub 50} value measured for the bioactive oil fraction in the DPPH assay was 1.05 mg mL{sup -1}. The antimicrobial activity of the crude essential oil was assayed against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three yeasts. Measured MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 10.00 mg mL{sup -1}. (author)

  20. Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae: A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of This Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Félix-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae, widely known as “bellyache bush,” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of J. gossypiifolia species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products.

  1. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of estragole, obtained from the essential oil of croton zehntneri (euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THALLITA C.B. ANDRADE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae is a native aromatic plant from Northeast region of Brazil. The monoterpenoid estragole (ESL has been isolated by classical chromatographic methods from the essential oil (EO of C. zehnteneri leaves and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS, its antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials being assessed. The analysis of the EO enabled the identification of 100% of the integrated constituents, of which yield was about 1.8%. The main components identified were: eucalyptol, estragole (84.7% and spathulenol. The dosage of 50 μg/disk of ESL presented fairly significant zones of inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The ESL presented toxicity against Artemia salina with LC50 and LC90 of 4,54 and 8,47 μg mL-1. However, in tumor inhibition assays (human cells, there were no rewarding inhibition in any of the human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HEP-2 and NCI-H292.

  2. Growth and invasive potential of Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) within the coastal prairie region: the effects of soil and moisture regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrilleaux, T.C.; Grace, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The introduced tree Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) is considered a serious threat to the preservation of the coastal prairie region of Louisiana and Texas, although it is currently uncommon in the western part of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of location, soils, and available moisture on the growth and survival of S. sebiferum in coastal prairie. In a field experiment, S. sebiferum mortality was significantly greater at a western site than at central and eastern sites. The greatest mortality and least growth of surviving plants occurred on a soil from the western region, regardless of site. A greenhouse study also found that S. sebiferum growth was lowest on the western soil. Watering frequency significantly affected S. sebiferum growth, except on the western soil. Sapium sebiferum growth responded to both nitrogen and phosphorum additions for all soils. Soil analyses revealed the highest sand, sodium, and phosphorus contents, and much higher electrical conductivity in the western soil. It is concluded that the soil examined from the western region is unfavorable for S. sebiferum growth, though not to the extent to preclude S. sebiferum completely. Evidence suggests that soil salinity may be the primary cause of the poor S. sebiferum growth at the western site.

  3. Chemical composition and efficacy of dichloromethane extract of Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Righi, Adne A; Motta, Lucimar B; Klafke, Guilherme M; Pohl, Paula C; Furlan, Claudia M; Santos, Deborah YAC; Salatino, Maria LF; Negri, Giuseppina; Labruna, Marcelo B; Salatino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    .... The present study reports the analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the constituents of leaf extracts of Croton sphaerogynus and results of acaricidal activity against the cattle tick R. microplus...

  4. Distribution, survivorship and mortality sources in immature stages of the neotropical leaf miner Pachyschelus coeruleipennis Kerremans (Coleoptera: Buprestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. QUEIROZ

    Full Text Available Distribution, sources of mortality, and survivorship of immatures was investigated during the reproductive season of the neotropical buprestid leaf miner, Pachyschelus coeruleipennis, that burrows in leaves of Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae in SE, Brazil. Immature distribution was investigated by a random sample of 120 shrubs of C. floribundus growing along forest edges. Marked leaves were followed to recorded sources of mortality and survivorship of immature stages. Females lay their eggs preferentially in the young leaves of the host plant, with mines and pupal cells having been found on the middle part of plants. Densities of eggs, active mines, and pupal cells were, respectively, 25 ± 2, 6 ± 1, and 1 ± 0.3 per 100 leaves. Predators and parasitoids accounted for the majority of losses in the immature P. coeruleipennis population. Mortality was 3 times lower in the egg stage than in the last larval instar. Predation rate was greater than parasitism but the latter increased much more during the development of immatures. Survivorship and sources of mortality were different between early and late season sample of leaf-miner immatures. Parasitism rate was greater in the late-season whereas predation was greater in early-season samples. These results are compared with mortality patterns described for other buprestid leaf miners in temperate and tropical regions.

  5. Distribution, survivorship and mortality sources in immature stages of the neotropical leaf miner Pachyschelus coeruleipennis Kerremans (Coleoptera: Buprestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, sources of mortality, and survivorship of immatures was investigated during the reproductive season of the neotropical buprestid leaf miner, Pachyschelus coeruleipennis, that burrows in leaves of Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae in SE, Brazil. Immature distribution was investigated by a random sample of 120 shrubs of C. floribundus growing along forest edges. Marked leaves were followed to recorded sources of mortality and survivorship of immature stages. Females lay their eggs preferentially in the young leaves of the host plant, with mines and pupal cells having been found on the middle part of plants. Densities of eggs, active mines, and pupal cells were, respectively, 25 ± 2, 6 ± 1, and 1 ± 0.3 per 100 leaves. Predators and parasitoids accounted for the majority of losses in the immature P. coeruleipennis population. Mortality was 3 times lower in the egg stage than in the last larval instar. Predation rate was greater than parasitism but the latter increased much more during the development of immatures. Survivorship and sources of mortality were different between early and late season sample of leaf-miner immatures. Parasitism rate was greater in the late-season whereas predation was greater in early-season samples. These results are compared with mortality patterns described for other buprestid leaf miners in temperate and tropical regions.

  6. Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Kumar; Raghavendra Singh; Arshed Nazmi; Dinesh Lakhanpal; Hardeep Kataria; Gurcharan Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25  μ M to 400 μ M concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment w...

  7. Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf in Goto-Kakizaki rats and counterpart control Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Min; Bong, Ha Yoon; Jeong, Hye In; Kim, Yeon Kyoung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) was compared in two animal models: Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous non-obese animal model for type II diabetes, and their counterpart control Wistar rats. First, the effect of a single oral administration of mulberry leaf aqueous extract (MLE) on postprandial glucose responses was determined using maltose or glucose as substrate. With maltose-loading, MLE reduced peak responses of blood glucose significantly in both GK a...

  8. Force of habit: shrubs, trees and contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity using Croton (Euphorbiaceae) as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Rafael; van Ee, Benjamin W; Riina, Ricarda; Berry, Paul E; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2017-03-01

    Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context of these plant habits. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test for contingent evolution of habit, habitat and wood anatomy in the mega-diverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), across the largest and most complete molecular phylogeny of the genus to date. Plant habit and habitat are highly correlated, but most wood anatomical features correlate more strongly with habit. The ancestral Croton was reconstructed as a tree, the wood of which is inferred to have absent or indistinct growth rings, confluent-like axial parenchyma, procumbent ray cells and disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls. The taxa sampled showed multiple independent origins of the shrub habit in Croton , and this habit shift is contingent on several wood anatomical features (e.g. similar vessel-ray pits, thick fibre walls, perforated ray cells). The only wood anatomical trait correlated with habitat and not habit was the presence of helical thickenings in the vessel elements of mesic Croton . Plant functional traits, individually or in suites, are responses to multiple and often confounding contexts in evolution. By establishing an explicit contingent evolutionary framework, the interplay between habit, habitat and wood anatomical diversity was dissected in the genus Croton . Both habit and habitat influence the evolution of wood anatomical characters, and conversely, the wood anatomy of lineages can affect shifts in plant habit and habitat. This study hypothesizes novel putatively functional trait associations in woody plant structure that could be further tested in a variety of other taxa.

  9. Bioactivity of latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Euphorbiaceae) on post-embryonic development of Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Renata da Silva; Ferreira, Aline Roberta da Silva; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2010-08-27

    Larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) feed on a wide range of decomposing organic matter and present a great importance to public health. This study evaluated the effect of crude latex extract from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Euphorbiaceae) on post-embryonic development time of M. scalaris under laboratory conditions. The latex was used in its crude lyophilized form, dissolved in distilled water and tested in concentrations of 5 microg/mL, 10 microg/mL and 20 microg/mL. The latex was applied with the aid of an automatic pipette (1 microL/larva) on the newly-hatched larvae. Each group (the three concentrations of latex and the control group) was composed of 50 larvae and fed with 25mg of decomposing horse flesh. The experiment was made in quadruplicate. The observations were recorded daily. The data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc-test with a 5% significance level. The post-embryonic development time for all stages (larval, pupal and newly-hatched larvae to adult) tested with all three latex concentrations was significantly shorter than for the control group, but without any significant difference among the different concentrations. The more sensitive stages to the substance were pupal and newly-hatched larvae to adult. The viability was less than 51.5% in the three concentrations of latex in these stages and they were lower than for the control group (67.4% for pupal stage and 64% for newly-hatched larvae to adult). Therefore, it is likely that this substance has influence on the development and viability of these flies and can become a promising agent for insect pest management. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Leaf-Shaped Ferric Oxide Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqiang Ding

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, leaf-shaped ferric oxide particles were prepared from an aqueous solution of potassium ferricyanide [K3Fe(CN6] by hydrothermal process. Images obtained from SEM (scanning electron microscope revealed that leaf-shaped ferric oxides (around 1.5 μm in length were clearly exhibited when the hydrothermal tempreature was 150 °C, while as the temperature was increased to 200 °C leaf-shaped ferric oxide particles with larger size were observed. XRD (X-ray diffraction patterns testified that the obtained ferric oxides were α-Fe2O3 with well-structured crystal faces. Interestingly, histograms describing the distribution of samples indicated that the distribution of obtained ferric oxide particles did not accord with gaussian distribution

  11. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  12. LEAF-E: a tool to analyze grass leaf growth using function fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorend, Wannes; Lootens, Peter; Nelissen, Hilde; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Inzé, Dirk; Muylle, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    In grasses, leaf growth is often monitored to gain insights in growth processes, biomass accumulation, regrowth after cutting, etc. To study the growth dynamics of the grass leaf, its length is measured at regular time intervals to derive the leaf elongation rate (LER) profile over time. From the LER profile, parameters such as maximal LER and leaf elongation duration (LED), which are essential for detecting inter-genotype growth differences and/or quantifying plant growth responses to changing environmental conditions, can be determined. As growth is influenced by the circadian clock and, especially in grasses, changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and evaporative demand, the LER profiles show considerable experimental variation and thus often do not follow a smooth curve. Hence it is difficult to quantify the duration and timing of growth. For these reasons, the measured data points should be fitted using a suitable mathematical function, such as the beta sigmoid function for leaf elongation. In the context of high-throughput phenotyping, we implemented the fitting of leaf growth measurements into a user-friendly Microsoft Excel-based macro, a tool called LEAF-E. LEAF-E allows to perform non-linear regression modeling of leaf length measurements suitable for robust and automated extraction of leaf growth parameters such as LER and LED from large datasets. LEAF-E is particularly useful to quantify the timing of leaf growth, which forms an important added value for detecting differences in leaf growth development. We illustrate the broad application range of LEAF-E using published and unpublished data sets of maize, Miscanthus spp. and Brachypodium distachyon, generated in independent experiments and for different purposes. In addition, we show that LEAF-E could also be used to fit datasets of other growth-related processes that follow the sigmoidal profile, such as cell length measurements along the leaf axis. Given its user-friendliness, ability

  13. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen

  14. Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Latex Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against Dominant Seed-Borne Storage Fungi of Some Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Manoorkar V B; Mandge S V; B D Gachande

    2015-01-01

    In present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) was tested for their antifungal activity against dominant storage seed-borne fungi of some oil seeds such as groundnut, soybean, sunflower and mustard. The antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Cuvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asperg...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maiha, B.B. Vol 31, No 1 (2016) - Articles Antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Croton zambesicus Linn(Euphorbiaceae) in rats) Abstract. ISSN: 0303-691X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayorinde, O.O. Vol 31, No 1 (2016) - Articles Antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Croton zambesicus Linn(Euphorbiaceae) in rats) Abstract. ISSN: 0303-691X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  17. Taxonomy of the genus Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (Euphorbiaceae in the Iberian PeninsuIa and the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedí, Carles

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study is undertaken of the ten taxa (nine of them specific belonging to the genus Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (Euphorbiaceae which are present in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands and a dichotomic key is provided. The taxonomic characteristics or each taxon are discussed and the correct name, synonyms, description, chorology and ecology are given. The presence of Chamaesyce humifusa (Willd. Prokh. in the Iberian Peninsula is confirmed and Chamaesyce humistrata (Gray Small is recorded for the first time from Europe.

