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Sample records for eukaryotic green algae

  1. Viruses of eukaryotic green algae. Final technical report, June 1, 1989--February 1, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Etten, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    We have isolated and partially characterized many large, polyhedral, DNA containing, plaque forming viruses which infect certain unicellular, eukaryotic, chlorella-like green algae. These viruses have several unique features, including the fact that they code for DNA site-specific endonucleases and DNA methyltransferases. The primary objectives of this study were to identify, clone, and characterize some of the virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases and DNA restriction endonucleases in order to understand their biological function.

  2. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, t...

  3. Glycosyltransferase family 43 is also found in early eukaryotes and has three subfamilies in Charophycean green algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Taujale

    Full Text Available The glycosyltransferase family 43 (GT43 has been suggested to be involved in the synthesis of xylans in plant cell walls and proteoglycans in animals. Very recently GT43 family was also found in Charophycean green algae (CGA, the closest relatives of extant land plants. Here we present evidence that non-plant and non-animal early eukaryotes such as fungi, Haptophyceae, Choanoflagellida, Ichthyosporea and Haptophyceae also have GT43-like genes, which are phylogenetically close to animal GT43 genes. By mining RNA sequencing data (RNA-Seq of selected plants, we showed that CGA have evolved three major groups of GT43 genes, one orthologous to IRX14 (IRREGULAR XYLEM14, one orthologous to IRX9/IRX9L and the third one ancestral to all land plant GT43 genes. We confirmed that land plant GT43 has two major clades A and B, while in angiosperms, clade A further evolved into three subclades and the expression and motif pattern of A3 (containing IRX9 are fairly different from the other two clades likely due to rapid evolution. Our in-depth sequence analysis contributed to our overall understanding of the early evolution of GT43 family and could serve as an example for the study of other plant cell wall-related enzyme families.

  4. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been used for food for several centuries in Mexico and some African countries. They have been sold ... appear to reduce symptoms such as hot flashes. Obesity. Research on the effects of blue-green algae ...

  5. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  6. A Eukaryotic green alga, Picocystis, dominates Mono Lake, California in an algal bloom - Hints at cryptic oxygen cycle in euxinic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tookmanian, E. M.; Bauer, K. W.; Thompson, K.; Waldeck, A.; Berelson, W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Stamps, B. W.; Johnson, H.; Sessions, A. L.; Miller, L. G.; Oremland, R. S.; Rosen, M. R.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mono Lake is a closed-basin stratified soda lake (pH = 9.8; salinity = 60 g/L) that supports high rates of primary productivity (annual average of 100 mmol C m-2 d-1), and is dominated by a eukaryotic alga, Picocystis strain ML. To further investigate the unique biology of the lake, we sampled the water column during an algal bloom when productivity was on the order of 1500 mmol C m-2 d-1 at 2 m depth. Picocystis was abundant at all depths in SSU rRNA gene sequencing libraries. Interestingly, the relative abundance of Picocystis was greatest at 20 m depth. This part of the water column was well below the oxycline (12 m) and detectable photosynthetically active radiation (5 m). Sulfide concentrations from previous work increased just below 20 m to millimolar concentrations; however, analysis of metatranscriptomic data indicated that genes involved in both photosystem I and II were expressed at 25 m. This suggests that photosynthesis was active despite euxinic waters and light conditions below our detectable limit. Metagenomes and metatranscriptomes at 20 and 25 m depth also revealed an abundance of sulfide oxidizing genes (soxA and soxB). These metabolisms are often mixotrophic, using oxygen as their electron acceptor, presenting further support for photosynthetic oxygen production at depth. We suggest that Picocystis may be producing oxygen through photosynthesis in the euxinic bottom waters of Mono Lake. The oxygen produced would be extremely transient, consumed in either abiotic or microbially-mediated oxidation of sulfide, or both. This potential cryptic oxygen cycle in the euxinic bottom waters of Mono Lake could explain the fate of large sulfide fluxes from sediments, as well as offer an opportunity to explore the biogeochemistry of this site to inform how we approach the rise of oxygen and early evolution of life.

  7. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongli; Yu, Xiaona; Wang, Yan; Cui, Yulin; Li, Xueqin; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2013-07-08

    . Protein domain structures and expression analyses in green alga H. pluvialis indicate that various chy genes are in different manners response to light. The knowledge of evolution of chy genes in photosynthetic eukaryotes provided information of gene cloning and functional investigation of chy genes in algae in the future.

  8. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    green algae and higher plants. Protein domain structures and expression analyses in green alga H. pluvialis indicate that various chy genes are in different manners response to light. The knowledge of evolution of chy genes in photosynthetic eukaryotes provided information of gene cloning and functional investigation of chy genes in algae in the future. PMID:23834441

  9. The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Domozych, David S.; Ciancia, Marina; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G. T.

    2012-01-01

    The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. For example, the late divergent taxa of the Charophycean Green Algae possess cell walls containing assemblag...

  10. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  11. Identity and physiology of a new psychrophilic eukaryotic green alga, Chlorella sp., strain BI, isolated from a transitory pond near Bratina Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Kiss, R. M.; Ivanov, A.G.; Modla, S.; Czymmek, K.; Huner, N.P.A.; Priscu, J.C.; Lisle, J.T.; Hanson, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Permanently low temperature environments are one of the most abundant microbial habitats on earth. As in most ecosystems, photosynthetic organisms drive primary production in low temperature food webs. Many of these phototrophic microorganisms are psychrophilic; however, functioning of the photosynthetic processes of these enigmatic psychrophiles (the 'photopsychrophiles') in cold environments is not well understood. Here we describe a new chlorophyte isolated from a low temperature pond, on the Ross Ice Shelf near Bratina Island, Antarctica. Phylogenetic and morphological analyses place this strain in the Chlorella clade, and we have named this new chlorophyte Chlorella BI. Chlorella BI is a psychrophilic species, exhibiting optimum temperature for growth at around 10??C. However, psychrophily in the Antarctic Chlorella was not linked to high levels of membrane-associated poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Unlike the model Antarctic lake alga, Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO241, Chlorella BI has retained the ability for dynamic short term adjustment of light energy distribution between photosystem II (PS II) and photosystem I (PS I). In addition, Chlorella BI can grow under a variety of trophic modes, including heterotrophic growth in the dark. Thus, this newly isolated photopsychrophile has retained a higher versatility in response to environmental change than other well studied cold-adapted chlorophytes. ?? 2008 Springer.

  12. Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Susan H; Blouin, Nicolas A; Ficko-Blean, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Glen L; Lohr, Martin; Goodson, Holly V; Jenkins, Jerry W; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Helliwell, Katherine E; Chan, Cheong Xin; Marriage, Tara N; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Klein, Anita S; Badis, Yacine; Brodie, Juliet; Cao, Yuanyu; Collén, Jonas; Dittami, Simon M; Gachon, Claire M M; Green, Beverley R; Karpowicz, Steven J; Kim, Jay W; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Lin, Senjie; Michel, Gurvan; Mittag, Maria; Olson, Bradley J S C; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Qiu, Huan; Shu, Shengqiang; Singer, John T; Smith, Alison G; Sprecher, Brittany N; Wagner, Volker; Wang, Wenfei; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Juying; Yarish, Charles; Zäuner-Riek, Simone; Zhuang, Yunyun; Zou, Yong; Lindquist, Erika A; Grimwood, Jane; Barry, Kerrie W; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy; Stiller, John W; Grossman, Arthur R; Prochnik, Simon E

    2017-08-01

    Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in Porphyra are restricted to a small set of kinesins that appear to be the only universal cytoskeletal motors within the red algae. Dynein motors are absent, and most red algae, including Porphyra, lack myosin. This surprisingly minimal cytoskeleton offers a potential explanation for why red algal cells and multicellular structures are more limited in size than in most multicellular lineages. Additional discoveries further relating to the stress tolerance of bangiophytes include ancestral enzymes for sulfation of the hydrophilic galactan-rich cell wall, evidence for mannan synthesis that originated before the divergence of green and red algae, and a high capacity for nutrient uptake. Our analyses provide a comprehensive understanding of the red algae, which are both commercially important and have played a major role in the evolution of other algal groups through secondary endosymbioses.

  13. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  14. Unicellular cyanobacterium symbiotic with a single-celled eukaryotic alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne W; Foster, Rachel A; Krupke, Andreas; Carter, Brandon J; Musat, Niculina; Vaulot, Daniel; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2012-09-21

    Symbioses between nitrogen (N)(2)-fixing prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes are important for nitrogen acquisition in N-limited environments. Recently, a widely distributed planktonic uncultured nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium (UCYN-A) was found to have unprecedented genome reduction, including the lack of oxygen-evolving photosystem II and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which suggested partnership in a symbiosis. We showed that UCYN-A has a symbiotic association with a unicellular prymnesiophyte, closely related to calcifying taxa present in the fossil record. The partnership is mutualistic, because the prymnesiophyte receives fixed N in exchange for transferring fixed carbon to UCYN-A. This unusual partnership between a cyanobacterium and a unicellular alga is a model for symbiosis and is analogous to plastid and organismal evolution, and if calcifying, may have important implications for past and present oceanic N(2) fixation.

  15. The ecology of viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M

    2012-09-01

    Because viruses of eukaryotic algae are incredibly diverse, sweeping generalizations about their ecology are rare. These obligate parasites infect a range of algae and their diversity can be illustrated by considering that isolates range from small particles with ssRNA genomes to much larger particles with 560 kb dsDNA genomes. Molecular research has also provided clues about the extent of their diversity especially considering that genetic signatures of algal viruses in the environment rarely match cultivated viruses. One general concept in algal virus ecology that has emerged is that algal viruses are very host specific and most infect only certain strains of their hosts; with the exception of viruses of brown algae, evidence for interspecies infectivity is lacking. Although some host-virus systems behave with boom-bust oscillations, complex patterns of intraspecies infectivity can lead to host-virus coexistence obfuscating the role of viruses in host population dynamics. Within the framework of population dynamics, host density dependence is an important phenomenon that influences virus abundances in nature. Variable burst sizes of different viruses also influence their abundances and permit speculations about different life strategies, but as exceptions are common in algal virus ecology, life strategy generalizations may not be broadly applicable. Gaps in knowledge of virus seasonality and persistence are beginning to close and investigations of environmental reservoirs and virus resilience may answer questions about virus inter-annual recurrences. Studies of algal mortality have shown that viruses are often important agents of mortality reinforcing notions about their ecological relevance, while observations of the surprising ways viruses interact with their hosts highlight the immaturity of our understanding. Considering that just two decades ago algal viruses were hardly acknowledged, recent progress affords the optimistic perspective that future studies

  16. Green algae as a platform to express therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Oyler, George A

    2009-06-01

    Proteins produced by DNA recombinant technology have been playing important roles in modern medicine ever since the first such protein drug was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration about three decades ago. However the inherent high cost of producing recombinant proteins, particularly those produced from mammalian cells, has hampered their broad application. Other protein expression systems that can reduce the cost yet still maintain the high-level therapeutic activities of the recombinant proteins are a top R&D priority. Eukaryotic unicellular green algae cells may provide a good solution to this long-standing challenge.

  17. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... This book, extensively illustrated and thoroughly referenced, will provide the source material for students, and experienced as well as new research workers should find it of great value. A series of short appendices summarize details of culture collections, media and some specialized aspects of growing blue-green algae.

  18. Effect of ferrate on green algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiňáková, Emília; Híveš, Ján; Gál, Miroslav; Fašková, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Green algae Cladophora aegagropila, present in cooling water of thermal power plants, causes many problems and complications, especially during summer. However, algae and its metabolites are rarely eliminated by common removal methods. In this work, the elimination efficiency of electrochemically prepared potassium ferrate(VI) on algae from cooling water was investigated. The influence of experimental parameters, such as Fe(VI) dosage, application time, pH of the system, temperature and hydrodynamics of the solution on removal efficiency, was optimized. This study demonstrates that algae C. aegagropila can be effectively removed from cooling water by ferrate. Application of ferrate(VI) at the optimized dosage and under the suitable conditions (temperature, pH) leads to 100% removal of green algae Cladophora from the system. Environmentally friendly reduction products (Fe(III)) and coagulation properties favour the application of ferrate for the treatment of water contaminated with studied microorganisms compared to other methods such as chlorination and use of permanganate, where harmful products are produced.

  19. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors......Control of proteolysis is important for plant growth, development, responses to stress, and defence against insects and pathogens. Members of the serpin protein family are likely to play a critical role in this control through irreversible inhibition of endogenous and exogenous target proteinases...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  20. The cell walls of green algae: a journey through evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eDomozych

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. For example, the late divergent taxa of the Charophycean Green Algae possess cell walls containing assemblages of polymers with notable similarity to the cellulose, pectins, hemicelluloses, arabinogalactan proteins, extensin and lignin present in embryophyte walls. Ulvophycean seaweeds have cell wall components whose most abundant fibrillar constituents may change from cellulose to β-mannans to β-xylans and during different life cycle phases. Likewise, these algae produce complex sulfated polysaccharides, arabinogalactan proteins and extensin. Chlorophycean green algae produce a wide array of walls ranging from cellulose-pectin complexes to ones made of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Larger and more detailed surveys of the green algal taxa including incorporation of emerging genomic and transcriptomic data are required in order to more fully resolve evolutionary trends within the green algae and in relationship with higher plants as well as potential applications of wall components in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domozych, David S; Ciancia, Marina; Fangel, Jonatan U; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. For example, the late divergent taxa of the Charophycean green algae possess cell walls containing assemblages of polymers with notable similarity to the cellulose, pectins, hemicelluloses, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensin, and lignin present in embryophyte walls. Ulvophycean seaweeds have cell wall components whose most abundant fibrillar constituents may change from cellulose to β-mannans to β-xylans and during different life cycle phases. Likewise, these algae produce complex sulfated polysaccharides, AGPs, and extensin. Chlorophycean green algae produce a wide array of walls ranging from cellulose-pectin complexes to ones made of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Larger and more detailed surveys of the green algal taxa including incorporation of emerging genomic and transcriptomic data are required in order to more fully resolve evolutionary trends within the green algae and in relationship with higher plants as well as potential applications of wall components in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Are the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae) two billion years old?

    OpenAIRE

    Teyssèdre, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In his book, Life on a young planet, A.H. Knoll states that the first documented fossils of green algae date back 750 Ma. However, according to B. Teyssèdre's book, La vie invisible, they are much older. Using a method which combines paleontology and molecular phylogeny, this paper is an inquiry into the Precambrian fossils of some "acritarchs" and of a primitive clade of green algae, the Pyramimonadales. A paraphyletic group of unicellular green algae, named "Prasinop...

  3. Solar-driven hydrogen production in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Steven J; Tamburic, Bojan; Zemichael, Fessehaye; Hellgardt, Klaus; Nixon, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The twin problems of energy security and global warming make hydrogen an attractive alternative to traditional fossil fuels with its combustion resulting only in the release of water vapor. Biological hydrogen production represents a renewable source of the gas and can be performed by a diverse range of microorganisms from strict anaerobic bacteria to eukaryotic green algae. Compared to conventional methods for generating H(2), biological systems can operate at ambient temperatures and pressures without the need for rare metals and could potentially be coupled to a variety of biotechnological processes ranging from desalination and waste water treatment to pharmaceutical production. Photobiological hydrogen production by microalgae is particularly attractive as the main inputs for the process (water and solar energy) are plentiful. This chapter focuses on recent developments in solar-driven H(2) production in green algae with emphasis on the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We review the current methods used to achieve sustained H(2) evolution and discuss possible approaches to improve H(2) yields, including the optimization of culturing conditions, reducing light-harvesting antennae and targeting auxiliary electron transport and fermentative pathways that compete with the hydrogenase for reductant. Finally, industrial scale-up is discussed in the context of photobioreactor design and the future prospects of the field are considered within the broader context of a biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced genetic tools for engineering multigene traits into green algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Rasala

    Full Text Available Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization.

  5. Enhanced genetic tools for engineering multigene traits into green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasala, Beth A; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization.

  6. Evolution of the Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis Pathways in Green Algae: Combinatorial Diversity of Methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Takashi; Toyoshima, Masakazu; Moriyama, Takashi; Sato, Naoki

    2018-01-12

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most common phospholipids in eukaryotes, although some green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are known to lack PC. Recently, we detected PC in four species in the genus Chlamydomonas: C. applanata NIES-2202, C. asymmetrica NIES-2207, C. debaryana NIES-2212, and C. sphaeroides NIES-2242. To reveal the PC biosynthesis pathways in green algae and the evolutionary scenario involved in their diversity, we analyzed the PC biosynthesis genes in these four algae using draft genome sequences. Homology searches suggested that PC in these species is synthesized by phosphoethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEAMT) and/or phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT), both of which are absent in C. reinhardtii. Recombinant PEAMTs from these algae showed methyltransferase activity for phosphoethanolamine but not for monomethyl phosphoethanolamine in vitro, in contrast to land plant PEAMT, which catalyzes the three methylations from phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine. This suggested an involvement of other methyltransferases in PC biosynthesis. Here, we characterized the putative phospholipid-N-methyltransferase (PLMT) genes of these species by genetic and phylogenetic analysis. Complementation assays using a PC biosynthesis-deficient yeast suggested that the PLMTs of these algae can synthesize PC from phosphatidylethanolamine. These results indicated that the PC biosynthesis pathways in green algae differ from those of land plants, although the enzymes involved are homologous. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the PEAMTs and PLMTs in these algae were inherited from the common ancestor of green algae. The absence of PC biosynthesis in many Chlamydomonas species is likely a result of parallel losses of PEAMT and PLMT in this genus.

  7. The biotechnological ways of blue-green algae complex processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nykyforov, Volodymyr; Malovanyy, Myroslav; Kozlovskaya, Tatyana; Novokhatko, Olha; Digtiar, Sergii

    2016-01-01

    The results of long­term research of various ways and methods of collection and processing of blue­green algae that cause “bloom” of the Dnieper reservoirs were presented. The possibility and feasibility of the blue­green algae biomass processing to biogas by methanogenesis were substantiated. It was found experimentally that preliminary mechanical cavitation of the blue­green algae biomass increases the biogas yield by 21.5 %. It was determined that the biogas produced contains up to 72 % of...

  8. Detection of green algae (Chlorophyceae) for the diagnosis of drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, S; Yoshida, M; Okii, Y; Tokiyasu, T; Watabiki, T; Akane, A

    1995-01-01

    The plankton test (generally, diatom test) is one of the methods available to diagnose the cause of death of submerged bodies. The solubilization method using tissue solubilizer Soluene-350 was used in this study to detect not only diatoms but also green algae, based on the fact that the solubilizer does not digest the cell walls of green algae which are made from cellulose. Detection of green algae from organs of submerged cadavers is very informative to determine drowning in fresh water, and also in cases where only few diatoms are detected in the organs.

  9. Aspects of nitrogen assimilation by cultures of green algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, L.H.J.

    1956-01-01

    The N/C relation in green algae was about 0.2, but with N starvation this ratio may decline to 0.04. Such treatment also decreased the chlorophyll content of the cells as well as the rates of photosynthesis and growth.

    Supply of substrate N to N-starved algae resulted in formation of cells of

  10. Monetary value of the impacts of filamentous green algae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents estimates of the monetary value of the impact of eutrophication (algae) on commercial agriculture in two different catchments in South Africa. A production function approach is applied to estimate the monetary value of the impact of filamentous green algae on commercial agriculture in the Dwars River, ...

  11. Monetary value of the impacts of filamentous green algae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control mechanisms to ..... as farmers neither quantify nor keep a record of the volumes of filamentous green algae removed, the ..... A survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an applica- tion. Sci. Total Environ. 365 105–122.

  12. Identification of cytokinin in a green algae extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Lin, Duan; Feng, Pan; Li, Shuai; Jun-Shun, Zhang; Xin-Tong, Liu; Xiu-Geng, Fei

    1996-06-01

    Isopentenyladenosine (i6Ado) was identified, and trans-zeatin (trans-Z) and trans-zeatin riboside (trans-ZR) were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) but not verified with chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of cytokinin from the extracts of green algae ( Ulva pertusa (Kjellm), Enteromopha compressa and Monostroma sp.). This indicated that the green algae mixture contained cytokinin—like substances.

  13. Refactoring the six-gene photosystem II core in the chloroplast of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Javier A.; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Scranton, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    production, particularly under specific environmental conditions. PSII is a complex multisubunit enzyme with strong interdependence among its components. In this work, we have deleted the six core genes of PSII in the eukaryotic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and refactored them in a single DNA construct....... Complementation of the knockout strain with the core PSII synthetic module from three different green algae resulted in reconstitution of photosynthetic activity to 85, 55, and 53% of that of the wild-type, demonstrating that the PSII core can be exchanged between algae species and retain function. The strains...

  14. DNA barcoding of a new record of epi-endophytic green algae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epi-endophytic green algae comprise one of the most diverse and phylogenetically primitive groups of green algae and are considered to be ubiquitous in the world's oceans; however, no reports of these algae exist from India. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of Ulvella growing on intertidal green algae ...

  15. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  16. Competition between cyanobacteria and green algae at low versus elevated CO2: who will win, and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xing; Verspagen, Jolanda M H; Stomp, Maayke; Huisman, Jef

    2017-06-01

    Traditionally, it has often been hypothesized that cyanobacteria are superior competitors at low CO2 and high pH in comparison with eukaryotic algae, owing to their effective CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM). However, recent work indicates that green algae can also have a sophisticated CCM tuned to low CO2 levels. Conversely, cyanobacteria with the high-flux bicarbonate uptake system BicA appear well adapted to high inorganic carbon concentrations. To investigate these ideas we studied competition between three species of green algae and a bicA strain of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at low (100 ppm) and high (2000 ppm) CO2. Two of the green algae were competitively superior to the cyanobacterium at low CO2, whereas the cyanobacterium increased its competitive ability with respect to the green algae at high CO2. The experiments were supported by a resource competition model linking the population dynamics of the phytoplankton species with dynamic changes in carbon speciation, pH and light. Our results show (i) that competition between phytoplankton species at different CO2 levels can be predicted from species traits in monoculture, (ii) that green algae can be strong competitors under CO2-depleted conditions, and (iii) that bloom-forming cyanobacteria with high-flux bicarbonate uptake systems will benefit from elevated CO2 concentrations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  19. Gain and loss of polyadenylation signals during evolution of green algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckner Gernot

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants consist of two monophyletic lineages: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. Most green algae belong to the Chlorophyta, while the Streptophyta include all land plants and a small group of freshwater algae known as Charophyceae. Eukaryotes attach a poly-A tail to the 3' ends of most nuclear-encoded mRNAs. In embryophytes, animals and fungi, the signal for polyadenylation contains an A-rich sequence (often AAUAAA or related sequence 13 to 30 nucleotides upstream from the cleavage site, which is commonly referred to as the near upstream element (NUE. However, it has been reported that the pentanucleotide UGUAA is used as polyadenylation signal for some genes in volvocalean algae. Results We set out to investigate polyadenylation signal differences between streptophytes and chlorophytes that may have emerged shortly after the evolutionary split between Streptophyta and Chlorophyta. We therefore analyzed expressed genes (ESTs from three streptophyte algae, Mesostigma viride, Klebsormidium subtile and Coleochaete scutata, and from two early-branching chlorophytes, Pyramimonas parkeae and Scherffelia dubia. In addition, to extend the database, our analyses included ESTs from six other chlorophytes (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Helicosporidium sp. ex Simulium jonesii, Prototheca wickerhamii, Scenedesmus obliquus and Ulva linza and one streptophyte (Closterium peracerosum. Our results indicate that polyadenylation signals in green algae vary widely. The UGUAA motif is confined to late-branching Chlorophyta. Most streptophyte algae do not have an A-rich sequence motif like that in embryophytes, animals and fungi. We observed polyadenylation signals similar to those of Arabidopsis and other land plants only in Mesostigma. Conclusion Polyadenylation signals in green algae show considerable variation. A new NUE (UGUAA was invented in derived chlorophytes and replaced

  20. An extended phylogenetic analysis reveals ancient origin of "non-green" phosphoribulokinase genes from two lineages of "green" secondary photosynthetic eukaryotes: Euglenophyta and Chlorarachniophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekimoto Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euglenophyta and Chlorarachniophyta are groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes harboring secondary plastids of distinct green algal origins. Although previous phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding Calvin cycle enzymes demonstrated the presence of genes apparently not derived from green algal endosymbionts in the nuclear genomes of Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta and Bigelowiella natans (Chlorarachniophyta, the origins of these "non-green" genes in "green" secondary phototrophs were unclear due to the limited taxon sampling. Results Here, we sequenced five new phosphoribulokinase (PRK genes (from one euglenophyte, two chlorarachniophytes, and two glaucophytes and performed an extended phylogenetic analysis of the genes based on a phylum-wide taxon sampling from various photosynthetic eukaryotes. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the PRK sequences form two genera of Euglenophyta formed a robust monophyletic group within a large clade including stramenopiles, haptophytes and a cryptophyte, and three genera of Chlorarachniophyta were placed within the red algal clade. These "non-green" affiliations were supported by the taxon-specific insertion/deletion sequences in the PRK alignment, especially between euglenophytes and stramenopiles. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of another Calvin cycle enzyme, plastid-targeted sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase (SBP, showed that the SBP sequences from two genera of Chlorarachniophyta were positioned within a red algal clade. Conclusions Our results suggest that PRK genes may have been transferred from a "stramenopile" ancestor to Euglenophyta and from a "red algal" ancestor to Chlorarachniophyta before radiation of extant taxa of these two "green" secondary phototrophs. The presence of two of key Calvin cycle enzymes, PRK and SBP, of red algal origins in Chlorarachniophyta indicate that the contribution of "non-green" algae to the plastid proteome in the "green" secondary phototrophs is

  1. Chemical composition of the green alga Codium Divaricatum Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhizhou; Zhang, Anjiang; Ding, Lisheng; Lei, Xinxiang; Sun, Jianzhang; Zhang, Lixue

    2010-12-01

    A new sterol, 24-R-stigmasta-4,25-diene-3β,6β-diol (1), along with three known compounds (2-3), was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum Holmes, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is efficacious against cancer. All structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and comparison with related known compounds. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography allowed us to confirm the structure of 1. To our knowledge, the compound 1 is reported as the first from natural source, and compounds 2, 4 have not been isolated from green algae before. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Arabinogalactan proteins have deep roots in eukaryotes: identification of genes and epitopes in brown algae and their role in Fucus serratus embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Cécile; Siméon, Amandine; Jam, Murielle; Cassin, Andrew; Johnson, Kim L; Salmeán, Armando A; Willats, William G T; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony; Kloareg, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated, hydroxyproline-rich proteins found at the cell surface of plants, where they play key roles in developmental processes. Brown algae are marine, multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. They belong to the phylum Stramenopiles, which is unrelated to land plants and green algae (Chloroplastida). Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-rich cell wall. They differ markedly from plants in their cell wall composition, and AGPs have not been reported in brown algae. Here we investigated the presence of chimeric AGP-like core proteins in this lineage. We report that the genome sequence of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus encodes AGP protein backbone motifs, in a gene context that differs considerably from what is known in land plants. We showed the occurrence of AGP glycan epitopes in a range of brown algal cell wall extracts. We demonstrated that these chimeric AGP-like core proteins are developmentally regulated in embryos of the order Fucales and showed that AGP loss of function seriously impairs the course of early embryogenesis. Our findings shine a new light on the role of AGPs in cell wall sensing and raise questions about the origin and evolution of AGPs in eukaryotes. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Analytical approaches to photobiological hydrogen production in unicellular green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Melis, Anastasios; Happe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several species of unicellular green algae, such as the model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, can operate under either aerobic photosynthesis or anaerobic metabolism conditions. A particularly interesting metabolic condition is that of “anaerobic oxygenic photosynthesis”, whereby photosynthetically generated oxygen is consumed by the cell’s own respiration, causing anaerobiosis in the culture in the light, and induction of the cellular “hydrogen metabolism” process. The latter enta...

  4. Differential sensitivity of green algae to allelopathic substances from Chara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; Van Donk, E.; Roelofs, J.

    2003-01-01

    Three short-term laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate allelopathic effects of a mixture of Chara globularis var. globularis Thuillier and Chara contraria var. contraria A. Braun ex Kützing on three different green algae. Single phytoplankton species were exposed to filtered water

  5. Efficiency of using green algae as biological controllers against toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment I (untreated) served as a control, Treatment II was seeded with Microcystis aeruginosa, Treatment III was seeded with green algae Chlorella ellipsoidea and Scenedesmus bijuga, and Treatment IV was seeded with a mixture of M. aeruginosa and C. ellipsoidea and S. bijuga. After 10 days, Treatment IV showed ...

  6. Cadmium uptake by the green alga Chlorella emersonii | Arikpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out on the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by the green alga Chlorella emersonii with the aid of an ion selective electrode. Cadmium uptake by Chlorella was very rapid with 70% of total uptake occurring during the first 10 seconds. Uptake of cadmium by Chlorella showed a direct ...

  7. Characterization of blue green algae isolated from Egyptian rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of blue green algae isolated from Egyptian rice field with potential anti-hepatitis C active components. ... Cell lysate was prepared from the purified strain; the efficacy of this lysate to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro was proved qualitatively and quantitatively. Lysate prepared from isolated ...

  8. ANALYSIS OF EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS FROM THE GREEN ALGA DUNALIELLA SALINA (CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Cao, Yu; Xu, Hui; Lv, Linfeng; Qiao, Dairong; Cao, Yi

    2011-12-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodor. is a novel model photosynthetic eukaryote for studying photosystems, high salinity acclimation, and carotenoid accumulation. In spite of such significance, there have been limited studies on the Dunaliella genome transcriptome and proteome. To further investigate D. salina, a cDNA library was constructed and sequenced. Here, we present the analysis of the 2,282 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated together with 3,990 ESTs from dbEST. A total of 4,148 unique sequences (UniSeqs) were identified, of which 56.1% had sequence similarity with Uniprot entries, suggesting that a large number of unique genes may be harbored by Dunaliella. Additionally, protein family domains were identified to further characterize these sequences. Then, we also compared EST sequences with different complete eukaryotic genomes from several animals, plants, and fungi. We observed notable differences between D. salina and other organisms. This EST collection and its annotation provided a significant resource for basic and applied research on D. salina and laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the transcriptome basis of green algae development and diversification. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  10. Effects of benzophenone-3 on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Feijian; He, Yiliang; Kushmaro, Ariel; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-12-01

    Effects of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) on the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, were investigated. The tested organisms were exposed to environmental levels of BP-3 for 10 days, at nominal concentrations from 0.01 to 5000μgL-1. Specific growth rate and photosynthetic pigments were employed to evaluate the toxic responses. The two tested algae had distinct toxic responses towards BP-3 stress, with the green alga C. reinhardtii being more sensitive than the cyanobacterium M. aeriginosa, based on EC20 and EC50 values. Uptake of BP-3 from the medium occurred in both species, with M. aeruginosa showing greater overall uptake (27.2-77.4%) compared to C. reinhardtii (1.1-58.4%). The effects of BP-3 on C. reinhardtii were variable at concentrations lower than 100μgL-1. At higher concentrations, the specific growth rate of C. reinhardtii decreased following a reduction in chlorophyll a (chl-a) content. Further experiments showed that BP-3 regulated the growth of C. reinhardtii by affecting the production of chl-a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids. In M. aeruginosa, specific growth rate was only moderately affected by BP-3. Additionally, the production of chl-a was significantly inhibited over the different exposure concentrations, while the production of carotenoids was stimulated. These results indicate a potential detrimental effect on prokaryotes and eukaryotes and that the mechanism of action varies with species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Re-evaluating the green versus red signal in eukaryotes with secondary plastid of red algal origin

    KAUST Repository

    Burki, Fabien

    2012-05-16

    The transition from endosymbiont to organelle in eukaryotic cells involves the transfer of significant numbers of genes to the host genomes, a process known as endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT). In the case of plastid organelles, EGTs have been shown to leave a footprint in the nuclear genome that can be indicative of ancient photosynthetic activity in present-day plastid-lacking organisms, or even hint at the existence of cryptic plastids. Here,we evaluated the impact of EGTon eukaryote genomes by reanalyzing the recently published EST dataset for Chromera velia, an interesting test case of a photosynthetic alga closely related to apicomplexan parasites. Previously, 513 genes were reported to originate from red and green algae in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, by manually inspecting newly generated trees indicating putative algal ancestry, we recovered only 51 genes congruent with EGT, of which 23 and 9 were of red and green algal origin, respectively,whereas 19 were ambiguous regarding the algal provenance.Our approach also uncovered 109 genes that branched within a monocot angiosperm clade, most likely representing a contamination. We emphasize the lack of congruence and the subjectivity resulting from independent phylogenomic screens for EGT, which appear to call for extreme caution when drawing conclusions for major evolutionary events. 2012 The Author(s).

  12. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Treatment of polluted urban river water using filamentous green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous green algae dominated treatment system was set up to remove contaminants from polluted urban river water under lab conditions. Experiments show that TP is decreased up to 50%, associated with 72% removal of TSS. The removal efficiencies of soluble species, PO4(3-) and NH4(+)-N, are up to 90% and 85% respectively. Under heavily polluted conditions (TP > 3.0 mg x L(-1), TN > 22.0 mg x L(-1)), the average removal efficiencies of TP and TN are 89% and 45% respectively, while under light polluted conditions (TP filamentous green algae is increased significantly (38.78%), and at the same time a large number of unicellular Chlorophytes and Cyanophytes species are occurred on the interior wall surface of experimental fertility. The maximum biomass occurs at the highest concentration of DO.

  14. Photosynthetic biomanufacturing in green algae; production of recombinant proteins for industrial, nutritional, and medical uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasala, Beth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant proteins are widely used for industrial, nutritional, and medical applications. Green microalgae have attracted considerable attention recently as a biomanufacturing platform for the production of recombinant proteins for a number of reasons. These photosynthetic eukaryotic microorganisms are safe, scalable, easy to genetically modify through transformation, mutagenesis, or breeding, and inexpensive to grow. Many microalgae species are genetically transformable, but the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most widely used host for recombinant protein expression. An extensive suite of molecular genetic tools has been developed for C. reinhardtii over the last 25 years, including a fully sequenced genome, well-established methods for transformation, mutagenesis and breeding, and transformation vectors for high levels of recombinant protein accumulation and secretion. Here, we review recent successes in the development of C. reinhardtii as a biomanufacturing host for recombinant proteins, including antibodies and immunotoxins, hormones, industrial enzymes, an orally-active colostral protein for gastrointestinal health, and subunit vaccines. In addition, we review the biomanufacturing potential of other green algae from the genera Dunaliella and Chlorella.

  15. Multicellularity in green algae: Upsizing in a walled complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Domozych

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix, most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In ulvophytes, uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell-adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cell’s signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the extracellular matrix. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity.

  16. Multicellularity in green algae: upsizing in a walled complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domozych, David S; Domozych, Catherine E

    2014-01-01

    Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous, and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In "ulvophytes," uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cell's signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the ECM. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity.

  17. Phytotoxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of isoproturon in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yan Fang; Miao, Shan Shan; Lu, Yi Chen; Qiu, Chong Bin; Zhou, You; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a pesticide used for protection of land crops from weed or pathogen attack. Recent survey shows that IPU has been detected as a contaminant in aquatic systems and may have negative impact on aquatic organisms. To understand the phytotoxicity and potential accumulation and degradation of IPU in algae, a comprehensive study was performed with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae exposed to 5-50 μg L(-1) IPU for 3d displayed progressive inhibition of cell growth and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Time-course experiments with 25 μg L(-1) IPU for 6d showed similar growth responses. The 72 h EC50 value for IPU was 43.25 μg L(-1), NOEC was 5 μg L(-1) and LOEC was 15 μg L(-1). Treatment with IPU induced oxidative stress. This was validated by a group of antioxidant enzymes, whose activities were promoted by IPU exposure. The up-regulation of several genes coding for the enzymes confirmed the observation. IPU was shown to be readily accumulated by C. reinhardtii. However, the alga showed a weak ability to degrade IPU accumulated in its cells, which was best presented at the lower concentration (5 μg L(-1)) of IPU in the medium. The imbalance of accumulation and degradation of IPU may be the cause that resulted in the detrimental growth and cellular damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual reproduction and sex determination in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    The sexual reproductive processes of some representative freshwater green algae are reviewed. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular volvocine alga having two mating types: mating type plus (mt+) and mating type minus (mt-), which are controlled by a single, complex mating-type locus. Sexual adhesion between the gametes is mediated by sex-specific agglutinin molecules on their flagellar membranes. Cell fusion is initiated by an adhesive interaction between the mt+ and mt- mating structures, followed by localized membrane fusion. The loci of sex-limited genes and the conformation of sex-determining regions have been rearranged during the evolution of volvocine algae; however, the essential function of the sex-determining genes of the isogamous unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is conserved in the multicellular oogamous Volvox carteri. The sexual reproduction of the unicellular charophycean alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, is also focused on here. The sexual reproductive processes of heterothallic strains are controlled by two multifunctional sex pheromones, PR-IP and PR-IP Inducer, which independently promote multiple steps in conjugation at the appropriate times through different induction mechanisms. The molecules involved in sexual reproduction and sex determination have also been characterized.

  19. Towards tradable permits for filamentous green algae pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, W J; Botha, A M; Oberholster, P J

    2016-09-01

    Water pollution permit systems are challenging to design and implement. Operational systems that has maintained functionality remains few and far between, particularly in developing countries. We present current progress towards developing such a system for nutrient enrichment based water pollution, mainly from commercial agriculture. We applied a production function approach to first estimate the monetary value of the impact of the pollution, which is then used as reference point for establishing a reserve price for pollution permits. The subsequent market making process is explained according to five steps including permit design, terms, conditions and transactional protocol, the monitoring system, piloting and implementation. The monetary value of the impact of pollution was estimated at R1887 per hectare per year, which not only provide a "management budget" for filamentous green algae mitigation strategies in the study area, but also enabled the calculation of a reserve price for filamentous green algae pollution permits, which was estimated between R2.25 and R111 per gram filamentous algae and R8.99 per gram at the preferred state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectroscopic investigation of ionizing-radiation tolerance of a Chlorophyceae green micro-alga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, E.; Rivasseau, C.; Gromova, M.; Compagnon, E.; Marzloff, V.; Ollivier, J.; Boisson, A. M.; Bligny, R.; Natali, F.; Russo, D.; Couté, A.

    2008-03-01

    Micro-organisms living in extreme environments are captivating in the peculiar survival processes they have developed. Deinococcus radiodurans is probably the most famous radio-resistant bacteria. Similarly, a specific ecosystem has grown in a research reactor storage pool, and has selected organisms which may sustain radiative stress. An original green micro-alga which was never studied for its high tolerance to radiations has been isolated. It is the only autotrophic eukaryote that develops in this pool, although contamination possibilities coming from outside are not unusual. Studying what could explain this irradiation tolerance is consequently very interesting. An integrative study of the effects of irradiation on the micro-algae physiology, metabolism, internal dynamics, and genomics was initiated. In the work presented here, micro-algae were stressed with irradiation doses up to 20 kGy (2 Mrad), and studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance, looking for modifications in the metabolism, and on the IN13 neutron backscattering instrument at the ILL, looking for both dynamics and structural macromolecular changes in the cells.

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of ionizing-radiation tolerance of a Chlorophyceae green micro-alga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, E; Compagnon, E; Marzloff, V; Ollivier, J; Boisson, A M; Natali, F; Russo, D [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Rivasseau, C; Gromova, M; Bligny, R [CEA, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Coute, A [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 2 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France)

    2008-03-12

    Micro-organisms living in extreme environments are captivating in the peculiar survival processes they have developed. Deinococcus radiodurans is probably the most famous radio-resistant bacteria. Similarly, a specific ecosystem has grown in a research reactor storage pool, and has selected organisms which may sustain radiative stress. An original green micro-alga which was never studied for its high tolerance to radiations has been isolated. It is the only autotrophic eukaryote that develops in this pool, although contamination possibilities coming from outside are not unusual. Studying what could explain this irradiation tolerance is consequently very interesting. An integrative study of the effects of irradiation on the micro-algae physiology, metabolism, internal dynamics, and genomics was initiated. In the work presented here, micro-algae were stressed with irradiation doses up to 20 kGy (2 Mrad), and studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance, looking for modifications in the metabolism, and on the IN13 neutron backscattering instrument at the ILL, looking for both dynamics and structural macromolecular changes in the cells.

  2. Characterization of an Eukaryotic PL-7 Alginate Lyase in the Marine Red Alga Pyropia yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akira; Mashino, Chieco; Uji, Toshiki; Saga, Naotsune; Mikami, Koji; Ojima, Takao

    2015-08-01

    Alginate lyases belonging to polysaccharide lyase family-7 (PL-7) are the most well studied on their structures and functions among whole alginate lyases. However, all characterized PL-7 alginate lyases are from prokaryotic bacteria cells. Here we report the first identification of eukaryotic PL-7 alginate lyase from marine red alga Pyropia yezoensis. The cDNA encoding an alginate lyase PyAly was cloned and was used for the construction of recombinant PyAly (rPyAly) expression system in Escherichia coli. Purified rPyAly was assayed to identify its enzymatic properties. Its expression pattern in P. yessoensis was also investigated. PyAly is likely a secreted protein consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 25 residues and a catalytic domain of 216 residues. The amino-acid sequence of the catalytic domain showed 19-29% identities to those of bacterial characterized alginate lyases classified into family PL-7. Recombinant PyAly protein, rPyAly, which was produced with E. coli BL21(DE3) by cold-inducible expression system, drastically decreased the viscosity of alginate solution in the early stage of reaction. The most preferable substrate for rPyAly was the poly(M) of alginate with an optimal temperature and pH at 35(o)C and 8.0, respectively. After reaction, unsaturated tri- and tetra-saccharides were produced from poly(M) as major end products. These enzymatic properties indicated that PyAly is an endolytic alginate lyase belonging to PL-7. Moreover, we found that the PyAly gene is split into 4 exons with 3 introns. PyAly was also specifically expressed in the gametophytic haplopid stage. This study demonstrates that PyAly in marine red alga P. yezoensis is a novel PL-7 alginate lyase with an endolytic manner. PyAly is a gametophyte-specifically expressed protein and its structural gene is composed of four exons and three introns. Thus, PyAly is the first enzymatically characterized eukaryotic PL-7 alginate lyase.

  3. Nucleotide diversity of the colorless green alga Polytomella parva (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta): high for the mitochondrial telomeres, surprisingly low everywhere else.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Roy; Lee, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Silent-site nucleotide diversity data (π(silent)) can provide insights into the forces driving genome evolution. Here we present π(silent) statistics for the mitochondrial and nuclear DNAs of Polytomella parva, a nonphotosynthetic green alga with a highly reduced, linear fragmented mitochondrial genome. We show that this species harbors very little genetic diversity, with the exception of the mitochondrial telomeres, which have an excess of polymorphic sites. These data are compared with previously published π(silent) values from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of the model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, which are close relatives of P. parva, and are used to understand the modes and tempos of genome evolution within green algae. © 2011 The Author(s). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  4. Lineage-specific fragmentation and nuclear relocation of the mitochondrial cox2 gene in chlorophycean green algae (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salinas, Elizabeth; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Li, Zhongkui; Fucíková, Karolina; Brand, Jerry J; Lewis, Louise A; González-Halphen, Diego

    2012-07-01

    In most eukaryotes the subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase (COX2) is encoded in intact mitochondrial genes. Some green algae, however, exhibit split cox2 genes (cox2a and cox2b) encoding two polypeptides (COX2A and COX2B) that form a heterodimeric COX2 subunit. Here, we analyzed the distribution of intact and split cox2 gene sequences in 39 phylogenetically diverse green algae in phylum Chlorophyta obtained from databases (28 sequences from 22 taxa) and from new cox2 data generated in this work (23 sequences from 18 taxa). Our results support previous observations based on a smaller number of taxa, indicating that algae in classes Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Trebouxiophyceae contain orthodox, intact mitochondrial cox2 genes. In contrast, all of the algae in Chlorophyceae that we examined exhibited split cox2 genes, and could be separated into two groups: one that has a mitochondrion-localized cox2a gene and a nucleus-localized cox2b gene ("Scenedesmus-like"), and another that has both cox2a and cox2b genes in the nucleus ("Chlamydomonas-like"). The location of the split cox2a and cox2b genes was inferred using five different criteria: differences in amino acid sequences, codon usage (mitochondrial vs. nuclear), codon preference (third position frequencies), presence of nucleotide sequences encoding mitochondrial targeting sequences and presence of spliceosomal introns. Distinct green algae could be grouped according to the form of cox2 gene they contain: intact or fragmented, mitochondrion- or nucleus-localized, and intron-containing or intron-less. We present a model describing the events that led to mitochondrial cox2 gene fragmentation and the independent and sequential migration of cox2a and cox2b genes to the nucleus in chlorophycean green algae. We also suggest that the distribution of the different forms of the cox2 gene provides important insights into the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of Chlorophyceae.

  5. A fibrinolytic enzyme from a marine green alga, Codium latum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, K; Hori, K; Matsuura, Y; Miyazawa, K

    1999-11-01

    A fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from a marine green alga, Codium latum, and designated C. latum protease (CLP). It also had fibrinogenolytic activity, hydrolyzing A alpha, B beta and gamma chains with preference in this order. As CLP hydrolyzed oxidized insulin B chain at position Arg22-Gly23, and the peptide map of lysozyme digested with CLP was similar to that with trypsin, CLP would be expected to have a high substrate specificity, similar to that of trypsin. Protease activity peaked at pH 10, and was completely inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Therefore, we conclude that CLP is a trypsin-like serine protease.

  6. The effects of graphene oxide on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, P F M; Nakabayashi, D; Zucolotto, V

    2015-09-01

    Graphene represents a new class of nanomaterials that has attracted great interest due to its unique electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Once disposed in the environment, graphene can interact with biological systems and is expected to exhibit toxicological effects. The ecotoxicity of graphene and its derivatives, viz.: graphene oxide (GO) depends on their physicochemical properties, including purity, diameter, length, surface charge, functionalization and aggregation state. In this study we evaluated the effects of graphene oxide (GO) on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. The algae were exposed to different concentrations of GO pre-equilibrated for 24h with oligotrophic freshwater medium (20ml) during incubation in a growth chamber under controlled conditions: 120μEm(-2)s(-1) illumination; 12:12h light dark cycle and constant temperature of 22±2°C. Algal growth was monitored daily for 96h by direct cell counting. Reactive oxygen species level (ROS), membrane damage (cell viability) and autofluorescence (chl-a fluorescence) were evaluated using fluorescent staining and further analyzed by flow cytometry. The toxic effects from GO, as observed in algal density and autofluorescence, started at concentrations from 20 and 10μgmL(-1), respectively. Such toxicity is probably the result of ROS generation and membrane damage (cell viability). The shading effect caused by GO agglomeration in culture medium may also contribute to reduce algal density. The results reported here provide knowledge regarding the GO toxicity on green algae, contributing to a better understanding of its environmental behavior and impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deletion of CGLD1 Impairs PSII and Increases Singlet Oxygen Tolerance of Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiale Xing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key model organism for studying photosynthesis and oxidative stress in unicellular eukaryotes. Using a forward genetics approach, we have identified and characterized a mutant x32, which lacks a predicted protein named CGLD1 (Conserved in Green Lineage and Diatom 1 in GreenCut2, under normal and stress conditions. We show that loss of CGLD1 resulted in minimal photoautotrophic growth and PSII activity in the organism. We observed reduced amount of PSII complex and core subunits in the x32 mutant based on blue-native (BN/PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, x32 exhibited increased sensitivity to high-light stress and altered tolerance to different reactive oxygenic species (ROS stress treatments, i.e., decreased resistance to H2O2/or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH and increased tolerance to neutral red (NR and rose bengal (RB that induce the formation of singlet oxygen, respectively. Further analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR indicated that the increased singlet-oxygen tolerance of x32 was largely correlated with up-regulated gene expression of glutathione-S-transferases (GST. The phenotypical and physiological implications revealed from our experiments highlight the important roles of CGLD1 in maintaining structure and function of PSII as well as in protection of Chlamydomonas under photo-oxidative stress conditions.

  8. Developing Molecular Genetic Tools to Facilitate Economic Production in Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    species they are not readily available for algae that are being identified as potential biofuel production strains. Our work was focused on developing...the genetic tools required to enable green algae to become efficient biofuel production strains. Being able to efficiently apply genetic...genomes require distinct sets of transforma Algae , Biofuels , Algal Genetic Tools, Marine Algae U U U UU 5 Stephen P. Mayfield 858-822-7743 Reset AFOSR

  9. Energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll in blue-green, red and green algae and greening bean leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1969-01-01

    From fluorescence action spectra, fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra measured at room temperature and at 77 °K of light petroleum (b.p. 40–60°)-treated and normal chloroplasts, it is concluded that: 1. 1. In blue-green and red algae energy transfer from β-carotene to chlorophyll occurs

  10. Horizontal Gene Transfer of Phytochelatin Synthases from Bacteria to Extremophilic Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Sanna; Penacho, Vanessa; Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Díaz, Silvia; Gonzalez-Pastor, José Eduardo; Aguilera, Angeles

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptomic sequencing together with bioinformatic analyses and an automated annotation process led us to identify novel phytochelatin synthase (PCS) genes from two extremophilic green algae (Chlamydomonas acidophila and Dunaliella acidophila). These genes are of intermediate length compared to known PCS genes from eukaryotes and PCS-like genes from prokaryotes. A detailed phylogenetic analysis gives new insight into the complicated evolutionary history of PCS genes and provides evidence for multiple horizontal gene transfer events from bacteria to eukaryotes within the gene family. A separate subgroup containing PCS-like genes within the PCS gene family is not supported since the PCS genes are monophyletic only when the PCS-like genes are included. The presence and functionality of the novel genes in the organisms were verified by genomic sequencing and qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the novel PCS gene in Chlamydomonas acidophila showed very strong induction by cadmium. Cloning and expression of the gene in Escherichia coli clearly improves its cadmium resistance. The gene in Dunaliella was not induced, most likely due to gene duplication.

  11. Photoperiod influences endogenous indoleamines in cultured green alga Dunaliella bardawil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, A; Dayananda, C; Giridhar, P; Rajasekaran, T; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-03-01

    Effect of light intensity and photoperiod on growth, indoleamines and carotenoid production was studied in unicellular green algae D. bardawil. Maximum biomass and carotenoid contents were found when cultures were grown in light (intensity of 2.0 Klux) at a photoperiod of 16/8h light and dark cycle. There was a profound influence of tested photoperiod conditions of light:dark viz. 8:16, 10:14, and 12:12 hr, continuous light on indoleamines (SER and MEL) production as estimated by HPLC and confirmed by mass spectral data obtained from LC-MS-ESI studies. Serotonin level increased from 908 to 1765 pg/g fresh wt with increase in light duration and melatonin level increased from 267 to 584 pg/g fresh wt during increase in dark phase. Carotenoids production was high in continuous light than other tested conditions.

  12. [Analysis of the cable structure of blue-green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S A; Potapova, T V; Skulachev, V P; Chaĭlakhian, L M

    1982-01-01

    Peculiarities of electrical responses under local illumination of filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Phormidium uncinatum were studied by means of extracellular electrodes. Recording of electrical responses at different distances from the exposure place and comparison of these data with the results obtained on physical model of Ph. uncinatum end expected response parameters computed made it possible to estimate the parameters of the cable which can serve as the object model: RC=440 c/cm2 and lambda min greater than or equal to 0.07 cm. According to these values and taking membrane capacity as C=10(-6) phi/cm2, intracellular resistance Rm=10(7) Ohm and conductivity of the surface membrane G less than or equal to 10(-6) I/Ohm cm2 were estimated.

  13. Novel Features of Eukaryotic Photosystem II Revealed by Its Crystal Structure Analysis from a Red Alga*

    OpenAIRE

    Ago, Hideo; Adachi, Hideyuki; Umena, Yasufumi; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kamiya, Nobuo; Tian, Lirong; Han, Guangye; Kuang, Tingyun; Liu, Zheyi; Wang, Fangjun; Zou, Hanfa; Enami, Isao; Miyano, Masashi; Shen, Jian-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes light-induced water splitting, leading to the evolution of molecular oxygen indispensible for life on the earth. The crystal structure of PSII from cyanobacteria has been solved at an atomic level, but the structure of eukaryotic PSII has not been analyzed. Because eukaryotic PSII possesses additional subunits not found in cyanobacterial PSII, it is important to solve the structure of eukaryotic PSII to elucidate their detailed functions, as well as evolutionar...

  14. A Green Algae Mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella Attenuates Obesity-Linked Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Arun Kumar; Marie Magnusson; Leigh C. Ward; Nicholas A. Paul; Lindsay Brown

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the responses to a green algae mixture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Schroederiella apiculata (SC) containing protein (46.1% of dry algae), insoluble fibre (19.6% of dry algae), minerals (3.7% of dry algae) and omega-3 fatty acids (2.8% of dry algae) as a dietary intervention in a high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in four groups of male Wistar rats. Two groups were fed with a corn starch diet containing 68% carbohydrates as polysaccharide...

  15. Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. PMID:25324214

  16. Comparative Genomics of a Bacterivorous Green Alga Reveals Evolutionary Causalities and Consequences of Phago-Mixotrophic Mode of Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John A; Paasch, Amber; Narechania, Apurva; Kim, Eunsoo

    2015-07-29

    Cymbomonas tetramitiformis-a marine prasinophyte-is one of only a few green algae that still retain an ancestral particulate-feeding mechanism while harvesting energy through photosynthesis. The genome of the alga is estimated to be 850 Mb-1.2 Gb in size-the bulk of which is filled with repetitive sequences-and is annotated with 37,366 protein-coding gene models. A number of unusual metabolic pathways (for the Chloroplastida) are predicted for C. tetramitiformis, including pathways for Lipid-A and peptidoglycan metabolism. Comparative analyses of the predicted peptides of C. tetramitiformis to sets of other eukaryotes revealed that nonphagocytes are depleted in a number of genes, a proportion of which have known function in feeding. In addition, our analysis suggests that obligatory phagotrophy is associated with the loss of genes that function in biosynthesis of small molecules (e.g., amino acids). Further, C. tetramitiformis and at least one other phago-mixotrophic alga are thus unique, compared with obligatory heterotrophs and nonphagocytes, in that both feeding and small molecule synthesis-related genes are retained in their genomes. These results suggest that early, ancestral host eukaryotes that gave rise to phototrophs had the capacity to assimilate building block molecules from inorganic substances (i.e., prototrophy). The loss of biosynthesis genes, thus, may at least partially explain the apparent lack of instances of permanent incorporation of photosynthetic endosymbionts in later-divergent, auxotrophic eukaryotic lineages, such as metazoans and ciliates. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Bioaccumulation of gasoline in brackish green algae and popular clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan A. El-Shoubaky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha clathrata and the clams (Tapes decussates and Venerupis aurea grow together in Timsah Lake, Suez Canal, Egypt. Our ultimate goal is to validate the bioaccumulation of gasoline in the marine organisms and their behavior after exposure to the pollutant, experimentally. These species were treated with a serial treatment of gasoline (1000, 4000, 16,000 and 64,000 μl in aquaria with brackish sea-water for 72 h. The tested green algae and clams were taken for an analysis of total hydrocarbon accumulation daily. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between the four species and also between the duration of exposure. The accumulation of gasoline in U. lactuca and E. clathrata reached their maximum after 48 h at 1000 and 4000 μl. The highest absorption was registered after 24 h only at 16,000 and at 64,000 μl. U. lactuca recorded complete mortality in 64,000 μl at 72 h whereas E. clathrata registered death at 48 h and 72 h in the same treatment. V. aurea was more sensitive than T. decussates. The accumulation of gasoline reached its maximum in V. aurea after only 24 h in the first treatment while it retarded to 48 h in T. decussates with a lesser accumulation. However, both clam species accumulated the highest amount of petroleum hydrocarbons during the first hour of exposure at the first treatment. In the third and fourth treatments, clams did not accumulate gasoline but began to dispose it from their tissues till it became less than that in the control. Mortality gradually increased with time in each treatment except the last one (64,000 μl in which 100% death of the specimens was observed. In general, the bioaccumulation of gasoline level was in a descending order as follows: U. lactuca > E. clathrata > V. aurea > T. decussates. Their behavior changed from accumulation to detoxification with time and with the increase in pollutant concentration. Generally, these

  18. Changes in the marine green alga @iChaetomorpha media@@ on infection by a fungal pathogen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Chandramohan, D.

    Biochemical changes in the green filamentous alga @iChaetomorpha media@@ Kutzing infected with a holocarpic endobiotic fungus@@ Pontisma lagenidioides@@ Petersen were studied. Healthy plants of @iC. media@@ were inoculated with the infected material...

  19. Production and release of selenocyanate by different green freshwater algae in environmental and laboratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kelly L; Smith, Matthew S; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2012-06-05

    In a previous study, selenocyanate was tentatively identified as a biotransformation product when green algae were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of selenate. In this follow-up study, we confirm conclusively the presence of selenocyanate in Chlorella vulgaris culture medium by electrospray mass spectrometry, based on selenium's known isotopic pattern. We also demonstrate that the observed phenomenon extends to other green algae (Chlorella kesslerii and Scenedesmus obliquus) and at least one species of blue-green algae (Synechococcus leopoliensis). Further laboratory experiments show that selenocyanate production by algae is enhanced by addition of nitrate, which appears to serve as a source of cyanide produced in the algae. Ultimately, this biotransformation process was confirmed in field experiments where trace amounts of selenocyanate (0.215 ± 0.010 ppb) were observed in a eutrophic, selenium-impacted river with massive algal blooms, which consisted of filamentous green algae (Cladophora genus) and blue-green algae (Anabaena genus). Selenocyanate abundance was low despite elevated selenium concentrations, apparently due to suppression of selenate uptake by sulfate, and insufficient nitrogen concentrations. Finally, trace levels of several other unidentified selenium-containing compounds were observed in these river water samples; preliminary suggestions for their identities include thioselenate and small organic Se species.

  20. Genome of the halotolerant green alga Picochlorum sp. reveals strategies for thriving under fluctuating environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foflonker, Fatima; Price, Dana C; Qiu, Huan; Palenik, Brian; Wang, Shuyi; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-02-01

    An expected outcome of climate change is intensification of the global water cycle, which magnifies surface water fluxes, and consequently alters salinity patterns. It is therefore important to understand the adaptations and limits of microalgae to survive changing salinities. To this end, we sequenced the 13.5 Mbp genome of the halotolerant green alga Picochlorum SENEW3 (SE3) that was isolated from a brackish water pond subject to large seasonal salinity fluctuations. Picochlorum SE3 encodes 7367 genes, making it one of the smallest and most gene dense eukaryotic genomes known. Comparison with the pico-prasinophyte Ostreococcus tauri, a species with a limited range of salt tolerance, reveals the enrichment of transporters putatively involved in the salt stress response in Picochlorum SE3. Analysis of cultures and the protein complement highlight the metabolic flexibility of Picochlorum SE3 that encodes genes involved in urea metabolism, acetate assimilation and fermentation, acetoin production and glucose uptake, many of which form functional gene clusters. Twenty-four cases of horizontal gene transfer from bacterial sources were found in Picochlorum SE3 with these genes involved in stress adaptation including osmolyte production and growth promotion. Our results identify Picochlorum SE3 as a model for understanding microalgal adaptation to stressful, fluctuating environments. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Integration of carbon assimilation modes with photosynthetic light capture in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hanna; Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Wobbe, Lutz; Kruse, Olaf

    2014-10-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of using organic and inorganic carbon sources simultaneously, which requires the adjustment of photosynthetic activity to the prevailing mode of carbon assimilation. We obtained novel insights into the regulation of light-harvesting at photosystem II (PSII) following altered carbon source availability. In C. reinhardtii, synthesis of PSII-associated light-harvesting proteins (LHCBMs) is controlled by the cytosolic RNA-binding protein NAB1, which represses translation of particular LHCBM isoform transcripts. This mechanism is fine-tuned via regulation of the nuclear NAB1 promoter, which is activated when linear photosynthetic electron flow is restricted by CO(2)-limitation in a photoheterotrophic context. In the wild-type, accumulation of NAB1 reduces the functional PSII antenna size, thus preventing a harmful overexcited state of PSII, as observed in a NAB1-less mutant. We further demonstrate that translation control as a newly identified long-term response to prolonged CO(2)-limitation replaces LHCII state transitions as a fast response to PSII over-excitation. Intriguingly, activation of the long-term response is perturbed in state transition mutant stt7, suggesting a regulatory link between the long- and short-term response. We depict a regulatory circuit operating on distinct timescales and in different cellular compartments to fine-tune light-harvesting in photoheterotrophic eukaryotes. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  2. The Plastid Genome in Cladophorales Green Algae Is Encoded by Hairpin Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cortona, Andrea; Leliaert, Frederik; Bogaert, Kenny A; Turmel, Monique; Boedeker, Christian; Janouškovec, Jan; Lopez-Bautista, Juan M; Verbruggen, Heroen; Vandepoele, Klaas; De Clerck, Olivier

    2017-12-18

    Virtually all plastid (chloroplast) genomes are circular double-stranded DNA molecules, typically between 100 and 200 kb in size and encoding circa 80-250 genes. Exceptions to this universal plastid genome architecture are very few and include the dinoflagellates, where genes are located on DNA minicircles. Here we report on the highly deviant chloroplast genome of Cladophorales green algae, which is entirely fragmented into hairpin chromosomes. Short- and long-read high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA demonstrated that the chloroplast genes of Boodlea composita are encoded on 1- to 7-kb DNA contigs with an exceptionally high GC content, each containing a long inverted repeat with one or two protein-coding genes and conserved non-coding regions putatively involved in replication and/or expression. We propose that these contigs correspond to linear single-stranded DNA molecules that fold onto themselves to form hairpin chromosomes. The Boodlea chloroplast genes are highly divergent from their corresponding orthologs, and display an alternative genetic code. The origin of this highly deviant chloroplast genome most likely occurred before the emergence of the Cladophorales, and coincided with an elevated transfer of chloroplast genes to the nucleus. A chloroplast genome that is composed only of linear DNA molecules is unprecedented among eukaryotes, and highlights unexpected variation in plastid genome architecture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chloroplast gene arrangement variation within a closely related group of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsch, Molly R; Lewis, Louise A

    2012-09-01

    The 22 published chloroplast genomes of green algae, representing sparse taxonomic sampling of diverse lineages that span over one billion years of evolution, each possess a unique gene arrangement. In contrast, many of the >190 published embryophyte (land plant) chloroplast genomes have relatively conserved architectures. To determine the phylogenetic depth at which chloroplast gene rearrangements occur in green algae, a 1.5-4 kb segment of the chloroplast genome was compared across nine species in three closely related genera of Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta). In total, four distinct gene arrangements were obtained for the three genera Elliptochloris, Hemichloris, and Coccomyxa. In Elliptochloris, three distinct chloroplast gene arrangements were detected, one of which is shared with members of its sister genus Hemichloris. Both species of Coccomyxa examined share the fourth arrangement of this genome region, one characterized by very long spacers. Next, the order of genes found in this segment of the chloroplast genome was compared across green algae and land plants. As taxonomic ranks are not equivalent among different groups of organisms, the maximum molecular divergence among taxa sharing a common gene arrangement in this genome segment was compared. Well-supported clades possessing a single gene order had similar phylogenetic depth in green algae and embryophytes. When the dominant gene order of this chloroplast segment in embryophytes was assumed to be ancestral for land plants, the maximum molecular divergence was found to be over two times greater in embryophytes than in trebouxiophyte green algae. This study greatly expands information about chloroplast genome variation in green algae, is the first to demonstrate such variation among congeneric green algae, and further illustrates the fluidity of green algal chloroplast genome architecture in comparison to that of many embryophytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hidden genetic diversity in the green alga Spirogyra (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Charlotte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unbranched filamentous green alga Spirogyra (Streptophyta, Zygnemataceae is easily recognizable based on its vegetative morphology, which shows one to several spiral chloroplasts. This simple structure falsely points to a low genetic diversity: Spirogyra is commonly excluded from phylogenetic analyses because the genus is known as a long-branch taxon caused by a high evolutionary rate. Results We focused on this genetic diversity and sequenced 130 Spirogyra small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA strands of different origin. The resulting SSU rDNA sequences were used for phylogenetic analyses using complex evolutionary models (posterior probability, maximum likelihood, neighbor joining, and maximum parsimony methods. The sequences were between 1672 and 1779 nucleotides long. Sequence comparisons revealed 53 individual clones, but our results still support monophyly of the genus. Our data set did not contain a single slow-evolving taxon that would have been placed on a shorter branch compared to the remaining sequences. Out of 130 accessions analyzed, 72 showed a secondary loss of the 1506 group I intron, which formed a long-branched group within the genus. The phylogenetic relationship to the genus Spirotaenia was not resolved satisfactorily. The genetic distance within the genus Spirogyra exceeded the distances measured within any other genus of the remaining Zygnemataceae included in this study. Conclusion Overall, we define eight distinct clades of Spirogyra, one of them including the genus Sirogonium. A large number of non-homoplasious synapomorphies (NHS; 114 NHS in total was found for Spirogyra (41 NHS and for each clade (totaling 73 NHS. This emphasizes the high genetic diversity of this genus and the distance to the remaining Zygnematophyceae.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the entomoparasitic green alga helicosporidium.

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    Jean-François Pombert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicosporidia are achlorophyllous, non-photosynthetic protists that are obligate parasites of invertebrates. Highly specialized, these pathogens feature an unusual cyst stage that dehisces inside the infected organism and releases a filamentous cell displaying surface projections, which will penetrate the host gut wall and eventually reproduce in the hemolymph. Long classified as incertae sedis or as relatives of other parasites such as Apicomplexa or Microsporidia, the Helicosporidia were surprisingly identified through molecular phylogeny as belonging to the Chlorophyta, a phylum of green algae. Most phylogenetic analyses involving Helicosporidia have placed them within the subgroup Trebouxiophyceae and further suggested a close affiliation between the Helicosporidia and the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are also achlorophyllous and pathogenic, but they infect vertebrate hosts, inducing protothecosis in humans. The complete plastid genome of an Helicosporidium species was recently described and is a model of compaction and reduction. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the same strain, Helicosporidium sp. ATCC 50920 isolated from the black fly Simulium jonesi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The circular mapping 49343 bp mitochondrial genome of Helicosporidium closely resembles that of the vertebrate parasite Prototheca wickerhamii. The two genomes share an almost identical gene complement and display a level of synteny that is higher than any other sequenced chlorophyte mitochondrial DNAs. Interestingly, the Helicosporidium mtDNA feature a trans-spliced group I intron, and a second group I intron that contains two open reading frames that appear to be degenerate maturase/endonuclease genes, both rare characteristics for this type of intron. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The architecture, genome content, and phylogeny of the Helicosporidium mitochondrial genome are all congruent with its close

  6. Molecular identification of rickettsial endosymbionts in the non-phagotrophic volvocalean green algae.

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    Kaoru Kawafune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The order Rickettsiales comprises gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria (also called rickettsias that are mainly associated with arthropod hosts. This group is medically important because it contains human-pathogenic species that cause dangerous diseases. Until now, there has been no report of non-phagotrophic photosynthetic eukaryotes, such as green plants, harboring rickettsias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the bacterial endosymbionts of two freshwater volvocalean green algae: unicellular Carteria cerasiformis and colonial Pleodorina japonica. Epifluorescence microscopy using 4'-6-deamidino-2-phenylindole staining revealed the presence of endosymbionts in all C. cerasiformis NIES-425 cells, and demonstrated a positive correlation between host cell size and the number of endosymbionts. Strains both containing and lacking endosymbionts of C. cerasiformis (NIES-425 and NIES-424 showed a >10-fold increase in cell number and typical sigmoid growth curves over 192 h. A phylogenetic analysis of 16 S ribosomal (rRNA gene sequences from the endosymbionts of C. cerasiformis and P. japonica demonstrated that they formed a robust clade (hydra group with endosymbionts of various non-arthropod hosts within the family Rickettsiaceae. There were significantly fewer differences in the 16 S rRNA sequences of the rickettsiacean endosymbionts between C. cerasiformis and P. japonica than in the chloroplast 16 S rRNA or 18 S rRNA of the host volvocalean cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the existence of the rickettsiacean endosymbionts in the cytoplasm of two volvocalean species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rickettsiacean endosymbionts are likely not harmful to their volvocalean hosts and may have been recently transmitted from other non-arthropod organisms. Because rickettsias are the closest relatives of mitochondria, incipient stages of mitochondrial endosymbiosis may be deduced using both strains with

  7. Antiangiogenic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Green Algae (Spirogyra SP.) Against Expression Cox-2 in T47d Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Widyaningsih, Wahyu; Salamah, Nina; Susanti, Hari; Fitriani, Dwi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases that arise when a cell or group of cells that regulate out of control growth. Green algae (Spirogyra sp.) is one of the medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer. Green algae (Spirogyra sp.) has active substances such as melatonin. Melatonin which is a compound that has been examined by researchers world as anticancer drugs and antioxidants. This study aims to determine the effect of ethanol extract of green algae (Spirogyra sp.) o...

  8. ANTIANGIOGENIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GREEN ALGAE (Spirogyra sp.) AGAINST EXPRESSION COX-2 IN T47D CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Widyaningsih, Wahyu; Salamah, Nina; Susanti, Hari; Fitriani, Dwi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases that arise when a cell or group of cells that regulate out of control growth. Green algae (Spirogyra sp.) is one of the medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer. Green algae (Spirogyra sp.) has active substances such as melatonin. Melatonin which is a compound that has been examined by researchers world as anticancer drugs and antioxidants. This study aims to determine the effect of ethanol extract of green algae (Spirogyra sp.) o...

  9. DNA Damage during G2 Phase Does Not Affect Cell Cycle Progression of the Green Alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage is a threat to genomic integrity in all living organisms. Plants and green algae are particularly susceptible to DNA damage especially that caused by UV light, due to their light dependency for photosynthesis. For survival of a plant, and other eukaryotic cells, it is essential for an organism to continuously check the integrity of its genetic material and, when damaged, to repair it immediately. Cells therefore utilize a DNA damage response pathway that is responsible for sensing, reacting to and repairing damaged DNA. We have studied the effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, zeocin, caffeine and combinations of these on the cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The cells delayed S phase and underwent a permanent G2 phase block if DNA metabolism was affected prior to S phase; the G2 phase block imposed by zeocin was partially abolished by caffeine. No cell cycle block was observed if the treatment with zeocin occurred in G2 phase and the cells divided normally. CDKA and CDKB kinases regulate mitosis in S. quadricauda; their kinase activities were inhibited by Wee1. CDKA, CDKB protein levels were stabilized in the presence of zeocin. In contrast, the protein level of Wee1 was unaffected by DNA perturbing treatments. Wee1 therefore does not appear to be involved in the DNA damage response in S. quadricauda. Our results imply a specific reaction to DNA damage in S. quadricauda, with no cell cycle arrest, after experiencing DNA damage during G2 phase. PMID:21603605

  10. DNA damage during G2 phase does not affect cell cycle progression of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hlavová

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a threat to genomic integrity in all living organisms. Plants and green algae are particularly susceptible to DNA damage especially that caused by UV light, due to their light dependency for photosynthesis. For survival of a plant, and other eukaryotic cells, it is essential for an organism to continuously check the integrity of its genetic material and, when damaged, to repair it immediately. Cells therefore utilize a DNA damage response pathway that is responsible for sensing, reacting to and repairing damaged DNA. We have studied the effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, zeocin, caffeine and combinations of these on the cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The cells delayed S phase and underwent a permanent G2 phase block if DNA metabolism was affected prior to S phase; the G2 phase block imposed by zeocin was partially abolished by caffeine. No cell cycle block was observed if the treatment with zeocin occurred in G2 phase and the cells divided normally. CDKA and CDKB kinases regulate mitosis in S. quadricauda; their kinase activities were inhibited by Wee1. CDKA, CDKB protein levels were stabilized in the presence of zeocin. In contrast, the protein level of Wee1 was unaffected by DNA perturbing treatments. Wee1 therefore does not appear to be involved in the DNA damage response in S. quadricauda. Our results imply a specific reaction to DNA damage in S. quadricauda, with no cell cycle arrest, after experiencing DNA damage during G2 phase.

  11. Testing nanomaterial toxicity in unicellular eukaryotic algae and fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Alexandra; Kühnel, Dana; Schirmer, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Nanoecotoxicology as a sub-discipline of ecotoxicology aims to identify and predict effects elicited on ecosystems by nano-sized materials (NM). Two key groups of model organisms in this context are algae and fish. In this chapter, we present considerations for testing NM with respect to their impact on unicellular algae and cell lines derived from various organs of fish.Based on currently available literature on NM effects in unicellular algae and fish cell lines, and our own experience, we provide guidance on test design, including principle test considerations, materials, NM presentation to cells, exposure, bioavailability, and effect assessment. Assessment needs to be based on a meaningful choice of exposure scenario(s) related to the research question. As a first step, one needs to address whether effects of NMs are to be investigated under environmentally relevant or probable conditions, which may include processes such as agglomeration, or whether NM effects from mono-dispersed particles are of interest, which may require special steps to ensure stable NM suspension. Moreover, whether effects on cells are to be studied in the short- or long-term is important with regard to experimental design. Preparation of NM suspensions, which can be done in aqueous media different from the exposure medium, is addressed with regard to energy input, sterility (as required for algae and fish cell exposure) and particle purity.Specified for the two model systems, algae and fish cell lines, availability and choice of culture media are presented and discussed with regard to impact on NM behavior. Light, temperature, and agitation, which are variables during exposure, are discussed. We further provide guidance on the characterization of the NM in the chosen aqueous exposure media regarding size, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility. The state of NM in exposure media is decisive for their bioavailability and therefore for potential particle effects. Therefore, we present

  12. Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green Algae

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    Tobias Bornhütter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show the feasibility of photodynamic inactivation of green algae as a vital step towards an effective photodynamic suppression of biofilms by using functionalized surfaces. The investigation of the intrinsic mechanisms of photodynamic inactivation in green algae represents the next step in order to determine optimization parameters. The observation of singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics proved to be a very effective approach towards understanding mechanisms on a cellular level. In this study, the first two-dimensional measurement of singlet oxygen kinetics in phototrophic microorganisms on surfaces during photodynamic inactivation is presented. We established a system of reproducible algae samples on surfaces, incubated with two different cationic, antimicrobial potent photosensitizers. Fluorescence microscopy images indicate that one photosensitizer localizes inside the green algae while the other accumulates along the outer algae cell wall. A newly developed setup allows for the measurement of singlet oxygen luminescence on the green algae sample surfaces over several days. The kinetics of the singlet oxygen luminescence of both photosensitizers show different developments and a distinct change over time, corresponding with the differences in their localization as well as their photosensitization potential. While the complexity of the signal reveals a challenge for the future, this study incontrovertibly marks a crucial, inevitable step in the investigation of photodynamic inactivation of biofilms: it shows the feasibility of using the singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics to investigate photodynamic effects on surfaces and thus opens a field for numerous investigations.

  13. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

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    B. Indarsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4 according to a commercial standard diet asa control, and three other dietary treatments with 2, 4 or 8% of green algae were included. Fresh watergreen algae had a significant effect on the feed uptake, egg production, and feed conversion ratio (FCR(p<0.05. Egg production and FCR improved at added 2 and 4% green algae. No differences wereobserved in egg yolk index, albumen index, Haugh Unit, and egg shell thickness (P>0.05 except eggyolk color. The yolk color increased within 7 days after feeding with the test diets. The present studyindicated that fresh-water green algae could be used as a natural coloring agent in laying ducks and at8% of green algae showed the highest score of (Roche Yellow Color-15.

  14. Functional divergence and convergent evolution in the plastid-targeted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases of diverse eukaryotic algae.

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    Daniel Gaston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH is a key enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, reversibly catalyzing the sixth step of glycolysis and concurrently reducing the coenzyme NAD(+ to NADH. In photosynthetic organisms a GAPDH paralog (Gap2 in Cyanobacteria, GapA in most photosynthetic eukaryotes functions in the Calvin cycle, performing the reverse of the glycolytic reaction and using the coenzyme NADPH preferentially. In a number of photosynthetic eukaryotes that acquired their plastid by the secondary endosymbiosis of a eukaryotic red alga (Alveolates, haptophytes, cryptomonads and stramenopiles GapA has been apparently replaced with a paralog of the host's own cytosolic GAPDH (GapC1. Plastid GapC1 and GapA therefore represent two independent cases of functional divergence and adaptations to the Calvin cycle entailing a shift in subcellular targeting and a shift in binding preference from NAD(+ to NADPH. METHODS: We used the programs FunDi, GroupSim, and Difference Evolutionary-Trace to detect sites involved in the functional divergence of these two groups of GAPDH sequences and to identify potential cases of convergent evolution in the Calvin-cycle adapted GapA and GapC1 families. Sites identified as being functionally divergent by all or some of these programs were then investigated with respect to their possible roles in the structure and function of both glycolytic and plastid-targeted GAPDH isoforms. CONCLUSIONS: In this work we found substantial evidence for convergent evolution in GapA/B and GapC1. In many cases sites in GAPDHs of these groups converged on identical amino acid residues in specific positions of the protein known to play a role in the function and regulation of plastid-functioning enzymes relative to their cytosolic counterparts. In addition, we demonstrate that bioinformatic software like FunDi are important tools for the generation of meaningful biological hypotheses that can then be tested with direct

  15. Functional divergence and convergent evolution in the plastid-targeted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases of diverse eukaryotic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Daniel; Roger, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, reversibly catalyzing the sixth step of glycolysis and concurrently reducing the coenzyme NAD(+) to NADH. In photosynthetic organisms a GAPDH paralog (Gap2 in Cyanobacteria, GapA in most photosynthetic eukaryotes) functions in the Calvin cycle, performing the reverse of the glycolytic reaction and using the coenzyme NADPH preferentially. In a number of photosynthetic eukaryotes that acquired their plastid by the secondary endosymbiosis of a eukaryotic red alga (Alveolates, haptophytes, cryptomonads and stramenopiles) GapA has been apparently replaced with a paralog of the host's own cytosolic GAPDH (GapC1). Plastid GapC1 and GapA therefore represent two independent cases of functional divergence and adaptations to the Calvin cycle entailing a shift in subcellular targeting and a shift in binding preference from NAD(+) to NADPH. We used the programs FunDi, GroupSim, and Difference Evolutionary-Trace to detect sites involved in the functional divergence of these two groups of GAPDH sequences and to identify potential cases of convergent evolution in the Calvin-cycle adapted GapA and GapC1 families. Sites identified as being functionally divergent by all or some of these programs were then investigated with respect to their possible roles in the structure and function of both glycolytic and plastid-targeted GAPDH isoforms. In this work we found substantial evidence for convergent evolution in GapA/B and GapC1. In many cases sites in GAPDHs of these groups converged on identical amino acid residues in specific positions of the protein known to play a role in the function and regulation of plastid-functioning enzymes relative to their cytosolic counterparts. In addition, we demonstrate that bioinformatic software like FunDi are important tools for the generation of meaningful biological hypotheses that can then be tested with direct experimental techniques.

  16. Complex phylogenetic distribution of a non-canonical genetic code in green algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A non-canonical nuclear genetic code, in which TAG and TAA have been reassigned from stop codons to glutamine, has evolved independently in several eukaryotic lineages, including the ulvophycean green algal orders Dasycladales and Cladophorales. To study the phylogenetic distribution of the standard and non-canonical genetic codes, we generated sequence data of a representative set of ulvophycean green algae and used a robust green algal phylogeny to evaluate different evolutionary scenarios that may account for the origin of the non-canonical code. Results This study demonstrates that the Dasycladales and Cladophorales share this alternative genetic code with the related order Trentepohliales and the genus Blastophysa, but not with the Bryopsidales, which is sister to the Dasycladales. This complex phylogenetic distribution whereby all but one representative of a single natural lineage possesses an identical deviant genetic code is unique. Conclusions We compare different evolutionary scenarios for the complex phylogenetic distribution of this non-canonical genetic code. A single transition to the non-canonical code followed by a reversal to the canonical code in the Bryopsidales is highly improbable due to the profound genetic changes that coincide with codon reassignment. Multiple independent gains of the non-canonical code, as hypothesized for ciliates, are also unlikely because the same deviant code has evolved in all lineages. Instead we favor a stepwise acquisition model, congruent with the ambiguous intermediate model, whereby the non-canonical code observed in these green algal orders has a single origin. We suggest that the final steps from an ambiguous intermediate situation to a non-canonical code have been completed in the Trentepohliales, Dasycladales, Cladophorales and Blastophysa but not in the Bryopsidales. We hypothesize that in the latter lineage an initial stage characterized by translational ambiguity was

  17. Diversity and ecology of filamentous green conjugate algae

    OpenAIRE

    Strouhalová, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous conjugating algae have a cosmopolitan distribution. They often inhabit fragile freshwater habitats such as temporary hydrated ditches or puddles of melting snow. Occurrence in this environment entails having to deal with extreme conditions. That helps them to variously adaptation and also the formation of resistant stages. Algae belonging to this group have an important role in nature, because they are often the first species that inhabit newly created habitats and consequently al...

  18. Tracing floating green algae blooms in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea using Lagrangian transport simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Gyu; Son, Young Baek; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Lagrangian particle tracking experiments were conducted to understand the pathway of the floating green algae patches observed in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) in summer 2011. The numerical simulation results indicated that dominant southerly winds during June and July 2011 were related to offshore movement of the floating green algae, especially their eastward extension in the YS/ECS. An infrequent and unusual event occurred in June 2011: a severe Tropical Strom MEARI, caused the green algae to detach from the coast and initiated movement to the east. After the typhoon event, sea surface temperature recovered rapidly enough to grow the floating green algae, and wind and local current controlled the movement of the massive floating algae patches (coastal accumulation or offshore advection in the area). Analysis of the floating green algae movement using satellite images during passage of Typhoon MAON in July 2011 revealed that the floating green algae patches were significantly controlled by both ocean currents and enhanced winds. These findings suggest that the floating green algae bloom off Qingdao, China and in the middle of the YS and ECS in the summer of 2011 occurred due to the combined effects of recent rapid expansion of seaweed aquaculture, strong winds, and the wind patterns in blooming regions. Our combined approach, using satellite data and numerical simulations, provides a robust estimate for tracing and monitoring changes in green algae blooms on a regional scale.

  19. The toxic effects of lead on the freshwater green algae Chlorella and Scenedesmus

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Ly Hai Thi

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects of lead on two freshly-isolated freshwater green algae from the genera Chlorella and Scenedesmus. Effects on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and macromolecular composition were dependent on the duration of treatment and species as well as on the pH of the environment. The thesis contributes to our understanding of the ways in which heavy metals can affect the algae that are the basis of aquatic food chains.

  20. AlgaePath: comprehensive analysis of metabolic pathways using transcript abundance data from next-generation sequencing in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han-Qin; Chiang-Hsieh, Yi-Fan; Chien, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Bo-Kai Justin; Liu, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Chang, Wen-Chi

    2014-03-14

    Algae are important non-vascular plants that have many research applications, including high species diversity, biofuel sources, and adsorption of heavy metals and, following processing, are used as ingredients in health supplements. The increasing availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data for algae genomes and transcriptomes has made the development of an integrated resource for retrieving gene expression data and metabolic pathway essential for functional analysis and systems biology. In a currently available resource, gene expression profiles and biological pathways are displayed separately, making it impossible to easily search current databases to identify the cellular response mechanisms. Therefore, in this work the novel AlgaePath database was developed to retrieve transcript abundance profiles efficiently under various conditions in numerous metabolic pathways. AlgaePath is a web-based database that integrates gene information, biological pathways, and NGS datasets for the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4. Users can search this database to identify transcript abundance profiles and pathway information using five query pages (Gene Search, Pathway Search, Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Search, Gene Group Analysis, and Co-expression Analysis). The transcript abundance data of 45 and four samples from C. reinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4, respectively, can be obtained directly on pathway maps. Genes that are differentially expressed between two conditions can be identified using Folds Search. The Gene Group Analysis page includes a pathway enrichment analysis, and can be used to easily compare the transcript abundance profiles of functionally related genes on a map. Finally, the Co-expression Analysis page can be used to search for co-expressed transcripts of a target gene. The results of the searches will provide a valuable reference for designing further experiments and for elucidating critical

  1. Optical Remote Sensing Method to Estimate Green Tide Biomass Based on Floating Algae Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lianbo; Hu, Chuanmin; He, Mingxia

    2014-11-01

    Floating Algae Index (FAI) has been developed to detect various floating algae in open ocean environments using the medium-resolution (250- and 500-m) data from operational MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments. FAI method has been routinely used to identify and calculate the covering area of green tide in the Yellow Sea (YS) since 2009. In addition to green tide covering area, knowledge of the biomass is also important in studying green tide recycling, nutrient load, carbon cycling and for government management. In this study, in situ experiments were conducted to simultaneously measure the biomass and reflectance spectra of green tide on the sea surface in coastal waters off Qingdao on 9 and 11 June 2013. The in situ measurements showed high correlation between green tide biomass and FAI, from which an empirical method to estimate biomass using FAI could be developed.

  2. Photosynthetic recovery following desiccation of desert green algae (Chlorophyta) and their aquatic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis W; Lewis, Louise A; Cardon, Zoe G

    2007-10-01

    Recent molecular data suggest that desert green algae have evolved from freshwater ancestors at least 14 times in three major classes (Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Charophyceae), offering a unique opportunity to study the adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to life on land in a comparative phylogenetic framework. We examined the photorecovery of phylogenetically matched desert and aquatic algae after desiccation in darkness and under illumination. Desert algae survived desiccation for at least 4 weeks when dried in darkness, and recovered high levels of photosynthetic quantum yield within 1 h of rehydration in darkness. However, when 4 weeks of desiccation was accompanied by illumination, three of six desert taxa lost their ability to recover quantum yield during rehydration in the dark. Aquatic algae, in contrast, recovered very little during dark rehydration following even just 24 h of desiccation. Re-illuminating rehydrated algae produced a nearly complete recovery of quantum yield in all desert and two of five aquatic taxa. These contrasts provide physiological evidence that desert green algae possess mechanisms for photosynthetic recovery after desiccation distinct from those in aquatic relatives, corroborating molecular evidence that they are not happenstance, short-term visitors from aquatic environments. Photosensitivity during desiccation among desert algae further suggests that they may reside in protected microsites within crusts, and species specificity of photosensitivity suggests that disturbances physically disrupting crusts could lead to shifts or losses of taxonomic diversity within these habitats.

  3. Eukaryotic Life Inhabits Rhodolith-forming Coralline Algae (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta), Remarkable Marine Benthic Microhabitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Schmidt, William E.; Phung, Delena; Henry, Caroline; Sauvage, Thomas; Camacho, Olga; Felgenhauer, Bruce E.; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Rhodoliths are benthic calcium carbonate nodules accreted by crustose coralline red algae which recently have been identified as useful indicators of biomineral changes resulting from global climate change and ocean acidification. This study highlights the discovery that the interior of rhodoliths are marine biodiversity hotspots that function as seedbanks and temporary reservoirs of previously unknown stages in the life history of ecologically important dinoflagellate and haptophyte microalgae. Whereas the studied rhodoliths originated from offshore deep bank pinnacles in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the present study opens the door to assess the universality of endolithic stages among bloom-forming microalgae spanning different phyla, some of public health concerns (Prorocentrum) in marine ecosystems worldwide.

  4. Green algae in alpine biological soil crust communities: acclimation strategies against ultraviolet radiation and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are major components of biological soil crusts in alpine habitats. Together with cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens, green algae form a pioneer community important for the organisms that will succeed them. In their high altitudinal habitat these algae are exposed to harsh and strongly fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly intense irradiation, including ultraviolet radiation, and lack of water leading to desiccation. Therefore, green algae surviving in these environments must have evolved with either avoidance or protective strategies, as well as repair mechanisms for damage. In this review we have highlighted these mechanisms, which include photoprotection, photochemical quenching, and high osmotic values to avoid water loss, and in some groups flexibility of secondary cell walls to maintain turgor pressure even in water-limited situations. These highly specialized green algae will serve as good model organisms to study desiccation tolerance or photoprotective mechanisms, due to their natural capacity to withstand unfavorable conditions. We point out the urgent need for modern phylogenetic approaches in characterizing these organisms, and molecular methods for analyzing the metabolic changes involved in their adaptive strategies.

  5. Rapid mass movement of chloroplasts during segment formation of the calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larkum, Anthony W D; Salih, Anya; Kühl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba is abundant on coral reefs and is important in the production of calcium carbonate sediments. The process by which new green segments are formed over-night is revealed here for the first time.......The calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba is abundant on coral reefs and is important in the production of calcium carbonate sediments. The process by which new green segments are formed over-night is revealed here for the first time....

  6. Isolation of plasmid from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Tong, Shun; Zhang, Peijun; Tseng, C. K.

    1993-09-01

    CCC plasmid was isolated from an economically important blue-green alga — Spirulina platensis (1.7×106 dalton from the S6 strain and 1.2×106 dalton from the F3 strain) using a rapid method based on ultrasonic disruption of algal cells and alkaline removal of chromosomal DNA. The difference in the molecular weight of the CCC DNAs from the two strains differing in form suggests that plasmid may be related with the differentiation of algal form. This modified method, which does not use any lysozyme, is a quick and effective method of plasmid isolation, especially for filamentous blue-green algae.

  7. Algae façade as green building method: application of algae as a method to meet the green building regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerbo, Heru W.; Martokusumo, Widjaja; Donny Koerniawan, M.; Aulia Ardiani, Nissa; Krisanti, Susan

    2017-12-01

    The Local Government of Bandung city has stipulated a Green Building regulation through the Peraturan Walikota Number 1023/2016. Signed by the mayor in October 2016, Bandung became the first city in Indonesia that put green building as mandatory requirement in the building permit (IMB) process. Green Building regulation is intended to have more efficient consumption of energy and water, improved indoor air quality, management of liquid and solid waste etc. This objective is attained through various design method in building envelope, ventilation and air conditioning system, lighting, indoor transportation system, and electrical system. To minimize energy consumption of buildings that have large openings, sun shading device is often utilized together with low-E glass panes. For buildings in hot humid tropical climate, this method reduces indoor air temperature and thus requires less energy for air conditioning. Indoor air quality is often done by monitoring the carbon dioxide levels. Application of algae as part of building system façade has recently been introduced as replacement of large glass surface in the building façade. Algae are not yet included in the green building regulation because it is relatively new. The research will investigate, with the help of the modelling process and extensive literature, how effective is the implementation of algae in building façade to reduce energy consumption and improve its indoor air quality. This paper is written based on the design of ITB Innovation Park as an ongoing architectural design-based research how the algae-integrated building façade affects the energy consumption.

  8. The rapid quantitation of the filamentous blue-green alga plectonema boryanum by the luciferase assay for ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, V. N.

    1974-01-01

    Plectonema boryanum is a filamentous blue green alga. Blue green algae have a procaryotic cellular organization similar to bacteria, but are usually obligate photoautotrophs, obtaining their carbon and energy from photosynthetic mechanism similar to higher plants. This research deals with a comparison of three methods of quantitating filamentous populations: microscopic cell counts, the luciferase assay for ATP and optical density measurements.

  9. Resurrection kinetics of photosynthesis in desiccation-tolerant terrestrial green algae (Chlorophyta) on tree bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttge, U; Büdel, B

    2010-05-01

    The rough bark of orchard trees (Malus) around Darmstadt is predominantly covered in red to purple-brown layers (biofilms) of epiphytic terrestrial alga of Trentepohlia umbrina. The smooth bark of forest trees (Fagus sylvatica L. and Acer sp.) in the same area is covered by bright green biofilms composed of the green algae Desmococcus, Apatococcus and Trebouxia, with a few cells of Coccomyxa and 'Chlorella' trebouxioides between them. These algae are desiccation tolerant. After samples of bark with the biofilms were kept in dry air in darkness for various periods of time, potential quantum yield of PSII, F(v)/F(m), recovered during rehydration upon rewetting. The kinetics and degree of recovery depended on the length of time that the algae were kept in dry air in the desiccated state. Recovery was better for green biofilm samples, i.e. quite good even after 80 days of desiccation (F(v)/F(m) = ca. 50% of initial value), than the red samples, where recovery was only adequate up to ca. 30-40 days of desiccation (F(v)/F(m) = ca. 20-55% of initial value). It is concluded that the different bark types constitute different ecophysiological niches that can be occupied by the algae and that can be distinguished by their capacity to recover from desiccation after different times in the dry state.

  10. Desiccation stress and tolerance in green algae: Consequences for ultrastructure, physiological and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHolzinger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although most green algae typically occur in aquatic ecosystems, many species also live partly or permanently under aeroterrestrial conditions, where the cells are exposed to the atmosphere and hence regularly experience dehydration. The ability of algal cells to survive in an air-dried state is termed desiccation tolerance. The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of green algae are still poorly understood, and hence the aim of this review is to summarize recent findings on the effects of desiccation and osmotic water loss. Starting from structural changes, physiological and biochemical consequences of desiccation will be addressed in different green-algal lineages. The available data clearly indicate a range of strategies, which are rather different in streptophycean and non-streptophycean green algae. For example, Trebouxiophyceae exhibit effective water loss-prevention mechanisms based on the biosynthesis and accumulation of particular organic osmolytes such as polyols, these compounds are so far not reported in representatives of the Streptophyta. In members of the Streptophyta such as Klebsormidium, the most striking observation is the appearance of cross-walls in desiccated samples, which are strongly undulating, suggesting a high degree of mechanical flexibility. This allows the cell to maintain turgor pressure for a prolonged period of time during the dehydration process. Physiological strategies in aeroterrestrial green algae generally include a rapid reduction of photosynthesis during desiccation, but also a rather quick recovery after rewetting, whereas aquatic species are sensitive to drying. The underlying mechanisms such as the affected molecular components of the photosynthetic machinery are poorly understood in green algae. Therefore, modern approaches based on transcriptomics, proteomics and/or metabolomics are urgently needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in desiccation-stress physiology of

  11. Desiccation stress and tolerance in green algae: consequences for ultrastructure, physiological and molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Karsten, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although most green algae typically occur in aquatic ecosystems, many species also live partly or permanently under aeroterrestrial conditions, where the cells are exposed to the atmosphere and hence regularly experience dehydration. The ability of algal cells to survive in an air-dried state is termed desiccation tolerance. The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of green algae are still poorly understood, and hence the aim of this review is to summarize recent findings on the effects of desiccation and osmotic water loss. Starting from structural changes, physiological, and biochemical consequences of desiccation will be addressed in different green-algal lineages. The available data clearly indicate a range of strategies, which are rather different in streptophycean and non-streptophycean green algae. While members of the Trebouxiophyceae exhibit effective water loss-prevention mechanisms based on the biosynthesis and accumulation of particular organic osmolytes such as polyols, these compounds are so far not reported in representatives of the Streptophyta. In members of the Streptophyta such as Klebsormidium, the most striking observation is the appearance of cross-walls in desiccated samples, which are strongly undulating, suggesting a high degree of mechanical flexibility. This aids in maintaining structural integrity in the dried state and allows the cell to maintain turgor pressure for a prolonged period of time during the dehydration process. Physiological strategies in aeroterrestrial green algae generally include a rapid reduction of photosynthesis during desiccation, but also a rather quick recovery after rewetting, whereas aquatic species are sensitive to drying. The underlying mechanisms such as the affected molecular components of the photosynthetic machinery are poorly understood in green algae. Therefore, modern approaches based on transcriptomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics are urgently needed to better understand the molecular

  12. Harvesting green algae from eutrophic reservoir by electroflocculation and post-use for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Álvarez, Xana; Cancela, Ángeles; Sánchez, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Each year there are more frequent blooms of green algae and cyanobacteria, representing a serious environmental problem of eutrophication. Electroflocculation (EF) was studied to harvest the algae which are present in reservoirs, as well as different factors which may influence on the effectiveness of the process: the voltage applied to the culture medium, run times, electrodes separation and natural sedimentation. Finally, the viability of its use to obtain biodiesel was studied by direct transesterification. The EF process carried out at 10V for 1min, with an electrode separation of 5.5cm and a height of 4cm in culture vessel, obtained a recovery efficiency greater than 95%, and octadecenoic and palmitic acids were obtained as the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). EF is an effective method to harvest green algae during the blooms, obtaining the greatest amount of biomass for subsequent use as a source of biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction and physico-chemical characterization of a versatile biodegradable polysaccharide obtained from green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela; Caridade, Sofia G; Mano, João F; Sousa, Rui A; Reis, Rui L

    2010-10-13

    During the last years, considerable attention has been given to different marine organisms, like algae, as potential sources of valuable materials. The continuous demand for novel materials and technologies is high and research on the underexploited marine green algae, including its polysaccharidic part-ulvan, has increased accordingly. In this research work, a novel method for extraction of ulvan from green algae is proposed and demonstrated successfully. Different characterization techniques were employed to characterize the isolated algal polysaccharide, namely, on what concerns its thermal trace and crystallinity. Upon heating, ulvan behaves as a non-meltable polysaccharide that is thermally stable before degradation at 220°C. Ulvan is semi-crystalline in nature and possesses high hygroscopic features, as revealed in this research work. Due to its properties, ulvan can be considered, pure or modified, as a versatile biodegradable polymer for different applications, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxicity of 13 different antibiotics towards freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and their modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Huang, Tao; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Xiaohong; Su, Limin; Li, Chao; Zhao, Yuanhui

    2017-02-01

    Although modes of action (MOAs) play a key role in the understanding of the toxic mechanism of chemicals, the MOAs have not been investigated for antibiotics to green algae. This paper is to discriminate excess toxicity from baseline level and investigate the MOAs of 13 different antibiotics to algae by using the determined toxicity values. Comparison of the toxicities shows that the inhibitors of protein synthesis to bacteria, such as azithromycin, doxycycline, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, exhibit significantly toxic effects to algae. On the other hand, the cell wall synthesis inhibitors, such as cefotaxime and amoxicillin, show relatively low toxic effects to the algae. The concentrations determined by HPLC indicate that quinocetone and amoxicillin can be easily photodegraded or hydrolyzed during the toxic tests. The toxic effects of quinocetone and amoxicillin to the algae are attributed to not only their parent compounds, but also their metabolites. Investigation on the mode of action shows that, except rifampicin, all the tested antibiotics exhibit excess toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (P. subcapitata). These antibiotics can be identified as reactive modes of action to the algae. They act as electrophilic mechanism of action to P. subcapitata. These results are valuable for the understanding of the toxic mechanism to algae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variation in growth rate in a natural assemblage of unicellular green soil algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; De la Guerie, P.; Bell, G.

    2001-01-01

    Unicellular, motile, phototropic green algae were extracted from soil samples taken at metre intervals along a 25-m transect in a wheat field. The vegetative growth of 61 randomly selected isolates (henceforth called spores) was measured in dark and light conditions, and at high and low nutrient

  16. Effects of p-Cresol on photosynthetic and respiration rates of a filamentous green alga (spirogyra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing); Kilham, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of spilled phenols and cresols from coal gasification plants on the green alga SPIROYRA was investigated in experimental streams built by the US EPA near Monticello, Minnesota. P-Cresol at low concentrations inhibited photosynthesis and increased algal respiration rates. (JMT)

  17. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for green algae growth inhibition by polymer particles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Tom M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Hendriks, A Jan; van de Meent, Dik

    After use and disposal of chemical products, many types of polymer particles end up in the aquatic environment with potential toxic effects to primary producers like green algae. In this study, we have developed Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) for a set of highly structural

  18. Final technical report [Molecular genetic analysis of biophotolytic hydrogen production in green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mets, Laurens

    2000-12-31

    The principal objective of this project was to identify genes necessary for biophotolytic hydrogen production in green algae, using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an experimental organism. The main strategy was to isolate mutants that are selectively deficient in hydrogen production and to genetically map, physically isolate, and ultimately sequence the affected genes.

  19. On phycocyanin participation in the hill reaction of the blue-green alga synechococcus cedrorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Rover, W. de

    1955-01-01

    Release of part of the phycocyanin from grana of Synechococcus cedrorum results in a total loss of the ability to liberate oxygen photochemically. The experiments favour the view that, in the blue-green alga examined, the lamellae are composed of at least two proteinaceous components.

  20. Alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota of mice by edible blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H E; Martínez, I; Lee, J Y; Walter, J

    2009-10-01

    To characterize the effect of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) on the gastrointestinal microbiota of mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet supplemented with 0% or 5% dried Nostoc commune, Spirulina platensis or Afanizominon flos-aquae (w/w) for 4 weeks. Molecular fingerprinting of the colonic microbiota using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that administration of N. commune induced major alterations in colonic microbiota composition, while administration of S. platensis or A. flos-aquae had a more subtle impact. Community profile analysis revealed that administration of N. commune did not reduce microbial diversity indices of the colonic microbiota. Despite its pronounced effects on the bacterial composition in the colon, total bacterial numbers in the gut of mice fed N. commune were not reduced as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and bacteriological culture. The results presented here show that administration of blue-green algae, and especially N. commune, alters colonic microbiota composition in mice with limited effects on total bacterial numbers or microbial diversity. Blue-green algae are consumed in many countries as a source of nutrients and to promote health, and they are intensively studied for their pharmaceutical value. Given the importance of the gut microbiota for many host functions, the effects of blue-green algae on gut microbial ecology revealed during this study should be considered when using them as food supplements or when studying their pharmaceutical properties.

  1. Metribuzin impairs the unicell-colony transformation in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Active growth is a prerequisite for the formation of grazing-protective, mostly eight-celled colonies by the ubiquitous green alga Scenedesmus in response to chemical cues from zooplankton. Colonies can also be evoked by chemically quite similar manmade anionic surfactants, such as FFD-6. In this

  2. Protein knockouts in living eukaryotes using deGradFP and green fluorescent protein fusion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caussinus, Emmanuel; Kanca, Oguz; Affolter, Markus

    2013-09-24

    This unit describes deGradFP (degrade Green Fluorescent Protein), an easy-to-implement protein knockout method applicable in any eukaryotic genetic system. Depleting a protein in order to study its function in a living organism is usually achieved at the gene level (genetic mutations) or at the RNA level (RNA interference and morpholinos). However, any system that acts upstream of the proteic level depends on the turnover rate of the existing target protein, which can be extremely slow. In contrast, deGradFP is a fast method that directly depletes GFP fusion proteins. In particular, deGradFP is able to counteract maternal effects in embryos and causes early and fast onset loss-of-function phenotypes of maternally contributed proteins. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and...

  4. The eukaryotic fossil record in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, N.

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defining constituents of the Phanerozoic biosphere, but they also extend well back into the Proterozoic record, primarily in the form of microscopic body fossils. Criteria for identifying pre-Ediacaran eukaryotes include large cell size, morphologically complex cell walls and/or the recognition of diagnostically eukaryotic cell division patterns. The oldest unambiguous eukaryote currently on record is an acanthomorphic acritarch (Tappania) from the Palaeoproterozoic Semri Group of central India. Older candidate eukaryotes are difficult to distinguish from giant bacteria, prokaryotic colonies or diagenetic artefacts. In younger Meso- and Neoproterozoic strata, the challenge is to recognize particular grades and clades of eukaryotes, and to document their macro-evolutionary expression. Distinctive unicellular forms include mid-Neoproterozoic testate amoebae and phosphate biomineralizing 'scale-microfossils' comparable to an extant green alga. There is also a significant record of seaweeds, possible fungi and problematica from this interval, documenting multiple independent experiments in eukaryotic multicellularity. Taxonomically resolved forms include a bangiacean red alga and probable vaucheriacean chromalveolate algae from the late Mesoproterozoic, and populations of hydrodictyacean and siphonocladalean green algae of mid Neoproterozoic age. Despite this phylogenetic breadth, however, or arguments from molecular clocks, there is no convincing evidence for pre-Ediacaran metazoans or metaphytes. The conspicuously incomplete nature of the Proterozoic record makes it difficult to resolve larger-scale ecological and evolutionary patterns. Even so, both body fossils and biomarker data point to a pre-Ediacaran biosphere dominated overwhelming by prokaryotes. Contemporaneous eukaryotes appear to be limited to conspicuously shallow water environments, and exhibit fundamentally lower levels of morphological diversity and evolutionary turnover than

  5. Cryptochrome photoreceptors in green algae: Unexpected versatility of mechanisms and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottke, Tilman; Oldemeyer, Sabine; Wenzel, Sandra; Zou, Yong; Mittag, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Green algae have a highly complex and diverse set of cryptochrome photoreceptor candidates including members of the following subfamilies: plant, plant-like, animal-like, DASH and cryptochrome photolyase family 1 (CPF1). While some green algae encode most or all of them, others lack certain members. Here we present an overview about functional analyses of so far investigated cryptochrome photoreceptors from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (plant and animal-like cryptochromes) and Ostreococcus tauri (CPF1) with regard to their biological significance and spectroscopic properties. Cryptochromes of both algae have been demonstrated recently to be involved to various extents in circadian clock regulation and in Chlamydomonas additionally in life cycle control. Moreover, CPF1 even performs light-driven DNA repair. The plant cryptochrome and CPF1 are UVA/blue light receptors, whereas the animal-like cryptochrome responds to almost the whole visible spectrum including red light. Accordingly, plant cryptochrome, animal-like cryptochrome and CPF1 differ fundamentally in their structural response to light as revealed by their visible and infrared spectroscopic signatures, and in the role of the flavin neutral radical acting as dark form or signaling state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to green algae – towards a biotic ligand understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laruelle, Sacha; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Cupi, Denisa

    In recent years the effects of silver nanoparticles(AgNP) has become one of the most studied areas of in nanoecotoxicology. Several studies have concluded that the toxicity of AgNP to freshwater organisms may be explained by the release of ionic silver. In this study, a series of experiments...... with the freshwater green algae Pseudokirschneriella subcapitata were carried out to falsify the hypothesis: “The toxicity of silver nanoparticles towards algae is solely caused by the monovalent silver ion”. These experiments were based on PHREEQC modeling of silver ion behavior (added as AgNO3) in 72h OECD algal...

  7. MACROALGAL VOLUME: A SURROGATE FOR BIOMASS IN SOME GREEN ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two green algal morphotypes, filamentous species (e.g., Chaetomorpha spp.) and flattened or tubular (e.g.,Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) were collected from 63 sites within the Yaquina Bay estuary (Newport, OR) and used to compare an in situ volumetric biomass estimator to the...

  8. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmel, M; Lemieux, C; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Otis, C; Plante, I; Gray, M W

    1999-09-01

    Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae.

  9. [Evolutional relationships of endemic green algae Draparnaldioides simplex from Lake Baikal with nonbaicalian taxa of family Chaetoforaceae (Chlorophyta)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincheva, E V; Peretolchina, T E; Izhboldina, L A; Kravtsova, L S; Shcherbakov, D Iu

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships between the endemic baicalian green algae Draparnaldioides simplex C. meyer et Skabitsch, 1976 and holarctic taxa of green algae were studied using the fragment of 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 of nuclear DNA. We showed that the baicalian genus Draparnaldioides is a separate taxon. The genetic difference between Draparnaldioides and nonbaicalian taxa of the sister groups of the green algae are small enough to indicate relative youth of the genus Draparnaldioides and its recent radiation from a common ancestor with Draparnaldia and Chaetophora.

  10. The effect of low temperature on Antarctic endolithic green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Morris, G. J.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that undercooling to about -5 degrees C occurs in colonized Beacon sandstones of the Ross Desert, Antarctica. High-frequency temperature oscillations between 5 degrees C and -5 degrees C or -10 degrees C (which occur in nature on the rock surface) did not damage Hemichloris antarctica. In a cryomicroscope, H. antarctica appeared to be undamaged after slow or rapid cooling to -50 degrees C. 14CO2 incorporation after freezing to -20 degrees C was unaffected in H. antarctica or in Trebouxia sp. but slightly depressed in Stichococcus sp. (isolated from a less extreme Antarctic habitat). These results suggest that the freezing regime in the Antarctic desert is not injurious to endolithic algae. It is likely that the freezing-point depression inside the rock makes available liquid water for metabolic activity at subzero temperatures. Freezing may occur more frequently on the rock surface and contribute to the abiotic nature of the surface.

  11. Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing...

  12. Mixotrophy in the terrestrial green alga Apatococcus lobatus (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavs, Lydia; Schumann, Rhena; Karsten, Ulf; Lorenz, Maike

    2016-04-01

    The green microalga Apatococcus lobatus is widely distributed in terrestrial habitats throughout many climatic zones. It dominates green biofilms on natural and artificial substrata in temperate latitudes and is regarded as a key genus of obligate terrestrial consortia. Until now, its isolation, cultivation and application as a terrestrial model organism has been hampered by slow growth rates and low growth capacities. A mixotrophic culturing approach clearly enhanced the accumulation of biomass, thereby permitting the future application of A. lobatus in different types of bio-assays necessary for material and biofilm research. The ability of A. lobatus to grow mixotrophically is assumed as a competitive advantage in terrestrial habitats. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  13. Structure of PSI, PSII and antennae complexes from yellow-green alga Xanthonema debile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardian, Zdenko; Tichý, Josef; Vácha, František

    2011-05-01

    Photosynthetic carbon fixation by Chromophytes is one of the significant components of a carbon cycle on the Earth. Their photosynthetic apparatus is different in pigment composition from that of green plants and algae. In this work we report structural maps of photosystem I, photosystem II and light harvesting antenna complexes isolated from a soil chromophytic alga Xanthonema debile (class Xanthophyceae). Electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations followed by single particle analysis revealed that the overall structure of Xanthophytes' PSI and PSII complexes is similar to that known from higher plants or algae. Averaged top-view projections of Xanthophytes' light harvesting antenna complexes (XLH) showed two groups of particles. Smaller ones that correspond to a trimeric form of XLH, bigger particles resemble higher oligomeric form of XLH.

  14. Effects of removing symbiotic green algae on the response of Hydra viridissima (Pallas 1776) to metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karntanut, W; Pascoe, D

    2005-03-01

    Hydra viridissima is distinctively green due to symbiotic algae within the endodermal cells. The current investigation was designed to see if these algae influenced the response of Hydra to pollutants, by comparing the toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc to both symbiotic and aposymbiotic (free of their endosymbiotic algae) H. viridissima. The results demonstrated that the toxicity of the metals was generally similar for both groups of Hydra. However, at the lowest copper concentrations there was a difference between the two group of polyps, with aposymbiotic animals dying at concentrations where symbiotic Hydra survived. The lowest observed effect concentrations were 0.0068 and 0.016 mg/L for aposymbiotic and symbiotic Hydra, respectively. It is suggested that the symbiotic Hydra derive benefits from the association that enable them to better tolerate the toxicant. This work demonstrated that experimental manipulation of symbionts can help to explain their complex interactions and the ways in which they respond to pollutants.

  15. Evidence for land plant cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms in charophyte green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The charophyte green algae (CGA) are thought to be the closest living relatives to the land plants, and ancestral CGA were unique in giving rise to the land plant lineage. The cell wall has been suggested to be a defining structure that enabled the green algal ancestor......-cellulosic polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan, embedded in a matrix of pectic polysaccharides. How the land plant cell wall evolved is currently unknown: early-divergent chlorophyte and prasinophyte algae genomes contain a low number of glycosyl transferases (GTs), while land plants contain hundreds. The number of GTs...... to colonize land. These cell walls provide support and protection, are a source of signalling molecules, and provide developmental cues for cell differentiation and elongation. The cell wall of land plants is a highly complex fibre composite, characterized by cellulose cross-linked by non...

  16. A Green Algae Mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella Attenuates Obesity-Linked Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the responses to a green algae mixture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Schroederiella apiculata (SC) containing protein (46.1% of dry algae), insoluble fibre (19.6% of dry algae), minerals (3.7% of dry algae) and omega-3 fatty acids (2.8% of dry algae) as a dietary intervention in a high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in four groups of male Wistar rats. Two groups were fed with a corn starch diet containing 68% carbohydrates as polysaccharides, while the other two groups were fed a diet high in simple carbohydrates (fructose and sucrose in food, 25% fructose in drinking water, total 68%) and fats (saturated and trans fats from beef tallow, total 24%). High carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats showed visceral obesity with hypertension, insulin resistance, cardiovascular remodelling, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. SC supplementation (5% of food) lowered total body and abdominal fat mass, increased lean mass, and attenuated hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells into heart and liver, fibrosis, increased cardiac stiffness, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the high carbohydrate, high fat diet-fed rats. This study suggests that the insoluble fibre or protein in SC helps reverse diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:25875119

  17. A Green Algae Mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella Attenuates Obesity-Linked Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses to a green algae mixture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Schroederiella apiculata (SC containing protein (46.1% of dry algae, insoluble fibre (19.6% of dry algae, minerals (3.7% of dry algae and omega-3 fatty acids (2.8% of dry algae as a dietary intervention in a high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in four groups of male Wistar rats. Two groups were fed with a corn starch diet containing 68% carbohydrates as polysaccharides, while the other two groups were fed a diet high in simple carbohydrates (fructose and sucrose in food, 25% fructose in drinking water, total 68% and fats (saturated and trans fats from beef tallow, total 24%. High carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats showed visceral obesity with hypertension, insulin resistance, cardiovascular remodelling, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. SC supplementation (5% of food lowered total body and abdominal fat mass, increased lean mass, and attenuated hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells into heart and liver, fibrosis, increased cardiac stiffness, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the high carbohydrate, high fat diet-fed rats. This study suggests that the insoluble fibre or protein in SC helps reverse diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  18. Implication of blue green algae on yield attributes and economics of rice cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjana Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Indian agriculture is presently at cross roads as it has to increase output at one hand and has to take care of environmental aspects on the other hand. Rice cultivation is also facing the same dilemma. Use of blue green algae as bio fertilizer is one possible way to minimize application of synthetic fertilizers which have far reaching implications on environment and health. Present research study was formulated to screen most suitable combination of different species of cyanobacteria on yiel...

  19. The xanthophyll cycle and NPQ in diverse desert and aquatic green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunch, Claire K; Lafountain, Amy M; Thomas, Suzanne; Frank, Harry A; Lewis, Louise A; Cardon, Zoe G

    2013-07-01

    It has long been suspected that photoprotective mechanisms in green algae are similar to those in seed plants. However, exceptions have recently surfaced among aquatic and marine green algae in several taxonomic classes. Green algae are highly diverse genetically, falling into 13 named classes, and they are diverse ecologically, with many lineages including members from freshwater, marine, and terrestrial habitats. Genetically similar species living in dramatically different environments are potentially a rich source of information about variations in photoprotective function. Using aquatic and desert-derived species from three classes of green algae, we examined the induction of photoprotection under high light, exploring the relationship between nonphotochemical quenching and the xanthophyll cycle. In liquid culture, behavior of aquatic Entransia fimbriata (Klebsormidiophyceae) generally matched patterns observed in seed plants. Nonphotochemical quenching was lowest after overnight dark adaptation, increased with light intensity, and the extent of nonphotochemical quenching correlated with the extent of deepoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments. In contrast, overnight dark adaptation did not minimize nonphotochemical quenching in the other species studied: desert Klebsormidium sp. (Klebsormidiophyceae), desert and aquatic Cylindrocystis sp. (Zygnematophyceae), and desert Stichococcus sp. (Trebouxiophyceae). Instead, exposure to low light reduced nonphotochemical quenching below dark-adapted levels. De-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments paralleled light-induced changes in nonphotochemical quenching for species within Klebsormidiophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae, but not Zygnematophyceae. Inhibition of violaxanthin-zeaxanthin conversion by dithiothreitol reduced high-light-associated nonphotochemical quenching in all species (Zygnematophyceae the least), indicating that zeaxanthin can contribute to photoprotection as in seed plants but to different extents

  20. Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilroy, D J; Kauffman, K W; Hall, R A; Huang, X; Chu, F S

    2000-01-01

    The presence of blue-green algae (BGA) toxins in surface waters used for drinking water sources and recreation is receiving increasing attention around the world as a public health concern. However, potential risks from exposure to these toxins in contaminated health food products that contain BGA have been largely ignored. BGA products are commonly consumed in the United States, Canada, and Europe for their putative beneficial effects, including increased energy and elevated mood. Many of th...