    Es realitza un estudi taxonòmic dels 10 tàxons (nou específics del gènere Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (Euphorbiaceae presents a la Península Ibèrica i les Illes Balears. Per a cada tàxon es valoren els caràcters d'interès taxonòmic i s'indica el nom correcte. la sinonímia, descripció, corologia i ecologia. Es confirma la presència de Chamaesyce humifusa (Willd. Prokh, a la Península Ibèrica i se cita Chamaesyce humistrata (Gray Small coma novetat per a Europa.

  18. Anticonvulsant activity of Aloe vera leaf extract in acute and chronic models of epilepsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Naveen; Arora, Tarun; Manocha, Sachin; Patil, Amol N; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Aloe vera in epilepsy has not yet been explored. This study was done to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf powder on three acute and one chronic model of epilepsy. In acute study, aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder was administered in doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera leaf extract was chosen for chronic administration. Oxidative stress parameters viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in brain of kindled animals. In acute study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder in a dose-dependent manner significantly decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock seizure model, increased seizure threshold current in increasing current electroshock seizure model, and increased latency to onset and decreased duration of clonic convulsion in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model as compared with control group. In chronic study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder prevented progression of kindling in PTZ-kindled mice. Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder 400 mg/kg p.o. also reduced brain levels of MDA and increased GSH levels as compared to the PTZ-kindled non-treated group. The results of study showed that Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder possessed significant anticonvulsant and anti-oxidant activity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Arabidopsis onset of leaf death mutants identify a regulatory pathway controlling leaf senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Sturre, Marcel J.G.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The onset of leaf senescence is controlled by leaf age and ethylene can promote leaf senescence within a specific age window. We exploited the interaction between leaf age and ethylene and isolated mutants with altered leaf senescence that are named as onset of leaf death (old) mutants. Early leaf

  20. Manejo químico de convolvulaceae e euphorbiaceae em cana-de-açúcar em período de estiagem Chemical Management of Convolvulaceae and Euphorbiaceae in Sugarcane during Dry Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.M. Azania

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As famílias Convolvulaceae e Euphorbiaceae possuem diferentes espécies que infestam os canaviais de forma rápida e agressiva, especialmente em áreas cobertas pela palha remanescente da colheita que não foram queimadas. Essa infestação, associada às extensas áreas de cultivo, tem dificultado a operacionalidade do manejo químico exclusivamente durante a estação chuvosa do ano, levando aos produtores a necessidade de aplicar os herbicidas também no período de estiagem. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho objetivou estudar a persistência dos herbicidas aplicados durante o período de estiagem em resistir às intempéries climáticas até o início da estação chuvosa, avaliando-se o controle sobre as espécies dos gêneros de Ipomoea, Merremia e Euphorbia. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 42 tratamentos, distribuídos em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com seis repetições. Os herbicidas amicarbazone (1.050 g ha-1, imazapic (1.22,5 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1 e as associações clomazone (1.000 g ha-1 + hexazinone (250 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1 + diurom (936 g ha-1 + hexazinone (264 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (500 g ha-1 + amicarbazone (700 g ha-1 e testemunha foram alocados nas parcelas. As espécies Ipomoea nil, I. hederifolia, I. quamoclit, I. grandifolia, Merremia aegyptia e Euphorbia heterophylla foram semeadas diretamente no solo, cobertas com o equivalente a 15 t ha-1 de palha de cana-de-açúcar e alocadas nas subparcelas. Após a aplicação dos herbicidas, registraram-se 70 dias de ausência de chuvas e o estresse hídrico impossibilitou a avaliação de controle, devido à não emergência das plantas daninhas em todos os tratamentos. Entretanto, com o início da estação chuvosa aos 90 dias após o tratamento, iniciaram-se as avaliações de eficácia devido à emergência das plantas daninhas. Aos 150 DAT (dias após os tratamentos os herbicidas sulfentrazone e sulfentrazone

  1. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  2. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  3. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  4. Illustrated review of the leaf-mining Nepticulidae of the central Andes (Peru and Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Karsholt, Ole; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2017-04-24

    We review forty-five species of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) based on an analysis of samples collected in the central Andean region of Peru and Bolivia. Thirteen of these species are new to science, and are named and described here: Stigmella paracosma Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. expressa Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. acalyphae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lepida Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. misera Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. inca Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. eiffeli Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. arequipica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. coronaria Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. azulella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sparsella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., Manoneura forcipis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and Acalyptris murex Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. Some of the central Andean species are recorded here as leaf-miners on Euphorbiaceae (Acalypha), Fabaceae (Collaea), Rosaceae (Polylepis), Malvaceae (Sida), Calceolariaceae (Calceolaria), Lamiaceae (Clinopodium), and Asteraceae (Ageratina and Trixis). We create eleven new species groups based on morphological characters designated in Stigmella and one in Acalyptris. A pictorial key to the species groups and distribution maps are provided. All new species are illustrated with 150 photographs and drawings of the adults and genitalia, and, where known and/or available, photographs of host-plants and leaf-mines.

  5. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  6. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of guava leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) is used not only as food but also as folk medicine in subtropical areas around the world because of its pharmacologic activities. In particular, the leaf extract of guava has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Moreover, the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extract has been reported in some animal models. However, little is known regarding the therapeutic activity of the extract in human clinical trials as well as its underlying therapeutic mechanisms and safety. In Japan, Guava Leaf Tea (Bansoureicha®, Yakult Honsha, Tokyo, Japan) containing the aqueous leaf extract from guava has been approved as one of the Foods for Specified Health Uses and is now commercially available. This review describes the active component of the aqueous guava leaf extract and its inhibition of alpha-glucosidase enzymes in vitro, safety of the extract and Guava Leaf Tea, reduction of postprandial blood glucose elevation, and improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in murine models and several clinical trials. It is suggested that the chronic suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation is important in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that Guava Leaf Tea is considered useful as an alimentotherapy for chronic treatment. PMID:20181067

  7. Leaf development: A cellular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit TS Beemster

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Reich; Michael B. Walters; David S. Ellsworth; [and others; [Editor’s note: James M.. Vose is the SRS co-author for this publication.

    1998-01-01

    Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, the authors hypothesized that variation among species in leaf dark respiration rate (Rd) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (Amax). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  12. Morfologia do polén anemófilo e alergizante no Brasil: II. Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae e Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Em continuação à primeira parte deste catálogo (Barth et al., 1975, é estudada a morfologia dos grãos de polén das espécies anemófilas pertencentes às famílias Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae e Myrta ceae, cujo conhecimento interessa a estudos relacionados à poluição atmosférica e a processos alérgicos, especialmente das vias respiratórias.In continuation to the first part of this catalogue (Barth et al., 1975, the morphology of the pollen grains of the anemophilous species of six additional families is studied, their correct identification being relevant to studies concerning air pollution and allergic processes, chiefly of the respiratory tract.

  13. Análise de terpenóides de espécies de Croton sect. Lamprocroton (Mull. Arg.) Pax (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Amaral de Feliu

    2011-01-01

    Croton é um gênero gigante de Euphorbiaceae com cerca de 1.300 espécies distribuídas em regiões tropicais e subtropicais da América, África, Ásia e Austrália. O Brasil é um importante centro de diversificação da espécie, com mais de 350 espécies descritas, sendo muitas endêmicas. Muitas espécies são utilizadas como plantas medicinais pelas populações locais, para o tratamento de diversos males, como câncer, diabetes, febre, hipercolesterolemia, hipertensão, entre outros. Mesmo assim, a maiori...

  14. Short Communication: Note on Excoecaria indica (Willd. Muell.-Arg, 1863 (Euphorbiaceae, from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India; a data deficient species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PADISAMY RAGAVAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ragavan P, Ravichandran K, Mohan PM, Sxaena A, Prasanth RS, Jayaraj RSJ, Saravanan S. 2015. Note on Excoecaria indica (Willd. Muell.-Arg, 1863 (Euphorbiaceae, from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India; a data deficient species. Biodiversitas 16: 22-26. Excoecaria indica (Wild. Muell.-Arg was recorded from Middle Andaman and Great Nicobar Island representing a new addition to the mangrove flora of the, Andaman and Nicobar islands. This species is characterised by its thorny trunk, crenulate-lanceolate leaves and cherry-sized green fruits containing three seeds. Information about E. indica is inadequate, and it is recognized as data deficient species. Further studies and conservation measures are imperative for managing the mangrove diversity of the islands with regards to this species.

  15. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavazhagan, Tamizhamudu; Arunachalam, Kantha D

    2011-01-01

    We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with M. edule leaf extract, stable silver and gold nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The kinetics of reduction of aqueous silver and gold ions during reaction with the M. edule leaf broth were easily analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to M. edule leaf broth, were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles showed formation of triangular, circular, and hexagonal shapes in the size range 10–45 nm. The resulting silver nanoparticles were predominantly square with uniform size range 50–90 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of triangular nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of 2.30 keV. Further FTIR analysis was also done to identify the functional groups in silver and gold nanoparticles. The characterized nanoparticles of M. edule have potential for various medical and industrial applications. Saponin presence in aqueous extract of M. edule is responsible for the mass production of silver and gold nanoparticles. PMID:21753878

  16. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2014-01-01

    Biomediated silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of an eco-friendly biomaterial, namely, aqueous Tribulus terrestris extract. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. An attempt has been made and formation of the silver nanoparticles was verified by surface plasmon spectra using an UV-vis (Ultra violet), spectrophotometer. Morphology and crystalline structure of the prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), techniques, respectively. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), analysis suggests that the obtained silver nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of carboxylic groups, carbonyl groups and the flavonoids present in the T. terrestris extract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Composición y distribución del género Croton (Euphorbiaceae en Colombia, con cuatro especies nuevas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Aldana José Carmelo

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary synopsis of the Colombian species of Craton (Euphorbiaceae is presented, including a checklist of 19 sections and 83 species, along with their altitudinal and geographical distributions, and a key to the sections. The sections Cyclostigma (28 spp, Luntia (10 spp, Cascarilla (8 spp and Velamea (8 spp are the most speciose in Colombia. The genus is broadly distributed in Colombia; the Andean region (50 spp and the Caribbean region (23 spp are the richest. Most species of Craton occur below 2000 m altitud e in disturbed foresto Four new species in sections Argyrocroton Cyclostigma and Luntia are proposed. Craton kaiteuri Jabl., and Craton monachinoensis Jabl. are included in the synonymy of Croton cunea tus Klotzsch.Se presenta una sinopsis preliminar del género Craton (Euphorbiaceae en Colombia. Se hace un listado de las 19 secciones y 83 especies presentes en el país, para cada una se hacen anotaciones de altitud y distribución geográfica, tanto política como por regiones naturales. Se incluye una clave para las secciones presentes en Colombia. Las secciones con el mayor número de especies son Cyclostigma (28 sppl, Luntia (10 spp, Cascarilla (8 spp y Velamea (8 spp. El género está ampliamente distribuido en el país; las regiones más diversas son la Andina (50 spp y la Caribe (23 spp. La mayoría de las especies de Craton crecen a alturas menores de 2000 m en ambientes con distinto grado de intervención; solo algunas crecen en lugares poco disturbados. Se proponen cuatro especies nuevas en las secciones Argyracroton, Cyclostigma y Luntia. Se incluyen como sinónimos de Croton cuneatus Klotzsch a Croton kaiteuri Jabl. y Craton monachinoensis Jabl.

  18. Developing allometric equations for estimating leaf area and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of leaf area (LA) and leaf biomass (LB) is important to understand plant physiological and carbon assimilation processes, and tree growth models. The aim of this study was to develop and compare allometric equations for predicting LA and LB of Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb. taking diameter at breast height ...

  19. Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Ahmad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h and after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extract were directly proportional. The percentage of paralyzed juveniles was decreased, when J2 transferred in distilled water after 48 h incubation in standard aqueous leaf extract. Addition of freeze-dried aqueous extract to sterile sandy substrate at S/2 dilution significantly decreased the root-knot infection to susceptible eggplants whereas second stage juveniles (J2 that penetrated roots of eggplant were able to complete development in sterile sandy substrate without treatment of freeze-dried aqueous extract.

  20. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  1. In vivo and in vitro hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Conclusion: M.stenopetala has blood pressure lowering effect substantiating the use of the plant in traditional medicine. ... water and food ad libitum, ambient temperature 21oC ... (DBP) from systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean .... The percent inhibition of high-K+ (80 mM)-induced contraction by aqueous leaf extract of.

  2. In vivo antifungal activity of neem oil and aqueous extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo antifungal activity of neem oil and aqueous extracts against leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora abelmoschii on okra. Aricléia De Moraes Catarino, Antonia Alice Costa Rodrigues, João Victor Jansen De Queiroz, Luciano Marinho Furtado, Leilson Lopes Santos Silva Silva ...

  3. Removal of fast green dye (C.I. 42053) from an aqueous solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for the removal of textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of dye on A. indica was found to be dependent on contact time, dye concentration and amount of adsorbent. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of ...

  4. How to pattern a leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, an...

  5. Two phase fermentation of whole leaf biomass to biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanakya, H.N.; Borgaonkar, S.; Rajan, M.G.C.; Wahi, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India))

    1993-01-01

    Two phase (diphasic) fermentation of untreated whole leaf biomass involving a solid phase acidogenic system and an upflow anaerobic packed bed digester for methanogenesis has been studied. The solid phase acidogenic system consisted of a bed of biomass (22% solids) sprinkled daily with an aqueous suspension of biodegrading bacteria. Accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the liquid lowered its pH to about 5 and suppressed methanogenesis in the biomass bed. A part of the leachate from the acidogenic digester was fed to the methanogenic digesters. Clear phase separation was obtained with fresh or dried leaf biomass when the total VFA levels exceeded 6 g L[sup -1] (pH 5). At low VFA concentrations in the first stage significant levels of gas production occurred from the decomposing biomass bed indicating a possibility of solid phase fermentation without phase separation if VFA and pH levels are maintained within these critical limits. (author)

  6. Preparation and characterization of a novel adsorbent from Moringa oleifera leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Olugbenga Solomon; Adegoke, Kayode Adesina; Akinyunni, Opeyemi Omowumi

    2017-06-01

    A new and novel adsorbent was obtained by impregnation of Moringa oleifera leaf in H2SO4 and NaOH, respectively. Prepared adsorbents were characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR, SEM, TGA and EDX analyses, respectively. The effects of operational parameters, such as pH, moisture content, ash content, porosity and iodine number on these adsorbents were investigated and compared with those of commercial activated carbon (CAC). EDX results of acid activated M. oleifera leaf have the highest percentage of carbon by weight (69.40 %) and (76.11 %) by atom, respectively. Proximate analysis showed that the fixed carbon content of acid activated M. oleifera leaf (69.14 ± 0.01) was the highest of all adsorbents studied. Conclusively, the present investigation shows that acid activated M. oleifera leaf is a good alternative adsorbent that could be used in lieu of CAC for recovery of dyes and heavy metal from aqueous solutions and other separation techniques.

  7. Rheology of aqueous foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollet, Benjamin; Raufaste, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Aqueous foams are suspensions of bubbles inside aqueous phases. Their multiphasic composition leads to a complex rheological behavior that is useful in numerous applications, from oil recovery to food/cosmetic processing. Their structure is very similar to the one of emulsions, so that both materials share common mechanical properties. In particular, the presence of surfactants at the gas-liquid interfaces leads to peculiar interfacial and dissipative properties. Foam rheology has been an active research topics and is already reported in several reviews, most of them covering rheometry measurements at the scale of the foam, coupled with interpretations at the local scale of bubbles or interfaces. In this review, we start following this approach, then we try to cover the multiscale features of aqueous foam flows, emphasizing regimes where intermediate length scales need to be taken into account or regimes fast enough regarding internal time scales so that the flow goes beyond the quasi-static limit. xml:lang="fr"

  8. Responsive aqueous foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameau, Anne-Laure; Carl, Adrian; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; von Klitzing, Regine

    2015-01-12

    Remarkable properties have emerged recently for aqueous foams, including ultrastability and responsiveness. Responsive aqueous foams refer to foams for which the stability can be switched between stable and unstable states with a change in environment or with external stimuli. Responsive foams have been obtained from various foam stabilizers, such as surfactants, proteins, polymers, and particles, and with various stimuli. Different strategies have been developed to design this type of soft material. We briefly review the two main approaches used to obtain responsive foams. The first approach is based on the responsiveness of the interfacial layer surrounding the gas bubbles, which leads to responsive foams. The second approach is based on modifications that occur in the aqueous phase inside the foam liquid channels to tune the foam stability. We will highlight the most sophisticated approaches, which use light, temperature, and magnetic fields and lead to switchable foam stability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Family: Euphorbiaceae) and Bacillus sphaericus against Anopheles stephensi Liston. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Kovendan, K; Kumar, P Mahesh; Subramaniam, J

    2013-02-01

    To explore the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed against An. stephensi at various concentrations ranging from (75-375 ppm) under the laboratory as well as field conditions. The LC(50) and LC(90) value of the E. hirta leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the methanol extract of E. hirta against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of values LC(50)= 137.40, 172.65, 217.81, 269.37 and 332.39 ppm; B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of values LC(50)= 44.29, 55.83, 68.51, 82.19 and 95.55 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50)= 79.13, 80.42, 86.01, 93.00 and 98.12 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest methanol leaf extracts of E. hirta and B. sphaericus have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malarial vector, An. stephensi as target species of vector control programs. This study provides the first report on the combined mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin against An. stephensi mosquitoes. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of folklore: Mallotus peltatus leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Arunachalam, G; Mandal, Asit B; Sur, Tapas K; Mandal, Subash C; Bhattacharya, S K

    2002-10-01

    Since ages Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. Arg. var acuminatus (Euphorbiaceae) leaf and stem bark is used in folk medicine to cure intestinal ailments and skin infections. In several intestinal ailments, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we have evaluated the antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory activity of M. peltatus leaf extract. The crude methanol extract of M. peltatus leaves was found to be active against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis and the dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges from 128 to 2000 microg ml(-1) for bacteria and 128 mg ml(-1) for fungi, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 2-4-fold higher than MIC. The methanol-water fraction of the extract showed similar activity against Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Proteus isolates. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract against carrageenan (acute model) and dextran-induced (subacute model) rat paw oedema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma (chronic model) in rats were studied using indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)), a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug, as standard. The methanol extract at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1), and the n-butanol fractions A and B at 25 mg kg(-1), exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in Albino rats, compared with indomethacin. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and reducing sugars in the crude extract while the n-butanol fractions showed the presence of ursolic acid, beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids as major compounds. Further study with fractions showed that the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity is due to either fraction A (ursolic acid) alone or the combination of fractions A and B (beta-sitosterol and fatty acids) of the extract.

  11. Long-term inhibition by auxin of leaf blade expansion in bean and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christopher P; Stahlberg, Rainer; Barkawi, Lana S; Cohen, Jerry D

    2004-03-01

    The role of auxin in controlling leaf expansion remains unclear. Experimental increases to normal auxin levels in expanding leaves have shown conflicting results, with both increases and decreases in leaf growth having been measured. Therefore, the effects of both auxin application and adjustment of endogenous leaf auxin levels on midrib elongation and final leaf size (fresh weight and area) were examined in attached primary monofoliate leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and in early Arabidopsis rosette leaves. Aqueous auxin application inhibited long-term leaf blade elongation. Bean leaves, initially 40 to 50 mm in length, treated once with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (1.0 mm), were, after 6 d, approximately 80% the length and weight of controls. When applied at 1.0 and 0.1 mm, alpha-naphthalene acetic acid significantly inhibited long-term leaf growth. The weak auxin, beta-naphthalene acetic acid, was effective at 1.0 mm; and a weak acid control, benzoic acid, was ineffective. Indole-3-acetic acid (1 microm, 10 microm, 0.1 mm, and 1 mm) required daily application to be effective at any concentration. Application of the auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (1% [w/w] in lanolin), to petioles also inhibited long-term leaf growth. This treatment also was found to lead to a sustained elevation of leaf free indole-3-acetic acid content relative to untreated control leaves. Auxin-induced inhibition of leaf growth appeared not to be mediated by auxin-induced ethylene synthesis because growth inhibition was not rescued by inhibition of ethylene synthesis. Also, petiole treatment of Arabidopsis with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid similarly inhibited leaf growth of both wild-type plants and ethylene-insensitive ein4 mutants.