  1. Health Benefits of Blue-Green Algae: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Chai Siah; Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-01-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) are among the most primitive life forms on earth and have been consumed as food or medicine by humans for centuries. BGA contain various bioactive components, such as phycocyanin, carotenoids, γ-linolenic acid, fibers, and plant sterols, which can promote optimal health in humans. Studies have demonstrated that several BGA species or their active components have plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering properties due to their modulation of intestinal cholester...

  2. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Some Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) from Freshwater Sites in Tokat Province of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tunay Karan; Ramazan Erenler; Zekeriya Altuner

    2017-01-01

    Collected blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) from freshwater sites throughout Tokat province and its outlying areas were isolated in laboratory environment and their morphological systematics were determined and also their species identifications were studied by molecular methods. Seven different species of blue-green algae collected from seven different sites were isolated by purifying in cultures in laboratory environment. DNA extractions were made from isolated cells and extracted DNAs were ...

  3. Unique regulation of the Calvin cycle in the ultrasmall green alga Ostreococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbens, Steven; Petersen, Jörn; Brinkmann, Henner; Rouzé, Pierre; Van de Peer, Yves

    2007-05-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapAB) and CP12 are two major players in controlling the inactivation of the Calvin cycle in land plants at night. GapB originated from a GapA gene duplication and differs from GapA by the presence of a specific C-terminal extension that was recruited from CP12. While GapA and CP12 are assumed to be generally present in the Plantae (glaucophytes, red and green algae, and plants), up to now GapB was exclusively found in Streptophyta, including the enigmatic green alga Mesostigma viride. However, here we show that two closely related prasinophycean green algae, Ostreococcus tauri and Ostreococcus lucimarinus, also possess a GapB gene, while CP12 is missing. This remarkable finding either antedates the GapA/B gene duplication or indicates a lateral recruitment. Moreover, Ostreococcus is the first case where the crucial CP12 function may be completely replaced by GapB-mediated GapA/B aggregation.

  4. The prospect function of terrestrial nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on the fixation of desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yusuo; Lei, Jiaqiang

    2003-07-01

    The Terrestrial Nitrogen-fixing Blue-green Algae, which are possessed of both photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, are the leading organisms in the adverse circumstances. With their typical cell structures and physiological abilities, they are strongly resistant to drought, infertility etc. The growth of Terrestrial Nitrogen-fixing Blue-green Algae can rich the soils in nitrogen and organic compounds, which are benefit to other microbes and plants. Terrestrial Nitrogen-fixing Blue-green Algae are widely distributed in Gurbantunggut Desert. It was estimated that about 40% of the surface of the desert are covered by the "Black Crust". "Black Crust" is mainly occupied by Terrestrial Nitrogen-fixing Blue-green Algae. It is Terrestrial Nitrogen-fixing Blue-green Algae that construct the mechanical crust with a little other algae and fungi through biological, chemical and physical actions. So Terrestrial Nitrogen-fixing Blue-green Algae play an important part in desert fixation. It was analyzed that there are three species of the blue-greens in the "Black Crust": Microcoleus vaginatus(Vauch)Gom.,Scytonema ocellatum Lynbye and Schizothrix mella Gardner. We had isolated Microcoleus vaginatus(Vauch)Gom. and Scytonema ocellatum Lynbye. Some tests had been made to prove the feasibility of the desert fixation of the Blue-greens. Under experiment conditions, the blue-greens grown on the surface of sand, covered the sand quickly after the inoculation, and formed a mechanical fixed surface layer (7 days for Microcoleus vaginatus, 15-21 days for Scytonema ocellatum).

  5. The role of GlsA in the evolution of asymmetric cell division in the green alga Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Fowler, Rachel; Tam, Lai-wa; Edwards, Lisseth; Miller, Stephen M

    2003-07-01

    Volvox carteri, a green alga in the order Volvocales, contains two completely differentiated cell types, small motile somatic cells and large reproductive cells called gonidia, that are set apart from each other during embryogenesis by a series of visibly asymmetric cell divisions. Mutational analysis has revealed a class of genes (gonidialess, gls) that are required specifically for asymmetric divisions in V. carteri, but that are dispensable for symmetric divisions. Previously we cloned one of these genes, glsA, and showed that it encodes a chaperone-like protein (GlsA) that has close orthologs in a diverse set of eukaryotes, ranging from fungi to vertebrates and higher plants. In the present study we set out to explore the role of glsA in the evolution of asymmetric division in the volvocine algae by cloning and characterizing a glsA ortholog from one of the simplest members of the group, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which does not undergo asymmetric divisions. This ortholog (which we have named gar1, for glsA related) is predicted to encode a protein that is 70% identical to GlsA overall, and that is most closely related to GlsA in the same domains that are most highly conserved between GlsA and its other known orthologs. We report that a gar1 transgene fully complements the glsA mutation in V. carteri, a result that suggests that asymmetric division probably arose through the modification of a gene whose product interacts with GlsA, but not through a modification of glsA itself.

  6. The mitochondrial respiratory chain of the secondary green alga Euglena gracilis shares many additional subunits with parasitic Trypanosomatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Emilie; Lapaille, Marie; Degand, Hervé; Cilibrasi, Laura; Villavicencio-Queijeiro, Alexa; Morsomme, Pierre; González-Halphen, Diego; Field, Mark C; Remacle, Claire; Baurain, Denis; Cardol, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The mitochondrion is an essential organelle for the production of cellular ATP in most eukaryotic cells. It is extensively studied, including in parasitic organisms such as trypanosomes, as a potential therapeutic target. Recently, numerous additional subunits of the respiratory-chain complexes have been described in Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. Since these subunits had apparently no counterparts in other organisms, they were interpreted as potentially associated with the parasitic trypanosome lifestyle. Here we used two complementary approaches to characterise the subunit composition of respiratory complexes in Euglena gracilis, a non-parasitic secondary green alga related to trypanosomes. First, we developed a phylogenetic pipeline aimed at mining sequence databases for identifying homologues to known respiratory-complex subunits with high confidence. Second, we used MS/MS proteomics after two-dimensional separation of the respiratory complexes by Blue Native- and SDS-PAGE both to confirm in silico predictions and to identify further additional subunits. Altogether, we identified 41 subunits that are restricted to E. gracilis, T. brucei and T. cruzi, along with 48 classical subunits described in other eukaryotes (i.e. plants, mammals and fungi). This moreover demonstrates that at least half of the subunits recently reported in T. brucei and T. cruzi are actually not specific to Trypanosomatidae, but extend at least to other Euglenozoa, and that their origin and function are thus not specifically associated with the parasitic lifestyle. Furthermore, preliminary biochemical analyses suggest that some of these additional subunits underlie the peculiarities of the respiratory chain observed in Euglenozoa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what...

  8. Antioxidant properties of some filamentous green algae (Chaetomorpha Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoumeh Farasat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Chaetomorpha species including C. aerea, C. crassa, C. linum and C. brachygona. Eight samples of Chaetomorpha plants were collected from five locations along the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran from December 2010 until October 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. C. linum showed highest antioxidant potential with a relatively low IC50 (1.484 ± 0.168 mg mL-1, the highest flavonoid content (18.177 ± 2.238 mg RE g-1 and a relatively high content of phenolics (2.895 ± 0.415 mg GAE g-1 in comparison with the other species. C. crassa, which was collected from two different areas, showed lowest antioxidant activity and lowest phenolics and flavonoid contents than other species. Results revealed that IC50, total phenolics and flavonoid content were influenced by the time of collection and location. Also there were positive correlations between the phenolic and flavonoid contents with DPPH radical scavenging activity (p<0.01. The results suggested that some of these filamentous green seaweeds possessed antioxidant potential, which could be considered for future applications in medicine, food or cosmetic industries.

  9. Impact of green algae on the measurement of Microcystis aeruginosa populations in lagoon-treated wastewater with an algae online analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2015-01-01

    Tests on the algae online analyser (AOA) showed that there was a strong direct linear correlation between cell density and in vivo Chl-a concentration for M. aeruginosa over the range of interest for a biologically treated effluent at a wastewater treatment plant (25,000-65,000 cells mL(-1), equivalent to a biovolume of 2-6 mm3 L(-1)). However, the AOA can provide an overestimate or underestimate of M. aeruginosa populations when green algae are present in the effluent, depending on their species and relative numbers. The results from this study demonstrated that the green algae (e.g., Euglena gracilis, Chlorella sp.) in the field phytoplankton population should be considered during calibration. In summary, the AOA has potential for use as an alert system for the presence of M. aeruginosa, and thus potentially of cyanobacterial blooms, in wastewater stabilization ponds.

  10. Lead (Pb heavy metal impacts in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of different lead (Pb (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L concentrations in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta marine algae at physiological level has been investigated 48 h after Pb treatment under laboratory conditions. Thalus algae damages followed Pb treatment as revealed by microscopy test showed that the 4 and 8 mg/L Pb caused morphological changes in cells viability; whereas, no effect observed at the lowest Pb applied concentration (2 mg/L. Data revealed that Pb stress caused reduction in most investigated physiological parameters i.e. Pigments content, osmotic potential and membrane stability index values. This decline in osmotic potential was significantly (p ≤ 0.001 different. Whereas, estimated electric conductivity (EC values increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001 as applied Pb concentration increased. The current study allowed somewhat to highlight and better understanding Pb impacts in U. lactuca algae. Thereby, the studied algae could be used as a useful bioindicator in Pb polluted ecosystems.

  11. Removal of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan by the green alga Nannochloris sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuelian; Acharya, Kumud

    2016-09-05

    Trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and triclosan (TCS) are widely used and continuously released into aquatic environments. Freshwater algae can be responsible for the uptake and transfer of the contaminants because they are a major food source for most aquatic organisms. This research applied incubation studies to evaluate the removal efficiency of TMP, SMX, and TCS by the green alga Nannochloris sp. The results showed that the hydrophilic antibiotics TMP and SMX remained in the algal culture at 100% and 68%, respectively, after 14days of incubation, and therefore were not significantly removed from the medium. However, the lipophilic antimicrobial TCS was significantly removed from the medium. Immediately after incubation began, 74% of TCS dissipated and 100% of TCS was removed after 7days of incubation. Additionally, over 42% of TCS was found associated with the algal cells throughout the incubation. The results demonstrate that the presence of Nannochloris sp. eliminated TCS in the aquatic system, but could not significantly remove the antibiotics TMP and SMX. The removal mechanisms of SMX and TCS were found to be different in the algal culture. Algae-promoted photolysis was the primary process for removing SMX and algae-mediated uptake played a major role in removing TCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Three novel species of coccoid green algae within the Watanabea clade (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huiyin; Hu, Yuxin; Zhu, Huan; Wang, Qinghua; Liu, Guoxiang; Hu, Zhengyu

    2016-12-01

    Coccoid green algae are extremely diverse despite their simple coccoid phenotype, a phenotype that may be the result of convergent evolution. In this study, we used a polyphasic approach combining molecular phylogenetic analyses, morphology and ultrastructure to investigate isolated coccoid strains from China, and our results reveal three new lineages of Trebouxiophyceae: the novel genus and species Mysteriochloris nanningensis gen. et sp. nov., and the two novel species Phyllosiphon coccidium sp. nov. and Desertella yichangensis sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). We provide a detailed characterization of the novel microalgae which they are autosporic coccoid unicells and have parietal chloroplasts. In phylogenies based on 18S rDNA sequences and the chloroplast ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL), these three algae are nested within the Watanabea clade and are different from any known algae. M. nanningensis FACHB-1787 is not really close to any known algae within the Watanabea clade. Phyllosiphoncoccidium FACHB-2212 is within the Phyllosiphon lineages. D. yichangensis FACHB-1793 is closely related to Desertella californica and described as a representative of a novel species of the genus Desertella.

  13. Removal of phenanthrene from coastal waters by green tide algae Ulva prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Lu, Jian; Wu, Jun; Luo, Yongming

    2017-12-31

    Ulva prolifera (U. prolifera) has been frequently involved in terrible algal proliferation in coastal areas. Although it is known to be associated with green tide, its contribution to the natural attenuation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater has not been evaluated. In this study, the removal of phenanthrene using U. prolifera collected from coastal water with green tide blooming was investigated. The results showed that phenanthrene could be removed efficiently in the presence of both the live and heat-killed U. prolifera. The phenanthrene concentrations of the live algae treatment decreased smoothly from 10.00 to 0.80μgL -1 through the whole process, while those of the heat-killed algae treatment decreased sharply from 10.0 to 2.71μgL -1 in one day and kept constantly after that. The in situ monitoring and visualizing using laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) confirmed the accumulation of phenanthrene in U. prolifera. The increase in nutrient and temperature led to the increase of phenanthrene removal rate, while the salinity had less influence on the removal of phenanthrene. The removal efficiency by U. prolifera had a good linear relationship with phenanthrene initial concentration (r 2 =0.999) even at 100μgL -1 which was higher than its environmentally relevant concentrations. High removal efficiency (91.3%) was observed when the initial phenanthrene concentration was set at environmental relevant concentration (5μgL -1 ). Results of this study demonstrate a potential new natural attenuation process for typical PAHs in coastal water during the outbreak of green tide. These findings indicate that the outbreak of harmful green tide algae may bring positive environmental benefits in the terms of the removal of harmful organic pollutants from coastal waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic analysis of organismal complexity in the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochnik, Simon E.; Umen, James; Nedelcu, Aurora; Hallmann, Armin; Miller, Stephen M.; Nishii, Ichiro; Ferris, Patrick; Kuo, Alan; Mitros, Therese; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Hellsten, Uffe; Chapman, Jarrod; Simakov, Oleg; Rensing, Stefan A.; Terry, Astrid; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Jurka, Jerzy; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Schmitt, Rudiger; Kirk, David; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of the Volvox carteri genome reveals that this green alga's increased organismal complexity and multicellularity are associated with modifications in protein families shared with its unicellular ancestor, and not with large-scale innovations in protein coding capacity. The multicellular green alga Volvox carteri and its morphologically diverse close relatives (the volvocine algae) are uniquely suited for investigating the evolution of multicellularity and development. We sequenced the 138 Mb genome of V. carteri and compared its {approx}14,500 predicted proteins to those of its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Despite fundamental differences in organismal complexity and life history, the two species have similar protein-coding potentials, and few species-specific protein-coding gene predictions. Interestingly, volvocine algal-specific proteins are enriched in Volvox, including those associated with an expanded and highly compartmentalized extracellular matrix. Our analysis shows that increases in organismal complexity can be associated with modifications of lineage-specific proteins rather than large-scale invention of protein-coding capacity.

  15. Distribution of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta in streams of Mt. Stara planina: Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Snežana B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of blue-green algae was studied at 14 sites along five streams in the Stara Planina mountains. Algological samples were taken from the community of benthos and periphyton in the spring (March-May 1991, summer (June-August 1991, August 1996, July 1997, and autumn (September-November 1991, September 1997. Algae of the classes Chamaesiphonophyceae (species of the genus Chamaesiphon and Hormogoniophyceae (species of the genera Symploca, Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Schizothrix, Nostoc, Rivularia Homoeothrix, Tolypothrix, and Plectonema were recorded. The species Chamaesiphon cylindricus, Symploca radians, Phormidium coutinhoi, Nostoc coeruleum, Homoeothrix janthina, Plectonema thomasinianum, and Tolypothrix distorta were registered herein first time in Serbia. Occurrence of blue-green algae in highland brooks and rivers of the Stara Planina mountains was monitored in relation to a large number of abiotic factors e.g. altitude above level, stream dimensions (width and depth, substrate bottom type (%, current flow rate, water temperature and pH oxygen concentration, concentrations of nitrates and phosphates, and BOD5, using Principal Coordinates analysis (PCX.

  16. An investigation of glycolate excretion in two species of blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K H; Miller, A G; Colman, B

    1972-06-01

    The amount of (14)C-glycolate excreted by Oscillatoria sp. and Anabaena flos-aquae is less than 1% of the (14)C fixed by the algae during photosynthesis. Transfer of cells grown on 5% CO2 in air to a medium of low bicarbonate concentration or treatment of the cells with isonicotinyl hydrazide (INH) during photosynthesis, caused little increase in glycolate excretion. α-Hydroxysulfonates failed to stimulate massive excretion of glycolate. Although these blue-green algae excreted little glycolate, a significant proportion of the photosynthetically fixed carbon was excreted in the form of basic, neutral and acidic compounds, and such excretion was greater in 5% CO2-grown cells than in air-grown cells.

  17. Oxidation of c-Type Cytochromes by the Membrane-Bound Cytochrome Oxidase (Cytochrome aa(3)) of Blue-Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzl, P F; Peschek, G A

    1982-03-01

    Respiratory particles containing an aa(3)-type cytochrome oxidase were prepared from Anacystis nidulans, Synechocystis 6714, Synechococcus lividus, Anabaena variabilis, Nostoc sp. strain MAC, Nostoc muscorum, and Mastigocladus laminosus. Oxidation of c-type cytochromes by membrane preparations of the different blue-green algae was observed using purified cytochromes from horse heart, Candida krusei, tuna, Saccharomyces oviformis, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodospirillum molischianum, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodocyclus purpureus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Anacystis nidulans, Anabaena variabilis, Euglena gracilis, and Scenedesmus obliquus. Rapid oxidations were consistently observed with the mitochondrial c-type cytochromes (horse heart cytochrome c reacts most rapidly) and with cytochromes c(2) from Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodocyclus purpureus; in contrast, the cytochrome c(2) from Rhodospirillum rubrum and the plastidic cytochromes from E. gracilis and Scendesmus obliquus were inactive with all membrane preparations. All reactions were inhibited by low concentrations of KCN, NaN(3), and CO, and they were activated by Tween 80, thus indicating participation of the terminal oxidase. The results are discussed in view of the spectral similarities between the terminal oxidase of blue-green algae and the mitochondrial aa(3)-type cytochrome oxidase of plants and other eukaryotes.

  18. DNA barcoding of a new record of epi-endophytic green algae Ulvella leptochaete (Ulvellaceae, Chlorophyta) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Felix; Bhushan, Satej; John, Aijaz Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Epi-endophytic green algae comprise one of the most diverse and phylogenetically primitive groups of green algae and are considered to be ubiquitous in the world's oceans; however, no reports of these algae exist from India. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of Ulvella growing on intertidal green algae Cladophora glomerata and benthic red algae Laurencia obtusa collected from India. DNA barcodes at nuclear ribosomal DNA Internal Transcriber Spacer (nrDNA ITS) 1 and 2 regions for Indian isolates from the west and east coasts have been generated for the first time. Based on morphology and DNA barcoding, isolates were identified as Ulvella leptochaete. Phylogenetic reconstruction of concatenated dataset using Maximum Likelihood method differentiated Indian isolates from other accessions of this alga available in Genbank, albeit with low bootstrap support. Monophyly of Ulvella leptochaete was obvious in both of our phylogenetic analyses. With this first report of epi-endophytic algae from Indian territorial waters, the dire need to catalogue its cryptic diversity is highlighted and avenues of future research are discussed.

  19. A lack of parasitic reduction in the obligate parasitic green alga Helicosporidium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Pombert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of an obligate parasitic lifestyle is often associated with genomic reduction, in particular with the loss of functions associated with increasing host-dependence. This is evident in many parasites, but perhaps the most extreme transitions are from free-living autotrophic algae to obligate parasites. The best-known examples of this are the apicomplexans such as Plasmodium, which evolved from algae with red secondary plastids. However, an analogous transition also took place independently in the Helicosporidia, where an obligate parasite of animals with an intracellular infection mechanism evolved from algae with green primary plastids. We characterised the nuclear genome of Helicosporidium to compare its transition to parasitism with that of apicomplexans. The Helicosporidium genome is small and compact, even by comparison with the relatively small genomes of the closely related green algae Chlorella and Coccomyxa, but at the functional level we find almost no evidence for reduction. Nearly all ancestral metabolic functions are retained, with the single major exception of photosynthesis, and even here reduction is not complete. The great majority of genes for light-harvesting complexes, photosystems, and pigment biosynthesis have been lost, but those for other photosynthesis-related functions, such as Calvin cycle, are retained. Rather than loss of whole function categories, the predominant reductive force in the Helicosporidium genome is a contraction of gene family complexity, but even here most losses affect families associated with genome maintenance and expression, not functions associated with host-dependence. Other gene families appear to have expanded in response to parasitism, in particular chitinases, including those predicted to digest the chitinous barriers of the insect host or remodel the cell wall of Helicosporidium. Overall, the Helicosporidium genome presents a fascinating picture of the early stages of a

  20. Common Ancestry Is a Poor Predictor of Competitive Traits in Freshwater Green Algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Narwani

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton species traits have been used to successfully predict the outcome of competition, but these traits are notoriously laborious to measure. If these traits display a phylogenetic signal, phylogenetic distance (PD can be used as a proxy for trait variation. We provide the first investigation of the degree of phylogenetic signal in traits related to competition in freshwater green phytoplankton. We measured 17 traits related to competition and tested whether they displayed a phylogenetic signal across a molecular phylogeny of 59 species of green algae. We also assessed the fit of five models of trait evolution to trait variation across the phylogeny. There was no significant phylogenetic signal for 13 out of 17 ecological traits. For 7 traits, a non-phylogenetic model provided the best fit. For another 7 traits, a phylogenetic model was selected, but parameter values indicated that trait variation evolved recently, diminishing the importance of common ancestry. This study suggests that traits related to competition in freshwater green algae are not generally well-predicted by patterns of common ancestry. We discuss the mechanisms by which the link between phylogenetic distance and phenotypic differentiation may be broken.

  1. The identification of putative RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain associated proteins in red and green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunlin; Hager, Paul W; Stiller, John W

    2014-01-01

    A tandemly repeated C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II is functionally essential and strongly conserved in many organisms, including animal, yeast and plant models. Although present in simple, ancestral red algae, CTD tandem repeats have undergone extensive modifications and degeneration during the evolutionary transition to developmentally complex rhodophytes. In contrast, CTD repeats are conserved in both green algae and their more complex land plant relatives. Understanding the mechanistic differences that underlie these variant patterns of CTD evolution requires knowledge of CTD-associated proteins in these 2 lineages. To provide an initial baseline comparison, we bound potential phospho-CTD associated proteins (PCAPs) to artificially synthesized and phosphorylated CTD repeats from the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicate that red and green algae share a number of PCAPs, including kinases and proteins involved in mRNA export. There also are important taxon-specific differences, including mRNA splicing-related PCAPs recovered from Chlamydomonas but not Cyanidioschyzon, consistent with the relative intron densities in green and red algae. Our results also offer the first experimental indication that different proteins bind 2 distinct types of repeats in Cyanidioschyzon, suggesting a division of function between the proximal and distal CTD, similar to patterns identified in more developmentally complex model organisms.

  2. Hylodesmus singaporensis gen. et sp. nov., a new autosporic subaerial green alga (Scenedesmaceae, Chlorophyta) from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliás, Marek; Nemcová, Yvonne; Skaloud, Pavel; Neustupa, Jirí; Kaufnerová, Veronika; Sejnohová, Lenka

    2010-05-01

    The algal flora of subaerial habitats in the tropics remains largely unexplored, despite the fact that it potentially encompasses a wealth of new evolutionary diversity. Here we present a detailed morphological and molecular characterization of an autosporic coccoid green alga isolated from decaying wood in a natural forest in Singapore. Depending on culture conditions, this alga formed globular to irregularly oval solitary cells. Autosporulation was the only mode of reproduction observed. The cell periphery was filled with numerous vacuoles, and a single parietal chloroplast contained a conspicuous pyrenoid surrounded by a bipartite starch envelope. The cell wall was composed of a thick inner layer and a thin trilaminar outer layer, and the cell surface was ornamented with a few delicate ribs. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA gene sequences placed our strain in the family Scenedesmaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae) as a strongly supported sister branch of the genus Desmodesmus. Analyses of an alternative phylogenetic marker widely used for the Scenedesmaceae, the ITS2 region, confirmed that the strain is distinct from any scenedesmacean alga sequenced to date, but is related to the genus Desmodesmus, despite lacking the defining phenotypic features of Desmodesmus (cell wall with four sporopolleninic layers ornamented with peculiar submicroscopic structures). Collectively, our results establish that we identified a novel, previously undocumented, evolutionary lineage of scenedesmacean algae necessitating its description as a new species in a new genus. We propose it be named Hylodesmus singaporensis gen. et sp. nov. A cryopreserved holotype specimen has been deposited into the Culture Collection of Algae of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (CAUP) as CAUP C-H8001.

  3. Central and storage carbon metabolism of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus: insights into the origin and evolution of storage carbohydrates in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gurvan; Tonon, Thierry; Scornet, Delphine; Cock, J Mark; Kloareg, Bernard

    2010-10-01

    • Brown algae exhibit a unique carbon (C) storage metabolism. The photoassimilate D-fructose 6-phosphate is not used to produce sucrose but is converted into D-mannitol. These seaweeds also store C as β-1,3-glucan (laminarin), thus markedly departing from most living organisms, which use α-1,4-glucans (glycogen or starch). • Using a combination of bioinformatic and phylogenetic approaches, we identified the candidate genes for the enzymes involved in C storage in the genome of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus and traced their evolutionary origins. • Ectocarpus possesses a complete set of enzymes for synthesis of mannitol, laminarin and trehalose. By contrast, the pathways for sucrose, starch and glycogen are completely absent. • The synthesis of β-1,3-glucans appears to be a very ancient eukaryotic pathway. Brown algae inherited the trehalose pathway from the red algal progenitor of phaeoplasts, while the mannitol pathway was acquired by lateral gene transfer from Actinobacteria. The starch metabolism of the red algal endosymbiont was entirely lost in the ancestor of Stramenopiles. In light of these novel findings we question the validity of the 'Chromalveolate hypothesis'.

  4. Abiotic stress tolerance of charophyte green algae: New challenges for omics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHolzinger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charophyte green algae are a paraphyletic group of freshwater and terrestrial green algae, comprising the classes of Chlorokybophyceae, Coleochaetphyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesostigmatophyceae and Charophyceae. Zygnematophyceae (Conjugating green algae are considered to be closest algal relatives to land plants (Embryophyta. Therefore, they are ideal model organisms for studying stress tolerance mechanisms connected with transition to land, one of the most important events in plant evolution and the Earth’s history. In Zygnematophyceae, but also in Coleochaetophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Klebsormidiophyceae terrestrial members are found which are frequently exposed to naturally occurring abiotic stress scenarios like desiccation, freezing and high photosynthetic active (PAR as well as ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Here, we summarize current knowledge about various stress tolerance mechanisms including insight provided by pioneer transcriptomic and proteomic studies.While formation of dormant spores is a typical strategy of freshwater classes, true terrestrial groups are stress tolerant in vegetative state. Aggregation of cells, flexible cell walls, mucilage production and accumulation of osmotically active compounds are the most common desiccation tolerance strategies. In addition, high photophysiological plasticity and accumulation of UV-screening compounds are important protective mechanisms in conditions with high irradiation. Now a shift from classical chemical analysis to next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, genome-scale molecular analysis using omics technologies followed by computer-assisted analysis will give new insights in a systems biology approach. For example, changes in transcriptome and role of phytohormone signaling in Klebsormidium during desiccation were recently described. Application of these modern approaches will deeply enhance our understanding of stress reactions

  5. Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sikaily, Amany [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt); Nemr, Ahmed El [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmedmoustafaelnemr@yahoo.com; Khaled, Azza; Abdelwehab, Ola [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2007-09-05

    Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH {approx}1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g{sup -1} for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of wall ultrastructure in the green alga Pediastrum s.l. (Chlorophyta, Sphaeropleales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenarczyk Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined wall ultrastructure variability in the microscopic green alga Pediastrum s.l. Its value as a diagnostic character is discussed. Field and cultured material of 21 taxa were compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Nine ultrastructural elements occurring on the surface of Pediastrum are documented with LM and SEM micrographs. The highest number of taxa showed reticulate ornamentation composed of a trigonal mesh and granules situated on its corners. The paper considers the use of wall ultrastructure to reconcile traditional and modern taxonomical systems with regard to Pediastrum varieties, and addresses the phylogenetic relationships between strains representing different varieties.

  7. New additions of coccoid green algae to the phycoflora of Brazil and the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo José Peixoto Ramos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents 11 new additions of coccoid green algae to the phycoflora of Brazil, including the first record of the genus Westellopsis for the neotropical region. Samples of periphyton and plankton were collected in two areas of the Marimbus Wetlands (the Marimbus do Baiano and Marimbus do Remanso, within the Marimbus-Iraquara Environmentally Protected Area, in the Chapada Diamantina Region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Sample collection occurred during dry periods (April-June and August 2011 and rainy periods (October-December 2011 and February 2012. Here, we describe the taxa identified from the 56 samples collected.

  8. Comparative analyses of chloroplast genome data representing nine green algae in Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Fučíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chloroplast genomes of green algae are highly variable in their architecture. In this article we summarize gene content across newly obtained and published chloroplast genomes in Chlorophyceae, including new data from nine of species in Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta. We present genome architecture information, including genome synteny analysis across two groups of species. Also, we provide a phylogenetic tree obtained from analysis of gene order data for species in Chlorophyceae with fully sequenced chloroplast genomes. Further analyses and interpretation of the data can be found in “Chloroplast phylogenomic data from the green algal order Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta reveal complex patterns of sequence evolution” (Fučíková et al., In review [1].

  9. Size-dependent ecotoxicity of barium titanate particles: the case of Chlorella vulgaris green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Humberto M; Raposo, Nádia R B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Mouton, Ludovic; Couté, Alain; Yéprémian, Claude; Sivry, Yann; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-05-01

    Studies have been demonstrating that smaller particles can lead to unexpected and diverse ecotoxicological effects when compared to those caused by the bulk material. In this study, the chemical composition, size and shape, state of dispersion, and surface's charge, area and physicochemistry of micro (BT MP) and nano barium titanate (BT NP) were determined. Green algae Chlorella vulgaris grown in Bold's Basal (BB) medium or Seine River water (SRW) was used as biological indicator to assess their aquatic toxicology. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic activity were evaluated. Tetragonal BT (~170 nm, 3.24 m(2) g(-1) surface area) and cubic BT (~60 nm, 16.60 m(2) g(-1)) particles were negative, poorly dispersed, and readily aggregated. BT has a statistically significant effect on C. vulgaris growth since the lower concentration tested (1 ppm), what seems to be mediated by induced oxidative stress caused by the particles (increased SOD activity and decreased photosynthetic efficiency and intracellular ATP content). The toxic effects were more pronounced when the algae was grown in SRW. Size does not seem to be an issue influencing the toxicity in BT particles toxicity since micro- and nano-particles produced significant effects on algae growth.

  10. Influence of Speciation of Thorium on Toxic Effects to Green Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Can; Ma, Yuhui; Ding, Yayun; He, Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Lan, Tu; Wang, Dongqi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2017-04-10

    Thorium (Th) is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has the potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the influence and toxicity of Th in the environment. In the present study, the toxicity of Th to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa ( C. pyrenoidosa ) was evaluated by algal growth inhibition, biochemical assays and morphologic observations. In the cultural medium (OECD TG 201), Th(NO₃)₄ was transformed to amorphous precipitation of Th(OH)₄ due to hydrolysis. Th was toxic to C. pyrenoidosa , with a 96 h half maximum effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 10.4 μM. Scanning electron microscopy shows that Th-containing aggregates were attached onto the surface of the algal cells, and transmission electron microscopy indicates the internalization of nano-sized Th precipitates and ultrastructural alterations of the algal cells. The heteroagglomeration between Th(OH)₄ precipitation and alga cells and enhanced oxidative stress might play important roles in the toxicity of Th. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the toxicity of Th to algae with its chemical species in the exposure medium. This finding provides useful information on understanding the fate and toxicity of Th in the aquatic environment.

  11. Triacylglycerol is produced from starch and polar lipids in the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Uri; Avidan, Omri

    2017-10-13

    The halotolerant green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta accumulates starch and triacylglycerol (TAG) amounting to 70% and 10-15% of total cellular carbon, respectively, when exposed to nitrogen (N) deprivation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the inter-relationships between the biosynthesis of TAG, starch, and polar lipids (PLs) in this alga. Pulse labeling with [14C]bicarbonate was utilized to label starch and [14C]palmitic acid (PlA) to label lipids. Transfer of 14C into TAG was measured and used to calculate rates of synthesis. About two-thirds of the carbon in TAG originates from starch, and one-third is made de novo by direct CO2 assimilation. The level made from degradation of pre-formed PLs is estimated to be very small. Most of the de novo synthesis involves fatty acid transfer through PLs made during the first day of N deprivation. The results suggest that starch made by photosynthetic carbon assimilation at the early stages of N deprivation is utilized for synthesis of TAG. Trans-acylation from PLs is the second major contributor to TAG biosynthesis. The utilization of starch for TAG biosynthesis may have biotechnological applications to optimize TAG biosynthesis in algae. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Suitability of Contact-Free Oxygen Optical Microsensors for Measuring Respiration and Photosynthesis in Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen optical microsensors are a sensitive method to monitor oxygen production and consumption in soils, sediments, and aquatic systems. They have been used widely to analyze the activity and metabolism of aerobic organisms, also in ecotoxicological tests. We aimed to assess the suitability of a contact-free device to measure cell respiration and photosynthesis for future applications in ecotoxicological tests. One of the most important advantages of this modified method is that respiration and photosynthesis of test organisms which are contaminated with test chemicals can be measured without contact between sensor and test medium. Therefore, it avoids sensor contamination. In an array of calibration tests with Chlorella vulgaris in green algae medium, algal cell activity was well-correlated with cell counts. Results clearly showed that, compared to O2 evolution rate, O2 assimilation rate measured by oxygen optical microsensors in a contact-free manner could better predict the algae cell counts. In a second test series we measured O2 assimilation rate in soil from a field experiment inoculated with different communities of terrestrial algae. No significant difference was observed when comparing measurements of their activity with microsensors to results obtained with the Warburg respiratory manometer. However, optical microsensors are much faster and more easily applied than the traditional manometer. Therefore, the developed method appears promising for application in ecotoxicological tests in the future.

  13. (Carbon and hydrogen metabolism of green algae in light and dark)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The focus of this project was the elucidation of anaerobic metabolism in ecuaryotic green algae, chlamydomonas reinhardii. Chlamydomonas is a versatile organism that can grow under disparate conditions such as fresh water lakes and sewage ponds. The cell an photoassimilate CO{sub 2} aerobically and anaerobically, the latter after adaptation'' to a hydrogen metabolism. It can recall the knallgas or oxyhydrogen reaction and utilize hydrogen the simplest of all reducing agents for the dark assimilation of CO{sub 2} by the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. The dark reduction with hydrogen lies on the border line between autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon assimilation. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria are known in which molecular hydrogen can replace either inorganic or organic hydrogen donors. Here the dark reduction of CO{sub 2} acquires a particular importance since it occurs in the same cell that carries on photoreduction and photosynthesis. We will demonstrate here that the alga chloroplast possesses a respiratory capacity. It seems likely that Chlamydomonas may have retained the chloroplastic respiratory pathway because of the selective advantage provided to the algae under a wide range of environmental conditions that the cells experience in nature. The ability to cycle electrons and poise the reduction level of the photosynthetic apparatus under aerobic and microaerobic conditions could allow more efficient CO{sub 2} fixation and enhanced growth under unfavorable conditions or survival under more severe conditions.

  14. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using marine green algae, Ulva lactuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ghoneim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of marine algae for removal of metals from the aqueous solution. The green alga, Ulva lactuca, collected from the intertidal zone of the Suez Bay, northern part of the Red Sea was used to reduce cadmium levels from the aqueous solutions. The biosorption mechanisms of Cd2+ ions onto the algal tissues were examined using various analytical techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results indicated that at the optimum pH value of 5.5; about 0.1 g of U. lactuca was enough to remove 99.2% of 10 mg L−1 Cd2+ at 30 °C in the aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data were well fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The monolayer adsorption capacity was 29.1 mg g−1. The calculated RL and ‘n’ values have proved the favorability of cadmium adsorption onto U. lactuca. The desorption test revealed that HCl was the best for the elution of metals from the tested alga. In conclusion, the seaweed U. lactuca was the favorable alternative of cadmium removal from water.

  15. Influence of Speciation of Thorium on Toxic Effects to Green Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Peng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thorium (Th is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has the potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the influence and toxicity of Th in the environment. In the present study, the toxicity of Th to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa was evaluated by algal growth inhibition, biochemical assays and morphologic observations. In the cultural medium (OECD TG 201, Th(NO34 was transformed to amorphous precipitation of Th(OH4 due to hydrolysis. Th was toxic to C. pyrenoidosa, with a 96 h half maximum effective concentration (EC50 of 10.4 μM. Scanning electron microscopy shows that Th-containing aggregates were attached onto the surface of the algal cells, and transmission electron microscopy indicates the internalization of nano-sized Th precipitates and ultrastructural alterations of the algal cells. The heteroagglomeration between Th(OH4 precipitation and alga cells and enhanced oxidative stress might play important roles in the toxicity of Th. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the toxicity of Th to algae with its chemical species in the exposure medium. This finding provides useful information on understanding the fate and toxicity of Th in the aquatic environment.

  16. Determination of Volatile Compounds in Four Commercial Samples of Japanese Green Algae Using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings. PMID:24592162

  17. Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Baldermann, Susanne; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

  18. Determination of Volatile Compounds in Four Commercial Samples of Japanese Green Algae Using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS, has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera, Tokushima (Ulva prolifera, and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza. Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera. Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum. Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

  19. Plutonium uptake by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz, as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacik, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of plutonium chemical valence state on the availability of small concentrations of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu to algae. The uptake experiments involved the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, grown in batch cultures. Plutonium concentrations accumulated by this alga were linearly related to plutonium concentrations. There was no significant difference (rho = 0.05) in algal plutonium accumulations, on a mass basis, of either /sup 238/Pu or /sup 239/Pu in either Pu/sup +4/ or Pu/sup +6/ oxidation state at the concentrations studied.

  20. Physiological and biochemical responses of the freshwater green algae Closterium ehrenbergii to the common disinfectant chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathasivam, Ramaraj; Ebenezer, Vinitha; Guo, Ruoyu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2016-11-01

    Chlorine (Cl2) is widely used as a disinfectant in water treatment plants and for cleaning swimming pools; it is finally discharged into aquatic environments, possibly causing damage to the non-target organisms in the receiving water bodies. Present study evaluated the effects of the biocide Cl2 to the green alga Closterium ehrenbergii (C. ehrenbergii). Growth rate, chlorophyll a levels, carotenoids, chlorophyll autofluorescence, and antioxidant enzymes were monitored up to 72-h after Cl2 exposure. C. ehrenbergii showed dose-dependent decrease in growth rate and cell division after exposure to Cl2. By using cell counts, the median effective concentration (EC50)-72-h was calculated to be 0.071mgL(-1). Cl2 significantly decreased the pigment levels and chlorophyll autofluorescence intensity, indicating that the photosystem was damaged in C. ehrenbergii. In addition, it increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. This stressor significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione, and affected the physiology of the cells. These results indicate that Cl2 induces oxidative stress in the cellular metabolic process and leads to physiological and biochemical damages in the green algae. Cl2 discharged in industrial effluents and from water treatment plants may cause harmful effects to the C. ehrenbergii a common freshwater microalgae and other non-target organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for green algae growth inhibition by polymer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tom M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Hendriks, A Jan; van de Meent, Dik

    2017-07-01

    After use and disposal of chemical products, many types of polymer particles end up in the aquatic environment with potential toxic effects to primary producers like green algae. In this study, we have developed Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) for a set of highly structural diverse polymers which are capable to estimate green algae growth inhibition (EC50). The model (N = 43, R 2  = 0.73, RMSE = 0.28) is a regression-based decision tree using one structural descriptor for each of three polymer classes separated based on charge. The QSAR is applicable to linear homo polymers as well as copolymers and does not require information on the size of the polymer particle or underlying core material. Highly branched polymers, non-nitrogen cationic polymers and polymeric surfactants are not included in the model and thus cannot be evaluated. The model works best for cationic and non-ionic polymers for which cellular adsorption, disruption of the cell wall and photosynthesis inhibition were the mechanisms of action. For anionic polymers, specific properties of the polymer and test characteristics need to be known for detailed assessment. The data and QSAR results for anionic polymers, when combined with molecular dynamics simulations indicated that nutrient depletion is likely the dominant mode of toxicity. Nutrient depletion in turn, is determined by the non-linear interplay between polymer charge density and backbone flexibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for equal size cell divisions during gametogenesis in a marine green alga Monostroma angicava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Tatsuya; Horinouchi, Yusuke; Sasaki, Hironobu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-03

    In cell divisions, relative size of daughter cells should play fundamental roles in gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Differences in gamete size between the two mating types underlie sexual selection. Size of daughter cells is a key factor to regulate cell divisions during cleavage. In cleavage, the form of cell divisions (equal/unequal in size) determines the developmental fate of each blastomere. However, strict validation of the form of cell divisions is rarely demonstrated. We cannot distinguish between equal and unequal cell divisions by analysing only the mean size of daughter cells, because their means can be the same. In contrast, the dispersion of daughter cell size depends on the forms of cell divisions. Based on this, we show that gametogenesis in the marine green alga, Monostroma angicava, exhibits equal size cell divisions. The variance and the mean of gamete size (volume) of each mating type measured agree closely with the prediction from synchronized equal size cell divisions. Gamete size actually takes only discrete values here. This is a key theoretical assumption made to explain the diversified evolution of isogamy and anisogamy in marine green algae. Our results suggest that germ cells adopt equal size cell divisions during gametogenesis.

  3. Phagotrophy by the picoeukaryotic green alga Micromonas: implications for Arctic Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie-Krisberg, Zaid M; Sanders, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE) are recognized as major primary producers and contributors to phytoplankton biomass in oceanic and coastal environments. Molecular surveys indicate a large phylogenetic diversity in the picoeukaryotes, with members of the Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyseae tending to be more common in open ocean waters and Prasinophyceae dominating coastal and Arctic waters. In addition to their role as primary producers, PPE have been identified in several studies as mixotrophic and major predators of prokaryotes. Mixotrophy, the combination of photosynthesis and phagotrophy in a single organism, is well established for most photosynthetic lineages. However, green algae, including prasinophytes, were widely considered as a purely photosynthetic group. The prasinophyte Micromonas is perhaps the most common picoeukaryote in coastal and Arctic waters and is one of the relatively few cultured representatives of the picoeukaryotes available for physiological investigations. In this study, we demonstrate phagotrophy by a strain of Micromonas (CCMP2099) isolated from Arctic waters and show that environmental factors (light and nutrient concentration) affect ingestion rates in this mixotroph. In addition, we show size-selective feeding with a preference for smaller particles, and determine P vs I (photosynthesis vs irradiance) responses in different nutrient conditions. If other strains have mixotrophic abilities similar to Micromonas CCMP2099, the widespread distribution and frequently high abundances of Micromonas suggest that these green algae may have significant impact on prokaryote populations in several oceanic regimes.

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of ulvan, a polysaccharide extracted from green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela; Sousa, Rui A; Reis, Rui L

    2013-08-01

    Sustainable exploitation and valorization of natural marine resources represents a highly interesting platform for the development of novel biomaterials, with both economic and environmental benefits. In this context, toxicity data is regarded as a crucial and fundamental knowledge prior to any advances in the application development of natural derived polymers. In the present work, cytotoxicity of ulvan extracted from green algae Ulva lactuca was assessed by means of standard in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Fibroblast-like cells were incubated in the presence of this green algae's polysaccharide, and cell viability was assayed through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium test. In addition, double stranded DNA and total protein were quantified in order to assess cell number. In order to establish ulvan's non-cytotoxic behaviour, the effect of this polysaccharide on cellular metabolic activity and cell number was directly compared to hyaluronic acid (HA), used as a non-cytotoxic control material. In this study, ulvan demonstrated promising results in terms of cytotoxicity, comparable to the currently used HA, which suggests that ulvan can be considered as non-toxic in the range of concentrations studied. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Blue green alga mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Suganya, K.S. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Govindaraju, K., E-mail: govindtu@gmail.com [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Ganesh Kumar, V.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Singaravelu, G. [Nanoscience Division, Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Elanchezhiyan, M. [Department of Microbiology, Dr ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play an important role in design and development of nanomedicine. Synthesis of AuNPs from biogenic materials is environmentally benign and possesses high bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties. In the present study, blue green alga Spirulina platensis protein mediated synthesis of AuNPs and its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria is discussed. AuNPs were characterized using Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Stable, well defined AuNPs of smaller and uniform shape with an average size of ∼ 5 nm were obtained. The antibacterial efficacy of protein functionalized AuNPs were tested against Gram positive organisms Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. - Highlights: • Size controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles from blue green alga Spirulina platensis • Stability of gold nanoparticles at different temperatures • Potent antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms.

  6. Iron colloids reduce the bioavailability of phosphorus to the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Stijn; Nawara, Sophie; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; Smolders, Erik

    2014-08-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a limiting nutrient in many aquatic systems. The bioavailability of P in natural waters strongly depends on its speciation. In this study, structural properties of iron colloids were determined and related to their effect on P sorption and P bioavailability. The freshwater green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata was exposed to media spiked with radiolabelled (33)PO4, and the uptake of (33)P was monitored for 1 h. The media contained various concentrations of synthetic iron colloids with a size between 10 kDa and 0.45 μm. The iron colloids were stabilised by natural organic matter. EXAFS spectroscopy showed that these colloids predominantly consisted of ferrihydrite with small amounts of organically complexed Fe. In colloid-free treatments, the P uptake flux by the algae obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In the presence of iron colloids at 9 or 90 μM Fe, corresponding to molar P:Fe ratios between 0.02 and 0.17, the truly dissolved P (colloids reduced the P uptake flux by R. subcapitata compared to colloid-free treatments at the same total dissolved P concentration. However, the P uptake flux from colloid containing solutions equalled that from colloid-free ones when expressed as truly dissolved P. This demonstrates that colloidal P did not contribute to the P uptake flux. It is concluded that, on the short term, phosphate adsorbed to ferrihydrite colloids is not available to the green alga R. subcapitata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arabinogalactan proteins have deep roots in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervé, Cécile; Siméon, Amandine; Jam, Murielle

    2016-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated, hydroxyproline-rich proteins found at the cell surface of plants, where they play key roles in developmental processes. Brown algae are marine, multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. They belong to the phylum Stramenopiles, which...... is unrelated to land plants and green algae (Chloroplastida). Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-rich cell wall. They differ markedly from plants in their cell wall composition, and AGPs have not been reported in brown algae. Here we...... glycan epitopes in a range of brown algal cell wall extracts. We demonstrated that these chimeric AGP-like core proteins are developmentally regulated in embryos of the order Fucales and showed that AGP loss of function seriously impairs the course of early embryogenesis. Our findings shine a new light...

  8. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  9. A eukaryotic genome of 660 kb: electrophoretic karyotype of nucleomorph and cell nucleus of the cryptomonad alga, Pyrenomonas salina.

    OpenAIRE

    Eschbach, S.; Hofmann, C J; Maier, U. G.; Sitte, P; Hansmann, P.

    1991-01-01

    Cryptomonads are unicellular algae with chloroplasts surrounded by four membranes. Between the inner and the outer pairs of membranes is a narrow plasmatic compartment which contains a nucleus-like organelle called the nucleomorph. Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis it is shown that the nucleomorph of the cryptomonad Pyrenomonas salina contains three linear chromosomes of 195 kb, 225 kb and 240 kb all of which encode rRNAs. Thus, this vestigial nucleus has a haploid genome size of 660 kb,...

  10. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A functional zeaxanthin epoxidase from red algae shedding light on the evolution of light-harvesting carotenoids and the xanthophyll cycle in photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautermann, Oliver; Lohr, Martin

    2017-12-01

    The epoxy-xanthophylls antheraxanthin and violaxanthin are key precursors of light-harvesting carotenoids and participate in the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle. Thus, the invention of zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) catalyzing their formation from zeaxanthin has been a fundamental step in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. ZEP genes have only been found in Viridiplantae and chromalveolate algae with secondary plastids of red algal ancestry, suggesting that ZEP evolved in the Viridiplantae and spread to chromalveolates by lateral gene transfer. By searching publicly available sequence data from 11 red algae covering all currently recognized red algal classes we identified ZEP candidates in three species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the red algal ZEP is most closely related to ZEP proteins from photosynthetic chromalveolates possessing secondary plastids of red algal origin. Its enzymatic activity was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of red algal pigment extracts and by cloning and functional expression of the ZEP gene from Madagascaria erythrocladioides in leaves of the ZEP-deficient aba2 mutant of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Unlike other ZEP enzymes examined so far, the red algal ZEP introduces only a single epoxy group into zeaxanthin, yielding antheraxanthin instead of violaxanthin. The results indicate that ZEP evolved before the split of Rhodophyta and Viridiplantae and that chromalveolates acquired ZEP from the red algal endosymbiont and not by lateral gene transfer. Moreover, the red algal ZEP enables engineering of transgenic plants incorporating antheraxanthin instead of violaxanthin in their photosynthetic machinery. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of selenium compounds in the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umysová, Dáša; Vítová, Milada; Doušková, Irena; Bišová, Kateřina; Hlavová, Monika; Čížková, Mária; Machát, Jiří; Doucha, Jiří; Zachleder, Vilém

    2009-01-01

    Background Selenium is a trace element performing important biological functions in many organisms including humans. It usually affects organisms in a strictly dosage-dependent manner being essential at low and toxic at higher concentrations. The impact of selenium on mammalian and land plant cells has been quite extensively studied. Information about algal cells is rare despite of the fact that they could produce selenium enriched biomass for biotechnology purposes. Results We studied the impact of selenium compounds on the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. Both the dose and chemical forms of Se were critical factors in the cellular response. Se toxicity increased in cultures grown under sulfur deficient conditions. We selected three strains of Scenedesmus quadricauda specifically resistant to high concentrations of inorganic selenium added as selenite (Na2SeO3) – strain SeIV, selenate (Na2SeO4) – strain SeVI or both – strain SeIV+VI. The total amount of Se and selenomethionine in biomass increased with increasing concentration of Se in the culturing media. The selenomethionine made up 30–40% of the total Se in biomass. In both the wild type and Se-resistant strains, the activity of thioredoxin reductase, increased rapidly in the presence of the form of selenium for which the given algal strain was not resistant. Conclusion The selenium effect on the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was not only dose dependent, but the chemical form of the element was also crucial. With sulfur deficiency, the selenium toxicity increases, indicating interference of Se with sulfur metabolism. The amount of selenium and SeMet in algal biomass was dependent on both the type of compound and its dose. The activity of thioredoxin reductase was affected by selenium treatment in dose-dependent and toxic-dependent manner. The findings implied that the increase in TR activity in algal cells was a stress response to selenium cytotoxicity. Our study provides a new

  13. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of selenium compounds in the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doucha Jiří

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is a trace element performing important biological functions in many organisms including humans. It usually affects organisms in a strictly dosage-dependent manner being essential at low and toxic at higher concentrations. The impact of selenium on mammalian and land plant cells has been quite extensively studied. Information about algal cells is rare despite of the fact that they could produce selenium enriched biomass for biotechnology purposes. Results We studied the impact of selenium compounds on the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. Both the dose and chemical forms of Se were critical factors in the cellular response. Se toxicity increased in cultures grown under sulfur deficient conditions. We selected three strains of Scenedesmus quadricauda specifically resistant to high concentrations of inorganic selenium added as selenite (Na2SeO3 – strain SeIV, selenate (Na2SeO4 – strain SeVI or both – strain SeIV+VI. The total amount of Se and selenomethionine in biomass increased with increasing concentration of Se in the culturing media. The selenomethionine made up 30–40% of the total Se in biomass. In both the wild type and Se-resistant strains, the activity of thioredoxin reductase, increased rapidly in the presence of the form of selenium for which the given algal strain was not resistant. Conclusion The selenium effect on the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was not only dose dependent, but the chemical form of the element was also crucial. With sulfur deficiency, the selenium toxicity increases, indicating interference of Se with sulfur metabolism. The amount of selenium and SeMet in algal biomass was dependent on both the type of compound and its dose. The activity of thioredoxin reductase was affected by selenium treatment in dose-dependent and toxic-dependent manner. The findings implied that the increase in TR activity in algal cells was a stress response to selenium cytotoxicity

  14. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extractable substances (anionic surfactants) from membrane filters induce morphological changes in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; Beekman, W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of filtration of medium through different kinds of filters (glass fiber, mixed esters of cellulose and nitrocellulose) on the morphology in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was examined. Several compounds potentially released from membrane filters were further investigated, and among

  16. Extractable substances (anionic surfactants) from membrane filters induce morphological changes in the green alga Scenedesmus Obliquus (Chlorophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; Beekman, W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of filtration of medium through different kinds of filters (glass fiber, mixed esters of cellulose and nitrocellulose) on the morphology in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was examined. Several compounds potentially released from membrane filters were further investigated, and among

  17. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  18. The toxicity of plastic nanoparticles to green algae as influenced by surface modification, medium hardness and cellular adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Tom M.; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Kleijn, Mieke; Garnæs, Jørgen; Meent, van de Dik; Jan Hendriks, A.; Baun, Anders

    2017-01-01

    To investigate processes possibly underlying accumulation and ecological effects of plastic nano-particles we have characterized their interaction with the cell wall of green algae. More specifically, we have investigated the influence of particle surface functionality and water hardness (Ca2+

  19. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingchong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  20. Overview on biological activities and molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae in recent years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-09-25

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  1. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  2. Release of reduced inorganic selenium species into waters by the green fresh water algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Denina Bobbie Dawn; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2011-03-15

    The common green fresh water algae Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to starting concentrations of 10 μg/L selenium in the form of selenate, selenite, or selenocyanate (SeCN(-)) for nine days in 10% Bold's basal medium. Uptake of selenate was more pronounced than that of selenite, and there was very little uptake of selenocyanate. Upon uptake of selenate, significant quantities of selenite and selenocyanate were produced by the algae and released back into the growth medium; no selenocyanate was released after selenite uptake. Release of the reduced metabolites after selenate exposure appeared to coincide with increasing esterase activity in solution, indicating that cell death (lysis) was the primary emission pathway. This is the first observation of biotic formation of selenocyanate and its release into waters from a nonindustrial source. The potential environmental implications of this laboratory observation are discussed with respect to the fate of selenium in impacted aquatic systems, the ecotoxicology of selenium bioaccumulation, and the interpretation of environmental selenium speciation data generated, using methods incapable of positively identifying reduced inorganic selenium species, such as selenocyanate.

  3. The influence of nitrogen on heterocyst production in blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Roann E.; Carr, John F.

    1969-01-01

    A series of experiments on heterocyst production in Anabaena variabilis provides some strong indirect evidence for the role of heterocysts in nitrogen fixation. Of the algae tested (Anabaena variabilis, A. inaequalis, A. cylindrica, A. flos-aquae, Tolypothrix distorta, Gloeotrichia echinulata, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Oscillatoria sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa), only those with heterocysts grew in a nitrate-free medium. Growth in the nitrate-free medium was accompanied by an increase in heterocysts. Heterocyst formation in A. variabilis was evident 24 hr after transfer from a nitrate-containing to a nitrate-free medium. The number of heterocysts was altered by changes in the nitrogen source. Numbers were lowest when NH4-N was used as a nitrogen source and highest when nitrogen (N2-N) was derived from the atmosphere. Heterocyst numbers could also be regulated by controlling the concentration of NO3-N in the medium. Heterocyst production depended on the absence of combined nitrogen and the presence of phosphate. Data are presented on the occurrence of blue-green algae (with heterocysts) in Lake Erie and the environmental conditions apparently necessary for them to become dominant.

  4. Genetic basis for soma is present in undifferentiated volvocine green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochau-Wright, Z I; Hanschen, E R; Ferris, P J; Hamaji, T; Nozaki, H; Olson, B J S C; Michod, R E

    2017-06-01

    Somatic cellular differentiation plays a critical role in the transition from unicellular to multicellular life, but the evolution of its genetic basis remains poorly understood. By definition, somatic cells do not reproduce to pass on genes and so constitute an extreme form of altruistic behaviour. The volvocine green algae provide an excellent model system to study the evolution of multicellularity and somatic differentiation. In Volvox carteri, somatic cell differentiation is controlled by the regA gene, which is part of a tandem duplication of genes known as the reg cluster. Although previous work found the reg cluster in divergent Volvox species, its origin and distribution in the broader group of volvocine algae has not been known. Here, we show that the reg cluster is present in many species without somatic cells and determine that the genetic basis for soma arose before the phenotype at the origin of the family Volvocaceae approximately 200 million years ago. We hypothesize that the ancestral function was involved in regulating reproduction in response to stress and that this function was later co-opted to produce soma. Determining that the reg cluster was co-opted to control somatic cell development provides insight into how cellular differentiation, and with it greater levels of complexity and individuality, evolves. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Changes in photosynthetic rate and pigment content of blue-green algae in Lake Mendota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, A; Brock, T D

    1978-03-01

    Blue-green algal blooms were present in Lake Mendota (Dane County, Wis.) from June to November 1976. Concentrations of total algal biomass and of particular algal species were monitored and compared with the pigment contents (chlorophyll a and phycocyanin) and photosynthetic rate of the algal populations. The specific photosynthetic rate (micrograms of C fixed per microgram of chlorophyll a per hour) was a good measure of the physiological state of the algae because this quantity increased just before each population increase and decreased before algal densities diminished. Since the quantity of light in the epilimnion which was available for photosynthesis by algal cells decreased in summer when the high algal densities attenuated incoming radiation, we investigated the possibility that the organisms would utilize lower light intensities more efficiently by increasing their pigment contents. Although some evidence of enhanced utilization of low light levels was found in the period from July to October, this result was not due to increasing chlorophyll and phycocyanin contents. There was a decrease in the phycocyanin content of the algae during this period, perhaps related to the availability of inorganic nitrogen.