  12. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  13. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Vega-Ávila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L. is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight. Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg significantly ( reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, . Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds.

  14. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium); Adriaenssens, Sandy, E-mail: adriaenssens@irceline.be [Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL-CELINE), Kunstlaan 10–11, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium); Staelens, Jeroen, E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Wittenberghe, Shari, E-mail: shari.vanwittenberghe@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Boeckx, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.boeckx@ugent.be [Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Dept. Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha{sup −1} y{sup −1}, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH{sub 4}{sup +} at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on

  15. Maize YABBY genes drooping leaf1 and drooping leaf2 affect agronomic traits by regulating leaf architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf architectural traits, such as length, width and angle, directly influence canopy structure and light penetration, photosynthate production and overall yield. We discovered and characterized a maize (Zea mays) mutant with aberrant leaf architecture we named drooping leaf1 (drl1), as leaf blades ...

  16. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Sayeed Akthar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piper nigrum (P. nigrum and Cassia didymobotyra (C. didymobotyra (aqueous, methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether against the food borne pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa] and fungi [Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans (C. albicans] and also to investigate the presence of various phytochemicals in the leaf extracts of tested plants. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration were determined by serial dilution method. Results: Methanol leaf extract of test plants exhibited greater antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. The MIC results showed that ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL. While, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of S. aureus at concentration of 6.25 mg/mL. The MIC values for ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of C. albicans at concentration of 25.0 mg/mL. While, it was reported that at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum was against the Aspergillus spp. The MIC values of methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration of ethanol, methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum for E. coli and ethanol, methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra for S. aureus was recorded at concentration 12.5 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration of ethanol and methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra on C. albicans was recorded at concentration of 25.0 mg

  18. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3528 Section 29.3528 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to some extent by the size and shrinkage of the veins or fibers (See Elements...

  20. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf...

  1. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  2. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of...

  3. Is leaf dry matter content a better predictor of soil fertility than specific leaf area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, J.G.; Montserrat-Marti, G.; Charles, M.; Jones, G.; Wilson, P.; Shipley, B.; Sharafi, M.; Cerabolini, B.E.L.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Band, S.R.; Bogard, A.; Castro-Diez, P.; Guerrere-Campo, J.; Palmer, C.; Peréz-Rontomé, M.C.; Carter, G.; Hynd, A.; Romo-Diez, A.; De Torres Espuny, L.; Royo Pla, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims: Specific leaf area (SLA), a key element of the 'worldwide leaf economics spectrum', is the preferred 'soft' plant trait for assessing soil fertility. SLA is a function of leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and leaf thickness (LT). The first, LDMC, defines leaf construction costs and

  4. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  5. Generic Separations and Leaf Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Galota; Sven Kosub (Hrsg.); Heribert Vollmer

    2017-01-01

    In the early nineties of the previous century, leaf languages were introduced as a means for the uniform characterization of many complexity classes, mainly in the range between P (polynomial time) and PSPACE (polynomial space). It was shown that the separability of two complexity classes can be reduced to a combinatorial property of the corresponding defining leaf languages. In the present paper, it is shown that every separation obtained in this way holds for every generic oracle in the sen...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16757, Apr. 20...

  7. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. Progress for the first year MACE PIDDP is reported in two major areas of effort: (1) fluids handling concepts, definition, and breadboard fabrication and (2) aqueous chemistry ion sensing technology and test facility integration. A fluids handling breadboard was designed, fabricated, and tested at Mars ambient pressure. The breadboard allows fluid manipulation scenarios to be tested under the reduced pressure conditions expected in the Martian atmosphere in order to validate valve operations, orchestrate analysis sequences, investigate sealing integrity, and to demonstrate efficacy of the fluid handling concept. Additional fluid manipulation concepts have also been developed based on updated MESUR spacecraft definition. The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) facility was designed as a test bed to develop a multifunction interface for measurements of chemical ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The interface allows acquisition of real time data concerning the kinetics and heats of salt dissolution, and transient response to calibration and solubility events. An array of ion selective electrodes has been interfaced and preliminary calibration studies performed.

  8. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial and azo dye (Congo red) degradation properties using Amaranthus gangeticus Linn leaf extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolya, Haradhan; Maiti, Parthapratim; Pandey, Akhil; Tripathy, Tridib

    2015-01-01

    ...) using an aqueous solution of silver nitrate and Amaranthus gangeticus Linn (Chinese spinach) leaf extract. The synthesized AgNPs which are to be used as an antimicrobial and Congo red dye is to be used as a toxic-degrading...

  10. A Global Data Set of Leaf Photosynthetic Rates, Leaf N and P, and Specific Leaf Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This global data set of photosynthetic rates and leaf nutrient traits was compiled from a comprehensive literature review. It includes estimates of Vcmax (maximum...

  11. A Global Data Set of Leaf Photosynthetic Rates, Leaf N and P, and Specific Leaf Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This global data set of photosynthetic rates and leaf nutrient traits was compiled from a comprehensive literature review. It includes estimates of Vcmax...

  12. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  13. Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulatory activities of leaves and bark extracts of Recinodindron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae) against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankam, Aimé Gabriel; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Kuete, Victor

    2017-03-24

    Recinodindron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant used in Africa, particularly in Cameroon to treat various ailments including bacterial infections. In this study, we evaluated the extracts of the leaves (RHL) and bark (RHB) of R. heudelotii for their antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulating activities against 29 Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth micro-dilution assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity, and the antibiotic resistance modulating effects of the plant extracts. RHL displayed the most important spectrum of activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranging from 256 to 1024 μg/mL against 75.86% of the 29 tested bacteria strains while RHB was not active. RHL also showed killing effects with minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranging from 256 to 1024 μg/mL. The activities of tetracycline and kanamycin associated with RHL were improved on 88.89% and 77.78% of the tested MDR bacteria, at MIC/2 at MIC/4 respectively, with 2 to 16-folds decreasing of MIC. This suggests the antibiotic resistance modulating effects of these antibiotics. The present study provides data indicating a possible use of the leaves extract of Recinodindron heudelotii alone or in association with common antibiotics in the fight against bacterial infections including those involving MDR bacteria.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of the giant genus Croton and tribe Crotoneae (Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto) using ITS and TRNL-TRNF DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Paul E; Hipp, Andrew L; Wurdack, Kenneth J; Van Ee, Benjamin; Riina, Ricarda

    2005-09-01

    Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of nuclear ITS and plastid trnL-F DNA sequence data are presented for the giant genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) and related taxa. Sampling comprises 88 taxa, including 78 of the estimated 1223 species and 29 of the 40 sections previously recognized of Croton. It also includes the satellite genus Moacroton and genera formerly placed in tribe Crotoneae. Croton and all sampled segregate genera form a monophyletic group sister to Brasiliocroton, with the exception of Croton sect. Astraea, which is reinstated to the genus Astraea. A small clade including Moacroton, Croton alabamensis, and C. olivaceus is sister to all other Croton species sampled. The remaining Croton species fall into three major clades. One of these is entirely New World, corresponding to sections Cyclostigma, Cascarilla, and Velamea sensu Webster. The second is entirely Old World and is sister to a third, also entirely New World clade, which is composed of at least 13 of Webster's sections of Croton. This study establishes a phylogenetic framework for future studies in the hyper-diverse genus Croton, indicates a New World origin for the genus, and will soon be used to evaluate wood anatomical, cytological, and morphological data in the Crotoneae tribe.

  15. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew.

  16. Purification and characterization of NAD(P)H quinone reductase from the latex of Hevea brasiliensis Müll.-Arg. (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonthiphakorn, Nopphakaew; Wititsuwannakul, Dhirayos; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun

    2002-09-01

    NAD(P)H quinone reductase [NAD(P)H-QR] present in the latex of Hevea brasiliensis Müll.-Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) was purified to homogeniety from the B-serum fraction obtained by freeze-thawing of the bottom fraction of ultracentrifuged fresh latex. The purification protocol involved acetone fractionation, heat treatment, ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. The M(r) determined by SDS-PAGE for the protein subunit was 21 kDa, and the molecular mass of the native enzyme estimated by gel filtration was 83 kDa, indicating that the native enzyme is a homotetramer. The enzyme showed pH stability over a range of 6 to at least 10 (with an optimum at pH 8) and thermal stability up to 80 degrees C. High NAD(P)H-QR activity (70%) was still retained after 10 h of preincubation at 80 degrees C. A comparable substrate specificity for this enzyme was observed among menadione, p-benzoquinone, juglone, and plumbagin, with only duroquinone generating a lower activity. Positive correlations between latex NAD(P)H-QR activity and rubber yield per tapping [fresh latex (r=0.89, PPP<0.01) indicated that enzyme activity could possibly be used as a marker to predict the yield potential of selected clones.

  17. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract concentration increased from 4 ml to 10 ml at 30 minutes exposure, the volume of hydrogen gas evolved decreased from 19.1 cm3 to 11.2 cm3 in H2SO4 medium, while it reduced to 5 cm3 from 9 cm3 in HCl medium. Also, the metal surface-phytoconstituent interaction mechanism showed that 6 minutes is the best exposure time for the adsorption of the extract in both acidic media. The Jatropha Curcas leaf extract was adsorbed on the mild steel surface to inhibit corrosion, while the experimental data obtained at 30 minutes exposure in both acidic media were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Hence, Jatropha Curcas leaf extract is a good and safe inhibitor in both acidic solutions.

  18. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaib Luqman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance.

  19. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Suchita; Kumar, Ritesh; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Chanda, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance. PMID:22216055

  20. Surface tension of aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew; Blake, Robert C; Ayyala, Ramesh S

    2010-09-01

    To measure and compare the surface tension of aqueous humor in patients with and without glaucoma. The surface tension of aqueous humor was measured using a commercially available instrument and software that were validated by using a known fluid (deionized water and methanol). Analysis of aqueous and vitreous samples obtained from 20 rabbit eyes showed that the system could be used successfully for small amounts of ocular fluid. The effect of glaucoma drugs on the surface tension of aqueous humor was then studied in a rabbit model. Comparison of aqueous humor from 66 patients with glaucoma and 53 patients with cataracts but no glaucoma was carried out. The surface tension of rabbit aqueous humor was 65.9 ± 1.2; vitreous, 60.6 ± 2.6; and balanced salt solution, 70.7 ± 0.9. Timolol and latanoprost did not alter the surface tension of the aqueous humor in the rabbit model. The average surface tension of human aqueous humor was 63.33 ± 4.0 (glaucomatous eyes) and 66.19 ± 2.64 (nonglaucomatous eyes with cataracts) (P=0.0001). A technique of measuring the surface tension from small quantities of aqueous humor is validated. Surface tension of the aqueous humor in glaucoma patients was less than that of cataract patients.

  1. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  2. Ultrasound agitated phytofabrication of palladium nanoparticles using Andean blackberry leaf and its photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, ultrasonication and Andean blackberry leaf extract are employed for the fabrication of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs; and further evaluated its photocatalytic activity against methylene blue (MB. The as-synthesized PdNPs were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Dynamic light scattering (DLS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. TEM analysis demonstrated the formation of decahedron shape PdNPs with a diameter of 55–60 nm and XRD confirmed its crystalline nature. It showed photocatalytic decomposition of MB (>72%, k = 0.002164 min−1, 10 mg/L in an aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. From the results obtained it is suggested that ultrasound agitated aqueous leaf extract demonstrates a simple, rapid, inexpensive method and should be utilized in future as green technology for the fabrication of nanoparticles.

  3. Green synthesis and spectral characterization of silver nanoparticles from Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, Y; Kotakadi, Venkata S; Prasad, T N V K V; Reddy, A V; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-02-15

    A simple method for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf as a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using aqueous extract of tulasi leaf with AgNO(3) solution within 15 min. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized using physic-chemical techniques viz., UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Characterization data reveals that the particles were crystalline in nature and triangle shaped with an average size of 42 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs were found to be -55.0 mV. This large negative zeta potential value indicates repulsion among AgNPs and their dispersion stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Evangeline E; Pulwale, Anubha V; Patil, Gauri A; Moghe, Alpana S

    2016-01-01

    Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed relatively less potential to stimulate cells but had prominent cytotoxic

  5. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Evangeline E.; Pulwale, Anubha V.; Patil, Gauri A.; Moghe, Alpana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. Objective: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Materials and Methods: Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Results: Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract

  6. Leaf hydraulic conductance is coordinated with leaf morpho-anatomical traits and nitrogen status in the genus Oryza

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Dongliang; Yu, Tingting; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

    2014-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf) is a major determinant of photosynthetic rate in plants. Previous work has assessed the relationships between leaf morpho-anatomical traits and K leaf with woody species, but there has been very little focus on cereal crops. The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa) and wild species (such as O. rufipogon cv. Griff), is ideal material for identifying leaf features associated with K leaf and gas exchange. Leaf morpho-anatomical traits, K leaf, leaf ...

  7. In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Polwiang, Natsuda; Chachiyo, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. The choice for the treatment is highly limited due to drug resistance. Hence, finding the new compounds to treat malaria is urgently needed. The present study was attempted to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the Annona muricata aqueous leaf extract in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata was prepared and tested for acute toxicity in mice. For efficacy test in vivo, standard 4-day suppressive test was carried out. ICR mice were inoculated with 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection. The extracts (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) were then given orally by gavage once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia, percentage of inhibition, and packed cell volume were subsequently calculated. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg) was given to infected mice as positive control while untreated control was given only distilled water. It was found that A. muricata aqueous leaf extract at doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg resulted in dose dependent parasitemia inhibition of 38.03%, 75.25%, and 85.61%, respectively. Survival time was prolonged in infected mice treated with the extract. Moreover, no mortality to mice was observed with this extract up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg. In conclusion, the A. muricata aqueous leaf extract exerted significant antimalarial activity with no toxicity and prolonged survival time. Therefore, this extract might contain potential lead molecule for the development of a new drug for malaria treatment.

  8. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, B N; Girish, T K; Raghavendra, R H; Naidu, K Akhilender; Rao, U J S Prasada; Rao, K S

    2014-04-01

    Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz on Eleusine indica (L.) gaertn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimshah, Syamimi; Ismail B., S.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata on the growth of E. indica through aqueous extract and debris (incorporated into the soil) experiment. Three concentrations of leaf and seed aqueous extract (16.7, 33.3 and 66.7 g/L) and debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) of M. bracteata were used in the experiment. Complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications was applied in this experiment which was conducted twice. Results demonstrated that the leaf and seed extracts of M. bracteata exhibited higher suppression effect on the growth and germination of E. indica as the concentration increased. The leaf and seed extracts significantly reduced all measured parameters at all concentrations except for the shoot length and germination of E. indica by seed extract at 16.7 g/L which recorded insignificant reduction by 40.5% and 4% respectively. The leaf and seed debris significantly reduced the root length of E. indica at all treatments. Seed debris also showed significant reduction on the germination at all treatments and other seedling growth parameters (shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) at 2.5 and 10.0 g/500 g soil. Meanwhile, the leaf debris demonstrated stimulation effect on the seedling growth parameters. As a whole, the leaf showed higher suppression effect in aqueous extract experiment while the seed recorded higher suppression effect in the debris experiment. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the type of inhibition mechanism involved in both experiments.

  10. In vitro effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2010-10-11

    Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of Manihot esculenta (Cassava) leaf were tested in vitro on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects (P<0.0001) were observed for the methanolic extract of leaf against larval development (57.6% +/-7.6), with a dose dependent effect. These results suggest that Cassava possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be the terpenoids and condensed tannin compounds present in the leaf. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adsorption characteristics of methylene blue onto agricultural wastes lotus leaf in bath and column modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiuli; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiaojian

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption potential of lotus leaf to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were employed to discuss the adsorption behavior. The results of analysis indicated that the equilibrium data were perfectly represented by Temkin isotherm and the Langmuir saturation adsorption capacity of lotus leaf was found to be 239.6 mg g(-1) at 303 K. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effects of flow rate, influent concentration and bed height on the breakthrough characteristics of adsorption were discussed. The Thomas and the bed-depth/service time (BDST) models were applied to the column experimental data to determine the characteristic parameters of the column adsorption. The two models were found to be suitable to describe the dynamic behavior of MB adsorbed onto the lotus leaf powder column.

  12. EFFECT OF FENNEL WATER EXTRACTS ON REDUCTION OF FEEDING OF PEA LEAF WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the effect of aqueous extracts from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds at 2%, 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations on the feeding of peal leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L. on broad bean (Vicia faba L.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of broad bean in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the area of broad bean leaves, eaten by pea leaf weevil beetle in the 12 hour intervals. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. As a result of the observation no significant limiting effect of fennel seed aqueous extracts on the feeding of the pea leaf weevil females was shown. All of the used fennel extracts had inhibitory effect on the feeding of male S. linetaus and the strongest effect of extracts was observed in the first 36 hours of the experiment. The high values of the palatability index (particularly for the females with relatively low absolute deterrence index, indicate limited possibilities of the use of aqueous extracts from fennel seeds for the protection against the feeding of the beetles from the genus Sitona.

  13. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. The second year of the MACE project has shown significant progress in two major areas. MACE Instrument concept definition is a baseline design that has been generated for the complete MACE instrument, including definition of analysis modes, mass estimates and thermal model. The design includes multiple reagent reservoirs, 10 discrete analysis cells, sample manipulation capability, and thermal control. The MACE Measurement subsystems development progress is reported regarding measurement capabilities for aqueous ion sensing, evolved gas sensing, solution conductivity measurement, reagent addition (titration) capabilities, and optical sensing of suspended particles.

  14. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANGOSTEEN LEAF NITROGEN CONTENTS AND LEAF SPAD VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated nitrogen contents on mangosteen leaf and related on leaf SPAD value. The experiment was conducted using mangosteen trees grown in commercial orchard in Bogor, Indonesia during May to October 2010. Mangosteen trees of 3 different ages, young (20-year-old, middle-aged (35-year-old, and old (50-year-old trees, each of five trees, were selected for study, and the canopy of each tree was divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top and width (inner, center, outer. SPAD values had a negative correlation with leaf N content in all ages and could be explained by regressionl equations N level (% DW = -0.0099 × SPAD + 2.2366; R² = 0.91; N level (% DW = -0.0177 × SPAD + 2.8001; R² = 0.67; and N level (% DW = -0.0187 × SPAD + 2.7785; R² = 0.45 in young, middle-aged and old trees, respectively. It is suggested that the SPAD value determined by a portable chlorophyll meter can be used to obtain a quick estimation of mangosteen leaf N status. Keywords: age, fruiting position, Garcinia mangostana L., nitrogen, SPAD

  16. Aqueous electrolytes for redox flow battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-10-17

    An aqueous redox flow battery system includes an aqueous catholyte and an aqueous anolyte. The aqueous catholyte may comprise (i) an optionally substituted thiourea or a nitroxyl radical compound and (ii) a catholyte aqueous supporting solution. The aqueous anolyte may comprise (i) metal cations or a viologen compound and (ii) an anolyte aqueous supporting solution. The catholyte aqueous supporting solution and the anolyte aqueous supporting solution independently may comprise (i) a proton source, (ii) a halide source, or (iii) a proton source and a halide source.

  17. Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf appearance, leaf growth, leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic capacity in maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Birch, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Leaf area growth and nitrogen concentration per unit leaf area, Na (g m-2 N) are two options plants can use to adapt to nitrogen limitation. Previous work indicated that potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) adapts the size of leaves to maintain Na and photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area. This paper

  18. Neuropharmacological activities of the aqueous fraction of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) is a commonly used medicinal plant in the management of epilepsy and mental illnesses. Previously, the anticonvulsant and antipsychotic activities of the methanol root bark extract have been reported. In an attempt to isolate the bioactive principle(s) responsible for these activities, this ...

  19. Calculated Leaf Carbon and Nitrogen, 1992 (ACCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Study plot canopy chemistry values were calculated from leaf chemistry and litterfall weight values. Average leaf concentrations of nitrogen and carbon were used to...

  20. An Innovative Way to Monitor Leaf Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnello, A.; Paredes, K.; Trinh, U.; Saleska, S. R.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Anthony John Garnello, Karina Paredes, Uyen Khanh Ho Trinh, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Leaf age is an important characteristic for controlling plant functional performance and is associated with the changes of leaf physical, chemical, and physiological properties. Understanding how plant physiology changes over time will allow more accurate predictions of growth patterns, and a more comprehensive understanding of vegetative life histories. There still lacks an efficient technique in monitoring leaf age, tagging leaves is still the only way to accurately monitor leaf age. The goal of this study is to develop a multi-metric, accurate technique for better monitoring of leaf age. In order to acquire true leaf age records, 10 individual plant species were selected at the University of Arizona campus, and newly flushing leaves were tagged and monitored during the Monsoon season (from early June, 2013, to mid October, 2013). Every 2 weeks, 10 to 15 leaves in relative age order were harvested from each 1-meter branch to measure multiple key leaf metrics, including leaf thickness (via micrometer), fresh and dry weight, fresh and dry area (via ImageJ software), and leaf hyperspectral reflectance (via a handheld ASD Field Pro). Other leaf traits were also derived from our measurements, such as specific leaf area (SLA), leaf density (fresh weight/leaf volume), water percentage, and shrinkage ratio (1-dry area/fresh area). The hyperspectral version of vegetation index (a ratio derived from two spectral channels) was generated for each branch sample, by randomly selecting two channels from within the spectral domain of 350 nm to 2500 nm. The preliminary result documents three types of hyperspectral vegetation index (VI) which are highly related with leaf relative age order (R2>0.9). These include the sensitive spectral domains correlated with (a) leaf pigments (~550nm) and leaf physical

  1. The correlation between leaf-surface and leaf-tissue secondary metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Dandan; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Meijden, van der Eddy; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.; Vrieling, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Usually whole plant or whole leaf extracts are analyzed to study the chemical ecology of insect-plant interactions. For herbivore species the contact with the leaf surface enables them to estimate the quality of the plant. The relationship between the leaf-surface and leaf-tissue

  2. The aqueous chemistry of oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides is a comprehensive reference volume and special topics textbook that explores all of the major chemical reactions that take place between oxides and aqueous solutions. The book highlights the enormous impact that oxide-water reactions have in advanced technologies, materials science, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  3. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 49 FR...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965...