  6. Detection, purification and characterization of a lectin from freshwater green algae Spirogyra spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIA S. DE OLIVEIRA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Freshwater algae are rich sources of structurally biologically active metabolites, such as fatty acids, steroids, carotenoids and polysaccharides. Among these metabolites, lectins stand out. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune origin which bind to carbohydrates or glycoconjugates, without changing ligand structure. Many studies have reported on the use of Spirogyra spp. as effective bioindicators of heavy metals; however, reports on Spirogyra molecular bioprospecting are quite limited. Therefore, this study aimed to detect, isolate, purify and characterize a lectin present in the freshwater green algae Spirogyra. Presence of the lectin protein in the extract was detected by hemagglutination assays. Subsequently, the protein extract was subjected to a sugar inhibition assay to identify the lectin-specific carbohydrate. Following this, the extract was applied to a guar gum column to afford the pure lectin. The lectin was inhibited by N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-acetyl-beta-D-mannose, but more strongly by D-galactose. The apparent molecular mass of the purified lectin was evaluated by Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE. Electrophoretic analysis revealed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 56 kDa. Thus, it could be concluded that a lectin was purified from Spirogyra spp.

  7. Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by green algae Spirogyra species: Kinetics and equilibrium studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Rastogi, A. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2008-03-21

    Biosorption is the effective method for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available, filamentous green algae Spirogyra sp. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the biosorption properties of the biomass and it was observed that the maximum adsorption capacity of Pb(II) ion was around 140 mg metal/g of biomass at pH 5.0 in 100 min with 200 mg/L of initial concentration. Temperature change in the range 20-40 deg. C affected the adsorption capacity and the nature of the reaction was found to be endothermic in nature. Uptake kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium is well described by Langmuir isotherm. Isotherms have been used to determine thermodynamic parameters of the process, viz., free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change. Various properties of the algae, as adsorbent, explored in the characterization part were chemical composition of the adsorbent, thermal analysis by TGA, surface area calculation by BET method, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope images and surface functionality by FTIR. FTIR analysis of algal biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of metal ions. The results indicated that the biomass of Spirogyra sp. is an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

  8. Characterization of a heat-shock-inducible hsp70 gene of the green alga Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Hallmann, Armin; Edwards, Lisseth; Miller, Stephen M

    2006-04-12

    The green alga Volvox carteri possesses several thousand cells, but just two cell types: large reproductive cells called gonidia, and small, biflagellate somatic cells. Gonidia are derived from large precursor cells that are created during embryogenesis by asymmetric cell divisions. The J domain protein GlsA (Gonidialess A) is required for these asymmetric divisions and is believed to function with an Hsp70 partner. As a first step toward identifying this partner, we cloned and characterized V. carteri hsp70A, which is orthologous to HSP70A of the related alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Like HSP70A, V. carteri hsp70A contains multiple heat shock elements (HSEs) and is highly inducible by heat shock. Consistent with these properties, Volvox transformants that harbor a glsA antisense transgene that is driven by an hsp70A promoter fragment express Gls phenotypes that are temperature-dependent. hsp70A appears to be the only gene in the genome that encodes a cytoplasmic Hsp70, so we conclude that Hsp70A is clearly the best candidate to be the chaperone that participates with GlsA in asymmetric cell division.

  9. Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by green algae Spirogyra species: kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K; Rastogi, A

    2008-03-21

    Biosorption is the effective method for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available, filamentous green algae Spirogyra sp. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the biosorption properties of the biomass and it was observed that the maximum adsorption capacity of Pb(II) ion was around 140mgmetal/g of biomass at pH 5.0 in 100min with 200mg/L of initial concentration. Temperature change in the range 20-40 degrees C affected the adsorption capacity and the nature of the reaction was found to be endothermic in nature. Uptake kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium is well described by Langmuir isotherm. Isotherms have been used to determine thermodynamic parameters of the process, viz., free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change. Various properties of the algae, as adsorbent, explored in the characterization part were chemical composition of the adsorbent, thermal analysis by TGA, surface area calculation by BET method, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope images and surface functionality by FTIR. FTIR analysis of algal biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of metal ions. The results indicated that the biomass of Spirogyra sp. is an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

  10. Fatty acid profiles of four filamentous green algae under varying culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although benthic filamentous algae are interesting targets for wastewater treatment and biotechnology, relatively little is known about their biochemical composition and variation in response to growth conditions. Fatty acid composition of four benthic filamentous green algae was determined in different culture conditions. Although the response was partly species-dependent, increasing culture age, nitrogen deprivation and dark exposure of stationary phase greatly increased both total fatty acid content (TFA) from 12-35 to 40-173mgg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the relative proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from 21-58% to 55-87% of TFA, with dark exposure having the greatest effect. However, the main variation in fatty acid composition was between species, with Uronema being rich in C16:0 (2.3% of DW), Klebsormidium in C18:2ω6 (5.4% of DW) and Stigeoclonium in C18:3ω3 (11.1% of DW). This indicates the potential of the latter two species as potential sources of these PUFAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of Selected Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products by the Green Alga Nannochloris sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X.; Acharya, K.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging contaminants have become an increasing concern in the environment due to their ubiquitous distribution and potential adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Municipal wastewater is a major source of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The ecotoxic impacts of PPCPs on aquatic organisms include development of antimicrobial resistance, decreases in plankton diversity, and endocrine disruption. Freshwater algae can be responsible for the uptake and transfer of the contaminants because they are a major food source for most aquatic organisms. This research applied laboratory-based incubation studies to evaluate the removal efficiency and uptake mechanisms of the selected PPCPs (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) by the green alga Nannochloris sp. The results showed that trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole remained in the algal culture at 100% and 68%, respectively, after 14 days of incubation, and therefore were not significantly removed from the medium. However, the antimicrobial triclosan was significantly removed from the medium. Immediately after incubation began, 74% of triclosan dissipated and 100% of triclosan was removed after 7 days of incubation. Additionally, over 42% of triclosan was found associated with the algal cells throughout the incubation. The results demonstrate that the presence of Nannochloris sp. eliminated triclosan in the aquatic system, but could not significantly remove the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. This study provided crucial information that toxicity of triclosan in aquatic organisms is a critical concern because of its high uptake by phytoplankton. The resistance of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole to uptake by phytoplankton may threaten water quality.

  12. Repeated evolution and reversibility of self-fertilization in the volvocine green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Erik R; Herron, Matthew D; Wiens, John J; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Michod, Richard E

    2018-02-01

    Outcrossing and self-fertilization are fundamental strategies of sexual reproduction, each with different evolutionary costs and benefits. Self-fertilization is thought to be an evolutionary "dead-end" strategy, beneficial in the short term but costly in the long term, resulting in self-fertilizing species that occupy only the tips of phylogenetic trees. Here, we use volvocine green algae to investigate the evolution of self-fertilization. We use ancestral-state reconstructions to show that self-fertilization has repeatedly evolved from outcrossing ancestors and that multiple reversals from selfing to outcrossing have occurred. We use three phylogenetic metrics to show that self-fertilization is not restricted to the tips of the phylogenetic tree, a finding inconsistent with the view of self-fertilization as a dead-end strategy. We also find no evidence for higher extinction rates or lower speciation rates in selfing lineages. We find that self-fertilizing species have significantly larger colonies than outcrossing species, suggesting the benefits of selfing may counteract the costs of increased size. We speculate that our macroevolutionary results on self-fertilization (i.e., non-tippy distribution, no decreased diversification rates) may be explained by the haploid-dominant life cycle that occurs in volvocine algae, which may alter the costs and benefits of selfing. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Genotoxic effects of commercial formulations of Chlorpyrifos and Tebuconazole on green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ricardo Santiago; Di Marzio, Walter Darío; Sáenz, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used for the study of the genotoxic effects of insecticide Chlorpyrifos and fungicide Tebuconazole (commercial formulations) on two freshwater green algae species, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Nannocloris oculata, after 24 h of exposure. The percentage of DNA in tail of migrating nucleoids was taken as an endpoint of DNA impairment. Cell viability was measured by fluorometric detection of chlorophyll "a" in vivo and the determination of cell auto-fluorescence. Only the higher concentration of Chlorpyrifos tested resulted to affect significantly the cell viability of P. subcapitata, whereas cells of N. oculata were not affected. Tebuconazole assayed concentrations (3 and 6 mg/l) did not affect cell viability of both species. The results of comet assay on P. subcapitata showed that Chlorpyrifos concentration evaluated (0.8 mg/l) exerted a genotoxic effects; while for the other specie a concentration of 10 mg/l was needed. Tebuconazole was genotoxic at 3 and 6 mg/l for both species. The comet assay evidenced damage at the level of DNA simple strains molecule at pesticide concentrations were cytotoxicity was not evident, demonstrating that algae are models to take into account in ecological risk assessments for aquatic environments.

  14. Investigating the link between fermentative metabolism and hydrogen production in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, S.J.; Nixon, P.J. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    In the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the electrons required for hydrogen production can come from both the biophotolysis of water and from the fermentation of carbohydrate reserves. Anoxia leads to the activation of several fermentative pathways, which produce a number of end products including formic, malic and acetic acid along with ethanol, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. It has been proposed that by switching off competing fermentative pathways hydrogen production can be increased. Therefore the aim of this study was to devise an experimental strategy to down-regulate the expression of enzymes thought to control C. reinhardtii's fermentative metabolism. We demonstrate here that it is possible to use artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology to generate knock-down mutants with reduced expression of pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1), a key fermentative enzyme in C. reinhardtii. This work opens up new possibilities to improve hydrogen yields through metabolic engineering. (orig.)

  15. Complete chloroplast genome of green tide algae Ulva flexuosa (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) with comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuner; Wang, Lingke; Zhou, Lingjie; He, Peimin; Jiao, Binghua

    2017-01-01

    Ulva flexuosa, one kind of green tide algae, has outbroken in the Yellow Sea of China during the past ten years. In the present study, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of U. flexuosa followed by annotation and comparative analysis. It indicated that the chloroplast genomes had high conservation among Ulva spp., and high rearrangement outside them. Though U. flexuosa was closer to U. linza than U. fasciata in phylogenetic tree, the average Ka/Ks between U. flexuosa and U. linza assessed by 67 protein-coding genes was higher than those between U. flexuosa and other species in Ulva spp., due to the variation of psbZ, psbM and ycf20. Our results laid the foundation for the future studies on the evolution of chloroplast genomes of Ulva, as well as the molecular identification of U. flexuosa varieties.

  16. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic investigations for biosorption of uranium with green algae (Cladophora hutchinsiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağda, Esra; Tuzen, Mustafa; Sarı, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    Removal of toxic chemicals from environmental samples with low-cost methods and materials are very useful approach for especially large-scale applications. Green algae are highly abundant biomaterials which are employed as useful biosorbents in many studies. In the present study, an interesting type of green algae, Cladophora hutchinsiae (C. hutchinsiae) was used for removal of highly toxic chemical such as uranium. The pH, biosorbent concentration, contact time and temperature were optimized as 5.0, 12 g/L, 60 min and 20 °C, respectively. For the equilibrium calculations, three well known isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich) were employed. The maximum biosorption capacity of the biosorbent was calculated as about 152 mg/g under the optimum batch conditions. The mean energy of biosorption was calculated as 8.39 kJ/mol from the D-R biosorption isotherm. The thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of biosorption were also investigated to explain the nature of the process. The kinetic data best fits the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with a regression coefficient of >0.99 for all studied temperatures. The calculated ΔH° and ΔG° values showed that the biosorption process is exothermic and spontaneous for temperatures between 293 and 333 K. Furthermore, after seven cycling process, the sorption and desorption efficiencies of the biosorbent were found to be 70, and 58%, respectively meaning that the biosorbent had sufficiently high reusability performance as a clean-up tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel shuttle markers for nuclear transformation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Vallon, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii today is a premier model organism for the study of green algae and plants. Yet the efficient engineering of its nuclear genome requires development of new antibiotic resistance markers. We have recoded, based on codon usage in the nuclear genome, the AadA marker that has been used previously for chloroplast transformation. The recoded AadA gene, placed under the control of the HSP70A-RBCS2 hybrid promoter and preceded by the RbcS2 chloroplast-targeting peptide, can be integrated into the nuclear genome by electroporation, conferring resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. Transformation efficiency is markedly increased when vector sequences are completely eliminated from the transforming DNA. Antibiotic resistance is stable for several months in the absence of selection pressure. Shuttle markers allowing selection in both Chlamydomonas and Escherichia coli would also be a useful asset. By placing an artificial bacterial promoter and Shine-Dalgarno sequence in frame within the AadA coding sequence, we generated such a shuttle marker. To our surprise, we found that the classical AphVIII construct already functions as a shuttle marker. Finally, we developed a method to introduce the AadA and AphVIII markers into the vector part of the bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) of the Chlamydomonas genomic DNA library. Our aim was to facilitate complementation studies whenever the test gene cannot be selected for directly. After transformation of a petC mutant with a modified BAC carrying the AphVIII marker along with the PETC gene in the insert, almost half of the paromomycin-resistant transformants obtained showed restoration of phototrophy, indicating successful integration of the unselected test gene. With AadA, cotransformation was also observed, but with a lower efficiency.

  18. Hiding in plain sight: Koshicola spirodelophila gen. et sp. nov. (Chaetopeltidales, Chlorophyceae), a novel green alga associated with the aquatic angiosperm Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shin; Fučíková, Karolina; Lewis, Louise A; Lewis, Paul O

    2016-05-01

    Discovery and morphological characterization of a novel epiphytic aquatic green alga increases our understanding of Chaetopeltidales, a poorly known order in Chlorophyceae. Chloroplast genomic data from this taxon reveals an unusual architecture previously unknown in green algae. Using light and electron microscopy, we characterized the morphology and ultrastructure of a novel taxon of green algae. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and plastid genes were used to test the hypothesized membership of this taxon in order Chaetopeltidales. With next-generation sequence data, we assembled the plastid genome of this novel taxon and compared its gene content and architecture to that of related species to further investigate plastid genome traits. The morphology and ultrastructure of this alga are consistent with placement in Chaetopeltidales (Chlorophyceae), but a distinct trait combination supports recognition of this alga as a new genus and species-Koshicola spirodelophila gen. et sp. nov. Its placement in the phylogeny as a descendant of a deep division in the Chaetopeltidales is supported by analysis of molecular data sets. The chloroplast genome is among the largest reported in green algae and the genes are distributed on three large (rather than a single) chromosome, in contrast to other studied green algae. The discovery of Koshicola spirodelophila gen. et sp. nov. highlights the importance of investigating even commonplace habitats to explore new microalgal diversity. This work expands our understanding of the morphological and chloroplast genomic features of green algae, and in particular those of the poorly studied Chaetopeltidales. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. The genome and phenome of the green alga Chloroidium sp. UTEX 3007 reveal adaptive traits for desert acclimatization

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, David R; Khraiwesh, Basel; Fu, Weiqi; Alseekh, Saleh; Jaiswal, Ashish; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Hazzouri, Khaled M; O?Connor, Matthew J; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Drou, Nizar; Rowe, Jillian D; Harb, Jamil; Fernie, Alisdair R; Gunsalus, Kristin C; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2017-01-01

    eLife digest Single-celled green algae, also known as green microalgae, play an important role for the world?s ecosystems, in part, because they can harness energy from sunlight to produce carbon-rich compounds. Microalgae are also important for biotechnology and people have harnessed them to make food, fuel and medicines. Green microalgae live in many types of habitats from streams to oceans, and they can also be found on the land, including in deserts. Like plants that live in the desert, t...

  20. Phylogenetic and morphological characterization of the green alga infesting the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus from Vityaz Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syasina, I G; Kukhlevsky, A D; Kovaleva, A L; Vaschenko, M A

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the ultrastructural features and taxonomic position of the green microalga infesting the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus from the north-western Pacific (Vityaz Bay, Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan) are reported. Mussels were collected monthly from May to September of 2009. In different months, the prevalence of mussels with green tissues was 16.6-62.5% (mean 43%). The most affected organs were the mantle, digestive gland and gonad. Histological analysis revealed severe infiltration of the connective tissue by hemocytes containing the alga cells. Electron microscopy showed that the alga was morphologically similar to the green algae from the genus Coccomyxa (Chlorophyta: Chlorococcales). Two new primers were designed to generate partial small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of the green alga from M. modiolus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the comparison of the SSU rRNA sequences of the trebouxiophyceans confirmed an affiliation of the green alga with the genus Coccomyxa. The sequence (1296 bases) of the green alga from M. modiolus was most closely related to the sequence CPCC 508 (AM981206) (identity 100%), obtained from an acid-tolerant, free-living chlorophyte microalga Coccomyxa sp. and to the sequences EU127470 (identity 99.3%) and EU127471 (identity 99.7%) of the green alga, presumably the true Coccomyxa parasitica, infecting the blue mussel Mytilus edulis from the Flensburg Fjord (North Atlantic). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular identification of green algae from the rafts based infrastructure of Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Li, Hongye; Li, Yan; Wang, Zongling; Liu, Jiesheng; Yang, Weidong

    2012-10-01

    To provide more information on the origin of the Ulva prolifera bloom in Qingdao sea area in China from 2007 to 2011, the diversity of green algae growing on the rafts of Porphyra yezoensis on the coast in Jiangsu Province was investigated based on ITS, rbcL and 5S sequences. Eighty-four of green algal samples from various sites and cruises in 2010 and 2011 were collected. According to ITS and rbcL sequences, samples from the rafts of P. yezoensis fell into four clades: Ulva linza-procera-prolifera (LPP) complex, Ulva flexuosa, Blidingia sp. and Urospora spp. However, based on the 5S rDNA, a more resolved DNA marker, only one of the 84 samples belonged to U. prolifera. Combined with the previous reports, it is likely that U. prolifera bloom in Qingdao sea area might consist of more than one origin, and Porphyra cultivation rafts might be one of the causes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Fe]-hydrogenases in green algae: photo-fermentation and hydrogen evolution under sulfur deprivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, M.; Hemschemeier, A.; Happe, T. [Botanisches Institut der Universitat Bonn (Germany); Gotor, C. [CSIC y Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis; Melis, A. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Department of Plant and Microbial Biology

    2002-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that [Fe]-hydrogenases and H{sub 2} metabolism are widely distributed among green algae. The enzymes are simple structured and catalyze H{sub 2} evolution with similar rates than the more complex [Fe]-hydrogenases from bacteria. Different green algal species developed diverse strategies to survive under sulfur deprivation. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii evolves large quantities of hydrogen gas in the absence of sulfur. In a sealed culture of C. reinhardtii, the photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution rate drops below the rate of respiratory O{sub 2} consumption due to a reversible inhibition of photosystem II, thus leading to an intracellular anaerobiosis. The algal cells survive under these anaerobic conditions by switching their metabolism to a kind of photo-fermentation. Although possessing a functional [Fe]-hydrogenase gene, the cells of Scenedesmus obliquus produce no significant amounts of H{sub 2} under S-depleted conditions. Biochemical analyses indicate that S. obliquus decreases almost the complete metabolic activities while maintaining a low level of respiratory activity. (author)

  3. Expulsion of Symbiotic Algae during Feeding by the Green Hydra – a Mechanism for Regulating Symbiont Density?

    OpenAIRE

    Yelena Fishman; Eliahu Zlotkin; Daniel Sher

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching) may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled ...

  4. Eukaryote-to-eukaryote gene transfer gives rise to genome mosaicism in euglenids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Andreas PM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euglenophytes are a group of photosynthetic flagellates possessing a plastid derived from a green algal endosymbiont, which was incorporated into an ancestral host cell via secondary endosymbiosis. However, the impact of endosymbiosis on the euglenophyte nuclear genome is not fully understood due to its complex nature as a 'hybrid' of a non-photosynthetic host cell and a secondary endosymbiont. Results We analyzed an EST dataset of the model euglenophyte Euglena gracilis using a gene mining program designed to detect laterally transferred genes. We found E. gracilis genes showing affinity not only with green algae, from which the secondary plastid in euglenophytes evolved, but also red algae and/or secondary algae containing red algal-derived plastids. Phylogenetic analyses of these 'red lineage' genes suggest that E. gracilis acquired at least 14 genes via eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfer from algal sources other than the green algal endosymbiont that gave rise to its current plastid. We constructed an EST library of the aplastidic euglenid Peranema trichophorum, which is a eukaryovorous relative of euglenophytes, and also identified 'red lineage' genes in its genome. Conclusions Our data show genome mosaicism in E. gracilis and P. trichophorum. One possible explanation for the presence of these genes in these organisms is that some or all of them were independently acquired by lateral gene transfer and contributed to the successful integration and functioning of the green algal endosymbiont as a secondary plastid. Alternative hypotheses include the presence of a phagocytosed alga as the single source of those genes, or a cryptic tertiary endosymbiont harboring secondary plastid of red algal origin, which the eukaryovorous ancestor of euglenophytes had acquired prior to the secondary endosymbiosis of a green alga.

  5. Unraveling the Photoprotective Response of Lichenized and Free-Living Green Algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) to Photochilling Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Fátima; Schiefelbein, Ulf; Karsten, Ulf; García-Plazaola, José I; Gustavs, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Lichens and free-living terrestrial algae are widespread across many habitats and develop successfully in ecosystems where a cold winter limits survival. With the goal of comparing photoprotective responses in free-living and lichenized algae, the physiological responses to chilling and photochilling conditions were studied in three lichens and their isolated algal photobionts together as well as in a fourth free-living algal species. We specifically addressed the following questions: (i) Are there general patterns of acclimation in green algae under chilling and photochilling stresses? (ii) Do free-living algae exhibit a similar pattern of responses as their lichenized counterparts? (iii) Are these responses influenced by the selection pressure of environmental conditions or by the phylogenetic position of each species? To answer these questions, photosynthetic fluorescence measurements as well as pigment and low molecular weight carbohydrate pool analyses were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. In general, photochemical efficiency in all free-living algae decreased with increasing duration of the stress, while the majority of lichens maintained an unchanged photochemical activity. Nevertheless, these patterns cannot be generalized because the alga Trebouxia arboricola and the lichen Ramalina pollinaria (associated with Trebouxia photobionts) both showed a similar decrease in photochemical efficiency. In contrast, in the couple Elliptochloris bilobata-Baeomyces rufus, only the algal partner exhibited a broad physiological performance under stress. This study also highlights the importance of the xanthophyll cycle in response to the studied lichens and algae to photochilling stress, while the accumulation of sugars was not related to cold acclimation, except in the alga E. bilobata. The differences in response patterns detected among species can be mainly explained by their geographic origin, although the phylogenetic position should also be

  6. Unraveling the Photoprotective Response of Lichenized and Free-Living Green Algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta to Photochilling Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Míguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichens and free-living terrestrial algae are widespread across many habitats and develop successfully in ecosystems where a cold winter limits survival. With the goal of comparing photoprotective responses in free-living and lichenized algae, the physiological responses to chilling and photochilling conditions were studied in three lichens and their isolated algal photobionts together as well as in a fourth free-living algal species. We specifically addressed the following questions: (i Are there general patterns of acclimation in green algae under chilling and photochilling stresses? (ii Do free-living algae exhibit a similar pattern of responses as their lichenized counterparts? (iii Are these responses influenced by the selection pressure of environmental conditions or by the phylogenetic position of each species? To answer these questions, photosynthetic fluorescence measurements as well as pigment and low molecular weight carbohydrate pool analyses were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. In general, photochemical efficiency in all free-living algae decreased with increasing duration of the stress, while the majority of lichens maintained an unchanged photochemical activity. Nevertheless, these patterns cannot be generalized because the alga Trebouxia arboricola and the lichen Ramalina pollinaria (associated with Trebouxia photobionts both showed a similar decrease in photochemical efficiency. In contrast, in the couple Elliptochloris bilobata-Baeomyces rufus, only the algal partner exhibited a broad physiological performance under stress. This study also highlights the importance of the xanthophyll cycle in response to the studied lichens and algae to photochilling stress, while the accumulation of sugars was not related to cold acclimation, except in the alga E. bilobata. The differences in response patterns detected among species can be mainly explained by their geographic origin, although the phylogenetic position should

  7. TiO2 nanoparticles in seawater: Aggregation and interactions with the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Bonomini, Alessandra; Tognotti, Danika; Grassi, Giacomo; Corsi, Ilaria

    2018-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely employed in industrial applications, thus rising concern about their impact in the aquatic environment. In this study we investigated the chemical behaviour of TiO2 NPs in the culture medium and its effect on the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, in terms of growth inhibition, oxidative stress, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) accumulation and chlorophyll content. In addition, the influence of exopolymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the microalgae on the stability of NPs has been evaluated. The physicochemical characterization showed a high propensity of TiO2 NPs to form micrometric-sized aggregates within 30min, large enough to partially settle to the bottom of the test vessel. Indeed, an increasing amount of TiO2 particles settled out with time, but the presence of EPS seemed to mitigate this behaviour in the first 6h of exposure where the main effects in D. tertiolecta were observed. TiO2 NPs did not inhibit the 72-h growth rate of D. tertiolecta, nor affected the cellular chlorophyll concentration in the range 0.01-10mgL-1. The time-course of ROS production showed an initial transient increase of ROS in TiO2 NP-exposed algae compared to the control, concomitant with an enhancement of catalase activity. Interestingly, intracellular ROS was a small fraction of total ROS, the highest amount being extracellular. The occurrence of cell-mediated chemical transformations of TiO2 NPs in the external medium, related to the presence of EPS, has been evaluated. Our results showed that carbohydrates were the major component of EPS, whereas proteins of medium molecular weight (20-80kDa) were preferentially bound to TiO2 NPs, likely influencing their biological fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to gamma radiation: Photosynthetic performance and ROS formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tânia, E-mail: tania.gomes@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Section of Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349, Oslo (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Xie, Li [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Section of Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349, Oslo (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Brede, Dag; Lind, Ole-Christian [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Department for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science & Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432, Ås (Norway); Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Postbox 5003, N-1432, Ås (Norway); Salbu, Brit [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Department for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science & Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, N-1432, Ås (Norway); and others

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters affected at higher dose rates. • Changes in PSII associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways. • Dose-dependent ROS production in algae exposed to gamma radiation. • Decrease in photosynthetic efficiency connected to ROS formation. - Abstract: The aquatic environment is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, making the characterization of ecological and health risks associated with radiation of large importance. Microalgae represent the main source of biomass production in the aquatic ecosystem, thus becoming a highly relevant biological model to assess the impacts of gamma radiation. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma radiation on microalgal species, making environmental radioprotection of this group of species challenging. In this context, the present study aimed to improve the understanding of the effects and toxic mechanisms of gamma radiation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii focusing on the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and ROS formation. Algal cells were exposed to gamma radiation (0.49–1677 mGy/h) for 6 h and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained by PAM fluorometry, while two fluorescent probes carboxy-H{sub 2}DFFDA and DHR 123 were used for the quantification of ROS. The alterations seen in functional parameters of C. reinhardtii PSII after 6 h of exposure to gamma radiation showed modifications of PSII energy transfer associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways, especially at the higher dose rates used. Results also showed that gamma radiation induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner under both light and dark conditions. The observed decrease in photosynthetic efficiency seems to be connected to the formation of ROS and can potentially lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage in chloroplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first

  9. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  10. The Effect of DNA and Sodium Cholate Dispersed Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on the Green Algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs will lead to their increased release into the environment. Previous work has shown negative effects of SWCNT on growth and survival of model organisms. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of SWCNT well-dispersed by either DNA or sodium cholate (SC on the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in stagnant water conditions. Growth measurements were taken up to ten days for algae treated with varied levels of DNA:SWCNT or SC:SWCNT or controls, and chlorophyll content after 10 days was determined. Results show no effect on either growth or chlorophyll content of algae at any concentration or duration. This is in contradiction to prior work showing toxicity of SWCNT to environmental model organisms.

  11. Acute toxicities of pharmaceuticals toward green algae. mode of action, biopharmaceutical drug disposition classification system and quantile regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Jonathan; Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Durrieu, Gilles; Bureau, Ronan

    2016-02-01

    The acute toxicities of 36 pharmaceuticals towards green algae were estimated from a set of quantile regression models representing the first global quantitative structure-activity relationships. The selection of these pharmaceuticals was based on their predicted environmental concentrations. An agreement between the estimated values and the observed acute toxicity values was found for several families of pharmaceuticals, in particular, for antidepressants. A recent classification (BDDCS) of drugs based on ADME properties (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) was clearly correlated with the acute ecotoxicities towards algae. Over-estimation of toxicity from our QSAR models was observed for classes 2, 3 and 4 whereas our model results were in agreement for the class 1 pharmaceuticals. Clarithromycin, a class 3 antibiotic characterized by weak metabolism and high solubility, was the most toxic to algae (molecular stability and presence in surface water). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME GREEN AND RED MACROPHYTE ALGAE FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA LITTORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae are a group of organisms, Thallophytes, containing specific bioactive compounds (i.e. brominated phenols, heterocyclic oxygen compounds, sterols, terpenes, polysaccharides. Their excessive growth has negative consequences on marine organisms; on the other hand, they have a crucial role in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agriculture. In this paper were studied the main physical-chemical characteristics correlated with the biological specificity of three species of multicellular algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva rigida (green, Ceramium rubrum (red, frequently encountered along the Romanian Black Sea coast. Generally mixtures of thallophytes algae from the Black Sea were collected, processed and characterized. Density, pH, conductivity, anions, loss on drying, ash, total nitrogen, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, carotenoids were determined. The results emphasized the possibility of using these marine resources as biofertilizer in agriculture.

  13. Silver nanoparticles as a control agent against facades coated by aerial algae-A model study of Apatococcus lobatus (green algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Nowicka-Krawczyk

    Full Text Available Aerial algae are an important biological factor causing the biodegradation of building materials and facades. Conservation procedures aimed at the protection of historic and utility materials must be properly designed to avoid an increase of the degradation rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNP synthetized with features contributing to the accessibility and toxicity (spherical shape, small size on the most frequently occurring species of green algae in aerial biofilms and thus, the most common biodegradation factor-Apatococcus lobatus. Changes in the chloroplasts structure and the photosynthetic activity of the cells under AgNP exposure were made using confocal laser microscopy and digital image analysis and the estimation of growth inhibition rate was made using a biomass assay. In the majority of cases, treatment with AgNP caused a time and dose dependant degradation of chloroplasts and decrease in the photosynthetic activity of cells leading to the inhibition of aerial algae growth. However, some cases revealed an adaptive response of the cells. The response was induced by either a too low, or-after a short time-too high concentration of AgNP. Taken together, the data suggest that AgNP may be used as a biocide against aerial algal coatings; however, with a proper caution related to the concentration of the nanoparticles.

  14. The toxicity of plastic nanoparticles to green algae as influenced by surface modification, medium hardness and cellular adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte, Tom M., E-mail: T.Nolte@science.ru.nl [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, B113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hartmann, Nanna B. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, B113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kleijn, J. Mieke [Physical Chemistry Soft Matter, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, NL-6708WE Wageningen (Netherlands); Garnæs, Jørgen [Danish Fundamental Metrology, Matematiktorvet 307, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Meent, Dik van de [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Jan Hendriks, A. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Baun, Anders [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, B113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • P. subcapitata cultures were exposed to plastic nanoparticles in adsorption assays. • UV/Vis and AFM showed ionic strength and surface chemistry influence adsorption of anionic and neutral nanoplastics. • Growth inhibition of algae is antagonistically influenced by carboxylate-modified polystyrene and calcium. • Physico-chemical characterization and proper dose metrics can be used to predict ecotoxicity. - Abstract: To investigate processes possibly underlying accumulation and ecological effects of plastic nano-particles we have characterized their interaction with the cell wall of green algae. More specifically, we have investigated the influence of particle surface functionality and water hardness (Ca{sup 2+} concentration) on particle adsorption to algae cell walls. Polystyrene nanoparticles with different functional groups (non-functionalized, −COOH and −NH{sub 2}) as well as coated (starch and PEG) gold nanoparticles were applied in these studies. Depletion measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that adsorption of neutral and positively charged plastic nanoparticles onto the cell wall of P. subcapitata was stronger than that of negatively charged plastic particles. Results indicated that binding affinity is a function of both inter-particle and particle-cell wall interactions which are in turn influenced by the medium hardness and particle concentration. Physicochemical modelling using DLVO theory was used to interpret the experimental data, using also values for interfacial surface free energies. Our study shows that material properties and medium conditions play a crucial role in the rate and state of nanoparticle bio-adsorption for green algae. The results show that the toxicity of nanoparticles can be better described and assessed by using appropriate dose metrics including material properties, complexation/agglomeration behavior and cellular attachment and adsorption. The applied methodology provides an efficient

  15. [Peculiarities of growth of the monocellular green algae culture after the influence of electromagnetic field in deuterated water-containing media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, K T; Aslanian, R R

    2013-01-01

    Exposing the inoculum of monocellular green algae Dunalialla tertiolecta and Tetraselmis viridis to 50 Hz electromagnetic field for several hours resulted in a reduced growth rate in both cultures. It was ascertained that heavy water inhibited growth of algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. The light water activated growth of the culture in the exponential phase only.

  16. Complex group-I introns in nuclear SSU rDNA of red and green algae: evidence of homing-endonuclease pseudogenes in the Bangiophyceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, P; Huss, V A; Nielsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus pupukensis and the red alga Porphyra spiralis contain large group-IC1 introns in their nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA genes due to the presence of open reading frames at the 5' end of the introns. The putative 555 amino-acid Scenedesmus-encoded protein harbors...

  17. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Some Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria from Freshwater Sites in Tokat Province of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunay Karan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Collected blue-green algae (cyanobacteria from freshwater sites throughout Tokat province and its outlying areas were isolated in laboratory environment and their morphological systematics were determined and also their species identifications were studied by molecular methods. Seven different species of blue-green algae collected from seven different sites were isolated by purifying in cultures in laboratory environment. DNA extractions were made from isolated cells and extracted DNAs were amplified by using PCR. Cyanobacteria specific primers were used to amplify 16S rRNA and phycocyanine gene regions using PCR. Phylogenetic identification of species were conducted by evaluation of obtained sequence analysis data by using computer software. According to species identification by sequence analysis, it was seen that molecular data supports morphological systematics.

  18. Culture observation and molecular phylogenetic analysis on the blooming green alga Chaetomorpha valida (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yunyan; Tang, Xiaorong; Zhan, Zifeng; Teng, Linhong; Ding, Lanping; Huang, Bingxin

    2013-05-01

    The marine green alga Chaetomorpha valida fouls aquaculture ponds along the coastal cities of Dalian and Rongcheng, China. Unialgal cultures were observed under a microscope to determine the developmental morphological characters of C. valida. Results reveal that gametophytic filaments often produce lateral branches under laboratory culture conditions, suggesting an atypical heteromorphic life cycle of C. valida between unbranched sporophytes and branched gametophytes, which differs from typical isomorphic alternation of Chaetomorpha species. The shape of the basal attachment cell, an important taxonomic character within the genus, was found variable depending on environmental conditions. The 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA regions were used to explore the phylogenetic affinity of the taxa. Inferred trees from 18S rDNA sequences revealed a close relationship between C. valida and Chaetomorpha moniligera. These results would enrich information in general biology and morphological plasticity of C. valida and provided a basis for future identification of green tide forming algae.

  19. Influence of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by two different green unicellular algae on membrane filtration in an algae-based biofuel production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takaki; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Jyunpei; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, two strains of green algae named S1 and S2, categorized as the same species of Pseudo-coccomyxa ellipsoidea but showing 99% homology, were cultivated under the same conditions and filtrated with a microfiltration membrane. On the basis of the results of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) characteristics of these two green algae and the degree of fouling, the influence of these characteristics on the performance of membrane filtration was investigated. There was no difference in the specific growth rate between the S1 and S2 strains; however, large differences were seen in the amount and quality of EPS between S1 and S2. When the S1 and S2 strains were filtered with a membrane, the trend in the increase in transmembrane pressure (TMP) was quite different. The filtration of the S1 strain showed a rapid increase in TMP, whereas the TMP of the filtration of the S2 strain did not increase at all during the operation. This clearly demonstrated that the characteristics of each strain affect the development of membrane fouling. On the basis of the detailed characterization of solved-EPS (s-EPS) and bound-EPS (b-EPS), it was clarified that s-EPS mainly contributed to irreversible fouling for both operations and the biopolymer-like organic matter contained in b-EPS mainly contributed to reversible fouling.

  20. Diversity and Ecology of the Phytoplankton of Filamentous Blue-Green Algae (Cyanoprokaryota, Nostocales in Bulgarian Standing Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen Stoyanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents data about the diversity and ecology of filamentous blue-green algae, found in the phytoplankton of 42 standing water basins in Bulgaria. We identified 9 species from Cyanoprokaryota, which belong to 5 genera from order Nostocales. Ecological characterization of the identified species has been performed. Data about the physicochemical parameters of the water basins are also provided.

  1. Are carbon nanotube effects on green algae caused by shading and agglomeration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Fabienne; Bucheli, Thomas D; Lukhele, Lungile P; Magrez, Arnaud; Nowack, Bernd; Sigg, Laura; Knauer, Katja

    2011-07-15

    Due to growing production, carbon nanotubes (CNT) may soon be found in a broad range of products and thus in the environment. In this work, an algal growth test was developed to determine effects of pristine and oxidized CNT on the green algae Chlorella vulgaris and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. CNT suspensions were prepared in algal test medium and characterized taking into account the suspension age, the reduced light transmittance of nanoparticle suspensions defined as shading of CNT and quantified by UV/vis spectroscopy, and the agglomeration of the CNT and of the algal cells. Growth inhibition and photosynthetic activity were investigated as end points. Growth of C. vulgaris was inhibited with effect concentrations of 50% (EC(50)) values of 1.8 mg CNT/L and of 24 mg CNT/L in well dispersed and in agglomerated suspensions, respectively, and 20 mg CNT/L and 36 mg CNT/L for P. subcapitata, respectively. However, the photosynthetic activity was not affected. Growth inhibition was highly correlated with the shading of CNT and the agglomeration of algal cells. This suggests that the reduced algal growth might be caused mainly by indirect effects, i.e. by reduced availability of light and different growth conditions caused by the locally elevated algal concentration inside of CNT agglomerates.

  2. Construction of a growth model in the green alga Tetraselmis subcordiformis using a response surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Niu, Jingyan; Liu, Jiahui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-05-01

    The green alga Tetraselmis subcordiformis has been widely used as a quality live food for aquaculture species, and also has been studied as a model organism for the photo-biological production of hydrogen. We attempted to quantify the relationship between T. subcordiformis specific growth rate (SGR) and three important environmental factors (temperature, salinity, and pH) using the central composite design and response surface method under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature and salinity were significant ( P0.05); the interactive effect of temperature and pH was significant ( P0.05); all of the quadratic effects of the three factors were significant ( Pfactors was established, with the unadjusted and predictive R 2 as high as 0.990 and 0.921, respectively, suggesting that the model was a very good fit and that it could be used to predict SGR. Through optimizing the reliable model, an optimal 3-factor combination of 25 °C/35 of salinity/pH 7.9 was obtained, at which the maximum specific growth rate (0.65) was recorded, with a desirability value of 93.8%. These experimental results could serve as guidelines for increasing T. subcordiformis production efficiency.

  3. F-actin reorganization upon de- and rehydration in the aeroterrestrial green alga Klebsormidium crenulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, Kathrin; Holzinger, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Filamentous actin (F-actin) is a dynamic network involved in many cellular processes like cell division and cytoplasmic streaming. While many studies have addressed the involvement of F-actin in different cellular processes in cultured cells, little is known on the reactions to environmental stress scenarios, where this system might have essential regulatory functions. We investigated here the de- and rehydration kinetics of breakdown and reassembly of F-actin in the streptophyte green alga Klebsormidium crenulatum. Measurements of the chlorophyll fluorescence (effective quantum yield of photosystem II [ΔF/Fm']) via pulse amplitude modulation were performed as a measure for dehydration induced shut down of physiological activity, which ceased after 141±15min at ∼84% RH. We hypothesized that there is a link between this physiological parameter and the status of the F-actin system. Indeed, 20min of dehydration (ΔF/Fm'=0) leads to a breakdown of the fine cortical F-actin network as visualized by Atto 488 phalloidin staining, and dot-like structures remained. Already 10min after rehydration a beginning reassembly of F-actin is observed, after 25min the F-actin network appeared similar to untreated controls, indicating a full recovery. These results demonstrate the fast kinetics of F-actin dis- and reassembly likely contributing to cellular reorganization upon rehydration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of suitable photobioreactors for CO2 sequestration addressing global warming using green algae and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Dasgupta, Chitralekha Nag; Nayak, Bikram; Lindblad, Peter; Das, Debabrata

    2011-04-01

    CO(2) sequestration by cyanobacteria and green algae are receiving increased attention in alleviating the impact of increasing CO(2) in the atmosphere. They, in addition to CO(2) capture, can produce renewable energy carriers such as carbon free energy hydrogen, bioethanol, biodiesel and other valuable biomolecules. Biological fixation of CO(2) are greatly affected by the characteristics of the microbial strains, their tolerance to temperature and the CO(2) present in the flue gas including SO(X), NO(X). However, there are additional factors like the availability of light, pH, O(2) removal, suitable design of the photobioreactor, culture density and the proper agitation of the reactor that will affect significantly the CO(2) sequestration process. Present paper deals with the photobioreactors of different geometry available for biomass production. It also focuses on the hybrid types of reactors (integrating two reactors) which can be used for overcoming the bottlenecks of a single photobioreactor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Junjing; Vine, David J.; Chen, Si; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Jin, Qiaoling; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris J.

    2015-02-09

    Trace metals play important roles in normal and in disease-causing biological functions. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals trace elements with no dependence on binding affinities (unlike with visible light fluorophores) and with improved sensitivity relative to electron probes. However, X-ray fluorescence is not very sensitive for showing the light elements that comprise the majority of cellular material. Here we show that X-ray ptychography can be combined with fluorescence to image both cellular structure and trace element distribution in frozen-hydrated cells at cryogenic temperatures, with high structural and chemical fidelity. Ptychographic reconstruction algorithms deliver phase and absorption contrast images at a resolution beyond that of the illuminating lens or beam size. Using 5.2-keV X-rays, we have obtained sub-30-nm resolution structural images and similar to 90-nm-resolution fluorescence images of several elements in frozen-hydrated green algae. This combined approach offers a way to study the role of trace elements in their structural context.

  6. Bioenergetic Strategy for the Biodegradation of p-Cresol by the Unicellular Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Cultures from the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus biodegrade the toxic p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and use it as alternative carbon/energy source. The biodegradation procedure of p-cresol seems to be a two-step process. HPLC analyses indicate that the split of the methyl group (first step) that is possibly converted to methanol (increased methanol concentration in the growth medium), leading, according to our previous work, to changes in the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and therefore to microalgal biomass increase. The second step is the fission of the intermediately produced phenol. A higher p-cresol concentration results in a higher p-cresol biodegradation rate and a lower total p-cresol biodegradability. The first biodegradation step seems to be the most decisive for the effectiveness of the process, because methanol offers energy for the further biodegradation reactions. The absence of LHCII from the Scenedesmus mutant wt-lhc stopped the methanol effect and significantly reduced the p-cresol biodegradation (only 9%). The present contribution deals with an energy distribution between microalgal growth and p-cresol biodegradation, activated by p-cresol concentration. The simultaneous biomass increase with the detoxification of a toxic phenolic compound (p-cresol) could be a significant biotechnological aspect for further applications. PMID:23251641

  7. Lentibacter algarum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from coastal water during a massive green algae bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Qu, Zhe; Zhang, Xiuming; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Two novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic strains (ZXM100(T) and ZXM098) were isolated from seawater in the coastal region of Qingdao (36.027° N 120.184° E), China, during a massive green algae bloom. Cells were ovoid to irregular short rods and lacked flagella. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate was accumulated. Cells did not contain bacteriochlorophyll a. The isolates grew at NaCl concentrations of 3-9 % and 22-28 °C. C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(18 : 0) and C(16 : 0) were the major fatty acid components. The polar lipids of ZXM100(T) were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, a single lipid and an unidentified aminolipid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of ZXM100(T) was Q-10. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains belonged to the family Rhodobacteraceae. Based on the results obtained in this study, strain ZXM100(T) was considered to represent a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Lentibacter algarum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZXM100(T) ( = LMG 24861(T) = CGMCC 1.10234(T)); the DNA G+C content of the type strain is 54.6 mol%.

  8. Active Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Accumulation in a Green Alga, Botryococcus braunii (Race A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Mana; Mukaida, Fukiko; Okada, Sigeru

    2013-01-01

    Among oleaginous microalgae, the colonial green alga Botryococcus braunii accumulates especially large quantities of hydrocarbons. This accumulation may be achieved more by storage of lipids in the extracellular space rather than in the cytoplasm, as is the case for all other examined oleaginous microalgae. The stage of hydrocarbon synthesis during the cell cycle was determined by autoradiography. The cell cycle of B. braunii race A was synchronized by aminouracil treatment, and cells were taken at various stages in the cell cycle and cultured in a medium containing [14C]acetate. Incorporation of 14C into hydrocarbons was detected. The highest labeling occurred just after septum formation, when it was about 2.6 times the rate during interphase. Fluorescent and electron microscopy revealed that new lipid accumulation on the cell surface occurred during at least two different growth stages and sites of cells. Lipid bodies in the cytoplasm were not prominent in interphase cells. These lipid bodies then increased in number, size, and inclusions, reaching maximum values just before the first lipid accumulation on the cell surface at the cell apex. Most of them disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the second new accumulation at the basolateral region, where extracellular lipids continuously accumulated. The rough endoplasmic reticulum near the plasma membrane is prominent in B. braunii, and the endoplasmic reticulum was often in contact with both a chloroplast and lipid bodies in cells with increasing numbers of lipid bodies. We discuss the transport pathway of precursors of extracellular hydrocarbons in race A. PMID:23794509

  9. Investigation of the removal mechanism of antibiotic ceftazidime by green algae and subsequent microbic impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Zhou, Yangyang; Wang, Zhiliang; Torres, Oscar Lopez; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Jianqiu

    2017-06-23

    The present study provides an integrated view of algal removal of the antibiotic ceftazidime and its basic parent structure 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), including contribution analysis, bacteriostatic and aquatic toxic assessment and metabolite verification. 92.70% and 96.07% of the two target compounds was removed after the algal treatment, respectively. The algal removal can be separated into three steps: a rapid adsorption, a slow cell wall-transmission and the final biodegradation. Additionally, while ceftazidime demonstrated an excellent inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli, there was no bacteriostasis introduced after the algal treatment, which could avoid favoring the harmful selective pressure. On the other hand, no significant aquatic impact of the two target compounds on rotifers was observed and it was not enhanced after the algal treatment. To better reveal the mechanism involved, metabolite analyses were performed. Δ-3 ceftazidime and trans-ceftazidime were regarded as the metabolites of ceftazidime and the metabolite of 7-ACA was regarded as a compound which shared the similar structure with 4-chlorocinnamic acid. Our study indicated that the green algae performed a satisfactory growth capacity and played a dominant role for the biodegradation of the target antibiotics, which achieved high removal efficiency and low environmental impact.

  10. Health benefits of blue-green algae: prevention of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chai Siah; Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-02-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) are among the most primitive life forms on earth and have been consumed as food or medicine by humans for centuries. BGA contain various bioactive components, such as phycocyanin, carotenoids, γ-linolenic acid, fibers, and plant sterols, which can promote optimal health in humans. Studies have demonstrated that several BGA species or their active components have plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering properties due to their modulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption and hepatic lipogenic gene expression. BGA can also reduce inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor κ B activity, consequently reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, BGA inhibit lipid peroxidation and have free radical scavenging activity, which can be beneficial for the protection against oxidative stress. The aforementioned effects of BGA can contribute to the prevention of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health-promoting functions of BGA against cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which are major health threats in the developed countries.

  11. The hepatoprotective activity of blue green algae in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azza H; Osman, Gamalat Y; Salem, Tarek A; Elmalawany, Alshimaa M

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of a natural product, blue green algae (BGA) (100 mg/kg BW), alone or combined with praziquantel PZQ (250 mg/kg BW) on granulomatous inflammation, liver histopathology, some biochemical and immunological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Results showed that the diameter and number of egg granuloma were significantly reduced after treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with BGA, PZQ and their combination. The histopathological alterations observed in the liver of S. mansoni-infected mice were remarkably inhibited after BGA treatments. BGA decreased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the level of total protein (TP) while the level of albumin was increased. Treatment of infected mice with BGA, PZQ as well as their combination led to significant elevation in the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as compared with control group. Combination of BGA and PZQ resulted in significant reduction in the level of intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) when compared to those of the S. mansoni-infected group. Overall, BGA significantly inhibited the liver damage accompanied with schistosomiasis, exhibited a potent antioxidant and immunoprotective activities. This study suggests that BGA can be considered as promising for development a complementary and/or alternative medicine against schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stereocontrolled reduction of alpha- and beta-keto esters with micro green algae, Chlorella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, K; Yamaguchi, H; Adachi, N; Hamada, H; Nakajima, N

    2000-10-01

    The stereocontrolled reduction of alpha- and beta-keto esters using micro green algae was accomplished by a combination of the cultivation method and the introduction of an additive. The reduction of ethyl pyruvate and ethyl benzoylformate by the photoautotrophically cultivated Chlorella sorokiniana gave the corresponding alcohol in high e.e. (>99% e.e. (S) and >99% e.e. (R), respectively). In the presence of glucose as an additive, the reduction of ethyl 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate by the heterotrophically cultivated C. sorokiniana afforded the corresponding (R)-alcohol. On the other hand, the reduction in the presence of ethyl propionate gave the (S)-alcohol. Ethyl 2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate was reduced in the presence of glycerol by the photoautotrophically cultivated C. sorokiniana or the heterotrophically cultivated C. sorokiniana to the corresponding syn-(2R,3S)-hydroxy ester with high diastereo- and enantiomeric excess (e.e.). Some additives altered the stereochemical course in the reduction of alpha- and beta-keto esters.

  13. High Yields of Hydrogen Production Induced by Meta-Substituted Dichlorophenols Biodegradation from the Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Andronis, Efthimios; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E.; Chaniotakis, Nikolaos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is a highly promising energy source with important social and economic implications. The ability of green algae to produce photosynthetic hydrogen under anaerobic conditions has been known for years. However, until today the yield of production has been very low, limiting an industrial scale use. In the present paper, 73 years after the first report on H2-production from green algae, we present a combinational biological system where the biodegradation procedure of one meta-substituted dichlorophenol (m-dcp) is the key element for maintaining continuous and high rate H2-production (>100 times higher than previously reported) in chloroplasts and mitochondria of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. In particular, we report that reduced m-dcps (biodegradation intermediates) mimic endogenous electron and proton carriers in chloroplasts and mitochondria, inhibit Photosystem II (PSII) activity (and therefore O2 production) and enhance Photosystem I (PSI) and hydrogenase activity. In addition, we show that there are some indications for hydrogen production from sources other than chloroplasts in Scenedesmus obliquus. The regulation of these multistage and highly evolved redox pathways leads to high yields of hydrogen production and paves the way for an efficient application to industrial scale use, utilizing simple energy sources and one meta-substituted dichlorophenol as regulating elements. PMID:23145057

  14. Drifting trajectories of green algae in the western Yellow Sea during the spring and summer of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Min; Guan, Weibing; Yang, Yang; Cao, Zhenyi; Chen, Qi

    2015-09-01

    The northward drift of green algae (Ulva prolifera) from Subei Shoal in the western Yellow Sea, China, during the spring and summer of 2012, was investigated using satellite data and numerical modeling. Past studies have suggested that the green algae, documented offshore of Shandong province since 2007, originate in Subei Shoal region of the Yellow Sea. To test this hypothesis, drift bottles and satellite-tracked surface drifters were released from Subei Shoal and used to investigate the trajectories of green algae. Subei Shoal is characterized by complex bathymetry such as broad tidal flats and radial sand ridges. To identify processes that drive drift of the green algae around the shoal, a coastal ocean model based on the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was used. This model is forced by tides and surface winds, and has sufficient resolution to include tidal flats and sand ridges during both wetting and drying. The results of numerical experiments indicated that sand ridges limit the trajectory of particles. Without wind, particles scattered from their initial positions displayed a tendency to move northward, but were unable to move out of Subei Shoal. When a southerly wind was introduced to the model, particles traveled further north, out of the shallow waters. After leaving Subei Shoal, drifters remained limited by tide and topography until reaching 34°30.0‧N. North of 34°30.0‧N, 33% of the trajectory vectors can be explained by Ekman theory, and the remainder are probably controlled by the strong baroclinic processes in this area. For the six surface-following drifters deployed, the mean drift speed was 11.1 cm s-1 (288.8 km month-1), close to the speed observed for patches of U. prolifera. Numerical models and the results from drifter bottles demonstrated that green algae could leave Subei Shoal, but only when aided by a southerly wind. Satellite-tracked drifters provided strong evidence that if floating particles do leave Subei Shoal, they

  15. The effect of bloom of filamentous green algae on the reproduction of yellowfin sculpin Cottocomephorus grewingkii (Dybowski, 1874) (Cottoidae) during ecological crisis in Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaev, I V; Dzyuba, E V; Kravtsova, L S; Grachev, M A

    2016-03-01

    In shallow water areas of open Lake Baikal, filamentous green alga of the genus Spirogyra grows abundantly. Together with alga of the genus Ulothrix, it forms algal mats. According to our observations from 2010 to 2013, the spawning habitat conditions for the yellowfin sculpin Cottocomephorus grewingkii (Dybowski, 1874) (Cottidae) proved to be significantly disturbed in the littoral zone of Listvennichnyi Bay (southern Baikal), which, in turn, reduced the number of egg layings. With a 100% projective cover of the floor and a high density of green filamentous algae, the shallow-water stony substrate becomes completely inaccessible for spawning of the August population.

  16. The toxicity of plastic nanoparticles to green algae as influenced by surface modification, medium hardness and cellular adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tom M; Hartmann, Nanna B; Kleijn, J Mieke; Garnæs, Jørgen; van de Meent, Dik; Jan Hendriks, A; Baun, Anders

    2017-02-01

    To investigate processes possibly underlying accumulation and ecological effects of plastic nano-particles we have characterized their interaction with the cell wall of green algae. More specifically, we have investigated the influence of particle surface functionality and water hardness (Ca(2+) concentration) on particle adsorption to algae cell walls. Polystyrene nanoparticles with different functional groups (non-functionalized, -COOH and -NH2) as well as coated (starch and PEG) gold nanoparticles were applied in these studies. Depletion measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that adsorption of neutral and positively charged plastic nanoparticles onto the cell wall of P. subcapitata was stronger than that of negatively charged plastic particles. Results indicated that binding affinity is a function of both inter-particle and particle-cell wall interactions which are in turn influenced by the medium hardness and particle concentration. Physicochemical modelling using DLVO theory was used to interpret the experimental data, using also values for interfacial surface free energies. Our study shows that material properties and medium conditions play a crucial role in the rate and state of nanoparticle bio-adsorption for green algae. The results show that the toxicity of nanoparticles can be better described and assessed by using appropriate dose metrics including material properties, complexation/agglomeration behavior and cellular attachment and adsorption. The applied methodology provides an efficient and feasible approach for evaluating potential accumulation and hazardous effects of nanoparticles to algae caused by particle interactions with the algae cell walls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of a Low CO2–Inducible Protein, LCI1, Increases Inorganic Carbon Uptake in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Norikazu; Mukherjee, Bratati; Tsujikawa, Tomoki; Yanase, Mari; Nakano, Hirobumi; Moroney, James V.; Fukuzawa, Hideya

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic photosynthetic organisms can modulate their photosynthesis to acclimate to CO2-limiting stress by inducing a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that includes carbonic anhydrases and inorganic carbon (Ci) transporters. However, to date, Ci-specific transporters have not been well characterized in eukaryotic algae. Previously, a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant (lcr1) was identified that was missing a Myb transcription factor. This mutant had reduced light-dependent CO2 gas exchange (LCE) activity when grown under CO2-limiting conditions and did not induce the CAH1 gene encoding a periplasmic carbonic anhydrase, as well as two as yet uncharacterized genes, LCI1 and LCI6. In this study, LCI1 was placed under the control of the nitrate reductase promoter, allowing for the induction of LCI1 expression by nitrate in the absence of other CCM components. When the expression of LCI1 was induced in the lcr1 mutant under CO2-enriched conditions, the cells showed an increase in LCE activity, internal Ci accumulation, and photosynthetic affinity for Ci. From experiments using indirect immunofluorescence, LCI1–green fluorescent protein fusions, and cell fractionation procedures, it appears that LCI1 is mainly localized to the plasma membrane. These results provide strong evidence that LCI1 may contribute to the CCM as a component of the Ci transport machinery in the plasma membrane. PMID:20870960

  18. The effect of lanthanides on photosynthesis, growth, and chlorophyll profile of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Kaineder, Katrin; Mezricky, Dana; Řezanka, Michal; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Vítová, Milada

    2016-12-01

    Lanthanides (La, Gd, Nd, Ce) accumulated in the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda but their intracellular localizations were distinctly different: lanthanum and gadolinium were localized in cytoplasm, while neodymium and cerium were in the chloroplast. The effect of lanthanum and neodymium, as representatives of these two groups, on growth, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate at different light intensities was studied. At the lowest light intensity used (50 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), in the presence of lanthanides (Nd), growth was enhanced by as much as 36 % over lanthanide free control, and the photosynthetic rate increased by up to 300 %. At high light intensities (238, 460, and 750 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), photosynthetic rate increased markedly, but there was no significant difference between rates in the presence or absence of lanthanides. However, growth, measured as a percentage of dry weight, if compared with lanthanide free control, increased at all light intensities (31, 39, and 20 %, respectively). The total amount of chlorophyll after lanthanide treatment increased by up to 21 % relative to the control culture, mainly due to an increase in the level of chlorophyll b. Addition of lanthanides caused a change in the chlorophyll a/b ratio from 4.583 in control cultivation, to 1.05. Possible mechanisms of lanthanide-induced photosynthetic change, alterations in photosynthetic structures, and increases in growth are discussed and compared with findings in higher plants. The hypothesis that the lanthanide effect could be due to formation of lanthanide-pheophytins was not confirmed as lanthanide pheophytins were not found in D. quadricauda. Furthermore, we have shown that the preferential incorporation of heavy isotopes of magnesium, namely (25)Mg and (26)Mg, into chlorophyll during photosynthesis that occurred in controls was diminished in the presence of lanthanides.