  6. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its...

  12. Comparative ovicidal activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on Fasciola gigantica eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. Hegazi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasciolosis is an important zoonotic disease affecting the productive performance of farm animals in Egypt. Aim: The aim of the present study was comparing the ovicidal effect of different extracts as an alcoholic (Methanolic and Ethanolic and aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on Fasciola gigantica non-embryonated and developed eggs. Materials and Methods: Tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 12.5 to 800 mg/ml. Nitroxynil was used as reference drug with a dose of 100 mg/ml. Results: M. oleifera alcoholic and aqueous extracts showed a concentration-dependent ovicidal effect on F. gigantica non-embryonated and developed eggs. Based on LC50 values, water extract showed the highest ovicidal activity since it registered the lowest values of 2.6 mg/ml on non-embryonated eggs. Non-embryonated eggs were more susceptible to aqueous extract than developed eggs. On the other hand, the developed eggs were more susceptible to ethanolic extract than non-embryonated eggs even the lowest LC50 (12.38 mg/ml. Conclusion: M. oleifera leaf extracts especially aqueous extract could be a promising step in the field of controlling fascioliasis. Further, in vivo studies are needed to enlighten the therapeutic potential of M. oleifera extracts in treating F. gigantica infection.

  13. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Análisis del papel de los caracteres foliares de Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae en la defensa contra herbívoros y patógenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Torres-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el papel de algunos caracteres foliares (área específica, grosor, densidad de tricomas, contenido hídrico y producción de látex de tres especies de Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae en la defensa contra insectos herbívoros y hongos patógenos. Se examinó el daño foliar en adultos de las especies arbóreas C. spinosus y C. megacanthus y de la especie herbácea C. urens, en poblaciones localizadas en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Chamela-Cuixmala (Jal. y en la región de Huatulco-Zimatán (Oax.. También se analizó el daño en las plántulas de C. spinosus. Además se evaluaron los siguientes caracteres foliares: área específica, grosor, densidad de tricomas en el haz y en el envés, contenidos hídrico y de látex. En las tres especies el daño foliar causado por herbívoros forrajeros fue mayor que el causado por patógenos. La especie en la que se registró menor daño foliar fue C. spinosus, aunque el nivel de daño en plántulas fue mayor que en los adultos. Las especies arbóreas presentaron mayores niveles de daño por forrajeros que la herbácea. Sólo en las plántulas de C. spinosus se encontró que a mayor grosor foliar hubo más daño por herbívoros. Los resultados sugieren que los caracteres foliares evaluados son poco importantes en la defensa de las especies estudiadas.

  15. Unraveling the karyotype structure of the spurges Euphorbia hirta Linnaeus, 1753 and E. hyssopifolia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) using genome size estimation and heterochromatin differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Karla C. B.; Pinangé, Diego S. B.; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Oliveira, Ana R.; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.; Alves, Marccus V.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18) and Euphorbia hyssopifolia (2n = 12), cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO3). Our results revealed small metacentric chromosomes, CMA+/DAPI0 heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and CMA+/DAPI− in the distal part of chromosome arms carriers of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). The DNA content measurements revealed small genomes for both species: Euphorbia hirta with 2C = 0.77 pg and Euphorbia hyssopifolia with 2C = 1.41 pg. After FISH procedures, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia hyssopifolia presented three and four pairs of terminal 45S rDNA sites, respectively, colocalizing with CMA+ heterochromatic blocks, besides only one interstitial pair of 5S rDNA signals. Additionally, the maximum number of active NORs agreed with the total number of observed 45S rDNA sites. This work represents the first analysis using FISH in the subfamily Euphorbioideae, revealing a significant number of chromosomal markers, which may be very helpful to understand evolutionary patterns among Euphorbia species. PMID:28123686

  16. Effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem and Melia azedarach L. (Santa Barbara or cinnamon on the intracellular development of Toxoplasma gondii Efeito de extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim e Melia azedarach L. (canela ou Santa Bárbara sobre o desenvolvimento intracelular de Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J.T Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melia azedarach (cinnamon and Azadirachta indica (neem have a variety of biologically active ingredients against virus, bacteria and protozoan parasites; however, little is known about their action on Toxoplasma gondii intracellular development. Toxoplasma gondii infects all eukaryotic cells, where it establishes and multiplies inside a modified vacuole called the parasitophorous vacuole until the cell ruptures, re-infecting other cells and establishing the infection. There are no efficient chemotherapies for the elimination of T. gondii, minimizing side effects. In this study, we performed in vitro assays with neem and cinnamon aqueous extracts against the intracellular development of T. gondii tachyzoites. After treatment with neem and cinnamon for 24 h, the percentage of infected cells and the number of intracellular parasites drastically decreased. This effect was concentration-dependent. During the incubation of the extracts, progressive morphological and ultrastructure alterations led to intense vesiculation and complete elimination of the parasite from the intracellular medium. However, during the treatment with extracts, no morphological effects were observed in the structure of the host cell. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of neem and cinnamon were capable of interfering with and eliminating the intracellular development of Toxoplasma gondii.Melia azedarach (canela e Azadirachta indica (nim apresenta grande variedade de ingredientes biologicamente ativos contra vírus, bactérias e protozoários, mas nenhum efeito sobre o desenvolvimento intracelular do Toxoplasma gondii é conhecido. Toxoplasma gondii infecta todos os tipos de células Eucarióticas, onde se estabelece no meio intracelular em vacúolo modificado conhecido como vacúolo parasitóforo. Neste vacúolo ocorre a replicação levando a ruptura da célula hospedeira e reinfecção de novas células, perpetuando a infecção. A quimioterapia utilizada não

  17. Callus induction in leaf segments of Croton urucurana Baill Indução de calos em segmentos foliares de sangra d'água (Croton urucurana Baill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednabel Caracas Lima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Croton urucurana Baill., a species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, can be useful in the recovery of degraded riparian areas. In the traditional medicine, it is widely used as cicatrizant and in the treatment of rheumatism. However, its seeds present dormancy and low viability, making the propagation of this species a challenge. With the objective of establishing an alternative route for the propagation, the effect of different concentrations of 2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with BAP (6-benzylaminopurine or TDZ (thidiazuron and of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid with BAP and their possible combinations were evaluated for callus induction in leaf segments. Callus fresh mass was evaluated forty-five days after inoculation. The isolated use of BAP and the combination of NAA with BAP did not promote calogenesis in leaf segments. Even though the combination of 2,4-D with BAP or TDZ had induced the formation of callus, it was the isolated use of 2,4-D that provided the highest callus fresh mass.A sangra d'água, espécie pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae, apresenta potencial na recuperação de matas ciliares degradadas e é extensamente utilizada na medicina tradicional, como cicatrizante e no tratamento de reumatismos. Entretanto, suas sementes apresentam dormência e baixa viabilidade, dificultando a propagação desta espécie. Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes concentrações de 2,4-D e BAP ou TDZ e de ANA e BAP, com suas possíveis combinações, na indução de calos em segmentos foliares de sangra d'água. Quarenta e cinco dias após a inoculação, foi avaliado o peso fresco dos calos. O uso de BAP isoladamente e a combinação entre ANA e BAP não promoveram calogênese em segmentos foliares de sangra d'água. Embora a combinação de 2,4-D e BAP ou TDZ tenha induzido a formação de calos, o uso isolado de 2,4-D proporcionou o maior peso fresco destes.

  18. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than Leaf...

  19. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy.

  20. New species of leaf-mining Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) from the Neotropical and Ando-Patagonian regions, with new data on host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Remeikis, Andrius; Diškus, Arūnas; Megoran, Nick

    2017-05-26

    The paper treats fifteen species of leaf-mining pygmy moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) discovered in the Neotropics (British Virgin Islands, Belize, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and Ando-Patagonian region (Argentina and Chile). Except for two species, all belong to Stigmella Schrank. Twelve species are new, and are named and described in the current paper: Stigmella apicibrunella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. decora Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. unicaudata Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. sanmartini Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. patula Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. torosa Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. monstrata Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. huahumi Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. venezuelica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. virginica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; Fomoria miranda Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; and Hesperolyra robinsoni Stonis, sp. n. Newly discovered variation of male genitalia of the Andean Stigmella rudis Puplesis & Robinson, 2000 is briefly discussed, and the formerly poorly understood Stigmella hylomaga (Meyrick, 1931) is redescribed and documented with photographs for the first time. We also present more photographs and add some addtional information on Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, a recently described gall-maker from Costa Rica.The paper also provides new host-plant data: some of the described (or redescribed) species are reported for the first time as leaf-miners on plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae (Acalypha padifolia Kunth), Salicaceae (Azara microphylla Hook. f.), Fabaceae (Inga spectabilis (Vahl) Willd. or I. edulis Mart.), Rhamnaceae (Colletia spinosissima J. F. Gmel.), Geraniaceae or Vivianiaceae (Rhynchotheca spinosa Ruiz & Pav.), and Asteraceae (Mutisia decurrens Cav.). All species treated in the paper are illustrated with photographs of the adults and genitalia, a distribution map, and also photographs of the leaf-mines and host plants when available.

  1. Convergence in leaf size versus twig leaf area scaling: do plants optimize leaf area partitioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S; Adler, Frederick R

    2017-02-01

    Corner's rule states that thicker twigs bear larger leaves. The exact nature of this relationship and why it should occur has been the subject of numerous studies. It is obvious that thicker twigs should support greater total leaf area ([Formula: see text]) for hydraulical and mechanical reasons. But it is not obvious why mean leaf size ([Formula: see text]) should scale positively with [Formula: see text] We asked what this scaling relationship is within species and how variable it is across species. We then developed a model to explain why these relationships exist. To minimize potential sources of variability, we compared twig properties from six co-occurring and functionally similar species: Acer grandidentatum, Amelanchier alnifolia, Betula occidentalis, Cornus sericea, Populus fremontii and Symphoricarpos oreophilus We modelled the economics of leaf display, weighing the benefit from light absorption against the cost of leaf tissue, to predict the optimal [Formula: see text] combinations under different canopy openings. We observed a common [Formula: see text] by [Formula: see text] exponent of 0.6, meaning that [Formula: see text]and leaf number on twigs increased in a specific coordination. Common scaling exponents were not supported for relationships between any other measured twig properties. The model consistently predicted positive [Formula: see text] by [Formula: see text] scaling when twigs optimally filled canopy openings. The observed 0·6 exponent was predicted when self-shading decreased with larger canopy opening. Our results suggest Corner's rule may be better understood when recast as positive [Formula: see text] by [Formula: see text] scaling. Our model provides a tentative explanation of observed [Formula: see text] by [Formula: see text] scaling and suggests different scaling may exist in different environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  2. Evaluation of Antimicrobial properties and nutritional potentials of Moringa oleifera Lam.leaf in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluduro, A. O.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract of Moringa oleifera on certain enteropathogenic and orthopaedics’wounds bacteria and fungi were investigated. Its phytochemical constituents and nutritional potentials were as well assessed. Methodology and results: The antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts were evaluated using paper disc diffusion method. All the leaf extracts showed little inhibitory effect on the enteropathogens, whereas aqueous and methanolic extracts showed appreciable inhibitory effects on the orthopaedic’s wounds bacteria at 30 mg/mL. Ethanolic extract did not show any zone of growth inhibition on the wound bacteria. All the fungal organisms except Aspergillus flavus wereresistant to both aqueous and methanolic extracts of the leaf, meanwhile Ethanolic extract showed appreciable inhibitory effect on Tricophyton mentagrophyte, Pullarium sp, Aspergilus flavus and Penicillium sp. Minimum inhibitory concentration was 20 mg/mL on all the enteropathogens and ranged from 3.75 to 30leaf andcontained appreciable quantity of calcium, magnesium, iron and 45.4 % carbohydrate, 16.2 % protein and 9.68 % fibre. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study showed that Moringa oleifera leaves possess inhibitory properties thus can serve as an alternative therapy for wounds and certain fungal infections and also a good source of nutrient supplements.

  3. Enhanced permeation, leaf retention, and plant protease inhibitor activity with bicontinuous microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhane, Vaijayanti A; Dhaware, Deepika G; Khandelwal, Neha; Giri, Ashok P; Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu

    2012-10-01

    Bicontinuous microemulsions (BCMEs) have excellent solubulizing properties along with low interfacial tension and aqueous content that can be controlled. In this work, water soluble plant protease inhibitor (PI), well characterized for its activity against insect pests, was incorporated into a BCME system and explored for permeation on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and protease inhibition activity. The bicontinuous nature of the microemulsion containing water:2-propanol:1-butanol (55:35:10 w/w) was characterized using conductivity and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. The PI was soluble in the water-rich bicontinuous domains, stable in the microemulsions, and protease inhibition activity was retained for a prolonged duration. The microemulsions ensured greater wettability and a wider spread of the PI on hydrophobic leaf surfaces as revealed by contact angle measurements. Significantly, trypsin inhibition activity assays of the PI recovered from the leaves after delivery from the microemulsion indicated a significant increase in the PI retention on the leaf. This BCME enabled greater leaf permeation and retention of the PI can be attributed to a temporary disruption of the waxy leaf surface followed by self-repair without causing any long term damage to the plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mars Aqueous Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron

  5. Modulation of rat and human cytochromes P450 involved in PhIP and 4-ABP activation by an aqueous extract of Phyllanthus orbicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Mirle; Cristófol, Carles; Sánchez-Lamar, Angel; Fuentes, Jorge Luís; Barbé, Jordi; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2004-02-01

    Phyllanthus orbicularis HBK (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant, endemic to Cuba, whose aqueous extract has proven antimutagenic effects against hydrogen peroxide and some promutagenic aromatic amines (AAs), in addition to its antiviral properties. In this paper, antimutagenesis of this extract against two carcinogenic AAs, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) has been studied. Liver microsomal fractions from both induced rats and humans were used to metabolise both procarcinogenic compounds in the Salmonella assay. The plant extract was effective in reducing the mutagenesis of these AAs, activated by both kinds of fractions. The optimal antimutagenic effect was obtained when both AAs were metabolised by human enzymes, with an almost total reduction of 4-ABP mutagenesis and a decrease of about 75% of PhIP mutagenicity. Mutagenicity of both AAs, activated by induced rat fraction, was only decreased by about 50%. Inhibition by plant extract of alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation activities, dependent on CYP1A, of both fractions was determined. In accordance with the results obtained, the inhibition or modulation of CYP1A subfamily activities, and possibly of CYP1A2, is thought to be the main mechanism of antimutagenesis of the aqueous extract of Phyllanthus orbicularis against 4-ABP and PhIP.

  6. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of an artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Meriele A; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Richter, Marc F; Picada, Jaqueline N; de Andrade, Heloisa H R; Lehmann, Mauricio; Dihl, Rafael R; Nunes, Emilene; Semedo, Juliane; Da Silva, Juliana

    2013-02-01

    The Cynara scolymus (artichoke) is widely consumed as tea or food and shows important therapeutic properties. However, few studies have assessed the possible toxic effects of artichoke extracts. This study evaluates genotoxic and mutagenic activities of artichoke leaf aqueous extract in mice using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Leaf extracts were given by gavage (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Extract composition was investigated using phytochemical screening and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, antioxidant capacity was analyzed through the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase assay. Phytochemical screening detected the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and saponins. HPLC analyses indicated the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isoquercetrin, and rutin. Extracts showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging effect of DPPH and an inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase. The genotoxic results showed that leaf extracts did not increase micronuclei in peripheral blood cells. Compared to the control group, a significant increase in comet assay values was observed only in bone marrow of group treated with 2000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. This is the first report of in vivo mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation with C. scolymus. The present study revealed leaf aqueous extract from artichoke shows lack of mutagenicity in vivo, and low genotoxicity and antioxidant activity; indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Bismuth catalysts in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shū; Ueno, Masaharu; Kitanosono, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Several bismuth-catalyzed synthetic reactions, which proceed well in aqueous media, are discussed. Due to increasing demand of water as a solvent in organic synthesis, catalysts that can be used in aqueous media are becoming more and more important. Although bismuth Lewis acids are not very stable in water, it has been revealed that they can be stabilized by basic ligands. Chiral amine and related basic ligands combined with bismuth Lewis acids are particularly useful in asymmetric catalysis in aqueous media. On the other hand, bismuth hydroxide is stable and works as an efficient catalyst for carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions in water.

  8. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate Treatment Increases Glucosinolate Biosynthesis and Quinone Reductase Activity in Kale Leaf Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties ‘Dwarf Blue Curled Vates’ and ‘Red Winter’ in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar ‘Red Winter’ in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, Pkale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone. PMID:25084454

  9. Aqueous chlorination of resorcinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasley, V.L.; Burns, M.D.; Kemalyan, N.A.; Mckee, T.C.; Schroeter, H.; Teegarden, B.R.; Whitney, S.E.; Wershaw, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the aqueous chlorination (NaOCl) of resorcinol is reported. The following intermediates were detected in moderate to high yield at different pH values and varying percentages of chlorination: 2-chloro-, 4-chloro-, 2,4-dichloro-, 4,6-dichloro- and 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. Only trace amounts of the intermediates were detected when the chlorination was conducted in the presence of phosphate buffer. This result has significant implications since resorcinol in phosphate buffer has been used as a model compound in several recent studies on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons during chlorination of drinking water. Relative rates of chlorination were determined for resorcinol and several of the chlorinated resorcinols. Resorcinol was found to chlorinate only three times faster than 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. The structure 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol was established as a monohydrate even after sublimation. A tetrachloro or pentachloro intermediate was not detected, suggesting that the ring-opening step of such an intermediate must be rapid. ?? 1989.

  10. Yeasts colonizing the leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláviková, Elena; Vadkertiová, Renata; Vránová, Dana

    2007-08-01

    The yeasts were isolated from the leaf surfaces of ten species of trees. The study site was a forest park (Zelezná Studnicka) of the Small Carpathians mountain range. One hundred and thirty seven yeast strains belonging to 13 genera were isolated from 320 samples of leaves and needles. Seventeen yeast species were isolated, but only seven occurred regularly: Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus laurentii, Pichia anomala, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Saccharomyces sp., Lachancea thermotolerans, and Rhodotorula glutinis. The remaining species were isolated from the leaves and needles of three or less tree species. A. pullulans, Cr. laurentii, and P. anomala were the most frequently found species and they occurred on leaves and needles of all ten tree species. Saccharomyces sp. occurred in leaf samples collected from eight kinds of trees. M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans were found in samples collected from six species of trees. Both these species occurred almost always on the leaves of deciduous trees. Rh. glutinis was the most frequently isolated carotenoids producing species. We have found out that the ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species were present in the leaf samples in approximately equal frequency, contrary to the soil samples taken from this forest park, where the ascomycetous species were found rarely.

  11. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tanoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ions (Mg2+ are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency.

  12. The Influence of Leaf Angle and Leaf Surface Characteristics on the Process of Rainfall Interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, C.; Ginebra, R.; Webb, R.

    2015-12-01

    Individual choice in plant selection for household landscaping influences differences in runoff from urban watersheds because the variation in plant canopy architecture results in rainfall interception differences. Understanding the variables that influence rainfall interception and understanding the mechanism of rainfall interception are important concepts for sustainable watershed management. The broad objective of this study was to explore the influence of leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle on the mechanism and process of rainfall interception and raindrop impaction on leaf surfaces of common tree species from the semi-arid regions of the western United States. Leaf hydrophobicity is determined by the cohesive forces of the water molecules among themselves and the adhesive forces that result from the molecular interactions between the water droplet and the leaf surface. Water droplet retention is a measure of how easily a water droplet drains off a leaf surface. The specific hypotheses examined were 1) larger raindrops falling on leaf surfaces will deflect the leaf to an angle greater than the water droplet retention angle; 2) an increased leaf angle, whether from natural position or deflection due to droplet impact and retention, reduces interception from raindrop impaction on hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaf surfaces; and 3) increased droplet size and frequency decrease rainfall interception more significantly in the hydrophilic case. These hypotheses were addressed in a laboratory experiment by 1) measuring leaf hydrophobicity and water droplet retention using a goniometer with a tilting base; 2) measuring leaf traits such as leaf area, leaf surface roughness, trichome density, and specific storage capacity; 3) examining raindrop splash on leaf surfaces with varying leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle with a raindrop generator and high-speed video camera; and 4) modeling the impact of raindrop splash on leaf

  13. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  14. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is an innovative method to produce useful building materials from Martian regolith. Acids and bases produced from the regolith...

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC(90) = 28.65, 36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC(90) = 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of N. nucifera, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.

  16. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main struc...

  17. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  18. Allelopathy in agroforestry systems: the effects of leaf extracts ofCupressus lusitanica and threeEucalyptus spp. on four Ethiopian crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisanework N.; Michelsen, Anders

    1993-01-01

    The potential allelopathic effect ofCupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis andE. saligna on seed germination, radicle and seedling growth was investigated with four crops:Cicer arietinum (chickpea),Zea mays (maize),Pisum sativum (pea) andEragrostis tef (teff). Aqueous leaf ex...