  19. Cohnella algarum sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater green alga Paulinella chromatophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunho; Jeon, Che Ok

    2017-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively aerobic and endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain Pch-40 T , was isolated from a freshwater green alga, Paulinella chromatophora. Cells were motile rods with a monotrichous polar flagellum showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Strain Pch-40 T grew at 20-50 °C (optimum, 37-40 °C), at pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Menaquinone-7 was detected as the sole isoprenoid quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Pch-40 T was 55.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Pch-40 T were C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Pch-40 T clearly belonged to the genus Cohnella of the family Paenibacillaceae. Strain Pch-40 T was most closely related to Cohnella rhizosphaerae CSE-5610 T with a 96.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features and the phylogenetic inference clearly suggested that strain Pch-40 T represents a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnellaalgarum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain Pch-40 T (=KACC 19279 T =JCM 32033 T ).

  20. Optimization of culture conditions and comparison of biomass productivity of three green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonduck; Park, Jang Min; Gim, Geun Ho; Jeong, Sang-Hwa; Kang, Chang Min; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Si Wouk

    2012-01-01

    Culture conditions for the mass production of three green algae, Chlorella sp., Dunaliella salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp., were optimized using a response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of initial pH, nitrogen and phosphate concentrations on the cultivation of microalgae. The optimal growth conditions estimated from the design are as follows: Chlorella sp. (initial pH 7.2, ammonium 17 mM, phosphate 1.2 mM), D. salina DCCBC2 (initial pH 8.0, nitrate 3.3 mM, phosphate 0.0375 mM) and Dunaliella sp. (initial pH 8.0, nitrate 3.7 mM, phosphate 0.17 mM). Culturing the microalgae with the optimized conditions confirmed that the maximum growth rates were attained for these parameters. The optimum CO(2) concentrations of Chlorella sp., D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were 1.0, 3.0 and 1.0% (v/v), respectively. The specific growth rates (μ) of Chlorella sp., D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were 0.58, 0.78 and 0.56 day(-1), respectively, and the biomass productivities were 0.28, 0.54 and 0.30 g dry cell wt l(-1) day(-1), respectively. The CO(2) fixation rates of Chlorella sp., D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were 42.8, 90.9 and 45.5 mg l(-1) day(-1), respectively. Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella sp. with glucose increased biomass productivity from 0.28 to 0.51 g dry cell wt l(-1) day(-1). However, D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were not stimulated by several organic compounds tested.

  1. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Fishman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  2. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yelena; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Sher, Daniel

    2008-07-02

    Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching) may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  3. Effects of lead on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and production of reactive oxygen species of two freshwater green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Ly H T; Beardall, John

    2016-03-01

    In the natural environment, heavy metal contamination can occur as long-term pollution of sites or as pulses of pollutants from wastewater disposal. In this study two freshwater green algae, Chlorella sp. FleB1 and Scenedesmus YaA6, were isolated from lead-polluted water samples and the effects of 24 h vs 4 and 8 d exposure of cultures to lead on growth, photosynthetic physiology and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of these algae were investigated. In Chlorella sp. FleB1, there was agreement between lead impacts on chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and growth in most case. However, in Scenedesmus acutus YaA6 growth was inhibited at lower lead concentrations (0.03-0.87 × 10(-9) M), under which ROS, measured by 2',7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence, were 4.5 fold higher than in controls but photosynthesis was not affected, implying that ROS had played a role in the growth inhibition that did not involve direct effects on photosynthesis. Effects of short-term (5 h, 24 h) vs long-term (4 d and 8 d) exposure to lead were also compared between the two algae. The results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of lead toxicity to algae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced acetyl-CoA production is associated with increased triglyceride accumulation in the green alga Chlorella desiccata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Omri; Brandis, Alexander; Rogachev, Ilana; Pick, Uri

    2015-07-01

    Triglycerides (TAGs) from microalgae can be utilized as food supplements and for biodiesel production, but little is known about the regulation of their biosynthesis. This work aimed to test the relationship between acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA) levels and TAG biosynthesis in green algae under nitrogen deprivation. A novel, highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique enabled us to determine the levels of Ac-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and unacetylated (free) CoA in green microalgae. A comparative study of three algal species that differ in TAG accumulation levels shows that during N starvation, Ac-CoA levels rapidly rise, preceding TAG accumulation in all tested species. The levels of Ac-CoA in the high TAG accumulator Chlorella desiccata exceed the levels in the moderate TAG accumulators Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Similarly, malonyl-CoA and free CoA levels also increase, but to lower extents. Calculated cellular concentrations of Ac-CoA are far lower than reported K mAc-CoA values of plastidic Ac-CoA carboxylase (ptACCase) in plants. Transcript level analysis of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (ptPDH), the major chloroplastic Ac-CoA producer, revealed rapid induction in parallel with Ac-CoA accumulation in C. desiccata, but not in D. tertiolecta or C. reinhardtii. It is proposed that the capacity to accumulate high TAG levels in green algae critically depends on their ability to divert carbon flow towards Ac-CoA. This requires elevation of the chloroplastic CoA pool level and enhancement of Ac-CoA biosynthesis. These conclusions may have important implications for future genetic manipulation to enhance TAG biosynthesis in green algae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Evidence of coexistence of C₃ and C₄ photosynthetic pathways in a green-tide-forming alga, Ulva prolifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Xu

    Full Text Available Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C₃ photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C₄ photosynthesis, so C₄ photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C₃ and C₄ photosynthesis genes were found in U. prolifera by transcriptome sequencing. We also discovered the key enzymes of C₄ metabolism based on functional analysis, such as pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK. To investigate whether the alga operates a C₄-like pathway, the expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were measured under various forms and intensities of stress (differing levels of salinity, light intensity, and temperature. The expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were higher under adverse circumstances. However, under conditions of desiccation, the expression of rbcL and ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase activity was lower, whereas that of PPDK was higher. These results suggest that elevated PPDK activity may alter carbon metabolism and lead to a partial operation of C₄-type carbon metabolism in U. prolifera, probably contributing to its wide distribution and massive, repeated blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  6. The influence of extracellular compounds produced by selected Baltic cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates on growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Adam; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2015-12-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants could affect the growth and development of biological and agricultural systems. This natural process that occurs worldwide is known as allelopathy. The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of metabolites obtained from phytoplankton monocultures on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We selected 6 species occurring in the Baltic Sea from 3 different taxonomic groups: cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Planktothrix agardhii), diatoms (Thalassiosira pseudonana; Chaetoceros wighamii) and dinoflagellates (Alexandrium ostenfeldii; Prorocentrum minimum). In this study we have demonstrated that some of selected organisms caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. Both the negative and positive effects of collected cell-free filtrates on C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll a concentration and fluorescence parameters (OJIP, QY, NPQ) have been observed. No evidence has been found for the impact on morphology and viability of C. vulgaris cells.

  7. Algae associated with mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    and accretion. Mud surface harbours unicellular algae. Multicellular algae was dominatEd. by blue-green form on the mud surface. The benthic algae of the mud surface are representEd. by the green filamentous Enteromorpha clathrate, Rhizoclonium sp. and thalloid...

  8. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  9. Evaluation of in vitro anti-Leishmanial activity of some brown, green and red algae from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladvand, M; Barazesh, A; Farokhzad, F; Malekizadeh, H; Sartavi, K

    2011-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease which is transmitted by the female Phlebotomus sand fly and is prevalent in four continents.The first-choice treatment for the leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimonials, which are potentially toxic and often ineffective and use of them exhibit therapeutic failure. These pharmaceutical problems point towards the need to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents. Seaweeds are considered as source of bioactive metabolites characterized by a broad spectrum of biological activities. In this experimental study, cold and hot water crude extracts of four species of green, brown and red marine algae "Caulerpa sertularioides, Gracilaria corticata, Gracillaria salicornia and Sargassum oligocystum" collected along the Bushehr coast of the Persian Gulf (southwest of Iran), prepared and their in vitro activities against Leishmania major promastigote were evaluated by using the MTT assay test. The cold and hot water crude extracts of four algae species exhibited different anti-Leishmanial activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration of hot water extracts calculated as IC50 was as follows: Caulerpa sertularioides (IC50 125 microg/ml) for Caulerpa Sertularioides (IC50 >65 microg/ml) for Gracilaria corticata (IC50 >74 microg/ml) for Gracilaria salicornia and (IC50 >105 microg/ml) for Sargassum oligocystum, IC50 values for reference drug (Amphotericin B) was (0.16-0.2 microg/ml). According to the results, inhibitory effects of the crude extracts from these four species algae specially hot water crude extracts from "Gracilaria corticata, Gracillaria salicornia and Sargassum oligocystum" are significant and in accordance with other studies that has been done on different algae species. So these results are sufficiently promising to be followed with further studies on isolation and characterization of pure compounds from these algae species as well as in vivo experiments, a work that is already under way in our laboratory.

  10. Comparative Chloroplast Genome Analyses of Streptophyte Green Algae Uncover Major Structural Alterations in the Klebsormidiophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Claude; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique

    2016-01-01

    The Streptophyta comprises all land plants and six main lineages of freshwater green algae: Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Charophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. Previous comparisons of the chloroplast genome from nine streptophyte algae (including four zygnematophyceans) revealed that, although land plant chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) inherited most of their highly conserved structural features from green algal ancestors, considerable cpDNA changes took place during the evolution of the Zygnematophyceae, the sister group of land plants. To gain deeper insights into the evolutionary dynamics of the chloroplast genome in streptophyte algae, we sequenced the cpDNAs of nine additional taxa: two klebsormidiophyceans (Entransia fimbriata and Klebsormidium sp. SAG 51.86), one coleocheatophycean (Coleochaete scutata) and six zygnematophyceans (Cylindrocystis brebissonii, Netrium digitus, Roya obtusa, Spirogyra maxima, Cosmarium botrytis and Closterium baillyanum). Our comparative analyses of these genomes with their streptophyte algal counterparts indicate that the large inverted repeat (IR) encoding the rDNA operon experienced loss or expansion/contraction in all three sampled classes and that genes were extensively shuffled in both the Klebsormidiophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. The klebsormidiophycean genomes boast greatly expanded IRs, with the Entransia 60,590-bp IR being the largest known among green algae. The 206,025-bp Entransia cpDNA, which is one of the largest genome among streptophytes, encodes 118 standard genes, i.e., four additional genes compared to its Klebsormidium flaccidum homolog. We inferred that seven of the 21 group II introns usually found in land plants were already present in the common ancestor of the Klebsormidiophyceae and its sister lineages. At 107,236 bp and with 117 standard genes, the Coleochaete IR-less genome is both the smallest and most compact among the streptophyte algal cpDNAs analyzed thus

  11. Comparative Chloroplast Genome Analyses of Streptophyte Green Algae Uncover Major Structural Alterations in the Klebsormidiophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude eLemieux

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Streptophyta comprises all land plants and six main lineages of freshwater green algae: Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Charophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. Previous comparisons of the chloroplast genome from nine streptophyte algae (including four zygnematophyceans revealed that, although land plant chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs inherited most of their highly conserved structural features from green algal ancestors, considerable cpDNA changes took place during the evolution of the Zygnematophyceae, the sister group of land plants. To gain deeper insights into the evolutionary dynamics of the chloroplast genome in streptophyte algae, we sequenced the cpDNAs of nine additional taxa: two klebsormidiophyceans (Entransia fimbriata and Klebsormidium sp. SAG 51.86, one coleocheatophycean (Coleochaete scutata and six zygnematophyceans (Cylindrocystis brebissonii, Netrium digitus, Roya obtusa, Spirogyra maxima, Cosmarium botrytis and Closterium baillyanum. Our comparative analyses of these genomes with their streptophyte algal counterparts indicate that the large inverted repeat (IR encoding the rDNA operon experienced loss or expansion/contraction in all three sampled classes and that genes were extensively shuffled in both the Klebsormidiophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. The klebsormidiophycean genomes boast greatly expanded IRs, with the Entransia 60,590-bp IR being the largest known among green algae. The 206,025-bp Entransia cpDNA, which is one of the largest genome among streptopytes, encodes 118 standard genes, i.e. four additional genes compared to its Klebsormidium flaccidum homolog. We inferred that seven of the 21 group II introns usually found in land plants were already present in the common ancestor of the Klebsormidiophyceae and its sister lineages. At 107,236 bp and with 117 standard genes, the Coleochaete IR-less genome is both the smallest and most compact among the streptophyte algal cp

  12. A Simple Method to Decode the Complete 18-5.8-28S rRNA Repeated Units of Green Algae by Genome Skimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Geng-Ming; Lai, Yu-Heng; Audira, Gilbert; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2017-11-06

    Green algae, Chlorella ellipsoidea, Haematococcus pluvialis and Aegagropila linnaei (Phylum Chlorophyta) were simultaneously decoded by a genomic skimming approach within 18-5.8-28S rRNA region. Whole genomic DNAs were isolated from green algae and directly subjected to low coverage genome skimming sequencing. After de novo assembly and mapping, the size of complete 18-5.8-28S rRNA repeated units for three green algae were ranged from 5785 to 6028 bp, which showed high nucleotide diversity (π is around 0.5-0.6) within ITS1 and ITS2 (Internal Transcribed Spacer) regions. Previously, the evolutional diversity of algae has been difficult to decode due to the inability design universal primers that amplify specific marker genes across diverse algal species. In this study, our method provided a rapid and universal approach to decode the 18-5.8-28S rRNA repeat unit in three green algal species. In addition, the completely sequenced 18-5.8-28S rRNA repeated units provided a solid nuclear marker for phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for green algae for the first time.

  13. Blood anticoagulant sulphated polysaccharides of the marine green algae Codium dwarkense (Boergs.) and C. tomentosum (Huds.) Stackh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, M; Mody, K H; Siddhanta, A K

    2001-04-01

    Cold water extracts of marine green algae Codium dwarkense and C. tomentosum were precipitated with different molar concentrations of KCl and were subjected to anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Both the species yielded sulphated arabinan through bioassay-guided purification and both were chemically identified as a polymer of alpha-L-arabinofuranose. Products were assayed for their blood anticoagulant activity using PT, APFT and TT tests and found that they differed in the potency of activity though they are chemically identical. Bioassay-guided purification of cold water extract of C. tomentosum yielded sulphated arabinan and sulphated arabinogalactan.

  14. The toxicity of plastic nanoparticles to green algae as influenced by surface modification, medium hardness and cellular adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Tom M.; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Kleijn, J. Mieke

    2017-01-01

    To investigate processes possibly underlying accumulation and ecological effects of plastic nano-particles we have characterized their interaction with the cell wall of green algae. More specifically, we have investigated the influence of particle surface functionality and water hardness (Ca2...... by the medium hardness and particle concentration. Physicochemical modelling using DLVO theory was used to interpret the experimental data, using also values for interfacial surface free energies. Our study shows that material properties and medium conditions play a crucial role in the rate and state...

  15. Blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis) as an ingredient in pasta: free radical scavenging activity, sensory and cooking characteristics evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Nacim; Abid, Mouna; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Ayadi, M A; Zorgui, Lazhar; Ayadi, Moez; Attia, Hamadi

    2011-12-01

    The effects of semolina enrichment with blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis) at three different levels (1, 2 and 3 g/100 g of semolina) on the colour, cooking properties, firmness, free radical scavenging activity and sensory characteristics of pasta are reported. Microalgae addition resulted in higher swelling index and lower cooking loss than the control sample. A significant increase in pasta firmness was evidenced with an increase of added microalgae due to structural reinforcement. In addition to colouring, the use of A. platensis (2 g/100 g of semolina) can enhance the sensory quality and nutraceutical potential as evaluated by free radical scavenging activity of pasta.

  16. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Arora, M.; Anil, A.C.; Burgess, K.; Delany, J.E.; Mesbahi, E.

    algae as the evolutionary link between cellular individuality and cellular cooperation has been largely unstudied. Here, we show that clonal populations of a unicellular chlorophyte, Tetraselmis indica, consist of morphologically and ultrastructurally...

  17. Interactive effects of copper oxide nanoparticles and light to green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheloni, Giulia; Marti, Elodie; Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@unige.ch

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Comparable stability of CuO-NP suspensions under different light conditions. • UVR* inhibits growth, bleaches chlorophyll fluorescence and damages membrane. • Below 1 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs do not attenuate light in algal suspension. • SNL enhances significantly the effect of 0.8 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs on microalgae. • Synergistic interactions between UVR* and CuO-NPs. - Abstract: The present study explores the effect of light with different spectral composition on the stability of CuO-nanoparticle (CuO-NP) dispersions and their effects to green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results showed that simulated natural light (SNL) and light with enhanced UVB radiation (UVR*) do not affect the dissolution of CuO-NPs as compared to light irradiation conditions typically used in laboratory incubator (INC). Comparable values of ζ-potential and hydrodynamic size during 24 h were found under all studied conditions. Concentrations of CuO-NPs below 1 mg L{sup −1} do not attenuate the light penetration in the algal suspensions in comparison with NP-free system. Exposure to a combination of 8 μg L{sup −1} or 0.8 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs and INC or SNL has no significant effect on the algal growth inhibition, algal fluorescence and membrane integrity under short-term exposure. However, an enhancement of the percentage of cells experiencing oxidative stress was observed upon exposure to 0.8 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs and SNL for 4 and 8 h. Combination of UVR* and 0.8 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs resulted in synergistic effects for all biological endpoints. Despite the photocatalytic properties of CuO-NPs no significant increase in abiotic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under simulated solar radiation was observed suggesting that the synergistic effect observed might be correlated to other factors than CuO-NP-mediated ROS photoproduction. Tests performed with CuSO{sub 4} confirmed the important role of dissolution as toxicity driving force for lower

  18. Proliferation of group II introns in the chloroplast genome of the green alga Oedocladium carolinianum (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Simon Brouard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The chloroplast genome sustained extensive changes in architecture during the evolution of the Chlorophyceae, a morphologically and ecologically diverse class of green algae belonging to the Chlorophyta; however, the forces driving these changes are poorly understood. The five orders recognized in the Chlorophyceae form two major clades: the CS clade consisting of the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales, and the OCC clade consisting of the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales, and Chaetopeltidales. In the OCC clade, considerable variations in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA structure, size, gene order, and intron content have been observed. The large inverted repeat (IR, an ancestral feature characteristic of most green plants, is present in Oedogonium cardiacum (Oedogoniales but is lacking in the examined members of the Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales. Remarkably, the Oedogonium 35.5-kb IR houses genes that were putatively acquired through horizontal DNA transfer. To better understand the dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution in the Oedogoniales, we analyzed the cpDNA of a second representative of this order, Oedocladium carolinianum. Methods The Oedocladium cpDNA was sequenced and annotated. The evolutionary distances separating Oedocladium and Oedogonium cpDNAs and two other pairs of chlorophycean cpDNAs were estimated using a 61-gene data set. Phylogenetic analysis of an alignment of group IIA introns from members of the OCC clade was performed. Secondary structures and insertion sites of oedogonialean group IIA introns were analyzed. Results The 204,438-bp Oedocladium genome is 7.9 kb larger than the Oedogonium genome, but its repertoire of conserved genes is remarkably similar and gene order differs by only one reversal. Although the 23.7-kb IR is missing the putative foreign genes found in Oedogonium, it contains sequences coding for a putative phage or bacterial DNA primase and a hypothetical protein. Intergenic sequences are 1.5-fold

  19. Growth stimulation and inhibition effects of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and some related compounds on the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Y; Tsuboi, S; Takada, T; Suzuki, K

    2006-11-01

    4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) exhibited low algal toxicity with the 72-h median inhibition concentration (IC50) of 9.9 mmol/L in the standard growth inhibition test using the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. In contrast, it stimulated the algal growth at lower concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mmol/L. Comparative studies with benzoic acid and 2- and 3-hydroxybenzoic acids (2-HBA and 3-HBA) indicated that 2-HBA was the most toxic, giving a 72-h IC50 of 0.172 mmol/L, and 4-HBA was the least toxic and that only 4-HBA had the pronounced growth stimulation activity. In a semicontinuous exposure to 4-HBA (0.15 and 0.3 mmol/L), algae maintained increased cell growth compared with controls during up to 10 times consecutive batch cultures, without any indication of adaptive responses to the growth enhancing effect of 4-HBA. Return to the clean standard medium of the exposed cells resulted in the quick recovery from the stimulant effect. Furthermore, 4-HBA (0.3 mmol/L) was found to diminish the toxicity of 2-HBA (growth inhibition test. The effects of 4-HBA on P. subcapitata growth observed in the present study are not expected for planktonic algae in the aquatic environments, because known environmental concentrations are far below the effective concentration range.

  20. Sequestration of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and Acrylate from the Green Alga Ulva Spp. by the Sea Hare Aplysia juliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Michiya; Koyama, Mao; Hayashihara, Nobuko; Hiei, Kaori; Uchida, Hajime; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Many animals sequester secondary metabolites from their food. In this study, we hypothesized that the sea hare Aplysia juliana sequesters secondary metabolites from green algae. To test this, we performed NMR-based metabolomic analysis on methanol extracts of Ulva spp. and A. juliana. Another sea hare, Bursatella leachii, which mainly feeds on another type of alga, was added to this analysis as an outgroup. Two body parts of the sea hares, skin and digestive glands, were used in the analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the NMR data of these samples detected biomarkers common to Ulva spp. and A. juliana. This result indicates sequestration of secondary metabolites by the herbivore from the plants. The biomarker metabolites were identified as dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and acrylate, which were concentrated in skin of A. juliana and were released from the skin of live animals when physically stressed. Thus, our NMR-based metabolomic study revealed sequestration of algae-derived secondary metabolites in skin of A. Juliana, and in the discharge of the metabolites under conditions that mimic attack by predators.

  1. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koníčková, Renata; Vaňková, Kateřina; Vaníková, Jana; Váňová, Kateřina; Muchová, Lucie; Subhanová, Iva; Zadinová, Marie; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, Silvie; Ruml, Tomáš; J Wong, Ronald; Vítek, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement because of its hypocholesterolemic properties. Among other bioactive substances, it is also rich in tetrapyrrolic compounds closely related to bilirubin molecule, a potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible anticancer effects of S. platensis and S. platensis-derived tetrapyrroles using an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components [phycocyanobilin (PCB) and chlorophyllin, a surrogate molecule for chlorophyll A] were tested on several human pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenotransplanted nude mice. The effects of experimental therapeutics on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione redox status were also evaluated. Compared to untreated cells, experimental therapeutics significantly decreased proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.16 g•L-1 [S. platensis], 60 μM [PCB], and 125 μM [chlorophyllin], pcancer growth was evidenced since the third day of treatment (p compounds decreased generation of mitochondrial ROS and glutathione redox status (p = 0.0006; 0.016; and 0.006 for S. platensis, PCB, and chlorophyllin, respectively). In conclusion, S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components substantially decreased the proliferation of experimental pancreatic cancer. These data support a chemopreventive role of this edible alga. Furthermore, it seems that dietary supplementation with this alga might enhance systemic pool of tetrapyrroles, known to be higher in subjects with Gilbert syndrome.

  2. The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Nephroselmis olivacea: insights into the architecture of ancestral chloroplast genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmel, M; Otis, C; Lemieux, C

    1999-08-31

    Green plants seem to form two sister lineages: Chlorophyta, comprising the green algal classes Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Chlorophyceae, and Streptophyta, comprising the Charophyceae and land plants. We have determined the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence (200,799 bp) of Nephroselmis olivacea, a member of the class (Prasinophyceae) thought to include descendants of the earliest-diverging green algae. The 127 genes identified in this genome represent the largest gene repertoire among the green algal and land plant cpDNAs completely sequenced to date. Of the Nephroselmis genes, 2 (ycf81 and ftsI, a gene involved in peptidoglycan synthesis) have not been identified in any previously investigated cpDNA; 5 genes [ftsW, rnE, ycf62, rnpB, and trnS(cga)] have been found only in cpDNAs of nongreen algae; and 10 others (ndh genes) have been described only in land plant cpDNAs. Nephroselmis and land plant cpDNAs share the same quadripartite structure-which is characterized by the presence of a large rRNA-encoding inverted repeat and two unequal single-copy regions-and very similar sets of genes in corresponding genomic regions. Given that our phylogenetic analyses place Nephroselmis within the Chlorophyta, these structural characteristics were most likely present in the cpDNA of the common ancestor of chlorophytes and streptophytes. Comparative analyses of chloroplast genomes indicate that the typical quadripartite architecture and gene-partitioning pattern of land plant cpDNAs are ancient features that may have been derived from the genome of the cyanobacterial progenitor of chloroplasts. Our phylogenetic data also offer insight into the chlorophyte ancestor of euglenophyte chloroplasts.

  3. The GC-Rich Mitochondrial and Plastid Genomes of the Green Alga Coccomyxa Give Insight into the Evolution of Organelle DNA Nucleotide Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David Roy; Burki, Fabien; Yamada, Takashi; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Van Etten, James L.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2011-05-13

    Most of the available mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences are biased towards adenine and thymine (AT) over guanine and cytosine (GC). Examples of GC-rich organelle DNAs are limited to a small but eclectic list of species, including certain green algae. Here, to gain insight in the evolution of organelle nucleotide landscape, we present the GC-rich mitochondrial and plastid DNAs from the trebouxiophyte green alga Coccomyxa sp. C-169. We compare these sequences with other GC-rich organelle DNAs and argue that the forces biasing them towards G and C are nonadaptive and linked to the metabolic and/or life history features of this species. The Coccomyxa organelle genomes are also used for phylogenetic analyses, which highlight the complexities in trying to resolve the interrelationships among the core chlorophyte green algae, but ultimately favour a sister relationship between the Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae, with the Trebouxiophyceae branching at the base of the chlorophyte crown.

  4. THE EFFECT OF BIOMASS FROM GREEN ALGAE OF CHLORELLA GENUS ON THE BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVETLANA GRIGOROVA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of the fatty-acid content of the dry biomass from green algae of Chlorella genus cultivated in Bulgaria, with the aim of establishing its effect on the content of total lipids, cholesterol, phospholipids and the fattyacid content of the table eggs. The fatty-acid composition of the dry biomass from green microalgae of Chlorella genus was characterized by its high content of α linolenic acid – 36,5 %, palmitic acid – 20,4 %, linoleic acid – 15 % and oleic acid – 10,3 % of the total amount of fatty acids in the product. Omega-3/Omega-6 fatty acids ratio in the biomass was 0,4. When adding 2 % and 10 % of alga biomass to the forage for the laying hens the total cholesterol content in 100 g of yolk decreased in the experimental groups compared to the control one, however, the differences were statistically insignifi cant. The supplement of 2 % and 10 % of the studied product exerted an effect on the fatty-acid content of the egg yolk and it led to the increase of the amount of palmitic and linoleic acids and to the decrease of the docosatetraenic acid.

  5. Zeta potential measurement on the surface of blue-green algae particles for micro-bubble process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Kazuo; Seki, Tatsuhiro; Mononobe, Sakiyori; Kato, Kohichi

    2008-01-01

    Any kind of blue-green alga produces metabolites of musty substances and toxins. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the blue-green algae, and processing also including nutrient removal is desired for the water quality improvement of eutrophic lakes. The purpose of this study has been to investigate the possibility of a flotation system using a hybrid technique (chemical compounds and electrostatic bridge) applied to raw water containing phytoplankton with high pH of water, and to examine the zeta potential value of phytoplankton surface and the removal efficiency for phytoplankton, ammonia, nitrogen, and phosphoric acid. The results were as follows: firstly, zeta potential of M. aeruginosa particles was observed to achieve charge neutralization on their surface by adhesion of magnesium hydroxide precipitation with increasing pH. Secondly, maximum removal efficiency concerning chlorophyll-a was observed as 84%, and this efficiency was obtained in the condition of pH > 10, and magnesium hydroxide precipitation was observed. Thirdly, in the pH condition that the maximum removal efficiency of chlorophyll-a was obtained, the removal efficiency and the amount of decrease of NH(4)-N and PO(4)-P before and after the change of pH values were observed as 6.7% (0.04 mg-P/L) and 63.6% (0.07 mg-N/L), respectively.

  6. The Fermentation of Green Algae (Spirogyra majuscule Kuetz using Immobilitation Technique of Ca-Alginate for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmanto Heru Wibowo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of batch fermentation of green algae (Spirogyra majuscula Kuetz from Pengging Lake, Boyolali, Central Java for bioethanol source using immobilization technique of Ca-alginate for Saccaromyces cerevisiae entrapment has been done. The scope of the study emphasized on the best condition for the processes of hydrolysis and fermentation. Concentration of sulfuric acid and hydrolysis time were varied with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 M for 30, 90, 150, 210, 270, 330, 360, 390, 420, and 450 min to obtain the maximum glucose content of UV analysis. Na-alginate : yeast ratio and fermentation time were varied with 1:5, 2:4, 3:3, 4:2 and 5:1 (w/w for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Distillation at 70-80 °C was deployed to purify the fermentation product. The ethanol content in the product was analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The result of study showed that maximum glucose content was obtained 2.1% from 0.2 M sulfuric acid for 6 h of hydrolysis. Maximum ethanol content was obtained 54.1% from 2:4 ratio of Na-alginate : yeast (w/w for 4 days of fermentation. The study also concludes that immobilization technique of Ca-alginate increase alcohol content compared to without immobilization of green-algae fermentation.

  7. Effects of Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacterium and Its Crude Extracts on a Benthic Green Alga-Competition or Allelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-Béres, Viktória; Vasas, Gábor; Dobronoki, Dalma; Gonda, Sándor; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Bácsi, István

    2015-10-30

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by filamentous cyanobacteria which could work as an allelopathic substance, although its ecological role in cyanobacterial-algal assemblages is mostly unclear. The competition between the CYN-producing cyanobacterium Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum, and the benthic green alga Chlorococcum sp. was investigated in mixed cultures, and the effects of CYN-containing cyanobacterial crude extract on Chlorococcum sp. were tested by treatments with crude extracts containing total cell debris, and with cell debris free crude extracts, modelling the collapse of a cyanobacterial water bloom. The growth inhibition of Chlorococcum sp. increased with the increasing ratio of the cyanobacterium in mixed cultures (inhibition ranged from 26% to 87% compared to control). Interestingly, inhibition of the cyanobacterium growth also occurred in mixed cultures, and it was more pronounced than it was expected. The inhibitory effects of cyanobacterial crude extracts on Chlorococcum cultures were concentration-dependent. The presence of C. ovalisporum in mixed cultures did not cause significant differences in nutrient content compared to Chlorococcum control culture, so the growth inhibition of the green alga could be linked to the presence of CYN and/or other bioactive compounds.

  8. Removal of bisphenol A by the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium braunii and the role of natural organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattullo, C. Eliana, E-mail: e.gattullo@agr.uniba.it [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agro-forestale e Ambientale, University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari (Italy); Baehrs, Hanno; Steinberg, Christian E.W. [Department of Biology, Freshwater and Stress Ecology, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Spaethstr. 80/81, 12437 Berlin (Germany); Loffredo, Elisabetta [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agro-forestale e Ambientale, University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Phytoremediation of waters by aquatic organisms such as algae has been recently explored for the removal of organic pollutants possessing endocrine disrupting capacity. Monoraphidium braunii, a green alga known for rapid growth and good tolerance to different natural organic matter (NOM) qualities, was tested in this study for the ability to tolerate and remove the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A at concentrations of 2, 4 and 10 mg L{sup -1}, either in NOM-free or NOM-containing media. NOM at concentrations of 2, 5 and 20 mg L{sup -1} of DOC, was added because it may interfere with xenobiotics and modify their effects, modulate algal growth performances or produce a trade-off of both effects. After 2 and 4 days of algal growth, the cell number and size, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II in the dark or light adapted state, and the chlorophyll a content were recorded in order to evaluate the algal response to bisphenol A. Moreover, the residual bisphenol A was measured in the algal cultures by chromatographic technique. Results indicated that after 2 and 4 days bisphenol A at the lower concentrations was not toxic for alga, whereas at the highest concentration it reduced algal growth and photosynthetic efficiency. The sole NOM and its combinations with bisphenol A at the lower concentrations increased the cell number and the chlorophyll a content of algae. After 4-day growth, good removal efficiency was exerted by M. braunii at concentrations of 2, 4 and 10 mg L{sup -1} removing, respectively, 39%, 48% and 35% of the initial bisphenol A. Lower removal percentages were found after 2-day growth in the different treatments. NOM at any concentration scarcely influenced the bisphenol A removal. On the basis of data obtained, the use of M. braunii could be reasonably recommended for the phytoremediation of aquatic environments from bisphenol A. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alga Monoraphidium braunii tolerates high concentrations of bisphenol A

  9. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltman, Peter H.; Guo, Jian; Reistetter, Emily Nahas; Purvine, Samuel; Ansong, Charles K.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wei, Chia-Lin; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Mills, Ken

    2016-07-19

    Micromonas is a unicellular green alga that belongs to the prasinophytes, a sister lineage to land plants. This picoeukaryotic (<2 μm diameter) alga is widespread in the marine environment but still not understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine the mRNA and protein level changes that take place over the course of the day-night cycle using mid-exponential nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 grown and analyzed in biological triplicate. During the experiment, samples were collected at key transition points during the diel for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. We also sequenced matched mRNA samples from the same time points, using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels using both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including the codon usage and the length of the 3’ UTR. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel as relationships between the transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  10. Three-dimensional ultrastructural study of oil and astaxanthin accumulation during encystment in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Wayama

    Full Text Available Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of green algae and is well known for its accumulation of the strong antioxidant astaxanthin, which is used in aquaculture, various pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. High levels of astaxanthin are present in cysts, which rapidly accumulate when the environmental conditions become unfavorable for normal cell growth. It is not understood, however, how accumulation of high levels of astaxanthin, which is soluble in oil, becomes possible during encystment. Here, we performed ultrastructural 3D reconstruction based on over 350 serial sections per cell to visualize the dynamics of astaxanthin accumulation and subcellular changes during the encystment of H. pluvialis. This study showcases the marked changes in subcellular elements, such as chloroplast degeneration, in the transition from green coccoid cells to red cyst cells during encystment. In green coccoid cells, chloroplasts accounted for 41.7% of the total cell volume, whereas the relative volume of astaxanthin was very low (0.2%. In contrast, oil droplets containing astaxanthin predominated in cyst cells (52.2%, in which the total chloroplast volume was markedly decreased (9.7%. Volumetric observations also demonstrated that the relative volumes of the cell wall, starch grains, pyrenoids, mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, and the nucleus in a cyst cell are smaller than those in green coccid cells. Our data indicated that chloroplasts are degraded, resulting in a net-like morphology, but do not completely disappear, even at the red cyst stage.

  11. Bacterial diversity in surface water of the Yellow Sea during and after a green alga tide in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cong; Li, Fuchao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2011-11-01

    From May to August 2008, a large "green tide", consisting of the alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, occurred in the Yellow Sea, China, affecting the local marine ecosystem and human activities. We investigated the influence of the green tide on the microbial community in the surface seawater, at four sites from July to August 2008, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. We sequenced 228 clones of unique patterns identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. The results show that 228 sequenced clones fell into six bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (25%), Bacteroidetes (23%) and Cyanobacteria (9%) dominated the assemblage. Comparison between samples collected in July (during the tide) and those collected in August (after the tide) showed that, in the microbial community, diversities of Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria increased after the tide, while those of Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. These results indicate that the green tide influenced the growth of some bacteria, and provide information for further studies on the interactions and relationships between U. prolifera and the bacterial community. This study suggests that microbial community analysis is a good approach to monitoring green tides.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a xanthophyll-rich fraction from the thylakoid membrane of Dunaliella salina(green algae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Savchenko, Tatyana; Polle, Juergen E W; Melis, Anastasios

    2005-12-01

    Long-term acclimation to irradiance stress (HL) of the green alga Dunaliella salina Teod. (UTEX 1644) entails substantial accumulation of zeaxanthin along with a lowering in the relative amount of other pigments, including chlorophylls and several carotenoids. This phenomenon was investigated with wild type and the zea1 mutant of D. salina, grown under conditions of low irradiance (LL), or upon acclimation to irradiance stress (HL). In the wild type, the zeaxanthin to chlorophyll (Zea/Chl)(mol : mol) ratio was as low as 0.009 : 1 under LL and as high as 0.8 : 1 under HL conditions. In the zea1 mutant, which constitutively accumulates zeaxanthin and lacks antheraxanthin, violaxanthin and neoxanthin, the Zea/Chl ratio was 0.15 : 1 in LL and 0.57 : 1 in HL. The divergent Zea/Chl ratios were reflected in the coloration of the cells, which were green under LL and yellow under HL. In LL-grown cells, all carotenoids occurred in structural association with the Chl-protein complexes. This was clearly not the case in the HL-acclimated cells. A beta-carotene-rich fraction occurred as loosely bound to the thylakoid membrane and was readily isolated by flotation following mechanical disruption of D. salina. A zeaxanthin-rich fraction was specifically isolated, upon mild surfactant treatment and differential centrifugation, from the thylakoid membrane of either HL wild type or HL-zea1 mutant. Such differential extraction of beta-carotene and Zea, and their separation from the Chl-proteins, could not be obtained from the LL-grown wild type, although small amounts of Zea could still be differentially extracted from the LL-grown zea1 strain. It is concluded that, in LL-grown D. salina, xanthophylls (including most of Zea in the zea1 strain) are structurally associated with and stabilized by the Chl-proteins in the thylakoid membrane. Under HL-growth conditions, however, zeaxanthin appears to be embedded in the lipid bilayer, or in a domain of the chloroplast thylakoids that can

  13. Antibacterial and Anti-oxidant activity of three species of green, brown and red algae from Northern coast of Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohseen Heidari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine algae are shown to contain a wide range of bioactive compounds, which have commercial application in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. The biological activity of the natural bio-active compounds in algae has wide effects on bacteria, tumors and antioxidant activities. The purpose of this study was to determine antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the marine algae. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of three species of green, brown and red algae were done by soaking method from northern coast of the Persian Gulf in Busheher province. Antibacterial activity of L. monocytogenes and E. Coli were performed using disk diffusion and well method, and also antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of added three species accomplished using DPPH, FRAP and PMB tests. Results: The highest antioxidant activity was belonged to brown algae C. trinodis. Meanwhile Algae extraction was not revealed antibacterial activity against E. coli, but showed antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes. Conclusion: In this study algae species was exhibited excellent antioxidant activity when compared with their antibacterial effects. The highest anti-oxidant activitie was found in brown algae C. trinodis.

  14. Effect of blue-green algae on soil nitrogen | Paudel | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria is released either through exudation or through microbial decomposition after the alga dies. In paddy fields, the death of algal biomass is most frequently associated with soil dessication at the end of the cultivation cycle and algal growth has frequently resulted in a gradual build up of soil ...

  15. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in plants and green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhixin Zhao; Cheng Guo; Sreeskandarajan Sutharzan; Pei Li; Craig Echt; Jie Zhang; Chun Liang

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among...

  16. Transcriptomics of desiccation tolerance in the streptophyte green alga Klebsormidium reveal a land plant-like defense reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holzinger

    cell division, DNA replication, cofactor biosynthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis were down-regulated.This is the first study investigating the desiccation transcriptome of a streptophyte green alga. Our results indicate that the cellular response is similar to embryophytes, suggesting that embryophytes inherited a basic cellular desiccation tolerance from their streptophyte predecessors.

  17. Biosorption of binary mixtures of heavy metals by green macro alga, Caulerpa lentillifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasert Pavasant

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Dried Caulerpa lentillifera was shown to have adsorption potential for Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn. The adsorption equilibrium was found to follow the Freundlich isotherm type. The adsorption of binary mixture of heavy metals solution onto the surface of the algae was found to be of competitive type where the adsorption capacity for any single metal decreased by 10-40% in the presence of the others. The total adsorption capacity of the algae was, in most cases, found to decrease by 30-50% when there was more than one heavy metal in the solution. However, the adsorption of mixtures of Cd and Cu, and of Pb and Cu did not show a reductionin the total adsorption capacity.

  18. Effect of nutrients on growth and lipid accumulation in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Tang, Haiying; Ma, Hongzhi; Holland, Thomas C; Ng, K Y Simon; Salley, Steven O

    2011-01-01

    Production of biofuel from algae is dependent on the microalgal biomass production rate and lipid content. Both biomass production and lipid accumulation are limited by several factors, of which nutrients play a key role. In this research, the marine microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta was used as a model organism and a profile of its nutritional requirements was determined. Inorganic phosphate PO4(3-) and trace elements: cobalt (Co2+), iron (Fe3+), molybdenum (Mo2+) and manganese (Mn2+) were identified as required for algae optimum growth. Inorganic nitrogen in the form of nitrate NO3- instead of ammonium (NH4+) was required for maximal biomass production. Lipids accumulated under nitrogen starvation growth condition and this was time-dependent. Results of this research can be applied to maximize production of microalgal lipids in optimally designed photobioreactors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Hajar; Moradshahi, Ali; Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-09-01

    The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb(2+) in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb(2+) to the culture media had no significant (P>0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P>0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle-particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about 440 nm hydrodynamic diameter were formed within 35 min. Afterwards the aggregate size remained constant. It is concluded that PbS NPs have a negative effect on aquatic algae and their transformation by GA capping affects NPs aggregation properties and toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Promotive effect of se on the growth and antioxidation of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Gang, Zhou; Zhi-Li, Liu

    1998-12-01

    Cultures of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima (Setch. et Gard.) Geitler with various concentrations of Se in Zarrouk's medium showed that not higher than 40 mg/L Se could promote its growth. The present experiments showed that S. maxima grown under normal conditions, has an oxidant stress defence system for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, which is the Halliwell-Asada pathway. When 4 to 20 mg/L Se was added to the algal medium, this pathway was replaced by a so-called Sestressed pathway containing GSH peroxidase (GSH-POD). As a result of the occurrence of both higher activity of GSH-POD and lower levels of hydroxyl radical (OH·), the Se-stressed pathway scavenged H2O2 so effectively that the growth of S. maxima was promoted by 4 to 20 mg/L Se. While GSH-POD activity of the alga disappeared at 40 mg/L Se, the recovery of ascorbate peroxidase was observed. The lower levels of ascorbic acid and GSH made the Halliwell-Asada pathway for scavenging H2O2 less effective, while the highest activity of catalase might be responsible in part for the H2O2 removal, causing the level of OH· in S. maxima grown at 40 mg/L Se to be much higher than the OH· level in this alga grown at 4 to 20 mg/L Se, but lower than that in the control. The OH· level changes caused the growth of S. maxima cultured at 40 mg/L Se to increase slightly to close to that of the control.

  1. Taxonomic revision and species delimitation of coccoid green algae currently assigned to the genus Dictyochloropsis (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škaloud, Pavel; Friedl, Thomas; Hallmann, Christine; Beck, Andreas; Dal Grande, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Coccoid green algae traditionally classified in Dictyochloropsis have a complex, reticulate chloroplast, when mature, without a pyrenoid. They occupy remarkably diverse ecological niches as free-living organisms or in association with lichen-forming fungi and were recently shown to form two distinct lineages within Trebouxiophyceae. We used a polyphasic approach to revise the taxonomy of the genus. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, and detailed morphological investigation using comparative conventional light and confocal microscopy, we have assigned these lineages to two genera, Dictyochloropsis and Symbiochloris gen. nov. We have reconsidered the diagnostic generic features as follows: Dictyochloropsis comprises only free-living algae with a reticulate chloroplast, forming lobes in a parallel arrangement at some ontogenetic stages, and which reproduce only by means of autospores. This agrees with Geitler's original diagnosis of Dictyochloropsis, but not with the later emendation by Tschermak-Woess. Consequently, the species of Dictyochloropsis sensu Tschermak-Woess are assigned to Symbiochloris, with new combinations proposed. Symbiochloris encompasses free-living and/or lichenized algae with lobed chloroplasts and that reproduce by forming zoospores characterized by two subapical isokont flagella that emerge symmetrically near the flattened apex. In addition, using coalescent-based approaches, morphological characters and secondary structure of ITS transcripts, we inferred species boundaries and taxonomic relationships within the newly proposed genera. Two species of Dictyochloropsis and nine species of Symbiochloris are delimited, including the newly described species D. asterochloroides, S. handae, S. tropica, and S. tschermakiae. Our results further support the non-monophyly of autosporine taxa within Trebouxiophyceae. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Importance of nutrient competition and allelopathic effects in suppression of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus by the macrophytes Chara, Elodea and Myriophyllum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; Van Geest, G.J.; Scheffer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Possible allelopathic effects of substances released from the macrophytes Chara globularis, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum on the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus were tested in the laboratory with plastic plants and untreated medium as controls. A two-phase approach was used in

  3. Effects of acute and chronic UV-B exposure on a green alga: a continuous culture study using a computer-controlled dynamic light regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, A.; Reuvers, M.; Ronçak, P.

    1997-01-01

    The green alga Selenastrum capricornutum was grown in a specially developed continuous culture system to study long-term effects of chronic W-B exposure. The new system improves upon previous laboratory culture approaches. It is demonstrated that short-term experiments underestimate W-B effects. It

  4. On the way to cyanobacterial blooms: impact of the herbicide metribuzin on the competition between a green alga (Scenedesmus) and a cyanobacterium (Microcystis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Roessink, I.

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to a common and widely applied photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide, metribuzin, would alter the outcome of the competitive battle between susceptible green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) and tolerant cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was tested. In a long-term (17d)

  5. An omics based assessment of cadmium toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamers, An; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Griffin, Julian L. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 2QA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: oliver.jones@rmit.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The effects of cadmium were assessed in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae were exposed to concentrations of 0, 8.1 or 114.8 {mu}M of cadmium and growth rates, gene transcription and metabolite profiles were examined after 48 and 72 h of exposure. In algae exposed to 8.1 {mu}M Cd, several genes were differentially transcribed after 48 h but no adverse growth related effects were detected. A transient effect on both gene transcription patterns and metabolite profiles could be discerned after 48 h of exposure but the majority of these changes disappeared after 72 h. In contrast, all effects were more pronounced at the 114.8 {mu}M cadmium exposure. Here growth was clearly reduced and transcription of a large number of genes involved in oxidative stress defense mechanisms was differentially increased. Metabolites involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway (an important antioxidant defense) were also affected but the effects of cadmium were found to be more pronounced at the transcript level than in the metabolome, suggesting that the former exhibits greater sensitivity toward cadmium exposure.

  6. Red and green algal origin of diatom membrane transporters: insights into environmental adaptation and cell evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Xin Chan

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters (MTs facilitate the movement of molecules between cellular compartments. The evolutionary history of these key components of eukaryote genomes remains unclear. Many photosynthetic microbial eukaryotes (e.g., diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates appear to have undergone serial endosymbiosis and thereby recruited foreign genes through endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT. Here we used the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as models to examine the evolutionary origin of MTs in this important group of marine primary producers. Using phylogenomics, we used 1,014 diatom MTs as query against a broadly sampled protein sequence database that includes novel genome data from the mesophilic red algae Porphyridium cruentum and Calliarthron tuberculosum, and the stramenopile Ectocarpus siliculosus. Our conservative approach resulted in 879 maximum likelihood trees of which 399 genes show a non-lineal history between diatoms and other eukaryotes and prokaryotes (at the bootstrap value ≥70%. Of the eukaryote-derived MTs, 172 (ca. 25% of 697 examined phylogenies have members of both red/green algae as sister groups, with 103 putatively arising from green algae, 19 from red algae, and 50 have an unresolved affiliation to red and/or green algae. We used topology tests to analyze the most convincing cases of non-lineal gene history in which red and/or green algae were nested within stramenopiles. This analysis showed that ca. 6% of all trees (our most conservative estimate support an algal origin of MTs in stramenopiles with the majority derived from green algae. Our findings demonstrate the complex evolutionary history of photosynthetic eukaryotes and indicate a reticulate origin of MT genes in diatoms. We postulate that the algal-derived MTs acquired via E/HGT provided diatoms and other related microbial eukaryotes the ability to persist under conditions of fluctuating ocean chemistry, likely

  7. Toxicity of Cu (II) to the green alga Chlorella vulgaris: a perspective of photosynthesis and oxidant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zunwei; Song, Shufang; Wen, Yuezhong; Zou, Yuqin; Liu, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    The toxic effects of Cu (II) on the freshwater green algae Chlorella vulgaris and its chloroplast were investigated by detecting the responses of photosynthesis and oxidant stress. The results showed that Cu (II) arrested the growth of C. vulgaris and presented in a concentration- and time-dependent trend and the SRichards 2 model fitted the inhibition curve best. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including qP, Y (II), ETR, F v /F m , and F v /F 0, were stimulated at low concentration of Cu (II) but declined at high concentration, indicating the photosystem II (PSII) of C. vulgaris was destroyed by Cu (II). The chloroplasts were extracted, and the Hill reaction activity (HRA) of chloroplast was significantly decreased with the increasing Cu (II) concentration under both illuminating and dark condition, and faster decline speed was observed under dark condition. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were also significantly decreased at high concentration Cu (II), companied with a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. All these results indicated a severe oxidative stress on algal cells occurred as well as the effect on photosynthesis, thus inhibiting the growth of algae, which providing sights to evaluate the phytotoxicity of Cu (II).

  8. Characterization and heterologous expression of a new matrix attachment region binding protein from the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyun; Hou, Guiqin; Wang, Yafeng; Xue, Lexun

    2010-12-01

    Although interactions between the nuclear matrix and special regions of chromosomal DNA called matrix attachment regions (MARs) are implicated in various nuclear functions, the understanding of the regulatory mechanism of MARs is still poor. A few MAR-binding proteins (MARBP) have been isolated from some plants and animals, but not from the unicellular algae. Here, we identify a novel MAR-binding protein, namely DMBP-1, from the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina. The cDNA of DMBP-1 is 2322-bp long and contains a 1626 bp of an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 542 amino acids (59 kDa). The DMBP-1 expressed in Escherichia coli specifically binds A/T-rich MAR DNA. The DMBP-1 fused to green fluorescent protein appears only inside the nuclei of Chinese hamster ovarian cells transfected with the pEGFP-MBP, indicating that the protein is located in the nuclei. The findings mentioned above may contribute to better understanding of the nuclear matrix-MAR interactions.

  9. Temperature influence on silver nanoparticles inhibitory effect on photosystem II photochemistry in two green algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; Polchtchikov, Stephanie; Perreault, François; Popovic, Radovan

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the photosynthetic performance of two green algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta, was investigated at 25°C and 31°C. To induce AgNPs effect, algal cells were exposed for 24 h to concentrations varying from 0 to 10 mg/L. The polyphasic OJIP fluorescence transient was used to evaluate photosystem II (PSII). We show that growth media and temperature had different effects in AgNPs agglomerates formation and Zeta potential. When temperature conditions change, inhibitory effect of AgNPs also undergoes changes. Increase of temperature induced higher altering effects to PSII quantum yield, primary photosynthetic electron transport, and consequently higher decrease of total photosynthetic performance if compared to AgNPs effect alone. AgNPs has a negative effect on D. tertiolecta compared to C. vulgaris. We conclude that temperature tends to enhance the toxic effects on aquatic alga and these alterations might have serious consequences on ecosystem equilibrium and aquatic plant communities.

  10. Selenium Accumulation in Unicellular Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Effects on Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤75 mg L−1) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L−1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L−1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

  11. Selenium accumulation in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris and its effects on antioxidant enzymes and content of photosynthetic pigments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Sun

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤ 75 mg L(-1 positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L-1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L-1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health.

  12. The influence of salinity on the toxicity of selected sulfonamides and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecka, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Haliński, Łukasz P; Pazdro, Ksenia; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2016-05-05

    This paper presents the investigation of the influence of salinity variations on the toxicity of sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris after exposure times of 48 and 72 h. In freshwater the EC50 values ranged from 0.98 to 123.22 mg L(-1) depending on the compound. The obtained results revealed that sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the most toxic, while trimethoprim was the least toxic pharmaceutical to the selected organism. Deviations between the nominal and real test concentrations were determined via instrumental analysis to support the interpretation of ecotoxicological data. The toxicity effects were also tested in saline water (3, 6 and 9 PSU). The tendency that the toxicity of selected pharmaceuticals decreases with increasing salinity was observed. Higher salinity implies an elevated concentration of inorganic monovalent cations that are capable of binding with countercharges available on algal surfaces (hydroxyl functional groups). Hence it can reduce the permeability of pharmaceuticals through the algal cell walls, which could be the probable reason for the observed effect. Moreover, for the classification of the mode of toxic action, the toxic ratio concept was applied, which indicated that the effects of the investigated drugs towards algae are caused by the specific mode of toxic action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme and identification of fibrinogen clotting enzyme in a marine green alga, Codium divaricatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, K; Hori, K; Matsuura, Y; Miyazawa, K

    2000-01-01

    A fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from a marine green alga, Codium divaricatum, and designated C. divaricatum protease (CDP). This protease effectively hydrolyzed fibrinogen A alpha chain, while it had very low hydrolyzing efficiency for B beta and gamma chains. This property was similar to that of alpha-fibrinogenase isolated from snake venom. Protease activity peaked at pH 9, and was completely inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), identifying it as a serine protease. Its molecular form was single polypeptide structure and molecular weight was estimated as 31,000 by SDS-PAGE. Fibrinogen clotting enzyme was also identified in a fraction by ion-exchange chromatography. Analysis of clots formed by the enzyme and by thrombin by SDS-PAGE showed that the fibrinogen clotting enzyme would act like thrombin and have high substrate specificity.

  14. Proteasome and NF-κB Inhibiting Phaeophytins from the Green Alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhan Lin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical examination of the green alga Cladophora fascicularis resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new porphyrin derivative, porphyrinolactone (1, along with five known phaeophytins 2-6 and fourteen sterols and cycloartanes. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of its NMR data with those of known phaeophytins. Compounds 1-6 displayed moderate inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation, while 2 and 4 displayed potential inhibitory activity toward proteasome chymotripsin-like activation. The primary structure-activity relationship was also discussed.

  15. Transitions between marine and freshwater environments provide new clues about the origins of multicellular plants and algae

    OpenAIRE

    Dittami, Simon M; Heesch, Svenja; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Collén, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Marine-freshwater and freshwater-marine transitions have been key events in the evolution of life, and most major groups of organisms have independently undergone such events at least once in their history. Here we first compile an inventory of bidirectional freshwater and marine transitions in multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. While green and red algae have mastered multiple transitions in both directions, brown algae have colonized fresh water on a maximum of ...

  16. Chaperonin cofactors, Cpn10 and Cpn20, of green algae and plants function as hetero-oligomeric ring complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chin C; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2012-06-08

    The chloroplast chaperonin system of plants and green algae is a curiosity as both the chaperonin cage and its lid are encoded by multiple genes, in contrast to the single genes encoding the two components of the bacterial and mitochondrial systems. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr), three genes encode chaperonin cofactors, with cpn10 encoding a single ∼10-kDa domain and cpn20 and cpn23 encoding tandem cpn10 domains. Here, we characterized the functional interaction of these proteins with the Escherichia coli chaperonin, GroEL, which normally cooperates with GroES, a heptamer of ∼10-kDa subunits. The C. reinhardtii cofactor proteins alone were all unable to assist GroEL-mediated refolding of bacterial ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase but gained this ability when CrCpn20 and/or CrCpn23 was combined with CrCpn10. Native mass spectrometry indicated the formation of hetero-oligomeric species, consisting of seven ∼10-kDa domains. The cofactor "heptamers" interacted with GroEL and encapsulated substrate protein in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Different hetero-oligomer arrangements, generated by constructing cofactor concatamers, indicated a preferential heptamer configuration for the functional CrCpn10-CrCpn23 complex. Formation of heptamer Cpn10/Cpn20 hetero-oligomers was also observed with the Arabidopsis thaliana (At) cofactors, which functioned with the chloroplast chaperonin, AtCpn60α(7)β(7). It appears that hetero-oligomer formation occurs more generally for chloroplast chaperonin cofactors, perhaps adapting the chaperonin system for the folding of specific client proteins.