  19. Crude aqueous extracts of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. inhibit proliferation and migration of cancer cells through induction of p53-dependent cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pluchea indica (L.) Less. (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub plant with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant medicinal properties. However, the anti-cancer properties of its aqueous extracts have not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and pro-apoptotic properties of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root on human malignant glioma cancer cells and human cervical cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods GBM8401 human glioma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root and cancer cell proliferation and viability were measured by cell growth curves, trypan blue exclusions, and the tetrazolium reduction assay. Effects of the crude aqueous extracts on focus formation, migration, and apoptosis of cancer cells were studied as well. The molecular mechanism that contributed to the anti-cancer activities of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root was also examined using Western blotting analysis. Results Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root suppressed proliferation, viability, and migration of GBM8401 and HeLa cells. Treatment with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root for 48 hours resulted in a significant 75% and 70% inhibition on proliferation and viability of GBM8401 and HeLa cancer cells, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root inhibited focus formation and promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. It was found that phosphorylated-p53 and p21 were induced in GBM8401 and HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Expression of phosphorylated-AKT was decreased in HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Conclusion The in vitro anti-cancer effects of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root indicate that it has sufficient potential to warrant further examination and development as a new anti

  20. Wound healing activity of aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of Coleus aromaticus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anand K; Dixit, Ashish; Mehta, Swaroop C

    2012-01-01

    Present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of aqueous extract of leaves and roots of Coleus aromaticus using excisional wound model in albino rats. The aqueous extracts were prepared using maceration method and were applied as 5% and 10% ointment. The wound healing activity of these extracts was compared with a standard drug povidone-iodine ointment. The healing tissue was also tested for tensile strength, hydroxyproline content and protein content. The histopathological examination of healing tissue was also performed. Ten percent ointment of aqueous extract of root showed complete epithelization after 12 days (p <0.01) and 5% ointment of leaf extract showed complete healing after 16 days (p <0.01).

  1. Investigation of antioxidant properties of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Tevfik

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress). Extracts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, total reducing power by potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging activities, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities in vitro and lipid peroxidation in vivo. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standards such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The ethanolic extract was found as the most active in total antioxidant activity, reducing power, DPPH* radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities. Administration of the ethanol extract to rats decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and kidney. These results lead to the conclusion that N. officinale extracts show relevant antioxidant activity by means of reducing cellular lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radiacal and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of N. officinale were determined as pyrocatechol.

  2. Essential Oil Constituents and Biological Activities of Leaf Extracts of Semenovia suffruticosa from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mottaghipisheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semenovia suffruticosa (Freyn et Bornm. Manden. is one of the species of genus Semenovia (Apiaceae family. The essential oil of S. suffruticosa was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main components were cis-β-ocimene (12.9%, linalool (9.5%, γ-terpinene (9.0% and α-terpinolene (7.4%, representing the 38.8% of the oil. Antibacterial activity of S. suffruticosa ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts was evaluated for the first time. The various extracts were tested by the disc-diffusion assay for antimicrobial activity against common animal and human infectious bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the highest sensitivity against the extracts, with a 13-15 mm zone of inhibition. Antiradical activity of S. suffruticosa ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts was determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Ethanol extract was the most powerful free radical scavenger in all these methods. These results, though preliminary, suggest that leaf extracts of S. suffruticosa exert promising antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  3. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  4. Protective effect of a Phyllanthus orbicularis aqueous extract against UVB light in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernhes, Marioly; González-Pumariega, Maribel; Andrade, Luciana; Schuch, Andre Passaglia; de Lima-Bessa, Keronninn Moreno; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins; Sánchez-Lamar, Angel

    2013-01-01

    One approach to protect human skin against the dangerous effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the use of natural products, such as photoprotectors. Phyllanthus orbicularis Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) is a Cuban endemic plant used in popular medicine. Its antigenotoxicity effect against some harmful agents has been investigated. However, the effect in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human cells has not been previously assessed. The protective effect of a P. orbicularis extract against UVB light-induced damage in human cells was evaluated. DNA repair proficient (MRC5-SV) and deficient (XP4PA, complementation group XPC) cell-lines were used. Damaging effects of UVB light were evaluated by clonogenic assay and apoptosis induction by flow cytometry techniques. The extent of DNA repair itself was determined by the removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). The CPDs were detected and quantified by slot-blot assay. Treatment of UVB-irradiated MRC5-SV cells with P. orbicularis extract increased the percentage of colony-forming cells from 36.03 ± 3.59 and 4.42 ± 1.45 to 53.14 ± 8.8 and 14.52 ± 1.97, for 400 and 600 J/m(2), respectively. A decrease in apoptotic cell population was observed in cells maintained within the extract. The P. orbicularis extract enhanced the removal of CPD from genomic DNA. The CPDs remaining were found to be about 27.7 and 1.1%, while with plant extract, treatment these values decreased to 16.1 and 0.2%, for 3 and 24 h, respectively. P. orbicularis aqueous extract protects human cells against UVB damage. This protective effect is through the modulation of DNA repair effectiveness.

  5. 7 CFR 28.462 - Leaf Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 2. 28.462 Section 28.462 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.462 Leaf Grade 2. Leaf Grade 2 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  6. 7 CFR 28.464 - Leaf Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 4. 28.464 Section 28.464 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.464 Leaf Grade 4. Leaf Grade 4 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  7. 7 CFR 28.517 - Leaf Grade No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 7. 28.517 Section 28.517 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.517 Leaf Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in leaf is inferior to Leaf...

  8. 7 CFR 28.461 - Leaf Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 1. 28.461 Section 28.461 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.461 Leaf Grade 1. Leaf Grade 1 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  9. 7 CFR 28.465 - Leaf Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 5. 28.465 Section 28.465 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.465 Leaf Grade 5. Leaf Grade 5 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  10. 7 CFR 28.463 - Leaf Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 3. 28.463 Section 28.463 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.463 Leaf Grade 3. Leaf Grade 3 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  11. 7 CFR 28.466 - Leaf Grade 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 6. 28.466 Section 28.466 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.466 Leaf Grade 6. Leaf Grade 6 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  12. 7 CFR 28.467 - Leaf Grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 7. 28.467 Section 28.467 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.467 Leaf Grade 7. Leaf Grade 7 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  13. Effects of altitude on transpiration, leaf vapor pressure deficit and leaf water potential in oriental beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Bayraktar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of altitude on transpiration, leaf vapor pressure deficit and leaf water potential in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. The study area was located in Ortaköy, Artvin, and the experimental area had the same soil structure and aspect. The study showed that transpiration and leaf vapor pressure deficit increased but leaf water potential decreased by altitudinal gradient

  14. Effect of Addition of Moringa Leaf By-Product (Leaf-Waste) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incorporation of Moringa leaf fibre (a by-product of leaf processing which contains 24% Crude Fibre by dry weight at 0, 5 and 10 % substitution of wheat flour in cookies was investigated. Three products containing wheat flour: Moringa leaf fibre ratios of 100:0, 95:5, and 90:10 respectively were prepared, and a ...

  15. Drought effects on leaf abscission and leaf production in Populus clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen G. Pallardy; Julie L. Rhoads

    1997-01-01

    Leaf abscission and foliation responses to water stress were studied in potted plants of five Populus clones grown in a greenhouse. As predawn leaf water potential (Ψ1) fell to -3 MPa, drought-induced leaf abscission increased progressively to 30% for data pooled across clones. As predawn Ψ1...

  16. Three Key Sub-leaf Modules and the Diversity of Leaf Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Earth harbors a highly diverse array of plant leaf forms. A well-known pattern linking diverse leaf forms with their photosynthetic function across species is the global leaf economics spectrum (LES. However, within homogeneous plant functional groups such as tropical woody angiosperms or temperate deciduous woody angiosperms, many species can share a similar position in the LES but differ in other vital leaf traits, and thus function differently under the given suite of environmental drivers. How diverse leaves differentiate from each other has yet to be fully explained. Here, we propose a new perspective for linking leaf structure and function by arguing that a leaf may be divided into three key sub-modules, the light capture module, the water-nutrient flow module and the gas exchange module. Each module consists of a set of leaf tissues corresponding to a certain resource acquisition function, and the combination and configuration of different modules may differ depending on overall leaf functioning in a given environment. This modularized-leaf perspective differs from the whole-leaf perspective used in leaf economics theory and may serve as a valuable tool for tracing the evolution of leaf form and function. This perspective also implies that the evolutionary direction of various leaf designs is not to optimize a single critical trait, but to optimize the combination of different traits to better adapt to the historical and current environments. Future studies examining how different modules are synchronized for overall leaf functioning should offer critical insights into the diversity of leaf designs worldwide.

  17. ‘Breath figures’ on leaf surfaces – formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eBurkhardt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Microscopic leaf wetness’ means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 µm, microscopic leaf wetness it is about 2 orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the amount and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g. ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past.

  18. Comparison study on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using fresh and hot air oven dried IMPERATA CYLINDRICA leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi Bonnia, Noor; Fairuzi, Afiza Ahmad; Akhir, Rabiatuladawiyah Md.; Yahya, Sabrina M.; Rani, Mohd Azri Ab; Ratim, Suzana; Rahman, Norafifah A.; Akil, Hazizan Md

    2018-01-01

    The perennial rhizomatous grass; Imperata cylindrica (I. cylindrica) has been reported rich in various phytochemicals. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of I. cylindrica at two different leaf conditions; fresh leaves and hot-air oven dried leaves. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Maximum absorption was recorded between 400 nm to 500 nm. FESEM analysis revealed that the silver nanoparticles predominantly form spherical shapes. The particles sizes were ranging from 22-37 nm. The elemental composition of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the reducing and stabilizing actions came from biomolecules associated with I. cylindrica leaf extract. Thus in this investigation, an environmentally safe method to synthesized silver nanoparticles using local plant extract was successfully established.

  19. In-vitro Studies on Calotropis procera Leaf Extracts as Inhibitors of Key Enzymes Linked to Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Mayaki, Ayuva Mercy; Ogungbe, Bimpe Folashade; Ojekale, Anthony Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The side effects associated with the usage of synthetic antidiabetic drugs make it imperative to search for alternative drugs from medicinal plants. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Calotropis procera leaf, as well as its possible mode of inhibiting these enzymes. Acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. procera leaf was subjected to standard enzymes' inhibitory assay in-vitro using porcine pancreatic α-amylase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase. Results obtained showed that out of all the extracts tested, ethanolic and aqueous extracts possessed the best inhibition of α-amylase (IC50 7.80 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (3.25 mg/mL) respectively. The kinetic analysis of the mode of inhibition of these enzymes by the leaf extracts of C. procera, revealed that these extracts inhibited both enzymes in a non-competitive manner. It is speculated that the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of leaf extracts of C. procera may be due to the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins and saponins in the plant. It can be concluded from this study that the Calotropis procera extracts could serve as source of antidiabetic agents which may act through the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

  20. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.