  17. The complete plastid genome sequence of the parasitic green alga Helicosporidium sp. is highly reduced and structured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of photosynthesis has occurred independently in several plant and algal lineages, and represents a major metabolic shift with potential consequences for the content and structure of plastid genomes. To investigate such changes, we sequenced the complete plastid genome of the parasitic, non-photosynthetic green alga, Helicosporidium. Results The Helicosporidium plastid genome is among the smallest known (37.5 kb, and like other plastids from non-photosynthetic organisms it lacks all genes for proteins that function in photosynthesis. Its reduced size results from more than just loss of genes, however; it has little non-coding DNA, with only one intron and tiny intergenic spaces, and no inverted repeat (no duplicated genes at all. It encodes precisely the minimal complement of tRNAs needed to translate the universal genetic code, and has eliminated all redundant isoacceptors. The Helicosporidium plastid genome is also highly structured, with each half of the circular genome containing nearly all genes on one strand. Helicosporidium is known to be related to trebouxiophyte green algae, but the genome is structured and compacted in a manner more reminiscent of the non-photosynthetic plastids of apicomplexan parasites. Conclusion Helicosporidium contributes significantly to our understanding of the evolution of plastid DNA because it illustrates the highly ordered reduction that occurred following the loss of a major metabolic function. The convergence of plastid genome structure in Helicosporidium and the Apicomplexa raises the interesting possibility that there are common forces that shape plastid genomes, subsequent to the loss of photosynthesis in an organism.

  18. Interactive effect of brassinosteroids and cytokinins on growth, chlorophyll, monosaccharide and protein content in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja

    2014-07-01

    Interaction between brassinosteroids (BRs) (brassinolide, BL; 24-epibrassinolide, 24-epiBL; 28-homobrassinolide, 28-homoBL; castasterone, CS; 24-epicastasterone, 24-epiCS; 28-homocastasterone, 28-homoCS) and adenine- (trans-zeatin, tZ; kinetin, Kin) as well as phenylurea-type (1,3-diphenylurea, DPU) cytokinins (CKs) in the regulation of cell number, phytohormone level and the content of chlorophyll, monosaccharide and protein in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) were examined. Chlorella vulgaris exhibited sensitivity to CKs in the following order of their stimulating properties: 10 nM tZ > 100 nM Kin >1 μM DPU. Exogenously applied BRs possessed the highest biological activity in algal cells at concentration of 10 nM. Among the BRs, BL was characterized by the highest activity, while 28-homoCS - by the lowest. The considerable increase in the level of all endogenous BRs by 27-46% was observed in C. vulgaris culture treated with exogenous 10 nM tZ. It can be speculated that CKs may stimulate BR activity in C. vulgaris by inducing the accumulation of endogenous BRs. CKs interacted synergistically with BRs increasing the number of cells and endogenous accumulation of proteins, chlorophylls and monosaccharides in C. vulgaris. The highest stimulation of algal growth and the contents of analyzed biochemical parameters were observed for BL applied in combination with tZ, whereas the lowest in the culture treated with both 28-homoCS and DPU. However, regardless of the applied mixture of BRs with CKs, the considerable increase in cell number and the metabolite accumulation was found above the level obtained in cultures treated with any single phytohormone in unicellular green alga C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatoxin-a and its metabolites in blue-green algae food supplements from Canada and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Lau, Benjamin P Y; Saker, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Blue-green algae and spirulina are marketed in health food stores and over the Internet as food supplements in Canada, the United States, and Europe. The reported benefits of consuming these products include improved digestion, strengthening of the immune system, and relief from the symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Some of these products have been found to contain elevated concentrations of microcystins, which are known hepatotoxins. In addition to producing microcystins, Anabaena sp. and Aphanizomenon sp. also produce the potent neurotoxin anatoxin-a. Samples of food supplements containing blue-green algae and spirulina were collected in Portugal and from urban centers across Canada in 2005. Extracts of these supplements were analyzed to determine the presence and concentrations of anatoxin-a and its two main metabolites, dihydroanatoxin-a and epoxyanatoxin-a. Initial analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, and confirmation required the use of LC with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The HPLC with fluorescence detection indicated no anatoxin-a, but four samples were suspected to contain either dihydroanatoxin-a or epoxyanatoxin-a at 0.1 to 0.2 microg/g. LC-MS-MS results, however, indicated no trace of either transformation product in any sample analyzed. The detection limits for anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, and epoxyanatoxin-a were similar for both fluorescence detection (0.2 to 0.3, 0.4 to 1.4, and 0.2 to 1.5 pg on the column, respectively) and mass spectrometry (0.3 to 1.5, 0.3 to 0.8, and 0.5 to 0.8 pg on the column, respectively). Because of the higher specificity of the LC-MS-MS analysis, all tested food supplement samples were considered free of anatoxin-a and its transformation products.

  20. Occurrence of green alga Ernodesmisverticillata (Kuetzing) Boergesen at Malvan (Maharashtra coast)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Agadi, V.V.

    of marine algal resources of the Maharashtra Coast, a green marine algal species was collected and identified as E. verticillata. From the literature it was observed that E. verticillata has not so far been reported from the Indian coast...

  1. Inhibition of Formation of Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rats by Edible Green AlgaeCapsosiphon fulvescensand Brown AlgaeHizikia fusiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young-Sook; Ullah, H M Arif; Elfadl, Ahmed K; Ghim, Soong-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jin; Kim, Yong Deuk; Lee, Eun-Joo; Kang, Kyung-Ku; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2018-01-01

    Capsosiphon fulvescens (green seaweed) and Hizikia fusiforme (brown seaweed) are marine algae consumed as food supplements, especially in Japan, China and Korea, and are considered traditional medicinal tonics for certain ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. F344 male rats (5 weeks, 150 g) were divided into six groups as follows. Group 1: Injected with normal saline solution and fed control diet (untreated control). Group 2: Injected with AOM and fed control diet (treated control). Group 3: Injected with AOM and fed 1% C. fulvescens diet. Group 4: Injected with AOM and fed 2% C. fulvescens diet. Group 5: Injected with AOM and fed 2% H. fusiforme diet. Group 6: Injected with AOM and fed 6% H. fusiforme diet. Test animals received subcutaneous injections of AOM (15 mg/1 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 2 weeks to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in treated control and experimental groups. We evaluated the effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme at two different dose levels: 1 and 2% C. fulvescens, and 2 and 6% H. fusiforme, on colonic carcinogenesis by AOM in rats. Our results suggest that body weights were not significantly different amongst groups. We found that feeding C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme with a control diet significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the development of ACF in experimental groups. C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme in food also significantly (p<0.05) reduced the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in the colonic tissues of experimental groups. These results demonstrate the chemopreventive potential of C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme against CRC in an AOM-induced rats. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Pathophysiology and Toxicokinetic Studies of Blue-Green Algae Intoxication in the Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-21

    hepatotoxi-n, Anabaena flos- aguae ,anatoxin-a natoxin-a(s), anticholinesterase, nicotinic agonist -- It. ASTRAT (Cas~rm co i necsmy id ny by bioc...bioassay and the establishment of methods to neutralize algae toxins in potable water. • • ’ ’ a I I I 32: -22- 1. Brooks, V.P. and Codd, G.A. Extraction...by the Freshwater Cvanobaiterir Anabaena flos- agua .. and Studies with Algal Blocs Material Containing Anatoxin-a(s)-in Mice.-Ducks, Pists. and Cattle

  3. Fresh-water Green Algae (Chlorophyta) as a Natural Pigment for Mojosari Ducks

    OpenAIRE

    B. Indarsih; Asnawi, A; D.K. Purnamasari

    2015-01-01

    An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4) according to a commercial standard diet asa co...

  4. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA) AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

    OpenAIRE

    B. Indarsih; Asnawi, A; D.K. Purnamasari

    2015-01-01

    An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4) according to a commercial standard diet asa co...

  5. Characterisation Of Polysacharides And Lipids From Selected Green Algae Species By FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Alica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used in this study to identify and determine spectral features of Chromochloris zofingiensis (Dönz Fucíková et L.A. Lewis (SAG 211-14, Gottingen, Germany, Acutodesmus obliguus (Turpin Hegewald (SAG 276-1, Gottingen, Germany and Chlorella sorokiniana (K. Brandt Pröschold et Darienko (SAG 211-40c, Gottingen, Germany. Polysaccharides and lipids from these three algae species were determined using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR with ATR accessory with diamante crystal in spectral range from 400 – 4000 cm−1 and resolution 4.

  6. Colonial green algae from streams of Conservation Units in Southern Brazil: taxonomy and ecological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Cleto Kaveski; Branco, Ciro Cesar Zanini [UNESP; Tonetto, Aurélio Fajar [UNESP; Oliveira, Régis De Campos [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Espécies de algas verdes coloniais de 10 Unidades de Conservação da região Sul do Brasil foram investigadas. As amostragens foram conduzidas em 105 segmentos de riachos consistindo em transeções de 10 metros de comprimento. Além dos dados biológicos, foram mensuradas algumas variáveis ambientais: profundidade, velocidade da correnteza, temperatura da água, turbidez, condutividade específica, pH, oxigênio dissolvido e nutrientes (nitrogênio total e ortofosfato). Foram registradas três espécies...

  7. Ectocarpus: a model organism for the brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick T; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark

    2012-02-01

    The brown algae are an interesting group of organisms from several points of view. They are the dominant organisms in many coastal ecosystems, where they often form large, underwater forests. They also have an unusual evolutionary history, being members of the stramenopiles, which are very distantly related to well-studied animal and green plant models. As a consequence of this history, brown algae have evolved many novel features, for example in terms of their cell biology and metabolic pathways. They are also one of only a small number of eukaryotic groups to have independently evolved complex multicellularity. Despite these interesting features, the brown algae have remained a relatively poorly studied group. This situation has started to change over the last few years, however, with the emergence of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus as a model system that is amenable to the genomic and genetic approaches that have proved to be so powerful in more classical model organisms such as Drosophila and Arabidopsis.

  8. Quantile regression model for a diverse set of chemicals: application to acute toxicity for green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Jonathan; Lozano, Sylvain; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Durrieu, Gilles; Bureau, Ronan

    2014-12-01

    The potential of quantile regression (QR) and quantile support vector machine regression (QSVMR) was analyzed for the definitions of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models associated with a diverse set of chemicals toward a particular endpoint. This study focused on a specific sensitive endpoint (acute toxicity to algae) for which even a narcosis QSAR model is not actually clear. An initial dataset including more than 401 ecotoxicological data for one species of algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) was defined. This set corresponds to a large sample of chemicals ranging from classical organic chemicals to pesticides. From this original data set, the selection of the different subsets was made in terms of the notion of toxic ratio (TR), a parameter based on the ratio between predicted and experimental values. The robustness of QR and QSVMR to outliers was clearly observed, thus demonstrating that this approach represents a major interest for QSAR associated with a diverse set of chemicals. We focused particularly on descriptors related to molecular surface properties.

  9. Inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles in two green algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; Bras, Sébastien; Perreault, François; Popovic, Radovan

    2012-04-01

    Freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta were used to investigate toxic effects induced by 50 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To induce AgNPs effect, we exposed Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta for 24h to 0-10 mg/L. We showed that growth media had different effects in AgNPs agglomerates' formation. Cellular viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipids peroxidation were employed to assess the toxic effects of AgNPs. AgNPs were able to interact directly with the Chlorella vulgaris cells surface and large aggregates were observed. AgNPs have a negative effect on Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta, as manifested by a strong decrease in chlorophyll content, viable algal cells, increased ROS formation and lipids peroxidation. The variability in sensitivity of both algae towards AgNPs was observed. We conclude that AgNPs have a negative effect on aquatic algae and these alterations might have serious consequences on structure and function of aquatic plant communities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fungal parasites of the marine green algae, @iCladophora@@ and @iRhizoclonium@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    Diseases caused by three fungal parasites in the green algal genus @iCladophora@@ from the beaches of Goa and Lakshadweep islands in Arabian sea in India are described. These are caused by @iSirolpidium bryopsidis, Olpidium rostriferum@@ and @i...

  11. An Ocean Acidification Acclimatised Green Tide Alga Is Robust to Changes of Seawater Carbon Chemistry but Vulnerable to Light Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Gao

    Full Text Available Ulva is the dominant genus in the green tide events and is considered to have efficient CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs. However, little is understood regarding the impacts of ocean acidification on the CCMs of Ulva and the consequences of thalli's acclimation to ocean acidification in terms of responding to environmental factors. Here, we grew a cosmopolitan green alga, Ulva linza at ambient (LC and elevated (HC CO2 levels and investigated the alteration of CCMs in U. linza grown at HC and its responses to the changed seawater carbon chemistry and light intensity. The inhibitors experiment for photosynthetic inorganic carbon utilization demonstrated that acidic compartments, extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA and intracellular CA worked together in the thalli grown at LC and the acquisition of exogenous carbon source in the thalli could be attributed to the collaboration of acidic compartments and extracellular CA. Contrastingly, when U. linza was grown at HC, extracellular CA was completely inhibited, acidic compartments and intracellular CA were also down-regulated to different extents and thus the acquisition of exogenous carbon source solely relied on acidic compartments. The down-regulated CCMs in U. linza did not affect its responses to changes of seawater carbon chemistry but led to a decrease of net photosynthetic rate when thalli were exposed to increased light intensity. This decrease could be attributed to photodamage caused by the combination of the saved energy due to the down-regulated CCMs and high light intensity. Our findings suggest future ocean acidification might impose depressing effects on green tide events when combined with increased light exposure.

  12. An Ocean Acidification Acclimatised Green Tide Alga Is Robust to Changes of Seawater Carbon Chemistry but Vulnerable to Light Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guang; Liu, Yameng; Li, Xinshu; Feng, Zhihua; Xu, Juntian

    2016-01-01

    Ulva is the dominant genus in the green tide events and is considered to have efficient CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). However, little is understood regarding the impacts of ocean acidification on the CCMs of Ulva and the consequences of thalli's acclimation to ocean acidification in terms of responding to environmental factors. Here, we grew a cosmopolitan green alga, Ulva linza at ambient (LC) and elevated (HC) CO2 levels and investigated the alteration of CCMs in U. linza grown at HC and its responses to the changed seawater carbon chemistry and light intensity. The inhibitors experiment for photosynthetic inorganic carbon utilization demonstrated that acidic compartments, extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) and intracellular CA worked together in the thalli grown at LC and the acquisition of exogenous carbon source in the thalli could be attributed to the collaboration of acidic compartments and extracellular CA. Contrastingly, when U. linza was grown at HC, extracellular CA was completely inhibited, acidic compartments and intracellular CA were also down-regulated to different extents and thus the acquisition of exogenous carbon source solely relied on acidic compartments. The down-regulated CCMs in U. linza did not affect its responses to changes of seawater carbon chemistry but led to a decrease of net photosynthetic rate when thalli were exposed to increased light intensity. This decrease could be attributed to photodamage caused by the combination of the saved energy due to the down-regulated CCMs and high light intensity. Our findings suggest future ocean acidification might impose depressing effects on green tide events when combined with increased light exposure.

  13. Direct and indirect toxic effects of cotton-derived cellulose nanofibres on filamentous green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Michele; Brandão, Humberto M; Nowak, Sophie; Mouton, Ludovic; Gern, Juliana C; Guimaraes, Alessandro S; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Raposo, Nádia R B; Marconcini, José M; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-12-01

    Recently, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) have attracted considerable attention as natural, abundant polymers with excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability. CNFs provide a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enable products for various applications. Given the increasing rates of CNF production, the potential for their release to the environment and the subsequent impact on ecosystem is becoming an increasing concern that needs to be addressed. Here, we used the Klebsormidium flaccidum as a bioindicator organism of terrestrial and freshwater habitats pollution using a battery of biomarkers. Our results show that cotton CNFs inhibit the proliferation of algae and induce morphological changes in them. The two main toxicity mechanisms induced by cotton CNFs are: (i) a direct contact of CNFs with the cell wall and cellular membrane and (ii) an indirect effect through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A green light for engineered algae: redirecting metabolism to fuel a biotechnology revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Julian N; Oyler, George A; Wilkinson, Loy; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    Microalgae have the potential to revolutionize biotechnology in a number of areas including nutrition, aquaculture, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels. Although algae have been commercially cultivated for over 50 years, metabolic engineering now seems necessary in order to achieve their full processing capabilities. Recently, the development of a number of transgenic algal strains boasting recombinant protein expression, engineered photosynthesis, and enhanced metabolism encourage the prospects of designer microalgae. Given the vast contributions that these solar-powered, carbon dioxide-sequestering organisms can provide to current global markets and the environment, an intensified focus on microalgal biotechnology is warranted. Ongoing advances in cultivation techniques coupled with genetic manipulation of crucial metabolic networks will further promote microalgae as an attractive platform for the production of numerous high-value compounds.

  15. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  16. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (spirulina) for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself was conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6 liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46 percent) at a rate of 100 to approx. 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  17. From the Cover: Genome analysis of the smallest free-living eukaryote Ostreococcus tauri unveils many unique features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derelle, Evelyne; Ferraz, Conchita; Rombauts, Stephane; Rouzé, Pierre; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Robbens, Steven; Partensky, Frédéric; Degroeve, Sven; Echeynié, Sophie; Cooke, Richard; Saeys, Yvan; Wuyts, Jan; Jabbari, Kamel; Bowler, Chris; Panaud, Olivier; Piégu, Benoît; Ball, Steven G.; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Bouget, François-Yves; Piganeau, Gwenael; de Baets, Bernard; Picard, André; Delseny, Michel; Demaille, Jacques; van de Peer, Yves; Moreau, Hervé

    2006-08-01

    The green lineage is reportedly 1,500 million years old, evolving shortly after the endosymbiosis event that gave rise to early photosynthetic eukaryotes. In this study, we unveil the complete genome sequence of an ancient member of this lineage, the unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri (Prasinophyceae). This cosmopolitan marine primary producer is the world's smallest free-living eukaryote known to date. Features likely reflecting optimization of environmentally relevant pathways, including resource acquisition, unusual photosynthesis apparatus, and genes potentially involved in C4 photosynthesis, were observed, as was downsizing of many gene families. Overall, the 12.56-Mb nuclear genome has an extremely high gene density, in part because of extensive reduction of intergenic regions and other forms of compaction such as gene fusion. However, the genome is structurally complex. It exhibits previously unobserved levels of heterogeneity for a eukaryote. Two chromosomes differ structurally from the other eighteen. Both have a significantly biased G+C content, and, remarkably, they contain the majority of transposable elements. Many chromosome 2 genes also have unique codon usage and splicing, but phylogenetic analysis and composition do not support alien gene origin. In contrast, most chromosome 19 genes show no similarity to green lineage genes and a large number of them are specialized in cell surface processes. Taken together, the complete genome sequence, unusual features, and downsized gene families, make O. tauri an ideal model system for research on eukaryotic genome evolution, including chromosome specialization and green lineage ancestry. genome heterogeneity | genome sequence | green alga | Prasinophyceae | gene prediction

  18. Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs.

  19. Effects of temperature on the astaxanthin productivity and light harvesting characteristics of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Luca; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-03-01

    The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, which accumulates astaxanthin at an optimal temperature of 20°C, was cultivated under temperatures of 20°C, 23.5°C, 27°C, and 30.5°C, in order to assess the effects on algal metabolism during the growth phase. The culture growth rate declined with above-optimal increases in temperature, and the final maximum cell concentration at 30.5°C reached only 35% of that attained at 20°C. On the contrary, the biomass productivity was increased under all the high-temperature conditions, probably reflecting the metabolism switch from cell duplication to energy accumulation that is typically observed in algal cultures subjected to environmental stress. Moreover, an increase in the light-harvesting capability of the alga was observed by means of the total pigment balance and the photosynthesis-intensity (PI) curve measured under the different cultivation conditions. Cultures kept at higher temperatures were able to better harvest and utilize the impinging light due to photo-acclimation. Finally, the differences in the astaxanthin metabolism were elucidated by subjecting the cultures to nitrogen starvation at 20°C and 27°C. In the culture at 27°C, a 1.4-fold increase in the astaxanthin productivity was observed when compared to that at 20°C, and the latter required almost two-fold more energy for the astaxanthin production compared with the 27°C culture. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Toxicity of iron-based nanoparticles to green algae: Effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state and environmental aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lizhong; Lin, Daohui

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing environmental application and discharge of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), a comprehensive understanding of their fate and ecotoxicological effect in the aquatic environment is very urgent. In this study, toxicities of 4 zero-valent iron NPs (nZVI) of different sizes, 2 Fe 2 O 3 NPs of different crystal phases, and 1 type of Fe 3 O 4 NPs to a green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were investigated, with a focus on the effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state, and environmental aging. Results show that the algal growth inhibition of nZVI increased significantly with decreasing particle size; with similar particle sizes (20-30 nm), the algal growth inhibition decreased with oxidation of the NPs with an order of nZVI > Fe 3 O 4 NPs > Fe 2 O 3 NPs, and α-Fe 2 O 3 NPs presented significantly higher toxicity than γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs. The NP-induced oxidative stress was the main toxic mechanism, which could explain the difference in algal toxicity of the NPs. The NP-cell heteroagglomeration and physical interactions also contributed to the nanotoxicity, whereas the effect of NP dissolution was negligible. The aging in distilled water and 3 surface water samples for 3 months increased surface oxidation of the iron-based NPs especially nZVI, which decreased the toxicity to algae. These findings will be helpful for the understanding of the fate and toxicity of iron-based NPs in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodiversity of green algae covering artificial hard substrate surfaces in a suburban environment: a case study using molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Christine; Hoppert, Michael; Mudimu, Opayi; Friedl, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In Middle European suburban environments green algae often cover open surfaces of artificial hard substrates. Microscopy reveals the Apatococcus/Desmococcus morphotype predominant over smaller coccoid forms. Adverse conditions such as limited water availability connected with high PAR and UV irradiance may narrow the algal diversity to a few specialists in these subaerial habitats. We used rRNA gene cloning/sequencing from both DNA extracts of the biofilms without culturing as well as cultures, for the unambiguous determination of the algal composition and to assess the algal diversity more comprehensively. The culture independent approach revealed mainly just two genera (Apatococcus, Trebouxia) for all study sites and five molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for a particular study site, which based on microscopic observation was the one with the highest morphological diversity. The culture approach, however, revealed seven additional OTUs from five genera (Chloroidium, Coccomyxa, Coenochloris, Pabia, Klebsormidium) and an unidentified trebouxiophyte lineage for that same site; only two OTUs were shared by both approaches. Two OTUs or species were recovered for which references have been isolated only from Antarctica so far. However, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence differences among them supported they are representing distinct populations of the same species. Within Apatococcus five clearly distinct groups of ITS sequences, each putatively representing a distinct species, were recovered with three or four such ITS types co-occurring at the same study site. Except for the streptophyte Klebsormidium only members of Trebouxiophyceae were detected suggesting these algae may be particularly well-adapted to subaerial habitats. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hajar [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradshahi, Ali, E-mail: moradshahi@susc.ac.ir [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein [Nanotechnology Research Institute, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) are toxic to D. salina. • Gum-Arabic coating alters the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Cell-NPs agglomerates and lipid peroxidation could explain the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Shading effect and dissolution do not seem to contribute to the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Particle–particle interaction was reduced by coating; therefore, PbS NPs were stabilized in the culture media. - Abstract: The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb{sup 2+} in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb{sup 2+} to the culture media had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P > 0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle–particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about

  3. Chitin oligosaccharide binding to the lysin motif of a novel type of chitinase from the multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoku, Yoshihito; Fukamizo, Tamo; Numata, Tomoyuki; Ohnuma, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    The chitinase-mediated defense system in higher plants has been intensively studied from physiological and structural viewpoints. However, the defense system in the most primitive plant species, such as green algae, has not yet been elucidated in details. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of a family CBM-50 LysM module attached to the N-terminus of chitinase from Volvox carteri, and successfully analyzed its chitin-binding ability by NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. Trp96 of the LysM module appeared to make a CH-π stacking interaction with the reducing end sugar residue of the ligand. We believe the data included in this manuscript provide novel insights into the molecular basis of chitinase-mediated defense system in green algae. A chitinase from the multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri, contains two N-terminal lysin motifs (VcLysM1 and VcLysM2), that belong to the CBM-50 family, in addition to a catalytic domain. We produced a recombinant protein of VcLysM2 in order to examine its structure and function. The X-ray crystal structure of VcLysM2 was successfully solved at a resolution of 1.2 Å, and revealed that the protein adopts the βααβ fold typical of members belonging to the CBM-50 family. NMR spectra of 13C- and 15N-labeled proteins were analyzed in order to completely assign the main chain resonances of the 1H,15N-HSQC spectrum in a sequential manner. NMR-based titration experiments of chitin oligosaccharides, (GlcNAc)n (n = 3-6), revealed the ligand-binding site of VcLysM2, in which the Trp96 side chain appeared to interact with the terminal GlcNAc residue of the ligand. We then mutated Trp96 to alanine (VcLysM2-W96A), and the mutant protein was characterized. Based on isothermal titration calorimetry, the affinity of (GlcNAc)6 toward VcLysM2 (-6.9 kcal/mol) was found to be markedly higher than that of (GlcNAc)3 (-4.1 kcal/mol), whereas the difference in affinities between (GlcNAc)6 and (GlcNAc)3 in VcLysM2

  4. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cyanobacteria and algae in laboratory strains and in natural algal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácsi, István; B-Béres, Viktória; Kókai, Zsuzsanna; Gonda, Sándor; Novák, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Vasas, Gábor

    2016-05-01

    In recent years measurable concentrations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown in the aquatic environment as a result of increasing human consumption. Effects of five frequently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, diflunisal, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid and piroxicam in 0.1 mg ml(-1) concentration) in batch cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus, Microcystis aeruginosa, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), and eukaryotic algae (Desmodesmus communis, Haematococcus pluvialis, Cryptomonas ovata) were studied. Furthermore, the effects of the same concentrations of NSAIDs were investigated in natural algal assemblages in microcosms. According to the changes of chlorophyll-a content, unicellular cyanobacteria seemed to be more tolerant to NSAIDs than eukaryotic algae in laboratory experiments. Growth of eukaryotic algae was reduced by all drugs, the cryptomonad C. ovata was the most sensitive to NSAIDs, while the flagellated green alga H. pluvialis was more sensitive than the non-motile green alga D. communis. NSAID treatments had weaker impact in the natural assemblages dominated by cyanobacteria than in the ones dominated by eukaryotic algae, confirming the results of laboratory experiments. Diversity and number of functional groups did not change notably in cyanobacteria dominated assemblages, while they decreased significantly in eukaryotic algae dominated ones compared to controls. The results highlight that cyanobacteria (especially unicellular ones) are less sensitive to the studied, mostly hardly degradable NSAIDs, which suggest that their accumulation in water bodies may contribute to the expansion of cyanobacterial mass productions in appropriate environmental circumstances by pushing back eukaryotic algae. Thus, these contaminants require special attention during wastewater treatment and monitoring of surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A clade uniting the green algae Mesostigma viride and Chlorokybus atmophyticus represents the deepest branch of the Streptophyta in chloroplast genome-based phylogenies

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    Turmel Monique

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae comprise two major phyla: the Streptophyta, containing the charophycean green algae and all land plants, and the Chlorophyta, containing the remaining green algae. Despite recent progress in unravelling phylogenetic relationships among major green plant lineages, problematic nodes still remain in the green tree of life. One of the major issues concerns the scaly biflagellate Mesostigma viride, which is either regarded as representing the earliest divergence of the Streptophyta or a separate lineage that diverged before the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. Phylogenies based on chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes support the latter view. Because some green plant lineages are not represented in these phylogenies, sparse taxon sampling has been suspected to yield misleading topologies. Here, we describe the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequence of the early-diverging charophycean alga Chlorokybus atmophyticus and present chloroplast genome-based phylogenies with an expanded taxon sampling. Results The 152,254 bp Chlorokybus cpDNA closely resembles its Mesostigma homologue at the gene content and gene order levels. Using various methods of phylogenetic inference, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide data sets that were derived from 45 protein-coding genes common to the cpDNAs of 37 green algal/land plant taxa and eight non-green algae. Unexpectedly, all best trees recovered a robust clade uniting Chlorokybus and Mesostigma. In protein trees, this clade was sister to all streptophytes and chlorophytes and this placement received moderate support. In contrast, gene trees provided unequivocal support to the notion that the Mesostigma + Chlorokybus clade represents the earliest-diverging branch of the Streptophyta. Independent analyses of structural data (gene content and/or gene order and of subsets of amino acid data progressively enriched in slow-evolving sites led us to conclude that the latter topology

  6. Functional Characterization of UDP-apiose Synthases from Bryophytes and Green Algae Provides Insight into the Appearance of Apiose-containing Glycans during Plant Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James; Yang, Yiwen; Levy, Shahar; Adelusi, Oluwatoyin Oluwayemi; Hahn, Michael G; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2016-10-07

    Apiose is a branched monosaccharide that is present in the cell wall pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan and in numerous plant secondary metabolites. These apiose-containing glycans are synthesized using UDP-apiose as the donor. UDP-apiose (UDP-Api) together with UDP-xylose is formed from UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) by UDP-Api synthase (UAS). It was hypothesized that the ability to form Api distinguishes vascular plants from the avascular plants and green algae. UAS from several dicotyledonous plants has been characterized; however, it is not known if avascular plants or green algae produce this enzyme. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of UAS homologs from avascular plants (mosses, liverwort, and hornwort), from streptophyte green algae, and from a monocot (duckweed). The recombinant UAS homologs all form UDP-Api from UDP-glucuronic acid albeit in different amounts. Apiose was detected in aqueous methanolic extracts of these plants. Apiose was detected in duckweed cell walls but not in the walls of the avascular plants and algae. Overexpressing duckweed UAS in the moss Physcomitrella patens led to an increase in the amounts of aqueous methanol-acetonitrile-soluble apiose but did not result in discernible amounts of cell wall-associated apiose. Thus, bryophytes and algae likely lack the glycosyltransferase machinery required to synthesize apiose-containing cell wall glycans. Nevertheless, these plants may have the ability to form apiosylated secondary metabolites. Our data are the first to provide evidence that the ability to form apiose existed prior to the appearance of rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan and provide new insights into the evolution of apiose-containing glycans. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Triclosan-induced transcriptional and biochemical alterations in the freshwater green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Shi, Wen-Jun; Hu, Li-Xin; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2018-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent widely used in personal care products (PCPs). We investigated the effects of TCS (20μg/L, 100μg/L and 500μg/L) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by measuring the algal growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, and transcription of the antioxidant-related genes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), plastid terminal oxidase 2 (PTOX) and thioredoxin (TRX)) as well as biochemical alterations. The results showed significant dose-related effects of TCS on the algal species in terms of growth and chlorophyll content. Malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with increasing TCS concentrations and showed significant difference between the treatment of 405.3μg/L TCS and control group. Transcription analysis revealed that the expression of SOD mRNA was most sensitive to TCS among the selected genes. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed time- and concentration-specific biochemical responses in C. reinhardtii when exposed to TCS. The biochemical alterations associated with different doses of TCS were mainly attributed to structural changes associated with lipid, protein, nucleic acid and carbohydrate. The findings from this study reveal that TCS in the aquatic environment may affect algal growth, chlorophyll synthesis, oxidative stress responses and cause biochemical alterations. This study provided important information to achieve a better understanding of the toxic mechanism of triclosan on algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological Response of the Green Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta to Heavy Metals Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To monitor physiological changes induced by heavy metals contamination on the marine algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta, laboratory experiments were performed. Physiological effects of four heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd ions on U. lactuca were assessed 5 days after exposure under laboratory conditions. Fourier transform raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman technique was also applied as support for physiological study. Our data showed that the specific growth rate (SGR%, chlorophyll (Chl a & b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids (Car pigments decreased significantly in algal thalli under heavy metals stress. This phenomenon was more pronounced with Pb treatment compared to the other tested metals. In addition, morphological changes due to heavy metals treatment were recorded by observed cellular damages under the above mentioned metals. FT-Raman technique showed that the C-H, C=O, CH2 and C-O-C groups were mainly involved in heavy metals absorption. Moreover, Pb ions showed the highest toxicity against U. lactuca studied by showing the highest decline in the above mentioned physiological parameters.

  9. Interaction of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta: a biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Elisabetta; Salvadori, Elisa; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Cioni, Patrizia; Gabellieri, Edi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of nanoparticles, such as CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), with the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, as biological models in the marine environment. Fluorescence kinetics measurements indicated that 30min after dispersion in seawater QDs lost the 60% of the initial emission intensity, possibly due to the occurrence of aggregation processes. However, the presence of algae seemed to mitigate this effect. By using confocal microscopy, we highlighted the presence of QDs adsorbed on the surface of both algae, but not inside the cells. The toxicity of QDs was evaluated in terms of inhibition of growth rate, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation. QDs in the range of 1-2.5nM gradually inhibited the growth rate of P. tricornutum and increased the oxidative stress, as evinced by the increase in lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activity of two main antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). On the contrary, QDs did not inhibit the growth rate of D. tertiolecta, at most a modest stimulation was observed in the range of 0.5-2nM, suggesting a hormetic response. No effect in the parameters indicating oxidative stress was observed in the green alga. In conclusion our results showed that the biological effects were species-specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Complex network modeling of spectral remotely sensed imagery: A case study of massive green algae blooms detection based on MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yi; Shao, Fengjing; Wang, Changying; Sun, Rencheng; Ji, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Feature bands selection and targets classification is of great importance in spectral remotely sensed imagery interpretation. In this work, complex network is adopted for modeling spectral remotely sensed imagery. Subnet is constructed for each band based on spatial neighboring characteristic. Feature bands could be obtained by analyzing and comparing topological characteristics between subnets. After finding feature bands, subnets of feature bands are compounded. Targets classification could be measured by degree distribution of the composited network. This approach is evaluated with empirical experiments based on detecting massive green algae blooms with MODIS data. Feature bands found are coincided with spectral mechanism of green algae. By comparing with FAI, RVI, NDVI, EVI and OSABI methods, our approach improves correct classification rates.

  11. Sea-ice eukaryotes of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, and evidence for herbivory on weakly shade-adapted ice algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaneva, Markus; Blomster, Jaanika; Müller, Susann; Autio, Riitta; Majaneva, Sanna; Hyytiäinen, Kirsi; Nagai, Satoshi; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2017-02-01

    To determine community composition and physiological status of early spring sea-ice organisms, we collected sea-ice, slush and under-ice water samples from the Baltic Sea. We combined light microscopy, HPLC pigment analysis and pyrosequencing, and related the biomass and physiological status of sea-ice algae with the protistan community composition in a new way in the area. In terms of biomass, centric diatoms including a distinct Melosira arctica bloom in the upper intermediate section of the fast ice, dinoflagellates, euglenoids and the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon sp. predominated in the sea-ice sections and unidentified flagellates in the slush. Based on pigment analyses, the ice-algal communities showed no adjusted photosynthetic pigment pools throughout the sea ice, and the bottom-ice communities were not shade-adapted. The sea ice included more characteristic phototrophic taxa (49%) than did slush (18%) and under-ice water (37%). Cercozoans and ciliates were the richest taxon groups, and the differences among the communities arose mainly from the various phagotrophic protistan taxa inhabiting the communities. The presence of pheophytin a coincided with an elevated ciliate biomass and read abundance in the drift ice and with a high Eurytemora affinis read abundance in the pack ice, indicating that ciliates and Eurytemora affinis were grazing on algae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Marine green algae Codium iyengarii as a good bio-sorbent for elimination of reactive black 5 from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Rafia

    2014-09-01

    The green seaweeds Codium iyengarii (C. iyengarii) was used to prepare as an adsorbent surface for the deletion of Reactive Black 5 (RB 5) from aqueous solution via adsorption. The batch technique was adopted under the optimal condition of amount of adsorbent, agitation time, concentration of dye, and at neutral and low pH. The depletion in concentration of the dye was monitored by Schimadzo 180 AUV/Visible spectrophotometer. It was initially monolayer adsorption, which showed multilayered formation later on with the passage of time at low and neutral pH. The Results displayed that adsorptive ability of C. iyengarii was 1.95-3.82mg/g with an elevation in primary application of dye contents (50ppm-70 ppm). The elimination data were well stable into the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. The Langmuir (R2=0.9848) and Freundlich (R2=0.9441) constants for biosorption of RB 5 on green algae were determined. The coefficient relation values suggested that the Langmuir isotherm was well fitted. It explained the interaction of surface molecules, which helps in well organization of dye molecules in a monolayer formation initially on algal biomass. The pseudo first and second order rate equations were applied to link the investigational statistics and found that the second order rate expression was found to be more suitable for both the models. The absorption spectrum of RB 5 before and after adsorption with respect to time was monitored which clearly indicate that C. iyengarii was much effective surface at very low quantity.

  13. Therapeutic Effect of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from Blue Green Algae in a Rat Model of Acute Lung Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Pak-on; Lee, Hao-Hsien; Kung, Yu-Chien; Tsai, Ming-Fan; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2013-01-01

    C-Phycocyanin (CPC), extracted from blue green algae, is a dietary nutritional supplement due to its several beneficial pharmacological effects. This study was conducted to evaluate whether CPC protects against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Rats were challenged with LPS (5?mg/kg body weight) intratracheally to induce ALI. After 3?h LPS instillation, rats were administrated with CPC (50?mg/kg body weight, i.p.) for another 3?h. Our results showed that post...

  14. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with

  15. Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential of the organic extract of green algae chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyadari, Mahender; Fatma, Tasneem; Azad, Rajvardhan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: algae isolates obtained from fresh and marine resources could be one of the richest sources of novel bioactive secondary metabolites expected to have pharmaceutical significance for new drug development. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in experimental models of angiogenesis and by MTT assay. Materials and Methods: lyophilized extract of C. pyrenoidosa was extracted using dichloromethane/methanol (2:1), concentrated and vacuum evaporated to obtain the dried extract. The crude extract was evaluated in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in in ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) at various concentrations (n = 8) using thalidomide and normal saline as positive and untreated control groups, respectively. The crude extract was also subjected to the antiangiogenic activity in the silver nitrate/potassium nitrate cautery model of corneal neovascularization (CN) in rats where topical bevacizumab was used as a positive control. The vasculature was photographed and blood vessel density was quantified using Aphelion imaging software. The extract was also evaluated for its anti proliferative activity by microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) assay using HeLa cancer cell line (ATCC). Results: VEGF increased the blood vessel density by 220% as compared to normal and thalidomide treatment decreased it to 67.2% in in ovo assay. In the in-vivo CN model, the mean neovascular density in the control group, the C. pyrenoidosa extract and bevacizumab group were found to be 100%, 59.02%, and 32.20%, respectively. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract negatively affected the viability of HeLa cells. An IC50 value of the extract was 570 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: a significant antiangiogenic activity was observed against VEGF-induced neovascularization and antiproliferative activity by MTT assay. In this study, it could be attributed that the activity may be

  16. Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential of the organic extract of green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyadari, Mahender; Fatma, Tasneem; Azad, Rajvardhan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    algae isolates obtained from fresh and marine resources could be one of the richest sources of novel bioactive secondary metabolites expected to have pharmaceutical significance for new drug development. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in experimental models of angiogenesis and by MTT assay. lyophilized extract of C. pyrenoidosa was extracted using dichloromethane/methanol (2:1), concentrated and vacuum evaporated to obtain the dried extract. The crude extract was evaluated in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in in ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) at various concentrations (n = 8) using thalidomide and normal saline as positive and untreated control groups, respectively. The crude extract was also subjected to the antiangiogenic activity in the silver nitrate/potassium nitrate cautery model of corneal neovascularization (CN) in rats where topical bevacizumab was used as a positive control. The vasculature was photographed and blood vessel density was quantified using Aphelion imaging software. The extract was also evaluated for its anti proliferative activity by microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) assay using HeLa cancer cell line (ATCC). VEGF increased the blood vessel density by 220% as compared to normal and thalidomide treatment decreased it to 67.2% in in ovo assay. In the in-vivo CN model, the mean neovascular density in the control group, the C. pyrenoidosa extract and bevacizumab group were found to be 100%, 59.02%, and 32.20%, respectively. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract negatively affected the viability of HeLa cells. An IC50 value of the extract was 570 μg/ml, respectively. a significant antiangiogenic activity was observed against VEGF-induced neovascularization and antiproliferative activity by MTT assay. In this study, it could be attributed that the activity may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites in the C

  17. The green alga Zygogonium ericetorum (Zygnematophyceae, Charophyta) shows high iron and aluminium tolerance: protection mechanisms and photosynthetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herburger, Klaus; Remias, Daniel; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Streptophyte green algae, ancestors of Embryophytes, occur frequently in terrestrial habitats being exposed to high light intensities, water scarcity and potentially toxic metal cations under acidic conditions. The filamentous Zygogonium ericetorum synthesizes a purple vacuolar ferrous pigment, which is lost after aplanospore formation. However, it is unknown whether this cellular reorganization also removes excessive iron from the protoplast and how Z. ericetorum copes with high concentrations of aluminium. Here we show that aplanospore formation shifts iron into the extracellular space of the algal filament. Upon germination of aplanospores, aluminium is bound in the parental cell wall. Both processes reduce iron and aluminium in unpigmented filaments. Comparison of the photosynthetic oxygen production in response to light and temperature gradients in two different Z. ericetorum strains from an Austrian alpine and a Scottish highland habitat revealed lower values in the latter strain. In contrast, the Scottish strain showed a higher optimum quantum yield of PSII during desiccation stress followed by rehydration. Furthermore, pigmented filaments of both strains exhibited a higher light and temperature dependent oxygen production when compared to the unpigmented phenotype. Our results demonstrate a high metal tolerance of Z. ericetorum, which is crucial for surviving in acidic terrestrial habitats. © FEMS 2016.

  18. CCS2, an Octatricopeptide-Repeat Protein, Is Required for Plastid Cytochrome c Assembly in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Cline

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria and energy generating organelles, c-type cytochromes are a class of universal electron carriers with a heme cofactor covalently linked via one or two thioether bonds to a heme binding site. The covalent attachment of heme to apocytochromes is a catalyzed process, taking place via three evolutionarily distinct assembly pathways (Systems I, II, III. System II was discovered in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through the genetic analysis of the ccs mutants (cytochrome csynthesis, which display a block in the apo- to holo- form conversion of cytochrome f and c6, the thylakoid lumen resident c-type cytochromes functioning in photosynthesis. Here we show that the gene corresponding to the CCS2 locus encodes a 1,719 amino acid polypeptide and identify the molecular lesions in the ccs2-1 to ccs2-5 alleles. The CCS2 protein displays seven degenerate amino acid repeats, which are variations of the octatricopeptide-repeat motif (OPR recently recognized in several nuclear-encoded proteins controlling the maturation, stability, or translation of chloroplast transcripts. A plastid site of action for CCS2 is inferred from the finding that GFP fused to the first 100 amino acids of the algal protein localizes to chloroplasts in Nicotiana benthamiana. We discuss the possible functions of CCS2 in the heme attachment reaction.

  19. Ecological and biogeographical drivers of freshwater green algae biodiversity: from local communities to large-scale species pools of desmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestová, Helena; Munoz, François; Svoboda, Pavel; Škaloud, Pavel; Violle, Cyrille

    2018-01-24

    Dispersal limitation, niche-based processes as well as historical legacies shape microbial biodiversity, but their respective influences remain unknown for many groups of microbes. We analysed metacommunity structure and functional trait variation in 148 communities of desmids, freshwater green algae, distributed throughout Europe. We delineated biogeographic modules for both taxa and sites using bipartite network analysis given that the taxa of a module co-occurred more often than expected by chance in sites of the same module. The network analysis distinguished two main acidic and neutral habitats, reflecting environmental filtering, and within each habitat separated species pools with distinct geographic locations, representing a plausible influence of historical biogeography. The geographic differentiation was consistent with a hypothesis of glacial refugia on Atlantic coast. Distance decay in community composition in addition to environmental influence further suggested a role of dispersal limitation. Next, we quantified the variation in cell volume and surface-to-volume of taxa within and among communities, to examine morphological and physiological adaptations of desmids in varying environments. Communities from continental climate contained larger desmids. Conversely, we found a functional convergence of smaller, fast-growing, desmids in oceanic regions. Overall, our findings suggest that niche-based processes, dispersal limitation, and historical legacy together drive the distribution and structure of desmid communities. Combining trait- and network-based analyses can resolve long-lasting questions in microbial ecology and biogeography, and could be successfully used in macrobial ecology too.

  20. A comparison of the character of algal extracellular versus cellular organic matter produced by cyanobacterium, diatom and green alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivokonsky, Martin; Safarikova, Jana; Baresova, Magdalena; Pivokonska, Lenka; Kopecka, Ivana

    2014-03-15

    This study investigated characteristics of algal organic matter (AOM) derived from three species (cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, diatom Fragilaria crotonensis and green alga Chlamydomonas geitleri) which dominate phytoplanktonic populations in reservoirs supplying drinking water treatment plants. Algal growth was monitored by cell counting, optical density and dissolved organic carbon concentration measurements. Extracellular organic matter (EOM) released at exponential and stationary growth phases and cellular organic matter (COM) were characterised in terms of specific UV absorbance (SUVA), peptide/protein and non-peptide content, hydrophobicity and molecular weight (MW). It was found that both EOM and COM were predominantly hydrophilic with low SUVA. COM was richer in peptides/proteins, more hydrophilic (with about 89% of hydrophilic fraction for all three species) and had lower SUVA than EOM. MW fractionation showed that both EOM and COM of all three species contain large portions of low-MW (100 kDa) polysaccharides. Peptides/proteins exhibited narrower MW distribution than non-peptide fraction and it widened as the cultures grew. The highest amount of peptides/proteins with a significant portion of high-MW ones (22%) was observed in COM of M. aeruginosa. The results imply that the knowledge of AOM composition and characteristics predetermine which processes would be effective in the treatment of AOM laden water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adaptability of free-floating green tide algae in the Yellow Sea to variable temperature and light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianjun; Zhang, Jianheng; Huo, Yuanzi; Zhou, Lingjie; Wu, Qing; Chen, Liping; Yu, Kefeng; He, Peimin

    2015-12-30

    In this study, the influence of temperature and light intensity on the growth of seedlings and adults of four species of green tide algae (Ulvaprolifera, Ulvacompressa, Ulva flexuosa and Ulvalinza) from the Yellow Sea was evaluated. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR) of seedlings was much higher than that of adults for the four species. The adaptability of U. prolifera is much wider: Adult daily SGRs were the highest among the four species at 15-20 °C with 10-600 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) and 25-30 °C with 200-600 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). SGRs were 1.5-3.5 times greater than the other three species at 15-25 °C with 200-600 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). These results indicate that U. prolifera has better tolerance to high temperature and light intensity than the other three species, which may in part explain why only U. prolifera undergoes large-scale outbreaks and floats to the Qingdao coast while the other three species decline and disappear at the early stage of blooming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic selectivity on depressing photosynthesis of cyanobacteria and green algae probed by chlorophyll-a fluorescence transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhipeng; Tan, Xiao; Li, Niegui

    2017-10-01

    Ultrasound can inhibit cyanobacterial growth through rupturing cells, but this pathway frequently has the risk to release intercellular toxin (e.g., microcystin). Depressing photosynthesis without cell disruption may provide a new strategy to control cyanobacterial blooms using ultrasound, especially Microcystis blooms. In this work, Microcystis aeruginosa (toxic cyanobacteria) and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (typical green algae) were chosen as model microalgae to verify this hypothesis. Results showed that ultrasound has the ability to inhibit cyanobacterial photosynthesis significantly and selectively. Specifically, sonication damaged Q A , a tightly bound one-electron acceptor, and blocked electron flow at Q B , a two-electron acceptor, in the photosystem II (PSII) of M. aeruginosa when it was exposed for 60 s (35 kHz, 0.043 W/cm 3 ). Moreover, 44.8% of the reaction centers (RCs) in the PSII of M. aeruginosa were transferred into inactive ones (RC si s), and the cell concentration decreased by 32.5% after sonication for 300 s. By contrast, only 7.9% of RC si occurred in C. pyrenoidosa, and cell concentration and chlorophyll-a content reduced by 18.7% and 9.3%, respectively. Differences in both species (i.e., cell structures) might be responsible for the varying levels to sonication. This research suggests that cyanobacteria, especially Microcystis, could be controlled by ultrasound via damaging their PSIIs.

  3. Influence of the CO2 absorbent monoethanolamine on growth and carbon fixation by the green alga Scenedesmus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wookjin; Kim, Garam; Lee, Kisay

    2012-09-01

    The influence of monoethanolamine (MEA) as a CO(2) absorbent on photoautotrophic culture of CO(2)-fixing microalgae was investigated. When 300 ppm MEA (4.92 mM) was added to blank culture medium, the dissolved inorganic carbon and the molar absorption ratio increased to 51.0mg/L and 0.34 mol CO2 = mol MEA, respectively, which was an almost 6-fold increase in CO(2) solubility. When free MEA up to 300 mg/L was added to a green alga Scenedesmus sp. culture that was supplied 5% (v/v) CO(2) at 0.1 vvm, both cell growth rate and final cell density were enhanced compared to when no MEA was added. The cell growth rate reached 288.6 mg/L/d, which was equivalent to 539.6 mg-CO(2)/L/d as a CO(2)-fixation rate and enhancement of about 63.0% compared to not adding MEA. Chlorophyll-a content and nitrate consumption rate increased correspondingly. MEA doses higher than 400mg/L inhibited cell growth, probably due to toxicity of the carbamate intermediate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality evaluation of the edible blue-green alga Nostoc flagelliforme using a chlorophyll fluorescence parameter and several biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Yang, Yiwen; Ai, Yufeng; Luo, Hongyi; Qiu, Baosheng

    2014-01-15

    Nostoc flagelliforme is an edible blue-green alga with herbal and dietary values. Due to the diminishing supply of natural N. flagelliforme and the large investment on the development of its cultivation technology, it is anticipated that artificially cultured N. flagelliforme will soon sustain the market supply. Once this change occurs, the storage-associated quality problem will become the focus of attention for future trade. In this paper, we used a chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, maximum quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm), and several biomarkers to evaluate the quality of several N. flagelliforme samples. It was found that longer storage times resulted in darker coloured solutions (released pigments) and decreased amounts of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and water-soluble sugars (WSS). Additionally, a higher Fv/Fm value suggests better physiological recovery and quality. In actual application, determination of Fv/Fm would be the first step for evaluating the quality of N. flagelliforme, and the biochemical indexes would serve as good secondary markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Tuzen, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)], E-mail: mtuzen@gop.edu.tr

    2008-03-21

    The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  6. Toxicant induced changes on delayed fluorescence decay kinetics of cyanobacteria and green algae: a rapid and sensitive biotest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Leunert

    Full Text Available Algal tests have developed into routine tools for testing toxicity of pollutants in aquatic environments. Meanwhile, in addition to algal growth rates, an increasing number of fluorescence based methods are used for rapid and sensitive toxicity measures. The present study stresses the suitability of delayed fluorescence (DF as a promising parameter for biotests. DF is based on the recombination fluorescence at the reaction centre of photosystem II, which is emitted only by photosynthetically active cells. We analyzed the effects of three chemicals (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU, 3,5 Dichlorophenol (3,5 DCP and copper on the shape of the DF decay kinetics for potential use in phytoplankton toxicity tests. The short incubation tests were done with four phytoplankton species, with special emphasis on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. All species exhibited a high sensitivity to DCMU, but cyanobacteria were more affected by copper and less by 3,5 DCP than the tested green algae. Analyses of changes in the DF decay curve in response to the added chemicals indicated the feasibility of the DF decay approach as a rapid and sensitive testing tool.

  7. Static allometry of unicellular green algae: scaling of cellular surface area and volume in the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustupa, J

    2016-02-01

    The surface area-to-volume ratio of cells is one of the key factors affecting fundamental biological processes and, thus, fitness of unicellular organisms. One of the general models for allometric increase in surface-to-volume scaling involves fractal-like elaboration of cellular surfaces. However, specific data illustrating this pattern in natural populations of the unicellular organisms have not previously been available. This study shows that unicellular green algae of the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales) have positive allometric surface-to-volume scaling caused by changes in morphology of individual species, especially in the degree of cell lobulation. This allometric pattern was also detected within most of the cultured and natural populations analysed. Values of the allometric S:V scaling within individual populations were closely correlated to the phylogenetic structure of the clade. In addition, they were related to species-specific cellular morphology. Individual populations differed in their allometric patterns, and their position in the allometric space was strongly correlated with the degree of allometric S:V scaling. This result illustrates that allometric shape patterns are an important correlate of the capacity of individual populations to compensate for increases in their cell volumes by increasing the surface area. However, variation in allometric patterns was not associated with phylogenetic structure. This indicates that the position of the populations in the allometric space was not evolutionarily conserved and might be influenced by environmental factors. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Preparation of green alga-based activated carbon with lower impregnation ratio and less activation time by potassium tartrate for adsorption of chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuzhen; Gao, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Kan, Yujiao; Kong, Wenjia; Gao, Baoyu

    2017-11-01

    Potassium tartrate (C 4 H 6 K 2 O 7 ) was utilized as a novel activating agent to prepare activated carbon with relatively high specific surface area by using less activating agent and activation time from marine waste-green alga (Enteromorpha prolifera) for the first time. The influences of activation temperature, impregnation ratio and activation time on the pore structure were investigated to obtain the optimum conditions (activation temperature: 700°C, impregnation ratio: 1:1, and activation time: 30min). Meanwhile, the activation temperature was evaluated to be the essential factor that dominated the form of pore structure in activated carbon. The green alga-based activated carbon that was prepared under optimum conditions has shown the high surface area of 1692m 2 /g and total pore volume of 1.22cm 3 /g, which could be used as an effective adsorbent to remove chloramphenicol. The thermodynamic data of chloramphenicol were well fitted by Langmuir isotherm model and the green alga-based activated carbon has showed high adsorption capacity of 709.2mg/g towards chloramphenicol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships between PSII-independent hydrogen bioproduction and starch metabolism as evidenced from isolation of starch catabolism mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochois, Vincent; Constans, Laure; Beyly, Audrey; Soliveres, Melanie; Peltier, Gilles; Cournac, Laurent [CEA, DSV, IBEB, Laboratoire de Bioenergetique et Biotechnologie des Bacteries and Microalgues, Saint Paul Lez Durance, F-13108 (France); CNRS, UMR Biologie Vegetale and Microbiologie Environnementales, Saint Paul lez Durance, F-13108 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite, Saint Paul lez Durance, F-13108 (France); Dauvillee, David; Ball, Steven [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, UGSF, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8576, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-10-15

    Sulfur deprivation, which is considered as an efficient way to trigger long-term hydrogen photoproduction in unicellular green algae has two major effects: a decrease in PSII which allows anaerobiosis to be reached and carbohydrate (starch) storage. Starch metabolism has been proposed as one of the major factors of hydrogen production, particularly during the PSII-independent (or indirect) pathway. While starch biosynthesis has been characterized in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, little remains known concerning starch degradation. In order to gain a better understanding of starch catabolism pathways and identify those steps likely to limit the starch-dependent hydrogen production, we have designed a genetic screening procedure aimed at isolating mutants of the green alga C. reinhardtii affected in starch mobilization. Using two different screening protocols, the first one based on aerobic starch degradation in the dark and the second one on anaerobic starch degradation in the light, eighteen mutants were isolated among a library of 15,000 insertion mutants, eight (std1-8) with the first screen and ten (sda1-10) with the second. Most of the mutant strains isolated in this study showed a reduction or a delay in the PSII-independent hydrogen production. Further characterization of these mutants should allow the identification of molecular determinants of starch-dependent hydrogen production and supply targets for future biotechnological improvements. (author)

  10. Transcriptional analysis of cell growth and morphogenesis in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias (Streptophyta, with emphasis on the role of expansin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leliaert Frederik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptophyte green algae share several characteristics of cell growth and cell wall formation with their relatives, the embryophytic land plants. The multilobed cell wall of Micrasterias denticulata that rebuilds symmetrically after cell division and consists of pectin and cellulose, makes this unicellular streptophyte alga an interesting model system to study the molecular controls on cell shape and cell wall formation in green plants. Results Genome-wide transcript expression profiling of synchronously growing cells identified 107 genes of which the expression correlated with the growth phase. Four transcripts showed high similarity to expansins that had not been examined previously in green algae. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these genes are most closely related to the plant EXPANSIN A family, although their domain organization is very divergent. A GFP-tagged version of the expansin-resembling protein MdEXP2 localized to the cell wall and in Golgi-derived vesicles. Overexpression phenotypes ranged from lobe elongation to loss of growth polarity and planarity. These results indicate that MdEXP2 can alter the cell wall structure and, thus, might have a function related to that of land plant expansins during cell morphogenesis. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the potential of M. denticulata as a unicellular model system, in which cell growth mechanisms have been discovered similar to those in land plants. Additionally, evidence is provided that the evolutionary origins of many cell wall components and regulatory genes in embryophytes precede the colonization of land.

  11. Algal endosymbionts as vectors of horizontal gene transfer in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eQiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis in eukaryotes occurs in the plastid, an organelle that is derived from a single cyanobacterial primary endosymbiosis in the common ancestor of the supergroup Plantae (or Archaeplastida that includes green, red, and glaucophyte algae and plants. However a variety of other phytoplankton such as the chlorophyll c-containing diatoms, dinoflagellates, and haptophytes contain a red alga-derived plastid that traces its origin to secondary or tertiary (eukaryote engulfs eukaryote endosymbiosis. The hypothesis of Plantae monophyly has only recently been substantiated, however the extent and role of endosymbiotic and horizontal gene transfer (EGT and HGT in algal genome evolution still remain to be fully understood. What is becoming clear from analysis of complete genome data is that algal gene complements can no longer be considered essentially eukaryotic in provenance; i.e., with the expected addition of several hundred cyanobacterial genes derived from EGT and a similar number derived from the mitochondrial ancestor. For example, we now know that foreign cells such as Chlamydiae and other prokaryotes have made significant contributions to plastid functions in Plantae. Perhaps more surprising is the recent finding of extensive bacterium-derived HGT in the nuclear genome of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium purpureum that does not relate to plastid functions. These non-endosymbiont gene transfers not only shaped the evolutionary history of Plantae but also were propagated via secondary endosymbiosis to a multitude of other phytoplankton. Here we discuss the idea that Plantae (in particular red algae are one of the major players in eukaryote genome evolution by virtue of their ability to act as sinks and sources of foreign genes through HGT and endosymbiosis, respectively. This hypothesis recognizes the often under-appreciated Rhodophyta as major sources of genetic novelty among photosynthetic eukaryotes.

  12. Potential of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris for biodegradation of crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Movafeghi, Ali; Mohammadi-Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad

    2017-10-15

    Oil production and/or transportation can cause severe environmental pollution and disrupt the populations of living organisms. In the present study, biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is investigated using Chlorella vulgaris as a green algal species. The microalga was treated by 10 and 20g/l crude oil/water concentrations at two experimental durations (7 and 14days). Based on the results obtained, C. vulgaris owned not only considerable resistance against the pollutants but also high ability in remediation of crude oil hydrocarbons (~94% of the light and ~88% of heavy compounds in 14days). Intriguingly, dry weight of C. vulgaris increased by the rising crude oil concentration indicating the positive effect of crude oil on the growth of the algal species. This biodegradation process is remarkably a continuous progression over a period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCatalanotti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume.

  14. New α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Triterpenic Acid from Marine Macro Green Alga Codium dwarkense Boergs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaqat Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine ecosystem has been a key resource for secondary metabolites with promising biological roles. In the current study, bioassay-guided phytochemical investigations were carried out to assess the presence of enzyme inhibitory chemical constituents from the methanolic extract of marine green alga—Codium dwarkense. The bioactive fractions were further subjected to chromatographic separations, which resulted in the isolation of a new triterpenic acid; dwarkenoic acid (1 and the known sterols; androst-5-en-3β-ol (2, stigmasta-5,25-dien-3β,7α-diol (3, ergosta-5,25-dien-3β-ol (4, 7-hydroxystigmasta-4,25-dien-3-one-7-O-β-d-fucopyranoside (5, 7-hydroxystigmasta-4,25-dien-3-one (6, and stigmasta-5,25-dien-3β-ol (7. The structure elucidation of the new compound was carried out by combined mass spectrometry and 1D (1H and 13C and 2D (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY NMR spectroscopic data. The sub-fractions and pure constituents were assayed for enzymatic inhibition of alpha-glucosidase. Compound 1 showed significant inhibition at all concentrations. Compounds 2, 3, 5, and 7 exhibited a dose-dependent response, whereas compounds 4–6 showed moderate inhibition. Utilizing such marine-derived biological resources could lead to drug discoveries related to anti-diabetics.

  15. Towards elucidation of the toxic mechanism of copper on the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongguang; Zhu, Yanli; Hu, Zhangli; Lei, Anping; Wang, Jiangxin

    2016-09-01

    Toxic effects of copper on aquatic organisms in polluted water bodies have garnered particular attention in recent years. Microalgae play an important role in aquatic ecosystems, and they are sensitive to heavy metal pollution. Thus, it is important to clarify the mechanism of copper toxicity first for ecotoxicology studies. In this study, the physiological, biochemical and gene expression characteristics of a model green microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with 0, 50, 150 and 250 μM copper treatments were investigated. The response of C. reinhardtii to copper stress was significantly shown at a dose dependent manner. Inhibition of cell growth and variation of total chlorophyll content were observed with copper treatments. The maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII, actual photochemical efficiency of PSII and photochemical quenching value decreased in the 250 μM copper treatment with minimum values equal to 28, 24 and 60 % of the control values respectively. The content of lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde with copper treatments increased with a maximum value sevenfold higher than the control value. Inhibition of cell growth and photosynthesis was ascribed to peroxidation of membrane lipids. The glutathione content and activities of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were induced by copper. Interestingly, the expression of antioxidant genes and the photosynthetic gene decreased in most copper treatments. In conclusion, oxidative stress caused by production of excess reactive oxidative species might be the major mechanism of copper toxicity on C. reinhardtii.

  16. Reduced graphene oxide induces cytotoxicity and inhibits photosynthetic performance of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Ranran; Lu, Qi; Liu, Lin; Bao, Xiaowei; Liu, Huijun

    2016-12-01

    Increased use of graphene materials might ultimately lead to their release into the environment. However, only a few studies have investigated the impact of graphene-based materials on green plants. In this study, the impact of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus was evaluated to determine its phytotoxicity. Treatment with RGO suppressed the growth of the microalgae. The 72-h IC50 values of RGO evaluated using the logistic and Gompertz models were 148 and 151 mg L-1, respectively. RGO significantly inhibited Chl a and Chl a/b levels in the algal cells. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis showed that RGO significantly down-regulated photosystem II activity. The mechanism of how RGO inhibited algal growth and photosynthetic performance was determined by analyzing the alterations in ultrastructural morphology. RGO adhered to the algal cell surface as a semitranslucent coating. Cell wall damage and membrane integrity loss occurred in the treated cells. Moreover, nuclear chromatin clumping and starch grain number increase were noted. These changes might be attributed to the increase in malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species levels, which might have exceeded the scavenging ability of antioxidant enzymes (including peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). RGO impaired the extra- and intra-cellular morphology and increased oxidative stress and thus inhibited algal growth and photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequence Analysis and Potentials of the Native RbcS Promoter in the Development of an Alternative Eukaryotic Expression System Using Green Microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Napis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of highly active homologous promoters is critical in the development of a transformation system and improvement of the transformation efficiency. To facilitate transformation of green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus which is considered as a potential candidate for many biotechnological applications, a highly-expressed native promoter sequence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (AcRbcS has been used to drive the expression of β-glucuronidase (gusA gene in this microalga. Besides the determination of the transcription start site by 5¢-RACE, sequence analysis revealed that AcRbcS promoter contained consensus TATA-box and several putative cis-acting elements, including some representative light-regulatory elements (e.g., G-box, Sp1 motif and SORLIP2, which confer light responsiveness in plants, and several potential conserved motifs (e.g., CAGAC-motif, YCCYTGG-motifs and CACCACA-motif, which may be involved in light responsiveness of RbcS gene in green microalgae. Using AcRbcS promoter::gusA translational fusion, it was demonstrated that this promoter could function as a light-regulated promoter in transgenic A. convolutus, which suggested that the isolated AcRbcS promoter was a full and active promoter sequence that contained all cis-elements required for developmental and light-mediated control of gene expression, and this promoter can be used to drive the expression of heterologous genes in A. convolutus. This achievement therefore advances the development of A. convolutus as an alternative expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. This is the first report on development of gene manipulation system for unicellular green alga A. convolutus.

  18. Sequence Analysis and Potentials of the Native RbcS Promoter in the Development of an Alternative Eukaryotic Expression System Using Green Microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Tran; Chi, Vu Thi Quynh; Omar, Hishamuddin; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Napis, Suhaimi

    2012-01-01

    The availability of highly active homologous promoters is critical in the development of a transformation system and improvement of the transformation efficiency. To facilitate transformation of green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus which is considered as a potential candidate for many biotechnological applications, a highly-expressed native promoter sequence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (AcRbcS) has been used to drive the expression of β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene in this microalga. Besides the determination of the transcription start site by 5′-RACE, sequence analysis revealed that AcRbcS promoter contained consensus TATA-box and several putative cis-acting elements, including some representative light-regulatory elements (e.g., G-box, Sp1 motif and SORLIP2), which confer light responsiveness in plants, and several potential conserved motifs (e.g., CAGAC-motif, YCCYTGG-motifs and CACCACA-motif), which may be involved in light responsiveness of RbcS gene in green microalgae. Using AcRbcS promoter::gusA translational fusion, it was demonstrated that this promoter could function as a light-regulated promoter in transgenic A. convolutus, which suggested that the isolated AcRbcS promoter was a full and active promoter sequence that contained all cis-elements required for developmental and light-mediated control of gene expression, and this promoter can be used to drive the expression of heterologous genes in A. convolutus. This achievement therefore advances the development of A. convolutus as an alternative expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. This is the first report on development of gene manipulation system for unicellular green alga A. convolutus. PMID:22489117

  19. UNUSUAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS CONTRIBUTE TO ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN THE PURPLE-COLORED GREEN ALGA ZYGOGONIUM ERICETORUM (ZYGNEMATOPHYCEAE, STREPTOPHYTA) FROM A HIGH-ALPINE HABITAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Siegfried; Remias, Daniel; Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous green alga Zygogonium ericetorum (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) was collected in a high-alpine rivulet in Tyrol, Austria. Two different morphotypes of this alga were found: a purple morph with a visible purple vacuolar content and a green morph lacking this coloration. These morphotypes were compared with respect to their secondary metabolites, ultrastructure, and ecophysiological properties. Colorimetric tests with aqueous extracts of the purple morph indicated the presence of soluble compounds such as phenolics and hydrolyzable tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography-screening showed that Z. ericetorum contained several large phenolic peaks with absorption maxima at ∼280 nm and sometimes with minor maxima at ∼380 nm. Such compounds are uncommon for freshwater green microalgae, and could contribute to protect the organism against increased UV and visible (VIS) irradiation. The purple Z. ericetorum contained larger amounts (per dry weight) of the putative phenolic substances than the green morph; exposure to irradiation may be a key factor for accumulation of these phenolic compounds. Transmission electron microscopy of the purple morph showed massive vacuolization with homogenous medium electron-dense content in the cell periphery, which possibly contains the secondary compounds. In contrast, the green morph had smaller, electron-translucent vacuoles. The ecophysiological data on photosynthesis and desiccation tolerance indicated that increasing photon fluence densities led to much higher relative electron transport rates (rETR) in the purple than in the green morph. These data suggest that the secondary metabolites in the purple morph are important for light acclimation in high-alpine habitats. However, the green morph recovered better after 4 d of rehydration following desiccation stress. PMID:25810559

  20. Abundance and primary production of filamentous green algae Zygogonium ericetorum in an extremely acid (pH 2.9) mining lake and its impact on alkalinity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas Kleeberg; Hendrik Schubert; Matthias Koschorreck; Brigitte Nixdorf [Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    In extremely acid mining lakes, benthic filamentous green algae (Zygnemataceae, Chlorophyta) thrive as effective competitors for limited carbon (C). These algae could supply C for microbial-mediated benthic alkalinity generation. However, biomass, productivity and impact of the acidobiontic filamentous green algae at pH {le}3 have not previously been determined. Periphytic filamentous green algae was mapped by harvesting their biomass from 85 1 x 1 m quadrats in mining lake Gruenewalder Lauch. Zygogonium ericetorum colonised water depths between 1.6 and 10.5 m covering 88% of total area. Biomass peaked at 5-6 m depth. Total Zygogonium biomass amounted to 72.2 t dry weight for the whole lake (0.94 km{sup 2}), which corresponds to 16.1 t C and the accumulation of primary production from 2.2 years. Growth of Zygogonium is moderately N, C and extremely P deficient, and seriously stressed by high rates of Fe deposition during summer. Consequently, net primary production (NPP) of Zygogonium, calculated from measured photosynthesis versus irradiance characteristics and calculated underwater irradiance (0.13 g C m{sup -2} year{sup -1}) and in situ oxygen measurements (7.8 g C m{sup -2} year{sup -1}), corresponds to only 0.3% and 18.1% of pelagic NPP. Neither pelagic nor benthic Zygogonium primary production can supply enough C for efficient acidity removal. However, at rates of benthic NPP in summer of 21.4 mg C m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, Zygogonium contributed 26% of the C equivalents to remove acidity associated with ferric iron, contributing at least seasonally to efficient alkalinity generation.

  1. The Influence of Culture Medium and Light Cycle on the Productivity of the Green Algae Neochloris Oleoabundans

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Biofuels from algae are a promising source of alternative energy. One algae species, Neochloris oleoabundans, shows potential for successful biodiesel production, where biodiesel is produced from the neutral lipid content of the algae. Algal neutral lipid content may be influenced and increased by changes in the surrounding environment. One possible way to influence lipid synthesis is through the growth medium. Two published growth mediums were compared using photobioreactors. Two experimenta...

  2. Natural dissolved organic matter mobilizes Cd but does not affect the Cd uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korschikov) in resin buffered solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheyen, Liesbeth, E-mail: verheyenliesbeth@gmail.com; Versieren, Liske, E-mail: liske.versieren@ees.kuleuven.be; Smolders, Erik, E-mail: erik.smolders@ees.kuleuven.be

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Different DOM samples were added to solutions with a resin buffered Cd{sup 2+} activity. • This increased total dissolved Cd by factors 3–16 due to complexation reactions. • Cd uptake in algae was unaffected or increased maximally 1.6 fold upon addition. • Free Cd{sup 2+} is the main bioavailable form of Cd for algae in well buffered solutions. - Abstract: Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) can have contrasting effects on metal bioaccumulation in algae because of complexation reactions that reduce free metal ion concentrations and because of DOM adsorption to algal surfaces which promote metal adsorption. This study was set up to reveal the role of different natural DOM samples on cadmium (Cd) uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korschikov). Six different DOM samples were collected from natural freshwater systems and isolated by reverse osmosis. In addition, one {sup 13}C enriched DOM sample was isolated from soil to trace DOM adsorption to algae. Algae were exposed to standardized solutions with or without these DOM samples, each exposed at equal DOM concentrations and at equal non-toxic Cd{sup 2+} activity (∼4 nM) that was buffered with a resin. The DOM increased total dissolved Cd by factors 3–16 due to complexation reactions at equal Cd{sup 2+} activity. In contrast, the Cd uptake was unaffected by DOM or increased maximally 1.6 fold ({sup 13}C enriched DOM). The {sup 13}C analysis revealed that maximally 6% of algal C was derived from DOM and that this can explain the small increase in biomass Cd. It is concluded that free Cd{sup 2+} and not DOM-complexed Cd is the main bioavailable form of Cd when solution Cd{sup 2+} is well buffered.

  3. Plastomes of the green algae Hydrodictyon reticulatum and Pediastrum duplex (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae

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    Hilary A. McManus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Comparative studies of chloroplast genomes (plastomes across the Chlorophyceae are revealing dynamic patterns of size variation, gene content, and genome rearrangements. Phylogenomic analyses are improving resolution of relationships, and uncovering novel lineages as new plastomes continue to be characterized. To gain further insight into the evolution of the chlorophyte plastome and increase the number of representative plastomes for the Sphaeropleales, this study presents two fully sequenced plastomes from the green algal family Hydrodictyaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae, one from Hydrodictyon reticulatum and the other from Pediastrum duplex. Methods Genomic DNA from Hydrodictyon reticulatum and Pediastrum duplex was subjected to Illumina paired-end sequencing and the complete plastomes were assembled for each. Plastome size and gene content were characterized and compared with other plastomes from the Sphaeropleales. Homology searches using BLASTX were used to characterize introns and open reading frames (orfs ≥ 300 bp. A phylogenetic analysis of gene order across the Sphaeropleales was performed. Results The plastome of Hydrodictyon reticulatum is 225,641 bp and Pediastrum duplex is 232,554 bp. The plastome structure and gene order of H. reticulatum and P. duplex are more similar to each other than to other members of the Sphaeropleales. Numerous unique open reading frames are found in both plastomes and the plastome of P. duplex contains putative viral protein genes, not found in other Sphaeropleales plastomes. Gene order analyses support the monophyly of the Hydrodictyaceae and their sister relationship to the Neochloridaceae. Discussion The complete plastomes of Hydrodictyon reticulatum and Pediastrum duplex, representing the largest of the Sphaeropleales sequenced thus far, once again highlight the variability in size, architecture, gene order and content across the Chlorophyceae. Novel intron insertion sites and unique

  4. Concurrently inhibitory and allelopathic effects of allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum spicatum on growth of blue-green algae; Hozakinofusamo ga hoshutsushita areropashi busshitsu no aisorui ni taisuru fukugo sayo oyobi areropashi koka no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, S.; Inoue, Y.; Hosomi, M.; Murakami, A. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-10

    This paper describes effects of allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum spicatum on growth of blue-green algae. In order to propose an effective growth inhibitory method of blue-green algae with less impact on the ecosystem, biological interaction (allelopathy) between large aquatic plants and algae was investigated. Pyrogallic acid, gallic acid, catechin and ellagic acid secreted by M. spicatum provided growth inhibitory effects of blue-green algae (Microcyctis aeruginosa), individually. Complex interaction and allelopathic contribution of these four polyphenols were evaluated. By comparing the actual effects with the expected values, synergetic growth inhibitory effects were recognized by adding four polyphenols at the same time. Furthermore, growth inhibitory effects were evaluated for actual culture solution of M. spicatum and simulated culture solution made by four polyphenols. As a result, it was found that these four polyphenols relate to allelopathy of M. spicatum. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from the green alga, Dunaliella salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    A calcium-dependent protein kinase was partially purified and characterized from the green alga Dunaliella salina. The enzyme was activated at free Ca2+ concentrations above 10(-7) molar. and half-maximal activation was at about 3 x 10(-7) molar. The optimum pH for its Ca(2+)-dependent activity was 7.5. The addition of various phospholipids and diolein had no effects on enzyme activity and did not alter the sensitivity of the enzyme toward Ca2+. The enzyme was inhibited by calmodulin antagonists, N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalene sulfonamide and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide in a dose-dependent manner while the protein kinase C inhibitor, sphingosine, had little effect on enzyme activity up to 800 micromolar. Immunoassay showed some calmodulin was present in the kinase preparations. However, it is unlikely the kinase was calmodulin regulated, since it still showed stimulation by Ca2+ in gel assays after being electrophoretically separated from calmodulin by two different methods. This gel method of detection of the enzyme indicated that a protein band with an apparent molecular weight of 40,000 showed protein kinase activity at each one of the several steps in the purification procedure. Gel assay analysis also showed that after native gel isoelectric focusing the partially purified kinase preparations had two bands with calcium-dependent activity, at isoelectric points 6.7 and 7.1. By molecular weight, by isoelectric point, and by a comparative immunoassay, the Dunaliella kinase appears to differ from at least some of the calcium-dependent, but calmodulin and phospholipid independent kinases described from higher plants.

  6. Terrestrial adaptation of green algae Klebsormidium and Zygnema (Charophyta) involves diversity in photosynthetic traits but not in CO2 acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelini, Mattia; Ryšánek, David; Lang, Ingeborg; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Holzinger, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    The basal streptophyte Klebsormidium and the advanced Zygnema show adaptation to terrestrialization. Differences are found in photoprotection and resistance to short-term light changes, but not in CO 2 acquisition. Streptophyte green algae colonized land about 450-500 million years ago giving origin to terrestrial plants. We aim to understand how their physiological adaptations are linked to the ecological conditions (light, water and CO2) characterizing modern terrestrial habitats. A new Klebsormidium isolate from a strongly acidic environment of a former copper mine (Schwarzwand, Austria) is investigated, in comparison to Klebsormidium cf. flaccidum and Zygnema sp. We show that these genera possess different photosynthetic traits and water requirements. Particularly, the Klebsormidium species displayed a higher photoprotection capacity, concluded from non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and higher tolerance to high light intensity than Zygnema. However, Klebsormidium suffered from photoinhibition when the light intensity in the environment increased rapidly, indicating that NPQ is involved in photoprotection against strong and stable irradiance. Klebsormidium was also highly resistant to cellular water loss (dehydration) under low light. On the other hand, exposure to relatively high light intensity during dehydration caused a harmful over-reduction of the electron transport chain, leading to PSII damages and impairing the ability to recover after rehydration. Thus, we suggest that dehydration is a selective force shaping the adaptation of this species towards low light. Contrary to the photosynthetic characteristics, the inorganic carbon (C i ) acquisition was equivalent between Klebsormidium and Zygnema. Despite their different habitats and restriction to hydro-terrestrial environment, the three organisms showed similar use of CO2 and HCO3- as source of Ci for photosynthesis, pointing out a similar adaptation of their CO2-concentrating mechanisms to terrestrial

  7. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an ethanol production process based on blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dexin; Hu, Zushou; Choi, Dong Gu; Thomas, Valerie M; Realff, Matthew J; Chance, Ronald R

    2010-11-15

    Ethanol can be produced via an intracellular photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), excreted through the cell walls, collected from closed photobioreactors as a dilute ethanol-in-water solution, and purified to fuel grade ethanol. This sequence forms the basis for a biofuel production process that is currently being examined for its commercial potential. In this paper, we calculate the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for three different system scenarios for this proposed ethanol production process, using process simulations and thermodynamic calculations. The energy required for ethanol separation increases rapidly for low initial concentrations of ethanol, and, unlike other biofuel systems, there is little waste biomass available to provide process heat and electricity to offset those energy requirements. The ethanol purification process is a major consumer of energy and a significant contributor to the carbon footprint. With a lead scenario based on a natural-gas-fueled combined heat and power system to provide process electricity and extra heat and conservative assumptions around the ethanol separation process, the net life cycle energy consumption, excluding photosynthesis, ranges from 0.55 MJ/MJ(EtOH) down to 0.20 MJ/ MJ(EtOH), and the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions range from 29.8 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) down to 12.3 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) for initial ethanol concentrations from 0.5 wt % to 5 wt %. In comparison to gasoline, these predicted values represent 67% and 87% reductions in the carbon footprint for this ethanol fuel on a energy equivalent basis. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions can be further reduced via employment of higher efficiency heat exchangers in ethanol purification and/ or with use of solar thermal for some of the process heat.

  8. Identification of a gene encoding the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins of photosystem I in green alga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue; Qiao, Dairong; Huang, Min; Yi, Xiuli; Bai, Linhan; Xu, Hui; Wei, Liang; Zeng, Jing; Cao, Yi

    2008-04-01

    There are four LhcII genes of Dunaliella salina have been submitted to the database of GenBank. However, little is known about Lhca genes of this green alga, although this knowledge might be available to study the composition and phylogenesis of Lhc gene family. Recently, one Lhca gene was been cloned from the green alga D. salina by PCR amplification using degenerate primers. This cDNA, designated as DsLhca1, contains an open reading frame encoded a protein of 222 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 27.8 kDa. DsLhca1 is predicted to contain three transmembrane domains and a N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide (cTP) with length of 33 amino acids. The genomic sequence of DsLhca1 is composed of five introns. The deduced polypeptide sequence of this gene showed a lower degree of identity (less than 30%) with LHCII proteins from D. salina. But its homology to Lhca proteins of other algae (Volvox carteri Lhca_AF110786) was higher with pairwise identities of up to 67.1%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DsLhcal protein cannot be assigned to any types of Lhca proteins in higher plants or in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  9. Primary endosymbiosis and the evolution of light and oxygen sensing in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Rockwell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the photosynthetic organelle in eukaryotes, the plastid, changed forever the evolutionary trajectory of life on our planet. Plastids are highly specialized compartments derived from a putative single cyanobacterial primary endosymbiosis that occurred in the common ancestor of the supergroup Archaeplastida that comprises the Viridiplantae (green algae and plants, red algae, and glaucophyte algae. These lineages include critical primary producers of freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, progenitors of which provided plastids through secondary endosymbiosis to other algae such as diatoms and dinoflagellates that are critical to marine ecosystems. Despite its broad importance and the success of algal and plant lineages, the phagotrophic origin of the plastid imposed an interesting challenge on the predatory eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. By engulfing an oxygenic photosynthetic cell, the host lineage imposed an oxidative stress upon itself in the presence of light. Adaptations to meet this challenge were thus likely to have occurred early on during the transition from a predatory phagotroph to an obligate phototroph (or mixotroph. Modern algae have recently been shown to employ linear tetrapyrroles (bilins to respond to oxidative stress under high light. Here we explore the early events in plastid evolution and the possible ancient roles of bilins in responding to light and oxygen.

  10. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  11. Model based analysis of transient fluorescence yield induced by actinic laser flashes in spinach leaves and cells of green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, N E; Schmitt, F-J; Paschenko, V Z; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B; Renger, G

    2014-04-01

    Measurements of Single Flash Induced Transient Fluorescence Yield (SFITFY) on spinach leaves and whole cells of green thermophilic alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick were analyzed for electron transfer (ET) steps and coupled proton transfer (PT) on both the donor and the acceptor side of the reaction center (RC) of photosystem II (PS II). A specially developed PS II model (Belyaeva et al., 2008, 2011a) allowed the determination of ET steps that occur in a hierarchically ordered time scale from nanoseconds to several seconds. Our study demonstrates that our SFITFY data is consistent with the concept of the reduction of P680(+) by YZ in both leaves and algae (studied on spinach leaves and cells of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick). The multiphasic P680(+) reduction kinetics by YZ in PS II core complexes with high oxygen evolution capacity was seen in both algae and leaves. Model simulation to fit SFITFY curves for dark adapted species used here gives the rate constants to verify nanosecond kinetic stages of P680(+) reduction by YZ in the redox state S1 of the water oxidizing complex (WOC) shown in Kühn et al. (2004). Then a sequence of relaxation steps in the redox state S1, outlined by Renger (2012), occurs in both algae and leaves as a similar non-adiabatic ET reactions. Coupled PT is discussed briefly to understand a rearrangement of hydrogen bond protons in the protein matrix of the WOC (Umena et al., 2011). On the other hand, present studies showed a slower reoxidation of reduced QA by QB in algal cells as compared with that in a leaf that might be regarded as a consequence of differences of spatial domains at the QB-site in leaves compared to algae. Our comparative study helped to correlate theory with experimental data for molecular photosynthetic mechanisms in thylakoid membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential use of green algae Caulerpa lentillifera as feed ingredient in the diet of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadisa Theresia Putri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The high composition of import raw material of fish diet in Indonesia causes feed price expensively and should be replaced using local materials such as green macro algae. It is, therefore, this study aimed to evaluate effect of diet containing the Caulerpa lentillifera, as feed ingredient in the diet of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. This study consisted of two experiments which were C. lentillifera digestibility test for raw material feed for tilapia and growth performance test of tilapia. C. lentillifera digestibility test was done by using Cr2O3 as indicators and analysis of faecal tilapia. The second experiment is growth performance test using a completely randomised design with four diets were formulated at variuos rates of C. lentillifera meal of 0 (control, 10, 20, and 30%. A number of 240 tilapia fingerlings of 3.41±0.10 g in mean weight were randomly stocked in 12 aquaria and fed on diet test for growth performanced of rearing period. C. lentillifera digestiility test result showed a good value as a raw material feed tilapia, the digestibility of C. lentiliifera and protein digestibility amounted to 68.81% and 86.31%. Growth performance parameters showed the use of 10% and 20% is not significantly different from the control (P>0.05, to the final body weight, protein efficiency ratio, protein retention, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency. But, the diet test at 30% performed the lowest growth performance and feed utilization as well of tilapia fingerlings. This study, therefore, concludes that C. lentillifera meal could be used up to 20% in the tilapia diet. Keywords: Caulerpa lentillifera, Nile tilapia, feed utilization, growth performance  ABSTRAK Tingginya jumlah bahan baku impor dalam pakan ikan di Indonesia menyebabkan harga pakan yang tinggi dan harus diganti menggunakan bahan alternatif lokal seperti makro alga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengunaan dari pakan yang mengandung Caulerpa

  13. Bioaccumulation and subcellular partitioning of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the freshwater green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharchaou, Imad [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine and CNRS, 8 rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Rosabal, Maikel; Liu, Fengjie [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Battaglia, Eric; Vignati, Davide A.L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine and CNRS, 8 rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Fortin, Claude, E-mail: claude.fortin@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • C. reinhardtii accumulated similar levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). • The subcellular partitioning of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was similar. • Cr(III) and Cr(VI) associated mainly with organelles and heat-stable proteins. • Metallomic analysis showed two main Cr-binding biomolecules after 72 h of exposure. - Abstract: Chromium occurs in aquatic environments under two main redox forms, namely Cr(III) and Cr(VI), with different geochemical and biochemical properties. Cr(VI) readily crosses biological membranes of living organisms and once inside the cells it undergoes a rapid reduction to Cr(III). The route of entry for the latter form is, however, poorly known. Using the radioactive tracer {sup 51}Cr we compared the accumulation (absorption and adsorption) of the two Cr forms by the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii after 1 h and 72 h of exposure to 100 nM of either Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at pH 7. Both Cr forms had similar accumulation, with a major part in the extracellular (adsorbed) fraction after 1 h and a major part of total accumulated Cr in the intracellular (absorbed) fraction after 72 h. We also investigated the intracellular partitioning of Cr using an operational fractionation scheme and found that both Cr forms had similar distributions among fractions: Cr was mostly associated with organelles (23 ± 12% after 1 h and 37 ± 7% after 72 h) and cytosolic heat-stable proteins and peptides (39 ± 18% after 1 h and 35 ± 3% after 72 h) fractions. Further investigations using a metallomic approach (SEC-ICP-MS) were performed with the heat-stable proteins and peptides fraction to compare the distribution of the two Cr forms among various biomolecules of this fraction. One Cr-binding biomolecule (∼28 kDa) appeared after 1 h of exposure for both Cr species. After 72 h another biomolecule of lower molecular weight (∼0.7 kDa) was involved in binding Cr and higher signal intensities were observed for Cr(VI) than for Cr(III). We show, for the

  14. The photochemical and fluorescence properties of whole cells, spheroplasts and spheroplast particles from the blue-green alga Phormidium luridum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-or, E; Malkin, S

    1977-02-07

    The photochemical activities and fluorescence properties of cells, spheroplasts and spheroplast particles from the blue-green alga Phormidium luridum were compared. The photochemical activities were measured in a whole range of wavelengths and expressed as quantum yield spectra (quantum yield vs. wavelength). The following reactions were measured. Photosynthesis (O2 evolution) in whole cells; Hill reaction (O2 evolution) with Fe(CN)63- and NADP as electron acceptors (Photosystem II and photosystem II + Photosystem I reactions); electron transfer from reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol to diquat (Photosystem I reaction). The fluorescence properties were emission spectra, quantum yield spectra and the induction pattern. On the basis of comparison between the quantum yield spectra and the pigments compositions the relative contribution of each pigment to each photosystem was estimated. In normal cells and spheroplasts it was found that Photosystem I (Photosystem II) contains about 90% (10%) of the chlorophyll a, 90% (10%) of the carotenoids and 15% (85%) of the phycocyanin. In spheroplast particles there is a reorganization of the pigments; they loose a certain fraction (about half) of the phycocyanin but the remaining phycocyanin attaches itself exclusively to Photosystem I (!). This is reflected by the loss of Photosystem II activity, a flat quantum yield vs. wavelength dependence and a loss of the fluorescence induction. The fluorescence quantum yield spectra conform qualitatively to the above conclusion. More quantitative estimation shows that only a fraction (20--40%) of the chlorophyll of Photosystem II is fluorescent. Total emission spectrum and the ratio of variable to constant fluorescence are in agreement with this conclusion. The fluorescence emission spectrum shows characteristic differences between the constant and variable components. The variable fluorescence comes exclusively from chlorophyll a; the constant fluorescence is contributed, in addition

  15. Anticoagulant effect of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Wijesekara, Isuru

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries to isolate natural anticoagulant compounds from marine resources. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of novel bioactive compounds with anticoagulant effect. Phlorotannins and sulfated polysaccharides such as fucoidans in brown algae, carrageenans in red algae, and ulvans in green algae have been recognized as potential anticoagulant agents. Therefore, marine algae-derived phlorotannins and SPs have great potential for developing as anticoagulant drugs in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. This chapter focuses on the potential anticoagulant agents in marine algae and presents an overview of their anticoagulant effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of chlorophyll a fluorescence to detect the effect of microcystins on photosynthesis and photosystem II energy fluxes of green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Marie-Claude; Qiu, Baosheng; Boucher, Nathalie; Bellemare, François; Juneau, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of cyanobacteria bloom occurs widely in lakes, reservoirs, ponds and slow flowing rivers. Those blooms can have important repercussions, at once on recreational and commercial activities but also on the health of animals and human beings. Indeed, many species are known to produce toxins which are released in water mainly at cellular death. The cyanotoxin most frequently encountered is the microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin which counts more than 70 variants. The use of fast tests for the detection of this toxin is thus a necessity for the protection of the ecosystems and the human health. A promising method for their detection is a bioassay based on the chlorophyll a fluorescence of algae. Many studies have shown that algae are sensible to diverse pollutants, but were almost never used for cyanotoxins. Therefore, our goals were to evaluate the effect of microcystin on the fluorescence of different species of algae and how it can affect the flow of energy through photosystem II. To reach these objectives, we exposed four green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC5, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC125, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata CPCC37 and Chlorella vulgaris CPCC111) to microcystin standards (variants MC-LF, LR, RR, YR) and to microcystin extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa (CPCC299), which is known to produce mainly MC-LR. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured by PEA (Plant Efficiency Analyzer) and LuminoTox. The results of our experiment showed that microcystins affect the photosynthetic efficiency and the flow of energy through photosystem II from 0.01 μg/mL, within only 15 min. From exposure to standard of microcystin, we showed that MC-LF was the most potent variant, followed by MC-YR, LR and RR. Moreover, green algae used in this study demonstrated different sensitivity to MCs, S. obliquus being the more sensitive. We finally demonstrated that LuminoTox was more sensitive to MCs than parameters measured with PEA, although the latter brings

  17. Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hirooka

    Full Text Available Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0. These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems.

  18. Natural vitamin B12 and fucose supplementation of green smoothies with edible algae and related quality changes during their shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Noelia; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Goffi, Valentina; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2017-10-11

    Some algae are an excellent sources of vitamin B12, of special interest for vegetarian/vegan consumers, and of fucose to supplement fruit and vegetable beverages such as smoothies. Nevertheless, supplementation of smoothies with algae may lead to possible quality changes during smoothie shelf life that need to be studied. Therefore, the quality changes in fresh green smoothies supplemented (2.2%) with nine edible algae (sea lettuce, kombu, wakame, thongweed, dulse, Irish moss, nori, Spirulina and Chlorella) were studied throughout 24 days at 5 °C. The initial vitamin C content - 238.7-326.0 mg kg-1 fresh weight (FW) - of a 200 g portion of any of the smoothies ensured full coverage of its recommended daily intake, and still supplying 50-60% of the recommended intake after 7 days. Chlorella and Spirulina smoothies showed the highest vitamin B12 content (33.3 and 15.3 µg kg-1 FW, respectively), while brown algae showed fucose content of 141.1-571.3 mg kg-1 FW. These vitamin B12 and fucose contents were highly maintained during shelf life. The Spirulina supplementation of a 200 g smoothie portion ensured full coverage of the recommended vitamin B12 intake, with lower vitamin C degradation, during a shelf life of 17 days. Furthermore, thongweed and kombu are also considered as excellent fucose sources with similar shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Xenobiotic biotransformation in unicellular green algae. Involvement of cytochrome P450 in the activation and selectivity of the pyridazinone pro-herbicide metflurazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, F; Backhaus, T; Bossmann, B; Grimme, L H

    1996-09-01

    The N-demethylation of the pyridazinone pro-herbicide metflurazon into norflurazon implies a toxification in photosynthetic organisms. This is confirmed by quantitative structure activity relationships determined for two unicellular green algae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Chlorella fusca; however, the latter is 25 to 80 times more sensitive to metflurazon. This sensitivity is linked to differences in the N-demethylase activity of both algae, as determined by an optimized in vivo biotransformation assay. Apparent K(m) values of the metflurazon-N-demethylase indicate a 10-fold higher affinity for this xenobiotic substrate for Chlorella fusca. Furthermore, algal metflurazon-N-demethylation is characterized by distinct variations in activity, depending on the stage of cell development within the cell cycle. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P450-mediated reactions, including piperonylbutoxide, 1-aminobenzotriazole, 1-phenoxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triol-1yl)-4-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylhexane++ +, and tetcyclacis, as well as cinnamic acid, a potential endogenous substrate, inhibited the N-demethylation of metflurazon. The results suggest that the N-demethylation of metflurazon by both algae is mediated by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The determination of antigenic cross-reactivity of algal proteins with heterologous polyclonal antibodies originally raised against plant P450s, anti-cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (CYP73A1), anti-ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase, anti-tulip allene oxidase (CYP74), and an avocado P450 (CYP71A1) or those of bacterial origin, CYP105A1 and CYP105B1, suggests the presence of distinct P450 isoforms in both algae.

  20. Evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) during chlorination of two algae species--Blue-green Microcystis aeruginosa and diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Liu, Jinjin; Yang, Mingli; Ma, Hongfang; Yuan, Baoling; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa (blue-green alga) commonly blooms in summer and Cyclotella meneghiniana (diatom) outbreaks in fall in the reservoirs that serve as drinking water sources in Southeast China. Herein, an evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) from them during chlorination should be conducted. Five DBPs including trichloromethane (TCM), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were monitored. The formation potential of TCM and TCNM was enhanced with the increase of reaction time and chlorine dosage, whereas that of DCAN, 1,1-DCP and 1,1,1-TCP increased first and then fell with continuing reaction time. M. aeruginosa showed higher DBPFP than C. meneghiniana, the yield of DBPs varied with components of algal cells. The DBPFP order from components of M. aeruginosa was cell suspension (CS) ≈ intracellular organic matter (IOM) > extracellular organic matter (EOM) > cell debris (CD), which indicated that IOM was the main DBP precursors for M. aeruginosa. The yields of DBPs from components of C. meneghiniana were in the order of CS>IOM≈ CD ≈ EOM, suggesting that three components made similar contributions to the total DBP formation. The amount of IOM with higher DBPFP leaked from both algae species increased with the chlorine dosage, indicating that chlorine dosage should be considered carefully in the treatment of eutrophic water for less destroying of the cell integrity. Though fluorescence substances contained in both algae species varied significantly, the soluble microbial products (SMPs) and aromatic protein-like substances were the main cellular components that contributed to DBP formation for both algae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The evolution of glycogen and starch metabolism in eukaryotes gives molecular clues to understand the establishment of plastid endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Steven; Colleoni, Christophe; Cenci, Ugo; Raj, Jenifer Nirmal; Tirtiaux, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    Solid semi-crystalline starch and hydrosoluble glycogen define two distinct physical states of the same type of storage polysaccharide. Appearance of semi-crystalline storage polysaccharides appears linked to the requirement of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria to fuel nitrogenase and protect it from oxygen through respiration of vast amounts of stored carbon. Starch metabolism itself resulted from the merging of the bacterial and eukaryote pathways of storage polysaccharide metabolism after endosymbiosis of the plastid. This generated the three Archaeplastida lineages: the green algae and land plants (Chloroplastida), the red algae (Rhodophyceae), and the glaucophytes (Glaucophyta). Reconstruction of starch metabolism in the common ancestor of Archaeplastida suggests that polysaccharide synthesis was ancestrally cytosolic. In addition, the synthesis of cytosolic starch from the ADP-glucose exported from the cyanobacterial symbiont possibly defined the original metabolic flux by which the cyanobiont provided photosynthate to its host. Additional evidence supporting this scenario include the monophyletic origin of the major carbon translocators of the inner membrane of eukaryote plastids which are sisters to nucleotide-sugar transporters of the eukaryote endomembrane system. It also includes the extent of enzyme subfunctionalization that came as a consequence of the rewiring of this pathway to the chloroplasts in the green algae. Recent evidence suggests that, at the time of endosymbiosis, obligate intracellular energy parasites related to extant Chlamydia have donated important genes to the ancestral starch metabolism network.

  2. On the uptake and binding of uranium (VI) by the green alga Chlorella Vulgaris; Zur Aufnahme und Bindung von Uran(VI) durch die Gruenalge Chlorella Vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Manja

    2011-07-01

    Uranium could be released into the environment from geogenic deposits and from former mining and milling areas by weathering and anthropogenic activities. The elucidation of uranium behavior in geo- and biosphere is necessary for a reliable risk assessment of radionuclide migration in the environment. Algae are widespread in nature and the most important group of organisms in the aquatic habitat. Because of their ubiquitous occurrence in nature the influence of algae on the migration process of uranium in the environment is of fundamental interest e.g. for the development of effective and economical remediation strategies for contaminated waters. Besides, algae are standing at the beginning of the food chain and play an economically relevant role as food and food additive. Therefore the transfer of algae-bound uranium along the food chain could arise to a serious threat to human health. Aim of this work was the quantitative and structural characterization of the interaction between U(VI) and the green alga Chlorella vulgaris in environmental relevant concentration and pH range with special emphasis on metabolic activity. Therefore a defined medium was created which assures the survival/growth of the algae as well as the possibility to predict the uranium speciation. The speciation of uranium in the mineral medium was calculated and experimentally verified by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The results of the sorption experiments showed that both metabolic active and inactive algal cells bind uranium in significant amounts of around 14 mg U/g dry biomass and 28 mg U/g dry biomass, respectively. Another interesting observation was made during the growth of Chlorella cells in mineral medium at the environmental relevant uranium concentration of 5 {mu}M. Under these conditions and during ongoing cultivation a mobilization of the algae-bound uranium occurred. At higher uranium concentrations this effect was not observed due to the die off

  3. Ciliary contact interactions dominate surface scattering of swimming eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Dunkel, Jörn; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2013-01-22

    Interactions between swimming cells and surfaces are essential to many microbiological processes, from bacterial biofilm formation to human fertilization. However, despite their fundamental importance, relatively little is known about the physical mechanisms that govern the scattering of flagellated or ciliated cells from solid surfaces. A more detailed understanding of these interactions promises not only new biological insights into structure and dynamics of flagella and cilia but may also lead to new microfluidic techniques for controlling cell motility and microbial locomotion, with potential applications ranging from diagnostic tools to therapeutic protein synthesis and photosynthetic biofuel production. Due to fundamental differences in physiology and swimming strategies, it is an open question of whether microfluidic transport and rectification schemes that have recently been demonstrated for pusher-type microswimmers such as bacteria and sperm cells, can be transferred to puller-type algae and other motile eukaryotes, because it is not known whether long-range hydrodynamic or short-range mechanical forces dominate the surface interactions of these microorganisms. Here, using high-speed microscopic imaging, we present direct experimental evidence that the surface scattering of both mammalian sperm cells and unicellular green algae is primarily governed by direct ciliary contact interactions. Building on this insight, we predict and experimentally verify the existence of optimal microfluidic ratchets that maximize rectification of initially uniform Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suspensions. Because mechano-elastic properties of cilia are conserved across eukaryotic species, we expect that our results apply to a wide range of swimming microorganisms.

  4. Monetary value of the impacts of filamentous green algae on commercial agriculture: Results from two geographically different case studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available on the impact, and the extent of the impact, of algae on farming practice. The paper presents the study areas, methodological approach, surveyed pollution impacts and the calculated monetary value of the impacts of such pollution. A short conclusion discusses...

  5. Investigation of a rotifer (Brachionus calyciflorus) - green alga (Scenedesmus pectinatus) interaction under non- and nutrient-limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2006-01-01

    Two-day life cycle tests with the rotifer Brachiomus calyciflorus were run to study the nutritional quality effects to rotifers of Scenedesmus pectinatus grown under non-limiting nitrogen limiting and phosphorus limiting conditions and the feedback of the rotifers oil the Food algae. Under

  6. Precambrian Skeletonized Microbial Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Jere H.

    2017-04-01

    . Tintinnids first appear in the mid-Mesozoic, like other modern planktic groups, including planktic foraminifera, new types of radiolarians, and a host of skeletal micro-algae. Microbial eukaryotes track algal eukaryote and metazoan evolution—none or very few in the Precambrian, some in the early Paleozoic with radiations in the later Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic, with extinctions ( 30) reducing their biodiversity at particular times in the fossil record—thus indicating strong environmental selection on all marine groups.

  7. Into the deep: new discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Zechman, Frederick W

    2011-09-01

    Recent data have provided evidence for an unrecognised ancient lineage of green plants that persists in marine deep-water environments. The green plants are a major group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that have played a prominent role in the global ecosystem for millions of years. A schism early in their evolution gave rise to two major lineages, one of which diversified in the world's oceans and gave rise to a large diversity of marine and freshwater green algae (Chlorophyta) while the other gave rise to a diverse array of freshwater green algae and the land plants (Streptophyta). It is generally believed that the earliest-diverging Chlorophyta were motile planktonic unicellular organisms, but the discovery of an ancient group of deep-water seaweeds has challenged our understanding of the basal branches of the green plant phylogeny. In this review, we discuss current insights into the origin and diversification of the green plant lineage. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  8. How 5000 independent rowers coordinate their strokes in order to row into the sunlight: Phototaxis in the multicellular green alga Volvox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsunaga Shigeru

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of multicellular motile organisms from unicellular ancestors required the utilization of previously evolved tactic behavior in a multicellular context. Volvocine green algae are uniquely suited for studying tactic responses during the transition to multicellularity because they range in complexity from unicellular to multicellular genera. Phototactic responses are essential for these flagellates because they need to orientate themselves to receive sufficient light for photosynthesis, but how does a multicellular organism accomplish phototaxis without any known direct communication among cells? Several aspects of the photoresponse have previously been analyzed in volvocine algae, particularly in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas. Results In this study, the phototactic behavior in the spheroidal, multicellular volvocine green alga Volvox rousseletii (Volvocales, Chlorophyta was analyzed. In response to light stimuli, not only did the flagella waveform and beat frequency change, but the effective stroke was reversed. Moreover, there was a photoresponse gradient from the anterior to the posterior pole of the spheroid, and only cells of the anterior hemisphere showed an effective response. The latter caused a reverse of the fluid flow that was confined to the anterior hemisphere. The responsiveness to light is consistent with an anterior-to-posterior size gradient of eyespots. At the posterior pole, the eyespots are tiny or absent, making the corresponding cells appear to be blind. Pulsed light stimulation of an immobilized spheroid was used to simulate the light fluctuation experienced by a rotating spheroid during phototaxis. The results demonstrated that in free-swimming spheroids, only those cells of the anterior hemisphere that face toward the light source reverse the beating direction in the presence of illumination; this behavior results in phototactic turning. Moreover, positive phototaxis is facilitated by

  9. A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muse, J.O. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: jmuse@ffyb.uba.ar; Carducci, C.N. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stripeikis, J.D. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tudino, M.B. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-05-15

    In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution.

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome from the green alga Chlorella vulgaris: The existence of genes possibly involved in chloroplast division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasugi, Tatsuya; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Kapoor, Meenu; Sugita, Mamoru; Ito, Mari; Ito, Shiho; Tsudzuki, Junko; Nakashima, Keiko; Tsudzuki, Takahiko; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hamada, Akira; Ohta, Tutomu; Inamura, Atsushi; Yoshinaga, Koichi; Sugiura, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome (150,613 bp) from the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris C-27 has been determined. The genome contains no large inverted repeat and has one copy of rRNA gene cluster consisting of 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA genes. It contains 31 tRNA genes, of which the tRNALeu(GAG) gene has not been found in land plant chloroplast DNAs analyzed so far. Sixty-nine protein genes and eight ORFs conserved with those found in land plant chloroplasts have also been found. The most striking is the existence of two adjacent genes homologous to bacterial genes involved in cell division, minD and minE, which are arranged in the same order in Escherichia coli. This finding suggests that the mechanism of chloroplast division is similar to bacterial division. Other than minD and minE homologues, genes encoding ribosomal proteins L5, L12, L19, and S9 (rpl5, rpl12, rpl19, and rps9); a chlorophyll biosynthesis Mg chelating subunit (chlI); and elongation factor EF-Tu (tufA), which have not been reported from land plant chloroplast DNAs, are present in this genome. However, many of the new chloroplast genes recently found in red and brown algae have not been found in C. vulgaris. Furthermore, this algal species possesses two long ORFs related to ycf1 and ycf2 that are exclusively found in land plants. These observations suggest that C. vulgaris is closer to land plants than to red and brown algae. PMID:9159184

  11. Modulation of Neurogenesis through the Promotion of Energy Production Activity Is behind the Antidepressant-Like Effect of Colonial Green Alga, Botryococcus braunii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Othman, Mahmoud B; Demura, Mikihide; Watanabe, Makoto; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Algae have been recognized as important resources providing functional components due to their capacity to exert beneficial effects on health. Therefore, there is increasing interest in investigating the biological activity of algae. In this study, we evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of the administration of 100 mg/kg/day of the ethanol extract of colonial green alga Botryococcus braunii (EEB) for 14 consecutive days in the forced swimming test (FST)-induced depression in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. Imipramine, a commercial antidepressant drug, was used as a positive control. In addition, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of EEB by measuring ATP production and by assessing any change in gene expression at the end of the treatment using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microarray assays. We showed that the immobility time in the water-administered control (FST stress) group gradually increased from day 1 to day 14. However, treatment with EEB caused a significant decrease of immobility time in the FST compared with that in the FST stress group. Microarray and real-time PCR results revealed that EEB treatment induced variation in the expression of several genes associated with neurogenesis, energy metabolism, and dopamine synthesis. Interestingly, we revealed that only EEB treatment enhanced the promotion of energy production, while treatment with imipramine was ineffective. Our study provides the first evidence that B. braunii enhances energy production, which may contribute to the modulation of neurogenesis and to the enhancement of dopaminergic function, in turn potentially underlying the antistress- and antidepressant-like effects that we observed.

  12. Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Selvin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of shrimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1 and higher (1.5 g kg-1 doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1 y más alto (1,5 g kg-1 dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P < 0,01. Basado en las conclusiones presentes, podría ser deducido que U. verde fasciata puede ser una fuente excelente para desarrollar la comida potente medicinal para la dirección de enfermedad de camarón.

  13. Validation of a Mathematical Model for Green Algae (Raphidocelis Subcapitata Growth and Implications for a Coupled Dynamical System with Daphnia Magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stemkovski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity testing in populations probes for responses in demographic variables to anthropogenic or natural chemical changes in the environment. Importantly, these tests are primarily performed on species in isolation of adjacent tropic levels in their ecosystem. The development and validation of coupled species models may aid in predicting adverse outcomes at the ecosystems level. Here, we aim to validate a model for the population dynamics of the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, a planktonic species that is often used as a primary food source in toxicity experiments for the fresh water crustacean Daphnia magna. We collected longitudinal data from three replicate population experiments of R. subcapitata. We used this data with statistical model comparison tests and uncertainty quantification techniques to compare the performance of four models: the Logistic model, the Bernoulli model, the Gompertz model, and a discretization of the Logistic model. Overall, our results suggest that the logistic model is the most accurate continuous model for R. subcapitata population growth. We then implement the numerical discretization showing how the continuous logistic model for algae can be coupled to a previously validated discrete-time population model for D. magna.

  14. Effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on green algae under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiations: no evidence of enhanced algal toxicity under UV pre-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2013-04-01

    Some metal oxide nanoparticles are photoreactive, thus raising concerns regarding phototoxicity. This study evaluated ecotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiation conditions. The nanoparticles were prepared in algal test medium, and the test units were pre-irradiated by UV light in a photoreactor. Algal assays were also conducted with visible, UVA or UVB lights only without nanoparticles. Algal growth was found to be inhibited as the nanoparticle concentration increased, and ZnO NPs caused destabilization of the cell membranes. We also noted that the inhibitory effects on the growth of algae were not enhanced under UV pre-irradiation conditions. This phenomenon was attributed to the photocatalytic activities of ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs in both the visible and UV regions. The toxicity of ZnO NPs was almost entirely the consequence of the dissolved free zinc ions. This study provides us with an improved understanding of toxicity of photoreactive nanoparticles as related to the effects of visible and UV lights. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of non-photochemical energy dissipating processes in wild type Dunaliella salina (green algae) and in zea1, a mutant constitutively accumulating zeaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipratum, Rutanachai; Melis, Anastasios; Svasti, Jisnuson; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2009-07-01

    Generally there is a correlation between the amount of zeaxanthin accumulated within the chloroplast of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and the degree of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Although constitutive accumulation of zeaxanthin can help protect plants from photo-oxidative stress, organisms with such a phenotype have been reported to have altered rates of NPQ induction. In this study, basic fluorescence principles and the routinely used NPQ analysis technique were employed to investigate excitation energy quenching in the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina, in both wild type (WT) and a mutant, zea1, constitutively accumulating zeaxanthin under all growth conditions. The results showed that, in D. salina, NPQ is a multi-component process consisting of energy- or DeltapH-dependent quenching (qE), state-transition quenching (qT), and photoinhibition quenching (qI). Despite the vast difference in the amount of zeaxanthin in WT and the zea1 mutant grown under low light, the overall kinetics of NPQ induction were almost the same. Only a slight difference in the relative contribution of each quenching component could be detected. Of all the NPQ subcomponents, qE seemed to be the primary NPQ operating in this alga in response to short-term exposure to excessive irradiance. Whenever qE could not operate, i.e., in the presence of nigericin, or under conditions where the level of photon flux is beyond its quenching power, qT and/or qI could adequately compensate its photoprotective function.

  16. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  17. Anatoliacodium gen. nov. (Halimedaceae, Green algae) from the Ilerdian-Cuisian in the Eskişehir region (Western Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Nazire Özgen; Radoicic, Rajka

    2009-08-01

    A new genus Anatoliacodium (Halimedaceae, Green algae) is described from the Ilerdian-Cuisian shallow-water sediments of Eskişehir region, central-western Turkey. These sequences consist of limestones, clayey limestones, sandy limestones and claystones. Anatoliacodium gen. nov. is characterized by erected calcareous segments with well differentiated inner structure: prevailing with large medulla of more or less densely set parallel filaments and cortical zone of prevailing horizontal to subhorizontal cortical filaments, once branching and without constriction. It is supposed that poorly and rarely preserved noncalcareous structures on the skeleton surface could be reproductive structures. The type species of the new genus is Anatoliacodium xinanmui gen. nov. sp. nov. A further new species is also described: Anatoliacodium merici gen. nov. sp. nov. Finally Gymnocodium nummuliticum Pfender, 1966 is emended and transferred to the genus Anatoliacodium.

  18. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Belokobylsky, A I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-08-22

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in S. platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterized. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  19. Fluorescent minerals - A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark.

  20. Complex distribution of EFL and EF-1α proteins in the green algal lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EFL (or elongation factor-like is a member of the translation superfamily of GTPase proteins. It is restricted to eukaryotes, where it is found in a punctate distribution that is almost mutually exclusive with elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α. EF-1α is a core translation factor previously thought to be essential in eukaryotes, so its relationship to EFL has prompted the suggestion that EFL has spread by horizontal or lateral gene transfer (HGT or LGT and replaced EF-1α multiple times. Among green algae, trebouxiophyceans and chlorophyceans have EFL, but the ulvophycean Acetabularia and the sister group to green algae, land plants, have EF-1α. This distribution singles out green algae as a particularly promising group to understand the origin of EFL and the effects of its presence on EF-1α. Results We have sampled all major lineages of green algae for both EFL and EF-1α. EFL is unexpectedly broad in its distribution, being found in all green algal lineages (chlorophyceans, trebouxiophyceans, ulvophyceans, prasinophyceans, and mesostigmatophyceans, except charophyceans and the genus Acetabularia. The presence of EFL in the genus Mesostigma and EF-1α in Acetabularia are of particular interest, since the opposite is true of all their closest relatives. The phylogeny of EFL is poorly resolved, but the Acetabularia EF-1α is clearly related to homologues from land plants and charophyceans, demonstrating that EF-1α was present in the common ancestor of the green lineage. Conclusion The distribution of EFL and EF-1α in the green lineage is not consistent with the phylogeny of the organisms, indicating a complex history of both genes. Overall, we suggest that after the introduction of EFL (in the ancestor of green algae or earlier, both genes co-existed in green algal genomes for some time before one or the other was lost on multiple occasions.

  1. Optimization, equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and desorption studies on the sorption of Cu(II) from an aqueous solution using marine green algae: Halimeda gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, R; Rajasimman, M; Karthikeyan, C

    2015-11-01

    The aptitude of marine green algae Helimeda gracilis for sorption of Cu(II) ions from an aqueous solution was studied in batch experiments. The effect of relevant parameters such as function of pH, sorbent dosage, agitation speed and contact time was evaluated by using Response surface methodology (RSM). A maximum percentage removal of Cu (II) by Halimeda gracilis occurs at pH-4.49, sorbent dosage-1.98g/L, agitation speed-119.43rpm and contact time-60.21min. Further, the sorbent was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion, power function and elovich kinetic models. The results showed that the sorption process of Cu(II) ions followed well pseudo-second order kinetics. The sorption data of Cu(II) ions at 308.15K are fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), Temkin, Sips and Toth isotherms. Sorption of Cu(II) onto marine green algae Helimeda gracilis followed the Langmuir and Toth isotherm models (R(2)=0.998 and R(2)=0.999) with the maximum sorption capacity of 38.46 and 38.07mg/g. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° showed that the sorption of Cu(II) ions onto Helimeda gracilis biomass was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Desorption study shows that the sorbent could be regenerated using 0.2M HCl solution, with up to 89% recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative impact on growth and photosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the presence of the estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Pocock

    Full Text Available It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA. The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2. Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 µM EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3-. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water.

  3. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins. PMID:26232488

  4. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H C

    2015-09-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  6. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2002-03-01

    chloroplasts in a corticoflagellate host with cortical alveoli, this ancestral plant radiated rapidly into glaucophytes, green plants and red algae. Secondary symbiogeneses subsequently transferred plastids laterally into different hosts, making yet more complex cell chimaeras--probably only thrice: from a red alga to the corticoflagellate ancestor of chromalveolates (Chromista plus Alveolata), from green algae to a secondarily uniciliate cercozoan to form chlorarachneans and independently to a biciliate excavate to yield photosynthetic euglenoids. Tertiary symbiogenesis involving eukaryotic algal symbionts replaced peridinin-containing plastids in two or three dinoflagellate lineages, but yielded no major novel groups. The origin and well-resolved primary bifurcation of eukaryotes probably occurred in the Cryogenian Period, about 850 million years ago, much more recently than suggested by unwarranted backward extrapolations of molecular 'clocks' or dubious interpretations as 'eukaryotic' of earlier large microbial fossils or still more ancient steranes. The origin of chloroplasts and the symbiogenetic incorporation of a red alga into a corticoflagellate to create chromalveolates may both have occurred in a big bang after the Varangerian snowball Earth melted about 580 million years ago, thereby stimulating the ensuing Cambrian explosion of animals and protists in the form of simultaneous, poorly resolved opisthokont and anterokont radiations.

  7. Life-cycle and genome of OtV5, a large DNA virus of the pelagic marine unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Derelle

    Full Text Available Large DNA viruses are ubiquitous, infecting diverse organisms ranging from algae to man, and have probably evolved from an ancient common ancestor. In aquatic environments, such algal viruses control blooms and shape the evolution of biodiversity in phytoplankton, but little is known about their biological functions. We show that Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest known marine photosynthetic eukaryote, whose genome is completely characterized, is a host for large DNA viruses, and present an analysis of the life-cycle and 186,234 bp long linear genome of OtV5. OtV5 is a lytic phycodnavirus which unexpectedly does not degrade its host chromosomes before the host cell bursts. Analysis of its complete genome sequence confirmed that it lacks expected site-specific endonucleases, and revealed the presence of 16 genes whose predicted functions are novel to this group of viruses. OtV5 carries at least one predicted gene whose protein closely resembles its host counterpart and several other host-like sequences, suggesting that horizontal gene transfers between host and viral genomes may occur frequently on an evolutionary scale. Fifty seven percent of the 268 predicted proteins present no similarities with any known protein in Genbank, underlining the wealth of undiscovered biological diversity present in oceanic viruses, which are estimated to harbour 200Mt of carbon.

  8. Life-Cycle and Genome of OtV5, a Large DNA Virus of the Pelagic Marine Unicellular Green Alga Ostreococcus tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derelle, Evelyne; Ferraz, Conchita; Escande, Marie-Line; Eychenié, Sophie; Cooke, Richard; Piganeau, Gwenaël; Desdevises, Yves; Bellec, Laure; Moreau, Hervé; Grimsley, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Large DNA viruses are ubiquitous, infecting diverse organisms ranging from algae to man, and have probably evolved from an ancient common ancestor. In aquatic environments, such algal viruses control blooms and shape the evolution of biodiversity in phytoplankton, but little is known about their biological functions. We show that Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest known marine photosynthetic eukaryote, whose genome is completely characterized, is a host for large DNA viruses, and present an analysis of the life-cycle and 186,234 bp long linear genome of OtV5. OtV5 is a lytic phycodnavirus which unexpectedly does not degrade its host chromosomes before the host cell bursts. Analysis of its complete genome sequence confirmed that it lacks expected site-specific endonucleases, and revealed the presence of 16 genes whose predicted functions are novel to this group of viruses. OtV5 carries at least one predicted gene whose protein closely resembles its host counterpart and several other host-like sequences, suggesting that horizontal gene transfers between host and viral genomes may occur frequently on an evolutionary scale. Fifty seven percent of the 268 predicted proteins present no similarities with any known protein in Genbank, underlining the wealth of undiscovered biological diversity present in oceanic viruses, which are estimated to harbour 200Mt of carbon. PMID:18509524

  9. Cryoconite pans on Snowball Earth: supraglacial oases for Cryogenian eukaryotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P F

    2016-11-01

    Geochemical, paleomagnetic, and geochronological data increasingly support the Snowball Earth hypothesis for Cryogenian glaciations. Yet, the fossil record reveals no clear-cut evolutionary bottleneck. Climate models and the modern cryobiosphere offer insights on this paradox. Recent modeling implies that Snowball continents never lacked ice-free areas. Wind-blown dust from these areas plus volcanic ash were trapped by snow on ice sheets and sea ice. At a Snowball onset, sea ice was too thin to flow and ablative ice was too cold for dust retention. After a few millenia, sea ice reached 100 s of meters in thickness and began to flow as a 'sea glacier' toward an equatorial ablation zone. At first, dust advected to the ablative surface was recycled by winds, but as the surface warmed with rising CO2 , dust aka cryoconite began to accumulate. As a sea glacier has no terminus, cryoconite saturated the surface. It absorbed solar radiation, supported cyanobacterial growth, and sank to an equilibrium depth forming holes and decameter-scale pans of meltwater. As meltwater production rose, drainages developed, connecting pans to moulins, where meltwater was flushed into the subglacial ocean. Flushing cleansed the surface, creating a stabilizing feedback. If the dust flux rose, cryoconite was removed; if the dust flux waned, cryoconite accumulated. In addition to cyanobacteria, modern cryoconite holes are inhabited by green algae, fungi, protists, and certain metazoans. On Snowball Earth, cryoconite pans provided stable interconnected habitats for eukaryotes tolerant of fresh to brackish cold water on an ablation surface 60 million km2 in area. Flushing and burial of organic matter was a potential source of atmospheric oxygen. Dominance of green algae among Ediacaran eukaryotic primary producers is a possible legacy of Cryogenian cryoconite pans, but a schizohaline ocean-supraglacial freshwater and subglacial brine-may have exerted selective stress on early metazoans, or

  10. Green algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) adsorbs Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) toxin, Cry1Ca insecticidal protein, without an effect on growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamei; Chen, Xiuping; Li, Yunhe; Su, Changqing; Ding, Jiatong; Peng, Yufa

    2014-08-01

    The effect of purified Cry1Ca insecticidal protein on the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was studied in a three-generation toxicity test. The C. pyrenoidosa medium with a density of 5.4 × 10(5) cells/mL was subcultured for three generations with added Cry1Ca at 0, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/L, and cell numbers were determined daily. To explore the distribution of Cry1Ca in C. pyrenoidosa and the culture medium, Cry1Ca was added at 1000 µg/L to algae with a high density of 4.8 × 10(6) cells/mL, and Cry1Ca content was determined daily in C. pyrenoidosa and the culture medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Our results showed that the growth curves of C. pyrenoidosa exposed to 10, 100, and 1000 µg/L of Cry1Ca almost overlapped with that of the blank control, and there were no statistically significant differences among the four treatments from day 0 to day 7, regardless of generation. Moreover, the Cry1Ca content in the culture medium and in C. pyrenoidosa sharply decreased under exposure of 1000 µg/L Cry1Ca with high initial C. pyrenoidosa cell density. The above results demonstrate that Cry1Ca in water can be rapidly adsorbed and degraded by C. pyrenoidosa, but it has no suppressive or stimulative effect on algae growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological differentiation of cryptic species within an asexual protist morphospecies: a case study of filamentous green alga Klebsormidium (Streptophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škaloud, Pavel; Rindi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Taxa of microbial eukaryotes defined on morphological basis display a large degree of genetic diversity, implying the existence of numerous cryptic species. However, it has been postulated that genetic diversity merely mirrors accumulation of neutral mutations. As a case taxon to study cryptic diversity in protists, we used a widely distributed filamentous genus, Klebsormidium, specifically the lineage E (K. flaccidum/K. nitens complex) containing a number of morphologically similar strains. Fourteen clades were recognized in the phylogenetic analysis based on a concatenated ITS rDNA + rbcL data set of more than 70 strains. The results of inferred character evolution indicated the existence of phylogenetic signal in at least two phenotypic characters (production of hydro-repellent filaments and morphology of zoosporangia). Moreover, the lineages recovered exhibited strong ecological preferences to one of the three habitat types: natural subaerial substrata, artificial subaerial substrata, and aquatic habitats. We interpret these results as evidence of existence of a high number of cryptic species within the single morphospecies. We consider that the permanent existence of genetically and ecologically well-defined cryptic species is enabled by the mechanism of selective sweep. © 2013 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2013 International Society of Protistologists.

  12. Efficient expression of nuclear transgenes in the green alga Chlamydomonas: synthesis of an HIV antigen and development of a new selectable marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahimipour, Rouhollah; Neupert, Juliane; Bock, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has become an invaluable model system in plant biology. There is also considerable interest in developing this microalga into an efficient production platform for biofuels, pharmaceuticals, green chemicals and industrial enzymes. However, the production of foreign proteins in the nucleocytosolic compartment of Chlamydomonas is greatly hampered by the inefficiency of transgene expression from the nuclear genome. We have recently addressed this limitation by isolating mutant algal strains that permit high-level transgene expression and by determining the contributions of GC content and codon usage to gene expression efficiency. Here we have applied these new tools and explored the potential of Chlamydomonas to produce a recombinant biopharmaceutical, the HIV antigen P24. We show that a codon-optimized P24 gene variant introduced into our algal expression strains give rise to recombinant protein accumulation levels of up to 0.25% of the total cellular protein. Moreover, in combination with an expression strain, a resynthesized nptII gene becomes a highly efficient selectable marker gene that facilitates the selection of transgenic algal clones at high frequency. By establishing simple principles of successful transgene expression, our data open up new possibilities for biotechnological research in Chlamydomonas.

  13. Three-dimensional structural analysis of eukaryotic flagella/cilia by electron cryo-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Khanh Huy; Pigino, Gaia; Ishikawa, Takashi, E-mail: takashi.ishikawa@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the molecular architecture revealed by electron cryo-tomography, the mechanism of the bending motion of eukaryotic flagella/cilia is discussed. Electron cryo-tomography is a potential approach to analyzing the three-dimensional conformation of frozen hydrated biological macromolecules using electron microscopy. Since projections of each individual object illuminated from different orientations are merged, electron tomography is capable of structural analysis of such heterogeneous environments as in vivo or with polymorphism, although radiation damage and the missing wedge are severe problems. Here, recent results on the structure of eukaryotic flagella, which is an ATP-driven bending organelle, from green algae Chlamydomonas are presented. Tomographic analysis reveals asymmetric molecular arrangements, especially that of the dynein motor proteins, in flagella, giving insight into the mechanism of planar asymmetric bending motion. Methodological challenges to obtaining higher-resolution structures from this technique are also discussed.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity in the green algae Desmodesmus and Scenedesmus with special reference to the introduction of defensive morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2003-01-01

    Organisms belonging to the green algal genera Desmodesmus and Scenedesmus are characterized by a high degree of flexibility allowing them to be true cosmopolitans and to withstand harsh conditions. The environmental conditions determine which phenotypes are being produced and one of the most

  15. Engineered antifouling microtopographies - effect of feature size, geometry, and roughness on settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, James F; Carman, Michelle L; Estes, Thomas G; Feinberg, Adam W; Wilson, Leslie H; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Finlay, John A; Brennan, Anthony B

    2007-01-01

    The effect of feature size, geometry, and roughness on the settlement of zoospores of the ship fouling alga Ulva was evaluated using engineered microtopographies in polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. The topographies studied were designed at a feature spacing of 2 microm and all significantly reduced spore settlement compared to a smooth surface. An indirect correlation between spore settlement and a newly described engineered roughness index (ERI) was identified. ERI is a dimensionless ratio based on Wenzel's roughness factor, depressed surface fraction, and the degree of freedom of spore movement. Uniform surfaces of either 2 mum diameter circular pillars (ERI=5.0) or 2 microm wide ridges (ERI=6.1) reduced settlement by 36% and 31%, respectively. A novel multi-feature topography consisting of 2 mum diameter circular pillars and 10 microm equilateral triangles (ERI=8.7) reduced spore settlement by 58%. The largest reduction in spore settlement, 77%, was obtained with the Sharklet AF topography (ERI=9.5).

  16. Recovery of algal oil from marine green macro-algae Enteromorpha intestinalis by acidic-hydrothermal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyung-Ho; Kong, In-Soo; Kim, Joong Kyun; Park, Nam Gyu; Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the recovery of algal oil from Enteromorpha intestinalis based on an acidic-hydrothermal reaction was investigated. Overall, the algal oil yield after the acidic-hydrothermal reaction was increased under the conditions of high reaction temperature, high catalyst concentration, and long reaction time within the tested ranges. Significantly, catalyst concentration, compared with reaction temperature and time, less affected algal oil recovery. The optimal acidic-hydrothermal reaction conditions for production of algal oil from E. intestinalis were as follows-200 °C reaction temperature, 2.92 % catalyst concentration, 54 min reaction time. Under these conditions, an 18.6 % algal oil yield was obtained. By increasing the combined severity factor, the algae oil recovery yield linearly increased.

  17. The physiological response of two green calcifying algae from the Great Barrier Reef towards high dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer

    Full Text Available Increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations associated with ocean acidification can affect marine calcifiers, but local factors, such as high dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations through sewage and algal blooms, may interact with this global factor. For calcifying green algae of the genus Halimeda, a key tropical carbonate producer that often occurs in coral reefs, no studies on these interactions have been reported. These data are however urgently needed to understand future carbonate production. Thus, we investigated the independent and combined effects of DIC (pCO2 402 μatm/ pHtot 8.0 and 996 μatm/ pHtot 7.7 and DOC (added as glucose in 0 and 294 μmol L-1 on growth, calcification and photosynthesis of H. macroloba and H. opuntia from the Great Barrier Reef in an incubation experiment over 16 days. High DIC concentrations significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 130 % and led to net dissolution, but did not affect H. macroloba. High DOC concentrations significantly reduced daily oxygen production of H. opuntia and H. macroloba by 78 % and 43 %, respectively, and significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 70%. Combined high DIC and DOC did not show any interactive effects for both algae, but revealed additive effects for H. opuntia where the combination of both factors reduced dark calcification by 162 % compared to controls. Such species-specific differences in treatment responses indicate H. opuntia is more susceptible to a combination of high DIC and DOC than H. macroloba. From an ecological perspective, results further suggest a reduction of primary production for Halimeda-dominated benthic reef communities under high DOC concentrations and additional decreases of carbonate accretion under elevated DIC concentrations, where H. opuntia dominates the benthic community. This may reduce biogenic carbonate sedimentation rates and hence the buffering capacity against further ocean

  18. Characterization of thylakoid membrane in a heterocystous cyanobacterium and green alga with dual-detector fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy with a systematic change of incident laser power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Shuho; Mukuno, Akira; Tsuda, Yumi; Shiina, Takashi; Terazima, Masahide; Kumazaki, Shigeichi

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) has been applied to plants, algae and cyanobacteria, in which excitation laser conditions affect the chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime due to several mechanisms. However, the dependence of FLIM data on input laser power has not been quantitatively explained by absolute excitation probabilities under actual imaging conditions. In an effort to distinguish between photosystem I and photosystem II (PSI and PSII) in microscopic images, we have obtained dependence of FLIM data on input laser power from a filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis and single cellular green alga Parachlorella kessleri. Nitrogen-fixing cells in A. variabilis, heterocysts, are mostly visualized as cells in which short-lived fluorescence (≤0.1 ns) characteristic of PSI is predominant. The other cells in A. variabilis (vegetative cells) and P. kessleri cells show a transition in the status of PSII from an open state with the maximal charge separation rate at a weak excitation limit to a closed state in which charge separation is temporarily prohibited by previous excitation(s) at a relatively high laser power. This transition is successfully reproduced by a computer simulation with a high fidelity to the actual imaging conditions. More details in the fluorescence from heterocysts were examined to assess possible functions of PSII in the anaerobic environment inside the heterocysts for the nitrogen-fixing enzyme, nitrogenase. Photochemically active PSII:PSI ratio in heterocysts is tentatively estimated to be typically below our detection limit or at most about 5% in limited heterocysts in comparison with that in vegetative cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Local genetic adaptation to grazing pressure of the green alga Desmodesmus armatus in a strongly connected pond system

    OpenAIRE

    Vanormelingen, Pieter; Vyverman, Wim; De Bock, Dries; Van Der Gucht, Katleen; De Meester, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Dispersal potentially homogenizes genetic variation among populations and thus may prevent local genetic adaptation. If selection gradients are strong and the selection response efficient, however, local genetic adaptation may persist in the face of high dispersal rates. We compared grazing-resistance traits among populations of the green microalga Desmodesmus armatus, which inhabit ponds that are ecologically different but part of a strongly interconnected pond system. Desmodesmus clones wer...

  20. Metagenome changes in the mesophilic biogas-producing community during fermentation of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Roland; Lakatos, Gergely; Böjti, Tamás; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Kis, Mihály; Kovács, Attila; Ács, Norbert; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-12-10

    A microalgal biomass offers a potential alternative to the maize silage commonly used in biogas technology. In this study, photoautotrophically grown Scenedesmus obliquus was used as biogas substrate. This microalga has a low C/N ratio of 8.5 relative to the optimum 20-30. A significant increase in the ammonium ion content was not observed. The methane content of the biogas generated from Sc. obliquus proved to be higher than that from maize silage, but the specific biogas yield was lower. Semi-continuous steady biogas production lasted for 2 months. Because of the thick cell wall of Sc. obliquus, the biomass-degrading microorganisms require additional time to digest its biomass. The methane concentration in the biogas was also high, in co-digestion (i.e., 52-56%) as in alga-fed anaerobic digestion (i.e., 55-62%). These results may be related to the relative predominance of the order Clostridiales in co-digestion and to the more balanced C/N ratio of the mixed algal-maize biomass. Predominance of the order Methanosarcinales was observed in the domain Archaea, which supported the diversity of metabolic pathways in the process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 μg L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 μg L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 μg L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris.

  2. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  3. RNAi knock-down of LHCBM1, 2 and 3 increases photosynthetic H2 production efficiency of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Oey

    Full Text Available Single cell green algae (microalgae are rapidly emerging as a platform for the production of sustainable fuels. Solar-driven H2 production from H2O theoretically provides the highest-efficiency route to fuel production in microalgae. This is because the H2-producing hydrogenase (HYDA is directly coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thereby eliminating downstream energetic losses associated with the synthesis of carbohydrate and oils (feedstocks for methane, ethanol and oil-based fuels. Here we report the simultaneous knock-down of three light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCMB1, 2 and 3 in the high H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant Stm6Glc4 using an RNAi triple knock-down strategy. The resultant Stm6Glc4L01 mutant exhibited a light green phenotype, reduced expression of LHCBM1 (20.6% ±0.27%, LHCBM2 (81.2% ±0.037% and LHCBM3 (41.4% ±0.05% compared to 100% control levels, and improved light to H2 (180% and biomass (165% conversion efficiencies. The improved H2 production efficiency was achieved at increased solar flux densities (450 instead of ∼100 µE m(-2 s(-1 and high cell densities which are best suited for microalgae production as light is ideally the limiting factor. Our data suggests that the overall improved photon-to-H2 conversion efficiency is due to: 1 reduced loss of absorbed energy by non-photochemical quenching (fluorescence and heat losses near the photobioreactor surface; 2 improved light distribution in the reactor; 3 reduced photoinhibition; 4 early onset of HYDA expression and 5 reduction of O2-induced inhibition of HYDA. The Stm6Glc4L01 phenotype therefore provides important insights for the development of high-efficiency photobiological H2 production systems.

  4. Influence of agglomeration of cerium oxide nanoparticles and speciation of cerium(III) on short term effects to the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röhder, Lena A. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Dübendorf 8600 (Switzerland); ETH-Zurich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Zürich 8092 (Switzerland); Brandt, Tanja [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Dübendorf 8600 (Switzerland); Sigg, Laura [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Dübendorf 8600 (Switzerland); ETH-Zurich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Zürich 8092 (Switzerland); Behra, Renata, E-mail: Renata.behra@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Dübendorf 8600 (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Phosphate-dispersed CeO₂ NP did not affect photosynthetic yield in C. reinhardtii. • Agglomerated CeO₂ NP slightly decreased photosynthetic yield. • Cerium(III) was shown to affect photosynthetic yield and intracellular ROS level. • Slight effects of CeO₂ NP were caused by dissolved Ce³⁺ ions present in suspensions. • Wild type and cell wall free mutant of C. reinhardtii showed the same sensitivity. - Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO₂ NP) are increasingly used in industrial applications and may be released to the aquatic environment. The fate of CeO₂ NP and effects on algae are largely unknown. In this study, the short term effects of CeO₂ NP in two different agglomeration states on the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were examined. The role of dissolved cerium(III) on toxicity, its speciation and the dissolution of CeO₂ NP were considered. The role of cell wall of C. reinhardtii as a barrier and its influence on the sensitivity to CeO₂ NP and cerium(III) was evaluated by testing both, the wild type and the cell wall free mutant of C. reinhardtii. Characterization showed that CeO₂ NP had a surface charge of ~0 mV at physiological pH and agglomerated in exposure media. Phosphate stabilized CeO₂ NP at pH 7.5 over 24 h. This effect was exploited to test CeO₂ NP dispersed in phosphate with a mean size of 140 nm and agglomerated in absence of phosphate with a mean size of 2000 nm. The level of dissolved cerium(III) in CeO₂ NP suspensions was very low and between 0.1 and 27 nM in all tested media. Exposure of C. reinhardtii to Ce(NO₃)₃ decreased the photosynthetic yield in a concentration dependent manner with EC₅₀ of 7.5 ± 0.84 μM for wild type and EC₅₀ of 6.3 ± 0.53 μM for the cell wall free mutant. The intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased upon exposure to Ce(NO₃)₃ with effective concentrations similar to those inhibiting photosynthesis. The agglomerated Ce

  5. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@ugent.be; Nys, C., E-mail: chnys.nys@ugent.be; Janssen, C.R., E-mail: colin.janssen@ugent.be

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Chronic toxicity of Pb varied 4-fold among three algae species. • The use of an organic P avoided Pb precipitation in the experiments. • pH and Dissolved Organic Carbon strongly affect Pb toxicity, Ca and Mg do not. • A bioavailability model was developed that accurately predicts toxicity. • Algae may become the most sensitive species to Pb above pH 7.4. - Abstract: Scientifically sound risk assessment and derivation of environmental quality standards for lead (Pb) in the freshwater environment are hampered by insufficient data on chronic toxicity and bioavailability to unicellular green algae. Here, we first performed comparative chronic (72-h) toxicity tests with three algal species in medium at pH 6, containing 4 mg fulvic acid (FA)/L and containing organic phosphorous (P), i.e. glycerol-2-phosphate, instead of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} to prevent lead-phosphate mineral precipitation. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was 4-fold more sensitive to Pb than Chlorella kesslerii, with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the middle. The influence of medium physico-chemistry was therefore investigated in detail with P. subcapitata. In synthetic test media, higher concentrations of fulvic acid or lower pH protected against toxicity of (filtered) Pb to P. subcapitata, while effects of increased Ca or Mg on Pb toxicity were less clear. When toxicity was expressed on a free Pb{sup 2+} ion activity basis, a log-linear, 260-fold increase of toxicity was observed between pH 6.0 and 7.6. Effects of fulvic acid were calculated to be much more limited (1.9-fold) and were probably even non-existent (depending on the affinity constant for Pb binding to fulvic acid that was used for calculating speciation). A relatively simple bioavailability model, consisting of a log-linear pH effect on Pb{sup 2+} ion toxicity linked to the geochemical speciation model Visual Minteq (with the default NICA-Donnan description of metal and proton binding to fulvic acid), provided relatively

  6. Nitrogen limitation and slow drying induce desiccation tolerance in conjugating green algae (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) from polar habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichrtová, Martina; Kulichová, Jana; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous Zygnematophyceae are typical components of algal mats in the polar hydro-terrestrial environment. Under field conditions, they form senescent vegetative cells, designated as pre-akinetes, which are tolerant to desiccation and osmotic stress. Pre-akinete formation and desiccation tolerance was investigated experimentally under monitored laboratory conditions in four strains of Arctic and Antarctic isolates with vegetative Zygnema sp. morphology. Phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences revealed one Arctic strain as genus Zygnemopsis, phylogenetically distant from the closely related Zygnema strains. Algae were cultivated in liquid or on solidified medium (9 weeks), supplemented with or lacking nitrogen. Nitrogen-free cultures (liquid as well as solidified) consisted of well-developed pre-akinetes after this period. Desiccation experiments were performed at three different drying rates (rapid: 10% relative humidity, slow: 86% rh and very slow); viability, effective quantum yield of PS II, visual and ultrastructural changes were monitored. Recovery and viability of pre-akinetes were clearly dependent on the drying rate: slower desiccation led to higher levels of survival. Pre-akinetes survived rapid drying after acclimation by very slow desiccation. The formation of pre-akinetes in polar Zygnema spp. and Zygnemopsis sp. is induced by nitrogen limitation. Pre-akinetes, modified vegetative cells, rather than specialized stages of the life cycle, can be hardened by mild desiccation stress to survive rapid drying. Naturally hardened pre-akinetes play a key role in stress tolerance and dispersal under the extreme conditions of polar regions, where sexual reproduction and production of dormant stages is largely suppressed.

  7. Nitrogen limitation and slow drying induce desiccation tolerance in conjugating green algae (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta from polar habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Pichrtová

    Full Text Available Filamentous Zygnematophyceae are typical components of algal mats in the polar hydro-terrestrial environment. Under field conditions, they form senescent vegetative cells, designated as pre-akinetes, which are tolerant to desiccation and osmotic stress.Pre-akinete formation and desiccation tolerance was investigated experimentally under monitored laboratory conditions in four strains of Arctic and Antarctic isolates with vegetative Zygnema sp. morphology. Phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences revealed one Arctic strain as genus Zygnemopsis, phylogenetically distant from the closely related Zygnema strains. Algae were cultivated in liquid or on solidified medium (9 weeks, supplemented with or lacking nitrogen. Nitrogen-free cultures (liquid as well as solidified consisted of well-developed pre-akinetes after this period. Desiccation experiments were performed at three different drying rates (rapid: 10% relative humidity, slow: 86% rh and very slow; viability, effective quantum yield of PS II, visual and ultrastructural changes were monitored. Recovery and viability of pre-akinetes were clearly dependent on the drying rate: slower desiccation led to higher levels of survival. Pre-akinetes survived rapid drying after acclimation by very slow desiccation.The formation of pre-akinetes in polar Zygnema spp. and Zygnemopsis sp. is induced by nitrogen limitation. Pre-akinetes, modified vegetative cells, rather than specialized stages of the life cycle, can be hardened by mild desiccation stress to survive rapid drying. Naturally hardened pre-akinetes play a key role in stress tolerance and dispersal under the extreme conditions of polar regions, where sexual reproduction and production of dormant stages is largely suppressed.

  8. Influence of the Systemic Application of Blue–Green Spirulina platensis Algae on the Cutaneous Carotenoids and Elastic Fibers in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. Darvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a food supplement rich in antioxidants on the antioxidant status of the skin. For this reason, the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis powder was used for oral application during eight weeks. The effect of oral application of the antioxidant-containing Spirulina platensis on characteristic skin aging parameters, e.g., concentration of cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen/elastin index (SAAID, was investigated in vivo. A significant average increase from 2.67 ± 0.86 arb. units to 3.25 ± 0.93 arb. units (p < 0.001 in the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was detected subsequent to oral application of the carotenoid-containing Spirulina platensis powder, showing a significant improvement of the antioxidant status of the skin. A slight but not significant increase (p = 0.33 in the dermal SAAID mean values was measured from −0.54 ± 0.11 to −0.51 ± 0.11 subsequent to oral intake of Spirulina platensis powder.

  9. CCS2, an Octatricopeptide-Repeat Protein, Is Required for Plastid CytochromecAssembly in the Green AlgaChlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Sara G; Laughbaum, Isaac A; Hamel, Patrice P

    2017-01-01

    In bacteria and energy generating organelles, c -type cytochromes are a class of universal electron carriers with a heme cofactor covalently linked via one or two thioether bonds to a heme binding site. The covalent attachment of heme to apocytochromes is a catalyzed process, taking place via three evolutionarily distinct assembly pathways (Systems I, II, III). System II was discovered in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through the genetic analysis of the ccs mutants ( c ytochrome c s ynthesis), which display a block in the apo- to holo- form conversion of cytochrome f and c 6 , the thylakoid lumen resident c -type cytochromes functioning in photosynthesis. Here we show that the gene corresponding to the CCS2 locus encodes a 1,719 amino acid polypeptide and identify the molecular lesions in the ccs2-1 to ccs2-5 alleles. The CCS2 protein displays seven degenerate amino acid repeats, which are variations of the o ctatrico p eptide- r epeat motif (OPR) recently recognized in several nuclear-encoded proteins controlling the maturation, stability, or translation of chloroplast transcripts. A plastid site of action for CCS2 is inferred from the finding that GFP fused to the first 100 amino acids of the algal protein localizes to chloroplasts in Nicotiana benthamiana . We discuss the possible functions of CCS2 in the heme attachment reaction.

  10. Characteristics of unique HBr-hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystals from freshwater green algae (Cladophora rupestris) and its reinforcement in starch-based film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucaldito, Melvir R; Camacho, Drexel H

    2017-08-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising materials that are readily extracted from plants and other cellulose-containing organisms. In this study, CNCs were isolated from freshwater green algae (Cladophora rupestris) thriving in a volcanic lake, using hydrobromic acid (HBr) hydrolysis. Morphological and structural studies revealed highly crystalline CNCs (94.0% crystallinity index) with preferred orientation to [100] lattice plane as shown by XRD measurements and have an average diameter of 20.0 (±4.4)nm as shown by TEM. Thermal studies showed increased temperature for thermal decomposition of CNCs (381.6°C), which is a result of HBr hydrolysis for CNCs isolation. The isolated CNCs were reinforced into starch based biocomposites via solution casting and evaporation method. Mechanical strength was improved as high as 78% upon addition of 1% cellulose nanocrystals in the films. The produced films are promising materials for their high mechanical strength, biodegradability and availability of raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation, purification, and identification of antialgal substances in green alga Ulva prolifera for antialgal activity against the common harmful red tide microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-ying; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gan-lin; Pu, Yin-fang; Yan, Bin-lun; Wang, Chang-hai

    2016-01-01

    Ten compounds (1~10) were successfully isolated from green algae Ulva prolifera through the combination of silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography. These ten compounds showed antialgal activity against red tide microalgae. Among them, compounds 3, 6, and 7 showed stronger antialgal activity against red tide microalgae. Furthermore, their structure was identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. There are three glycoglycerolipids: 1-O-octadecanoic acid-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (2), 1-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (4), and 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (5); two monoglycerides: glycerol monopalmitate (1), 9-hexadecenoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (3); two terpenoids: loliolide (6) and lsololiolide (7); one lipid-soluble pigments: zeaxanthin (8); one sterol: cholest-5-en-3-ol (9); and one alkaloid: pyrrolopiperazine-2,5-dione (10). These compounds were isolated from U. prolifera for the first time, and compounds 2, 3, 5, and 8 were isolated from marine macroalgae for the first time.

  12. Fluorescent minerals--A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth modeling of the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a hybrid photobioreactor as a practical tool to understand both physical and biochemical phenomena in play during algae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontin, Deise P; Gressler, Pablo D; Rörig, Leonardo R; Derner, Roberto B; Pereira-Filho, Jurandir; Radetski, Claudemir M; Quadri, Marintho B

    2017-12-02

    In recent years, numerous studies have justified the use of microalgae as a sustainable alternative for the generation of different types of fuels, food supplementation, and cosmetics, as well as bioremediation processes. To improve the cost/benefit ratio of microalgae mass production, many culture systems have been built and upgraded. Mathematical modeling the growth of different species in different systems has become an efficient and practical tool to understand both physical and biochemical phenomena in play during algae cultivation. In addition, growth modeling can guide design changes that lead to process optimization. In the present work, growth of the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was modeled in a hybrid photobioreactor that combines the characteristics of tubular photobioreactors (TPB) with thin-layer cascades (TLC). The system showed productivity greater than 8.0 g m-2 day-1 (dry mass) for CO2 -fed cultures, and the model proved to be an accurate representation of experimental data with R2 greater than 0.7 for all cases under variable conditions of temperature and irradiance to determine subsystem efficiency. Growth modeling also allowed growth prediction relative to the operating conditions of TLC, making it useful for estimating the system given other irradiance and temperature conditions, as well as other microalgae species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Contamination by Microcystis and microcystins of blue-green algae food supplements (BGAS) on the Italian market and possible risk for the exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Susanna; Lavorini, Paolo; Funari, Enzo; Scardala, Simona; Testai, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Blue green algae supplements (BGAS) are generally proposed as health-promoting natural products for their purported beneficial effects. Spirulina spp. and Aphanizomenon flos aquae are mainly used in BGAS production. They are usually collected from the natural environment, where other potentially toxic cyanobacteria can be present, making possible BGAS contamination by cyanotoxins, with potential risk for human health. In this work we apply a combined approach, by using chemical and molecular techniques, on BGAS of 17 brands available in Italy. Samples containing Spirulina-only were free of contamination. The Aphanizomenon flos aquae-based samples were contaminated by highly variable levels of microcystins (MC-LR and MC-LA congeners), up to 5.2 μg MC-LR equivalents per gram product. The highest variability (up to 50 fold) was among batches of the same brand, although intra-batch differences were also evidenced. PCR analyses were positive only for the presence of Microcystis sp., identified as the toxin-producing species responsible for contamination. At the maximum contamination levels found, a risk for consumers can be expected following chronic or sub-chronic exposure to a reasonable daily BGAS consumption of 4 g. The need for a strict monitoring by producers and Health Authority to assure an adequate protection for consumers is underscored. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. X-ray dense cellular inclusions in the cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as seen by soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Page, A.M. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Soft x-rays, having a greater ability to penetrate biological material than electrons, have the potential for producing images of intact, living cells. In addition, by using the so-called {open_quotes}water window{close_quotes} area of the soft x-ray spectrum, a degree of natural contrast is introduced into the image due to differential absorption of the wavelengths by compounds with a high carbon content compared to those with a greater oxygen content. The variation in carbon concentration throughout a cell therefore generates an image which is dependent upon the carbon density within the specimen. Using soft x-ray contact microscopy the authors have previously examined the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the most prominent feature of the cells are the numerous x-ray absorbing spheres, But they were not seen by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Similar structures have also been reported by the Goettingen group using their cryo transmission x-ray microscope at BESSY. Despite the fact that these spheres appear to occupy up to 20% or more of the cell volume when seen by x-ray microscopy, they are not visible by transmission electron microscopy. Given the difficulties and criticisms associated with soft x-ray contact microscopy, the present study was aimed at confirming the existence of these cellular inclusions and learning more of their possible chemical composition.

  16. Nitrogen starvation-induced accumulation of triacylglycerol in the green algae: evidence for a role for ROC40, a transcription factor involved in circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Elton C; Koh, Jin; Zhu, Ning; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Chen, Sixue; Matsuo, Takuya; Johnson, Jodie V; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2016-03-01

    Microalgal triacylglycerol (TAG), a promising source of biofuel, is induced upon nitrogen starvation (-N), but the proteins and genes involved in this process are poorly known. We performed isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics to identify Chlorella proteins with modulated expression under short-term -N. Out of 1736 soluble proteins and 2187 membrane-associated proteins identified, 288 and 56, respectively, were differentially expressed under -N. Gene expression analysis on select genes confirmed the same direction of mRNA modulation for most proteins. The MYB-related transcription factor ROC40 was the most induced protein, with a 9.6-fold increase upon -N. In a previously generated Chlamydomonas mutant, gravimetric measurements of crude total lipids revealed that roc40 was impaired in its ability to increase the accumulation of TAG upon -N, and this phenotype was complemented when wild-type Roc40 was expressed. Results from radiotracer experiments were consistent with the roc40 mutant being comparable to the wild type in recycling membrane lipids to TAG but being impaired in additional de novo synthesis of TAG during -N stress. In this study we provide evidence to support the hypothesis that transcription factor ROC40 has a role in -N-induced lipid accumulation, and uncover multiple previously unknown proteins modulated by short-term -N in green algae. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Rapid and Reproducible Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Sequence-Based Identification of Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Saba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Sequence-based identification of various microorganisms including Archaea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, Fungi, and green algae necessitates an efficient and reproducible genome extraction procedure though which a pure template DNA is yielded and it can be used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR. Considering the fact that DNA extraction from these microorganisms is time consuming and laborious, we developed and standardized a safe, rapid and inexpensive miniprep protocol. Methods:  According to our results, amplification of various genomic regions including SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, actin, RPB2, and EF-1 resulted in a reproducible and efficient DNA extraction from a wide range of microorganisms yielding adequate pure genomic material for reproducible PCR-amplifications. Results:   This method relies on a temporary shock of increased concentrations of detergent which can be applied concomitant with multiple freeze-thaws to yield sufficient amount of DNA for PCR amplification of multiple or single fragments(s of the genome. As an advantage, the recipe seems very flexible, thus, various optional steps can be included depending on the samples used.Conclusion:   Having the needed flexibility in each step, this protocol is applicable on a very wide range of samples. Hence, various steps can be included depending on the desired quantity and quality.

  18. Activity of commercial enzymes on settlement and adhesion of cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, spores of the green alga Ulva linza, and the diatom Navicula perminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, M E; Henry, S L; Callow, M E; Callow, J A; Clare, A S

    2004-12-01

    Fouling species produce adhesive polymers during the settlement, adhesion and colonization of new surfaces in the marine environment. The present paper tests the hypothesis that enzymes of the appropriate specificity may prevent biofouling by hydrolysing these adhesive polymers. Seventeen commercially available enzyme preparations designed originally for bulk use in a range of end-use applications were tested for their effects on the settlement and/or adhesion of three major fouling species, viz. the green alga Ulva linza, the diatom Navicula perminuta and the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. The serine-proteases were found to have the broadest antifouling potential reducing the adhesion strength of spores and sporelings of U. linza, cells of N. perminuta and inhibiting settlement of cypris larvae of B. amphitrite. Mode-of-action studies on the serine-protease, Alcalase, indicated that this enzyme reduced adhesion of U. linza in a concentration-dependent manner, that spores of the species could recover their adhesive strength if the enzyme was removed and that the adhesive of U. linza and juvenile cement of B. amphitrite became progressively less sensitive to hydrolysis as they cured.

  19. Comparison of the fouling release properties of hydrophobic fluorinated and hydrophilic PEGylated block copolymer surfaces: attachment strength of the diatom Navicula and the green alga Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sitaraman; Wang, Nick; Ober, Christopher K; Finlay, John A; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Hexemer, Alexander; Sohn, Karen E; Kramer, Edward J; Fischer, Daniel A

    2006-05-01

    To understand the role of surface wettability in adhesion of cells, the attachment of two different marine algae was studied on hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer surfaces. Adhesion of cells of the diatom Navicula and sporelings (young plants) of the green macroalga Ulva to an underwater surface is mainly by interactions between the surface and the adhesive exopolymers, which the cells secrete upon settlement and during subsequent colonization and growth. Two types of block copolymers, one with poly(ethylene glycol) side-chains and the other with liquid crystalline, fluorinated side-chains, were used to prepare the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. The formation of a liquid crystalline smectic phase in the latter inhibited molecular reorganization at the surface, which is generally an issue when a highly hydrophobic surface is in contact with water. The adhesion strength was assessed by the fraction of settled cells (Navicula) or biomass (Ulva) that detached from the surface in a water flow channel with a wall shear stress of 53 Pa. The two species exhibited opposite adhesion behavior on the same sets of surfaces. While Navicula cells released more easily from hydrophilic surfaces, Ulva sporelings showed higher removal from hydrophobic surfaces. This highlights the importance of differences in cell-surface interactions in determining the strength of adhesion of cells to substrates.

  20. New tools for chloroplast genetic engineering allow the synthesis of human growth hormone in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannathong, Thanyanan; Waterhouse, Janet C; Young, Rosanna E B; Economou, Chloe K; Purton, Saul

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the exploitation of microalgae in industrial biotechnology. Potentially, these phototrophic eukaryotes could be used for the low-cost synthesis of valuable recombinant products such as bioactive metabolites and therapeutic proteins. The algal chloroplast in particular represents an attractive target for such genetic engineering, both because it houses major metabolic pathways and because foreign genes can be targeted to specific loci within the chloroplast genome, resulting in high-level, stable expression. However, routine methods for chloroplast genetic engineering are currently available only for one species-Chlamydomonas reinhardtii-and even here, there are limitations to the existing technology, including the need for an expensive biolistic device for DNA delivery, the lack of robust expression vectors, and the undesirable use of antibiotic resistance markers. Here, we describe a new strain and vectors for targeted insertion of transgenes into a neutral chloroplast locus that (i) allow scar-less fusion of a transgenic coding sequence to the promoter/5'UTR element of the highly expressed endogenous genes psaA or atpA, (ii) employ the endogenous gene psbH as an effective but benign selectable marker, and (iii) ensure the successful integration of the transgene construct in all transformant lines. Transformation is achieved by a simple and cheap method of agitation of a DNA/cell suspension with glass beads, with selection based on the phototrophic rescue of a cell wall-deficient ΔpsbH strain. We demonstrate the utility of these tools in the creation of a transgenic line that produces high levels of functional human growth hormone.

  1. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  2. Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 395 Accurately Predicts Phenotypes under Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, and Mixotrophic Growth Conditions1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga, Cristal; Li, Chien-Ting; Zielinski, Daniel C.; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.; Zengler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The green microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been widely recognized as a promising candidate for biofuel production due to its ability to store high lipid content and its natural metabolic versatility. Compartmentalized genome-scale metabolic models constructed from genome sequences enable quantitative insight into the transport and metabolism of compounds within a target organism. These metabolic models have long been utilized to generate optimized design strategies for an improved production process. Here, we describe the reconstruction, validation, and application of a genome-scale metabolic model for C. vulgaris UTEX 395, iCZ843. The reconstruction represents the most comprehensive model for any eukaryotic photosynthetic organism to date, based on the genome size and number of genes in the reconstruction. The highly curated model accurately predicts phenotypes under photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions. The model was validated against experimental data and lays the foundation for model-driven strain design and medium alteration to improve yield. Calculated flux distributions under different trophic conditions show that a number of key pathways are affected by nitrogen starvation conditions, including central carbon metabolism and amino acid, nucleotide, and pigment biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, model prediction of growth rates under various medium compositions and subsequent experimental validation showed an increased growth rate with the addition of tryptophan and methionine. PMID:27372244

  3. Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 395 Accurately Predicts Phenotypes under Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, and Mixotrophic Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga, Cristal; Li, Chien-Ting; Huelsman, Tyler; Levering, Jennifer; Zielinski, Daniel C; McConnell, Brian O; Long, Christopher P; Knoshaug, Eric P; Guarnieri, Michael T; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Zengler, Karsten

    2016-09-01

    The green microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been widely recognized as a promising candidate for biofuel production due to its ability to store high lipid content and its natural metabolic versatility. Compartmentalized genome-scale metabolic models constructed from genome sequences enable quantitative insight into the transport and metabolism of compounds within a target organism. These metabolic models have long been utilized to generate optimized design strategies for an improved production process. Here, we describe the reconstruction, validation, and application of a genome-scale metabolic model for C. vulgaris UTEX 395, iCZ843. The reconstruction represents the most comprehensive model for any eukaryotic photosynthetic organism to date, based on the genome size and number of genes in the reconstruction. The highly curated model accurately predicts phenotypes under photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions. The model was validated against experimental data and lays the foundation for model-driven strain design and medium alteration to improve yield. Calculated flux distributions under different trophic conditions show that a number of key pathways are affected by nitrogen starvation conditions, including central carbon metabolism and amino acid, nucleotide, and pigment biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, model prediction of growth rates under various medium compositions and subsequent experimental validation showed an increased growth rate with the addition of tryptophan and methionine. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of selenite on the physiological and morphological properties of the blue-green alga Phormidium luridum var. Olivacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sielicki, M.; Burnham, J.C.

    1973-07-05

    Phormidium luridum cultures were treated with sodium selenite in concentrations ranging from 10/sup -6/ M to 10/sup -2/ M. In contrast to the increasing culture turbidity of control and 10/sup -6/ M selenite cultures, the turbidity of the other selenite cultures declined in proportion to time and selenite concentration. Chlorophyll extraction revealed similar results. Photosynthetic activity was inhibited within 6 hr in all cultures except control and 10/sup -6/ M selenite showed a gradual loss of the bright green color and turned semitransparent. Cell-associated granules of reduced selenium were observed at higher selenite concentrations. Other structural changes observed were the presence of intracellular and intercellular spaces, spheroplast formation, and gradual cell lysis. Protein analyses of total cell samples and supernatant fractions confirmed cellular breakdown of selenite-treated algal cells.

  5. Composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi Reservoir, Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the distribution, abundance and taxonomic composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi reservoir were carried out for 12 months (from January to December 1995). Of the 26 algal taxa identified, 14 taxa belonged to the diatoms, 8 taxa were green algae while 4 taxa belonged to the blue-green algae. Higher cell ...

  6. Analysis of LhcSR3, a protein essential for feedback de-excitation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Bonente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In photosynthetic organisms, feedback dissipation of excess absorbed light energy balances harvesting of light with metabolic energy consumption. This mechanism prevents photodamage caused by reactive oxygen species produced by the reaction of chlorophyll (Chl triplet states with O₂. Plants have been found to perform the heat dissipation in specific proteins, binding Chls and carotenoids (Cars, that belong to the Lhc family, while triggering of the process is performed by the PsbS subunit, needed for lumenal pH detection. PsbS is not found in algae, suggesting important differences in energy-dependent quenching (qE machinery. Consistent with this suggestion, a different Lhc-like gene product, called LhcSR3 (formerly known as LI818 has been found to be essential for qE in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In this work, we report the production of two recombinant LhcSR isoforms from C. reinhardtii and their biochemical and spectroscopic characterization. We found the following: (i LhcSR isoforms are Chl a/b- and xanthophyll-binding proteins, contrary to higher plant PsbS; (ii the LhcSR3 isoform, accumulating in high light, is a strong quencher of Chl excited states, exhibiting a very fast fluorescence decay, with lifetimes below 100 ps, capable of dissipating excitation energy from neighbor antenna proteins; (iii the LhcSR3 isoform is highly active in the transient formation of Car radical cation, a species proposed to act as a quencher in the heat dissipation process. Remarkably, the radical cation signal is detected at wavelengths corresponding to the Car lutein, rather than to zeaxanthin, implying that the latter, predominant in plants, is not essential; (iv LhcSR3 is responsive to low pH, the trigger of non-photochemical quenching, since it binds the non-photochemical quenching inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and increases its energy dissipation properties upon acidification. This is the first report of an isolated Lhc protein constitutively

  7. Toxic effects of anthraquinone and phenanthrenequinone upon Scenedesmus strains (green algae) at low and elevated concentration of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukaj, Zbigniew; Aksmann, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Short-term (24h) experiments were performed to examine the effect of anthraquinone (ANTQ) and phenanthrenequinone (PHEQ) on two Scenedesmus armatus strains (B1-76 and 276-4d) grown in a batch culture system aerated with CO2 at a low (0.1%) or elevated (2%) concentration. ANTQ at concentrations within the range of 0.156-1.250 mg dm-3 inhibited the growth of B1-76 population in a concentration-dependent manner, and calculated EC50 for low-CO2 cells was 0.56 mg dm-3. The toxic effect of ANTQ on this strain was more pronounced in high-CO2 cells, where not only growth but also photosynthesis, respiration and SOD activity were significantly inhibited. In contrast, except for SOD activity, no ANTQ effects on strain 276-4d were found. PHEQ at concentrations within the range of 0.063-0.125 mg dm-3 inhibited the growth of B1-76 population in a concentration-dependent manner. The value of EC50 for low-CO2 B1-76 cells was 0.10 mg dm-3. PHEQ inhibited the growth of both strains regardless of CO2 concentration. In B1-76 cells affected by PHEQ, inhibition of photosynthesis was independent of the CO2 level, whereas the SOD activity was much higher in cultures aerated with 2% than with 0.1% CO2. Higher toxicity of PHEQ to strain 276-4d grown at 2% CO2 was accompanied by strong inhibition of photosynthesis, while in low-CO2 cells this process was slightly stimulated. The SOD activity in both low- and high-CO2 cells of strain 276-4d treated with PHEQ was 2-3 times higher compared with the controls. The pattern of SOD isoforms (PAGE analysis) obtained from cells exposed to ANTQ or PHEQ did not change compared with the controls, but the location of the SOD isoforms bands on gel was affected by the concentration of CO2. The results suggest that the strain-specific toxicity of ANTQ and PHEQ may result from oxidative stress. In addition, carbon dioxide appears to play an important role in the toxicity of quinones to algae.

  8. RNA-mediated silencing in Algae: biological roles and tools for analysis of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Heriberto; Ma, Xinrong; Msanne, Joseph; Repas, Timothy

    2011-09-01

    Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively small nuclear genomes. Complex sets of endogenous small RNAs, including candidate microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, have now been identified by high-throughput sequencing in green, red, and brown algae. However, the natural roles of RNA-mediated silencing in algal biology remain poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that small RNAs may function, in different algae, in defense mechanisms against transposon mobilization, in responses to nutrient deprivation and, possibly, in the regulation of recently evolved developmental processes. From a practical perspective, RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a promising tool for assessing gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Transient gene silencing, triggered with exogenously synthesized nucleic acids, and/or stable gene repression, involving genome-integrated transgenes, have been achieved in green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and euglenoids. The development of RNAi technology in conjunction with system level "omics" approaches may provide the tools needed to advance our understanding of algal physiological and metabolic processes.

  9. Effect of chromium oxide (III) nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species and photosystem II activity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cristina Henning da [Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, CEP: 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Perreault, François [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-3005 (United States); Oukarroum, Abdallah [Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec in Montréal, 2101, Jeanne Mance Street, Station Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H2X 2J6 (Canada); Melegari, Sílvia Pedroso [Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, CEP: 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Center of Marine Studies, Federal University of Parana, Beira-mar Avenue, 83255-976, Pontal do Parana, PR (Brazil); Popovic, Radovan [Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec in Montréal, 2101, Jeanne Mance Street, Station Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H2X 2J6 (Canada); Matias, William Gerson, E-mail: william.g.matias@ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, CEP: 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    With the growth of nanotechnology and widespread use of nanomaterials, there is an increasing risk of environmental contamination by nanomaterials. However, the potential implications of such environmental contamination are hard to evaluate since the toxicity of nanomaterials if often not well characterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a chromium-based nanoparticle, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP, used in a wide diversity of industrial processes and commercial products, on the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The deleterious impacts of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP were characterized using cell density measurements, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), esterase enzymes activity, and photosystem II electron transport as indicators of toxicity. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP exposure inhibited culture growth and significantly lowered cellular Chlorophyll a content. From cell density measurements, EC50 values of 2.05 ± 0.20 and 1.35 ± 0.06 g L{sup −1} Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP were obtained after 24 and 72 h of exposure, respectively. In addition, ROS levels were increased to 160.24 ± 2.47% and 59.91 ± 0.15% of the control value after 24 and 72 h of exposition to 10 g L{sup −1} Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP. At 24 h of exposure, the esterase activity increased to 160.24% of control value, revealing a modification of the short-term metabolic response of algae to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP exposure. In conclusion, the metabolism of C. reinhardtii was the most sensitive to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP after 24 h of treatment. - Highlights: • Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles are unstable and form large aggregates in the medium. • EC50 for growth inhibition of C. reinhardtii is 1.35 g L{sup −1} at 72 h. • Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase ROS levels at 10 g L{sup −1}. • Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles affect photosynthetic electron transport.

  10. Removal of Inorganic Nutrient and Organic Carbon from Wastewater of Binh Dien Market Using Green Alga Chlorella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Bui Manh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional markets play a major role in socio-economics and constitutes a significant aspect of Vietnamese culture. However, wastewater streams discharged from the markets are generally characterized by a lot of inorganic nutrients and organic substances originated from fresh food processing units. They could lead to serious water contamination if discharged without proper treatment. This study applied microalgae Chlorella sp. for eliminating inorganic nutrients (NO3−-N, NH4+-N and PO43−-P and organic carbon (Chemical oxygen demand-COD from wastewater of the Binh Dien market. The removal efficiencies reached for NH4+-N > 86%, for NO3−-N > 72%, and for PO43−-P > 69%, respectively, at algal density of 49 × 104 cell mL−1, and for COD > 96% at algal density of 35 × 104 cell mL−1 after five cultivating days. The effluence satisfied the Vietnamese standard, column B, of the National technical regulation on industrial wastewater (QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT. The results demonstrated that the culture system composed of green algal Chlorella sp. could be a potential candidate for the removal of nutrients and organic carbon by a wastewater treatment process from the Binh Dien market.

  11. Infection of algae-free Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic Chlorella sp. Isolated from green paramecia: I. Effect of the incubation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R; Wiessner, W

    1988-12-01

    The significance of the length of incubation (30 sec to 48 h) of algae-free Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic Chlorella sp. for the success of infection, i.e. the reestablishment of the endosymbiotic algae has been investigated. When algae are brought together with paramecia, they are rapidly taken up by the ciliates. During a 30 sec incubation one ciliate engulfs about 50 chlorellae. A prolongation of the incubation period increases the number of ingested algae. However, the success of infection, determined one and five day(s) after the end of the incubation, is independent from the length of the incubation period and, consequently, does not depend on the number of ingested algae, either: In all experiments about 50% of the Paramecium population becomes infected and one to three algae are primarily enclosed in individual perialgal vacuoles within a ciliate cell. Thus, the endosymbiont population of a Paramecium cell originates on an average from two algae. Since successful infection is restricted only to a part of the Paramecium population and since the number of primarily established endosymbionts does not depend on the number of ingested algae, the success of infection and the formation of perialgal vacuoles seem to be not limited by properties of the algae but by features of the host, the possible nature of which is discussed. Copyright © 1988 Gustav Fischer Verlag · Stuttgart · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of nutrients by algae from municipal wastewater contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bigyan

    2015-01-01

    Selected species of algae (green algae and blue green algae) were cultivated in municipal wastewater using PBR (photo-bioreactor) bottles. Uptake of nutrients by these algae species was measured on different dates. From the results of the experiments, it was observed that a combination of certain blue green algae species (cyanobacteria) was able to remove most of the nutrients from the wastewater. The presence of heavy metal ions in the wastewater also affected the nutrient-absorbing capacit...

  13. Air-drying of cells, the novel conditions for stimulated synthesis of triacylglycerol in a Green Alga, Chlorella kessleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Shiratake

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri cells were fixed on the surface of a glass fibre filter and then subjected to air-drying with light illumination. The dry cell weight, on a filter, increased by 2.7-fold in 96 h, the corresponding chlorophyll content ranging from 1.0 to 1.3-fold the initial one. Concomitantly, the triacylglycerol content remarkably increased to 70.3 mole% of fatty acids and 15.9% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, like in cells starved of nitrogen. Reduction of the stress of air-drying by placing the glass filter on a filter paper soaked in H2O lowered the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 26.4 mole% as to total fatty acids. Moreover, replacement of the H2O with culture medium further decreased the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 12.2 mole%. It thus seemed that severe dehydration is required for full induction of triacylglycerol synthesis, and that nutritional depletion as well as dehydration are crucial environmental factors. Meanwhile, air-drying of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells increased the triacylglycerol content to only 37.9 mole% of fatty acids and 4.8% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, and a marked decrease in the chlorophyll content, on a filter, of 33%. Air-drying thus has an impact on triacylglycerol synthesis in C. reinhardtii also, however, the effect is considerably limited, owing probably to instability of the photosynthetic machinery. This air-drying protocol could be useful for the development of a system for industrial production of triacylglycerol with appropriate selection of the

  14. Effect of core-shell copper oxide nanoparticles on cell culture morphology and photosynthesis (photosystem II energy distribution) in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Cyril; Perreault, François; Daigle, Jean-Christophe; Fortin, Claude; Claverie, Jérôme; Morin, Mario; Popovic, Radovan

    2010-01-31

    The effect of core-shell copper oxide nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 100 nm on cellular systems is still not well understood. Documenting these effects is pressing since core-shell copper oxide nanoparticles are currently components of pigments used frequently as antifouling paint protecting boats from crustacean, weed and slime fouling. However, the use of such paints may induce strong deteriorative effects on different aquatic trophic levels that are not the intended targets. Here, the toxic effect of core-shell copper oxide nanoparticles on the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was investigated with regards to the change of algal cellular population structure, primary photochemistry of photosystem II and reactive oxygen species formation. Algal cultures were exposed to 0.004, 0.01 and 0.02 g/l of core-shell copper oxide nanoparticles for 6h and a change in algal population structure was observed, while the formation of reactive oxygen species was determined using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate marker measured by flow cytometry. For the study of the photosystem II primary photochemistry we investigated the change in chlorophyll a rapid rise of fluorescence. We found that core-shell copper oxide nanoparticles induced cellular aggregation processes and had a deteriorative effect on chlorophyll by inducing the photoinhibition of photosystem II. The inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport induced a strong energy dissipation process via non-photochemical pathways. The deterioration of photosynthesis was interpreted as being caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species induced by core-shell copper oxide nanoparticles. However, no formation of reactive oxygen species was observed when C. reinhardtii was exposed to the core without the shell or to the shell only. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cd2+ Toxicity to a green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as influenced by its adsorption on TiO2 engineered nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wan Yang

    Full Text Available In the present study, Cd(2+ adsorption on polyacrylate-coated TiO(2 engineered nanoparticles (TiO(2-ENs and its effect on the bioavailability as well as toxicity of Cd(2+ to a green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were investigated. TiO(2-ENs could be well dispersed in the experimental medium and their pH(pzc is approximately 2. There was a quick adsorption of Cd(2+ on TiO(2-ENs and a steady state was reached within 30 min. A pseudo-first order kinetics was found for the time-related changes in the amount of Cd(2+ complexed with TiO(2-ENs. At equilibrium, Cd(2+ adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum binding capacity 31.9, 177.1, and 242.2 mg/g when the TiO(2-EN concentration was 1, 10, and 100 mg/l, respectively. On the other hand, Cd(2+ toxicity was alleviated in the presence of TiO(2-ENs. Algal growth was less suppressed in treatments with comparable total Cd(2+ concentration but more TiO(2-ENs. However, such toxicity difference disappeared and all the data points could be fitted to a single Logistic dose-response curve when cell growth inhibition was plotted against the free Cd(2+ concentration. No detectable amount of TiO(2-ENs was found to be associated with the algal cells. Therefore, TiO(2-ENs could reduce the free Cd(2+ concentration in the toxicity media, which further lowered its bioavailability and toxicity to C. reinhardtii.

  16. Effects of Long-Term Supplementation of Blue-Green Algae on Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y